Science.gov

Sample records for addition chemical constituents

  1. Chemical constituents of fugitive dust.

    PubMed

    Van Pelt, R Scott; Zobeck, Ted M

    2007-07-01

    Wind erosion selectively winnows the fine, most chemically concentrated portions of surface soils and results in the inter-regional transport of fugitive dust containing plant nutrients, trace elements and other soil-borne contaminants. We sampled and analyzed surface soils, sediments in transport over eroding fields, and attic dust from a small area of the Southern High Plains of Texas to characterize the physical nature and chemical constituents of these materials and to investigate techniques that would allow relatively rapid, low cost techniques for estimating the chemical constituents of fugitive dust from an eroding field. From chemical analyses of actively eroding sediments, it would appear that Ca is the only chemical species that is enriched more than others during the process of fugitive dust production. We found surface soil sieved to produce a sub-sample with particle diameters in the range of 53-74 microm to be a reasonably good surrogate for fugitive dust very near the source field, that sieved sub-samples with particle diameters <10 microm have a crustal enrichment factor of approximately 6, and that this factor, multiplied by the chemical contents of source soils, may be a reasonable estimator of fugitive PM(10) chemistry from the soils of interest. We also found that dust from tractor air cleaners provided a good surrogate for dust entrained by tillage and harvesting operations if the chemical species resulting from engine wear and exhaust were removed from the data set or scaled back to the average of enrichment factors noted for chemical species with no known anthropogenic sources. Chemical analyses of dust samples collected from attics approximately 4 km from the nearest source fields indicated that anthropogenic sources of several environmentally important nutrient and trace element species are much larger contributors, by up to nearly two orders of magnitude, to atmospheric loading and subsequent deposition than fugitive dust from eroding

  2. [Chemical constituents of Physalis pubescens].

    PubMed

    Luo, Li-ping; Cheng, Fan-qin; Ji, Long; Yu, He-yong

    2015-11-01

    Chemical constituents of 95% ethanol extract of the dried persistent calyx of Physalis pubescens were investigated. By chromatography on a silica gel column and reverse-phase preparative HPLC, 10 compounds were isolated from the dichloromethane fraction. Based on the MS and 1D/2D NMR data, these compounds were identified as 5-O-(E-feruloyl) blumenol (1), isovanillin (2), (E) -ethyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acrylate (3), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde(4), 4-methylphenol (5), (E) -methyl cinnamate (6), 7,3',4' trimethoxyquercetin (7), 5,3', 5'-trihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone(8), danielone (9), and 5,5'-diisobutoxy-2,2'-bifuran (10).

  3. [Chemical constituents from Lyophyllum decastes].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong-Liang; Bau, Tolgor; Bao, Hai-Ying; Lian, Jun-Wen

    2013-12-01

    The chemical constituents from the fruiting bodies of Lyophyllum decastes (Fr.) Singer were studied in this paper. Thirteen compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatographies on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were identified by MS and NMR data analysis as adenosine (1), 2R, 3S, 4S, 8E)-2-[(2'R)-2-hydroxyheneicosanoylamino]-8-octadecene-1, 3, 4-triol (2), (2R, 3S, 4S, 8E)-2-[(2'R)-2-hydroxypentacosanoylamino]-8-octadecene-1, 3, 4-triol (3), nicotinic acid (4), (4E, 8E) -2-N-2-hydroxytetracosanoyl-1-O-beta-D-glycopyranosyl-9-methyl-4, 8-sphingadienine (5), D-mannitol (6), ergosteryl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), tuberoside (8), (2R, 3S, 4S, 8E)-2-[(2'R)-2-hydroxybehenoylamino]-8-octadecene-1, 3, 4-triol (9),(2R, 3S, 4S, 8E)-2-[(2'R) -2-hydroxytricosanoylamino] -8-octadecene-1, 3, 4-triol (10), (22E, 24R)-ergosta-7, 22-dien-3beta, 5alpha, 6beta-triol (11), (22E, 24R)-ergosta-5, 7, 22-trien-3beta-ol (12), and 5alpha, 8alpha-epidiory-(22E, 24R)-ergosta-6, 22-dien-3beta-ol (13), respectively. All the above compounds are first obtained from the mushroom and compounds 2-10 are reported to be obtained from the Lyophyllum for the first time.

  4. Chemical constituents of Tephrosia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Khalafalah, Ali K; Yousef, Afifi H; Esmail, Abeer M; Abdelrazik, Mohamed H; Hegazy, Mohamed E F; Mohamed, Abou-El-Hamd H

    2010-03-01

    In continuation of our chemical investigation on some medicinal plants of the genus Tephrosia, reinvestigation of the methylenechloride/methanol (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea yielded an aromatic ester 1, a sesquiterpene 2 and prenylated flavonoid 3. The structures of the compounds were established by comprehensive NMR studies, including DEPT, COSY, NOE, HMQC, HMBC, EIMS and CIMS.

  5. Chemical constituents from Astilbe chinensis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ying; Xu, Xue-Min; Yan, Ju-Fang; Deng, Wen-Long; Liao, Xun

    2011-02-01

    A new compound, 11-O-(3'-O-methylgalloyl)-bergenin (1), along with 11 known compounds (2-12), has been isolated from the rhizome of Astilbe chinensis. The chemical structure of compound 1 was determined by IR, MS, and NMR spectral data. All compounds were evaluated for the cytotoxic activity in vitro, and compound 4 showed a moderate cytotoxic activity against HepG2 cells.

  6. [Chemical constituents from Imperata cylindrica].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Binfeng; Chou, Guixin; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2012-08-01

    Chemical investigation of Imperata cylindrica led to the isolation of thirteen compounds using various chromatographic techniques. The structure of these compounds were identified as: three phenylpropanoids, 1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1,2,3-propanetriol ( 1 ), 1-O-p-coumaroylglycerol (2), 4-methoxy-5-methyl coumarin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3); four organic acids, 4-hydroxybenzene carboxylic acid(4), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (5), vanillic acid (6), 3, 4-dihydroxybutyric acid (7); one phenolic compound, salicin (8); and five triterpenes, namely, arundoin (9), cylindrin (10), fernenol (11), simiarenol (12), glutinone (13) by their physicochemical properties and spectral data analysis. Among them, compounds 1-8 were isolated from the genus Imperata for the first time.

  7. [Chemical constituents of Conioselinum vaginatum].

    PubMed

    Li, Xing-Bo; Qi, Yao-Dong; Liu, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Ben-Gang

    2013-05-01

    Sixteen compounds were isolated from Conioselinum vaginatum by silica column chromatography over silica gel and Sephadex LH-20, as well as recrystallization. On the basis of their physical and chemical properties and spectral data, their structures were identified as ligustilide (1), 1,3-dilinolein (2), coniferaldehyde (3), myristicin (4), stigmasterol (5), beta-sitosterol (6), vanillin (7), pregnenolone (8), bergapten (9), xanthotoxin (10), methyl indole-3-carboxylate (11), ferulic acid (12), (E)-3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxy-cinnamic alcohol (13), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (14), 3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxy-acetophenone (15), and alpha-(ethoxymethyl)-4-hydroxy- benzenemethanol (16). Among them, compound 15 was a new natural product, and compounds 2, 3, 10, 11, 14, and 16 were obtained from this genus for the first time.

  8. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  9. Deicing chemicals as source of constituents of highway runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The dissolved major and trace constituents of deicing chemicals as a source of constituents in highway runoff must be quantified for interpretive studies of highway runoff and its effects on surface water and groundwater. Dissolved constituents of the deicing chemicals-sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and premix (a mixture of sodium and calcium chloride)-were determined by analysis of salt solutions created in the laboratory and are presented as mass ratios to chloride. Deicing chemical samples studied are about 98 and 97 percent pure sodium chloride and calcium chloride, respectively: however, each has a distinct major and trace ion constituent signature. The greatest impurity in sodium chloride road sail samples was sulfate, followed by calcium, potassium, bromide, vanadium, magnesium, fluoride, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. The greatest impurity in the calcium chloride road salt samples was sodium, followed by potassium, sulfate, bromide, silica, fluoride. strontium, magnesium, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. Major constituents of deicing chemicals in highway runoff may account for a substantial source of annual chemical loads. Comparison of estimated annual loads and first flush concentrations of deicing chemical constituents in highway runoff with those reported in the literature indicate that although deicing chemicals are not a primary source of trace constituents, they are not a trivial source, either. Therefore, deicing chemicals should be considered as a source of many major and trace constituents in highway and urban runoff.

  10. Chemical constituents of marijuana: the complex mixture of natural cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Slade, Desmond

    2005-12-22

    The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) and products thereof (such as marijuana, hashish and hash oil) have a long history of use both as a medicinal agent and intoxicant. Over the last few years there have been an active debate regarding the medicinal aspects of cannabis. Currently cannabis products are classified as Schedule I drugs under the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Controlled Substances act, which means that the drug is only available for human use as an investigational drug. In addition to the social aspects of the use of the drug and its abuse potential, the issue of approving it as a medicine is further complicated by the complexity of the chemical make up of the plant. This manuscript discusses the chemical constituents of the plant with particular emphasis on the cannabinoids as the class of compounds responsible for the drug's psychological properties.

  11. The EPA National Fuels Surveillance Network. I. Trace constituents in gasoline and commercial gasoline fuel additives.

    PubMed Central

    Jungers, R H; Lee, R E; von Lehmden, D J

    1975-01-01

    A National Fuels Surveillance Network has been established to collect gasoline and other fuels through the 10 regional offices of the Environmental Protection Agency. Physical, chemical, and trace element analytical determinations are made on the collected fuel samples to detect components which may present an air pollution hazard or poison exhaust catalytic control devices. A summary of trace elemental constituents in over 50 gasoline samples and 18 commercially marketed consumer purchased gasoline additives is presented. Quantities of Mn, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, Fe, Sb, B, Mg, Pb, and S were found in most regular and premium gasoline. Environmental implications of trace constituents in gasoline are discussed. PMID:1157783

  12. Chemical Constituents from the Stems of Morinda citrifolia Linn.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Sattar, Fouzia A; Begum, Sabira; Gulzar, Tahsin; Ahmad, Fayaz

    2007-07-01

    Studies on the chemical constituents of the stems of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. have led to the isolation of two new compounds, morindicone (9-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-methyl-3,10-anthracenedione, 1) and morinthone (4-methoxy-3-heptadecylxanthone, 2), as well as two known constituents, 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (3) and 2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis including 2D NMR techniques.

  13. Chemical constituents of radix Ranunculus ternati.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun; Ruan, Jin-Lan; Wang, Jin-Hui; Cong, Yue; Song, Shuang; Cai, Ya-Ling; Fang, Wei; Zhou, Dao-Nian

    2008-02-15

    3 Beta-acetoxy-(20S, 22E)-dammaran-22-en-25-ol, a new triterpene, was isolated along with five known triterpenes (ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, 3-epiocotillol acetate, and dimmarenediol II acetate), and alpha-D-glc and sucrose from Radix Ranunculus ternati All of them, except oleanolic acid and alpha-D-glc, were isolated from the family of Ranunculaceae for the very first time, and the NMR data of sucrose was first described. In addition, the absolute configurations of alpha-D-glc and the glucose component of sucrose were determined.

  14. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of Panax ginseng (C. A. Mey.).

    PubMed

    Ru, Wenwen; Wang, Dongliang; Xu, Yunpeng; He, Xianxian; Sun, Yang-En; Qian, Liyan; Zhou, Xiangshan; Qin, Yufeng

    2015-02-01

    Ginseng, Panax ginseng (C. A. Mey.), is a well-known Chinese traditional medicine in the Far East and has gained popularity in the West during the last decade. There is extensive literature on the chemical constituents and bioactivities of ginseng. In this paper we compiled the chemical constituents isolated and detected from ginseng including polysaccharides, ginsenosides, peptides, polyacetylenic alcohols, fatty acids, etc. Meanwhile we summarized the biological activities of ginseng, which have been reported over the past few decades, including: anti-aging activity, anti-diabetic activity, immunoregulatory activity, anti-cancer activity, neuroregulation activity, wound and ulcer healing activity, etc. Nevertheless, further studies to exploit other kinds of constituents and new biological activities of ginseng are still necessary to facilitate research and development in the future.

  15. Chemical constituents from the roots of Ranunculus ternatus.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing-Kui; Sun, Feng; Cheng, Yi-Yu

    2006-01-01

    Two new glycosides named as ternatoside A (1) and ternatoside B (2), with four known constituents sternbin (3), methylparaben (4), 4-O-D-glucopyranosyl-p-coumaric acid (5) and linocaffein (6) were isolated from the roots of Ranunculus ternatus, The structures of new compounds were determined by 1D and 2D NMR, MS techniques, and chemical methods.

  16. Chemical constituents of the whole plants of Saussurea medusa.

    PubMed

    Dawa, Zhuoma; Bai, Yang; Zhou, Yan; Gesang, Suolang; A, Ping; Ding, Lisheng

    2009-07-01

    The chemical constituents of the traditional Tibetan medicine of Saussurea medusa Maxim. (Compositae) were investigated and a new flavonoid glucoside, together with 14 known compounds, was isolated. The structure of the new compound was established as 6''-O-crotonoylhomoplantaginin by using one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry analyses.

  17. Research Progress on Chemical Constituents of Lonicerae japonicae flos

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingna; Jiang, Qiu; Hu, Jinghong; Zhang, Yongqing; Li, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Lonicerae japonicae flos is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years with confirmed curative effects. Except for medicine, it is also used in healthy food, cosmetics, and soft beverages for its specific activities. Therefore, the chemical constituents, mainly including organic acids, flavonoids, iridoids, triterpenoids, and volatile oils, have been well studied by many scholars in recent years and a comprehensive and systematic review on chemical constituents of Lonicerae japonicae flos is indispensable. This paper aims at reviewing the chemical components of LJF in recent years through searching for the literatures both at home and abroad. Our results show that 212 components have been isolated from Lonicerae japonicae flos, including 27 flavonoids, 40 organic acids, 83 iridoids, 17 triterpenoids, and 45 other compounds, which could lay a foundation for the further application of Lonicerae japonicae flos. PMID:27403439

  18. The Chemical Constituents of Uninvestigated Plants in Hiroshima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Sachiko

    2017-01-01

     Recently, the investigation of bioactive constituents from natural products has been performed extensively around the world, yet many plants remain to be studied, even now. The author is especially interested in saponins, which are included in various natural products and Kampo medicines. Based on these study aims, we isolated the chemical constituents of Dianthus japonicus and Clethra barbinervis. The aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus were isolated into nine new (1-9) and seven known oleanane-type triterpene saponins. The structural elucidation of their chemical constituents was examined by several spectroscopic methods. Two new C-glycosyl flavones, two glycosidic derivative of anthranilic acid amides and a maltol glucoside were also isolated from this plant. The isolated compounds were evaluated according to cytotoxic inhibition toward A549 cell lines. Compounds 7-9 showed moderate inhibitory activity. The isolation of a MeOH extract of Clethra barbinervis leaves led to three new triterpene glucosides, i.e. an ursane (ryobunin A, 22), a seco-ursane (ryobunin B, 23) and an oleanane-type glucoside (ryobunin C, 24), along with four known compounds.

  19. [Advances in chemical constituents and bioactivity of Salvia genus].

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-06-01

    The genus Salvia in the family Lamiaceae with nearly 1 000 species, is widespread in temperate and tropical regions around the world. Many species of genus Salvia are important medicinal plants with a long history of which Danshen (the dried roots and rhizomes of S. miltiorrhiza) is one of the most popular herbal traditional medicines in Asian countries. The chemical constituents from Salvia plants mainly contain sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids and polyphenols etc, which exhibit antibacterial, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antiplatelet aggregation activities and so on. In this article, the development of new constituents and their biological activities of Salvia genus in the past five years were reviewed and summarized for its further development and utilization.

  20. Crataegus pinnatifida: chemical constituents, pharmacology, and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiaqi; Peng, Wei; Qin, Rongxin; Zhou, Hong

    2014-01-30

    Crataegus pinnatifida (Hawthorn) is widely distributed in China and has a long history of use as a traditional medicine. The fruit of C. pinnatifida has been used for the treatment of cardiodynia, hernia, dyspepsia, postpartum blood stasis, and hemafecia and thus increasing interest in this plant has emerged in recent years. Between 1966 and 2013, numerous articles have been published on the chemical constituents, pharmacology or pharmacologic effects and toxicology of C. pinnatifida. To review the pharmacologic advances and to discuss the potential perspective for future investigation, we have summarized the main literature findings of these publications. So far, over 150 compounds including flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, lignans, hydroxycinnamic acids, organic acids and nitrogen-containing compounds have been isolated and identified from C. pinnatifida. It has been found that these constituents and extracts of C. pinnatifida have broad pharmacological effects with low toxicity on, for example, the cardiovascular, digestive, and endocrine systems, and pathogenic microorganisms, supporting the view that C. pinnatifida has favorable therapeutic effects. Thus, although C. pinnatifida has already been widely used as pharmacological therapy, due to its various active compounds, further research is warranted to develop new drugs.

  1. Thymus mastichina: chemical constituents and their anti-cancer activity.

    PubMed

    Gordo, Joana; Máximo, Patrícia; Cabrita, Eurico; Lourenço, Ana; Oliva, Abel; Almeida, Joana; Filipe, Mariana; Cruz, Pedro; Barcia, Rita; Santos, Miguel; Cruz, Helder

    2012-11-01

    The cytotoxicity-guided study of the dichloromethane and ethanol extracts of Thymus mastichina L. using the HCT colon cancer cell line allowed the identification of nine compounds, sakuranetin (1), sterubin (2), oleanolic acid (3), ursolic acid (4), lutein (5), beta-sitosterol (6), rosmarinic acid (7), 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (8), and 6-hydroxyapigenin-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (9). All compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against the HCT colon cancer cell line. Compound 4 showed cytotoxicity with GI50 value of 6.8 microg/mL. A fraction composed of a mixture (1:1) of triterpenoid acids 3 and 4 displayed improved cytotoxicity with a GI50 of 2.8 microg/mL suggesting a synergistic behavior. This is the first report on the chemical constituents of Thymus mastichina L. based on structural assignments by spectroscopic analysis. The presence of these constituents identified by colon cancer cytotoxicity-guided activity indicates that extracts of T. mastichina L. may have a protective effect against colon cancers.

  2. [Chemical constituents from the roots of Angelica polymorpha Maxim].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Zhang, Yang; Ren, Feng-Xia; Yu, Neng-Jiang; Xu, Rui; Zhao, Yi-Min

    2013-05-01

    Angelica polymorpha Maxim. is a plant of the Angelica genus (Umbelliferae). The root and stem of this plant is a folk medicine known to have the actions of relieving rheumatism and cold and subsiding swelling and pains. To investigate the chemical constituents in the root of A. polymorpha Maxim., seven compounds were isolated from an 80% ethanol extract by column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated according to the spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1 is a new sesquiterpene, named as bisabolactone. Its absolute configuration was determined by 1D NOESY and CD analysis. The others were identified as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (2), hycandinic acid ester 1 (3), ferulic acid (4), isooxypeucedanin (5), noreugenin (6) and cimifugin (7). Compound 2 and 3 were isolated from this genus for the first time and compound 4 was isolated from this plant for the first time.

  3. Chemical constituents of Panax ginseng exposed to. gamma. irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Joongho; Belanger, J.M.R.; Sigouin, M.; Lanthier, J.; Willemot, C.; Pare, J.R.J. )

    1990-03-01

    Chemical constituents were monitored to assess the biochemical and nutritional safety of Panax ginseng powders that were irradiated at doses of 1-10 kGy. Quantitative analysis has shown that the main effective components - saponins - are not altered by {sup 60}Co {gamma} irradiation. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} was not affected by the treatment. Negligible changes were observed in the free carbohydrate contents. Doses of more than 5 kGy caused significant decreases in sulfur-containing amino acids and in tyrosine. At doses of 10 kGy, free amino acids, such as proline and lysine, showed an appreciable increase. The composition in minerals was not altered irrespective of the applied doses.

  4. Chemical constituents isolated from Zygophyllum melongena Bunge growing in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Ganbaatar, Chunsriimyatav; Gruner, Margit; Tunsag, Jigjidsuren; Batsuren, Dulamjav; Ganpurev, Batsuren; Chuluunnyam, Lkhamjav; Sodbayar, Batsuren; Schmidt, Arndt W; Knölker, Hans-Joachim

    2016-07-01

    We report the first investigation of the chemical constituents of Zygophyllum melongena Bunge, a species growing in Mongolia. The quinovic acid glycosides 3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)quinovic acid and 3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)quinovic acid (28→1)-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester were identified in the chloroform fraction along with the flavonoid glycoside astragalin. The n-butanol fraction contained (+)-D-pinitol as the major component, a cyclitol with anti-diabetic properties. The structures of the isolated natural products were confirmed using ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and ROESY). This is the first report of the isolation of (+)-D-pinitol from the genus Zygophyllum.

  5. Chemical Constituents of the Aerial Parts of Euphorbia nematocypha.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Jia, Hai-Yang; Zuo, Bo; Liao, Zhi-Xin; Ji, Lan-Ju; Sun, Hong-Fa; Wang, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Chemical constituents of the dried aerial parts of Euphorbia nematocypha were investigated. A new oleanane triterpenoid, trans, trans-2',4'- hexadienedioicacid-1'-β-amyrin ester (1), together with, β-amyrin (2), β-amyrin acetate (3), betulinic acid (4), ellagic acid (5), oleanolic acid (6), β-sitosterol (7), kaempferol (8), quercetin (9), lupeol (10) and pseudo-taraxasterol (11) were isolated from the methylene chloride extract. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (1D- & 2D-NMR) and ESI-MS analysis and comparison with data reported in the literature. The new isolated triterpenoid showed moderate cytotoxic activities against HeLa and MCF-7cell lines.

  6. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of the plants of genus Flemingia Roxb. et Ait. (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Zhai, Fengyan; Liu, Zhongdong

    2012-09-01

    The genus Flemingia Roxb. et Ait. (Leguminosae) has been used for disease prevention and therapy in China since ancient times. So the material basis of the pharmacological activity in the genus Flemingia should be clear for how to use this kind of traditional Chinese medicines more reasonably in pharmacology. Therefore, this review gives an account of the current knowledge on the chemical constituents, biological activities and pharmacological properties of the plants of the genus. Several different classes of compounds were previously isolated, which the main groups are flavones, particularly prenylated flavones, and triterpenes accompanied with sterols, anthraquinones, and others. The names and structures of the chemical constituents are given in this review. In addition, the pharmacological effects of the extracts and individual compounds (mainly for flavones) derived from the genus plants have been found, including neuroprotection, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, cytotoxicity, hormone-like effects, antimicrobial activities, and so on.

  7. Chemical structures of constituents from the whole plant of Bacopa monniera.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Tomoe; Nakamura, Seikou; Nakashima, Souichi; Oda, Yoshimi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Fukaya, Masashi; Yano, Mamiko; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-07-01

    Two new dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, bacomosaponins A and B, and three new phenylethanoid glycosides, bacomosides A, B1, and B2, were isolated from the whole plant of Bacopa monniera Wettst. The chemical structures of the new constituents were characterized on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. In the present study, bacomosaponins A and B with acyl groups were obtained from the whole plant of B. monniera. This is the first report of acylated dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides isolated from B. monniera. In addition, dammarane-type triterpene saponins significantly inhibited the aggregation of 42-mer amyloid β-protein.

  8. Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

  9. [Advances in research of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of common used spices].

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao-nan; Zhu, Yuan; Xu, Xi-ming; Yu, Jiang-nan

    2014-11-01

    Spices have enjoyed a long history and a worldwide application. Of particular interest is the pharmaceutical value of spices in addition to its basic seasoning function in cooking. Concretely, equipped with complex chemical compositions, spices are of significant importance in pharmacologic actions, like antioxidant, antibacterial, antitumor, as well as therapeutical effects in gastrointestinal disorders and cardiovascular disease. Although increasing evidences in support of its distinct role in the medical field has recently reported, little information is available for substantive, thorough and sophisticated researches on its chemical constituents and pharmacological activities, especially mechanism of these actions. Therefore, in popular wave of studies directed at a single spice, this review presents systematic studies on the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities associated with common used spices, together with current typical individual studies on functional mechanism, in order to pave the way for the exploitation and development of new medicines derived from the chemical compounds of spice (such as, piperine, curcumin, geniposide, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, linalool, estragole, perillaldehyde, syringic acid, crocin).

  10. Chemical constituents of the root of Jasminum giraldii.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zhenggang; Qin, Hui; Li, Yuhua; Sun, Yang; Wang, Zhipeng; Yang, Tiehong; Liu, Li; Wang, Minchang; Feng, Feng; Mei, Qibing

    2013-04-22

    Two new compounds, ethylconiferin and (-)-lariciresinol 4-(6'''-O-cinnamyl-β-D-glucopyranoside), along with the three known compounds (+)-pinoresinol, (+)-cycloolivil, nobiletin, were isolated from the root of Jasminum girialdii. All these compounds were isolated for the first time from this source. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxic activity of these compounds was evaluated. The results showed that none of the compounds had any significant inhibitory activities on the proliferation of HCT-116 and SW-620 cells.

  11. Chemical-Help Application for Classification and Identification of Stormwater Constituents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.; Driskell, Timothy R.; Nunes, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    A computer application called Chemical Help was developed to facilitate review of reports for the National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis (NDAMS). The application provides a tool to quickly find a proper classification for any constituent in the NDAMS review sheets. Chemical Help contents include the name of each water-quality property, constituent, or parameter, the section number within the NDAMS review sheet, the organizational levels within a classification hierarchy, the database number, and where appropriate, the chemical formula, the Chemical Abstract Service number, and a list of synonyms (for the organic chemicals). Therefore, Chemical Help provides information necessary to research available reference data for the water-quality properties and constituents of potential interest in stormwater studies. Chemical Help is implemented in the Microsoft help-system interface. (Computer files for the use and documentation of Chemical Help are included on an accompanying diskette.)

  12. Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant

    PubMed Central

    Monção, Nayana Bruna Nery; Costa, Luciana Muratori; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Araújo, Bruno Quirino; Lustosa, Maria do Carmo Gomes; Rodrigues, Klinger Antônio da França; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim; Costa, Amilton Paulo Raposo; Lopes Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae) is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation), as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia was submitted to derivatization by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identification of chemical constituents. In vitro toxicological evaluation was performed by MTT assay in murine macrophages and by Artemia salina lethality assay, and the in vivo acute oral toxicity and androgenic evaluation in rats. Results: Totally, 32 components were detected: Phytol-TMS (11.66%), lactic acid-2TMS (9.16%), α-tocopherol-TMS (7.34%) and β-sitosterol-TMS (6.80%) were the major constituents. At the concentrations analyzed, the ethanol extract showed low cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and murine macrophages. In addition, the extract did not exhibit any toxicological effect or androgenic activity in rats. Conclusions: The derivatization by silylation allowed a rapid identification of chemical compounds from the M. caesalpiniifolia leaves extract. Besides, this species presents a good safety profile as observed in toxicological studies, and possess a great potential in the production of herbal medicines or as for food consumption. PMID:25298660

  13. [Advance in research on chemical constituents from Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix].

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-ping; Sha, Long; Zhao, Yi-wu; Xu, Zhi-liang; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This paper summarized the recent 30 years research progress of the chemical constituents from Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix. The chemical constituents from Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix mainly consist of coumarins, polyene-polyacetylenes, sesquiterpenes, phenolic acids, while steroids and flavonoids were less reported. All constituents were confirmed and corrected through SciFinder. We also checked the Chinese name and English name and listed the CAS number of each compound. It can provide some guidelines for the research, development and utilization of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix in the future. Whether there is columbianin in the Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix need to be further researched.

  14. [Studies on the chemical constituents of the herba of Cuscuta chinensis].

    PubMed

    Ye, M; Yan, Y; Ni, X; Qiao, L

    2001-05-01

    The chemical constituents of the herb of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. were investigated. Five compounds were isolated from petroleum ether and chloroform fraction. Their structures were identified as beta-sitosterol, d-sesamin, 9(R)-hydroxy-d-sesamin, d-pinoresinol and daucosterol by chemical and spectroscopical methods. All these compounds were isolated from the stem for the first time.

  15. Chemical Constituents and LC-profile of Fresh Formosan Lonicera japonica Flower Buds.

    PubMed

    Lo, I-Wen; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsieh, Yi-Jin; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Shieh, Deng-En; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-01-01

    One new secoiridoid glucoside, ethylsecologanin dimethyl acetal (1), along with 15 known compounds, comprising six iridoid glucosides (2-7), six flavonoids (8-13), two sterol glucosides (14 and 15), and chlorogenic acid (16) were isolated from the flower buds of Formosan Lonicera japonica. The structures of these isolates were determined on the basis of mass and spectroscopic analyzes. In addition, the chemical profiles of fresh Formosan honeysuckle buds and the dried Chinese one were compared by HPLC with a PDA detector. The calibration curve of the active component, chlorogenic acid, was also provided. As a result of the constituent similarity, Formosan L.japonica can be an alternative to the Chinese honeysuckles.

  16. Chemical constituents and biological activities of two Iranian Cystoseira species.

    PubMed

    Yegdaneh, Afsaneh; Ghannadi, Alireza; Dayani, Ladan

    2016-07-01

    The marine environment represents approximately half of the global biodiversity and could provide unlimited biological resources for the production of therapeutic drugs. Marine seaweeds comprise few thousands of species representing a considerable part of the littoral biomass. Extracts of the Cystoseira indica and Cystoseira merica were subjected to phytochemical and cytotoxicity evaluation. The amount of total phenol was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Cytotoxicity was characterized by IC50 of human cancer cell lines including MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), and HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) using Sulforhodamin assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The analysis revealed that tannins, saponins, sterols and triterpenes were the most abundant constituents in these Cystoseira species while cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides were the least ones. C. indica had the higher content of total phenolics and also showed higher antioxidant activity. Cytotoxic results showed that both species inhibited cell growth effectively, especially against MCF-7 cell line. The present findings suggest potential pharmacological applications of selected seaweeds but require further investigation and identification of their bioactive principles.

  17. Chemical constituents and biological activities of two Iranian Cystoseira species

    PubMed Central

    Yegdaneh, Afsaneh; Ghannadi, Alireza; Dayani, Ladan

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment represents approximately half of the global biodiversity and could provide unlimited biological resources for the production of therapeutic drugs. Marine seaweeds comprise few thousands of species representing a considerable part of the littoral biomass. Extracts of the Cystoseira indica and Cystoseira merica were subjected to phytochemical and cytotoxicity evaluation. The amount of total phenol was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Cytotoxicity was characterized by IC50 of human cancer cell lines including MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), and HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) using Sulforhodamin assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The analysis revealed that tannins, saponins, sterols and triterpenes were the most abundant constituents in these Cystoseira species while cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides were the least ones. C. indica had the higher content of total phenolics and also showed higher antioxidant activity. Cytotoxic results showed that both species inhibited cell growth effectively, especially against MCF-7 cell line. The present findings suggest potential pharmacological applications of selected seaweeds but require further investigation and identification of their bioactive principles. PMID:27651811

  18. [Determination of blood constituents with dry reagent carriers. Comparison with wet chemical tests (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Thomas, L; Appel, W; Storz, G; Plischke, W

    1981-08-28

    Quantitative measurement of blood constituents (glucose, uric acid, urea-N) on dry reagent carriers was compared with corresponding wet-chemical methods. There was a good correlation (r greater than 0.95) and excellent linear regression with small scatter between the two methods for the three constituents. The dry test has proved to be a precise, simple, rapid and economic method, especially suitable for the practitioner and emergency laboratory.

  19. The chemical ecology of soil organic matter molecular constituents.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Myrna J; Simpson, André J

    2012-06-01

    Soil organic matter (OM) contains vast stores of carbon, and directly supports microbial, plant, and animal life by retaining essential nutrients and water in the soil. Soil OM plays important roles in biological, chemical, and physical processes within the soil, and arguably plays a major role in maintaining long-term ecological stability in a changing world. Despite its importance, there is a great deal still unknown about soil OM chemical ecology. The development of sophisticated analytical methods have reshaped our understanding of soil OM composition, which is now believed to be comprised of plant and microbial products at various stages of decomposition. The methods also have recently been applied to study environmental change in various settings and have provided unique insight with respect to soil OM chemical ecology. The goal of this review is to highlight the methods used to characterize soil OM structure, source, and degradation that have enabled precise observations of OM and associated ecological shifts. Although the chemistry of soil OM is important in its overall fate in ecosystems, the studies conducted to date suggest that ecological function is not defined by soil OM chemistry alone. The long-standing questions regarding soil OM stability and recalcitrance will likely be answered when several molecular methods are used in tandem to closely examine structure, source, age, degradation stage, and interactions of specific OM components in soil.

  20. Chemical constituents of Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus extract and its sedative-hypnotic effect.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Yang, Chun-Juan; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Zhao, Nan; Feng, Xue-Song; Meng, Fan-Hao

    2017-01-04

    The present study was designed to investigate the chemical constituents and bioactivities of the roots of Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus (E. sessiliflorus). The compounds were isolated through various chromatography techniques and elucidated by mass spectrometric (MS), 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses. The sedative-hypnotic effect of E. sessiliflorus ethanol extract and its fractions (acetic ether, n-butanol and water fraction) were also investigated. In the chemical constituent study, one new compound, 3-ethyl-5-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl) pentyl-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) acrylate and fourteen known compounds were isolated and identified. The chromatographic fingerprint of E. sessiliflorus was established by UPLC-PDA-MS/MS analysis. In bioactivity study, it was found that the water fraction of E. sessiliflorus extract could prolong pentobarbital-induced sleeping time more than that of the other fractions of E. sessiliflorus extract in mice, which provided a basis for future study on sedative-hypnotic effect of the chemical constituents in E. sessiliflorus.

  1. Anti-arthritic active fraction of Capparis spinosa L. fruits and its chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaolu; Lu, Jincai; Xin, Hailiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuliang; Tang, Kexuan

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the anti-arthritic active fraction of Capparis spinosa L. (Capparidaceae) fruits and its chemical constituents. The adjuvant arthritic rat model was developed to evaluate the anti-arthritic effects of different fractions of ethanol extraction from C. spinosa L. The fraction eluted by ethanol-water (50:50, v/v) had the most significant anti-arthritic activity. The chemical constituents of this fraction were therefore studied; seven known compounds were isolated and identified as: P-hydroxy benzoic acid; 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural; bis(5-formylfurfuryl) ether; daucosterol; α-D-fructofuranosides methyl; uracil; and stachydrine.

  2. Nematicides induced changes in the chemical constituents of potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, R S

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the chemical constitutents of potato tubers grown under different concentrations of 3 synthetic organic nematicides (carbofuran, aldicarb and phorate) and a natural plant product (sawdust) were investigated. There were no significant differences in the specific gravity, dry matter and starch content of tubers from different treatments. A significant increase in the content of non-reducing and total sugars was observed in all the treatments. Nematicidal treatments had significant effects on reducing sugars, true protein, free amino acids, orthodihydroxy phenols, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid. Application of nematicides reduced the content of total phenolic compounds which is a desirable change from a processing viewpoint. Potatoes grown under different nematicidal treatments can be processed into chips and French fries as they contain permissible levels of reducing sugars required for these forms of processing.

  3. [Relationship between chemical constituents and herbs properties of relative plant herbs].

    PubMed

    Cao, Jia; Wang, Yun

    2013-02-01

    The material fundament of Chinese herbs is chemical constituents which represented the properties of herbs, including five fundamental natures (cold, cool, neutral, warm and hot), seven flavors (sour, bitter, sweet, salty, acerbity, mild and pungent) and twelve meridians (liver, heart, spleen, lung, kidney, Xin Bao, Gall bladder, small intestine, stomach, large intestine, bladder and San Jiao). In this article, authors study the relationship between chemical constituents of plant herbs and their properties. First, authors build a relationship network where the herbs with similar chemical compositions are connected each other. The particular difference of our work is to filter the common chemical constituents that many plants from different families contained. As a result, considering relative plants have similar chemical constituents, the relative plant herbs are clustering closely and the herbs of different family are connected loosely in our network. The results indicates that the method of building the herbs network is correct. The characteristics of herbs' properties in the network are that the same properties are usually connected regardless the plant families. There is "properties hole" phenomenon, that is, the majority of adjacent drugs of a herb have a certain properties, while the drug does not have the properties.

  4. [Advances on investigation of chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and clinical applications of Capparis spinosa].

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Yu-Qing; Wang, Chang-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, the chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and clinical applications of Capparis spinosa had been reviewed. The constituents of C. spinosa include the saccharides and glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids and volatile oils, fatty acids and steroides and so on. C. spinosa had many extensive pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory, odynolysis, antifungus, hepatoprotective effect, hypoglycemic activity, antioxidation, anti-hyperlipemia, anticoagulated blood, smooth muscle stimulation, anti-stress reaction, improve memory. It was used to treat arthrolithiasis, rheumarthritis and dermatosis in clinic in domestic, and it would have a broad application prospects.

  5. Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents inhibit in vitro growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Alday-Provencio, Samuel; Diaz, Gabriela; Rascon, Lucila; Quintero, Jael; Alday, Efrain; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Astiazaran, Humberto; Hernandez, Javier; Velazquez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Propolis is a cereus resin with a complex chemical composition that possesses a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-Giardia lamblia activity of Sonoran propolis collected from three different areas of Sonoran Desert in northwestern Mexico (Caborca, Pueblo de Alamos, and Ures) and some of its chemical constituents. Additionally, we also analyzed the seasonal effect on the anti-G. lamblia activity of propolis. G. lamblia trophozoite cultures were treated with different concentrations of Sonoran propolis or chemical compounds during 48 h cell proliferation and cell viability were determined. Ures propolis showed the highest inhibitory activity against G. lamblia (IC50 63.8 ± 7.1 µg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner (Ures > Pueblo de Alamos > Caborca). Season had a significant effect on the in vitro anti-G. lamblia activity of Ures propolis. Summer propolis showed the highest inhibitory effect on the G. lamblia trophozoite growth (IC50 23.8 ± 2.3 µg/mL), followed by propolis collected during winter (IC50 59.2 ± 34.7 µg/mL), spring (IC50 102.5 ± 15.3 µg/mL), and autumn (IC50 125.0 ± 3.1 µg/mL). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an Ures propolis exclusive constituent, had the highest growth-inhibitory activity towards G. lamblia [IC50 63.1 ± 0.9 µg/mL (222.1 ± 3.2 µM)]. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that caffeic acid phenethyl ester possesses antiparasitic activity against G. lamblia. Naringenin [IC50 125.7 ± 20.7 µg/mL (461.8 ± 76.3 µM)], hesperetin [IC50 149.6 ± 24.8 µg/mL (494.9 ± 82.2 µM)], and pinocembrin [IC50 174.4 ± 26.0 µg/mL (680.6 ± 101.7 µM)] showed weak anti-G. lamblia activity. On the other hand, chrysin and rutin did not show significant antiparasitic activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents had inhibitory effects on the

  6. Metabolism by grasshoppers of volatile chemical constituents from Mangifera indica and Solanum paniculatum leaves.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Clécio S; Ramos, Natália S M; Da Silva, Rodolfo R; Da Câmara, Cláudio A G; Almeida, Argus V

    2012-12-01

    The chemical volatiles from plant leaves and their biological activities have been extensively studied. However, no studies have addressed plant-chemical volatiles after undergoing the digestive process in host insects. Here we describe for the first time chemical profiles of volatile constituents from Solanum paniculatum and Mangifera indica leaves metabolized by grasshoppers. Both profiles were qualitatively and quantitatively different from the profiles of non-metabolized leaves. The amount of nerolidol, the major constituent of S. paniculatum leaves, decreased and other sesquiterpenes, such as spathulenol, were formed during the digestive process of the grasshopper Chromacris speciosa. In M. indica, the presence of phenylpropanoids was observed (dillapiole, Z-asarone, E-asarone and γ-asarone) in the leaves metabolized by the grasshopper Tropidacris collaris, but these compounds were not found in the non-metabolized leaves.

  7. Single-neuron identification of chemical constituents, physiological changes, and metabolism using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongying; Zou, Guichang; Wang, Ning; Zhuang, Meihui; Xiong, Wei; Huang, Guangming

    2017-03-07

    The use of single-cell assays has emerged as a cutting-edge technique during the past decade. Although single-cell mass spectrometry (MS) has recently achieved remarkable results, deep biological insights have not yet been obtained, probably because of various technical issues, including the unavoidable use of matrices, the inability to maintain cell viability, low throughput because of sample pretreatment, and the lack of recordings of cell physiological activities from the same cell. In this study, we describe a patch clamp/MS-based platform that enables the sensitive, rapid, and in situ chemical profiling of single living neurons. This approach integrates modified patch clamp technique and modified MS measurements to directly collect and detect nanoliter-scale samples from the cytoplasm of single neurons in mice brain slices. Abundant possible cytoplasmic constituents were detected in a single neuron at a relatively fast rate, and over 50 metabolites were identified in this study. The advantages of direct, rapid, and in situ sampling and analysis enabled us to measure the biological activities of the cytoplasmic constituents in a single neuron, including comparing neuron types by cytoplasmic chemical constituents; observing changes in constituent concentrations as the physiological conditions, such as age, vary; and identifying the metabolic pathways of small molecules.

  8. [Anti-HIV chemical constituents of aerial parts of Caragana rosea].

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-xun; Qi, Jian-bin; Cheng, Ke-jun; Hu, Chang-qi

    2007-02-01

    This study was intended to look for anti-HIV chemical constituents of aerial parts of Caragana rosea Turcz. Column chromatographic technique was used for the isolation and purification of constituents of Caragana rosea under the guide of anti-HIV assay. The structures were established on the basis of physical and chemical properties and spectroscopic data. Five compounds were obtained from the EtOAc fraction of aerial parts of Caragana rosea and identified as myricetin (1), mearnsetin (2), p-hydroxy cinnamic acid (3), cararosinol A (4) and cararosinol B (5). At the same time, one possible transformation route between cararosinol B and kobophenol A, another resveratrol tetramer isolated from this plant previously, was proposed. Compounds 4, 5 are new resveratrol tetramers, compounds 1 -3 were isolated from this plant for the first time. All compounds showed no activities in an in vitro assay against HIV-1.

  9. Median estimation of chemical constituents for sampling on two occasions under a log‐normal model

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Sampling from a finite population on multiple occasions introduces dependencies between the successive samples when overlap is designed. Such sampling designs lead to efficient statistical estimates, while they allow estimating changes over time for the targeted outcomes. This makes them very popular in real‐world statistical practice. Sampling with partial replacement can also be very efficient in biological and environmental studies where estimation of toxicants and its trends over time is the main interest. Sampling with partial replacement is designed here on two occasions in order to estimate the median concentration of chemical constituents quantified by means of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Such data represent relative peak areas resulting from the chromatographic analysis. They are therefore positive‐valued and skewed data, and are commonly fitted very well by the log‐normal model. A log‐normal model is assumed here for chemical constituents quantified in mainstream cigarette smoke in a real case study. Combining design‐based and model‐based approaches for statistical inference, we seek for the median estimation of chemical constituents by sampling with partial replacement on two time occasions. We also discuss the limitations of extending the proposed approach to other skewed population models. The latter is investigated by means of a Monte Carlo simulation study. PMID:26013679

  10. [Advances in novel carrier systems of chemical constituents from spice volatile oils].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-jia; Zhu, Yuan; Yu, Jiang-nan; Xu, Xi-ming

    2015-10-01

    Recent years, chemical constituents from spice volatile oils have gained worldwide concern owing to its multiple pharmacological effects and safety for using as the natural antibacterial agents. However, their poor dissolution, strong volatility, serious irritation, weak stability, easy oxidation and low bioavailability characteristics are the major obstacle in the preparation of effective oral formulation and practical application. Therefore, there is an urgent need to select a novel carrier system that can delivery the chemical constituents from spice volatile oils more efficiently with improving their stability as well as alleviating the irritation, and develop the functional food, health products and even medicine for exerting their pharmacological effects, which also is the focus and nodus of the research on their application. This review presents recent systematic studies on their novel carrier systems, including cyclodextrin inclusion complex, liposomes, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, solid dispersion and so on, and summarizes the characteristics, application range and problems of each novel carrier systems, in order to provide some beneficial thoughts in further developing new products of chemical constituents from spice volatile oils.

  11. Particle size and chemical constituents of ambient particulate pollution associated with cardiovascular mortality in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hualiang; Tao, Jun; Du, Yaodong; Liu, Tao; Qian, Zhengmin; Tian, Linwei; Di, Qian; Rutherford, Shannon; Guo, Lingchuan; Zeng, Weilin; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; He, Zhihui; Xu, Yanjun; Ma, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Though significant associations between particulate matter (PM) air pollution and cardiovascular diseases have been widely reported, it remains unclear what characteristics, such as particle size and chemical constituents, may be responsible for the effects. A time-series model was applied to examine the cardiovascular effects of particle size (for the period of 2009-2011) and chemical constituents (2007-2010) in Guangzhou, we controlled for potential confounders in the model, such as time trends, day of the week, public holidays, meteorological factors and influenza epidemic. We found significant associations of cardiovascular mortality with PM10, PM2.5 and PM1; the excess risk (ER) was 6.10% (95% CI: 1.76%, 10.64%), 6.11% (95% CI: 1.76%, 10.64%) and 6.48% (95% CI: 2.10%, 11.06%) for per IQR increase in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at moving averages for the current day and the previous 3 days (lag03), respectively. We did not find significant effects of PM2.5-10 and PM1-2.5. For PM2.5 constituents, we found that organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium were significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality, the corresponding ER for an IQR concentration increase at lag03 was 1.13% (95% CI: 0.10%, 2.17%), 2.77% (95% CI: 0.72%, 4.86%), 2.21% (95% CI: 1.05%, 3.38%), 1.98% (95% CI: 0.54%, 3.44%), and 3.38% (95% CI: 1.56%, 5.23%), respectively. These results were robust to adjustment of other air pollutants and they remained consistent in various sensitivity analyses by changing model parameters. Our study suggests that PM1 and constituents from combustion and secondary aerosols might be important characteristics of PM pollution associated with cardiovascular mortality in Guangzhou.

  12. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    than NMC) and the DDB is useful for lithium ion cells with LFP cathodes (potential that is lower than NMC). A 4.5 V class redox shuttle provided by Argonne National Laboratory was evaluated which provides a few cycles of overcharge protection for lithium ion cells containing NMC cathodes but it is not stable enough for consideration. Thus, a redox shuttle with an appropriate redox potential and sufficient chemical and electrochemical stability for commercial use in larger format lithium ion cells with NMC cathodes was not found. Molecular imprinting of the redox shuttle molecule during solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formation likely contributes to the successful reduction of oxidized redox shuttle species at carbon anodes. This helps to understand how a carbon anode covered with an SEI layer, that is supposed to be electrically insulating, can reduce the oxidized form of a redox shuttle.

  13. Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M.; Campbell, L.J.

    1997-06-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake river Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from nine irrigation wells, three domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, one commercial well, one stock well, and one observation well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. Additional sampling at six sites was done to complete the third round of sampling. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

  14. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associations between Particulate Chemical Constituents and Mortality in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jung, Kweon

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have linked fine particles [≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] and health. Most studies focused on the total mass of the particles, although the chemical composition of the particles varies substantially. Which chemical components of fine particles that are the most harmful is not well understood, and research on the chemical composition of PM2.5 and the components that are the most harmful is particularly limited in Asia. Objectives: We characterized PM2.5 chemical composition and estimated the effects of cause-specific mortality of PM2.5 mass and constituents in Seoul, Korea. We compared the chemical composition of particles to those of the eastern and western United States. Methods: We examined temporal variability of PM2.5 mass and its composition using hourly data. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model, adjusting for time, day of week, temperature, and relative humidity to investigate the association between risk of mortality and PM2.5 mass and its constituents in Seoul, Korea, for August 2008 through October 2009. Results: PM2.5 and chemical components exhibited temporal patterns by time of day and season. The chemical characteristics of Seoul’s PM2.5 were more similar to PM2.5 found in the western United States than in the eastern United States. Seoul’s PM2.5 had lower sulfate (SO4) contributions and higher nitrate (NO3) contributions than that of the eastern United States, although overall PM2.5 levels in Seoul were higher than in the United States. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in magnesium (Mg) (0.05 μg/m3) was associated with a 1.4% increase (95% confidence interval: 0.2%, 2.6%) in total mortality on the following day. Several components that were among the largest contributors to PM2.5 total mass—NO3, SO4, and ammonium (NH4)—were moderately associated with same-day cardiovascular mortality at the p < 0.10 level. Other components with smaller mass contributions [Mg and

  15. Antimalarial evaluation of the chemical constituents of hairy root culture of Bixa orellana L.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Bo; Clark, Julie; Ling, Taotao; Connelly, Michele; Medina-Bolivar, Fabricio; Rivas, Fatima

    2014-01-08

    Over 216 million malaria cases are reported annually worldwide and about a third of these cases, primarily children under the age of five years old, will not survive the infection. Despite this significant world health impact, only a limited number of therapeutic agents are currently available. The lack of scaffold diversity poses a threat in the event that multi-drug-resistant strains emerge. Terrestrial natural products have provided a major source of chemical diversity for starting materials in many FDA approved drugs over the past century. Bixa orellana L. is a popular plant used in South America for the treatment of malaria. In search of new potential therapeutic agents, the chemical constituents of a selected hairy root culture line of Bixa orellana L. were characterized utilizing NMR and mass spectrometry methods, followed by its biological evaluation against malaria strains 3D7 and K1. The crude extract and its isolated compounds demonstrated EC50 values in the micromolar range. Herein, we report our findings on the chemical constituents of Bixa orellana L. from hairy roots responsible for the observed antimalarial activity.

  16. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from leaves of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Camila de Souza; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Lima, Rafaely Nascimento; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Diniz, Tâmara Coimbra; da Silva Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Background: Annona vepretorum (AV) is a native tree from Caatinga biome (semiarid region of Brazil) popularly known as “araticum” and “pinha da Caatinga.” Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity (AA) of the essential oil from the leaves from AV (EO-Av) collected in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Fresh leaves of AV were cut into pieces, and subjected to distillation for 2 h in a clevenger-type apparatus. Gas chromatograph (GC) analyses were performed using a mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector. The identification of the constituents was assigned on the basis of comparison of their relative retention indices. The antioxidant ability of the EO was investigated through two in vitro models such as radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and β-carotene-linoleate-model system. The positive controls (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene) were those using the standard solutions. Assays were carried out in triplicate. Results: The oil showed a total of 21 components, and 17 were identified, representing 93.9% of the crude EO. Spathulenol (43.7%), limonene (20.5%), caryophyllene oxide (8.1%) and α-pinene (5.5%) were found to be the major individual constituents. Spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide could be considered chemotaxonomic markers of these genera. The EO demonstrated weak AA. PMID:26246740

  17. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of Ajania fruticulosa Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun-Yu; Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan; Zhang, Ji

    2016-08-01

    The insecticidal activity and chemical constituents of the essential oil from Ajania fruticulosa were investigated. Twelve constituents representing 91.0% of the essential oil were identified, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (41.40%), (+)-camphor (32.10%), and myrtenol (8.15%). The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults with LD50 values of 105.67 μg/adult and 89.85 μg/cm(2) , respectively. The essential oil also showed fumigant toxicity against two species of insect with LC50 values of 11.52 and 0.65 mg/l, respectively. 1,8-Cineole exhibited excellent fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 5.47 mg/l) against T. castaneum. (+)-Camphor showed obvious fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.43 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. Myrtenol showed contact toxicity (LD50  = 29.40 μg/cm(2) ) and fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.50 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. 1,8-Cineole and (+)-camphor showed strong insecticidal activity to some important insects, and they are main constituents of A. fruticulosa essential oil. The two compounds may be related to insecticidal activity of A. fruticulosa essential oil against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila.

  18. 33 CFR 157.31 - Discharges: Chemical additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharges: Chemical additives. 157.31 Section 157.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.31 Discharges: Chemical additives. No person may use a...

  19. 33 CFR 157.31 - Discharges: Chemical additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discharges: Chemical additives. 157.31 Section 157.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.31 Discharges: Chemical additives. No person may use a...

  20. 33 CFR 157.31 - Discharges: Chemical additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discharges: Chemical additives. 157.31 Section 157.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.31 Discharges: Chemical additives. No person may use a...

  1. 33 CFR 157.31 - Discharges: Chemical additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharges: Chemical additives. 157.31 Section 157.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.31 Discharges: Chemical additives. No person may use a...

  2. 33 CFR 157.31 - Discharges: Chemical additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharges: Chemical additives. 157.31 Section 157.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.31 Discharges: Chemical additives. No person may use a...

  3. Phytomedical investigation of Najas minor All. in the view of the chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Topuzovic, Marina D; Radojevic, Ivana D; Dekic, Milan S; Radulovic, Niko S; Vasic, Sava M; Comic, Ljiljana R; Licina, Braho Z

    2015-01-01

    Plants are an abundant natural source of effective antibiotic compounds. Phytomedical investigations of certain plants haven't still been conducted. One of them is Najas minor (N. minor), an aquatic plant with confirmed allelopathy. Research conducted in this study showed the influence of water and ethyl acetate extracts of N. minor on microorganisms, in the view of chemical profiling of volatile constituents and the concentrations of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins. Antimicrobial activity was defined by determining minimum inhibitory and minimum microbicidal concentrations using microdilution method. Influence on bacterial biofilm formation was performed by tissue culture plate method. The total phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannins were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminum chloride and butanol-HCl colorimetric methods. Chemical profiling of volatile constituents was investigated by GC and GC-MS. Water extract didn't have antimicrobial activity below 5000 µg/mL. Ethyl acetate extract has shown strong antimicrobial activity on G+ bacteria - Staphylococcus aureus PMFKGB12 and Bacillus subtilis (MIC < 78.13 µg/mL). The best antibiofilm activity was obtained on Escherichia coli ATCC25922 (BIC50 at 719 µg/mL). Water extract had higher yield. Ethyl acetate extract had a significantly greater amount of total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins. As major constituent hexahydrofarnesyl acetone was identified. The ethyl acetate extract effected only G+ bacteria, but the biofilm formation of G-bacteria was suppressed. There was a connection between those in vivo and in vitro effects against pathogenic bacterial biofilm formation. All of this points to a so far unexplored potential of N. minor.

  4. [Chemical constituents from lipophilic parts in roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi].

    PubMed

    Deng, Gai-Gai; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Zhang, You-Bo; Xu, Wei; Wei, Wei; Chen, Tian-Li

    2015-06-01

    The chemical constituents from lipophilic parts in the roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi were studied in this paper. The compounds were separated and purified by repeated column chromatographic methods on silica gel and HPLC, and the chemical structures of compounds were determined by spectral data analyses. Twenty-nine compounds were obtained and identified as isoimperatorin (1), β-sitosterol (2), imperatorin (3), bergapten (4), osthenol (5), xanthotoxin (6), isoimpinellin (7), dehydrogeijerin (8), phellopterin (9), isodemethylfuropinarine (10), 7-demethylsuberosin (11), alloimperatorin (12), xanthotoxol (13), isooxypeucedanin (14), alloisoimperatorin (15), demethylfuropinarine (16), 5-hydroxy-8-methoxypsoralen (17), oxypeucedanin methanolate (18), pabulenol (19), byakangelicin (20), marmesin (21), (+) -decursinol (22), heraclenol (23), oxypeucedanin hydrate (24), marmesinin (25), ulopterol (26), erythro-guaiacylglycerol-β-ferulic acid ether (27), threo-guaiacylglycerol-β-ferulic acid ether (28), and uracil (29). Compounds 5, 8, 11, 18, 21-23, and 26-28 were obtained from the roots of title plant for the first time.

  5. Chemical investigation and antimicrobial properties of mastic water and its major constituents.

    PubMed

    Paraschos, Sotirios; Magiatis, Prokopios; Gousia, Panagiota; Economou, Vangelis; Sakkas, Hercules; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2011-12-01

    Mastic water is a commercial flavouring obtained during the steam distillation of mastic resin (the resin of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia) for the production of mastic oil. The mastic water extracts were analysed by GC-MS. The major compounds identified were verbenone, α-terpineol, linalool and trans-pinocarveol. Overall the composition was found to be very different from that of mastic oil. Additional GC-MS revealed the enantiomeric ratio of the chiral constituents of mastic water. The antimicrobial activity of mastic water extract, as well as that of its major constituents, was examined against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida spp. including ATCC wild clinical and food-borne strains. Linalool and α-terpineol were found to be the most potent antimicrobial constituents. Finally the stability of mastic water at different temperatures was studied, showing no change in the GC-MS profile of the organic extract for a period of 4months at storage temperatures up to 4°C.

  6. Mobilization of major and trace constituents of highway runoff in groundwater potentially caused by deicing chemical migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.; Church, Peter E.; Stone, Victoria J.

    1995-01-01

    The quality of water in unsaturated zones and groundwater is affected by the major ions in deicing chemicals applied to roads and highways. The assessment of the environmental effects of highway runoff requires investigations to determine whether other major and trace constituents are mobilized during deicing chemical migration through the unsaturated zone and groundwater. In this regard, groundwater samples were analyzed in February and August 1991, and March, August, and November 1993 at a test site along Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts. Analyses indicated that concentrations of major and trace chemical constituents of highway runoff in groundwater are substantially higher downgradient than upgradient from the highway.

  7. Chemical Source Inversion using Assimilated Constituent Observations in an Idealized Two-dimensional System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tangborn, Andrew; Cooper, Robert; Pawson, Steven; Sun, Zhibin

    2009-01-01

    We present a source inversion technique for chemical constituents that uses assimilated constituent observations rather than directly using the observations. The method is tested with a simple model problem, which is a two-dimensional Fourier-Galerkin transport model combined with a Kalman filter for data assimilation. Inversion is carried out using a Green's function method and observations are simulated from a true state with added Gaussian noise. The forecast state uses the same spectral spectral model, but differs by an unbiased Gaussian model error, and emissions models with constant errors. The numerical experiments employ both simulated in situ and satellite observation networks. Source inversion was carried out by either direct use of synthetically generated observations with added noise, or by first assimilating the observations and using the analyses to extract observations. We have conducted 20 identical twin experiments for each set of source and observation configurations, and find that in the limiting cases of a very few localized observations, or an extremely large observation network there is little advantage to carrying out assimilation first. However, in intermediate observation densities, there decreases in source inversion error standard deviation using the Kalman filter algorithm followed by Green's function inversion by 50% to 95%.

  8. Chemical constituents of Phragmanthera austroarabica A. G. Mill and J. A. Nyberg with potent antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Jihan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phragmanthera austroarabica A.G. Mill. and J. A. Nyberg is a semi parasitic plant belonging to family Loranthaceae. It was collected from Saudi Arabia. It is widely used in folk medicine among the kingdom in treatment of various diseases including diabetes mellitus. Objective: The total alcoholic extract of P. austroarabica collected from Saudi Arabia was investigated for the chemical structure and prominent biological activity of the main constituents. Materials and Methods: Isolation of the active constituents was performed using different chromatographic techniques including column chromatography packed with silica or sephadex and preparative thin layer chromatography. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on different spectroscopic data as mass spectrum, one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear single quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation). Results: Phytochemical investigation of the plant resulted in isolation of 12 compounds. The isolated compounds were identified as chrysophanic acid, emodin, chrysophanic acid-8-O-glucoside, emodin-8-O-glucoside, pectolinarigenin, quercetin, dillenetin-3-O-glucoside, catechin, catechin-4’-O-gallate, methyl gallate, lupeol and ursolic acid. All the isolated phenolic compounds revealed significant free radical scavenging activities when tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl reagent. Conclusion: The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds can justify the use of P. austroarabica in traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes and verify its possible application as an antihyperglycemic drug. PMID:26692747

  9. Chemical Constituents and Pharmacology of the Aristolochia (馬兜鈴 mădōu ling) species

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ping-Chung; Li, Yue-Chiun; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2012-01-01

    Aristolochia (馬兜鈴 mădōu ling) is an important genus widely cultivated and had long been known for their extensive use in traditional Chinese medicine. The genus has attracted so much great interest because of their numerous biological activity reports and unique constituents, aristolochic acids (AAs). In 2004, we reviewed the metabolites of Aristolochia species which have appeared in the literature, concerning the isolation, structural elucidation, biological activity and literature references. In addition, the nephrotoxicity of aristolochic acids, biosynthetic studies, ecological adaptation, and chemotaxonomy researches were also covered in the past review. In the present manuscript, we wish to review the various physiologically active compounds of different classes reported from Aristolochia species in the period between 2004 and 2011. In regard to the chemical and biological aspects of the constituents from the Aristolochia genus, this review would address the continuous development in the phytochemistry and the therapeutic application of the Aristolochia species. Moreover, the recent nephrotoxicity studies related to aristolochic acids would be covered in this review and the structure-toxicity relationship would be discussed. PMID:24716140

  10. Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Additivity-Based Approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Powerpoint presentation includes additivity-based chemical mixture risk assessment methods. Basic concepts, theory and example calculations are included. Several slides discuss the use of "common adverse outcomes" in analyzing phthalate mixtures.

  11. Chemical Constituents of the Culture Broth of Phellinus linteus and Their Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong-Seok; Hwang, Byung Soon; Lee, In-Kyoung; Seo, Geon-Sik; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2015-03-01

    The medicinal fungus Phellinus linteus, in the family Hymenochaetaceae, has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. In this study, the chemical constituents of the culture broth of P. linteus were investigated. P. linteus was cultured in potato dextrose broth medium, and the culture broth was extracted with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate-soluble portion was concentrated and subjected to ODS column chromatography, followed by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Six compounds (1~6) were purified by preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Spectroscopic methods identified their structures as caffeic acid (1), inotilone (2), 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one (3), phellilane H (4), (2E,4E)-(+)-4'-hydroxy-γ-ionylideneacetic acid (5), and (2E,4E)-γ-ionylideneacetic acid (6). Compounds 1, 2, and 3 exhibited potent dose-dependent antioxidant activity.

  12. The Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities of Psoralea corylifolia Linn.: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuenong; Zhao, Wenwen; Wang, Ying; Lu, Jinjian; Chen, Xiuping

    2016-01-01

    Psoralea corylifolia Linn. (P. corylifolia) is an important medicinal plant with thousands of years of clinical application. It has been widely used in many traditional Chinese medicine formulas for the treatment of various diseases such as leucoderma and other skin diseases, cardiovascular diseases, nephritis, osteoporosis, and cancer. Phytochemical studies indicated that coumarins, flavonoids, and meroterpenes are the main components of P. corylifolia, and most of these components are present in the seeds or fruits. The extracts and active components of P. corylifolia demonstrated multiple biological activities, including estrogenic, antitumor, anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, osteoblastic, and hepatoprotective activities. This paper systematically summarized literatures on the chemical constituents and biological activities of P. corylifolia, which provided useful information for the further research and development toward this potent medicinal plant.

  13. Osteo-dental fluorosis in relation to chemical constituents of drinking waters.

    PubMed

    Choubisa, S L

    2012-01-01

    Study was conducted in 17 fluoride endemic villages to find out association between the prevalence and severity of osteo-dental fluorosis with different chemical constituents of drinking waters. These villages were arranged in 7 sets, each containing 2 to 3 villages with identical mean fluoride (F) concentrations in the range 1.0 to 5.8 mg/L but having different mean values of total hardness, alkalinity and nitrate (NO3) content in drinking water sources. A close association or relationship was found between the prevalence of fluorosis and the total hardness and alkalinity of potable waters. A low prevalence of fluorosis was found at low alkalinity and at high total hardness. But no specific association was observed between the prevalence figures of fluorosis with pH and NO3 levels which is also discussed in the present communication.

  14. Chemical Constituents from the Fruits of Forsythia suspensa and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo-Feng; Yang, Mei-Lin; Lin, Ya-Hua; Peng, Chi-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Lignans and phenylethanoid glycosides purified from Forsythia suspensa were reported to display various bioactivities in the previous literature, including the antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the chemical constituents of the methanol extracts of fruits of F. suspensa. The methanol extracts of fruits of F. suspensa were fractionated and further purified with the assistance of column chromatography to afford totally thirty-four compounds. Among these isolates, 3β-acetoxy-20α-hydroxyursan-28-oic acid (1) was reported from the natural sources for the first time. Some of the purified principles were subjected to the antimicrobial activity examinations against Escherichia coli to explore new natural lead compounds. PMID:24745011

  15. Chemical Constituents of the Culture Broth of Phellinus linteus and Their Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myeong-Seok; Hwang, Byung Soon; Lee, In-Kyoung; Seo, Geon-Sik

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal fungus Phellinus linteus, in the family Hymenochaetaceae, has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. In this study, the chemical constituents of the culture broth of P. linteus were investigated. P. linteus was cultured in potato dextrose broth medium, and the culture broth was extracted with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate-soluble portion was concentrated and subjected to ODS column chromatography, followed by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Six compounds (1~6) were purified by preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Spectroscopic methods identified their structures as caffeic acid (1), inotilone (2), 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one (3), phellilane H (4), (2E,4E)-(+)-4'-hydroxy-γ-ionylideneacetic acid (5), and (2E,4E)-γ-ionylideneacetic acid (6). Compounds 1, 2, and 3 exhibited potent dose-dependent antioxidant activity. PMID:25892914

  16. Influence of sulfur fumigation on the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of buds of Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ai-Li; Chen, Liang-Mian; Wang, Yan-Min; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Gao, Hui-Min; Wang, Zhi-Min; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhen-Zhong

    2014-10-15

    Lonicera japonica flos is widely used as a pharmaceutical resource and a commonly-employed ingredient in healthy food, soft beverages and cosmetics in China. Sometimes, sulfur fumigation is used during post-harvest handling. In this study, a comprehensive comparison of the chemical profile between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated samples was conducted by HPLC fingerprints and simultaneous quantification of nine constituents, including secologanic acid, along with another eight usually-analyzed markers. Secologanic acid was destroyed, and its sulfonates were generated, whereas caffeoylquinic acids were protected from being oxidized. The residual sulfur dioxide in sulfur-fumigated samples was significantly higher than that in sun-dried samples, which might increase the potential incidence of toxicity to humans. Meanwhile, compared with sun-dried samples, sulfur-fumigated samples have significantly stronger antioxidant activity, which could be attributed to the joint effect of protected phenolic acids and flavonoids, as well as newly-generated iridoid sulfonates.

  17. Chemical constituents of Tilia taquetii leaves and their inhibition of MMP-1 expression and elastase activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Kim, Jung Eun; Bu, Hee Jung; Hyun, Chang-Gu; Lee, Nam Ho

    2014-12-01

    The ethanol extract of Tilia taquetii Schneider leaves was investigated for its anti-wrinkle properties and for the relevant chemical constituents. Phytochemical studies led to the identification of five known compounds, viz. phytol (1), isoquercitrin (2), oleanderolide (3), arjunolic acid (4) and maslinic acid (5) from the extract. Of these, compounds 4 and 5 inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), an enzyme responsible for the breakdown of collagen fiber. Moreover, compound 5 showed inhibition activity on elastase, a protease enzyme capable of degrading elastin. These results suggest that the extract of T. taquetii containing the triterpenes 4 and 5 could be applied as anti-wrinkle ingredients in cosmetic preparations.

  18. Major Chemical Constituents of Bamboo Shoots (Phyllostachys pubescens): Qualitative and Quantitative Research.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia; Ding, Zhao-Qing; Gao, Quan; Xun, Hang; Tang, Feng; Xia, Er-Dong

    2016-03-30

    Bamboo shoots are a delicacy in Asia. Two novel compounds, adenine-(1'R,2'R,3'R)-cyclic butanetetraol carbonate (16) and (-)-(7R,8S)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol 9-O-β-D-[6-O-4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoyl])-glucopyranoside (20), together with 12 known nucleosides (1-12), 3 amino acids (13-15), β-carboline (17), and 2 megastigmane glycosides (18, 19) were isolated from bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys pubescens). Their structures and absolute configurations were rigorously determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and the composition of carbohydrates in bamboo shoots was qualitatively detected and quantitatively analyzed with ion chromatography. A simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate HPLC-UV analysis was built for routine edible quality control of bamboo shoots, and 12 major components of bamboo shoots were quantitatively analyzed. The major chemical constituents of bamboo shoots were determined to be carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleotides. These findings are correctives to the usual view of bamboo shoots chemical composition, and the previous research reports about the chemical composition of bamboo shoots may have taken the aromatic amino acids and nucleotides for flavonoids and phenolic acids.

  19. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-04-09

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  20. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  1. Statistical summary of selected physical, chemical, and toxicity characteristics and estimates of annual constituent loads in urban stormwater, Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fossum, Kenneth D.; O'Day, Christie M.; Wilson, Barbara J.; Monical, Jim E.

    2001-01-01

    Stormwater and streamflow in Maricopa County were monitored to (1) describe the physical, chemical, and toxicity characteristics of stormwater from areas having different land uses, (2) describe the physical, chemical, and toxicity characteristics of streamflow from areas that receive urban stormwater, and (3) estimate constituent loads in stormwater. Urban stormwater and streamflow had similar ranges in most constituent concentrations. The mean concentration of dissolved solids in urban stormwater was lower than in streamflow from the Salt River and Indian Bend Wash. Urban stormwater, however, had a greater chemical oxygen demand and higher concentrations of most nutrients. Mean seasonal loads and mean annual loads of 11 constituents and volumes of runoff were estimated for municipalities in the metropolitan Phoenix area, Arizona, by adjusting regional regression equations of loads. This adjustment procedure uses the original regional regression equation and additional explanatory variables that were not included in the original equation. The adjusted equations had standard errors that ranged from 161 to 196 percent. The large standard errors of the prediction result from the large variability of the constituent concentration data used in the regression analysis. Adjustment procedures produced unsatisfactory results for nine of the regressions?suspended solids, dissolved solids, total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, total recoverable cadmium, total recoverable copper, total recoverable lead, total recoverable zinc, and storm runoff. These equations had no consistent direction of bias and no other additional explanatory variables correlated with the observed loads. A stepwise-multiple regression or a three-variable regression (total storm rainfall, drainage area, and impervious area) and local data were used to develop local regression equations for these nine constituents. These equations had standard errors from 15 to 183 percent.

  2. A probabilistic risk assessment approach used to prioritize chemical constituents in mainstream smoke of cigarettes sold in China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jianping; Marano, Kristin M; Wilson, Cody L; Liu, Huimin; Gan, Huamin; Xie, Fuwei; Naufal, Ziad S

    2012-03-01

    The chemical and physical complexity of cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS) presents a challenge in the understanding of risk for smoking-related diseases. Quantitative risk assessment is a useful tool for assessing the toxicological risks that may be presented by smoking currently available commercial cigarettes. In this study, yields of a selected group of chemical constituents were quantified in machine-generated MSS from 30 brands of cigarettes sold in China. Using constituent yields, exposure estimates specific to and representative of the Chinese population, and available dose-response data, a Monte Carlo method was applied to simulate probability distributions for incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR), hazard quotient (HQ), and margin of exposure (MOE) values for each constituent as appropriate. Measures of central tendency were extracted from the outcome distributions and constituents were ranked according to these three risk assessment indices. The constituents for which ILCR >10(-4), HQ >1, and MOE <10,000 included acetaldehyde, acrylonitrile, benzene, cadmium, formaldehyde, and pyridine. While limitations exist to this methodology in estimating the absolute magnitude of health risk contributed by each MSS constituent, this approach provides a plausible and objective framework for the prioritization of toxicants in cigarette smoke and is valuable in guiding tobacco risk management.

  3. Partial Exemption of Certain Chemical Substances from Reporting Additional Chemical Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Federal Register notice amends the list of chemical substances that are partially exempt from reporting additional information by adding six chemicals in response to a petition the Agency received.

  4. [Chemical constituents from polarity part in roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi].

    PubMed

    Deng, Gai-gai; Gui, Zhi-jia; Yang, Xiu-wei

    2015-10-01

    The chemical constituents from polarity part in the roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi were studied in this paper. The compounds were separated and purified by repeated column chromatographic methods on silica gel and HPLC, and the chemical structures of compounds were determined by spectral data analyses. Fourteen compounds were obtained and identified as tert-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(R)-byakangelicin (1), (2"S) -3"-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oxypeucedanin hydrate (2), marmesinin (3), sec-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-byakangelicin (4), isofraxidin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), benzyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), 8-O-β-D-glycopyranosylxanthotoxol (7), prenyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), scopolin (9), (2' R) -5'-hydroxymarmesin-5'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), (2'S,3'R) -3'-hydroxymarmesinin (11), skimmin (12), benzyl-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1"--> 6')-β-D-glucopyranoside (13), and decuroside IV (14). Among them, compounds 2, 5, 6, 8, and 10-13 were obtained from the roots of title plant for the first time.

  5. Chemical constituents of the bark of Dipteryx alata vogel, an active species against Bothrops jararacussu venom.

    PubMed

    Puebla, Pilar; Oshima-Franco, Yoko; Franco, Luiz M; Santos, Marcio G Dos; Silva, Renata V da; Rubem-Mauro, Leandro; Feliciano, Arturo San

    2010-11-12

    The effect of four sub-extracts prepared from the lyophilized hydroalcoholic bark of Dipteryx alata (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) dissolved in a methanol-water (80:20) mixture through a liquid-liquid partition procedure has been investigated against the neuromuscular blockade of the venom of the snake Bothrops jararacussu. The active CH₂Cl₂ sub-extract has been extensively analyzed for its chemical constituents, resulting in the isolation of four lupane-type triterpenoids: lupeol, lupenone, 28-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one, betulin, nine isoflavonoids: 8-O-methylretusin, 7-hydroxy-5,6,4'-trimethoxyisoflavone, afrormosin, 7-hydroxy-8,3',4'-trimethoxyisoflavone, 7,3'-dihydroxy-8,4'-dimethoxyisoflavone, odoratin, 7,8,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone, 7,8,3'-trihydroxy-6,4'-dimethoxyisoflavone, dipteryxin, one chalcone: isoliquiritigenin, one aurone: sulfuretin and three phenolic compounds: vanillic acid, vanillin, and protocatechuic acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including HRMS, 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques.

  6. Chemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of Indian Green Leafy Vegetable Cardiospermum halicacabum.

    PubMed

    Jeyadevi, R; Sivasudha, T; Ilavarasi, A; Thajuddin, N

    2013-06-01

    The present study was carried out to analyze chemical constituents and antibacterial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum (ECH). The FT-IR spectrum confirmed the presence of alcohols, phenols, alkanes, alkynes, aliphatic ester and flavonoids in ECH. The GC-MS analysis revealed that ECH contained about twenty four compounds. The major chemical compounds identified were cyclohexane-1, 4, 5-triol-3-one-1-carboxylic acid, benzene acetic acid, caryophyllene, phytol and neophytadiene. The ECH was screened for its antibacterial activity against different bacterial strains and anti fungal activity against Candida albicans by agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. ECH exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity. All the tested bacterial strains showed MIC values ranging from 80 to 125 μg of extract/ml and C. albicans showed 190 μg of extract/ml as a MIC. The maximum activity ECH was observed against human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus followed by Escherichia coli and the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. ECH exhibited moderate activity against some of the tested multidrug resistant strains.

  7. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of additives on the ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow them to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. 49 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. [A new method of identifying Chinese crude drugs by comparing the characteristic content patterns of their chemical constituents].

    PubMed

    Gu, Z

    1992-05-01

    Using the characteristic patterns of contents of chemical constituents, Chinese crude drugs derived from closely relative species and their fakes can be clearly identified and the quality of these drugs can be roughly evaluated. In this paper, the identification of Qianghuo (Notopterygium spp.) was presented based on this new method.

  9. Statistical summary of selected physical, chemical, and microbial characteristics, and estimates of constituent loads in urban stormwater, Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Fossum, K.D.; Phillips, J.V.; Monical, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Stormwater and streamflow in the Phoenix, Arizona, area were monitored to determine the physical, chemical, and microbial characteristics of storm- water from areas having different land uses; to describe the characteristics of streamflow in a river that receives urban stormwater; and to estimate constituent loads in stormwater from unmonitored areas in Maricopa County, Arizona. Land use affects urban stormwater chemistry mostly because the percentage of impervious area controls the suspended-solids concentrations and varies with the type of land use. Urban activities also seem to concentrate cadmium, lead, and zinc in sediments. Urban stormwater had larger concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand, oil and grease, and higher counts of fecal bacteria than streamflow and could degrade the quality of the Salt River. Most regression equations for estimating constituent loads require three explanatory variables (total rainfall, drainage area, and per- centage of impervious area) and had standard errors that were from 65 to 266 percent. Localized areas that appear to contribute a large proportion of the constituent loads typically have 40 percent or more impervious area and are associated with industrial, commercial, and high-density residential land uses. The use of the mean value of the event-mean constituent concentrations measured in stormwater may be the best way of estimating constituent concentrations.

  10. THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS SOIL ADDITIVES. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. IT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF MODULES DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDY DATA. SECTIONS ARE (1) PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ALTERATION OF SOIL WITH CHEMICAL ADDITIVES, (2) TERMINOLOGY AND COMPUTATIONS, (3)…

  11. Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.

    PubMed

    Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level.

  12. Bioactivities and Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil Extracted from Artemisia anethoides Against Two Stored Product Insects.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun-Yu; Wang, Wen-Ting; Zheng, Yan-Fei; Zhang, Di; Wang, Jun-Long; Guo, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Du, Shu-Shan; Zhang, Ji

    2017-01-01

    The chemical constituents of the essential oil extracted from Artemisia anethoides and the bioactivities of essential oil against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne were investigated. The main components of the essential oil were 1,8-cineole (36.54%), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-3-cyclohexen-1-one (10.40%), terpinen-4-ol (8.58%), 2-isopropyltoluene (6.20) and pinocarveol (5.08%). The essential oil of A. anethoides possessed contact and fumigant toxicities against T. castaneum adults (LD50 = 28.80 μg/adult and LC50 = 13.05 mg/L air, respectively) and against L. serricorne (LD50 = 24.03 μg/adult and LD50 = 8.04 mg/L air, respectively). The crude oil showed repellent activity against T. castaneum and L. serricorne. Especially, the percentage repellency of essential oil was same level with DEET (positive control) against T. castaneum. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. anethoides had the potential to be developed as insecticide and repellent for control of T. castaneum and L. serricorne.

  13. Chemical Constituents, Antimicrobial, Cytotoxicity, Mutagenic and Antimutagenic Effects of Artemisia ciniformis

    PubMed Central

    Taherkhani, Mahboubeh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical constituents, antimicrobial, cytotoxicity, mutagenic and anti-mutagenic activities of the essential oil of Artemisia ciniformis Krasch. & Popov ex Poljakov, against important bacterial pathogens and human cells which were unknown before. In-vitro cytotoxicity was measured using a modified MTT assay on normal human lymphocytes and tumor HeLa cells. The mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of the oil were evaluated using the Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100, together with nitrofluorene for TA98 and sodium azide for TA100 without (-S9) metabolic activation, and 2-aminoantracene for TA98 and TA100 with metabolic (+S9) activation. Oxygenated monoterpenes especially camphor (30.21%), 1,8-cineole (23.7%) and trans-Pinocarveol (12.28%) were the major components of the oil of A. ciniformis. Bactericidal kinetics of this oil indicated that Acinetobacter baumannii is the most vulnerable one (MIC = 0.02 mg/mL, MBC = 0.04 mg/mL, Dvalue = 3.57 min). The oil displayed an excellent cytotoxic action toward the human tumor cell line (IC50 = 19.64 µg/mL). The oil of A. ciniformis showed excellent antimutagenicity effect on the 2-nitrofluorene, in the strain of S. typhimurium TA98, without the presence of metabolic activation. PMID:27980582

  14. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activities of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan-Li; Gan, Xiao-Qing; Fan, Qing-Fei; Yang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Hua-Bin; Song, Qi-Shi

    2017-04-06

    In this study, 44 compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark, a traditional Dai herbal medicine, were identified by GC-MS. Major components included 3(2H)-benzofuranone, asarinin and (dimethoxymethyl)-3-methoxy-benzene. A total of 18 compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of Maqian bark by column chromatography and identified by chemical and spectral analyses. Rhoifoline B, zanthoxyline dimethoxy derivative, N-nortidine, nitidine, decarine are the major alkaloids. Both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant inhibition on NO production, which imply anti-inflammatory activity, in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells without cell toxicity. Decarine is the major anti-inflammatory constituent with NO IC50 values of 48.43 μM on RAW264.7 cells. The petroleum ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract and decarine showed anti-inflammatory activities through inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells without cell toxicity too. Decarine showed anti-inflammatory activity on human colon cells by reducing IL-6 and IL-8 production in TNF-α+IL-1β-induced Caco-2 cells. These results support the use of Maqian bark as a remedy for enteritis and colitis recorded by Dai medicine in China, and elucidate the major pharmacological compounds in Maqian bark.

  15. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activities of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark extracts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huan-li; Gan, Xiao-qing; Fan, Qing-fei; Yang, Jing-jing; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Hua-bin; Song, Qi-shi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 44 compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark, a traditional Dai herbal medicine, were identified by GC-MS. Major components included 3(2H)-benzofuranone, asarinin and (dimethoxymethyl)-3-methoxy-benzene. A total of 18 compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of Maqian bark by column chromatography and identified by chemical and spectral analyses. Rhoifoline B, zanthoxyline dimethoxy derivative, N-nortidine, nitidine, decarine are the major alkaloids. Both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant inhibition on NO production, which imply anti-inflammatory activity, in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells without cell toxicity. Decarine is the major anti-inflammatory constituent with NO IC50 values of 48.43 μM on RAW264.7 cells. The petroleum ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract and decarine showed anti-inflammatory activities through inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells without cell toxicity too. Decarine showed anti-inflammatory activity on human colon cells by reducing IL-6 and IL-8 production in TNF-α+IL-1β-induced Caco-2 cells. These results support the use of Maqian bark as a remedy for enteritis and colitis recorded by Dai medicine in China, and elucidate the major pharmacological compounds in Maqian bark. PMID:28383530

  16. Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from the bacterium Bacillus sp. and their nematicidal activities.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Liming; Jin, Hui; Lu, Dengxue; Yang, Xiaoyan; Pan, Le; Cui, Haiyan; He, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Hongdeng; Qin, Bo

    2015-10-01

    A strain SMrs28 was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a toxic plant Stellera chamaejasme and identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of morphological and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The crude extract of SMrs28 fermentation broth showed strong nematocidal activities in preliminary test. To define the active nematocidal metabolites of SMrs28, a novel compound (1), 4-oxabicyclo[3.2.2]nona-1(7), 5,8-triene, along with five known compounds (2-6), were isolated from the strain by various column chromatographic techniques and characterized on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Results of the in vitro nematicidal tests showed that the metabolites presented different levels of activity at certain exposure conditions. Compounds (1-3) displayed LC50 values of 904.12, 451.26, 232.98 µg/ml and 1594.0, 366.62, 206.38 µg/ml against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Ditylenchus destructor at 72 h, respectively. This is the first report of the nematicidal activity of the compounds as constituents of Bacillus sp.. Our findings help to find potential chemical structures to develop nematicides from microbial source for the management of nematode-infected plant diseases.

  17. Renoprotective chemical constituents from an edible mushroom, Pleurotus cornucopiae in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoung Rak; Lee, Dahae; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Noh, Hyung Jun; Jung, Kiwon; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2017-01-19

    Pleurotus cornucopiae (Pleurotaceae) is an edible and medicinal mushroom widely distributed in Korea, China, and Japan. The MeOH extract of the fruiting bodies of P. cornucopiae showed renoprotective effects against cisplatin-induced kidney cell damage. Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract led to the isolation and identification of 12 compounds including noransine (1), uridine (2), uracil (3), (3β, 5α, 6β, 22E, 24S) -ergosta-7, 22-diene-3, 5, 6, 9-tetrol (4), (22E,24S)-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5α,6β-triol (5), (22E,24R)-ergosta-8(14),22-diene-3β,5α,6β,7α-tetrol (6), cerebroside B (7), (2R) -N- [(1S, 2R, 3E, 7E) -1- [(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy) methyl] -2-hydroxy-8-methyl-3, 7-heptadecadien-1-yl] -2-hydroxy-heptadecanamide (8), cerebroside D (9), nicotinamide (10), 1,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-4,5-dimethoxybenzene (11), and benzoic acid (12). Among them, compounds 1 and 11 were isolated as naturally occurring products for the first time, though they were reported as synthetic products in previous papers. All of the compounds (except 8 and 11) abrogated cisplatin-induced LLC-PK1 cell damage in a dose-dependent manner. Of special note, compounds 2, 5, 6, and 12 ameliorated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity to 80% of the control value at 10μM. The protective effects of compounds 2, 5, 6, and 12 were mediated via the deactivation of JNK-caspase 3 apoptotic cascade. This study is the first to demonstrate that the chemical constituents of P. cornucopiae display renoprotective effects against anticancer drug-induced damage in kidney cells.

  18. Identification of the chemical constituents in aqueous extract of Zhi-Qiao and evaluation of its antidepressant effect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhou, Chao; Jia, Hongmei; Ma, Zhuo; Zou, Zhongmei

    2015-04-16

    The immature fruit of Citrus aurantium L. (Zhi-Qiao, ZQ) has been used as a traditional medicine in China. Our previous study has shown that ZQ decoction may contribute to the antidepressant-like action of Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San. However, there are no reports on the chemical constituents of ZQ aqueous extract or its anti-depression effects. Firstly, this research reported the on-line identification of the chemical constituents in the aqueous extract of ZQ by coupling ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). A total of 31 chemical constituents were identified in ZQ aqueous extract, including one tannic acid, five flavones, 13 flavanones, one limonoid, three coumarins, three cyclic peptides, and five polymethoxylated flavonoids. The antidepressant effect of ZQ aqueous extract was evaluated in vivo and the results indicated that the mice immobility time during the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test were significantly reduced with ZQ treatment. MTT assays showed both ZQ aqueous extract and its major constituents (naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, and nobiletin) had neuroprotective effect on corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. The in vivo and in vitro results suggest that ZQ has an antidepressant effect.

  19. Isolation and structural elucidation of chemical constituents from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia Linn.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Sattar, Fouzia A; Ahmad, Fayaz; Begum, Sabira

    2007-08-01

    The fruits of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. afforded a new constituent, morinaphthalenone (1), and three known constituents, scopoletin (2), 1, 3-dimethoxy-anthraquinone (3) and 1, 2-dihydroxy-anthraquinone (4). The structures of these isolated compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-NMR (COSY-45, HMQC, HMBC) techniques, as well as by comparison with published values.

  20. Effects of Particulate Matter and Its Chemical Constituents on Elderly Hospital Admissions Due to Circulatory and Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Tatiane Morais; Forti, Maria Cristina; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Nascimento, Felipe Parra; Junger, Washington Leite; Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Various fractions of particulate matter have been associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The purpose of our study is to analyze the associations between concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5–10, PM10 and their chemical constituents (soluble ions) with hospital admissions due to circulatory and respiratory diseases among the elderly in a medium-sized city in Brazil. A time series study was conducted using Poisson regression with generalized additive models adjusted for confounders. Statistically significant associations were identified between PM10 and PM2.5–10 and respiratory diseases. Risks of hospitalization increased by 23.5% (95% CI: 13.5; 34.3) and 12.8% (95% CI: 6.0; 20.0) per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5-10 and PM10, respectively. PM2.5 exhibited a significant association with circulatory system diseases, with the risk of hospitalization increasing by 19.6% (95% CI: 6.4; 34.6) per 10 μg/m3. Regarding the chemical species; SO42−, NO3−, NH4+ and K+ exhibited specific patterns of risk, relative to the investigated outcomes. Overall, SO42− in PM2.5–10 and K+ in PM2.5 were associated with increased risk of hospital admissions due to both types of diseases. The results agree with evidence indicating that the risks for different health outcomes vary in relation to the fractions and chemical composition of PM10. Thus, PM10 speciation studies may contribute to the establishment of more selective pollution control policies. PMID:27669280

  1. Chemical constituents: water-soluble vitamins, free amino acids and sugar profile from Ganoderma adspersum.

    PubMed

    Kıvrak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma adspersum presents a rigid fruiting body owing to chitin content and having a small quantity of water or moisture. The utility of bioactive constituent of the mushroom can only be available by extraction for human usage. In this study, carbohydrate, water-soluble vitamin compositions and amino acid contents were determined in G. adspersum mushroom. The composition in individual sugars was determined by HPLC-RID, mannitol (13.04 g/100 g) and trehalose (10.27 g/100 g) being the most abundant sugars. The examination of water-soluble vitamins and free amino acid composition was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Essential amino acid constituted 67.79% of total amino acid, which is well worth the attention with regard to researchers and consumers. In addition, G. adspersum, which is also significantly rich in B group vitamins and vitamin C, can provide a wide range of notable applications in the pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food and dietary supplement industries. G. adspersum revealed its value for pharmacy and nutrition fields.

  2. Additives initiate selective production of chemicals from biomass pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Leng, Shuai; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Huizhe; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Fengyun; Liu, Jingmei; Wang, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    To improve chemicals selectivity under low temperature, a new method that involves the injection of additives into biomass pyrolysis is introduced. This method allows biomass pyrolysis to achieve high selectivity to chemicals under low temperature (300°C), while nothing was obtained in typical pyrolysis under 300°C. However, by using the new method, the first liquid drop emerged at the interval between 140°C and 240°C. Adding methanol to mushroom scrap pyrolysis obtained high selectivity to acetic acid (98.33%), while adding ethyl acetate gained selectivity to methanol (65.77%) in bagasse pyrolysis and to acetone (72.51%) in corncob pyrolysis. Apart from basic chemicals, one high value-added chemical (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran) was also detected, which obtained the highest selectivity (10.33%) in corncob pyrolysis through the addition of ethyl acetate. Comparison of HZSM-5 and CaCO3 catalysis showed that benzene emerged in the liquid because of the larger degree of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation over HZSM-5.

  3. Chemical Constituents and Activity of Murraya microphylla Essential Oil against Lasioderma serricorne.

    PubMed

    You, Chun-Xue; Guo, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-09-01

    The chemical composition, contact and repellent activities of the essential oil from Murraya microphylla branches and leaves against Lasioderma serricorne adults were determined and six compounds from the essential oil were isolated as well. The essential oil of M microphylla obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis; 22 compounds were identified. The main constituents of the essential oil included β-caryophyllene (18.0%), α-pinene (13.8%), spathulenol (9.5%), α-humulene (6.0%), γ-elemene (5.1%) and zingiberene (4.6%), followed by α-cadinol (3.9%) and caryophyllene oxide (3.8%). Six of these compounds were isolated and fully identified as α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, caryophyllene oxide, spathulenol and α-cadinol. L. serricorne adults had different sensitivities to the crude essential oil and isolated compounds. α-Humulene exhibited the strongest contact activity against L. serricorne, showing an LD50 value of 13.1 µg adult(-1). However, spathulenol, the crude essential oil and α-cadinol showed stronger contact activity against L. serricorne than caryophyllene oxide and β-caryophyllene. The essential oil, α-humulene and spathulenol showed comparable repellency against L. serricorne adults at 2 h after exposure, relative to the positive control, DEET. The results demonstrate that the essential oil and isolated compounds exhibited important contact and repellent activities against L. serricorne. Thus, they could become potential natural insecticides or repellents for control of insects in stored products.

  4. Enhancement of nutritionally significant constituents of black currant seeds by chemical elicitor application.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gema; Ruiz del Castillo, María Luisa

    2016-03-01

    Black currant seeds are obtained as a residue during juice production. Black currant seed oil contains high amounts of nutritionally desirable constituents such as γ-linolenic acid (GLA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and stearidonic acid (SA), as well as certain phenolic acids, which act as natural antioxidants. Fatty acids and phenolic acids of seeds from black currant cultivars after elicitation with methyl jasmonate (MJ) were examined. GLA contents around 25% with respect to total fatty acid content were measured in seeds after pre-harvest treatment of black currants with 0.02mM MJ in 0.05% Tween-20. High GLA samples also exhibited high SA content (higher than 10% with respect to total fatty acid content); however, ALA dropped (from 16% to 10%). High GLA content seeds also showed increased contents of gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids. In particular, seeds from 0.02mM MJ treated Ben Hope black currants exerted contents of gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids of 201.4, 125.9, 201.3 and 112.5μgg(-1)vs 124.3, 58.6, 165.4 and 95.8μgg(-1) measured in seeds from untreated Ben Hope black currants. Comparable results were obtained for Ben Alder and Ben Gairn berries. Chemical elicitation with 0.02 MJ is proposed as an industrial practice in such a way that, after consideration of quality issues, it would be obtained high added value black currant seeds.

  5. Change in chemical constituents and free radical-scavenging activity during Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivar fruit development.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Eun Hee; Yun, Hae Rim; Jeong, Hang Yeon; Lee, Yu Geon; Kim, Wol-Soo; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Changes in chemical constituent contents and DPPH radical-scavenging activity in fruits of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivars during the development were investigated. The fruits of seven cultivars (cv. Niitaka, Chuhwangbae, Wonhwang, Hwangkeumbae, Hwasan, Manpungbae, and Imamuraaki) were collected at 15-day intervals after day 20 of florescence. Vitamins (ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol), arbutin, chlorogenic acid, malaxinic acid, total caffeic acid, total flavonoids, and total phenolics were the highest in immature pear fruit on day 20 after florescence among samples at different growth stages. All of these compounds decreased gradually in the fruit during the development. Immature pear fruit on day 35 or 50 after florescence exhibited higher free radical-scavenging activity than that at other times, although activities were slightly different among cultivars. The chemical constituent contents and free radical-scavenging activity were largely different among immature fruits of the pear cultivars, but small differences were observed when they matured.

  6. Long-term trend of chemical constituents in precipitation in Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, from 1990 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tomoaki; Iwase, Tamami; Ueda, Hideko; Suda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Shigeru; Dokiya, Yukiko; Fushimi, Katsuhiko; Hosoe, Morikazu

    2005-03-01

    In order to understand the actual status and mechanism of acid rain, it is important to know the pH of precipitation and its chemical constituents on a continuous and regular basis over a wide area. This study examines acid rain over a wide area using an observational network in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, and analyzes the major chemical constituents of every precipitation sample. Precipitation was collected continuously for a period of 12 years from June 1990 to May 2002 at several sampling sites in the Tokyo metropolitan area, and its pH and chemical constituent concentrations were measured. The average pH ranged from 4.23 to 4.62, clearly indicating acidification of precipitation over the entire Tokyo metropolitan area. A time-trend model was applied to describe temporal variations of chemical constituent concentrations, including annual change rate, seasonal variation, and precipitation effects. Seasonal and annual trends for the past 12 years were examined with the model, using the least squares method. Nonsea salt (nss)-Ca2+ shows a maximum value in early spring, a seasonality probably caused by calcium-rich particles in airborne yellow dust from Asia. Slightly decreasing annual trends of nss-SO4(2-) may correspond to the recent decreasing trend of atmospheric SO2 gas concentrations in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The annual trends of NO3-, NH4+, and nss-Ca2+ show a large site-to-site difference. The increasing NO3-, NH4+, and nss-Ca2+ concentrations at inland suburban sites may be caused by increases in their local sources such as vehicle traffic and municipal waste incineration. The annual change rate of H+ is slightly negative or almost zero at every site, so the acidification of precipitation has not become worse since 1990 over the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  7. Phytochemical investigation of Gynura bicolor leaves and cytotoxicity evaluation of the chemical constituents against HCT 116 cells.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wuen Yew; Tan, Hooi Poay; Ling, Sui Kiong; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Sim, Kae Shin

    2016-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) is a popular vegetable in Asia and believed to confer a wide range of benefits including anti-cancer. Our previous findings showed that the ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor possessed cytotoxicity and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). A combination of column chromatography had been used to purify chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate and water extract of G. bicolor leaves. Eight chemical constituents 5-p-trans-coumaroylquinic acid (I), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (II), rutin (III), kampferol-3-O-rutinoside (IV), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), kampferol-3-O-glucoside (VI), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) were isolated from G. bicolor grown in Malaysia. To our best knowledge, all chemical constituents were isolated for the first time from G. bicolor leaves except rutin (III). 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) demonstrated selective cytotoxicity (selective index>3) against HCT 116 cancer cells compared to CCD-18Co human normal colon cells.

  8. Blood Pressure Changes and Chemical Constituents of Particulate Air Pollution: Results from the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation (HVNR) Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Huang, Jing; Wang, Hongyi; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Qin, Yu; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Hao, Yu; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling

    2012-01-01

    Background: Elevated blood pressure (BP) has been associated with particulate matter (PM) air pollution, but associations with PM chemical constituents are still uncertain. Objectives: We investigated associations of BP with various chemical constituents of fine PM (PM2.5) during 460 repeated visits among a panel of 39 university students. Methods: Resting BP was measured using standardized methods before and after the university students relocated from a suburban campus to an urban campus with different air pollution contents in Beijing, China. Air pollution data were obtained from central monitors close to student residences. We used mixed-effects models to estimate associations of various PM2.5 constituents with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and pulse pressure. Results: An interquartile range increase of 51.2 μg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with a 1.08-mmHg (95% CI: 0.17, 1.99) increase in SBP and a 0.96-mmHg (95% CI: 0.31, 1.61) increase in DBP on the following day. A subset of PM2.5 constituents, including carbonaceous fractions (organic carbon and elemental carbon), ions (chloride and fluoride), and metals/metalloid elements (nickel, zinc, magnesium, lead, and arsenic), were found to have robust positive associations with different BP variables, though robust negative associations of manganese, chromium, and molybdenum with SBP or DBP also were observed. Conclusions: Our results support relationships between specific PM2.5 constituents and BP. These findings have potential implications for the development of pollution abatement strategies that maximize public health benefits. PMID:23086577

  9. Antioxidant activities of Lampaya medicinalis extracts and their main chemical constituents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) is a plant used by Aymara and Quechua ethnic groups from Northern Chile as folk medicine in the treatment and cure of various diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity, total phenols content, total flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and identify the principal chemical constituents. Methods The crude hydroethanolic extract (HEE) and its partitioned fraction: hexane (HF), dichloromethane (DF), ethyl acetate (EAF), n-butanol (BF) and soluble residual aqueous fraction (RWF) were evaluated for their antioxidant activity using different assays namely, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, β-carotene bleaching assay. The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were measured by Folin-Ciocalteau and by the AlCl3 colorimetric method, respectively. Reducing power was determined by phosphomolybdate and hexacyanoferrate (III) methods. Biotoxicity assays were performed on shrimps of Artemia salina. The EAF was fractionated using chromatographic methods. Results Considerable amount of phenolic and flavonoid contents were recorded in the hydroethanolic extract (HEE) and its derived fractions. Although HEE and all its derived fractions exhibited good antioxidant activities, the most distinguished radical scavenging potential was observed for ethyl acetate fraction (EAF). EAF showed the higher radical scavenging activity by DPPH (95%) and by ABTS (98%), antioxidant activity by FRAP (158.18 ± 5.79 mg equivalent Trolox/g fraction), β-carotene bleaching assay (86.8%), the highest total phenols content (101.26 ± 1.07 mg GAE/g fraction), the highest total flavonoids content (66.26 ± 3.31 μg quercetin/g fraction). The EAF extract showed an reducing power of 78% and 65% using the phosphomolybdate and hexacyanoferrate (III) assays, respectively. Four flavonoids, two p-hydroxyacetophenone derivatives and one iridoid were isolated from Lampaya

  10. Global identification and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicinal formula Qi-Fu-Yin by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-Ning; Dong, Xin; Gao, Wen; Liu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Rui; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2015-10-10

    Qi-Fu-Yin (QFY), a classical traditional Chinese medicine formula, is proven to have significant neuroprotective effects by modern pharmacological studies. However, the chemical constituents of QFY have not been fully explored. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) was developed for comprehensive analysis of chemical constituents in QFY. By using characteristic ions and fragmentation rules, a reliable identification of 156 compounds was described here, including 69 triterpene saponins, 23 oligosaccharide esters, 22 flavanoids, 9 alkaloids, 9 phenolic acids, 8 phthalides, 7 phenylethanoid glycosides, 3 xanthones, 3 sesquiterpene lactones, 2 ionones and 1 iridoid glycoside. Twenty-six major compounds were then determined in a single run by UHPLC coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (QQQ MS) with fast positive/negative polarity switching. It allows for the acquisition of MS data in both ionization modes from a single run. The proposed method was then validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision and recovery. The overall recoveries for 26 analytes ranged from 91.35% to 109.58%, with RSDs ranging from 0.82% to 4.83%. In addition, the content of 26 analytes in QFY prepared by five batches of herbal materials was also analyzed. These results demonstrated that our present method was effective and reliable for comprehensive quality evaluation of QFY. Meanwhile, the study might provide the chemical evidence for revealing the material basis of its therapeutic effects.

  11. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  12. Data for First Responder Use of Photoionization Detectors for Vapor Chemical Constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Keith A. Daum; Matthew G. Watrous; M. Dean Neptune; Daniel I. Michael; Kevin J. Hull; Joseph D. Evans

    2006-11-01

    First responders need appropriate measurement technologies for evaluating incident scenes. This report provides information about photoionization detectors (PIDs), obtained from manufacturers and independent laboratory tests, and the use of PIDs by first responders, obtained from incident commanders in the United States and Canada. PIDs are valued for their relatively low cost, light weight, rapid detection response, and ease of use. However, it is clear that further efforts are needed to provide suitable instruments and decision tools to incident commanders and first responders for assessing potential hazardous chemical releases. Information provided in this report indicates that PIDs should always be part of a decision-making context in which other qualitative and more definitive tests and instruments are used to confirm a finding. Possible amelioratory actions ranging from quick and relatively easy fixes to those requiring significant additional effort are outlined in the report.

  13. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1989-04-30

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativeities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation. Reaction of ethylene with syngas is used as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of metal catalysts. During the sixth quarter of the project, the mechanism of CO insertion on Ni/SiO{sub 2} was investigated by in-situ infrared spectroscopy. Ni/SiO{sub 2}, a methanation catalyst, has been shown to exhibit CO insertion activity. In situ infrared studies of CO/H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reactions show that the carbonylation of Ni/SiO{sub 2} to Ni(CO){sub 4} leads to an inhibition of methanation in CO hydrogenation but an enhancement of formation of propionaldehyde in C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reaction. The results suggest that the sites for propionaldehyde formation is different from those for methanation.

  14. Chemical weather in Arctic spring 2011: WACCM-GEOS5 data analysis of Aura temperature and constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudin, V. A.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.; Tilmes, S.; Vitt, F.

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents analysis of Aura observations of temperature, ozone and other related constituents in the WACCM chemistry-climate model driven by GEOS-5.1/5.2 meteorological fields. The results of multi-year spring (2005-2011) Arctic simulations are compared with the severe ozone depletion during March-April of 2011. The OMI and MLS ozone data were assimilated and chemical analysis results were evaluated against FTIR, ozonesondes and other independent observations of constituents. The analysis of limb-viewing temperature and ozone data (such as MLS and HIRDLS) highlights a value of space-borne observations with adequate vertical resolutions to examine and predict positions of layers of severe ozone depletion in polar regions.

  15. Melastoma malabathricum (L.) Smith Ethnomedicinal Uses, Chemical Constituents, and Pharmacological Properties: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Joffry, S. Mohd.; Yob, N. J.; Rofiee, M. S.; Affandi, M. M. R. Meor Mohd.; Suhaili, Z.; Othman, F.; Akim, A. Md.; Desa, M. N. M.; Zakaria, Z. A.

    2012-01-01

    Melastoma malabathricum L. (Melastomataceae) is one of the 22 species found in the Southeast Asian region, including Malaysia. Considered as native to tropical and temperate Asia and the Pacific Islands, this commonly found small shrub has gained herbal status in the Malay folklore belief as well as the Indian, Chinese, and Indonesian folk medicines. Ethnopharmacologically, the leaves, shoots, barks, seeds, and roots of M. malabathricum have been used to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, hemorrhoids, cuts and wounds, toothache, and stomachache. Scientific findings also revealed the wide pharmacological actions of various parts of M. malabthricum, such as antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antidiarrheal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. Various types of phytochemical constituents have also been isolated and identifed from different parts of M. malabathricum. Thus, the aim of the present review is to present comprehensive information on ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of M. malabathricum. PMID:22242040

  16. Chemical constituents of Malagasy liverworts, part III: sesquiterpenoids from Bazzania decrescens and Bazzania madagassa.

    PubMed

    Harinantenaina, Liva; Kurata, Ritsu; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2005-05-01

    In the continuation of our investigation of the phytochemical constituents of Malagasy liverworts, a new cuparane-type sesquiterpenoid together with five known compounds was isolated from Bazzania decresens. Bazzania madagassa furnished a new cyclomyltaylane-type sesquiterpenoid and a new acoradienol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined based on a combination of physical and spectroscopic evidence. The chemosystematics of the genus Bazzania as well as the biogenesis of cyclomyltaylane sesquiterpenoids in liverworts is discussed.

  17. Concentrations and annual fluxes of sediment-associated chemical constituents from conterminous US coastal rivers using bed sediment data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Elrick, Kent A.; Smith, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal rivers represent a significant pathway for the delivery of natural and anthropogenic sediment-associated chemical constituents to the Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the conterminous USA. This study entails an accounting segment using published average annual suspended sediment fluxes with published sediment-associated chemical constituent concentrations for (1) baseline, (2) land-use distributions, (3) population density, and (4) worldwide means to estimate concentrations/annual fluxes for trace/major elements and total phosphorus, total organic and inorganic carbon, total nitrogen, and sulphur, for 131 coastal river basins. In addition, it entails a sampling and subsequent chemical analysis segment that provides a level of ‘ground truth’ for the calculated values, as well as generating baselines for sediment-associated concentrations/fluxes against which future changes can be evaluated. Currently, between 260 and 270 Mt of suspended sediment are discharged annually from the conterminous USA; about 69% is discharged from Gulf rivers (n = 36), about 24% from Pacific rivers (n = 42), and about 7% from Atlantic rivers (n = 54). Elevated sediment-associated chemical concentrations relative to baseline levels occur in the reverse order of sediment discharges:Atlantic rivers (49%)>Pacific rivers (40%)>Gulf rivers (23%). Elevated trace element concentrations (e.g. Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) frequently occur in association with present/former industrial areas and/or urban centres, particularly along the northeast Atlantic coast. Elevated carbon and nutrient concentrations occur along both the Atlantic and Gulf coasts but are dominated by rivers in the urban northeast and by southeastern and Gulf coast (Florida) ‘blackwater’ streams. Elevated Ca, Mg, K, and Na distributions tend to reflect local petrology, whereas elevated Ti, S, Fe, and Al concentrations are ubiquitous, possibly because they have substantial natural as well as anthropogenic sources

  18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis on chemical constituents from Curculigo orchioides using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Yongjing; Dong, Xin; Jia, Xiaoxuan; Li, Mei; Yuan, Tingting; Xu, Hongtao; Qin, Luping; Han, Ting; Zhang, Qiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    A rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS) method was developed for qualitative and quantitative determination of constituents in the rhizome of Curculigo orchioides. Qualitative analysis was performed on a Waters ACQUITY UHPLC @ HSS T3 column (1.8 μm 100 × 2.1mm) using gradient elution with mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. Quantitative analysis was performed on an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse plus C18 column (1.7 μm 100 × 2.1mm) using gradient elution with mobile phase of 0.1% acetic acid and acetonitrile for at least 20 min. Quadrupole TOF/MS in either full scan mode or extracted ion mode was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the constituents. According to the mass spectrometric fragmentation mechanism and UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS data, chemical structures of 45 constituents in the rhizome of Curculigo orchioides, including 19 phenols and phenolic glycosides, 16 lignans and lignan glycosides, 8 triterpenoid saponins, one flavone and one sesquiterpene, were identified tentatively on-line without the time-consuming process of isolation. In addition, 8 phenolic glycosides including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), 2-hydroxy-5-(2-hydroxyethyl) phenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (HPG), anacardoside (ACD), orcinol glucoside (OGD), orcinol-1-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (OAG), 2,6-dimethoxybenzoic acid (DBA), curculigoside (CUR) and curculigine A (CCL) were quantitated in 11 collected samples and 10 commercial samples from different providers. The results show that UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS is a viable method for analysis and quality evaluation of the constituents from the rhizome of Curculigo orchioides.

  19. Association between airborne PM2.5 chemical constituents and birth weight—implication of buffer exposure assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen; Bell, Michelle L.

    2014-08-01

    Several papers reported associations between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and birth weight, though findings are inconsistent across studies. Conflicting results might be due to (1) different PM2.5 chemical structure across locations, and (2) various exposure assignment methods across studies even among the studies that use ambient monitors to assess exposure. We investigated associations between birth weight and PM2.5 chemical constituents, considering issues arising from choice of buffer size (i.e. distance between residence and pollution monitor). We estimated the association between each pollutant and term birth weight applying buffers of 5 to 30 km in Connecticut (2000-2006), in the New England region of the USA. We also investigated the implication of the choice of buffer size in relation to population characteristics, such as socioeconomic status. Results indicate that some PM2.5 chemical constituents, such as nitrate, are associated with lower birth weight and appear more harmful than other constituents. However, associations vary with buffer size and the implications of different buffer sizes may differ by pollutant. A homogeneous pollutant level within a certain distance is a common assumption in many environmental epidemiology studies, but the validity of this assumption may vary by pollutant. Furthermore, we found that areas close to monitors reflect more minority and lower socio-economic populations, which implies that different exposure approaches may result in different types of study populations. Our findings demonstrate that choosing an exposure method involves key tradeoffs of the impacts of exposure misclassification, sample size, and population characteristics.

  20. Effect of MoO3 constituents on the growth of MoS2 nanosheets by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Yong Ping; Qian Chen, Zhi

    2016-06-01

    The highly crystalline and uniform MoS2 film was grown on Si substrate by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition method using S and MoO3 as precursors at an elevated temperature. The structures and properties of MoS2 nanosheets vary greatly with the content of MoO3 constituents in the films. The nanostructured MoS2 film exhibits strong photoluminescence in the visible range. This work may provide a pathway to synthesizing MoS2 nanosheets and facilitate the development of applicable devices.

  1. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Senecio aegyptius var. discoideus Boiss.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Wafaa; Al-Gendy, Amal; Al-Youssef, Hanan; El-Shazely, Assem

    2012-01-01

    A new eremophilane sesquiterpene, 1-beta-hydroxy-8-oxoeremophila-7,9-dien-12-oic acid (1), in addition to two known flavonol glycosides, rutin (2) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside-7-O-rutinoside (3), was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from the aqueous alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Senecio aegyptius var. discoideus Boiss. (family Asteraceae). The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were established by 1D and 2D NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY, HMQC, HMBC), MS and UV data, and through comparison with the literature. The ethyl acetate fraction and the isolated rutin showed significant cytotoxic activity against colorectal carcinoma (HCT 116) and to less extent against brain (U 251) and breast carcinoma (MCF 7). The ethyl acetate fraction showed a significant level of activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, while the total extract showed the best antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was significant (96.7%) when compared to ascorbic acid. It also showed anti-inflammatory activity but no diuretic effect.

  2. Antinociceptive activity and chemical composition of constituents from Caragana microphylla seeds.

    PubMed

    Huo, Y; Guo, C; Zhang, Q-Y; Chen, W-S; Zheng, H-C; Rahman, K; Qin, L-P

    2007-02-01

    This investigation was undertaken to ascertain the antinociceptive activity of Caragana microphylla Lam. seeds and isolate and characterize the constituents. Antinociceptive activity was screened using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction in ICR mice. The 75% ethanol extract and some fractions showed analgesic activity, but the antinociceptive activity of chloroform fraction was the strongest and was more productive than other fractions. Seven compounds were isolated from it and identified as: (1) machaeric acid, (2) beta-sitosterol, (3) stigmasterol, (4) pratol, (5) dehydrocavidine, (6) formononetin and (7) sucrose. Caragana microphylla Lam. seeds showed analgesic activity, with the chloroform fraction showing the strongest analgesic activity among the fractions.

  3. [Biological activity tests of chemical constituents from two Brazilian Labiatae plants].

    PubMed

    Isobe, Takahiko; Doe, Matsumi; Morimoto, Yoshiki; Nagata, Kumiko; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Ohsaki, Ayumi

    2007-02-01

    We studied the bioactivities of constituents from two tropical medicinal plants, Cunila spicata and Hyptis fasciculata. These plants found in Brazil belong to the Labiatae family. Four known compounds obtained from these herbs were identified as 3alpha, 24-dihydoxylurs-12-en-28-oic acid, betulinic acid, aurantiamide acetate, and aurantiamide benzoate by spectroscopic means. 3alpha, 24-Dihydoxylurs-12-en-28-oic acid has potent inhibitory activity against Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Porphyromomas gingivalis. Aurantiamide benzoate exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase. It was clarified that herbs Cunila spicata and Hyptis fasciculata are effective against bronchitis and gout.

  4. NMR characterization of cellulose acetate: chemical shift assignments, substituent effects, and chemical shift additivity.

    PubMed

    Kono, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Hisaho; Shimizu, Yuuichi

    2015-03-15

    A series of cellulose acetates (CA) with degrees of substitution (DS) ranging from 2.92-0.92 dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-d6 and cellulose dissolved in tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF)/DMSO-d6 were investigated by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The NMR spectroscopic analysis allowed the determination of the (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts of the eight anhydroglucose units (AGUs) that contain CA: 2,3,6-tri-, 2,3-di-, 2,6-di-, 3,6-di-, 2-mono-, 3-mono-, 6-mono-, and unacetylated AGUs. A comparative analysis of the chemical shift data revealed the substituent effect of acetyl groups at the 2-, 3-, and 6-positions on the (1)H and (13)C nuclei in the same AGU. In addition, chemical shift additivity could be applied to the (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts of CA because the chemical shifts of the diacetylated and triacetylated AGUs could be almost completely explained by the acetyl substituent effects at the 2-, 3-, and 6-positions.

  5. Efficiency of a stormwater detention pond in reducing loads of chemical and physical constituents in urban streamflow, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrowitz, I.H.; Woodham, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    A multipurpose wet stormwater detention pond in Pinellas Park, Florida was studied to determine its effectiveness in reducing the load of selected water-quality constituents commonly found in urban streamflow. Water-quality samples, and data on streamflow and precipitation were collected at the outflow and principal inflow of detention area 3 on Saint Joe Creek. To compare the constituent loads entering and leaving the detention pond, flows and water quality were monitored simultaneously at the inflow and outflow sites for six storms, and were monitored intermittently during periods of base flow. Lodas od 19 selected chemical and physical constituents were determined. Because all the stormwater entering the detention pond was not measured at the inflow site, computed stormwater inflow loads were adjusted to account for loads from the unmonitored areas. The ratio of storm- water volume measured at the outflow site to stormwater volume measured at the inflow site was used to adjust inflow loads for individual storms. Pond efficiencies for selected water- quality constituents for each of the storms were estimated by dividing the difference in outflow and adjusted inflow loads by the adjusted inflow load. Stormwater loads of the major ions (chloride, calcium and bicarbonate) and dissolved solids at the outflow site exceeded loads at the inflow site, partly as a result of mixing with base flow stored within the pond. However, the detention pond was effective in reducing the stormwater load of such urban-runoff contaminants as metals, nutrients, suspended solids, and biochemical and chemical oxygen demand. Estimated median pond efficiencies for reducing constituent loads ranged from 25 to more than 60 percent for metals, 2 to 52 percent for nutrients, 2 to 52 percent for nutrients, 7 to 11 percent for two measurements of suspended solids, and 16 to 49 percent for the oxygen- consuming substances. The reductions of constituent loads in stormwater are probably a result of

  6. Chemical constituents and activities of the essential oil from Myristica fragrans against cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne.

    PubMed

    Du, Shu-Shan; Yang, Kai; Wang, Cheng-Fang; You, Chun-Xue; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Guo, Shan-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Zhi-Long

    2014-09-01

    Essential oil extracted from nutmeg seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) by hydrodistillation was subjected to GC/MS and GC analysis. A total of 27 constituents were identified, of which eugenol (19.9%), methylisoeugenol (16.8%), methyleugenol (16.7%), sabinene (11.8%), and terpinen-4-ol (8.5%) were the major components. The essential oil was tested against Lasioderma serricorne for insecticidal and repellent activity, the LD50 value at the end of 24 h exposure period was 19.3 μg/adult. Six active compounds were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. They were identified as eugenol (1), methyleugenol (2), methylisoeugenol (3), elemicin (4), myristicin (5), and safrole (6). Among these isolates, 4 showed the strongest contact toxicity against L. serricorne adults with an LD50 value of 9.8 μg/adult. Repellency of crude oil and active compounds were also determined. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 were strongly repellent against the cigarette beetle and exhibited the same level of repellency compared with the positive control, DEET. The results indicate that the essential oil of M. fragrans and its active constituents have potential for development as natural insecticides and repellents to control L. serricorne.

  7. AFCATT (Anti-Fouling Chemical Additive Test Tower)

    SciTech Connect

    Philpot, E.F.; Newton, M.T.; Noble, R.T.

    1995-06-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) film-type cellular fill is the fill of choice in replacing cement asbestos board fill in existing cooling towers and in new cooling towers because of its high thermal performance, ease of installation, and low initial cost. However, PVC fill has been found to foul quickly with biological and sediment material, significantly reducing tower performance and the fill`s useful life. The Anti-Fouling Chemical Additives Test Tower (AFCATT) has been build to study accumulation rates of fouling deposits in corrugated PVC film fill and to study methods of cleaning and preventing the fouling deposits. This small mechanical draft cooling tower is located next to the Unit 4 natural draft cooling tower at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Bowen. The once-through mechanical draft tower receives hot water from the condenser and returns the cold water to the basin of the host tower. The pilot tower is divided into four chambers allowing for three different treatment programs and one control to be run simultaneously. PVC fill packs are suspended from load cells to allow the weight of the fill packs to be measured continuously. Six vendors participated in the summer 1993 test program. Each proposed different methods of cleaning the fouled fill and were given the opportunity to try their proposed method of fill cleaning. To determine the success of these different treatment programs, statistical analyses were performed on the collected data and the changes in the accumulation rates compared.

  8. A survey of chemical constituents in National Fish Hatchery fish feed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, Alec G.; Gannam, Ann; Davis, Jay

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that various fish feeds contain significant concentrations of contaminants, many of which can bioaccumulate and bioconcentrate in fish. It appears that numerous organochlorine (OC) contaminants are present in the fish oils and fish meals used in feed manufacture, and some researchers speculate that all fish feeds contain measurable levels of some contaminants. To determine the presence and concentration of contaminants in feeds used in National Fish Hatcheries managed by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, we systematically collected samples of feed from 11 hatcheries that raise cold-water species, and analyzed them for a suite of chemical contaminants. All of the samples (collected from October 2001 to October 2003) contained measurable concentrations of at least one dioxin, furan, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, or dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite. All samples which were assayed for all contaminants contained one or more of those classes of compounds and most contained more than one; dioxin was detected in 39 of the 55 samples for which it was assayed, 24 of 55 contained furans and 24 of 55 samples contained DDT or its metabolites. There with 10- to 150-fold differences in the range in concentrations of the additive totals for PCBs, dioxins, furans and DDT. Although PCBs were the most commonly detected contaminant in our study (all samples in which it was assayed), the concentrations (range: 0.07 to 10.46 ng g·1 wet weight) were low compared to those reported previously. In general, we also found lower levels of organochlorine contaminants than have been reported previously in fish feed. Perhaps most notable is the near absence of OC pesticides~xcept for DDT (and its metabolites) and just two samples containing benzene hexachloride (Lindane). While contaminant concentrations were generally low, the ecological impacts can not be determined without a measure of the bioaccumulation of these compounds in the

  9. Developmental patterns of jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) plant and the chemical constituents of roots grown in Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M V; Warid, W A; Loaiza, J M; Montiel, A

    1997-01-01

    The developmental pattern of jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) was studied by sampling plants aged 20 to 36 weeks at weekly intervals. There was an increase in all characteristics of foliage: fresh and dry weight, number of leaves per plant, main stem length, number of leaves, nodes and internodes of the main stem; and in all root characteristics: fresh and dry weight, diameter and length. The chemical analysis was determined for roots at different plant ages. The range values for dry matter were 16.19-22.28%, protein 1.11-1.62%, fat 0.553-0.867%, crude fiber 0.3048-0.3943%, and ash 0.669-1.089%. The chemical constituents fluctuated with age but without specific trends. These values are considered the first record of roots produced by plants grown in Mexico.

  10. Chemical constituents of ambient particulate air pollution and biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and homocysteine in healthy adults: A prospective panel study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ambient air pollution has been associated with activation of systemic inflammation and hypercoagulability and increased plasma homocysteine, but the chemical constituents behind the association are not well understood. We examined the relations of various chemical constituents of fine particles (PM2.5) and biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and homocysteine in the context of traffic-related air pollution. Methods A panel of 40 healthy college students underwent biweekly blood collection for 12 times before and after their relocation from a suburban campus to an urban campus with changing air pollution contents in Beijing. Blood samples were measured for circulatory biomarkers of high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), von Willebrand factor (vWF), soluble platelet selectin (sP-selectin), and total homocysteine (tHcy). Various air pollutants were measured in a central air-monitoring station in each campus and 32 PM2.5 chemical constituents were determined in the laboratory. We used three different mixed-effects models (single-constituent model, constituent-PM2.5 joint model and constituent residual model) controlling for potential confounders to estimate the effects of PM2.5 chemical constituents on circulatory biomarkers. Results We found consistent positive associations between the following biomarkers and PM2.5 chemical constituents across different models: TNF-α with secondary organic carbon, chloride, zinc, molybdenum and stannum; fibrinogen with magnesium, iron, titanium, cobalt and cadmium; PAI-1 with titanium, cobalt and manganese; t-PA with cadmium and selenium; vWF with aluminum. We also found consistent inverse associations of vWF with nitrate, chloride and sodium, and sP-selectin with manganese. Two positive associations of zinc with TNF-α and of cobalt with fibrinogen, and two inverse

  11. Isolation, Cytotoxicity Evaluation and HPLC-Quantification of the Chemical Constituents from Prangos pabularia

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Saleem; Shakeel-u-Rehman; Dangroo, Nisar Ahmad; Priya, Dev; Banday, Javid Ahmad; Sangwan, Pyare Lal; Qurishi, Mushtaq Ahmad; Koul, Surrinder; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the dichloromethane:methanol (1∶1) extract of root parts of Prangos pabularia led to the isolation of twelve cytotoxic constituents, viz., 6-hydroxycoumarin (1), 7-hydroxycoumarin (2), heraclenol-glycoside (3), xanthotoxol (4), heraclenol (5), oxypeucedanin hydrate (6), 8-((3,3-dimethyloxiran-2-yl)methyl)-7-methoxy-2H-chromen-2-one (7), oxypeucedanin hydrate monoacetate (8), xanthotoxin (9), 4-((2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl)oxy)-7H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-7-one (10), imperatorin (11) and osthol (12). The isolates were identified using spectral techniques in the light of literature. 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity screening of the isolated constituents was carried out against six human cancer cell lines including lung (A549 and NCI-H322), epidermoid carcinoma (A431), melanoma (A375), prostate (PC-3) and Colon (HCT-116) cell lines. Osthol (12) exhibited the highest cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 3.2, 6.2, 10.9, 14.5, 24.8, and 30.2 µM against epidermoid carcinoma (A431), melanoma (A375), lung (NCI-H322), lung (A549), prostate (PC-3) and colon (HCT-116) cell lines respectively. Epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431 was sensitive to most of the compounds followed by lung (A549) cancer cell line. Finally a simple and reliable HPLC method was developed (RP-HPLC-DAD) and validated for the simultaneous quantification of these cytotoxic constituents in Prangos pabularia. The extract was analyzed using a reversed-phase Agilent ZORBAX eclipse plus column C18 (4.6×250 mm, 5 µm) at 250 nm wavelength using a gradient water-methanol solvent system at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. The RP-HPLC method is validated in terms of recovery, linearity, accuracy and precision (intra and inter-day validation). This method, because of shorter analysis time, makes it valuable for the commercial quality control of Prangos pabularia extracts and its future pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:25314269

  12. Chemical constituents derived from Artocarpus xanthocarpus as inhibitors of melanin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yu-Jing; Lin, Cha-Chi; Lu, Tzy-Ming; Li, Jih-Heng; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Ko, Horng-Huey

    2015-09-01

    Twenty-four compounds, including the previously unknown artoxanthocarpuone A, artoxanthocarpuone B, hydroxylakoochin A, methoxylakoochin A, epoxylakoochin A, and artoxanthol, were isolated and characterized spectroscopically. Among them, artoxanthol is stilbene oligomer presumably constructed in a 5,11,12-triphenyl hexahydrochrysene scaffold by a Diels-Alder type of reaction, for which a biosynthetic pathway is proposed. Artoxanthol, alboctalol, steppogenin, norartocarpetin, resveratrol, oxyresveratrol, and chlorophorin potently inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity with IC50 values from 0.9 to 5.7 μM that were all far stronger than the positive controls. Artoxanthocarpuone A, artoxanthocarpuone B, methoxylakoochin A, lakoochin A, cudraflavone C, artonin A, resveratrol, and chlorophorin reduced tyrosinase activity and inhibited α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells without affecting cell proliferation. Collectively, the results suggest that the constituents of Artocarpus xanthocarpus have potential to be used as depigmentation agents.

  13. Chemical constituents, antioxidant and antimocrobial activity of essential oil of Pogostemon paniculatus (Willd.).

    PubMed

    Manoj, Godbole; Manohar, Shiragambi Hanumantagouda; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil extracted from the leaves of Pogostemon paniculatus (Willd.) Benth. (Lamiaceae), was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nineteen compounds constituting 85.36% of the total oil were identified in the oil. Patchouli alcohol (30.65%), α-guaiene (10.67%), β-guaiene (9.09%), caryophyllene (8.64%), eicosene (5.27%) were the major constituents present. The essential oil was analysed for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibition concentration against six bacteria and three fungi. Results showed inhibitory activity against some of the tested microorganisms. The essential oil was also tested for the DPPH free-radical scavenging activity and had an inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value of 18.5 µg mL(-1).

  14. Hematite Surface Activation by Chemical Addition of Tin Oxide Layer.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Waldemir M; Souza, Flavio L

    2016-09-05

    In this study, the effect of tin (Sn(4+) ) modification on the surface of hematite electrodes synthesized by an aqueous solution route at different times (2, 5, 10, 18, and 24 h) is investigated. As confirmed from X-ray diffraction results, the as-synthesized electrode exhibits an oxyhydroxide phase, which is converted into a pure hematite phase after being subjected to additional thermal treatment at 750 °C for 30 min. The tin-modified hematite electrode is prepared by depositing a solution of Sn(4+) precursor on the as-synthesized electrode, followed by thermal treatment under the same abovementioned conditions. This modification results in an enhancement of the photocurrent response for all hematite electrodes investigated and attains the highest values of around 1.62 and 2.3 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 and 1.4 V versus RHE, respectively, for electrodes obtained in short synthesis times (2 h). Contact angle measurements suggest that the deposition of Sn(4+) on the hematite electrode provides a more hydrophilic surface, which favors a chemical reaction at the interface between the electrode and electrolyte. This result generates new perspectives for understanding the deposition of Sn(4+) on the hematite electrode surface, which is in contrast with several studies previously reported; these studies state that the enhancement in photocurrent density is related to either the induction of an increased donor charge density or shift in the flat-band potential, which favors charge separation.

  15. Study on the effects of sulfur fumigation on chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Hang-ju.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan; Hao, Li-Juan; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Xian; Song, Xiao-mei

    2014-04-15

    The traditional after-harvesting drying method of C. morifolium cv. Hang-ju (HJ) is sun drying, but recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used as a cheap and convenient method. However, the effects of sulfur fumigation on chemical constituents and potential activities of HJ were unknown. A comprehensively comparison of the chemical profiles between non-fumigated HJ (NHJ) and sulfur-fumigated HJ (SHJ) was conducted by HPLC fingerprints analysis and the discrepant peaks were identified or tentatively assigned by HPLC-ESI/MS(n). Dramatic chemical changes were found that the contents of 4 flavonoid aglycones remarkably increased while those of 7 glycosides significantly reduced which suggested that sulfur-fumigation induced flavonoid glycosides transformed into aglycons by hydrolysis reaction. A significant loss of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids showed the sulfur fumigation was a destructive effect on HJ. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to rapidly discriminate NHJ and SHJ samples. By ICP-OES analysis, it was found that the residue of sulfur of SHJ were three times higher than NHJ (p<0.05). The antioxidant activity of NHJ and SHJ were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assay, and the results showed that NHJ had much stronger antioxidant activities than SCF (p<0.05). Combining the results of chemical analysis, residue of sulfur and pharmacological evaluation, it showed that the sulfur fumigation was a destructive effect on HJ.

  16. Chemical and biological analyses of the essential oils and main constituents of Piper species.

    PubMed

    Moura do Carmo, Dominique F; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; Machado, Gérzia M C; Leon, Leonor Laura; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de Andrade

    2012-02-13

    The essential oils obtained from leaves of Piper duckei and Piper demeraranum by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main constituents found in P. demeraranum oil were limonene (19.3%) and β-elemene (33.1%) and in P. duckei oil the major components found were germacrene D (14.7%) and trans-caryophyllene (27.1%). P. demeraranum and P. duckei oils exhibited biological activity, with IC(50) values between 15 to 76 μg mL(-1) against two Leishmania species, P. duckei oil being the most active. The cytotoxicity of the essential oils on mice peritoneal macrophage cells was insignificant, compared with the toxicity of pentamidine. The main mono- and sesquiterpene, limonene (IC(50) = 278 μM) and caryophyllene (IC(50) = 96 μM), were tested against the strains of Leishmania amazonensis, and the IC(50) values of these compounds were lower than those found for the essential oils of the Piper species. The HET-CAM test was used to evaluate the irritation potential of these oils as topical products, showing that these oils can be used as auxiliary medication in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, with less side effects and lower costs.

  17. Chemical constituents from the rhizomes of Smilax glabra and their antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuo; Shang, Ming-Ying; Liu, Guang-Xue; Xu, Feng; Wang, Xuan; Shou, Cheng-Chao; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2013-05-08

    Six new phenolic compounds, named smiglabrone A (1), smiglabrone B (2), smilachromanone (3), smiglastilbene (4), smiglactone (5), smiglabrol (6), together with fifty-seven known ones 7-63 were isolated from the rhizomes of Smilax glabra. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, as well as by comparison with literature data. Twenty-seven of these compounds were obtained from and identified in the genus Smilax for the first time. The absolute configuration of (2S)-1,2-O-di-trans-p-coumaroylglycerol (43) was determined for the first time using the exciton-coupled circular dichroism (ECCD) method. Thirty isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against three Gram-negative bacteria, three Gram-positive bacteria and one fungus, and the corresponding structure-activity relationships were also discussed. Eighteen compounds were found to be antimicrobial against the microorganisms tested and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were in the range of 0.0794-3.09 mM. Among them, compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity against Canidia albicans with MIC value of 0.146 mM, which was stronger than cinchonain Ia with an MIC of 0.332 mM. Compounds 3 and 4 exhibited inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 0.303 and 0.205 mM, respectively. The results indicated that these antimicrobial constituents of this crude drug might be responsible for its clinical antimicrobial effect.

  18. Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-02-01

    Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Edgeworthia chrysantha and its effective chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Jia; Jin, Hui-Zi; Xu, Wen-Zheng; Chen, Ming; Liu, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Wei; Su, Juan; Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2008-09-01

    The barks and roots of Edgeworthia chrysantha LINDL., which have been used as the folk medicine "Zhu shima" in southern China due to their detumescence and acesodyne effects, were investigated for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities using a xylene-induced ear edema assay in mice and Freund's complete adjuvant-induced paw edema as inflammation models, and the acetic acid-induced writhing test as an analgesic model. Fractions effective in terms of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities were obtained from E. chrysantha. The chloroform-soluble fraction (CHF) showed significant anti-inflammatory (p<0.01-0.001) and analgesic (p<0.01) effects. On further purification by silica gel, three major coumarins, edgeworin (EdN), edgeworosides A and C (EdeA and EdeC), were isolated from the chloroform fraction and both anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities were evaluated. EdN and EdeA had anti-inflammatory (p<0.05-0.01) and analgesic (p<0.001) effects, while EdeC only showed an analgesic effect. The results of this study thus demonstrated that the coumarins EdN, EdeA and EdeC in this plant may be active constituents that contribute to the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.

  20. Chemical constituents and antiproliferative effects of cultured Mougeotia nummuloides and Spirulina major against cancerous cell lines.

    PubMed

    Erenler, Ramazan; Pabuccu, Koksal; Yaglioglu, Ayse Sahin; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Gul, Fatih

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effect of Mougeotia nummuloides and Spirulina major on Vero cells (African green monkey kidney), C6 cells (rat brain tumor cells) and HeLa cells (human uterus carcinoma) was investigated in vitro. The antiproliferative effect of the methanol extract of M. nummuloides and S. major compared with 5-fluorourasil (5-FU) and cisplatin was tested at various concentrations using the BrdU Cell Proliferation ELISA. Both M. nummuloides and S. major extracts significantly inhibited the proliferation of Vero, HeLa and C6 cancer cell lines with IC50 and IC75 values. The M. nummuloides extract exhibited higher activity than 5-FU and cisplatin on Vero and C6 cells at high concentrations. The S. major extract revealed better antifproliferative activity than standards against Vero cells at 500 μg/mL. The compounds of methanol extracts were determined by GC-MS after the silylation process. Trehalose, monostearin and 1-monopalmitin were detected as major products in the M. nummuloides extract where as in the S. major extract; monostearin, 1-monopalmitin and hexyl alcohol were the main constituents.

  1. Auto-digital gain balancing: a new detection scheme for high-speed chemical species tomography of minor constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Sandip; McCann, Hugh

    2011-11-01

    In many dynamic gas-phase reaction processes, there is great interest to measure the distribution of minor constituents, i.e. <10-3 by volume (1000 ppm). One such case is the after-treatment of automotive gasoline engine exhaust by catalytic conversion, where a characteristic challenge is to image the distribution of 10 ppm (average) of carbon monoxide (CO) at 1000 frames per second across a 50 mm diameter exhaust pipe; this particular problem has been pursued as a case study. In this paper, we present a novel electronic scheme that achieves the required measurement of around 10-3 absorption with 10-4 precision at kHz bandwidth. This was not previously achievable with any known technology. We call the new scheme Auto-Digital Gain Balancing. It is amenable to replication for many simultaneous measurement channels, and it permits simultaneous measurement of multiple species, in some circumstances. Experimental demonstrations are presented in the near-infrared. In single scans of a tunable diode laser, measurements of both CO and CO2 have been made with 20 dB signal-to-noise ratio at peak absorption. This work paves the way for chemical species tomography of minor constituents in many dynamic gas-phase systems.

  2. 15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals. 714.3 Section 714.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade... COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals. (a)...

  3. Chemical constituents of Swertia longifolia Boiss. with α-amylase inhibitory activity

    PubMed Central

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Ara, Leila; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Read, Roger W.; Arshadi, Sattar; Nikan, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    α-Amylase inhibitors play a critical role in the control of diabetes and many of medicinal plants have been found to act as α-amylase inhibitors. Swertia genus, belonging to the family Gentianaceae, comprises different species most of which have been used in traditional medicine of several cultures as antidiabetic, anti-pyretic, analgesic, liver and gastrointestinal tonic. Swertia longifolia Boiss. is the only species of Swertia growing in Iran. In the present investigation, phytochemical study of S. longifolia was performed and α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant fractions and purified compounds were determined. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with hexane, chloroform, methanol and water, respectively. The components of the hexane and chloroform fractions were isolated by different chromatographic methods and their structures were determined by 1H NMR and 13C NMR data. α-Amylase inhibitory activity was determined by a colorimetric assay using 3,5-dinitro salysilic acid. During phytochemical examination, α-amyrin, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol were purified from the hexane fraction, while ursolic acid, daucosterol and swertiamarin were isolated from chloroform fraction. The results of the biochemical assay revealed α-amylase inhibitory activity of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water fractions, of which the chloroform and methanol fractions were more potent (IC50 16.8 and 18.1 mg/ml, respectively). Among examined compounds, daucosterol was found to be the most potent α-amylase inhibitor (57.5% in concentration 10 mg/ml). With regard to α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant extracts, purified constituents, and antidiabetic application of the species of Swertia genus in traditional medicine of different countries, S. longifolia seems more appropriate species for further mechanistic antidiabetic evaluations. PMID:27051429

  4. [Study on chemical constituents in stems of Nelumbo nucifera by UPLC-ESI/Q-TOF-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Shan, Feng; Yuan, Yuan; Kang, Li-ping; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-08-01

    This paper employed UPLC-Electrospray Ionization /Quadrupole-Time of Flight-Mass /Mass Spectrometry( UPLC-ESI/Q-TOF-MS/MS) to analyze the chemical constituents in the stems of Nelumbo nucifera. The stems of N. nucifera were extracted with 75% methanol, and we applied an Agilent Zorbax SB-Aq column (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.8 μm) to UPLC analysis with water methanol-water( containing 0.05% formic acid) in gradient as mobile phase. The eluates were then detected by ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Results indicated that 22 benzylisoquinoline alkaloids were indendified. Among them, one alkaloid may be a new compound and a component was found in the Lotus for the first time. We fully identify the composition of the Lotus stems for the first time, Which could provides theoretical foundation for further study and utilization of the medicinal resources.

  5. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents of Centipeda minima by HPLC-QTOF-MS & HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chi-On; Jin, Deng-Ping; Dong, Nai-Ping; Chen, Si-Bao; Mok, Daniel Kam Wah

    2016-06-05

    A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS) method in both positive and negative ion modes was established to investigate the major constituents in the ethanolic extract of Centipeda minima (EBSC). Twelve common components including flavones and their glycosides, phenolic and polyphenolic acids, and sesquiterpene lactone were identified in ten batches of samples based on comparison with the retention time and accurate mass of external standards (mass accuracy within 3ppm) or the fragmentation patterns of tandem MS. Meanwhile, a simple, accurate and reliable HPLC-DAD method was also developed to determine the content of 10 chemical markers simultaneously. Results obtained from method validations including linearity, accuracy and precision showed that this new method is reliable and robust. Isochlorogenic acid A and brevilin A were found to be the most abundant in the ethanol extract of EBSC and could be served as markers for quality control of EBSC.

  6. Chemical constituents of the femoral gland secretions of male tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae) (Family teiidae).

    PubMed

    Martín, José; Chamut, Silvia; Manes, Mario E; López, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the importance of chemical signals (pheromones) in the reproductive behaviour of lizards, the chemical compounds secreted by their femoral glands, which may be used as sexual signals, are only known for a few lizard species. Based on mass spectra, obtained by GC-MS, we found 49 lipophilic compounds in femoral gland secretions of male tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae) (fam. Teiidae), including a very high proportion of carboxylic acids and their esters ranging between n-C8 and n-C20 (mainly octadecanoic and 9,12-octadecadienoic acids), with much less proportions of steroids, tocopherol, aldehydes, and squalene. We discuss the potential function of these compounds in secretions, and compare the compounds found here with those documented for other lizard species.

  7. Studies on chemical constituents of the leaves of Smallantus sonchifolius (yacon): structures of two new diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Dou, De-Qiang; Tian, Fang; Qiu, Ying-Kun; Xiang, Zheng; Xu, Bi Xia; Kang, Ting Guo; Dong, Feng

    2010-01-01

    The extract from the leaves of Smallantus sonchifolius (yacon) was found to show potent anti-diabetic activity. Two new diterpenes, named ent-kaurane-3beta,16beta,17, 19-tetrol (1) and ent-kaurane-16beta,17,18,19-tetrol (2), were isolated from the extract, together with six known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

  8. Chemical constituents from the leaves of Annona reticulata and their inhibitory effects on NO production.

    PubMed

    Thang, Tran Dinh; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Hung, Nguyen Huy; Huang, Bow-Shin; Yang, Mei-Lin; Luong, Ngo Xuan; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2013-04-16

    In the present study, the chemical investigation of the leaves of Annona reticulata has resulted in the identification of nine compounds, including annonaretin A, a new triterpenoid. The purified compounds were subjected to the examination of their effects on NO inhibition in LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages and most of them exhibited significant NO inhibition, with IC₅₀ values in the range of 48.6 ± 1.2 and 99.8 ± 0.4 μM.

  9. Inhibitory Effect on Lipid Absorption and Variability of Chemical Constituents from Capparis sicula subsp. sicula and Capparis orientalis.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Argentieri, Maria Pia; Avato, Pinarosa; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2016-06-01

    In continuation of our research program on Mediterranean dietary plants, a bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from several accessions of Capparis sicula subsp. sicula and Capparis orientalis aerial parts was carried out. Antilipidemic activity of samples was assayed using inhibition of pancreatic lipase. To study the metabolic variability in Capparis species, HPTLC analyses were performed in order to characterize the species through the detection, isolation, and quantitative evaluation of rutin taken as significant chemical marker. The best activity was exerted by C. orientalis accession no. C10 and C. sicula subsp. sicula accession no. C6. The bioactivity evaluation of specific chemical markers, rutin and glucocapparin, led to the identification of a potent antilipidemic compound rutin. The HPTLC analysis showed large variation among the different analyzed samples with respect to rutin concentration. The chemical investigation showed a different composition between the species and between the collection zones. The variations showed by the studied accessions of caper could be attributed to exogenous factors. Capparis species contained predominantly quercetin rutinoside (rutin), accompanied by other constituents such as the glucosinolate glucocapparin. These rutin-rich extracts exhibited pronounced dose-dependent enzyme inhibitory activities toward pancreatic lipase.

  10. Seasonal variation of PM10 chemical constituents in different French urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Dalia; Golly, Benjamin; Besombes, Jean Luc; Alleman, Laurent; Favez, Olivier; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM10, with a diameter less than 10 μm) is a heterogeneous mixture of natural and anthropogenic components including organic and elemental carbon (OC, and EC), sulfates, nitrates, ammonium, mineral dust, trace elements, seasalt, which has been linked to adverse impact on human health, visibility, and climate change. Atmospheric PM concentration and composition can vary widely due to different climatic conditions and local features such as anthropogenic source types, emission rates and dispersion patterns. Moreover, the contribution of natural sources (e.g. seasalt and dust) varies from one region to another. However, a fundamental step towards a better understanding and identification of the sources of PM10 is constituted by the study of aerosol chemical composition. Moreover, in order to define cost effective emission abatement strategies, research studies to interpret the variability of PM10 levels and components and to identify the main emission sources influencing ambient air PM10 levels is still needed. In a national context of a better understanding of PM composition and sources, and therefore the implementation of efficient reduction plans of PM in France, various monitoring campaigns were carried out recently within different air quality programs, where PM10 filter samples were collected on a 24 hour basis at various type of French sites (e.g. urban, rural, etc.,), located in different urban environments. An extensive chemical characterization of PM10 composition at these sites was performed, and a large range of analytical techniques was used to determine the concentrations of various chemical species which included the analysis of OC, and EC, major ionic species (SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, NH4+, K+, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+), metals and trace elements (e.g. Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, etc.,), and organic compounds (e.g. sugars, polyols, PAH, methyl PAH, sulfur PAH, alkanes, hopanes, and methoxyphenols). The seasonal and spatial

  11. Chemical Constituents from Andrographis echioides and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shen, De-Yang; Juang, Shin-Hun; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Chan, Yu-Yi; Damu, Amooru G.; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the whole plants of Andrographis echioides afforded two new 2′-oxygenated flavonoids (1) and (2), two new phenyl glycosides (3) and (4), along with 37 known structures. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by spectral analysis and chemical transformation studies. Among the isolated compounds, (1–2) and (6–19) were subjected into the examination for their iNOS inhibitory bioactivity. The structure-activity relationships of the flavonoids for their inhibition of NO production were also discussed. PMID:23271366

  12. Chemical characterization of secondary organic aerosol constituents from isoprene ozonolysis in the presence of acidic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, Matthieu; Budisulistiorini, Sri Hapsari; Zhang, Zhenfa; Gold, Avram; Surratt, Jason D.

    2016-04-01

    Isoprene is the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon emitted into Earth's atmosphere and is predominantly derived from terrestrial vegetation. Prior studies have focused largely on the hydroxyl (OH) radical-initiated oxidation of isoprene and have demonstrated that highly oxidized compounds, such as isoprene-derived epoxides, enhance the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through heterogeneous (multiphase) reactions on acidified sulfate aerosol. However, studies on the impact of acidified sulfate aerosol on SOA formation from isoprene ozonolysis are lacking and the current work systematically examines this reaction. SOA was generated in an indoor smog chamber from isoprene ozonolysis under dark conditions in the presence of non-acidified or acidified sulfate seed aerosol. The effect of OH radicals on SOA chemical composition was investigated using diethyl ether as an OH radical scavenger. Aerosols were collected and chemically characterized by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-QTOFMS) and gas chromatography/electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS). Analysis revealed the formation of highly oxidized compounds, including organosulfates (OSs) and 2-methylterols, which were significantly enhanced in the presence of acidified sulfate seed aerosol. OSs identified in the chamber experiments were also observed and quantified in summertime fine aerosol collected from two rural locations in the southeastern United States during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS).

  13. Chemical constituents of marine mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima EN-192

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong; Gao, Shushan; Li, Xiaoming; Li, Chunshun; Wang, Bingui

    2013-03-01

    A chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima EN-192, an endophytic fungus obtained from the stems of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa, resulted in the isolation of nine known secondary metabolites, including four indole-diterpenoids: penijanthine A ( 1), paspaline ( 2), paspalinine ( 3), and penitrem A ( 4); three tricycloalternarene derivatives: tricycloalternarene 3a ( 5), tricycloalternarene 1b ( 6), and tricycloalternarene 2b ( 7); and two alternariol congeners: djalonensone ( 8) and alternariol ( 9). The chemical structures of these metabolites were characterized through a combination of detailed spectroscopic analyses and their comparison with reports from the literature. The inhibitory activities of each isolated compound against four bacteria were evaluated and compounds 5 and 8 displayed moderate activity against the aquaculture pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum, with inhibition zone diameters of 8 and 9 mm, respectively, at 100 μg/disk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the secondary metabolites of mangrove-derived A lternaria tenuissima and also the first report of the isolation of indole-diterpenoids from fungal genus A lternaria.

  14. Chemical constituents from Nelumbo nucifera leaves and their anti-obesity effects.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jong Hoon; Kim, Eun Sil; Lee, Chul; Kim, Soonok; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2013-06-15

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae), commonly called lotus, is widely distributed throughout Eastern Asia. It has been used for food and medicine for a long time. A phytochemical investigation of N. nucifera leaves led to the isolation of 13 megastigmanes (1-13), including a new megastigmane, nelumnucifoside A (1), and a new eudesmane sesquiterpene, nelumnucifoside B (14), eight alkaloids (15-22), and 11 flavonoids (23-33). Their chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods including 1D, 2D NMR and MS spectrometry. The relative and absolute stereochemistry of the compounds was determined by NOESY and CD spectrometry, respectively. Compounds 19 and 22 significantly inhibited pancreatic lipase, whereas compounds 15 and 16 showed a strong inhibitory effect on adipocyte differentiation. Therefore, the leaves of N. nucifera have potential as an anti-obesity agent by inhibiting pancreatic lipase and adipocyte differentiation.

  15. Chemical constituents, in vitro protein digestibility, and presence of antinutritional substances in amaranth grains.

    PubMed

    Correa, A D; Jokl, L; Carlsson, R

    1986-06-01

    The chemical composition, content of antinutritional factors, and the in vitro protein digestibility of grains of the pseudo-cereal Amaranthus were analyzed. The plants were grown in Brazil (without fertilizer), Puerto Rico (100 kg N/ha), and California (200 kg N/ha). The seed analysis gave the following values (%DM): 14.4 - 16.9 protein (N X 6.25), 4.8 - 6.8 fat, 2.5 - 3.9 ash, and 2.3 - 2.9 crude fiber. The trypsin inhibitors, phenolics and saponine contents were low, and the phytohemagglutinin activity, fairly low. The in vitro protein digestibility was 61 - 76%. Digestibility was not correlated to the analyzed proximal composition nor to the antinutritional factors. The grain composition indicates a food value equivalent to that of conventional food grains.

  16. Chemical constituents of Stereum subtomentosum and two other birch-associated basidiomycetes: an interspecies comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hybelbauerová, Simona; Sejbal, Jan; Dracínský, Martin; Hahnová, Alice; Koutek, Bohumír

    2008-05-01

    Metabolites of the wood-rotting fungus Stereum subtomentosum Pouzar (Basidiomycetes, order Russulales, family Stereaceae) occurring on birch (Betula pendula Roth) trees were phytochemically investigated for the first time. Three main metabolite chemotypes present in MeOH extracts of the fruit bodies, viz. steroids, fatty acids, and water-soluble sugars, were fractionated, isolated, and identified by 1D/2D NMR-spectroscopic analyses, NMR data comparisons, and chemical correlations combined with GC/MS experiments. Thirteen compounds including two 5 alpha,8 alpha-epidioxy steroids, alpha,alpha'-trehalose, D-arabinitol, D-mannitol, and saturated/unsaturated fatty acids, were identified. Differences among S. subtomentosum and two other birch-associated fungal species, Trametes versicolor (L.: Fr.) Pilát, and Piptoporus betulinus (Bull.: Fr.) P. Karst (Basidiomycetes, order Polyporales, family Polyporaceae) were evaluated as regards the richness and abundance relationships in metabolite profiling.

  17. Effect of chemical kinetics uncertainties on calculated constituents in a tropospheric photochemical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Stewart, Richard W.

    1991-01-01

    Random photochemical reaction rates are employed in a 1D photochemical model to examine uncertainties in tropospheric concentrations and thereby determine critical kinetic processes and significant correlations. Monte Carlo computations are used to simulate different chemical environments and their related imprecisions. The most critical processes are the primary photodissociation of O3 (which initiates ozone destruction) and NO2 (which initiates ozone formation), and the OH/methane reaction is significant. Several correlations and anticorrelations between species are discussed, and the ozone/transient OH correlation is examined in detail. One important result of the modeling is that estimates of global OH are generally about 25 percent uncertain, limiting the precision of photochemical models. Techniques for reducing the imprecision are discussed which emphasize the use of species and radical species measurements.

  18. Chemical constituents from the rhizome of Polygonum paleaceum and their antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Xi; An, Mao-Mao; Jin, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Hai-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    A new compounds neopaleaceolactoside (1), along with nine known compounds phyllocoumarin (2), quercetin (3), quercitrin (4), quercetin-3-methyl ether (5), vincetoxicoside B (6), isoquercitrin (7), kaempferol (8), (-)-epicatechin (9), and chlorogenic acid (10), was isolated from Polygonum paleaceum Wall. Their chemical structures were established based on one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, mass spectrometry and by comparison with spectroscopic data reported. Some selected compounds were screened for their antifungal activity. Quercetin (3), vincetoxicoside B (6), kaempferol (8), and (-)-epicatechin (9) showed synergistic antifungal activities with the FICI values <0.5. A preliminary structure-activity relationship could be observed that free 3-OH in the structure of flavonoids was important for synergistic antifungal activity.

  19. Chemical constituents and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from Amomum tsaoko against two stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Kai; Chen, Ran; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Du, Shu-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical constituents and toxicities of the essential oil derived from Amomum tsaoko Crevost et Lemarie fruits against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius). Essential oil of A. tsaoko was obtained from hydrodistillation and was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 43 components, of which eucalyptol (23.87%), limonene (22.77%), 2-isopropyltoluene (6.66%) and undecane (5.74%) were the major components. With a further isolation, two active constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as eucalyptol and limonene. The essential oil and the two isolated compounds exhibited potential insecticidal activities against two storedproduct insects. Limonene showed pronounced contact toxicity against both insect species (LD50 = 14.97 μg/adult for T. castaneum; 13.66 μg/adult for L. serricorne) and was more toxic than eucalyptol (LD50 = 18.83 μg/adult for T. castaneum; 15.58 μg/adult for L. serricorne). The essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LD50 values of 16.52 and 6.14 μg/adult, respectively. Eucalyptol also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against both insect species (LC50 = 5.47 mg/L air for T. castaneum; 5.18 mg/L air for L. serricorne) and was more toxic than limonene (LC50 = 6.21 mg/L air for T. castaneum; 14.07 mg/L air for L. serricorne), while the crude essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LC50 values of 5.85 and 8.70 mg/L air, respectively. These results suggested that the essential oil of A. tsaoko and the two compounds may be used in grain storage to combat insect pests.

  20. Structural elucidation of chemical constituents from Benincasa hispida seeds and Carissa congesta roots by gas chromatography: Mass spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Gaurav M.; Nalawade, Vivek V.; Mukadam, Aaditi S.; Chaskar, Pratip K.; Zine, Sandeep P.; Somani, Rakesh R.; Une, Hemant D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Benincasa hispida (BH) and Carissa congesta (CC) are regarded as ethnopharmacological imperative plants in Asian countries. Objective: Phytochemical screening of the extracts has shown the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, tannins, phenolic compounds, fixed oils, and fats in the BH and CC extracts. The presence of lupeol has been reported previously by us using high-performance thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Materials and Methods: Present research studies encompasses identification of chemical constituents in BH seeds and CC roots petroleum ether extracts by hyphenated technique such as gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (MS) which when coupled gives a clear insight of constituents. Results: The components were identified by matching mass spectra with MS libraries. There were 13 and 10 different compounds analyzed from CC and BH, respectively. The components present were Pentanoic acid, 5-hydroxy, 2,4-butylphenyl; n-Hexadecanoic acid (Palmitic acid); Sulfurous acid, 2-ethylhexylhepatdecyl ester; n-Tridecane; 6-methyltridecane; (9E, 12E)-9,12-Octadecadienyl chloride, Hexadecanoic acid, 3-(trimethylsilyl)-oxy] propyl ester; 9,12-Octadecadenoic acid, 2 hydroxy-1-(hyroxymethylethyl) ester; 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, 2,3 dihydroxypropyl ester; n-Propyl-9,12-Octadecadienoate, Lupeol; Taraxasterol; 6a, 14a-Methanopicene, perhydro-12,4a, 61a, 9,9,12a-hepatmethyl-10-hydoxy and 9-Octadecene; 2-Isoprpenyl-5-methyl-6-hepten-1-ol; n-Hexadecanoic acid, 2-hyroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ether; Butyl-9,12-Octadecadieonate; Friedoolean-8-en-3-one; friedours-7-en-3-one; 13,27-Cyclosuran-3-one; Stigmaste-7,25-dien-3-ol (3β, 5α); Stigmasta-7,16-dien-3-ol; chrondrillasterol in BH seeds and CC roots extracts respectively. Conclusion: Eluted components from the extracts could provide further researchers to work with various pharmacological activities related models and studies. PMID:26130941

  1. Chemical constituents of Rhododendron formosanum show pronounced growth inhibitory effect on non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Way, Tzong-Der; Tsai, Shang-Jie; Wang, Chao-Min; Ho, Chi-Tang; Chou, Chang-Hung

    2014-01-29

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Rhododendron formosanum Hemsl. (Ericaceae), an endemic species in Taiwan, exhibits antineoplastic potential against non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). R. formosanum was successively extracted with methanol and then separated into dichloromethane (RFL-DCM), ethyl acetate (RFL-EA), n-butanol (RFL-BuOH), and water (RFL-H2O) fractions. Among these extracts, RFL-EA exhibited the most effective antineoplastic effect. This study also demonstrated that fractions 2 and 3 from the RFL-EA extract (RFL-EA-2, RFL-EA-3) possessed the strongest antineoplastic potential against NSCLC cells. The major phytochemical constituents of RFL-EA-2 and RFL-EA-3 were ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, and betulinic acid. This study indicated that ursolic acid demonstrated the most efficient antineoplastic effects on NSCLC cells. Ursolic acid inhibited growth of NSCLC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and stimulated apoptosis. Apoptosis was substantiated by activation of caspase-3 and -9, and a decrease in Bcl-2 and an elevation of the Bax were also observed following ursolic acid treatment. Ursolic acid activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and then inhibited the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which controls protein synthesis and cell growth. Moreover, ursolic acid decreased the expression and/or activity of lipogenic enzymes, such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) via AMPK activation. Collectively, these data provide insight into the chemical constituents and anticancer activity of R. formosanum against NSCLC cells, which are worthy of continued study.

  2. Chemical constituents and larvicidal potential of Feronia limonia leaf essential oil against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, A; Jayaraman, M; Venkatesalu, V

    2013-03-01

    In the present investigation, the leaf essential oil of Feronia limonia was evaluated for chemical constituents and mosquito larvicidal activity against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. GC and GC-MS analyses revealed that the essential oil contain 51 compounds. Estragole (34.69 %) and β-pinene(23.59 %) were identified as the major constituents followed by methyl (Z)-caryophyllene (11.05 %), eugenol (6.50 %), linalool (3.97 %), phytol (3.27 %), sabinene (2.41 %) and limonene (2.27 %). Larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The oil showed remarkable larvicidal activity against A. stephensi (LC(50) = 38.93 and LC(90) = 108.64 ppm (after 12 h); LC(50) = 15.03 and LC(90) = 36.69 ppm (after 24 h)), A. aegypti (LC(50) = 37.60 and LC(90) = 104.69 ppm (after 12 h); LC(50) = 11.59 and LC(90) = 42.95 ppm (after 24 h)) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 52.08 and LC(90) = 124.33 ppm (after 12 h); LC(50) = 22.49 and LC(90) = 60.90 ppm (after 24 h)). Based on the results, the essential oil of F. limonia can be considered as a new source of larvicide for the control of vector mosquitoes.

  3. Antioxidant Activities and Chemical Constituents of Flavonoids from the Flower of Paeonia ostii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huifang; Li, Xiaofang; Wu, Ke; Wang, Mengke; Liu, Pu; Wang, Xinsheng; Deng, Ruixue

    2016-12-23

    Paeonia ostii is a traditional medicinal plant popularly used in China. This study intended to evaluate the antioxidant properties and the chemical components of the flavonoid-rich extracts from the flowers of P. ostii. The results showed that the flavonoid-rich extracts from the flowers of P. ostii had strong scavenging capacities on 2,2'-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS), hydroxyls, superoxide anions, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals in a dose-dependent manner. Five flavonoids, dihydrokaempferol (1), apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (2), apigenin-7-O-β-d-neohesperidoside (3), kaempferol-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), and kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (5), were isolated from the flavonoid-rich extracts of the flowers of P. ostii. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that compounds 3 and 4 were abundant in the P. ostii flower and in flavonoid-rich extracts. The main components of the flower of P. ostii are flavonoids. The high antioxidant activity of the flavonoid-rich extracts may be attributed to the high content of flavonoids. The five isolated flavonoids were the primary antioxidant ingredients, and may play important roles in the strong antioxidant activities of this flower. Based on the obtained results, the flower of P. ostii could be a potential source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical applications.

  4. Chemical constituents and biological research on plants in the genus Curcuma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen; Wang, Sheng; Zhao, Wenwen; Wu, Chuanhong; Guo, Shuhui; Gao, Hongwei; Tao, Hongxun; Lu, Jinjian; Wang, Yitao; Chen, Xiuping

    2017-05-03

    Curcuma, a valuable genus in the family Zingiberaceae, includes approximately 110 species. These plants are native to Southeast Asia and are extensively cultivated in India, China, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Peru, Australia, and the West Indies. The plants have long been used in folk medicine to treat stomach ailments, stimulate digestion, and protect the digestive organs, including the intestines, stomach, and liver. In recent years, substantial progress has been achieved in investigations regarding the chemical and pharmacological properties, as well as in clinical trials of certain Curcuma species. This review comprehensively summarizes the current knowledge on the chemistry and briefly discusses the biological activities of Curcuma species. A total of 720 compounds, including 102 diphenylalkanoids, 19 phenylpropene derivatives, 529 terpenoids, 15 flavonoids, 7 steroids, 3 alkaloids, and 44 compounds of other types isolated or identified from 32 species, have been phytochemically investigated. The biological activities of plant extracts and pure compounds are classified into 15 groups in detail, with emphasis on anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities.

  5. New approaches for studying the chemical diversity of natural resources and the bioactivity of their constituents.

    PubMed

    Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) have historically been an important source of lead molecules in drug discovery. However, the interest that the pharmaceutical industry has had in NPs has declined in part because of the lack of compatibility of traditional natural-product extract libraries with high-throughput screenings and the low hit rate. Furthermore, in contrast to the synthetic libraries, compounds from natural sources are likely to have complex structures which slow down the identification process and contribute to problems related to supply and manufacturing. In this paper, we summarise some of the strategies that are being developed in our research unit to address these issues. On one hand, differential screening strategies were established with the aim of identifying dynamically induced NPs from silent biosynthetic pathways in plants and fungi that had been exposed to different stress situations. On the other hand, high-resolution HPLC techniques were optimised for biological and chemical profiling of crude extracts. This led to an integrated platform for rapid and efficient identification of new drug-leads and biomarkers of interest that were based on miniaturised technological approaches and metabolomics.

  6. Chemical constituents from the roots and stems of Erycibe obtusifolia and their in vitro antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Fan, Long; Wang, Ying; Liang, Ning; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Li, Man-Mei; Fan, Chun-Lin; Wu, Zhen-Long; Li, Yao-Lan; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2013-11-01

    Three new quinic acid derivatives, 4-O-caffeoyl-3-O-sinapoylquinic acid methyl ester (1), 5-O-caffeoyl-4-O-syringoylquinic acid methyl ester (2), and 4-O-caffeoyl-3-O-syringoylquinic acid methyl ester (3), as well as four new coumarin glycosides, 7-O-(3-O-sinapoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-methoxycoumarin (12), 7-O-(6-O-sinapoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-methoxycoumarin (13), 7-O-(2-O-sinapoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-methoxycoumarin (14), and 7-O-(6-O-syringoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-methoxycoumarin (15), together with eight known compounds (4-11) were isolated from the roots and stems of Erycibe obtusifolia. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. All the compounds were screened for their in vitro antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus with a cytopathic effect reduction assay. Among them, the di-O-caffeoyl quinates 8-11 displayed a potent in vitro anti-respiratory syncytial virus effect.

  7. Ethnobotany, chemical constituents and biological activities of the flowers of Hydnora abyssinica A.Br. (Hydnoraceae).

    PubMed

    Al-Fatimi, M; Ali, N A A; Kilian, N; Franke, K; Arnold, N; Kuhnt, C; Schmidt, J; Lindequist, U

    2016-04-01

    Hydnora abyssinica A.Br. (Hydnoraceae), a holoparasitic herb, is for the first time recorded for Abyan governorate of South Yemen. Flowers of this species were studied for their ethnobotanical, biological and chemical properties for the first time. In South Yemen, they are traditionally used as wild food and to cure stomach diseases, gastric ulcer and cancer. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed the presence of terpenes, tannins, phenols, and flavonoids. The volatile components of the air-dried powdered flowers were identified using a static headspace GC/MS analysis as acetic acid, ethyl acetate, sabinene, α-terpinene, (+)-D-limonene and γ-terpinene. These volatile compounds that characterize the odor and taste of the flowers were detected for the first time in a species of the family Hydnoraceae. The flowers were extracted by n-hexane, dichlormethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water. With exception of the water extract all extracts demonstrated activities against Gram-positive bacteria as well as remarkable radical scavenging activities in DPPH assay. Ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts exhibited good antifungal activities. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts against FL cells, measured in neutral red assay, was only weak (IC50 > 500 μg/mL). The results justify the traditional use of the flowers of Hydnora abyssinica in South Yemen.

  8. Chemical constituents from the roots of Ranunculus ternatus and their inhibitory effects on Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ke-Zhong; Xiong, Ying; Zhou, Bin; Guan, Yong-Mei; Luo, Yong-Ming

    2013-09-25

    Two new benzophenones, methyl (R)-3-[2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl]-2-hydroxypropanoate (1) and n-butyl (R)-3-[2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl]-2-hydroxypropanoate (2), were isolated from the roots of Ranunculus ternatus along with the two known compounds vanillic acid (3) and gallic acid (4). Their structures were elucidated by physical and spectroscopic analysis. In addition, compound 1 exhibited obvious activity against tuberculosis, while the activity of a 1:1 mixture of compound 1 plus 4 is better than that of 1 alone.

  9. Chemical Constituents of the New Endophytic Fungus Mycosphaerella sp. nov. and Their Anti-Parasitic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Eufemio; Varughese, Titto; Spadafora, Carmenza; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.; Gerwick, William H.; Cubilla-Rios, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Chemical investigation of a new endophytic fungus, Mycosphaerella sp. nov. strain F2140 associated with the foliage of the plant Psychotria horizontalis (Rubiaceae) in Panama, resulted in the isolation of cercosporin (1) and a new cercosporin analogue (3) as the major components. The structures of minor compounds in the extract were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis as 2-(2-butyl)-3-hydroxy-6-ethyl-6-methylcyclohex-2-ene-1,5-dione (4), 3-(2-butyl)-6-ethyl-6-methyl-5-hydroxy-2-methoxy-cyclohex-2-eneone (5), and an isomer of 5 (6). To study the influence of the hydroxy groups on the anti-parasitic activity of cercosporin, compound 1 was acetylated to obtain derivative 2. The isolated compounds 1–6 were tested in vitro to determine their anti-parasitic activity against the causal agents of malaria (Plasmodium falciparum), leishmaniasis (Leishmania donovani), and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi). Also, the cytotoxicity and potential anticancer activity of these compounds were evaluated using mammalian Vero cells and MCF7 cancer cell lines, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed high potency against L. donovani (IC50 0.46 and 0.64 μM), T. cruzi (IC50 1.08 and 0.78 μM), P. falciparum (IC50 1.03 and 2.99 μM), and MCF7 cancer cell lines (IC50 4.68 and 3.56 μM). Compounds 3–6 were not active in these assays at a concentration of 10 μg/mL. PMID:21815421

  10. Chemical constituents of the new endophytic fungus Mycosphaerella sp. nov. and their anti-parasitic activity.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Eufemio; Varughese, Titto; Spadafora, Carmenza; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A; Gerwick, William H; Cubilla-Rios, Luis

    2011-06-01

    Chemical investigation of a new endophytic fungus, Mycosphaerella sp. nov. strain F2140, associated with the foliage of the plant Psychotria horizontalis (Rubiaceae) in Panama, resulted in the isolation of cercosporin (1) and a new cercosporin analog (3) as the major components. The structures of minor compounds in the extract were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis as 2-(2-butyl)-6-ethyl-3-hydroxy-6-methylcyclohex-2-ene-1,5-dione (4), 3-(2-butyl)-6-ethyl-5-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methyl-cyclohex-2-enone (5), and an isomer of 5 (6). To study the influence of the hydroxy groups on the anti-parasitic activity of cercosporin, compound 1 was acetylated to obtain derivative 2. The isolated compounds 1- 6 were tested in vitro to determine their anti-parasitic activity against the causal agents of malaria (Plasmodium falciparum), leishmaniasis (Leishmania donovani), and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi). Cytotoxicity and potential anticancer activity of these compounds were evaluated using mammalian Vero cells and MCF7 cancer cell lines, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed high potency against L. donovani (IC50 0.46 and 0.64 microM), T. cruzi (IC50 1.08 and 0.78 microM), P. falciparum (IC50 1.03 and 2.99 microM), and MCF7 cancer cell lines (IC50 4.68 and 3.56 microM). Compounds 3-6 were not active in these assays at a concentration of 10 microg/mL.

  11. Chemical Characterization of Lipophilic Constituents in the Skin of Migratory Adult Sea Lamprey from the Great Lakes Region

    PubMed Central

    Dissanayake, Amila A.; Wagner, C. Michael; Nair, Muraleedharan G.

    2016-01-01

    The sea lamprey (Petromzons marinus) is an invasive ectoparasite of large-bodied fishes that adversely affects the fishing industry and ecology of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Lipid content in the whole sea lamprey and muscles, liver and kidney of metamorphosing larval stages has been reported. Similarly, the fatty acid profile of the rope tissues of sexually-mature male sea lampreys has also been reported. The average body weight of a sub-adult migratory sea lamprey is 250 g, which includes 14.4% skin (36 g). Our preliminary extraction data of an adult sea lamprey skin revealed that it contained approximately 8.5% of lipophilic compounds. Lamprey skin is home to a naturally aversive compound (an alarm cue) that is being developed into a repellent for use in pest management. As part of an ongoing investigation to identify the chemical structure of the sea lamprey alarm cue, we extracted the skin with water and methanol, respectively. The methanolic extract (1.55%) contained exclusively lipophilic compounds and did not include the alarm cue. We chemically characterized all compounds present in the methanolic extract as cholesterol esters (CE), tri- and di-glycerides (TG and DG), cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFA) and minor amounts of plasticizers. The free fatty acids fraction was composed of saturated (41.8%), monounsaturated (40.7%) and polyunsaturated (17.4%) fatty acids, respectively. The plasticizers characterized were phthalate and benzoate and found to be 0.95 mg and 2.54 mg, respectively, per adult sea lamprey skin. This is the first report of the chemical characterization of all the lipophilic constituents in the skin of sub-adult migratory sea lamprey. The CEs isolated and characterized from sea lamprey skin are also for the first time. PMID:27992570

  12. Biological activity and chemical constituents of red and brown algae from the persian gulf.

    PubMed

    Jassbi, Amir Reza; Mohabati, Maryam; Eslami, Saba; Sohrabipour, Jelveh; Miri, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Different solvent extracts of a red algae, Hypnea flagelliformis, and two brown algae, Cystoseira myrica and Sargassum boveanum, which were collected from the Persian Gulf coast were subjected to different bioassays, including: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, antibacterial and antifungal activity by thin layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography, agar disc diffusion (ADD) and nutrient-broth micro-dilution (NBMD) bioassays. The water extracts were found to have the most antioxidant activity. The antibacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the active extracts were determined for the susceptible organisms, Staphylococcus aurous and Bacillus subtilis, using NBMD bioassays. The active substances were identified as free fatty acids (FFA), by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After derivatization to their methyl esters, their concentrations were measured by using GC- lame ionization detection (GC-FID). In addition to the fatty acids, fucosterol, cholesterol and 22-dehydroxychlosterol were detected as the major sterols in S. boveanum extract using GC-MS analyses.

  13. Antimicrobial activities of Eugenia caryophyllata extract and its major chemical constituent eugenol against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Park, Seok-Won; Chae, Sung-Won; Song, Jae-Jun; Kim, Ho Chul

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the antimicrobial activities of both Eugenia caryophyllata (Ec) extract and its major component eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by microdilution method. Pneumococcal biofilms were detected by crystal-violet microtiter plate assay, followed by colony-forming unit counts and visualized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The synergistic effect of eugenol and penicillin was determined by checker-board method. Both the eugenol and the Ec extract inhibited pneumococcal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. The MIC and MBC of eugenol were 0.06% and 0.12%, respectively. Eugenol at a concentration of 0.12% completely killed S. pneumoniae within 60 min of exposure. The kill rate of planktonic cells was most rapid during the first 15 min of contact with eugenol. The addition of eugenol or Ec extract inhibited in vitro biofilm formation. In already established biofilms, the inhibitory effect of eugenol or Ec extract was more significant in terms of cell viability than in terms of disruption of the biofilm matrix. SEM analysis revealed non-viable and disruptive action of eugenol on the cell membrane of bacteria of biofilms. It was found that eugenol and penicillin produced a synergistic effect against S. pneumoniae. In conclusion, eugenol and Ec extract efficiently inhibited S. pneumoniae in planktonic growth and within biofilms.

  14. Biological Activity and Chemical Constituents of Red and Brown Algae from the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Jassbi, Amir Reza; Mohabati, Maryam; Eslami, Saba; Sohrabipour, Jelveh; Miri, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Different solvent extracts of a red algae, Hypnea flagelliformis, and two brown algae, Cystoseira myrica and Sargassum boveanum, which were collected from the Persian Gulf coast were subjected to different bioassays, including: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, antibacterial and antifungal activity by thin layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography, agar disc diffusion (ADD) and nutrient-broth micro-dilution (NBMD) bioassays. The water extracts were found to have the most antioxidant activity. The antibacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the active extracts were determined for the susceptible organisms, Staphylococcus aurous and Bacillus subtilis, using NBMD bioassays. The active substances were identified as free fatty acids (FFA), by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After derivatization to their methyl esters, their concentrations were measured by using GC- lame ionization detection (GC-FID). In addition to the fatty acids, fucosterol, cholesterol and 22-dehydroxychlosterol were detected as the major sterols in S. boveanum extract using GC-MS analyses. PMID:24250640

  15. Chemical constituents in particulate emissions from an integrated iron and steel facility.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Chen, Chih-Yu; Ding, Jian-Yuan; Choa, Ching-Guan; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2007-08-17

    Particle emissions from four integrated iron and steel plant processes, i.e., coke making, sintering, cold forming, and hot forming, were investigated in this study. Particle compositions of 21 element species, 11 ionic species, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and 16 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed to create "fingerprints" of the particles emitted from various processes in an integrated iron and steel plant. Results indicated that element compositions (0.11-0.42 g/g), water-soluble ions (0.34-0.52 g/g), elemental carbon (0.008-0.14 g/g), organic carbon (0.02-0.06 g/g) and PAHs (0.52-6.2 mg/g) contributed to the particle mass. In general, sulfur had a higher mass contribution than the other elements, which resulted from the use of coal, flux, heavy oil, and many recycled materials in the iron and steel plant. The particle mass contribution of potassium and chlorine in the sinter plant was higher than in other processes; this may be attributed to the lower boiling point and volatility of potassium. In addition, many recycled materials were fed into the sinter plant, causing a high concentration of potassium and chlorine in the particle phase. Eight PAH compounds were analyzed in the four processes. The carcinogenic compound Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was detectable only in the sintering process.

  16. Quantitative analysis of the relative mutagenicity of five chemical constituents of tobacco smoke in the mouse lymphoma assay.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Heflich, Robert H; Dial, Stacey L; Richter, Patricia A; Moore, Martha M; Mei, Nan

    2016-05-01

    Quantifying health-related biological effects, like genotoxicity, could provide a way of distinguishing between tobacco products. In order to develop tools for using genotoxicty data to quantitatively evaluate the risk of tobacco products, we tested five carcinogens found in cigarette smoke, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), cadmium (in the form of CdCl2), 2-amino-3,4-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), in the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA). The resulting mutagenicity dose responses were analyzed by various quantitative approaches and their strengths and weaknesses for distinguishing responses in the MLA were evaluated. L5178Y/Tk (+/-) 3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cells were treated with four to seven concentrations of each chemical for 4h. Only CdCl2 produced a positive response without metabolic activation (S9); all five chemicals produced dose-dependent increases in cytotoxicity and mutagenicity with S9. The lowest dose exceeding the global evaluation factor, the benchmark dose producing a 10%, 50%, 100% or 200% increase in the background frequency (BMD10, BMD50, BMD100 and BMD200), the no observed genotoxic effect level (NOGEL), the lowest observed genotoxic effect level (LOGEL) and the mutagenic potency expressed as a mutant frequency per micromole of chemical, were calculated for all the positive responses. All the quantitative metrics had similar rank orders for the agents' ability to induce mutation, from the most to least potent as CdCl2(-S9) > BaP(+S9) > CdCl2(+S9) > MeIQ(+S9) > 4-ABP(+S9) > NNK(+S9). However, the metric values for the different chemical responses (i.e. the ratio of the greatest value to the least value) for the different chemicals ranged from 16-fold (BMD10) to 572-fold (mutagenic potency). These results suggest that data from the MLA are capable of discriminating the mutagenicity of various constituents of cigarette smoke, and that quantitative analyses are available

  17. Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Wehnke, Amy J.; Hall, L. Flint; Campbell, Linford J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 14 sites as part of an ongoing study to monitor the water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer between the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Burley-Twin Falls-Hagerman area. The State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality, Division of INL Oversight and Radiation Control cosampled with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources and their analytical results are included in this report. The samples were collected from four domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, four irrigation wells, one observation well, and one stock well and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. Two quality-assurance samples, sequential replicates, also were collected and analyzed. None of the concentrations of radiochemical or organic-chemical constituents exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, the concentration of one inorganic-chemical constituent, nitrate (as nitrogen), in water from site MV-43 was 20 milligrams per liter which exceeded the maximum contaminant level for that constituent. Of the radiochemical and chemical concentrations analyzed for in the replicate-sample pairs, 267 of the 270 pairs (with 95 percent confidence) were statistically equivalent.

  18. 75 FR 33824 - Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition of Certain Products to the Pharmaceutical Appendix to the HTS AGENCY: United States International... (Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-520, Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates,...

  19. Chemical composition of hexane extract of Citrus aurantifolia and anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of some of its constituents.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Montemayor, Nallely E; García, Abraham; Elizondo-Treviño, Elizabeth; Garza-González, Elvira; Alvarez, Laura; del Rayo Camacho-Corona, María

    2012-09-19

    The main aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the active compounds from the hexane extract of the fruit peels of Citrus aurantiifolia, which showed activity against one sensitive and three monoresistant (isoniazid, streptomycin or ethambutol) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The active extract was fractionated by column chromatography, yielding the following major compounds: 5-geranyloxypsoralen (1); 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (2); 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (3); 5-methoxypsoralen (4); and 5,8-dimethoxypsoralen (5). The structures of these compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. In addition, GC-MS analysis of the hexane extract allowed the identification of 44 volatile compounds, being 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (15.79%), 3-methyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione (8.27%), 1-methoxy-ciclohexene (8.0%), corylone (6.93%), palmitic acid (6.89%), 5,8-dimethoxypsoralen (6.08%), a-terpineol (5.97%), and umbelliferone (4.36%), the major constituents. Four isolated coumarins and 16 commercial compounds identified by GC-MS were tested against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and three multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay. The constituents that showed activity against all strains were 5 (MICs = 25-50 mg/mL), 1 (MICs = 50-100 mg/mL), palmitic acid (MICs = 25-50 mg/mL), linoleic acid (MICs = 50-100 mg/mL), oleic acid (MICs = 100 mg/mL), 4-hexen-3-one (MICs = 50-100 mg/mL), and citral (MICs = 50-100 mg/mL). Compound 5 and palmitic acid were the most active ones. The antimycobacterial activity of the hexane extract of C. aurantifolia could be attributed to these compounds.

  20. Effect of Zn2+, Fe3+ and Cr3+ addition to hydroxyapatite for its application as an active constituent of sunscreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araujo, T. S.; de Souza, S. O.; de Sousa, E. M. B.

    2010-11-01

    Biocompatible phosphate materials are used in different applications like bone and dental implants, drug delivery systems and others, but could also be applied in inorganic sunscreens. Using sunscreens is extremely necessary, because long time exposure to sun can cause skin cancer. In this work chemical precipitation method has been used to produce hydroxyapatite. Cr3+, Zn2+ and Fe3+ doped samples were characterized using powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Optical Absorption techniques. X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the materials were in the expected crystalline structures. The crystallite size as measured from the X-ray pattern was 23-27 nm (±1). The absorption spectra in the ultraviolet and visible ranges indicate that appropriately doped and sized hydroxyapatite particles may have potential applications as active constituents of sunscreens.

  1. 76 FR 20992 - Sun Chemical Corp.; Filing of Color Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Sun Chemical Corp.; Filing of Color Additive Petition AGENCY... announcing that Sun Chemical Corp. has filed a petition proposing that the color additive regulations for D&C... 721(d)(1) (21 U.S.C. 379e(d)(1))), notice is given that a color additive petition (CAP 1C0290)...

  2. Biotransformation of chemical constituents of durian wine with simultaneous alcoholic fermentation by Torulaspora delbrueckii and malolactic fermentation by Oenococcus oeni.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuyun; Chua, Jian-Yong; Huang, Dejian; Lee, Pin-Rou; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2016-10-01

    This work represents the first study on the biotransformation of chemical constituents of durian wine via simultaneous alcoholic fermentation (AF) and malolactic fermentation (MLF) with non-Saccharomyces yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely, Torulaspora delbrueckii Biodiva and Oenococcus oeni PN4. The presence of PN4 improved the utilization of sugars but did not affect ethanol production. MLF resulted in the significant degradation of malic acid with corresponding increases in pH and lactic acid. The final concentrations of acetic acid (1.29 g/L) and succinic acid (3.70 g/L) in simultaneous AF and MLF were significantly higher than that in AF (1.05 and 1.31 g/L) only. Compared with AF, simultaneous AF and MLF significantly elevated the levels of aroma compounds with higher levels of higher alcohols (isoamyl alcohol, active amyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, and 2-phenylethyl alcohol), acetate esters (ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate), and ethyl esters (ethyl octanoate, ethyl dodecanoate). All the endogenous volatile sulfur compounds decreased to trace or undetectable levels at the end of fermentation. MLF accentuated the reduction of acetaldehyde and sulfides. The initially absent dipropyl disulfide was formed, then catabolized, especially in simultaneous AF and MLF. This study suggested that the simultaneous AF and MLF of non-Saccharomyces and LAB could modify the volatile compositions and potentially modulate the organoleptic properties of durian wine.

  3. Colorectal, prostate and pancreas Human cancers targeted bioassay-guided isolations and characterization of chemical constituents from Tephrosia apollinea.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Loiy Elsir A; Iqbal, Muhammad Adnan; Dahham, Saad S; Tabana, Yasser M; Ahamed, Mohamed B Khadeer; Majid, Amin M S Abdul

    2016-09-26

    Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled cell division caused by dysregulation of cell proliferation. Therefore, agents that impair cancer cell proliferation could have potential therapeutic value. Higher plants are considered to be a good source of anticancer agents, and several clinically tested chemotherapeutic agents have been isolated from plants or derived from constituents of plant origin. In the present study, a prenylated flavone (isoglabratephrin) was isolated from aerial parts of Tephrosia apollinea using a bioassay-guided technique. Chemical structure of the isolated compound was elucidated using spectroscopic techniques (NMR, IR, and LC-MC), elemental analysis and confirmed by using single crystal X-ray analysis. The antiproliferative effect of isoglabratephrin was tested using three human cancer cell lines (prostate (PC3), pancreatic (PANC-1), and colon (HCT-116) and one normal cell line (human fibroblast). Isoglabratephrin displayed selective inhibitory activity against proliferation of PC3 and PANC-1 cells with median inhibitory concentration values of 20.4 and 26.6 μg/ml, respectively. Isoglabratephrin demonstrated pro-apoptotic features, as it induced chromatin dissolution, nuclear condensation, and fragmentation. It also disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential in the treated cancer cells. Thus, isoglabratephrin could be a new lead to treat human prostate (PC3) and pancreatic (PANC-1) malignancies.

  4. A physical chemical screening model for anticipating widespread contamination of community water supply wells by gasoline constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arey, J. Samuel; Gschwend, Philip M.

    2005-01-01

    Continuing modifications of fuels like gasoline should include evaluations of the proposed constituents for their potential to damage environmental resources such as subsurface water supplies. Consequently, we developed a screening model to estimate well water concentrations and transport times for gasoline components migrating from underground fuel tank (UFT) releases to typical at-risk community water supply wells. Representative fuel release volumes and hydrogeologic characteristics were used to parameterize the transport calculation. Subsurface degradation processes were neglected in the model in order to make risk-conservative assessments. The model was tailored to individual compounds based on their abundances in gasoline, gasoline-water partition coefficients ( Kgw), and organic matter-water partition coefficients ( Kom). Transport calculations were conducted for 20 polar and 4 nonpolar compounds found in gasoline, including methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other ether oxygenates, ethanol, methanol, and some aromatic hydrocarbons. With no calibration, the screening model successfully captured the reported magnitude of MTBE contamination of at-risk community supply wells. Such screening indicates that other oxygenates would cause similar widespread problems unless they were biodegradable. Stochastic analysis of field parameter variability concluded that community supply well contamination estimates had order-of-magnitude reliability. This indicated that such pre-manufacturing analyses may reasonably anticipate widespread environmental problems and/or inspire focused investigations into chemical properties (e.g., biodegradability) before industrial adoption of new fuel formulations.

  5. Acid-induced structural modifications of unsaturated Fatty acids and phenolic olive oil constituents by nitrite ions: a chemical assessment.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Alessandra; Panzella, Lucia; Savarese, Maria; Sacchi, Raffaele; Giudicianni, Italo; Paolillo, Livio; d'Ischia, Marco

    2004-10-01

    The structural modifications of the unsaturated fatty acid components of triglycerides in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) following exposure to nitrite ions in acidic media were determined by two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy, aided by (15)N labeling and GC analysis, allowing investigation of the matrix without fractionation steps. In the presence of excess nitrite ions in a 1% sulfuric acid/oil biphasic system, extensive double bond isomerization of the oleic/linoleic acid components of triglycerides was observed associated with nitration/oxidation processes. Structurally modified species were identified as E/Z-nitroalkene, 1,2-nitrohydroxy, and 3-nitro-1-alkene(1,5-diene) derivatives based on (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N 2D NMR analysis in comparison with model compounds. Minor constituents of EVOO, including phenolic compounds and tocopherols, were also substantially modified by nitrite-derived nitrating species, even under milder reaction conditions relevant to those occurring in the gastric compartments. Novel nitrated derivatives of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and oleuropein (6-8) were identified by LC/MS analysis of the polar fraction of EVOO and by comparison with synthetic samples. Overall, these results provide the first systematic description at the chemical level of the consequences of exposing EVOO to nitrite ions at acidic pH and offer an improved basis for further investigations in the field of toxic nitrosation/nitration reactions and dietary antinitrosating agents.

  6. Comparative research of chemical constituents, antifungal and antitumor properties of ether extracts of Panax ginseng and its endophytic fungus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Li; Han, Ting; Wu, Jin-Zhong; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Zhang, Hong; Huang, Bao-Kang; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The chemical compositions and bioactivities of ether extracts of an endophytic fungus Paecilomyces sp. isolated from Panax ginseng were reported, and the comparative analysis of the constituents, antifungal and antitumor properties of the ether extracts from this fungus and its host ginseng were also conducted. By means of GC/MS technique, 51 compounds of Panax ginseng and 38 compounds of Paecilomyce sp. were determined. It is attractive that the extracts derived from Paecilomyce sp. and ginseng samples contained the same compound falcarinol, a natural pesticide and anti-cancer agent. The ether extracts of Paecilomyce sp., tested at 7.8 microg/ml, completely inhibited the visible growth of Pyricularia oryzae. Furthermore, both extracts were tested against four human pathogenic fungi and showed the IC(80) of Paecilomyce sp. was 4 microg/ml against Trichophyton rubrum, equally to the control. Finally, the in vitro antitumor experience showed that the most of the IC(50) values were all being below 20 microg/ml.

  7. Quantitative analysis of routine chemical constituents in tobacco by near-infrared spectroscopy and support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Cong, Qian; Xie, Yunfei; JingxiuYang; Zhao, Bing

    2008-12-15

    It is important to monitor quality of tobacco during the production of cigarette. Therefore, in order to scientifically control the tobacco raw material and guarantee the cigarette quality, fast and accurate determination routine chemical of constituents of tobacco, including the total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, the total nitrogen and so on, is needed. In this study, 50 samples of tobacco from different cultivation areas were surveyed by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and the spectral differences provided enough quantitative analysis information for the tobacco. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), artificial neural network (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM), were applied. The quantitative analysis models of 50 tobacco samples were studied comparatively in this experiment using PLSR, ANN, radial basis function (RBF) SVM regression, and the parameters of the models were also discussed. The spectrum variables of 50 samples had been compressed through the wavelet transformation technology before the models were established. The best experimental results were obtained using the (RBF) SVM regression with gamma=1.5, 1.3, 0.9, and 0.1, separately corresponds to total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, and total nitrogen, respectively. Finally, compared with the back propagation (BP-ANN) and PLSR approach, SVM algorithm showed its excellent generalization for quantitative analysis results, while the number of samples for establishing the model is smaller. The overall results show that NIR spectroscopy combined with SVM can be efficiently utilized for rapid and accurate analysis of routine chemical compositions in tobacco. Simultaneously, the research can serve as the technical support and the foundation of quantitative analysis of other NIR applications.

  8. Quantitative analysis of routine chemical constituents in tobacco by near-infrared spectroscopy and support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Cong, Qian; Xie, Yunfei; Yang, Jingxiu; Zhao, Bing

    2008-12-01

    It is important to monitor quality of tobacco during the production of cigarette. Therefore, in order to scientifically control the tobacco raw material and guarantee the cigarette quality, fast and accurate determination routine chemical of constituents of tobacco, including the total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, the total nitrogen and so on, is needed. In this study, 50 samples of tobacco from different cultivation areas were surveyed by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and the spectral differences provided enough quantitative analysis information for the tobacco. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), artificial neural network (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM), were applied. The quantitative analysis models of 50 tobacco samples were studied comparatively in this experiment using PLSR, ANN, radial basis function (RBF) SVM regression, and the parameters of the models were also discussed. The spectrum variables of 50 samples had been compressed through the wavelet transformation technology before the models were established. The best experimental results were obtained using the (RBF) SVM regression with γ = 1.5, 1.3, 0.9, and 0.1, separately corresponds to total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, and total nitrogen, respectively. Finally, compared with the back propagation (BP-ANN) and PLSR approach, SVM algorithm showed its excellent generalization for quantitative analysis results, while the number of samples for establishing the model is smaller. The overall results show that NIR spectroscopy combined with SVM can be efficiently utilized for rapid and accurate analysis of routine chemical compositions in tobacco. Simultaneously, the research can serve as the technical support and the foundation of quantitative analysis of other NIR applications.

  9. Chemical fingerprinting of Shexiang Baoxin Pill and simultaneous determination of its major constituents by HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection and electrospray mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shi-Kai; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Run-Hui; Zhan, Yong-Cheng

    2006-07-01

    High-performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattered detection (ELSD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS) was employed to establish chemical fingerprint of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP) and to simultaneously determinate its seven major constituents, including cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, cinobufagin, recibufogenin, and ginsenoside Rb1. The analysis was performed on a C18 column with water-acetonitrile gradient elution, and the investigated constituents were authenticated by comparing their retention times and mass spectra with those of reference compounds. The proposed method was applied to analyze nine SBP samples and produced data with acceptable linearity, precision, stability and accuracy. Both the chemical fingerprints and quantification data were used to evaluate the quality of various SBP products. The proposed method allows obtaining chemical fingerprint and quantification of multi-components in one run, and therefore can be readily utilized as a comprehensive quality control approach for traditional Chinese medicine.

  10. 15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals. 714.3 Section 714.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3...

  11. 15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals. 714.3 Section 714.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3...

  12. 15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals. 714.3 Section 714.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3...

  13. 15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals. 714.3 Section 714.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3...

  14. Bioactivity and chemical constituents of the essential oil from Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul. against two stored insects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; You, Chun-Xue; Yang, Kai; Wang, Ying; Su, Yang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul. is a perennial herb commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. In this work, we took Dendranthema indicum as a target plant and two stored insects which include Tribolium castaneum and Stegobium paniceum adults as target insects. Essential oil obtained from Dendranthema indicum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 31 components representing 92.44% of the oil were identified and the main compounds were found to be chamazulene (15.93%), β-caryophyllene (13.78%), germacrene D (9.11%), and b-cis-farnesene (6.59%). With a further isolation, three constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as chamazulene, β-caryophyllene and eucalyptol. Significantly, in the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil and chamazulene exhibited stronger insecticidal and repellent activities against Stegobium paniceum than Tribolium castaneum. The results indicate that additional to its traditional use as Chinese medicinal herb, the essential oil of Dendranthema indicum aerial parts and isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides or repellents for control of insects in stored grains.

  15. Chemical constituents in water from wells in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1991--93

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, B.J.; Knobel, L.L.; Bartholomay, R.C.

    1995-11-01

    The US Geological Survey, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office, Idaho Branch Office, sampled 14 wells during 1991--93 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. Water samples were analyzed for manmade contaminants and naturally occurring constituents. One hundred sixty-one samples were collected from 10 ground-water monitoring wells and 4 production wells. Twenty-one quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed; 2 were blank samples and 19 were replicate samples. The two blank samples contained concentrations of six inorganic constituents that were slightly greater than the laboratory reporting levels (the smallest measured concentration of a constituent that can be reported using a given analytical method). Concentrations of other constituents in the blank samples were less than their respective reporting levels. The 19 replicate samples and their respective primary samples generated 614 pairs of analytical results for a variety of chemical and radiochemical constituents. Of the 614 data pairs, 588 were statistically equivalent at the 95% confidence level; about 96% of the analytical results were in agreement. Two pairs of turbidity measurements were not evaluated because of insufficient information and one primary sample collected in January 1992 contained tentatively identified organic compounds when the replicate sample did not.

  16. Bioavailability of nickel in man: effects of foods and chemically-defined dietary constituents on the absorption of inorganic nickel.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W; Viteri, F; Shuler, T R; Nielsen, F H

    1982-01-01

    By serial determination of the change in plasma nickel concentration following a standard dose of 22.4 mg of nickel sulfate hexahydrate containing 5 mg of elemental nickel, the bioavailability of nickel was estimated in human subjects. Plasma nickel concentration was stable in the fasting state and after an unlabeled test meal, but after the standard dose of nickel in water was elevated 48.8, 73.0, 80.0, and 53.3 microgram/1, respectively, at hours 1, 2, 3, and 4. Plasma nickel did not rise above fasting levels when 5 mg of nickel was added to two standard meals: a typical Guatemalan meal and a North American breakfast. When 5 mg of nickel was added to five beverages-whole cow milk, coffee, tea, orange juice, and Coca Cola-the rise in plasma nickel was significantly suppressed with all but Coca Cola. Response to nickel also was suppressed in the presence of 1 g of ascorbic acid. Phytic acid in a 2:1 molar ratio with nickel, however, did not affect the rise in plasma nickel. The chelate of iron and ethylenediaminetetraacetate, NaFeEDTA, an iron-fortifying agent suggested for application in Central America, slightly but not significantly depressed plasma nickel rise at 2 hours, whereas disodium EDTA depressed plasma nickel levels significantly below the fasting nickel curve at 3 and 4 hours postdose. These studies suggest that the differential responses of inorganic nickel to distinct foods, beverages, and chemically-defined dietary constituents could be important to human nutrition.

  17. Insights into the photo-induced formation of reactive intermediates from effluent organic matter: The role of chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huaxi; Lian, Lushi; Yan, Shuwen; Song, Weihua

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, the formation of triplet states of organic matters ((3)OM(∗)) from effluent organic matter (EfOM) under simulated solar irradiation was investigated. EfOM was separated into hydrophobic (HPO), transphilic (TPI), and hydrophilic (HPI) components. The quantum yield coefficients (ƒTMP) of (3)OM(∗) were measured for each component and compared to those of reference natural organic matter (NOM). NaBH4 reduction was performed on the EfOM, and the effect of aromatic ketones moieties on triplet formation was also determined. Furthermore, the apparent quantum yield of (1)O2 (Φ1O2) and O2(•-) (ΦO2•-) was measured. Our results suggested that the HPI fraction acted as a sink for (3)OM(∗). A linear correlation was observed between ƒTMP and Φ1O2 for NOM/EfOM, except for NaBH4-reduced effluent and HPI components. Both ƒTMP and Φ1O2 were positively correlated with the contribution rates of NaBH4-reducible moieties (aromatic ketones) toward (3)OM(∗). Aromatic ketones were primarily responsible for the production of (3)OM(∗) from EfOM, whereas quinone moieties played a key role in the production of (3)OM(∗) in NOM-enriched solutions. Understanding the role of chemical constituents on the photo activity of EfOM/NOM is essential for providing useful insights on their photochemical effects in aquatic systems.

  18. Relation of precipitation quality to storm type, and deposition of dissolved chemical constituents from precipitation in Massachusetts, 1983-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gay, F.B.; Melching, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Precipitation samples were collected for 83 storms at a rural inland site in Princeton, Mass., and 73 storms at a rural coastal site in Truro, Mass., to examine the quality of precipitation from storms and relate quality to three storm types (oceanic cyclone, continental cyclone, and cold front). At the inland site, Princeton, ranked-means of precipitation depth, storm duration, specific conductance, and concentrations and loads of hydrogen, sulfate, aluminum, bromide, and copper ions were affected by storm type. At the coastal site, Truro, ranked means of precipitation depth, storm duration, and concentrations and loads of calcium, chloride, magnesium, potassium, and sodium ions were affected by storm type. Precipitation chemistry at the coastal site was 85 percent oceanic in orgin, whereas precipitation 72 kilometers inland was 60 percent hydrogen, nitrate, and sulfate ions, reflecting fossil-fuel combustion. Concentrations and loads for specific conductance and 9 chemical constituents on an annual and seasonal basis were determined from National Atmospheric Deposition Program data for spring 1983 through winter 1985 at Quabbin (rural, inland), Waltham (suburban, inland) and Truro (rural, coastal), Massachusetts. Concentrations of magnesium, potassium, sodium, and chloride concentrations were highest at the coast and much lower inland, with very little difference between Waltham and Quabbin. Loads of ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, and hydrogen are highest at Quabbin and are about equal at Waltham and Truro. About twice as much nitrate and hydrogen and about 35 percent more sulfate is deposited at Quabbin than at Waltham or Truro; this pattern indicates that the interior of Massachusetts receives more acidic precipitation than do the eastern or the coastal areas of Massachusetts.

  19. Identification and Characterization of the Major Chemical Constituents in Fructus Akebiae by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yun; Zhang, Qing; Zhu, Dan-dan; Chen, Fei; Kong, Xiu-hua; Liao, Liang

    2016-02-01

    Fructus Akebiae (FA), the dry fruit of Akebia quinata (THUNB.) DECNE., possesses potent antidepressant properties. Owing to the structural complexity, high polarity and thermal lability in plants, it is difficult and time-consuming to analyze the major chemical constituents by traditional strategies that involve extraction, isolation, purification and identification by chemical manipulations and spectroscopic methods. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS-MS) method was established for quickly identifying the chemical constituents in the extract of Fructus Akebiae. The main saponin components in the extract of Fructus Akebiae were detected with the HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS-MS in negative-ion mode. These components were further analyzed by MS(2) spectra, and compared with the corresponding reference substances and literature data. Nineteen saponins in the extract of Fructus Akebiae were well separated in one run. The new method is accurate and rapid. It can be used to identify the main chemical constituents in the extract of Fructus Akebiae and can be suitable for the quality control of Fructus Akebiae.

  20. 9 CFR 381.120 - Antioxidants; chemical preservatives; and other additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Antioxidants; chemical preservatives... Labeling and Containers § 381.120 Antioxidants; chemical preservatives; and other additives. When an antioxidant is added to a poultry product, there shall appear on the label in prominent letters and...

  1. 9 CFR 381.120 - Antioxidants; chemical preservatives; and other additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antioxidants; chemical preservatives... Labeling and Containers § 381.120 Antioxidants; chemical preservatives; and other additives. When an antioxidant is added to a poultry product, there shall appear on the label in prominent letters and...

  2. 9 CFR 381.120 - Antioxidants; chemical preservatives; and other additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Antioxidants; chemical preservatives... Labeling and Containers § 381.120 Antioxidants; chemical preservatives; and other additives. When an antioxidant is added to a poultry product, there shall appear on the label in prominent letters and...

  3. 9 CFR 381.120 - Antioxidants; chemical preservatives; and other additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Antioxidants; chemical preservatives... Labeling and Containers § 381.120 Antioxidants; chemical preservatives; and other additives. When an antioxidant is added to a poultry product, there shall appear on the label in prominent letters and...

  4. MIXTURES OF THYROID DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: TESTING ADDITIVITY OF HEPATIC INDUCERS AND THYROID PEROXIDASE INHIBITORS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed to chemical mixtures via diet, occupation, and the environment. Previous data demonstrated that low doses of polycyclic halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) acting through similar mechanisms result in an additive reduction of thyroxine (T4). If xenobioti...

  5. A new approach to NMR chemical shift additivity parameters using simultaneous linear equation method.

    PubMed

    Shahab, Yosif A; Khalil, Rabah A

    2006-10-01

    A new approach to NMR chemical shift additivity parameters using simultaneous linear equation method has been introduced. Three general nitrogen-15 NMR chemical shift additivity parameters with physical significance for aliphatic amines in methanol and cyclohexane and their hydrochlorides in methanol have been derived. A characteristic feature of these additivity parameters is the individual equation can be applied to both open-chain and rigid systems. The factors that influence the (15)N chemical shift of these substances have been determined. A new method for evaluating conformational equilibria at nitrogen in these compounds using the derived additivity parameters has been developed. Conformational analyses of these substances have been worked out. In general, the results indicate that there are four factors affecting the (15)N chemical shift of aliphatic amines; paramagnetic term (p-character), lone pair-proton interactions, proton-proton interactions, symmetry of alkyl substituents and molecular association.

  6. Assessment of dominance hierarchy through urine scent marking and its chemical constituents in male blackbuck Antelope cervicapra, a critically endangered species.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Thangavel; Archunan, Govindaraju; Geraldine, Pitchairaj; Balasundaram, Chellam

    2010-09-01

    In ungulates the process of chemical communication by urinary scent marking has been directly related to reproductive dominance, territorial defense and proximity to resources. The differences in the frequency of urine marking and chemical composition of urine of males Antelope cervicapra before, during and after the dominance hierarchy period were assessed. The variations in the urine marking and its chemical profiles of dominant males (n=9), bachelors (n=5) and sub-adult males (n=5) were compared to find out how the dominance hierarchy influences the confined blackbuck herd under semi-natural captive conditions. The frequency of urine marking is significantly higher (p<0.001) in dominant males. Twenty-eight major constituents were identified in the urine of dominant males (before, during and after the dominance hierarchy period), bachelor and sub-adult males. Among these, three specific compounds namely, 3-hexanone (I), 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (II) and 4-methyl-3-heptanone (III) were seen only in dominant males urine during the dominance hierarchy period. Based on the behavioural observation and the unique chemical constituents in the urine, it is concluded that the dominant male scent odor suppresses aggression, scent marking, scent production and territorial patrolling activities of subordinate males, through which the dominant male establish their hierarchy and attains success in reproduction.

  7. Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil from Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Leaves Cultivated in Hidrolândia, Goiás, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Sandra Ribeiro; Oliveira, Thiago Levi Silva; Bara, Maria Teresa Freitas; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Rezende, Maria Helena; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; de Paula, José Realino

    2012-01-01

    Several studies involving the family Verbenaceae, occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado, have emphasized the popular use of many aromatic species. We highlight the use of Lippia sidoides Cham., known as “alecrim pimenta,” native to northeastern Brazil and northern Minas Gerais. Leaves of this species were collected in antropized Brazilian Cerrado area, in Hidrolândia, Goiás, and their essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and thereafter analyzed GC/MS. Among the compounds identified in this study were the most abundant oxygenated monoterpenes, followed by sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons. The oxygenated monoterpene 1,8-cineole was the major constituent followed by isoborneol and bornyl acetate. The chemical composition of essential oil described in this paper differs from that described in the literature for L. sidoides found in its native environment, where the major constituents are thymol and carvacrol. PMID:22505916

  8. Chemical control of the sea lamprey: the addition of a chemical to the environment.

    PubMed

    Menzie, C M; Hunn, J B

    1976-01-01

    Construction of the Welland Canal enabled shipping to by-pass Niagara Falls and enter the upper Great Lakes and also eliminated the barrier to the entry to the lakes by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus). Within forty years the commercial fisheries of the Great Lakes was almost eliminated by this parasitic cyclostome. A search for selective chemical control of the sea lamprey was undertaken in the 1950's and culminated with the discovery of TFM (3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol). At the request of the International Great Lakes Fishery Commission, the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife undertook to assess the hazard of TFM to the aquatic ecosystem, to humans as well as to fish and wildlife. Studies were undertaken in Bureau laboratories as well as by contracts with university and private laboratories. Results of these studies to-date indicate that this material is not subject to biomagnification and does not pose a hazard to man or the the environment.

  9. Comprehensive chemical characterization of Rapé tobacco products: Nicotine, un-ionized nicotine, tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and flavor constituents.

    PubMed

    Stanfill, Stephen B; Oliveira da Silva, André Luiz; Lisko, Joseph G; Lawler, Tameka S; Kuklenyik, Peter; Tyx, Robert E; Peuchen, Elizabeth H; Richter, Patricia; Watson, Clifford H

    2015-08-01

    Rapé, a diverse group of smokeless tobacco products indigenous to South America, is generally used as a nasal snuff and contains substantial amount of plant material with or without tobacco. Previously uncharacterized, rapé contains addictive and harmful chemicals that may have public health implications for users. Here we report % moisture, pH, and the levels of total nicotine, un-ionized nicotine, flavor-related compounds, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for manufactured and hand-made rapé. Most rapé products were mildly acidic (pH 5.17-6.23) with total nicotine ranging from 6.32 to 47.6 milligram per gram of sample (mg/g). Calculated un-ionized nicotine ranged from 0.03 to 18.5 mg/g with the highest values associated with hand-made rapés (pH 9.75-10.2), which contain alkaline ashes. In tobacco-containing rapés, minor alkaloid levels and Fourier transform infrared spectra were used to confirm the presence of Nicotiana rustica, a high nicotine tobacco species. There was a wide concentration range of TSNAs and PAHs among the rapés analyzed. Several TSNAs and PAHs identified in the products are known or probable carcinogens according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Milligram quantities of some non-tobacco constituents, such as camphor, coumarin, and eugenol, warrant additional evaluation.

  10. Explanation of non-additive effects in mixtures of similar mode of action chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Masashi; Yokomizo, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Many models have been developed to predict the combined effect of drugs and chemicals. Most models are classified into two additive models: independent action (IA) and concentration addition (CA). It is generally considered if the modes of action of chemicals are similar then the combined effect obeys CA; however, many empirical studies report nonlinear effects deviating from the predictions by CA. Such deviations are termed synergism and antagonism. Synergism, which leads to a stronger toxicity, requires more careful management, and hence it is important to understand how and which combinations of chemicals lead to synergism. In this paper, three types of chemical reactions are mathematically modeled and the cause of the nonlinear effects among chemicals with similar modes of action was investigated. Our results show that combined effects obey CA only when the modes of action are exactly the same. Contrary to existing knowledge, combined effects are generally nonlinear even if the modes of action of the chemicals are similar. Our results further show that the nonlinear effects vanish out when the chemical concentrations are low, suggesting that the current management procedure of assuming CA is rarely inappropriate because environmental concentrations of chemicals are generally low.

  11. The effect of lactic acid bacterial starter culture and chemical additives on wilted rice straw silage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Su; Shi, Wei; Huang, Lin-Ting; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are suitable for rice straw silage fermentation, but have been studied rarely, and rice straw as raw material for ensiling is difficult because of its disadvantages, such as low nutrition for microbial activities and low abundances of natural populations of LAB. So we investigated the effect of application of LAB and chemical additives on the fermentation quality and microbial community of wilted rice straw silage. Treatment with chemical additives increased the concentrations of crude protein (CP), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), acetic acid and lactic acid, reduced the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), but did not effectively inhibit the growth of spoilage organisms. Inoculation with LABs did not improve the nutritional value of the silage because of poor growth of LABs in wilted rice straw. Inoculation with LAB and addition of chemical materials improved the quality of silage similar to the effects of addition of chemical materials alone. Growth of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria was inhibited by this mixed treatment and the LAB gradually dominated the microbial community. In summary, the fermentation quality of wilted rice straw silage had improved by addition of LAB and chemical materials.

  12. Chemical TOPAZ: Modifications to the heat transfer code TOPAZ: The addition of chemical reaction kinetics and chemical mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A.L. III.

    1990-06-07

    This is a report describing the modifications which have been made to the heat flow code TOPAZ to allow the inclusion of thermally controlled chemical kinetics. This report is broken into parts. The first part is an introduction to the general assumptions and theoretical underpinning that were used to develop the model. The second section describes the changes that have been implemented into the code. The third section is the users manual for the input for the code. The fourth section is a compilation of hints, common errors, and things to be aware of while you are getting started. The fifth section gives a sample problem using the new code. This manual addenda is written with the presumption that most readers are not fluent with chemical concepts. Therefore, we shall in this section endeavor to describe the requirements that must be met before chemistry can occur and how we have modeled the chemistry in the code.

  13. CLAYFORM: a FORTRAN 77 computer program apportioning the constituents in the chemical analysis of a clay or other silicate mineral into a structural formula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodine, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The FORTRAN 77 computer program CLAYFORM apportions the constituents of a conventional chemical analysis of a silicate mineral into a user-selected structure formula. If requested, such as for a clay mineral or other phyllosilicate, the program distributes the structural formula components into appropriate default or user-specified structural sites (tetrahedral, octahedral, interlayer, hydroxyl, and molecular water sites), and for phyllosilicates calculates the layer (tetrahedral, octahedral, and interlayer) charge distribution. The program also creates data files of entered analyses for subsequent reuse. ?? 1987.

  14. Bioactive chemical constituents of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes extract inhibit the growth of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Lateef, Ezzat; Mahmoud, Faten; Hammam, Olfat; El-Ahwany, Eman; El-Wakil, Eman; Kandil, Sherihan; Abu Taleb, Hoda; El-Sayed, Mortada; Hassenein, Hanaa

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify the chemical constituents of the methanolic extract of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes and their inhibitory effect on a hepatoma cell line. The methanolic extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify the volatile constituents and the other part of the same extract was subjected to liquid column chromatographic separation to isolate curcumin. The inhibition of cell growth in the hepatoma cell line and the cytopathological changes were studied. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fifty compounds in the methanolic extract of C. longa. The major compounds were ar-turmerone (20.50 %), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.20 %) and curcumenol (5.11 %). Curcumin was identified using IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The inhibition of cell growth by curcumin (IC50 = 41.69 ± 2.87 μg mL-1) was much more effective than that of methanolic extract (IC50 = 196.12 ± 5.25 μg mL-1). Degenerative and apoptotic changes were more evident in curcumin- treated hepatoma cells than in those treated with the methanol extract. Antitumor potential of the methanolic extract may be attributed to the presence of sesquiterpenes and phenolic constituents including curcumin (0.051 %, 511.39 μg g-1 dried methanol extract) in C. longa rhizomes.

  15. Menthol addition to cigarettes using breakable capsules in the filter. Impact on the mainstream smoke yields of the health Canada list constituents.

    PubMed

    Dolka, C; Piadé, J-J; Belushkin, M; Jaccard, G

    2013-10-21

    Cigarettes with menthol capsules embedded in the filter have been introduced recently in many countries. At the same time, concerns have been expressed that filter performance could be affected by the crushing of the capsule therein, altering mainstream smoke constituent yields, ultimately with the potential to impact the toxicity of these products. The present study investigates the possible mechanisms underlying differences in smoke constituent deliveries following the crushing of a menthol capsule in a cigarette filter. It also includes results from a market survey of a selection of commercial cigarette brands with menthol capsules representing the different designs for this type of product available in different markets worldwide. The yields of 46 Health Canada smoke components were determined according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) machine-smoking regime. Data obtained from measurements using cigarettes with the capsule crushed and uncrushed were compared. Except for the intended presence of menthol flavors in smoke, no meaningful differences were identified in the yields of the remaining measured particulate-phase smoke constituents. Regarding the gas-phase smoke constituents, it was found that the delivery of lipophilic volatiles was reduced when the capsule was crushed. Delivery of the other measured gas-phase components remained unaffected. The results from investigations performed in this study did not show any meaningful increase in the yield of smoke constituents listed by Health Canada as a result of crushing the menthol capsule in the cigarette filter.

  16. Steam sauna and mother roasting in Lao PDR: practices and chemical constituents of essential oils of plant species used in postpartum recovery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fundamental in traditional postpartum recovery in Lao PDR is the use of hotbeds, mother roasting, steam sauna and steam baths. During these treatments medicinal plants play a crucial role, but little has been published about how the treatments are carried out precisely, which species are used, the medicinal properties of these species, and the medicinal efficacy of their chemical constituents. Methods Sixty-five interviews, in 15 rural villages, with women of 4 different ethnic groups were conducted to survey confinement rituals, and postpartum plant use and salience. Essential oils from the main species used were extracted using steam distillation and the main chemical constituents characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results A total of 10 different species were used by three or more of the ethnic groups included in this study. All species were used in steam sauna and bath, but only 3 species were used in hotbed and mother roasting. Essential oils of Amomum villosum, Amomum microcarpum and Blumea balsamifera were found to contain significant amounts of the following terpenes: β-pinene, camphor, bornyl acetate, borneol, linalool, D-limonene, fenchone, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpinene. Conclusions Many of these terpenes have documented antimicrobial and analgesic properties, and some have also synergistic interactions with other terpenes. The mode of application in hotbed and mother roasting differs from the documented mechanisms of action of these terpenes. Plants in these two practices are likely to serve mainly hygienic purposes, by segregating the mother from infection sources such as beds, mats, stools, cloth and towels. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through inhalation of essential oils vapors can possibly have medicinal efficacy, but is unlikely to alleviate the ailments commonly encountered during postpartum convalescence. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through dermal condensation of essential oils, and steam bath

  17. The associations between birth weight and exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its chemical constituents during pregnancy: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Luo, Xiping; Zhao, Chunmei; Zhang, Bo; Tao, Jun; Yang, Zuyao; Ma, Wenjun; Liu, Tao

    2016-04-01

    We performed this meta-analysis to estimate the associations of maternal exposure to PM2.5 and its chemical constituents with birth weight and to explore the sources of heterogeneity in regard to the findings of these associations. A total of 32 studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, PUBMED, Embase, China Biological Medicine and Wanfang electronic databases before April 2015. We estimated the statistically significant associations of reduced birth weight (β = -15.9 g, 95% CI: -26.8, -5.0) and LBW (OR = 1.090, 95% CI: 1.032, 1.150) with PM2.5 exposure (per 10 μg/m(3) increment) during the entire pregnancy. Trimester-specific analyses showed negative associations between birth weight and PM2.5 exposure during the second (β = -12.6 g) and third (β = -10.0 g) trimesters. Other subgroup analyses indicated significantly different pooled-effect estimates of PM2.5 exposure on birth weight in studies with different exposure assessment methods, study designs and study settings. We further observed large differences in the pooled effect estimates of the PM2.5 chemical constituents for birth weight decrease and LBW. We concluded that PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight, and late pregnancy might be the critical window. Some specific PM2.5 constituents may have larger toxic effects on fetal weight. Exposure assessment methods, study designs and study settings might be important sources of the heterogeneity among the included studies.

  18. Chemical constituents in sediment in Lake Pontchartrain and in street mud and canal sediment in New Orleans, Louisiana, following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Horowitz, Arthur J.; Skrobialowski, Stanley C.; Foreman, William T.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Elrick, Kent A.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Smith, James J.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    Samples of street mud, suspended and bottom sediment in canals discharging to Lake Ponchartrain, and suspended and bottom sediment in the lake were collected and analyzed for chemical constituents to help evaluate the effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and the subsequent unwatering of New Orleans, Louisiana. The approach used for sampling and analysis of chemical data for the study is presented herein. Radionuclides, major and trace elements, and numerous organic compounds in sediment were analyzed. The organic compounds include organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, urban waste indicator compounds, and current-use pesticides. Methods for the analysis of urban waste indicator compounds and current-use pesticides in sediment were developed only recently.

  19. Rapid characterization of the chemical constituents of Cortex Fraxini by homogenate extraction followed by UHPLC coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinan; Han, Fei; Song, Aihua; Wang, Miao; Zhao, Min; Zhao, Chunjie

    2016-11-01

    Cortex Fraxini is an important traditional Chinese medicine. In this work, a rapid and reliable homogenate extraction method was applied for the fast extraction for Cortex Fraxini, and the method was optimized by response surface methodology. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography combined with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry were established for the separation and characterization of the constituents of Cortex Fraxini. Liquid chromatography separation was conducted on a C18 column (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm), and gas chromatography separation was performed on a capillary with a 5% phenyl-methylpolysiloxane stationary phase (30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 mm) by injection of silylated samples. According to the results, 33 chemical compounds were characterized by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry, and 11 chemical compounds were characterized by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, and coumarins were the major components characterized by both gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The proposed homogenate extraction was an efficient and rapid method, and coumarins, phenylethanoid glycosides, iridoid glycosides, phenylpropanoids, and lignans were the main constituents of Cortex Fraxini. This work laid the foundation for further study of Cortex Fraxini and will be helpful for the rapid extraction and characterization of ingredients in other traditional Chinese medicines.

  20. Singular vector based targeted observations of chemical constituents: description and first application of the EURAD-IM-SVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goris, N.; Elbern, H.

    2015-08-01

    Measurements of the large dimensional chemical state of the atmosphere provide only sparse snapshots of the state of the system due to their typically insufficient temporal and spatial density. In order to optimize the measurement configurations despite those limitations, the present work describes the identification of sensitive states of the chemical system as optimal target areas for adaptive observations. For this purpose, the technique of singular vector analysis (SVA), which has been proved effective for targeted observations in numerical weather predication, is implemented into the chemical transport model EURAD-IM (EURopean Air pollution and Dispersion - Inverse Model) yielding the EURAD-IM-SVA. Besides initial values, emissions are investigated as critical simulation controlling targeting variables. For both variants, singular vectors are applied to determine the optimal placement for observations and moreover to quantify which chemical compounds have to be observed with preference. Based on measurements of the airship based ZEPTER-2 campaign, the EURAD-IM-SVA has been evaluated by conducting a comprehensive set of model runs involving different initial states and simulation lengths. Since the considered cases are restricted in terms of considered chemical compounds and selected areas, they allow for a retracing of the results and a confirmation of their correctness. Our analysis shows that the optimal placement for observations of chemical species is not entirely determined by mere transport and mixing processes. Rather, a combination of initial chemical concentrations, chemical conversions, and meteorological processes determine the influence of chemical compounds and regions. We furthermore demonstrate that the optimal placement of observations of emission strengths is highly dependent on the location of emission sources and that the benefit of including emissions as target variables outperforms the value of initial value optimisation with growing

  1. Reducing the matrix effects in chemical analysis: fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliano, Enea; Meija, Juris

    2016-04-01

    The combination of isotope dilution and mass spectrometry has become an ubiquitous tool of chemical analysis. Often perceived as one of the most accurate methods of chemical analysis, it is not without shortcomings. Current isotope dilution equations are not capable of fully addressing one of the key problems encountered in chemical analysis: the possible effect of sample matrix on measured isotope ratios. The method of standard addition does compensate for the effect of sample matrix by making sure that all measured solutions have identical composition. While it is impossible to attain such condition in traditional isotope dilution, we present equations which allow for matrix-matching between all measured solutions by fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods.

  2. 77 FR 76419 - Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals; Withdrawal of Final Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...-2011-0363; FRL-9375-3] RIN 2070-AJ89 Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals.... SUMMARY: EPA is withdrawing the final Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) section 8(d) Health and Safety Data Reporting Rule that it issued on December 3, 2012. The health and safety data reporting rule...

  3. Kinetic effect of Pd additions on the hydrogen uptake of chemically activated, ultramicroporous carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Vinay V; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C

    2010-01-01

    The effect of mixing chemically-activated ultramicroporous carbon (UMC) with Pd nanopowder is investigated. Results show that Pd addition doubles the rate of hydrogen uptake, but does not enhance the hydrogen capacity or improve desorption kinetics. The effect of Pd on the rate of hydrogen adsorption supports the occurrence of the hydrogen spillover mechanism in the Pd - UMC system.

  4. Water and a protic ionic liquid acted as refolding additives for chemically denatured enzymes.

    PubMed

    Attri, Pankaj; Venkatesu, P; Kumar, Anil

    2012-10-07

    In this communication, we present the ability of water and a protic ionic liquid, triethyl ammonium phosphate (TEAP) to act as refolding additives for the urea-induced chemical denaturated state of the two enzymes, α-chymotrypsin and succinylated Con A. We show that the enzymatic activity is regained and in certain circumstances enhanced.

  5. A chemical additive to limit transfer of salmonella and campylobacter during immersion chill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler carcasses with different types and numbers of bacteria are commonly chilled together in an ice water bath which may lead to transfer of bacteria from carcass to carcass. Historically, chill tanks have been chlorinated to help prevent cross contamination. Recently other chemical additive op...

  6. Chemical constituents of Meconopsis horridula and their simultaneous quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiajia; Wu, Haimei; Zheng, Feng; Liu, Wenyuan; Feng, Feng; Xie, Ning

    2014-09-01

    Meconopsis horridula Hook.f. Thoms has been used as a traditional Tibetan medicine to clear away heat, relieve pain, and mobilize static blood. In this study, a reliable method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was established for the identification of components in this herb. A total of 40 compounds (including 17 flavonoids, 15 alkaloids, and eight phenylpropanoids) were identified or tentatively identified. Among them, 17 components were identified in the herb for the first time. Compound 39 appears to be a novel compound, which is confirmed as 3-(kaempferol-8-yl)-2,3-epoxyflavanone by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Moreover, seven major constituents were simultaneously quantified by the developed high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry method. The quantitative method was validated and quality parameters were established. The study provides a comprehensive approach for understanding this herbal medicine.

  7. NMR-based metabolomic investigation of bioactivity of chemical constituents in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Giusti, M Monica; Johnson, Jodee L; Rinaldi, Peter L; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Bomser, Joshua A; Miller, A Raymond; Hardy, James K; Reese, R Neil

    2014-02-26

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) (BR) fruit extracts with differing compound profiles have shown variable antiproliferative activities against HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. This study used partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis to develop a high-resolution (1)H NMR-based multivariate statistical model for discerning the biological activity of BR constituents. This model identified specific bioactive compounds and ascertained their relative contribution against cancer cell proliferation. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside were the predominant contributors to the extract bioactivity, but salicylic acid derivatives (e.g., salicylic acid glucosyl ester), quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, methyl ellagic acid derivatives (e.g., methyl ellagic acetyl pentose), and citric acid derivatives also contributed significantly to the antiproliferative activity of the berry extracts. This approach enabled the identification of new bioactive components in BR fruits and demonstrates the utility of the method for assessing chemopreventive compounds in foods and food products.

  8. Elucidating the Chemical Complexity of Organic Aerosol Constituents Measured During the Southeastern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, L.; Isaacman, G. A.; Spielman, S. R.; Worton, D. R.; Zhang, H.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Wilson, K. R.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    Thousands of volatile organic compounds are uniquely created in the atmosphere, many of which undergo chemical transformations that result in more highly-oxidized and often lower vapor pressure species. These species can contribute to secondary organic aerosol, a complex mixture of organic compounds that is still not chemically well-resolved. Organic aerosol collected on filters taken during the Southeastern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) constitute hundreds of unique chemical compounds. Some of these include known anthropogenic and biogenic tracers characterized using standardized analytical techniques (e.g. GC-MS, UPLC, LC-MS), but the majority of the chemical diversity has yet to be explored. By employing analytical techniques involving sample derivatization and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) with high-resolution-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-MS), we elucidate the chemical complexity of the organic aerosol matrix along the volatility and polarity grids. Further, by utilizing both electron impact (EI) and novel soft vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization mass spectrometry, a greater fraction of the organic mass is fully speciated. The GC x GC-HR-ToF-MS with EI/VUV technique efficiently provides an unprecedented level of speciation for complex ambient samples. We present an extensive chemical characterization and quantification of organic species that goes beyond typical atmospheric tracers in the SOAS samples. We further demonstrate that complex organic mixtures can be chemically deconvoluted by elucidation of chemical formulae, volatility, functionality, and polarity. These parameters provide insight into the sources (anthropogenic vs. biogenic), chemical processes (oxidation pathways), and environmental factors (temperature, humidity), controlling organic aerosol growth in the Southeastern United States.

  9. Effects of chemical additives on filtration and rheological characteristics of MBR sludge.

    PubMed

    Koseoglu, H; Yigit, N O; Civelekoglu, G; Harman, B I; Kitis, M

    2012-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to control the fouling phenomena in MBR using chemical additives. In the first phase of the study, SMP removal and bound EPS formation capacity of chemical additives were determined. Highest SMP removal (72%) was achieved by the Poly-2 additive. In the second phase of the study, short term filtration tests were conducted. Poly-1 exhibited highest performance based on membrane resistance, permeability and average TMP. According to the results obtained from constant shear rate tests in fourth phase, no significant change in viscosity with time was observed. Studies for the adaptation of rheograms to common flow models showed that chitosan and starch was not able to fit to Ostwald de Waele and Bingham models. At a shear rate of 73.4 s(-1) viscosities of all samples were close to each other. Chitosan and starch achieved highest viscosity values at the shear rate of 0.6 s(-1).

  10. Spinel dissolution via addition of glass forming chemicals. Results of preliminary experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Johnson, F. C.

    2015-11-01

    Increased loading of high level waste in glass can lead to crystallization within the glass. Some crystalline species, such as spinel, have no practical impact on the chemical durability of the glass, and therefore may be acceptable from both a processing and a product performance standpoint. In order to operate a melter with a controlled amount of crystallization, options must be developed for remediating an unacceptable accumulation of crystals. This report describes preliminary experiments designed to evaluate the ability to dissolve spinel crystals in simulated waste glass melts via the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs).

  11. Presence of chemical additives and microbial inhibition capacity in grapefruit seed extracts used in apiculture.

    PubMed

    Spinosi, Valerio; Semprini, Primula; Langella, Vincenzo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Calvarese, Silvano

    2007-01-01

    American foulbrood, caused by Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (White 1906) is one of the most serious diseases of honey bees, causing beekeepers and health workers to make difficult, complex decisions and leading to the development of 'organic' treatments, such as grapefruit seed extract, with minor residue problems in the end product. This study evaluates the chemical composition of grapefruit seed extracts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the detection of benzethonium chloride, cetrimonium bromide and decyltrimethylammonium chloride. The results obtained suggest a close correlation between the microbial effect and the presence of chemical additives in the samples analysed.

  12. Characterization of chemical constituents and rats metabolites of an alkaloidal extract of Alstonia scholaris leaves by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jing; Shen, Hong-Mei; Wang, Qi; Qian, Yi; Guo, Hong-Cheng; Li, Kai; Qiao, Xue; Guo, De-An; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Ye, Min

    2016-07-15

    Alstonia scholaris has been used in "Dai" ethnic medicine to treat chronic respiratory diseases for a long history, and the major bioactive constituents are alkaloids. An alkaloidal extract of A. scholaris leaves (AAS) has been developed into an investigational new drug, and has been approved for phase I/II clinical trials by China Food and Drug Administration. However, little is known on the chemical composition and in vivo metabolism of AAS, thus far. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/qTOF-MS) method was established to characterize the chemical constituents of AAS. Samples were separated on an ACQUITY UPLC CSH column (2.1×100mm, 1.7μm) with acetonitrile and water containing 0.3% formic acid as the mobile phase. On the basis of high-accuracy mass spectral analysis, a total of 35 alkaloids were characterized from AAS, including 11 scholaricine-type, 9 vallesamine-type, 12 picrinine-type, and 3 tubotaiwine-type alkaloids. Furthermore, the metabolic pathways of 4 representative alkaloids in rats were studied. They mainly undertook hydroxylation and glucuronidation reactions. Based on the above metabolic pathways, the metabolism of AAS (10mg/kg) in rats after oral administration was studied by LC/MS. A total of 33 compounds in plasma, 40 compounds in urine, and 38 compounds in feces were characterized. The results indicated that scholaricine-type alkaloids could get into circulation more readily than the other types. This is the first systematic study on chemical profiling and metabolites identification of AAS.

  13. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bartholomay; B. V. Twining; L. J. Campbell

    1999-06-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from 2 domestic wells, 12 irrigation wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public supply well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the reported radiochemical or chemical constituent concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the respective reporting levels. Most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels.

  14. Separation of chemical constituents from three plant medicines by counter-current chromatography using a three-phase solvent system at a novel ratio.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyi; Chao, Zhimao; Wang, Chun; Yu, Li

    2015-03-06

    A solvent system of n-hexane, methyl acetate, acetonitrile, and water at a novel volume ratio of 4:3:4:4 forms three layers, i.e. upper phase (UP), middle phase (MP), and lower phase (LP), with a volume ratio of 1:1.20:1.42 at room temperature (25°C). All three two-phases from this three-phase solvent system were successfully used to separate some chemical constituents from three plant medicines with counter-current chromatography (CCC). Eight coumarins (B1-B8) were obtained from petroleum ether extract of fresh roots of Angelica dahurica (Baizhi) with a stationary phase of UP and a mobile phase of LP. Six diarylheptanoids (L1-L6) were obtained from petroleum ether extract of dried rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum (Liangjiang) with a stationary phase of UP and a mobile phase of MP. Three chemical constituents (Z1-Z3) were obtained from ethyl acetate extract of fresh rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides (Zhimu) with a stationary phase of MP and a mobile phase of LP. Preparative HPLC was used for further purification if necessary. Seventeen chemical constituents were identified as oxypeucedanin hydrate (B1), byakangelicin (B2), byakangelicol (B3), bergapten (B4), oxypeucedanin (B5), imperatorin (B6), phellopterin (B7), isoimperatorin (B8), 5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-3-heptanone (L1), 7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-4E-en-3-heptanone (L2), 5-hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone (L3), 1,7-diphenyl-4E-en-3-heptanone (L4), 5-hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-4E,6E-dien-3-heptanone (L5), isomers of 1,7-diphenyl-3,5-heptandione and 5-hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-4E-en-3-heptanone (L6), mangiferin (Z1), timosaponin A-III (Z2), and 2,6,4'-trihydroxy-4-methoxy-benzophenone (Z3) by means of MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR studies. Five compounds of B3, L3, L5, L6, and Z3 were isolated by CCC for the first time.

  15. 78 FR 74218 - Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare... chemical weapons in violation of international law or lethal chemical weapons against its own nationals... the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, 22 U.S.C. 5604(a)...

  16. Use of chemical additives with steam injection to increase oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, L.L.

    1984-09-01

    Surfactants and certain inorganic bases have been evaluated as possible chemical additives to improve performance of steamfloods. Special emphasis was given to chemicals which would reduce the residual oil saturation in regions flooded by hot water below the steam zone. Problems considered were the effect of prolonged exposure to steam temperature on the stability of petroleum sulfonates, the effect of temperature on surfactant adsorption and the effect of temperature on interfacial tensions. Methods were developed for measuring quantitatively the thermal stability of the aryl sulfonate class of surfactant. This class includes the petroleum sulfonates. The best of the surfactants evaluated in this study had marginal stability for use with steamfloods. The surfactants in combination with elevated temperatures do reduce residual oil saturations. Data are presented on the temperature effects on interfacial tensions and on adsorption. Certain inorganic chemicals which give high pH are effective and inexpensive but hydroxyl ions react with silica in the reservoir. This reaction is accentuated at higher temperatures. Data show that the pH of the injected hot water with caustic decreases with contact time. The experiments did not permit determining if an equilibrium pH would be obtained which would be high enough to be effective in recovering oil. Core floods showed that pH's in excess of 12 would be required to reduce residual oil saturations if sodium hydroxide was the injected chemical. The addition of surfactants with caustic or the use of sodium carbonate may permit recovery of oil at lower pH's. A reservoir simulator is being developed to predict performance of steamfloods with chemical additives. This has been completed for simple linear floods but is being extended to three dimensions and to more complicated flooding operations. 31 references, 43 figures, 2 tables.

  17. PM2.5 Chemical Constituents and Mortality in 49 U.S. Communities from 2001 to 2005

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Short-term exposure to ambient particulate matter less than 2.5 urn in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) is consistently associated with adverse health outcomes in population studies. The PM2.5 mass represents a chemically diverse mixture of pollutants and there is limited...

  18. New chemical additive to enhance reduction of oil carryover in gas

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib, Z.I.

    1998-12-31

    Foaming and fouling in glycol contactors and/or in amine treating systems are frequent problems in gas treatment processes due to the entrainment of liquid and solid aerosols in the gas stream. Entrainment of these aerosols leads also to mechanical damage of turbines and/or unscheduled shutdown of compressor units. A new chemical additive was developed and applied in the gas stream. The additive was successful in preventing the dissemination of the oil and/or condensate carryover into aerosol sizes, thereby enhancing the performance of coalescer filters and scrubbers.

  19. Chemical and toxicological characterization of organic constituents in fluidized-bed and pulverized coal combustion: a topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Chess, E.K.; Later, D.W.; Wilson, B.W.; Harris, W.R.; Remsen, J.F.

    1984-04-01

    Coal combustion fly ash from both conventional pulverized coal combustion (PCC) and fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) have been characterized as to their organic constituents and microbial mutagenic activity. The PCC fly ash was collected from a commercial utility generating plant using a low sulfur coal. The FBC fly ash was from a bench-scale developmental unit at the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. Bulk samples of each fly ash were extracted using benzene/methanol and further separated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Subfractions from the HPLC separation were analyzed by gas chromatography using both element-specific nitrogen-phosphorus detectors and flame ionization detectors. Microbial mutagenicity assay results indicated that the crude organic extracts were mutagenic, and that both the specific activity and the overall activity of the PCC material was greater than that of the FBC material. Comparison of results from assays using S. typhimurium, TA1538NR indicated that nitrated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) were responsible for much of the mutagenic activity of the PCC material. Similar results were obtained for assays of the FBC organic extract with standard and nitroreductase-deficient strains of S. typhimurium, TA100 and TA1538. Mutagenically active HPLC fractions were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and GC mass spectrometry (GC/MS), as well as probe inlet low and high resolutions MS. The discovery and identification of nitrated, oxygenated PAC are important because the presence of both nitro and/or keto functionalities on certain PAC has been shown to confer or enhance mutagenic activity.

  20. Chemical constituents with anti-allergic activity from the root of Edulis Superba, a horticultural cultivar of Paeonia lactiflora.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Tamura, Takayuki; Kadowaki, Makoto; Wang, Zhengtao; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2016-04-01

    The methanolic extract and its subfractions from the dried root of Edulis Superba, a horticultural cultivar of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, showed potent anti-allergic effect as inhibition of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated degranulation in rat basophil leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 26 compounds, including a new norneolignan glycoside, paeonibenzofuran (1), together with 25 known ones (2-26). The chemical structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidences. Among the isolated compounds, mudanpioside E (5) with paeoniflorin-type skeleton and quercetin (16) showed potent inhibitory activity against a degranulation marker, β-hexosaminidase release with IC50 values of 40.34 and 25.05 μM, respectively. A primary structure-activity relationship of these components was discussed.

  1. The impact of volcanic gases from Miyake island on the chemical constituents in precipitation in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tomoaki; Iwase, Tamami; Ueda, Hideko; Suda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Shigeru; Dokiya, Yukiko; Fushimi, Katsuhiko; Hosoe, Morikazu

    2005-04-01

    The volcano on Miyake Island first erupted in July 2000 and continuous emission of volcanic gas from the collapsed caldera has been observed from the middle of August 2000. The large volcanic emission of SO2 had a strong influence on Tokyo metropolitan area, which is located approximately 150 km north of Miyake Island. We measured major ions in precipitation and dry deposition samples which had been collected at five sampling sites (Yokohama, Kashiwa, Fujisawa, Yokosuka, and Hachioji) in the Tokyo metropolitan area for 12 years since 1990. We have evaluated quantitatively the impact of the volcanic SO2 gas emitted from Miyake Island on the Tokyo metropolitan area by comparing depositional ionic constituents in the volcanic degassing period (from September 2000 to August 2001) with those in the normal period of the past 10 years (September 1990 to August 2000). nss-SO4(2-) concentrations in precipitation at the sampling sites in the Tokyo metropolitan area were 59.5-77.0 microeq/L during the degassing period, and 33.3-44.1 microeq/L during the normal period, respectively. The difference of nss-SO4(2-) concentrations between the two periods was statistically significant. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the concentrations of the other major ions (NH4+, nss-Ca2+, Cl-, and NO3-) between the two periods. The impact of volcanic degassing from Miyake Island on the ionic concentrations in the precipitation of the Tokyo metropolitan area was seen only in the H+ and nss-SO4(2-) concentrations. The annual wet deposition amount of volcanic nss-SO4(2-) into the Tokyo metropolitan area has been quantitatively estimated. The annual wet deposition amounts were calculated as 701+/-277 Meq/year (22.4+/-8.9 kt SO2/year) on the total area of the Tokyo metropolitan area (14,000 km2). The wet deposition amount of nss-SO4(2-) corresponds to only 0.15% of the total annual amount of volcanic SO2 (15 Mt/year) emitted from Miyake Island from September 2000 to August

  2. Anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and sedative activities of the extracts and chemical constituents of Diospyros lotus L.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Ghias; Rauf, Abdur; Siddiqui, Bina S; Muhammad, Naveed; Khan, Ajmal; Shah, Syed Uzair Ali

    2014-06-15

    Diospyros lotus L. is traditionally used in various diseases including pain and sleep disorders. The pain and inflammation are the common problems, which are treated with various synthetic analgesic drugs, and associated the side effects. The natural products have gained significant importance over synthetic drugs. The importance of phyto-medicine the current study has been designed with the aim to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Diospyros lotus and bioassay guided isolation from its crude fractions. Seven known compounds; lupeol (1), 7-methyljuglone (2), β-Sitosterol (3), stigmasterol (4) betulinic acid (5), diospyrin (6; DS) and 8-hydroxyisodiospyrin (7; HDS) which were hitherto unreported from D. lotus. The chloroform fraction (CFDL) and isolated compounds DS and HDS were evaluated for anti-nociceptive, sedative and anti-inflammatory effects. The acetic acid induced writing was significantly (p<0.001) protected by CFDL (72.43%), DS (40.87%) and HDS (65.76%) at higher doses which exhibited peripheral and central analgesic effects in acetic acid and hot-plat pain paradigms. Regarding the anti-inflammatory effect the CFDL (77.43%), DS (80.54%) and HDS (75.87%) protected the carrageenan paw edema after 3rd h. The central analgesic effect was significantly antagonized with naloxone (0.5 mg/kg), showing opiodergic mechanism of action. The CFDL, DS and HDS were also proved sedative in open field animal models. In acute toxicity study the chloroform fraction [CFDL (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg)], DS (5 and 10 mg/kg) and HDS (5 and 10 mg/kg) were found safe. Our study concluded that CFDL, DS and HDS have marked anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and sedative effect. The anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the roots of D. lotus are partially attributed due to the presence of analgesic constituents like diospyrin (DS), 8-hydroxyisodiospyrin (HDS) and strongly supports the ethno-pharmacological uses of D. lotus as anti-nociceptive, anti

  3. Arsenic Remediation Enhancement Through Chemical Additions to Pump and Treat Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wovkulich, K.; Mailloux, B. J.; Stute, M.; Simpson, H. J.; Keimowitz, A. R.; Powell, A.; Lacko, A.; Chillrud, S. N.

    2008-12-01

    Arsenic is a contaminant found at more than 500 US Superfund sites. Since pump and treat technologies are widely used for remediation of contaminated groundwater, increasing the efficiency of contaminant removal at such sites should allow limited financial resources to clean up more sites. The Vineland Chemical Company Superfund site is extensively contaminated with arsenic after waste arsenic salts were stored and disposed of improperly for much of the company's 44 year manufacturing lifetime. Despite approximately eight years of pump and treat remediation, arsenic concentrations in the recovery wells can still be greater than 1000 ppb. The arsenic concentrations in the groundwater remain high because of slow desorption of arsenic from contaminated aquifer solids. Extrapolation of laboratory column experiments suggest that continuing the current groundwater remediation practice based on flushing ambient groundwater through the system may require on the order of hundreds of years to clean the site. However, chemical additions of phosphate or oxalic acid into the aquifer could decrease the remediation time scale substantially. Laboratory results from a soil column experiment using input of 10 mM oxalic acid suggest that site clean up of groundwater could be decreased to as little as four years. Pilot scale forced gradient field experiments will help establish whether chemical additions can be effective for increasing arsenic mobilization from aquifer solids and thus substantially decrease pump and treat clean up time.

  4. [Effects of nitrogen addition on soil physico-chemical properties and enzyme activities in desertified steppe].

    PubMed

    Su, Jie-Qiong; Li, Xin-Rong; Bao, Jing-Ting

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the impacts of nitrogen (N) enrichment on soil physico-chemical property and soil enzyme activities in desert ecosystems, a field experiment by adding N at 0, 1.75, 3.5, 7, or 14 g N x m(-2) a(-1) was conducted in a temperate desert steppe in the southeastern fringe of the Tengger Desert. The results showed that N addition led to accumulations of total N, NO(3-)-N, NH(4+)-N, and available N in the upper soil (0-10 cm) and subsoil (10-20 cm), however, reductions in soil pH were observed, causing soil acidification to some extent. N addition pronouncedly inhibited soil enzyme activities, which were different among N addition levels, soil depths, and years, respectively. Soil enzyme activities were significantly correlated with the soil N level, soil pH, and soil moisture content, respectively.

  5. Studies on chemical constituents and bioactivity of Rosa micrantha: an alternative antioxidants source for food, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic applications.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-05-26

    Rose species have long been used for food and medicinal purposes. Rosa micrantha is one of the rose species that grow feral in the northeastern Portuguese region so-called Nordeste Transmontano. For the first time, chemical composition and bioactivity of their petals, fertilized flowers, unripe, ripening, and overripe hips were evaluated in order to valorize them as sources of important phytochemicals. Chemical characterization included determination of proteins, fats, ash, and carbohydrates, particularly sugars, by HPLC-RI, fatty acids by GC-FID, tocopherols by HPLC-fluorescence, and phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid by spectrophotometric techniques. Bioactivity was evaluated through screening of antioxidant properties: radical scavenging effects, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Ripening and overripe hips showed high nutritional value including proteins, carbohydrates, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, energy, sugars, particularly the reducing sugars fructose and glucose, and ascorbic acid (>693 mg/100 g). Fertilized flowers and petals revealed the highest antioxidant activity (EC(50) > 152 microg/mL) and phenolics, flavonoids, and tocopherols contents (>35 mg/100 g). Furthermore, petals, ripening, and overripe hips are important sources of carotenoid pigments (>64 mg/100 g). Because of the diversity and abundance of antioxidants found in this species, some food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications could be explored.

  6. Occurrence and Trends of Selected Chemical Constituents in Bottom Sediment, Grand Lake O' the Cherokees, Northeast Oklahoma, 1940-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Becker, Mark F.

    2009-01-01

    After over 100 years of continuous activity, lead and zinc mining in the Tri-State Mining District (hereafter referred to as the TSMD) in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma ended in the 1970s. The mining activity resulted in substantial historical and ongoing input of cadmium, lead, and zinc to the environment including Grand Lake O' the Cherokees (hereafter referred to as Grand Lake), a large reservoir in northeast Oklahoma. To help determine the extent and magnitude of contamination in Grand Lake, a one-year study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Bottom-sediment coring at five sites was used to investigate the occurrence of cadmium, lead, zinc, and other selected constituents in the bottom sediment of Grand Lake. Cadmium concentrations in the bottom sediment of Grand Lake ranged from 2.3 to 3.6 mg/kg (milligrams per kilogram) with a median of 3.5 mg/kg (5 samples). Compared to an estimated local background concentration of 0.6 mg/kg, the historical mining activity increased cadmium concentrations by about 280 to 500 percent. Lead concentrations ranged from 35 to 102 mg/kg with a median of 59 mg/kg (50 samples). Compared to an estimated local background concentration of 20 mg/kg, the historical mining activity increased lead concentrations by about 75 to 410 percent. The range in zinc concentrations was 380 to 986 mg/kg with a median of 765 mg/kg (50 samples). Compared to an estimated local background concentration of 100 mg/kg, the historical mining activity increased zinc concentrations by about 280 to 890 percent. With the exception of the most upstream coring site, the lead and zinc depositional profiles generally were similar in terms of the range in concentrations measured and the temporal pattern observed. Depositional profiles for lead and zinc indicated mid-core peaks followed by concentrations that decreased since about the 1980s. The depositional

  7. Thermotropic Behavior of Membranes Containing DMPC and Chemically and Stereochemically Pure Sphingomyelin upon Cholesterol Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibakami, Motonari; Sonoyama, Masashi; Goto, Rie; Mori, Michiko; Suzuki, Hikokazu; Mitaku, Shigeki

    2004-12-01

    High sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry is applied to the problem of interaction between phospholipids and cholesterol in bilayers, i.e., whether or not cholesterol shows a preferential interaction with sphingomyelins over glycerophospholipids. The simplest system yet used for exploring this problem is designed—one composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC), chemically and stereochemically pure N-palmitoyl-sphingomyelin (pure-C16:0-SM), and cholesterol, based on a belief that chemically and stereochemically purity excludes chain length mismatch and chiral interaction that may affect the interaction from this system. Incremental addition of cholesterol to mixtures of DMPC and pure-C16:0-SM with a ratio of 6:4 or 4:6 leads to a continuous shift in endotherm due to DMPC toward a lower temperature. Such results indicate that cholesterol favors pure-C16:0-SM.

  8. Anti-herbivore Structures of Paulownia tomentosa: Morphology, Distribution, Chemical Constituents and Changes During Shoot and Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Sawa; Asai, Teigo; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Kohshima, Shiro

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent studies have shown that small structures on plant surfaces serve ecological functions such as resistance against herbivores. The morphology, distribution, chemical composition and changes during shoot and leaf development of such small structures were examined on Paulownia tomentosa. Methods The morphology and distribution of the structures were studied under light microscopy, and their chemical composition was analysed using thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. To further investigate the function of these structures, several simple field experiments and observations were also conducted. Key Results Three types of small structures on P. tomentosa were investigated: bowl-shaped organs, glandular hairs and dendritic trichomes. The bowl-shaped organs were densely aggregated on the leaves near flower buds and were determined to be extrafloral nectarines (EFNs) that secrete sugar and attract ants. Nectar production of these organs was increased by artificial damage to the leaves, suggesting an anti-herbivore function through symbiosis with ants. Glandular hairs were found on the surfaces of young and/or reproductive organs. Glandular hairs on leaves, stems and flowers secreted mucilage containing glycerides and trapped small insects. Secretions from glandular hairs on flowers and immature fruits contained flavonoids, which may provide protection against some herbivores. Yellow dendritic trichomes on the adaxial side of leaves also contained flavonoids identical to those secreted by the glandular hairs on fruits and flowers. Three special types of leaves, which differed from the standard leaves in shape, size and identity of small structures, developed near young shoot tips or young flower buds. The density of small structures on these leaf types was higher than on standard leaves, suggesting that these leaf types may be specialized to protect young leaves or reproductive organs. Changes in the small structures

  9. Sedimentation and Occurrence and Trends of Selected Chemical Constituents in Bottom Sediment, Empire Lake, Cherokee County, Kansas, 1905-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2006-01-01

    For about 100 years (1850-1950), the Tri-State Mining District in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma was one of the primary sources of lead and zinc ore in the world. The mining activity in the Tri-State District has resulted in substantial historical and ongoing input of cadmium, lead, and zinc to the environment including Empire Lake in Cherokee County, southeast Kansas. The environmental contamination caused by the decades of mining activity resulted in southeast Cherokee County being listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priority List as a superfund hazardous waste site in 1983. To provide some of the information needed to support efforts to restore the ecological health of Empire Lake, a 2-year study was begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Kansas Department of Health and Environment. A combination of sediment-thickness mapping and bottom-sediment coring was used to investigate sediment deposition and the occurrence of cadmium, lead, zinc, and other selected constituents in the bottom sediment of Empire Lake. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment in Empire Lake were 44 million cubic feet and 2,400 million pounds, respectively. Most of the bottom sediment was located in the main body and the Shoal Creek arm of the reservoir. Minimal sedimentation was evident in the Spring River arm of the reservoir. The total mass of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the bottom sediment of Empire Lake was estimated to be 78,000 pounds, 650,000 pounds, and 12 million pounds, respectively. In the bottom sediment of Empire Lake, cadmium concentrations ranged from 7.3 to 76 mg/kg (milligrams per kilogram) with an overall median concentration of 29 mg/kg. Compared to an estimated background concentration of 0.4 mg/kg, the historical mining activity increased the median cadmium concentration by about 7,200 percent. Lead concentrations ranged from 100 to

  10. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Linnes, Jacqueline; Young, Anna; Gerrard, Victoria; Gomez-Marquez, Jose

    2014-03-01

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument.

  11. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Linnes, Jacqueline; Young, Anna; Gomez-Marquez, Jose; Gerrard, Victoria

    2014-03-15

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument.

  12. Inflammatory and degranulation effect of yellow sand on RBL-2H3 cells in relation to chemical and biological constituents.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Parida; Hatta, Tamao; Du, Mingyuan; Wakimizu, Kenji; Han, Junkyu; Maki, Taichi; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-10-01

    Recent studie pointed out that allergic diseases have increased during the Asian dust storm event (ADSE) in Japan. Daily observations and the atmospheric concentrations of yellow sand (YS) aerosol have been increasing. In this study, YS samples collected from three sites of Japan during ADSE in 2009-2010 were used. The particles were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray fluorescence-energy dispersive spectrometer (XRF-EDS). We investigate ability of YS extract on enhancing the chemical mediator release and cytokine production from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. The dust particles at Fukuoka and Tsukuba were abundant in aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), potassium (K) and titan (Ti) than those at Naha. Concentration of the trace endotoxin and Cryptomeria japonica pollen allergen (Cry j 1) were measured in YS extract. After exposure of RBL-2H3 cells to YS extract, the β-hexosaminidase (β-hex) release, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production were enhanced in RBL-2H3 cells. This process depends on endotoxin, Cry j 1 and other allergen present in the YS extract. YS water extract also show a strong cytotoxic effect on the cells. This data suggest that low levels of endotoxin and Cry j 1 in YS may cause allergy during the ADSE.

  13. Quasi-chemical approach for adsorption of mixtures with non-additive lateral interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, O. A.; Pasinetti, P. M.; Ramirez-Pastor, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    The statistical thermodynamics of binary mixtures with non-additive lateral interactions was developed on a generalization in the spirit of the lattice-gas model and the classical quasi-chemical approximation (QCA). The traditional assumption of a strictly pairwise additive nearest-neighbors interaction is replaced by a more general one, namely that the bond linking a certain atom with any of its neighbors depends considerably on how many of them are actually present (or absent) on the sites in the first coordination shell of the atom. The total and partial adsorption isotherms are given for both attractive and repulsive lateral interactions between the adsorbed species. Interesting behaviors are observed and discussed in terms of the low-temperature phases formed in the system. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations are performed in order to test the validity of the theoretical model.

  14. Chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Aster koraiensis with protein glycation and aldose reductase inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun; Lee, Yun Mi; Lee, Byong Won; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Jin Sook

    2012-02-24

    Two new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene glucosides, 9β-O-(E-p-hydroxycinnamoyl)-1β,6β-dihydroxy-trans-eudesm-3-en-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 9α-O-(E-p-hydroxycinnamoyl)-1α,6α-11-trihydroxy-trans-eudesm-3-en-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), were isolated by the activity-guidedfractionation of an EtOAc-soluble fraction from the aerial parts of Aster koraiensis. A new dihydrobenzofuran glucoside, (2R,3S)-6-acetyl-2-[1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2-propenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-methoxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (3), was also isolated, in addition to 15 known compounds. The structures of 1-3 were determined by spectroscopic data interpretation. All of the isolates were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against the formation of advanced glycation end-products and rat lens aldose reductase.

  15. Chemical constituents of Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter and its allelopathic activity on the growth of maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Yang, Shanshan; Hu, Hongling; Hu, Tingxing; Wang, Qian; Ye, Mao; Luo, Jie; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Ruyi

    2017-06-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of maize. In this study, the morphological traits of maize were significantly inhibited when the leaf litter amount reached or exceeded 40 g per pot; Furthermore, during the early growth stage or with a large amount of litter addition, the pigment contents were inhibited by C. septentrionale leaf litter. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the volatile substances of leaf litter and 34 compounds were identified, several of which were reported to be phytotoxic. In conclusion, the leaf litter of C. septentrionale showed a strong allelopathic effect on the growth of maize. Thus, it is better to avoid the growing of maize under or near the C. septentrionale plantation unless the leaf litter could be eliminated in time or other effective leaf litter processing methods could be implemented.

  16. Allelopathic activity and chemical constituents of walnut (Juglans regia) leaf litter in walnut-winter vegetable agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Xu, Zheng; Hu, Tingxing; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Chen, Hong; Li, Zhongbin; Ding, Bo; Hu, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    Walnut agroforestry systems have many ecological and economic benefits when intercropped with cool-season species. However, decomposing leaf litter is one of the main sources of allelochemicals in such systems. In this study, lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. angustata) was grown in the soil incorporated with walnut leaf litter to assess its allelopathic activity. Lettuce growth and physiological processes were inhibited by walnut leaf litter, especially during early growth stage (1-2 euphylla period) or with large amount of litter addition. The plants treated by small amount of leaf litter recovered their growth afterwards, while the inhibition for 180 g leaf litter persisted until harvest. Twenty-eight compounds were identified in the leaf litter, and several of them were reported to be phytotoxic, which may be responsible for the stress induced by walnut leaf litter. Thus, for highest economic value of vegetables such as lettuce, excessive incorporation of leaf litter should be discouraged.

  17. Nutrients removal and recovery from anaerobically digested swine wastewater by struvite crystallization without chemical additions.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong-Hui; Qiu, Guang-Lei; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Xiao-Yu; Peng, Jian-Feng; Zeng, Ping; Duan, Liang; Xiang, Lian-Cheng; Qian, Feng

    2011-06-15

    Anaerobically digested swine wastewater contains high concentrations of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N). A pilot-scale experiment was carried out for nutrients removal and recovery from anaerobically digested swine wastewater by struvite crystallization. In the pilot plant, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a continuous-flow reactor with struvite accumulation devices were designed and employed. The wastewater pH value was increased by CO(2) stripping, and the struvite crystallization process was performed without alkali and Mg(2+) additions. Results of the long-term operation of the system showed that, both reactors provided up to 85% P removal and recovery over wide ranges of aeration times (1.0-4.0 h), hydraulic retention times (HRT) (6.0-15.0 h) and temperatures (0-29.5°C) for an extended period of 247 d, in which approximate 30% of P was recovered by the struvite accumulation devices. However, 40-90% of NH(4)(+)-N removed was through air stripping instead of being immobilized in the recovered solids. The recovered products were detected and analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemical methods, which were proved to be struvite with purity of more than 90%. This work demonstrated the feasibility and effects of nutrients removal and recovery from anaerobically digested swine wastewater by struvite crystallization without chemical additions.

  18. Amorphouslike chemical vapor deposited tungsten diffusion barrier for copper metallization and effects of nitrogen addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kow-Ming; Yeh, Ta-Hsun; Deng, I.-Chung; Shih, Chieh-Wen

    1997-08-01

    In this article, we propose an amorphouslike chemical vapor deposited tungsten (CVD-W) thin film as a diffusion barrier for copper metallization. Experimental results gave no evidence of interdiffusion and structural change for Cu/amorphouslike CVD-W/Si samples annealed up to 675 °C for 30 min in N2. At higher temperatures (700 °C), Cu penetration results in the formation of η''-Cu3Si precipitates at the CVD-W/Si interface. This is due to the crystallization of the amorphouslike CVD-W film above 650 °C, rendering the grain-boundary structure and, hence, fast pathways for Cu diffusion. The Cu/amorphouslike CVD-W/p+n diodes, thus, sustain large increases in reverse leakage current. In addition, the effects of nitrogen addition by using an in situ nitridation on the amorphouslike CVD-W film are also discussed. The effectiveness of the nitrided barrier is attributed to the blocking of the grain boundaries in the tungsten film by nitrogen atoms. This slows down Cu diffusion significantly. Physical and chemical analyses indicate that interfaces in the Cu/WNx/W/Si multilayer maintain their integrity while the annealing is carried out at 750 °C. Moreover, the reverse leakage current densities of Cu/WNx/W/p+n diodes remain at 10-7 A/cm2 after 725 °C annealing.

  19. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bartholomay; L. M. Williams; L. J. Campbell

    1998-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from seven domestic wells, six irrigation wells, two springs, one dairy well, one observation well, and one stock well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

  20. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  1. 78 FR 68461 - Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Anti- Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug... revising the guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella... Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in...

  2. Particulate matter beyond mass: recent health evidence on the role of fractions, chemical constituents and sources of emission

    PubMed Central

    Héroux, Marie-Eve; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Kelly, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is regulated in various parts of the world based on specific size cut offs, often expressed as 10 or 2.5 µm mass median aerodynamic diameter. This pollutant is deemed one of the most dangerous to health and moreover, problems persist with high ambient concentrations. Continuing pressure to re-evaluate ambient air quality standards stems from research that not only has identified effects at low levels of PM but which also has revealed that reductions in certain components, sources and size fractions may best protect public health. Considerable amount of published information have emerged from toxicological research in recent years. Accumulating evidence has identified additional air quality metrics (e.g. black carbon, secondary organic and inorganic aerosols) that may be valuable in evaluating the health risks of, for example, primary combustion particles from traffic emissions, which are not fully taken into account with PM2.5 mass. Most of the evidence accumulated so far is for an adverse effect on health of carbonaceous material from traffic. Traffic-generated dust, including road, brake and tire wear, also contribute to the adverse effects on health. Exposure durations from a few minutes up to a year have been linked with adverse effects. The new evidence collected supports the scientific conclusions of the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines and also provides scientific arguments for taking decisive actions to improve air quality and reduce the global burden of disease associated with air pollution. PMID:24304307

  3. Determination of chemical-constituent loads during base-flow and storm-runoff conditions near historical mines in Prospect Gulch, upper Animas River watershed, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wirt, Laurie; Leib, K.J.; Bove, D.J.; Mast, M.A.; Evans, J.B.; Meeker, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Prospect Gulch is a major source of iron, aluminum, zinc, and other metals to Cement Creek. Information is needed to prioritize remediation and develop strategies for cleanup of historical abandoned mine sites in Prospect Gulch. Chemical-constituent loads were determined in Prospect Gulch, a high-elevation alpine stream in southwestern Colorado that is affected by natural acid drainage from weathering of hydro-thermally altered igneous rock and acidic metal-laden discharge from historical abandoned mines. The objective of the study was to identify metal sources to Prospect Gulch. A tracer solution was injected into Prospect Gulch during water-quality sampling so that loading of geochemical constituents could be calculated throughout the study reach. A thunderstorm occurred during the tracer study, hence, metal loads were measured for storm-runoff as well as for base flow. Data from different parts of the study reach represents different flow conditions. The beginning of the reach represents background conditions during base flow immediately upstream from the Lark and Henrietta mines (samples PG5 to PG45). Other samples were collected during storm runoff conditions (PG100 to PG291); during the first flush of metal runoff following the onset of rainfall (PG303 to PG504), and samples PG542 to PG700 were collected during low-flow conditions. During base-flow conditions, the percentage increase in loads for major constituents and trace metals was more than an order of magnitude greater than the corresponding 36 % increase in stream discharge. Within the study reach, the highest percentage increases for dissolved loads were 740 % for iron (Fe), 465 % for aluminum (Al), 500 % for lead (Pb), 380 % for copper (Cu), 100 % for sulfate (SO4), and 50 % for zinc (Zn). Downstream loads near the mouth of Prospect Gulch often greatly exceeded the loads generated within the study reach but varied by metal species. For example, the study reach accounts for about 6 % of the dissolved

  4. A Preferable Method for the Formation of Vesicles from Lamellar Liquid Crystals Using Chemical Additives.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Yasutaka; Imai, Yoko; Tajima, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    We present a method for vesicle formation from lamellar liquid crystals (LCs) using a cationic amphiphilic substance, namely 2-hydroxyethyl di(alkanol)oxyethyl methylammonium methylsulfate (DEAE). Vesicle formation from the DEAE lamellar dispersion occurred via a two-step chemical addition. This method required neither additional mechanical energy nor the use of special solvents. The transition was solubilized using an organic substance (e.g., limonene) in the lamellar DEAE LC, after which, a small amount of inorganic salt was added to the solubilized lamellar LC dispersion with gentle stirring. The viscosity of the DEAE dispersion following salt addition decreased sharply from 10(5) mPa·s to 10(2) mPa·s, and the DEAE dispersion was converted into a high fluidity liquid. Several organic substances were examined as potential solubilizates to initiate the lamellar-vesicle transition. Inorganic salts were also examined as transition triggers using various types of electrolytes; only neutral salts were effective as trigger additives. Dissociation of inorganic salts yielded anions, which inserted between the DEAE bilayer membranes and induced OH(-) ion exchange. In addition, a number of cations simultaneously formed ion pairs with the DEAE counter ions (CH3SO4(-) ions). However, as the amount of solubilized organic substances in the DEAE bilayer membrane decreased over time, the vesicles were transformed into lamellar LCs once again. The DEAE states in each step were measured by monitoring the zeta potential, pH, viscosity, and by examination of scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images. A possible molecular mechanism for the lamellar-vesicle transition of DEAE was proposed.

  5. Effect of GdL Addition on Physico-chemical Properties of Fermented Sausages during Ripening.

    PubMed

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Jang, Kyoung-Hwan; Chung, Ku-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of glucono-δ-lactone (GdL) addition on physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented sausages during ripening and drying. Five batches of sausages were produced under ripening conditions: without GdL and with 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75% of GdL addition. Samples from each treatment were taken for physicochemical and microbiological analyses on the 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 25th day of ripening. Chemical analysis showed a significant decrease in moisture content of sausages with increasing amounts of GdL added (p<0.05). The moisture contents decreased, whereas the fat, protein and ash contents increased throughout ripening (p<0.05). Increasing levels of GdL caused a decrease in the pH values (p<0.05), which can have an inhibitory effect against microflora. Water holding capacity content of samples decreased with increasing GdL concentration (p<0.05). The shear force values of fermented sausages showed the highest in T4 (p<0.05). During ripening, the shear force values of sausages were increased on the 25th day compared to day 0 (p<0.05). The higher GdL level produced lighter and more yellow sausages. The addition of 0.75% GdL was effective in controlling bacteria counts. Addition of GdL in sausages resulted in the physicochemical and microbiological attributes equal to or better than no addition of GdL without any harmful effect.

  6. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Campbell, Linford J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho Department of Water Resources, and the State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 17 sites as part of the sixth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were collected from eight irrigation wells, three domestic wells, one stock well, one dairy well, one commercial well, one observation well, and two springs and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. One quality-assurance sample, a sequential replicate, also was collected and analyzed. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the reporting levels and most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels. However, none of the reported radiochemical- or chemical-constituent concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical evaluation of the replicate sample pair indicated that, with 95 percent confidence, 132 of the 135 constituent concentrations of the replicate pair were equivalent.

  7. Effect of additives on the properties of polyaniline nanofibers prepared by high gravity chemical oxidative polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yibo; Arowo, Moses; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jianfeng

    2015-05-12

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers with improved properties were prepared by high gravity chemical oxidative polymerization in a rotating packed bed with the assistance of p-aminodiphenylamine (AD) and p-phenylenediamine (AP). The effects of reactor type, additive dosage, reaction temperature, and high-gravity level on the properties of products were investigated in detail. Three conclusions were made: (1) a small amount of additive can significantly improve some properties of the nanofibers such as uniformity, specific surface area, and specific capacitance; (2) in order to obtain high-quality nanofibers, the high-gravity level should coordinate with the reaction rate; (3) the molecular weight and conductivity of PANI decrease with the increase of additive dosage. The products have larger specific surface areas of up to 73.9 and 68.4 m(2)/g and consequently improved specific capacitance of up to 527.5 and 552 F/g for the PANI nanofibers prepared with AD and AP, respectively. However, the specific surface area and specific capacitance of pure PANI are only 49.1 m(2)/g and 333.3 F/g, respectively. This research provides a simple, reliable, and scalable method to produce PANI nanofibers of high performances.

  8. A mild, chemical conversion of cellulose to hexene and other liquid hydrocarbon fuels and additives

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    A unique biomass fractionation is used to feed a novel chemical reduction process that converts carbohydrates with 100% carbon conversion into hydrocarbon fuels. Six strategic goals have been accomplished: (1) Lignin is cleanly removed in a single step, (2) The carbon chain of the sugar monomers remains intact, (3) Each reaction occurs at mild conditions and gives essentially quantitative yield, (4) Each reaction is catalytic, (5) Initial reactions occur in an aqueous medium, which (6) allows the use of wet feedstocks. Catalytic recycling of the chemical reducing agents thus provides the equivalent of an efficient biomass reduction. Conversion of cellulose (1) to hexenes (8) sequentially via sorbitol (4) and 2-iodohexane (6) typifies the process. Step 2 of the process is highly tunable and can directly produce about 80% hydrocarbon oligomers, C{sub 12}H{sub 22} (12) and C{sub 18}H{sub 32} (13). Oxygenate fuel additives such as 2-hexanol (14) are also available by further reactions of hexene.

  9. Influence of Alumina Additions on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Lithium-iron-phosphate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huali; Yang, Ruijuan; Wang, Yinghui; Liu, Shiquan

    Alumina improves the properties and depresses the devitrification of soda-lime-silicate glasses. Herein, the influence of alumina on the glass transition temperature, density, chemical durability, crystallization of lithium-iron-phosphate (LIP) glass has been investigated. As alumina was added to replace the iron oxide in a base LIP glass with the molar composition of Li2O:Fe2O3:P2O5=30:20:50, the alumina-containing glasses have increased Tg, densities and chemical stabilities than the base glass. When the amount of alumina is increased from 2 to 6 mol, the Tg value slightly increases, whereas the density decreases. However, the smallest weight loss is shown for the glass containing 3.2 mol of alumina. The variations of the properties with alumina are explained based on the infrared structure analysis results. In addition, it is found the either the base or the alumina-containing glasses have surface crystallization upon heat-treatments. Under the same treatment conditions, the base glass exhibits a thin layer of crystallization with LiFeP2O7 as the main phase. In contrast, alumina-containing glasses show much higher degree of crystallization, which is further increased with the amount of alumina. This trend is opposite to that of silicate glass. Besides the LiFeP2O7 main phase, Fe7(PO4) phase is also identified in the crystallized alumina-containing glasses.

  10. Modified lignosulfonates as additives in oil recovery processes involving chemical recovery agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kalfoglou, G.

    1982-08-17

    A process for producing petroleum from subterranean formations is disclosed wherein production from the formation is obtained by driving a fluid from an injection well to a production well. The process involves injecting via the injection well into the formation an aqueous solution of modified lignosulfonate salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and/or polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process may best be carried out by injecting the modified lignosulfonates into the formation through the injection well mixed with either a polymer, a surfactant solution and/or a micellar dispersion. This mixture would then be followed by a drive fluid such as water to push the chemicals to the production well. The lignosulfonates may be modified by any combination of any two or more of: reaction with chloroacetic acid, reaction with carbon dioxide, addition of the methylene sulfonate radical to the lignosulfonate molecule and oxidation with oxygen.

  11. [Chemical constituents from Aster sampsonii].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yingxia

    2010-09-01

    From the whole plants of Aster sampsonii, ten compounds were isolated, and were characterized as (4alphaR, 4'alphaR, 5S, 5'S, 9alphaR, 9'alphaR)-4, 4', 4alpha, 4'alpha, 5, 5', 6, 6', 7, 7', 8, 8'-dodecahydro-3, 3', 4alpha, 4'alpha, 5, 5'-hexamethyl-2H, 2'H-9alpha, 9' alpha-binaphtho[2, 3-b]furan-2, 2'-dione(1), furanoligularenone(2), (4alphaR, 5S, 8alphaR)-4alpha, 5, 6, 7, 8, 8alpha-hexahydro-8alpha-hydroxy-3, 4alpha, 5-trimethylnaphtho[2, 3-b]furan-2(4H)-one(3), (4alphaR, 5S, 8alphaS)4alpha, 5, 6, 7, 8, 8alpha-hexahydro-8alpha-hydroxy-3, 4alpha, 5-trimethylnaphtho[2, 3-b]furan-2(4H)-one(4), methyl-1'-hydroxy-2', 6'-dimethoxy-4'-oxocyclohexanacetate(5), 1'-hydroxy-2'-methoxy-4'-oxocyclohexanacetate methyl(6), loliolide (7), jacaranone (8), beta-sitosterol(9), friedeline (10). The structures of all compounds were elucidated on the basis spectroscopic data, including IR, EI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR data. The bioassays showed weak sterilization activities for compound 3. Compounds 1-8 were obtained from A. sampsonii for the first time.

  12. Chemical constituents of Melicope ptelefolia.

    PubMed

    Shaari, Khozirah; Zareen, Seema; Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem; Lajis, Nordin Hj

    2011-03-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the methanolic extract of Melicope ptelefolia Champ ex Benth. resulted in the isolation of three new compounds, identified as 3beta-stigmast-5-en-3-ol butyl tridecanedioate (melicoester) (1), (2Z, 6Z, 10Z, 14Z, 18Z, 22Z, 26E)-3', 7', 11', 15', 19', 23', 27', 31'-octamethyldotriaconta-2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30-octadecanoate (melicopeprenoate) (2) and p-O-geranyl-7"-acetoxy coumaric acid (3). The compounds were isolated along with twenty-one other known compounds, lupeol (4), oleanolic acid (5), kokusaginine (6) genistein (7), p-O-geranyl coumaric acid (8), 4-stigmasten-3-one (9), 3beta-hydroxystigma-5-en-7-one (10) cis-phytyl palmitate (11), dodecane, dodecan-1-ol, ceryl alcohol, hentriacontanoic acid, eicosane, n-amyl alcohol, caprylic alcohol, octatriacontane, nonatriacontane, hexatriencontan-1-ol, methyl octacosanoate, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol glucoside. Structures of all the compounds were established on the basis of MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectral data, as well as comparison with reported data.

  13. Chemical constituents of Nepeta distans.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Bukhari, Nausheen; Hussain, Hidayat; Rehman, Najeeb U; Hussain, Syed Murtaza

    2010-11-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Nepeta distans Raul resulted in the isolation of a new phenolic compound, nepatanol (1), and eight known compounds, markhamioside F, netidiol, nepedinol, thymoquinone, eugenol, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, and beta-sitosterol, which have been isolated for the first time from this source. Structures of all the isolates were established on the basis of MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data.

  14. [Chemical constituents of Dalbergia odorifera].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Mei, Wen-Li; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Xia, Zhan-Feng; Zhong, Hui-Min; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2014-05-01

    Fourteen compounds were isolated from Dalbergia odoriferae and purified by repeated column chromatography on silica and sephadex LH-20 gel and structurally identified by spectral analysis. These compounds were identified as 4, 9-dimethoxy-3-hydroxypterocarpan (1), medicarpin (2), 2', 4', 5-trihydroxy-7-methoxyisoflavone (3), 2', 3', 7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavan (4), formononetin (5), 3, 8-dihydroxy-9-methoxypterocarpan (6), koparin (7), 3-hydroxy-9-methoxypterocarp-6a-ene (8), 2'-hydroxyformononetin (9), stevenin (10), 2', 7-dihydroxy-4', 5'-dimethoxyisoflavone (11), lyoniresinol (12), 2, 4-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-benzophenone (13) and neokhriol A (14). Compounds 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 14 were isolated from this plant for the first time. Antibacterial activity assay showed that compound 4 had inhibitory effect on Ralstonia solanacearum.

  15. [Chemical constituents from Chenopodium ambrosioides].

    PubMed

    Song, Kun; Wang, Hong-Qing; Liu, Chao; Kang, Jie; Li, Bao-Ming; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Twelve compounds were isolated from the herb of Chenopodium ambrosioides, and their structures were identified by spectroscopic methods as kaempferol-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (1), kaempferol-3,7-di-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2), patuletin (3), quercetin-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (4), grasshopper ketone (5), 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (6), syringaresinol (7), benzyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), dendranthemoside B (9), N-trans-feruloyl tyramine (10), N-trans-feruloyl 4'-O-methyldopamine (11), and 4-hydroxy-N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl] benzamide (12). Among them,compounds 3, 6-8,10, and 12 were isolated from the genus Chenopodium for the first time, and compounds 2-12 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  16. Chemical Constituents of Cordyceps cicadae.

    PubMed

    Chu, Zhi-Bo; Chang, Jun; Zhu, Ying; Sun, Xun

    2015-12-01

    One new bifuran derivative (1), together with fourteen known compounds, were isolated from Cordyceps cicadae X. Q. Shing. The known compounds included nine nucleosides, uracil (2), uridine (3), 2'-deoxyuridine (4), 2'-deoxyinosine (5), guanosine (6), 2'-deoxyguanosine (7), thymidine (8), adenosine (9), and 2'-deoxyadenosine (10); three amino acids tryptophan (11), phenylalanine (12), and tyrosine (13); and two dopamine analogues N-acetylnoradrenaline (14) and its dimer, trans-2-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-acetylamino-7-(N-acetyl-2"-amino-ethylene)-1,4-benzodioxane (15). Their structures were decisively elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques.

  17. Chemical constituents from Dendropanax dentiger.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Chun; Lee, Shoei-Sheng

    2013-03-01

    Nineteen compounds and an HPLC inseparable mixture, composed of compounds 20 and 21, were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Dendropanax dentiger (Harms ex Diels) Merr. Of these, syringin (1) is the most abundant, 6'-O-apiofuranosyl dendranthemoside A (16) is a new megastigmane glycoside, and 3-methoxy-D-mannono-1,4-lactone (21) is a new hexono-1,4-lactone. Their structures were elucidated based on NMR spectroscopic and MS analyses.

  18. [Chemical constituents from Pleione bulbocodioides].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Han, Shao-Wei; Cui, Bao-Song; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Shuai

    2014-02-01

    Fourteen compoumds were isolated from the ethyl acetate portion of the 95% ethanolic extract of Pleione bulbocodioides by a combination of various chromatographic techniques including silica gel, ODS, macroporous adsorbent resin, Sephadex LH-20, and preparative HPLC, of which ten compoumds were phenanthrenes and dihydrophenanthrenes, two compoumds were bibenzyls, one was lignan and a sterol. Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data as monbarbatain A(1), 2, 7, 2'-trihy-droxy-4, 4', 7'-trimethoxy-1, 1'- biphenanthrene(2), blestriarene A(3), pleionesin B(4), shanciol H(5), 17-hydroxy-7'-(4'-hy-droxy-3 '-methoxyphenyl)- 4-methoxy-9, 10, 7', 8'-tetrahydrophenanthro[2, 3-b]furan-8'-yl methyl acetate(6), 1-p-hydroxybenzyl-4-methoxy phenanthrene-2, 7-diol(7), 1-p-hydroxybenzyl-4-met-hoxy-9, 10-dihydrophenanthrene-2, 7-diol(8), hircinol(9), coelonin( 10), gigantol(11), batatasin 11 (12), syringaresinol(13) and ergosta4, 6, 8 ( 14) , 22-tetraen-3-one (14). Compounds 1-3, 9, 13 and 14 were isolated from this genus for the first time.

  19. Toxicogenomics concepts and applications to study hepatic effects of food additives and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Stierum, Rob . E-mail: stierum@voeding.tno.nl; Heijne, Wilbert; Kienhuis, Anne; Ommen, Ben van; Groten, John

    2005-09-01

    Transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are genomics technologies with great potential in toxicological sciences. Toxicogenomics involves the integration of conventional toxicological examinations with gene, protein or metabolite expression profiles. An overview together with selected examples of the possibilities of genomics in toxicology is given. The expectations raised by toxicogenomics are earlier and more sensitive detection of toxicity. Furthermore, toxicogenomics will provide a better understanding of the mechanism of toxicity and may facilitate the prediction of toxicity of unknown compounds. Mechanism-based markers of toxicity can be discovered and improved interspecies and in vitro-in vivo extrapolations will drive model developments in toxicology. Toxicological assessment of chemical mixtures will benefit from the new molecular biological tools. In our laboratory, toxicogenomics is predominantly applied for elucidation of mechanisms of action and discovery of novel pathway-supported mechanism-based markers of liver toxicity. In addition, we aim to integrate transcriptome, proteome and metabolome data, supported by bioinformatics to develop a systems biology approach for toxicology. Transcriptomics and proteomics studies on bromobenzene-mediated hepatotoxicity in the rat are discussed. Finally, an example is shown in which gene expression profiling together with conventional biochemistry led to the discovery of novel markers for the hepatic effects of the food additives butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole.

  20. Late Chondritic Additions and Planet and Planetesimal Growth: Evaluation of Physical and Chemical Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Studies of terrestrial peridotite and martian and achondritic meteorites have led to the conclusion that addition of chondritic material to growing planets or planetesimals, after core formation, occurred on Earth, Mars, asteroid 4 Vesta, and the parent body of the angritic meteorites [1-4]. One study even proposed that this was a common process in the final stages of growth [5]. These conclusions are based almost entirely on the highly siderophile elements (HSE; Re, Au, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, Ir, Os). The HSE are a group of eight elements that have been used to argue for late accretion of chondritic material to the Earth after core formation was complete (e.g., [6]). This idea was originally proposed because the D(metal/silicate) values for the HSE are so high, yet their concentration in the mantle is too high to be consistent with such high Ds. The HSE also are present in chondritic relative abundances and hence require similar Ds if this is the result of core-mantle equilibration. Since the work of [6] there has been a realization that core formation at high PT conditions can explain the abundances of many siderophile elements in the mantle (e.g., [7]), but such detailed high PT partitioning data are lacking for many of the HSE to evaluate whether such ideas are viable for all four bodies. Consideration of other chemical parameters reveals larger problems that are difficult to overcome, but must be addressed in any scenario which calls on the addition of chondritic material to a reduced mantle. Yet these problems are rarely discussed or emphasized, making the late chondritic (or late veneer) addition hypothesis suspect.

  1. LIFE Chamber Chemical Equilibrium Simulations with Additive Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, J A; Simon, A J

    2009-09-03

    In order to enable continuous operation of a Laser Inertial confinement Fusion Energy (LIFE) engine, the material (fill-gas and debris) in the fusion chamber must be carefully managed. The chamber chemical equilibrium compositions for post-shot mixtures are evaluated to determine what compounds will be formed at temperatures 300-5000K. It is desired to know if carbon and or lead will deposit on the walls of the chamber, and if so: at what temperature, and what elements can be added to prevent this from happening. The simulation was conducted using the chemical equilibrium solver Cantera with a Matlab front-end. Solutions were obtained by running equilibrations at constant temperature and constant specific volume over the specified range of temperatures. It was found that if nothing is done, carbon will deposit on the walls once it cools to below 2138K, and lead below 838K. Three solutions to capture the carbon were found: adding pure oxygen, hydrogen/nitrogen combo, and adding pure nitrogen. The best of these was the addition of oxygen which would readily form CO at around 4000K. To determine the temperature at which carbon would deposit on the walls, temperature solutions to evaporation rate equations needed to be found. To determine how much carbon or any species was in the chamber at a given time, chamber flushing equations needed to be developed. Major concerns are deposition of carbon and/or oxygen on the tungsten walls forming tungsten oxides or tungsten carbide which could cause embrittlement and cause failure of the first wall. Further research is needed.

  2. Testing for Additivity in Chemical Mixtures Using a Fixed-Ratio Ray Design and Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fixed-ratio ray designs have been used for detecting and characterizing interactions of large numbers of chemicals in combination. Single chemical dose-response data are used to predict an “additivity curve” along an environmentally relevant ray. A “mixture curve” is estimated fr...

  3. 77 FR 71561 - Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ...) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to recommend chemicals and chemical mixtures to EPA for..., any chemical substance or mixture'' to submit lists of health and safety studies conducted or initiated by or for such person with respect to such substance or mixture at any time, known to such...

  4. Review and evaluation of literature on testing of chemical additives for scale control in geothermal fluids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, C.H.; Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    A selected group of reported tests of chemical additives in actual geothermal fluids are reviewed and evaluated to summarize the status of chemical scale-control testing and identify information and testing needs. The task distinguishes between scale control in the cooling system of a flash plant and elsewhere in the utilization system due to the essentially different operating environments involved. Additives for non-cooling geothermal fluids are discussed by scale type: silica, carbonate, and sulfide.

  5. Combined effects of fermentation temperature and pH on kinetic changes of chemical constituents of durian wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuyun; Voon, Marilyn Kai Wen; Huang, Dejian; Lee, Pin-Rou; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of temperature (20 and 30 °C) and pH (pH 3.1, 3.9) on kinetic changes of chemical constituents of the durian wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Temperature significantly affected growth of S. cerevisiae EC-1118 regardless of pH with a higher temperature leading to a faster cell death. The pH had a more significant effect on ethanol production than temperature with higher production at 20 °C (5.95%, v/v) and 30 °C (5.56%, v/v) at pH 3.9, relative to that at pH 3.1 (5.25 and 5.01%, v/v). However, relatively higher levels of isobutyl alcohol and isoamyl alcohol up to 64.52 ± 6.39 and 56.27 ± 3.00 mg/L, respectively, were produced at pH 3.1 than at pH 3.9 regardless of temperature. In contrast, production of esters was more affected by temperature than pH, where levels of ethyl esters (ethyl esters of octanoate, nonanoate, and decanoate) and acetate esters (ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate) were significantly higher up to 2.13 ± 0.23 and 4.61 ± 0.22 mg/L, respectively, at 20 °C than at 30 °C. On the other hand, higher temperature improved the reduction of volatile sulfur compounds. This study illustrated that temperature control would be a more effective tool than pH in modulating the resulting aroma compound profile of durian wine.

  6. Chemical and Sensory Quality Preservation in Coated Almonds with the Addition of Antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Larrauri, Mariana; Demaría, María Gimena; Ryan, Liliana C; Asensio, Claudia M; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Almonds provide many benefits such as preventing heart disease due to their high content of oleic fatty acid-rich oil and other important nutrients. However, they are susceptible to oxidation reactions causing rancidity during storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical and sensory quality preservation of almonds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose and with the addition of natural and synthetic antioxidants during storage. Four samples were prepared: almonds without coating (C), almonds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), almonds coated with CMC supplemented with peanut skins extract (E), and almonds coated with CMC and supplemented with butylhydroxytoluene (BHT). Proximate composition and fatty acid profile were determined on raw almonds. Almond samples (C, CMC, E and BHT) were stored at 40 °C for 126 d. Lipid oxidation indicators: peroxide value (PV), conjugated dienes (CD), volatile compounds (hexanal and nonanal), and sensory attributes were determined for the stored samples. Samples showed small but significant increases in PV, CD, hexanal and nonanal contents, and intensity ratings of negative sensory attributes (oxidized and cardboard). C had the highest tendency to deterioration during storage. At the end of storage (126 d), C had the highest PV (3.90 meqO2 /kg), and BHT had the lowest PV (2.00 meqO2 /kg). CMC and E samples had similar intermediate PV values (2.69 and 2.57 meqO2 /kg, respectively). CMC coating and the addition of natural (peanut skin extract) and synthetic (BHT) antioxidants provide protection to the roasted almond product.

  7. Using additive modelling to quantify the effect of chemicals on phytoplankton diversity and biomass.

    PubMed

    Viaene, K P J; De Laender, F; Van den Brink, P J; Janssen, C R

    2013-04-01

    Environmental authorities require the protection of biodiversity and other ecosystem properties such as biomass production. However, the endpoints listed in available ecotoxicological datasets generally do not contain these two ecosystem descriptors. Inferring the effects of chemicals on such descriptors from micro- or mesocosm experiments is often hampered by inherent differences in the initial biodiversity levels between experimental units or by delayed community responses. Here we introduce additive modelling to establish the effects of a chronic application of the herbicide linuron on 10 biodiversity indices and phytoplankton biomass in microcosms. We found that communities with a low (high) initial biodiversity subsequently became more (less) diverse, indicating an equilibrium biodiversity status in the communities considered here. Linuron adversely affected richness and evenness while dominance increased but no biodiversity indices were different from the control treatment at linuron concentrations below 2.4 μg/L. Richness-related indices changed at lower linuron concentrations (effects noticeable from 2.4 μg/L) than other biodiversity indices (effects noticeable from 14.4 μg/L) and, in contrast to the other indices, showed no signs of recovery following chronic exposure. Phytoplankton biomass was unaffected by linuron due to functional redundancy within the phytoplankton community. Comparing thresholds for biodiversity with conventional toxicity test results showed that standard ecological risk assessments also protect biodiversity in the case of linuron.

  8. Pilot scale cooling tower fouled fill treatment: AFCATT (Anti-Fouling Chemical Additive Test Tower)

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M.T.; Noble, R.T.; Philpot, E.F.; Eastis, J.H.

    1995-02-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) film-type cellular fill is the fill of choice in replacing cement asbestor board fill in existing cooling towers and in new cooling towers because of its high thermal performance, ease of installation, and low initial cost. However, PVC fill has been found to foul quickly with biological and sediment material, significant reducing tower performance and the fill`s useful life. The Anti-Fouling Chemical Additives Test Tower (AFCATT) has been built to study accumulation rates of fouling deposits in corrugated PVC film fill and to study methods of cleaning and preventing the fouling deposits. This small mechanical draft cooling tower is located next to the Unit 4 natural draft cooling tower at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Bowen. The once-through mechanical draft tower receives hot water from the condenser and returns the cold water to the basin of the host tower. The pilot tower is divided into four chambers allowing for three different treatment programs and one control to be run simultaneously. PVC fill packs are suspended from load cells to allow the weight of the fill packs to be measured continuously. Six vendors participated in the summer 1993 test program. Each proposed different methods of cleaning the fouled fill and were given the opportunity to try their proposed method of fill cleaning. The success of each treatment program was determined by its ability to reduce fill pack weight (i.e., reduce fouling).

  9. Chemical constituents and free radical scavenging activity of corn pollen collected from Apis mellifera hives compared to floral corn pollen at Nan, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bee pollen is composed of floral pollen mixed with nectar and bee secretion that is collected by foraging honey (Apis sp.) and stingless bees. It is rich in nutrients, such as sugars, proteins, lipids, vitamins and flavonoids, and has been ascribed antiproliferative, anti-allergenic, anti-angiogenic and free radical scavenging activities. This research aimed at a preliminary investigation of the chemical constituents and free radical scavenging activity in A. mellifera bee pollen. Methods Bee pollen was directly collected from A. mellifera colonies in Nan province, Thailand, in June, 2010, whilst floral corn (Zea mays L.) pollen was collected from the nearby corn fields. The pollen was then sequentially extracted with methanol, dichloromethane (DCM) and hexane, and each crude extract was tested for free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH assay, evaluating the percentage scavenging activity and the effective concentration at 50% (EC50). The most active crude fraction from the bee pollen was then further enriched for bioactive components by silica gel 60 quick and adsorption or Sephadex LH-20 size exclusion chromatography. The purity of all fractions in each step was observed by thin layer chromatography and the bioactivity assessed by the DPPH assay. The chemical structures of the most active fractions were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Results The crude DCM extract of both the bee corn pollen and floral corn pollen provided the highest active free radical scavenging activity of the three solvent extracts, but it was significantly (over 28-fold) higher in the bee corn pollen (EC50 = 7.42 ± 0.12 μg/ml), than the floral corn pollen (EC50 = 212 ± 13.6% μg/ml). After fractionation to homogeneity, the phenolic hydroquinone and the flavone 7-O-R-apigenin were found as the minor and major bioactive compounds, respectively. Bee corn pollen contained a reasonably diverse array of nutritional components, including biotin (56.7 μg/100

  10. Streamflow transport of radionuclides and other chemical constituents in the Puerco and the Little Colorado river basins, Arizona and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graf, Julia B.; Wirt, Laurie; Swanson, E.K.; Fisk, G.G.; Gray, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Samples collected at streamflow-gaging stations in the Puerco and Little Colorado rivers show that radioactivity of suspended sediment at gaging stations downstream from inactive uranium mines was not significantly higher than at gaging stations where no mining has occurred upstream. Drinking-water standards for many constituents, however, commonly are exceeded during runoff because concentration of these constituents on sediment from natural processes is high and suspended-sediment loads are high during runoff.

  11. Improvement of an integrated system of membrane bioreactor and worm reactor by phosphorus removal using additional post-chemical treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Zuo, Wei; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Li, Hui; Li, Lipin

    2016-11-01

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR) coupled with a worm reactor (SSBWR) was designed as SSBWR-MBR for sewage treatment and excess sludge reduction. However, total phosphorus (TP) release caused by worm predation in the SSBWR could increase the effluent TP concentration in the SSBWR-MBR. To decrease the amount of TP excreted, chemical treatment reactor was connected after the SSBWR-MBR to remove the excess phosphorus (P). The effects of chemical treatment at different time intervals on the performance of the SSBWR-MBR were assessed. The results showed that a maximum TP removal efficiency of 21.5 ± 1.0% was achieved in the SSBWR-MBR after chemical treatment. More importantly, a higher sulfate concentration induced by chemical treatment could promote TP release in the SSBWR, which provided further TP removal from the SSBWR-MBR. Additionally, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of the SSBWR-MBR was increased by 1.3% after effective chemical treatment. In the SSBWR-MBR, the chemical treatment had little effects on NH3-N removal and sludge production. Eventually, chemical treatment also alleviated the membrane fouling in the SSBWR-MBR. In this work, the improvement on TP, COD removal and membrane fouling alleviation was achieved in the SSBWR-MBR using additional chemical treatment.

  12. A Four-Step and Four-Criteria Approach for Evaluating Evidence of Dose Addition in Chemical Mixture Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose addition is the most frequently-used component-based approach for predicting dose response for a mixture of toxicologically-similar chemicals and for statistical evaluation of whether the mixture response is consistent with dose additivity and therefore predictable from the ...

  13. Chemical and Physical Reactions of Wellbore Cement under CO2 Storage Conditions: Effects of Cement Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutchko, B. G.; Strazisar, B. R.; Huerta, N.; Lowry, G. V.; Dzombak, D. A.; Thaulow, N.

    2008-12-01

    Sequestration of CO2 into geologic formations requires long-term storage and low leakage rates to be effective. Active and abandoned wells in candidate storage formations must be evaluated as potential leakage points. Wellbore integrity is an important part of an overall integrated assessment program being developed at NETL to assess potential risks at CO2 storage sites. Such a program is needed for ongoing policy and regulatory decisions for geologic carbon sequestration. The permeability and integrity of the cement in the well is a primary factor affecting its ability to prevent leakage. Cement must be able to maintain low permeability over lengthy exposure to reservoir conditions in a CO2 injection and storage scenario. Although it is known that cement may be altered by exposure to CO2, the results of ongoing research indicate that cement curing conditions, fluid properties, and cement additives play a significant role in the rate of alteration and reaction. The objective of this study is to improve understanding of the factors affecting wellbore cement integrity for large-scale geologic carbon sequestration projects. Due to the high frequency use of additives (pozzolan) in wellbore cement, it is also essential to understand the reaction of these cement-pozzolan systems upon exposure to CO2 under sequestration conditions (15.5 MPa and 50°C). Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the physical and chemical changes, as well as the rate of alteration of commonly used pozzolan-cement systems under simulated sequestration reservoir conditions, including both supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine. The rate of alteration of the cement-pozzolan systems is considerably faster than with neat cement. However, the alteration of physical properties is much less significant with the pozzolanic blends. Permeability of a carbonated pozzolanic cement paste remains sufficiently small to block significant vertical migration of CO2 in a wellbore. All of the

  14. Students' Predictions about the Sensory Properties of Chemical Compounds: Additive versus Emergent Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    We investigated general chemistry students' intuitive ideas about the expected properties of the products of a chemical reaction. In particular, we analyzed college chemistry students' predictions about the color, smell, and taste of the products of chemical reactions represented at the molecular level. The study was designed to explore the extent…

  15. Teachers' Misconceptions about the Effects of Addition of More Reactants or Products on Chemical Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Derek; Ma, Hong-jia; Yang, Jie

    2009-01-01

    The importance of research on misconceptions about chemical equilibrium is well recognized by educators, but in the past, researchers' interest has centered on student misconceptions and has neglected teacher misconceptions. Focusing on the effects of adding more reactants or products on chemical equilibrium, this article discusses the various…

  16. Chemical characteristic and functional properties of arenga starch-taro (Colocasia esculanta L.) flour noodle with turmeric extracts addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ervika Rahayu N., H.; Ariani, Dini; Miftakhussolikhah, E., Maharani P.; Yudi, P.

    2017-01-01

    Arenga starch-taro (Colocasia esculanta L.) flour noodle is an alternative carbohydrate source made from 75% arenga starch and 25% taro flour, but it has a different color with commercial noodle product. The addition of natural color from turmeric may change the consumer preference and affect chemical characteristic and functional properties of noodle. This research aims to identify chemical characteristic and functional properties of arenga starch-taro flour noodle with turmeric extract addition. Extraction was performed using 5 variances of turmeric rhizome (0.06; 0.12; 0.18; 0.24; and 0.30 g (fresh weight/ml water). Then, noodle was made and chemical characteristic (proximate analysis) as well as functional properties (amylose, resistant starch, dietary fiber, antioxidant activity) were then evaluated. The result showed that addition of turmeric extract did not change protein, fat, carbohydrate, amylose, and resistant starch content significantly, while antioxidant activity was increased (23,41%) with addition of turmeric extract.

  17. Assessing the effects of adsorptive polymeric resin additions on fungal secondary metabolite chemical diversity

    PubMed Central

    González-Menéndez, Víctor; Asensio, Francisco; Moreno, Catalina; de Pedro, Nuria; Monteiro, Maria Candida; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Vicente, Francisca; Bills, Gerald F.; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Tormo, José R.

    2014-01-01

    Adsorptive polymeric resins have been occasionally described to enhance the production of specific secondary metabolites (SMs) of interest. Methods that induce the expression of new chemical entities in fungal fermentations may lead to the discovery of new bioactive molecules and should be addressed as possible tools for the creation of new microbial chemical libraries for drug lead discovery. Herein, we apply both biological activity and chemical evaluations to assess the use of adsorptive resins as tools for the differential expression of SMs in fungal strain sets. Data automation approaches were applied to ultra high performance liquid chromatography analysis of extracts to evaluate the general influence in generating new chemical entities or in changing the production of specific SMs by fungi grown in the presence of resins and different base media. PMID:25379340

  18. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives.

  19. Effect of Operating Parameters and Chemical Additives on Crystal Habit and Specific Cake Resistance of Zinc Hydroxide Precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise

    1999-08-01

    The effect of process parameters and chemical additives on the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates was investigated. The ability of a slurry to be filtered is dependent upon the particle habit of the solid and the particle habit is influenced by certain process variables. The process variables studied include neutralization temperature, agitation type, and alkalinity source used for neutralization. Several commercially available chemical additives advertised to aid in solid/liquid separation were also examined in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation. A statistical analysis revealed that the neutralization temperature and the source of alkalinity were statistically significant in influencing the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates in this study. The type of agitation did not significantly effect the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates. The use of chemical additives in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation had a favorable effect on the filterability. The morphology of the hydroxide precipitates was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy.

  20. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.; Click, D.

    2010-01-06

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass - 14 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  1. An update of the distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in perched ground water, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, Emphasis 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Linda C.

    2006-01-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastes generated at facilities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) were discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds at the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC) (known as the Test Reactor Area [TRA] until 2005), and the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) and buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Disposal of wastewater to infiltration ponds and infiltration of surface water at waste burial sites resulted in formation of perched ground water in basalts and in sedimentary interbeds above the Snake River Plain aquifer. Perched ground water is an integral part of the pathway for waste-constituent migration to the aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains ground-water monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends, and to monitor the movement of radiochemical and chemical constituents in wastewater discharged from facilities to both perched ground water and the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-quality and water-level data collected from wells completed in perched ground water at the INL during 1999-2001, and summarizes historical disposal data and water-level-and water-quality trends. At the RTC, tritium, strontium-90, cesium-137, dissolved chromium, chloride, sodium, and sulfate were monitored in shallow and deep perched ground water. In shallow perched ground water, no tritium was detected above the reporting level. In deep perched ground water, tritium concentrations generally decreased or varied randomly during 1999-2001. During October 2001, tritium concentrations ranged from less than the reporting level to 39.4?1.4 picocuries per milliliter (pCi/mL). Reportable concentrations of tritium during July-October 2001 were smaller than the reported concentrations measured during July-December 1998. Tritium concentrations in water from wells at the RTC were likely affected by: well's distance from the

  2. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chemical constituents in Mahuang-Fuzi-Xixin decoction based on high performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and triple quadrupole mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qihui; Cao, Hongjie; Zhou, Yanyan; Wang, Xu; Jiang, Haiqiang; Gong, Lili; Yang, Yong; Rong, Rong

    2016-11-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QQQ/MS/MS) were utilized to clarify the chemical constituents of Mahuang-Fuzi-Xixin Decoction. There are 52 compounds, including alkaloids, amino acids and organic acids were identified or tentatively characterized by their characteristic high resolution mass data by HPLC-QQQ/MS/MS. In the subsequent quantitative analysis, 10 constituents, including methyl ephedrine, aconine, songrine, fuziline, neoline, talatisamine, chasmanine, benzoylmesaconine, benzoylaconine and benzoylhypaconine were simultaneously determined by HPLC-QQQ/MS/MS with multiple reaction monitoring mode. Satisfactory linearity was achieved with wide linear range and fine determination coefficient (r > 0.9992). The relative standard deviations (RSD) of inter- and intra-day precisions were <3%. This method was also validated by repeatability, stability and recovery with RSD <3% respectively. A highly sensitive and efficient method was established for chemical constituents studying, including identification and quantification of Mahuang-Fuzi-Xixin decoction.

  3. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with synapt high-definition mass spectrometry and a pattern recognition approach to characterize chemical constituents and rat metabolites after the oral administration of Phellinus igniarius.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu; Wang, Huiyu; Zhang, Yang; An, Na; Zhang, Yue; Shou, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Phellinus igniarius has antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, and antimutagenic effects. In this study, an integrative pattern recognition approach using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis was successfully applied for the rapid analysis of natural compounds in traditional Chinese medicine. An ultra high performance liquid chromatography with synapt high-definition mass spectrometry method and MassLynx software was used. This method employed gradient elution to rapidly analyze and characterize chemical constituents and metabolites after the oral administration of a P. igniarius ethanol extract. There were 24 peaks within 10 min of the analysis time and 20 of these were identified or tentatively characterized on the basis of their fragmentation behaviors. In the S-plot of the orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, 27 ions were extracted to make the serum. Among them, nine absorbed the prototype components and 18 metabolites were identified in vivo. Glucuronidation, oxidation, and methylation were the major metabolic reactions. This study is the first systematic analysis and characterization of the chemical constituents and metabolites in an ethanol extract of P. igniarius. This method can be applied to the rapid analysis and characterization of constituents in rat serum after the oral administration of other compounds used in traditional Chinese medicines.

  4. Chemical Constituents in Groundwater from Multiple Zones in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Twining, Brian V.

    2010-01-01

    From 2005 to 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey's Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected water-quality samples from multiple water-bearing zones in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Water samples were collected from six monitoring wells completed in about 350-700 feet of the upper part of the aquifer, and the samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, nutrients, selected radiochemical constituents, and selected stable isotopes. Each well was equipped with a multilevel monitoring system containing four to seven sampling ports that were each isolated by permanent packer systems. The sampling ports were installed in aquifer zones that were highly transmissive and that represented the water chemistry of the top four to five model layers of a steady-state and transient groundwater-flow model. The model's water chemistry and particle-tracking simulations are being used to better define movement of wastewater constituents in the aquifer. The results of the water chemistry analyses indicated that, in each of four separate wells, one zone of water differed markedly from the other zones in the well. In four wells, one zone to as many as five zones contained radiochemical constituents that originated from wastewater disposal at selected laboratory facilities. The multilevel sampling systems are defining the vertical distribution of wastewater constituents in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and the concentrations of wastewater constituents in deeper zones in wells Middle 2051, USGS 132, and USGS 103 support the concept of groundwater flow deepening in the southwestern part of the INL.

  5. Effects of sorghum flour addition on chemical and rheological properties of hard white winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was carried out to investigate the chemical and rheological properties of different blends prepared using hard white winter wheat and whole or decorticated sorghum. Whole and decorticated sorghum were used to replace 5, 10, 15, and 20% of wheat flour. Wheat samples had higher protein, moi...

  6. USING DOSE ADDITION TO ESTIMATE CUMULATIVE RISKS FROM EXPOSURES TO MULTIPLE CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 requires the EPA to consider the cumulative risk from exposure to multiple chemicals that have a common mechanism of toxicity. Three methods, hazard index (HI), point-of-departure index (PODI), and toxicity equivalence factor (TEF), ...

  7. A chemical additive to limit potential bacterial contamination in chill tanks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler carcasses with different types and numbers of bacteria are commonly chilled together in an ice water bath which may lead to transfer of unwanted bacteria from carcass to carcass. Historically chill tanks have been chlorinated to help prevent cross contamination and recently other chemical a...

  8. Sediment deposition and occurrence of selected nutrients and other chemical constituents in bottom sediment, Tuttle Creek Lake, Northeast Kansas, 1962-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.; Mau, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    -effects levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Sediment concentrations of metals and trace elements were relatively uniform over time. Organochlorine compounds either were not detected or were detected at concentrations generally less than the threshold-effects levels. Following an initial positive trend, a statistically significant negative depositional trend was indicated for DDE (degradation product of DDT), which was consistent with the history of DDT use. Other organochlorine compounds detected included aldrin, DDD, and dieldrin. Notable changes in human activity within the basin included a substantial increase in the production of grain corn and soybeans from the 1960s to the 1990s. This increase in production was accompanied by a pronounced increase in the number of irrigated acres. Also, during the same time period, there was an overall increase in hog production. These changes in human activity have not had a discernible effect on the deposition of chemical constituents in the bottom sediment of Tuttle Creek Lake.

  9. The Effects of Chemical Wash Additives on the Corrosion of Aerospace Alloys in Marine Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowell, Louis; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Joseph; Hodge, Tim; Barile, Ronald; Heidersbach, Robert; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology for comparing the relative effectiveness of four chemical products used for rinsing airplanes and helicopters. The products were applied on a weekly basis to a series of flat alloy panels exposed to an oceanfront marine environment for one year. The results are presented along with comparisons of exposures of the same alloys that were not washed, were washed with seawater, or washed with de-ionized water.

  10. Chemical and biological consequences of using carbon dioxide versus acid additions in ocean acidification experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Kimberly K.; DuFore, Christopher M.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Use of different approaches for manipulating seawater chemistry during ocean acidification experiments has confounded comparison of results from various experimental studies. Some of these discrepancies have been attributed to whether addition of acid (such as hydrochloric acid, HCl) or carbon dioxide (CO2) gas has been used to adjust carbonate system parameters. Experimental simulations of carbonate system parameter scenarios for the years 1766, 2007, and 2100 were performed using the carbonate speciation program CO2SYS to demonstrate the variation in seawater chemistry that can result from use of these approaches. Results showed that carbonate system parameters were 3 percent and 8 percent lower than target values in closed-system acid additions, and 1 percent and 5 percent higher in closed-system CO2 additions for the 2007 and 2100 simulations, respectively. Open-system simulations showed that carbonate system parameters can deviate by up to 52 percent to 70 percent from target values in both acid addition and CO2 addition experiments. Results from simulations for the year 2100 were applied to empirically derived equations that relate biogenic calcification to carbonate system parameters for calcifying marine organisms including coccolithophores, corals, and foraminifera. Calculated calcification rates for coccolithophores, corals, and foraminifera differed from rates at target conditions by 0.5 percent to 2.5 percent in closed-system CO2 gas additions, from 0.8 percent to 15 percent in the closed-system acid additions, from 4.8 percent to 94 percent in open-system acid additions, and from 7 percent to 142 percent in open-system CO2 additions.

  11. Qualitative analysis of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine analogous formula cheng-Qi decoctions by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xuexun; Luo, Kedi; Xiao, Shun; Ai, Ni; Wang, Shufang; Fan, Xiaohui

    2016-03-01

    Cheng-Qi decoctions (CQs), a group of analogous formulas, are well-known traditional Chinese preparations used as purgative remedies to treat 'internal heat'-induced symptoms, which manifest as a bloated and painful abdomen, hard stools, fever and other clinical observations. In this study, HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and UPLC-TOF-MS were employed for separation and structural identification of constituents in CQs. As a result, a total of 90 compounds, including seven anthraquinones, 39 flavones, 21 glycosides, 11 stilbene glycosides, six organic acids, five coumarins and one lignans, were detected and tentatively identified in CQs extracts. The characterization results shed some light on the scientific foundation for clinical application of the CQ analogous formulas. Our results also indicate that the HPLC-MS method is useful for the systemic identification of major constituents in traditional Chinese medicine formulas.

  12. Chemical constituents in groundwater from multiple zones in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2009-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hopkins, Candice B.; Maimer, Neil V.

    2015-01-01

    Tritium concentrations in relation to basaltic flow units indicate the presence of wastewater influence in multiple basalt flow groups; however, tritium is most abundant in the South Late Matuyama flow group in the southern boundary wells. The concentrations of wastewater constituents in deep zones in wells Middle 2051, USGS 132, USGS 105, and USGS 103 support the concept of groundwater flow deepening in the southwestern corner of the INL, as indicated by the INL groundwater-flow model.

  13. Low Solar Absorbing Chemical Agent Resistant Coatings with Nano-Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    quantify ratio of side products vs. NCO:OH ratio • Adjust additives, reaction conditions, etc. – to make more favorable distribution UNCLASSIFIED...Polyester Resin (functional -OH) HDI Biuret (NCO) 75% resin solids, 25% solvent Siliceous B Army Green Hydroxyl Functional PU Water Dispersible Modified...Nav/Air Grey Conventional Polyester: 100% solid (low MW) Blend of HDI Trimers 100% solid Siliceous w./fluoro additives HDI Biuret HDI Trimer Poly

  14. Evaluation of the protective effect of chemical additives in the oxidation of phenolic compounds catalysed by peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Torres, Juliana Arriel; Chagas, Pricila Maria Batista; Silva, Maria Cristina; Dos Santos, Custódio Donizete; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte

    2016-01-01

    The use of oxidoredutive enzymes in removing organic pollutants has been the subject of much research. The oxidation of phenolic compounds in the presence of chemical additives has been the focus of this study. In this investigation, the influence of the additives polyethylene glycol and Triton X-100 was evaluated in the phenol oxidation, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and total phenolic compounds present in coffee processing wastewater (CPW) at different pH values, performed by turnip peroxidase and peroxidase extracted from soybean seed hulls. The influence of these additives was observed only in the oxidation of phenol and caffeic acid. In the oxidation of other studied phenolic compounds, the percentage of oxidation remained unchanged in the presence of these chemical additives. In the oxidation of CPW in the presence of additives, no change in the oxidation of phenolic compounds was observed. Although several studies show the importance of evaluating the influence of additives on the behaviour of enzymes, this study found a positive response from the economic point of view for the treatment of real wastewater, since the addition of these substances showed no influence on the oxidation of phenolic compounds, which makes the process less costly.

  15. The effect of diborane additive on the plasma-chemical properties of deposited carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubina, E. N.; Karasev, P. A.; Titov, A. I.; Podsvirov, O. A.; Vinogradov, A. Ya.; Karasev, N. N.; Pozdnyakov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of studies of the optical, electrical, and mechanical properties of diamondlike carbon films prepared by plasma-chemical vapor deposition from a mixture of methane and diborane in various proportions. Upon reaching the threshold concentration ( 12%) of diborane in the mixture, inclusions of a new phase start to form in the structure of the films. This leads to nonlinear dependence of the interior stresses and the surface resistance of coatings on the composition of the mixture with minimum values corresponding to a diborane concentration of about 12%.

  16. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a* values at a 0.5% addition (p<0.05). Residual nitrite and TBARS values were found to be significantly reduced as the addition levels of SCP increased (p<0.05). As the addition of SCP increased, the sausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (p<0.05). The addition of SCP to sausage significantly (p<0.05) increased the ammonia content (by 0.5% SCP) and aromatic amino acid concentrations (by 1.0% SCP) (p<0.05). Inclusion of SCP in sausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (p<0.05). As expected, the observed changes in a*, W, pH, shear force, texture property, TBARS, fatty acid, amino acid and sensory score of sausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (p<0.05). These results suggest that SCP addition is not an effective way of improving the sensory evaluation of sausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages. PMID:25049766

  17. Conservation characteristics of wilted perennial ryegrass silage made using biological or chemical additives.

    PubMed

    Conaghan, P; O'Kiely, P; O'Mara, F P

    2010-02-01

    The effects of 7 additive treatments on the fermentation and aerobic stability characteristics of wilted grass silage were studied under laboratory conditions. Treatments included no additive applied (untreated control), ammonium tetraformate at 3 and 6 L/t, homofermentative lactic acid bacteria alone ((ho)LAB), a mixture of Lactobacillus buchneri plus homofermentative lactic acid bacteria ((he+ho)LAB), and an antimicrobial mixture of sodium benzoate, sodium propionate, sodium nitrite, and hexamethylenetetramine at 2.5 and 5 L/t. Additives were compared across 3 consecutive harvests of 2 perennial ryegrass cultivars (AberDart and Fennema) following a 24-h wilt. Silos were opened after at least 100 d of ensilage and aerobic stability was assessed. Season of harvest had a large effect on grass composition at ensiling, producing herbages of relatively low (approximately 145g/kg), medium (approximately 250g/kg), and high (approximately 365g/kg) dry matter (DM) concentrations. Within harvests there were lesser differences between cultivars. The untreated control and (ho)LAB additive produced badly fermented silage from the low-DM herbages and well-fermented silage from the medium- and high-DM herbages. The ammonium tetraformate treatments produced both well-fermented and badly fermented silage from the low-DM herbages depending on cultivar, and consistently well-fermented silage from the medium- and high-DM herbages. The (he+ho)LAB silages had similar or slightly lower standard of fermentation than the untreated and (ho)LAB silages. The antimicrobial mixture produced more silages of lower standard of fermentation than the untreated control and ammonium tetraformate and (ho)LAB additives. All additive treatments, including the untreated control, failed to consistently increase residual water-soluble carbohydrate concentrations at silo opening. Ammonium tetraformate at 6 L/t was the most successful and (he+ho)LAB the least successful additive at increasing residual WSC

  18. Effects of chemical additives on hydrocarbon disappearance and biodegradation in freshwater marsh microcosms.

    PubMed

    Nyman, J A; Klerks, P L; Bhattacharyya, S

    2007-09-01

    We determined how a cleaner and a dispersant affected hydrocarbon biodegradation in wetland soils dominated by the plant Panicum hemitomon, which occurs throughout North and South America. Microcosms received no hydrocarbons, South Louisiana crude, or diesel; and no additive, a dispersant, or a cleaner. We determined the concentration of four total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) measures and 43 target hydrocarbons in water and sediment fractions 1, 7, 31, and 186 days later. Disappearance was distinguished from biodegradation via hopane-normalization. After 186 days, TPH disappearance ranged from 24% to 97%. There was poor correlation among the four TPH measures, which indicated that each quantified a different suite of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon disappearance and biodegradation were unaltered by these additives under worse-case scenarios. Any use of these additives must generate benefits that outweigh the lack of effect on biodegradation demonstrated in this report, and the increase in toxicity that we reported earlier.

  19. Effects of chemical additives on the fermentation quality and N distribution of alfalfa silage in south of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Ji, Shuren; Hou, Chen; Tang, Haiyang; Wang, Qian; Shen, Yixin

    2016-12-01

    In order to better utilize the last cut alfalfa harvested before killing frost in a high moisture environment, the effects of chemical additives on the quality of alfalfa silage were studied in south of China. The alfalfa was freshly harvested at branching stage, and wilted by dry matter content of about 300 g/kg (fresh matter basis). Silage was prepared by using a small-scale silage fermentation system, where sucrose, potassium citrate, sodium carbonate, formic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid were used as silage additives, and no additives served as control. These silos were stored at ambient temperature (5-20°C), and the silage qualities were analyzed after 120 days of fermentation. All additive treatments affected the chemical composition and N distribution, increased the water-soluble content and crude protein contents, decreased non-protein nitrogen (NPN) content, and enhanced the in vitro ruminal dry matter digestibility (except for sodium carbonate). Silages treated with organic acids were preserved with significantly (P < 0.05) lower pH value, ethanol content and NPN content compared with control. When the fermentation quality, chemical composition and N distribution were considered, the treatment with sucrose or organic acids resulted in high quality of alfalfa silage ensiled before killing frost, with formic acid having the best effect.

  20. Chemical additive to maximize antimicrobial effect of chlorine during pilot scale immersion chilling of broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A prior laboratory scale study demonstrated the potential for T-128, a proprietary blend including propylene glycol and phosphoric acid, to enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine during immersion chilling of broiler parts. The objective of the current study was to test the addition of T-128...

  1. Does the Addition of Inert Gases at Constant Volume and Temperature Affect Chemical Equilibrium?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paiva, Joao C. M.; Goncalves, Jorge; Fonseca, Susana

    2008-01-01

    In this article we examine three approaches, leading to different conclusions, for answering the question "Does the addition of inert gases at constant volume and temperature modify the state of equilibrium?" In the first approach, the answer is yes as a result of a common students' alternative conception; the second approach, valid only for ideal…

  2. Lignosulfonates carboxylated with chloroacetic acid as additives in oil recovery processes involving chemical recovery agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kalfoglou, G.

    1981-05-19

    A process for producing petroleum from subterranean formations is disclosed wherein production from the formation is obtained by driving a fluid from an injection well to a production well. The process involves injecting via the injection well into the formation an aqueous solution of lignosulfonates carboxylated with chloroacetic acid as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and/or polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process may best be carried out by injecting the lignosulfonates carboxylated with chloroacetic acid into the formation through the injection well mixed with either a polymer, a surfactant solution and/or a micellar dispersion. This mixture would then be followed by a drive fluid such as water to push the chemicals to the production well.

  3. Quantum-chemical model evaluations of thermodynamics and kinetics of oxygen atom additions to narrow nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Slanina, Zdenĕk; Stobinski, Leszek; Tomasik, Piotr; Lin, Hong-Ming; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports a computational study of oxygen additions to narrow nanotubes, a problem frequently studied with fullerenes. In fact, fullerene oxides were the first observed fullerene derivatives, and they have naturally attracted the attention of both experiment and theory. C60O had represented a long-standing case of experiment-theory disagreement, and there has been a similar problem with C60O2. The disagreement has been explained by kinetic rather than thermodynamic control. In this paper a similar computational approach is applied to narrow nanotubes. Recently, very narrow nanotubes have been observed with a diameter of 5 A and even with a diameter of 4 A. It has been supposed that the narrow nanotubes are closed by fragments of small fullerenes like C36 or C20. In this report we perform calculations for oxygen additions to such model nanotubes capped by fragments of D2d C36, D4d C32, and Ih C20 fullerenic cages (though the computational models have to be rather short). The three models have the following carbon contents: C84, C80, and C80. Both thermodynamic enthalpy changes and kinetic activation barriers for oxygen addition to six selected bonds are computed and analyzed. The lowest isomer (thermodynamically the most stable) is never of the 6/6 type, that is, the enthalpically favored structures are produced by oxygen additions to the nanotube tips. Interestingly enough, the lowest energy isomer has, for the D2d C36 and D4d C32 cases, the lowest kinetic activation barrier as well.

  4. The enhanced stability and biodegradation of dispersed crude oil droplets by Xanthan Gum as an additive of chemical dispersant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aiqin; Li, Yiming; Yang, Xiaolong; Bao, Mutai; Cheng, Hua

    2017-03-07

    It is necessary for chemical dispersant to disperse oil effectively and maintain the stability of oil droplets. In this work, Xanthan Gum (XG) was used as an environmentally friendly additive in oil dispersant formulation to enhance the stability and biodegradation of dispersed crude oil droplets. When XG was used together with chemical dispersant 9500A, the dispersion effectiveness of crude oil in artificial sea water (ASW) and the oil droplet stability were both greatly enhanced. In the presence of XG, lower concentration of 9500A was needed to achieve the effective dispersion and stabilization. In addition to the enhancement of dispersion and stabilization, it was found that the biodegradation rate of crude oil by bacteria was dramatically enhanced when a mixture of 9500A and XG was used as a dispersant. Because of the low environmental impact of XG, this would be a potential way to formulate the dispersant with lower toxicity.

  5. Effects of microbial additives on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of barley silage.

    PubMed

    Amanullah, S M; Kim, D H; Lee, H J; Joo, Y H; Kim, S B; Kim, S C

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the effects of bacterial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation indices of barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at 24% dry matter (DM) and wilted to 47.9% DM. The wilted barley forage was chopped to 3-5 cm length and applied with no inoculant (CON), L. plantarum (1×10(10) cfu/g, LP) or Effective Microorganisms (0.5×10(9) cfu/g, EM). Then the forages were ensiled in four replications for each treatment in 20 L mini silos and stored for 100 days. The contents of crude protein and ether extract were higher in CON silage ensiled for 100-d, while the contents of DM and crude ash were higher in EM silage (p<0.05). The contents of ADF, NDF and hemicellulose as well as the in vitro DM digestibility were not affected by microbial inoculation (p>0.05). The pH, ammonia-N concentration and lactate to acetate ratio were higher (p<0.05) in CON silage, while lactate concentrations were higher (p<0.05) in CON and LP silage. Acetate concentration and lactic acid bacteria was increased (p<0.05) by both inoculants (LP and EM), but propionate concentration and yeast was increased (p<0.05) by EM and LP, respectively. These results indicated that the fermentation quality of barley silage was improved by the application of bacterial inoculants.

  6. Effects of Microbial Additives on Chemical Composition and Fermentation Characteristics of Barley Silage

    PubMed Central

    Amanullah, S. M.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, H. J.; Joo, Y. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of bacterial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation indices of barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at 24% dry matter (DM) and wilted to 47.9% DM. The wilted barley forage was chopped to 3–5 cm length and applied with no inoculant (CON), L. plantarum (1×1010 cfu/g, LP) or Effective Microorganisms (0.5×109 cfu/g, EM). Then the forages were ensiled in four replications for each treatment in 20 L mini silos and stored for 100 days. The contents of crude protein and ether extract were higher in CON silage ensiled for 100-d, while the contents of DM and crude ash were higher in EM silage (p<0.05). The contents of ADF, NDF and hemicellulose as well as the in vitro DM digestibility were not affected by microbial inoculation (p>0.05). The pH, ammonia-N concentration and lactate to acetate ratio were higher (p<0.05) in CON silage, while lactate concentrations were higher (p<0.05) in CON and LP silage. Acetate concentration and lactic acid bacteria was increased (p<0.05) by both inoculants (LP and EM), but propionate concentration and yeast was increased (p<0.05) by EM and LP, respectively. These results indicated that the fermentation quality of barley silage was improved by the application of bacterial inoculants. PMID:25049981

  7. Addition of HOBt improves the conversion of thioester-Amine chemical ligation.

    PubMed

    Todorovski, Toni; Suñol, David; Riera, Antoni; Macias, Maria J

    2015-11-01

    The syntheses of large peptides and of those containing non-natural amino acids can be facilitated by the application of convergent approaches, dissecting the native sequence into segments connected through a ligation reaction. We describe an improvement of the ligation protocol used to prepare peptides and proteins without cysteine residues at the ligation junction. We have found that the addition of HOBt to the ligation, improves the conversion of the ligation reaction without affecting the epimerization rate or chemoselectivity, and it can be efficiently used with peptides containing phosphorylated amino acids.

  8. Chemical and Radiochemical Constituents in Water from Wells in the Vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1997-98

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bartholomay; L. L. Knobel; B. J. Tucker; B. V. Twining

    2000-06-01

    The US Geological Survey, in response to a request from the U.S Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office, Idaho Branch Office, sampled water from 13 wells during 1997-98 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho. Water samples were analyzed for naturally occurring constituents and man-made contaminants. A total of 91 samples were collected from the 13 monitoring wells. The routine samples contained detectable concentrations of total cations and dissolved anions, and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen. Most of the samples also had detectable concentrations of gross alpha- and gross beta-particle radioactivity and tritium. Fourteen quality-assurance samples were also collected and analyzed; seven were field-blank samples, and seven were replicate samples. Most of the field blank samples contained less than detectable concentrations of target constituents; however some blank samples did contain detectable concentrations of calcium, magnesium, barium, copper, manganese, nickel, zinc, nitrite plus nitrate, total organic halogens, tritium, and selected volatile organic compounds.

  9. Chemical and radiochemical constituents in water from wells in the vicinity of the naval reactors facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Knobel, LeRoy L.; Tucker, Betty J.; Twining, Brian V.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Phtsburgh Naval Reactors Ofilce, Idaho Branch Office, sampled water from 13 wells during 1997?98 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho. Water samples were analyzed for naturally occurring constituents and man-made contaminants. A totalof91 samples were collected from the 13 monitoring wells. The routine samples contained detectable concentrations of total cations and dissolved anions, and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen. Most of the samples also had detectable concentrations of gross alpha- and gross beta-particle radioactivity and tritium. Fourteen qualityassurance samples also were collected and analyze~ seven were field-blank samples, and seven were replicate samples. Most of the field blank samples contained less than detectable concentrations of target constituents; however, some blank samples did contain detectable concentrations of calcium, magnesium, barium, copper, manganese, nickel, zinc, nitrite plus nitrate, total organic halogens, tritium, and selected volatile organic compounds.

  10. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of the volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl grown in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Tantawy, Mona E; Shams, Manal M; Afifi, Manal S

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata and Nephrolepis cordifolia obtained by hydro-distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. The essential oils exhibited potential antibacterial and antifungal activities against a majority of the selected microorganisms. NEA oil showed promising cytotoxicity in breast, colon and lung carcinoma cells. The results presented indicate that NEA oil could be useful alternative for the treatment of dermatophytosis. Comparative investigation of hydro-distilled volatile constituents from aerial parts (A) of Nephrolepis exaltata (NE) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (NC) (Family Nephrolepidaceae) was carried out. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that oils differ in composition and percentages of components. Oxygenated compounds were dominant in NEA and NCA. 2,4-Hexadien-1-ol (16.1%), nonanal (14.4%), β-Ionone (6.7%) and thymol (2.7%) were predominant in NEA. β-Ionone (8.0%), eugenol (7.2%) and anethol (4.6%) were the main constituents in NCA. Volatile samples were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities using agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using viability assay in breast (MCF-7), colon (HCT-116) and lung carcinoma (A-549) cells by the MTT assay. The results revealed that NEA oil exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against most of the tested organisms and showed promising cytotoxicity.

  11. Chemical and sensory evaluation of dark chocolate with addition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Andrea B; Brandelli, Adriano; Macedo, Fernanda C; Pieta, Luiza; Klug, Tâmmila V; de Jong, Erna V

    2010-03-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a good source of vitamin E containing high quality protein. A dark chocolate with the addition of 12, 16 or 20% quinoa was developed. The protein concentration of the products increased as the percentage of quinoa increased. The product containing 20% quinoa showed only 9% increase in vitamin E, while the quantity of polyphenols decreased from 23.5 to 18 μmol pirocatechin/g. The amount of essential amino acids was improved in samples containing quinoa. Cysteine, tyrosine and methionine increased by 104, 72, 70%, respectively in chocolate containing 20% quinoa. The amino acid pattern was as per WHO standards, which was adequate to human needs. The chocolate with quinoa was approved by 92% of the sensory panel. All the samples showed an index of acceptance above 70%. Quinoa could be used at the levels evaluated in this study adding its potential health benefit to the dark chocolate.

  12. Characterization of the chemical constituents in Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang by liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufang; Chen, Pinghong; Xu, Yimin; Li, Xiaodong; Fan, Xiaohui

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the chemical constituents in Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang, a traditional Chinese formula, were studied by liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry for the first time. Among the 146 compounds detected in Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang, 104 compounds were identified unambiguously or tentatively based on their accurate molecular weight and multistage MS data, including one potential novel compound and two reported in Glycyrrhiza genus for the first time. The possible fragmentation pathways were proposed and fragmentation rules of the major types of compounds were concluded. This study provided an example to facilitate the tedious identification of chemical composition in traditional Chinese medicine, and maybe a promising reference approach to research the analogous formulae.

  13. Rapid identif ication and comparative analysis of chemical constituents in herbal medicine Fufang decoction by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid linear ion trap-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gang; Chen, Xiaocheng; Wu, Xin; Li, Qinglin; Zhang, Hongyan

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to reveal the relation between herbal medicine Fufang decoction and a single drug in terms of material base. Da-Cheng-Qi decoction (DCQD) was used as a model. Ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid linear ion trap-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap) was applied to detect and identify the main chemical compounds. This technique was also employed to determine the different chemical components. Under optimized liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry conditions, 64 components, including iridoids, flavonoids, anthraquinones and coumarins, were separated and tentatively characterized in Da-Cheng-Qi decoction. After decoction, the contents of 18 compounds were markedly changed, and two components were no longer detected in Fufang decoction compared with single-medicine decoction. The established method provided a good example for the rapid identification of complicated polar constituents in herbal medicine prescriptions.

  14. Effect of addition of Versagel on microbial, chemical, and physical properties of low-fat yogurt.

    PubMed

    Ramchandran, L; Shah, N P

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of Versagel on the growth and proteolytic activity of Streptococcus thermophilus 1275 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus 1368 and angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of the peptides generated thereby as well as on the physical properties of low-fat yogurt during a storage period of 28 d at 4 degrees C. Three different types of low-fat yogurts, YV0, YV1, and YV2, were prepared using Versagel as a fat replacer. The fermentation time of the low-fat yogurts containing Versagel was less than that of the control yogurt (YV0). The starter cultures maintained their viability (8.68 to 8.81 log CFU/g of S. thermophilus and 8.51 to 8.81 log CFU/g of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus) in all the yogurts throughout the storage period. There was some decrease in the pH of the yogurts during storage and an increase in the concentration of lactic acid. However, the proteolytic and ACE-inhibitory potential of the starter cultures was suppressed in the presence of Versagel. On the other hand, the addition of Versagel had a positive impact on the physical properties of the low-fat yogurt, namely, spontaneous whey separation, firmness, and pseudoplastic properties.

  15. Effects of 8 chemical and bacterial additives on the quality of corn silage.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, O C M; Arriola, K G; Daniel, J L P; Adesogan, A T

    2013-09-01

    This project aimed to evaluate the effects 8 additives on the fermentation, dry matter (DM) losses, nutritive value, and aerobic stability of corn silage. Corn forage harvested at 31% DM was chopped (10mm) and treated with (1) deionized water (control); (2) Buchneri 500 (BUC; 1×10(5) cfu/g of Pediococcus pentosaceus 12455 and 4×10(5) cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788; Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Milwaukee, WI); (3) sodium benzoate (BEN; 0.1% of fresh forage); (4) Silage Savor acid mixture (SAV: 0.1% of fresh forage; Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA); (5) 1×10(6) cfu/g of Acetobacter pasteurianus-ATCC 9323; (6) 1×10(6) cfu/g of Gluconobacter oxydans-ATCC 621; (7) Ecosyl 200T (1×10(5) cfu/g of Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1; Ecosyl Products Inc., Byron, IL); (8) Silo-King WS (1.5×10(5) cfu/g of L. plantarum, P. pentosaceus and Enterococcus faecium; Agri-King, Fulton, IL); and (9) Biomax 5 (BIO; 1×10(5) cfu/g of L. plantarum PA-28 and K-270; Chr. Hansen Animal Health and Nutrition, Milwaukee, WI). Treated forage was ensiled in quadruplicate in mini silos at a density of 172 kg of DM/m(3) for 3 and 120 d. After 3 d of ensiling, the pH of all silages was below 4 but ethanol concentrations were least in BEN silage (2.03 vs. 3.24% DM) and lactic acid was greatest in SAV silage (2.97 vs. 2.51% DM). Among 120-d silages, additives did not affect DM recovery (mean=89.8% ± 2.27) or in vitro DM digestibility (mean=71.5% ± 0.63). The SAV silage had greater ammonia-N (0.85 g/kg of DM) and butyric acid (0.22 vs. 0.0% DM) than other treatments. In contrast, BEN and Silo-King silages had the least ammonia-N concentration and had no butyric acid. The BEN and A. pasteurianus silages had the lowest pH (3.69) and BEN silage had the least ethanol (1.04% DM) and ammonia nitrogen (0.64 g/kg DM) concentrations, suggesting that fermentation was more extensive and protein degradation was less in BEN silages. The BUC and BIO silages had greater acetic acid concentrations than

  16. Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico Basin, North Carolina and Virginia; chemical analyses of organic compounds and inorganic constituents in streambed sediment, 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodside, M.D.; Simerl, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey began full-scale implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. Long-term goals of the NAWQA program are to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources and to describe the primary natural and human factors that affect these resources. One of the first assessment phases of the NAWQA program is to examine the occurrence and distribution of organic and inorganic constituents in streambed sediment. Streambed sediment was collected at 22 stations in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin that drains into the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, the second largest estuarine system in the United States. Streambed-sediment samples were analyzed for 35 organochlorine and 63 semivolatile compounds; 44 major, minor, and trace elements; and forms of organic carbon.

  17. Evaluation of background concentrations of selected chemical and radiochemical constituents in water from the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; L. Flint Hall,

    2016-05-05

    The upper limit of background concentrations for radiochemical constituents for eastern regional water was 5.43 ±0.574 pCi/L for tritium, 0.0002048 ±0.0000054 pCi/L for chlorine-36, 0.000000865 ±0.000000015 pCi/L for iodine-129, <0.0000054 pCi/L for technetium-99, 0 pCi/L for strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, -240 (undivided), and americium-241, 1.32 ±0.77 pCi/L for uranium-234, 0.016 ±0.012 pCi/L for uranium-235, and 0.477 ±0.044 pCi/L for uranium-238.

  18. In vitro evaluation of schistosomicidal activity of essential oil of Mentha x villosa and some of its chemical constituents in adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Matos-Rocha, Thiago José; dos Santos Cavalcanti, Marília Gabriela; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Lúcio, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro; Veras, Dyana Leal; Feitosa, Ana Paula Sampaio; de Siqueira Júnior, José Pinto; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; Marques, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Brayner, Fábio André

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the composition of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa and to evaluate its biological effects in vitro on adult worms of S. mansoni. Rotundifolone (70.96 %), limonene (8.75 %), trans-caryophyllene (1.46 %), and β-pinene (0.81 %) were shown to be the major constituents of this oil. Adult worms of S. mansoni were incubated with different concentrations of the essential oil (1, 10, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 µg/mL) and of its constituents rotundifolone (0.7, 3.54, 7.09, 70.96, 177.4, 354.8, and 700.96 µg/mL), limonene (43.75 µg/mL), trans-caryophyllene (7.3 µg/mL), and β-pinene (4.03 µg/mL). No schistosomicidal activity was identified at the trans-caryophyllene and β-pinene concentrations studied. However, use of the essential oil (10 µg/mL), rotundifolone (7.09 µg/mL), and limonene (43.75 µg/mL) resulted in decreased worm motility continuing until 96 hours of observation. At higher concentrations (100 and 70.96 µg/mL, respectively), both the essential oil and rotundifolone caused mortality among adult worms of S. mansoni. The positive control praziquantel caused the death of all parasites after 24 h of evaluation. The results from this study suggest that the essential oil of Mentha x villosa presents schistosomicidal efficacy.

  19. Activation and stabilization of the hydroperoxide lyase enzymatic extract from mint leaves (Mentha spicata) using selected chemical additives.

    PubMed

    Akacha, Najla B; Karboune, Salwa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Kermasha, Selim

    2010-03-01

    The effects of selected lyoprotecting excipients and chemical additives on the specific activity and the thermal stability of the hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) enzymatic extract from mint leaves were investigated. The addition of KCl (5%, w/w) and dextran (2.5%, w/w) to the enzymatic extract, prior to lyophilization, increased the HPL specific activity by 2.0- and 1.2-fold, respectively, compared to the control lyophilized extract. From half-life time (t (1/2)), it can be seen that KCl has enhanced the HPL stability by 1.3- to 2.3-fold, during long-period storage at -20 degrees Celsius and 4 degrees Celsius. Among the selected additives used throughout this study, glycine appeared to be the most effective one. In addition to the activation effect conferred by glycine, it also enhanced the HPL thermal stability. In contrast, polyhydroxyl-containing additives were not effective for stabilizing the HPL enzymatic extract. On the other hand, there was no signification increase in HPL activity and its thermal stability with the presence of Triton X-100. The results also showed that in the presence of glycine (10%), the catalytic efficiency of HPL was increased by 2.45-fold than that without additive.

  20. Effect of Microbial and Chemical Combo Additives on Nutritive Value and Fermentation Characteristic of Whole Crop Barley Silage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hyeon; Amanullah, Sardar M.; Lee, Hyuk Jun; Joo, Young Ho; Kim, Sam Churl

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of microbial and chemical combo additives on nutritive values, fermentation indices and aerobic stability of whole crop barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at about 30% dry matter (DM) by treatments, chopped to 5 cm length and treated with distilled water only (CON), Lactobacillus plantarum (INO), propionic acid (PRO) or an equal mixture of INO and PRO (MIX). Barley forages were ensiled in 4 replications for 0, 2, 7, and 100 days. On 100 days of ensiling, MIX silage had higher (p<0.05) in vitro DM digestibility than CON silage, but lower (p<0.05) acid detergent fiber concentration. The pH in all treated silages was lower (p<0.05) than CON silage. The MIX silage had higher (p<0.05) lactate concentration and lactate to acetate ratio than in CON, but lower (p<0.05) yeast count. Aerobic stability in CON, PRO, and MIX silages were higher (p<0.05) than in INO silage. It is concluded that microbial and chemical combo additives using L. plantarum and propionic acid could efficiently improve nutritive values of barley silage in terms of increased in vitro DM digestibility compared to other treatments. In addition, all treatments except CON reduced yeast count which is the initiate microorganism of aerobic spoilage. PMID:26323517

  1. [Effects of different perlite additions on physical and chemical properties of sewage sludge compost and growth of Tagetes patula].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu-Tong; Shi, Lian-Hui; Liu, Deng-Min; Tong, Shao-Wei; Wei, Mei-Yan; Sun, Jie

    2014-07-01

    In order to resolve the problem of poor permeability of sewage sludge compost (SSC) which was used as the substitution of peat, perlite was used to regulate the permeability of the sewage. The pure SSC was used as control. The proportions of perlite in the mixtures with SSC were 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% (V/V), respectively. The effects of different perlite ratios on the physical and chemical properties and the growth of Tagetes patula were studied. The bulk density, water holding porosity and water holding porosity to aeration porosity decreased, but the total porosity and aeration porosity increased with the increasing addition of perlite to the SSC. For the chemical properties, the pH increased, and the EC and nutrient contents decreased with the increasing addition of perlite to the SSC. The aboveground biomass and flowers of T. patula were the highest in the 60% perlite treatment, and the lowest in the pure SSC treatment. The root morphology and activity were the best in the 40%, 60% and 80% perlite treatments. Aeration was the strongest factor to impact the maximum root length and average root diameter. Perlite promoted the growth of T. patula mainly through impacting the physical properties of the SSC. The addition of 60% perlite to the SSC could significantly improve the poor aeration and decrease the high salinity greatly in the SSC and regulate the growth of the root and aboveground of T. patula.

  2. Singular vector-based targeted observations of chemical constituents: description and first application of the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goris, N.; Elbern, H.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of the large-dimensional chemical state of the atmosphere provide only sparse snapshots of the state of the system due to their typically insufficient temporal and spatial density. In order to optimize the measurement configurations despite those limitations, the present work describes the identification of sensitive states of the chemical system as optimal target areas for adaptive observations. For this purpose, the technique of singular vector analysis (SVA), which has proven effective for targeted observations in numerical weather prediction, is implemented in the EURAD-IM (EURopean Air pollution and Dispersion - Inverse Model) chemical transport model, yielding the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0. Besides initial values, emissions are investigated as critical simulation controlling targeting variables. For both variants, singular vectors are applied to determine the optimal placement for observations and moreover to quantify which chemical compounds have to be observed with preference. Based on measurements of the airship based ZEPTER-2 campaign, the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0 has been evaluated by conducting a comprehensive set of model runs involving different initial states and simulation lengths. For the sake of brevity, we concentrate our attention on the following chemical compounds, O3, NO, NO2, HCHO, CO, HONO, and OH, and focus on their influence on selected O3 profiles. Our analysis shows that the optimal placement for observations of chemical species is not entirely determined by mere transport and mixing processes. Rather, a combination of initial chemical concentrations, chemical conversions, and meteorological processes determines the influence of chemical compounds and regions. We furthermore demonstrate that the optimal placement of observations of emission strengths is highly dependent on the location of emission sources and that the benefit of including emissions as target variables outperforms the value of initial value optimization with growing

  3. Effect of water treatment additives on lime softening residual trace chemical composition--implications for disposal and reuse.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weizhi; Roessler, Justin; Blaisi, Nawaf I; Townsend, Timothy G

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water treatment residues (WTR) offer potential benefits when recycled through land application. The current guidance in Florida, US allows for unrestricted land application of lime softening WTR; alum and ferric WTR require additional evaluation of total and leachable concentrations of select trace metals prior to land application. In some cases a mixed WTR is produced when lime softening is accompanied by the addition of a coagulant or other treatment chemical; applicability of the current guidance is unclear. The objective of this research was to characterize the total and leachable chemical content of WTR from Florida facilities that utilize multiple treatment chemicals. Lime and mixed lime WTR samples were collected from 18 water treatment facilities in Florida. Total and leachable concentrations of the WTR were measured. To assess the potential for disposal of mixed WTR as clean fill below the water table, leaching tests were conducted at multiple liquid to solid ratios and under reducing conditions. The results were compared to risk-based soil and groundwater contamination thresholds. Total metal concentrations of WTR were found to be below Florida soil contaminant thresholds with Fe found in the highest abundance at a concentration of 3600 mg/kg-dry. Aluminum was the only element that exceeded the Florida groundwater contaminant thresholds using SPLP (95% UCL = 0.23 mg/L; risk threshold = 0.2 mg/L). Tests under reducing conditions showed elevated concentrations of Fe and Mn, ranging from 1 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than SPLP leachates. Mixed lime WTR concentrations (total and leachable) were lower than the ferric and alum WTR concentrations, supporting that mixed WTR are appropriately represented as lime WTR. Testing of WTR under reducing conditions demonstrated the potential for release of certain trace metals (Fe, Al, Mn) above applicable regulatory thresholds; additional evaluation is needed to assess management options where

  4. Hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1992 through 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Tucker, B.J.; Ackerman, D.J.; Liszewski, M.J.

    1997-04-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, maintains a monitoring network at the INEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1992--95.

  5. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of essential oil and organic extract from the peel and kernel parts of Citrus japonica Thunb. (kumquat) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Amrah; Shafaghatlonbar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The constituents of essential oils and organic extracts from peel and kernels of Citrus japonica were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The content of essential oil in peel and kernel was 1.1 and 0.8% based on dry weight. The essential oil of C. japonica peel and kernel was characterised by a higher amount of limonene (51.0 and 47.1%) and germacrene D (12.1 and 6.3%), and the hexane extracts of its peel and kernel were characterised by a higher amount of dodecanol-1(12.9 and 20.8%) and linolenic acid (13.1 and 16.3%), respectively. The antioxidant activities of oils were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The results indicate that both oils from different parts of C. japonica possess considerable antioxidant activity. The fruit peel and kernel essential oil could thus be useful in the industries, chiefly in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Comparative study on the chemical constituents of essential oils from different organs of the Sicilian Kundmannia (Kundmannia sicula L.) DC. (Apiaceae) growing spontaneously in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Faidi, Khaled; El Mokni, Ridha; Joshi, R K; Hammami, Saoussen; M'Henni, Mohamed Farouk; Mighri, Zine

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils from odorous and volatile compounds possessing several therapeutic benefits are considered of a paramount importance in everyday human life. This study deals with a comparative study of essential oils from different parts of an aromatic plant Kundmannia sicula (L.) DC. (Apiaceae) growing in Tunisia. The hydro-distilled essential oils of the leaves and inflorescences with mature seeds (IMS) of K. sicula were analysed for the first time by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Fifty leaves and 47 IMS constituents were identified, accounting for 97.9% and 98.2% of the total oil, respectively. The major compounds identified from the leaves and IMS oils were isocurcumenol (9.9-10.1%), hexadecanoic acid (9.5-10.9%), spathulenol (6.9-3.4%), 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (6.3-5.5%), α-cubebene (5.9-6.1%) and trans-dihydro occidentalol (52-6.6%). The essential oil consists mainly of oxygenated monoterpenes (50.7-53.2%).

  7. Constituent Data Assimilation: Challenges and Limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rood, Richard B.; Stajner, I.; Winslow, N.; Douglass, A.; Pawson, S.; Straham, S.; Atlas, Robert M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The assimilation of observations of atmospheric constituents naturally divides into two major pieces. The first is the assimilation of trace gases whose variability is related to atmospheric motions. The second is the assimilation of trace gases which are sharply influenced by chemical exchange between different constituents. In order to advance beyond the initial successes of explorative investigation of assimilation techniques, tremendous challenges must be met to improve the geophysical integrity of assimilated data products. A subject of special interest is ozone near the tropopause. At the tropopause the information from both the observations and the model simulation becomes most uncertain. However a number of important geophysical parameters, e.g. stratosphere-troposphere exchange and tropospheric ozone, require the assimilation to have high accuracy at the tropopause. This talk will review the current status of the quality of assimilated data products near the tropopause, what must be done to improve the assimilation near the tropopause, and the intrinsic limitations that will require additional sources of information in order for the field to advance.

  8. Chemical composition, larvicidal, and biting deterrent activity of essential oils of two subspecies of Tanacetum argenteum (Asterales: Asteraceae) and individual constituents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Kurkcuoglu, Mine; Duran, Ahmet; Blythe, Eugene K; Khan, Ikhlas A; Baser, K Husnu Can

    2014-07-01

    Water-distilled essential oils from dried aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. argenteum (Lam.) and T. argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. canum (C. Koch) Grierson were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 27 and 32 components were identified representing 97.2 and 98.7% of essential oils of subsp. argenteum and canum, respectively. Main compounds of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum were alpha-pinene (67.9%) and beta-pinene (4.8%), whereas alpha-pinene (53.6%), 1, 8-cineole (14.8%), and camphor (4.7%) were the major constituents of subsp. canum. Essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. canum at 10 microg/cm2 with Biting Deterrent Index (BDI) value of 0.73 showed activity similar to N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) at 25 mol/cm2, whereas the activity of essential oil of subsp. argenteum was lower (BDI = 0.47) than subsp. canum and DEET. Based on 95% CIs, activity of beta-caryophyllene (BDI value = 0.54) and caryophyllene oxide (BDI = 0.66) were significantly lower than DEET. In larval bioassays, essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum showed LC50 value of 93.34 ppm, whereas T. argenteum subsp. canum killed only 40% of the larvae at the highest dose of 125 ppm. Among the pure compounds, beta-caryophyllene (LC50 = 26 ppm) was the most potent compound followed by caryophyllene oxide (LC50 = 29 ppm), which was also similar to (-)-beta-pinene (LC50 = 35.9 ppm) against 1-d-old Ae. aegypti larvae at 24-h post treatment. Compounds (-)-alpha-pinene and (+)-beta-pinene showed similar larvicidal activity. Activity of (+)-alpha-pinene with LC50 value of was similar to the essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum.

  9. Prioritization of constituents for national- and regional-scale ambient monitoring of water and sediment in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Valder, Joshua F.; Carter, Janet M.; Zogorski, John S.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2,541 constituents were evaluated and prioritized for national- and regional-scale ambient monitoring of water and sediment in the United States. This prioritization was done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in preparation for the upcoming third decade (Cycle 3; 2013–23) of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This report provides the methods used to prioritize the constituents and the results of that prioritization. Constituents were prioritized by the NAWQA National Target Analyte Strategy (NTAS) work group on the basis of available information on physical and chemical properties, observed or predicted environmental occurrence and fate, and observed or anticipated adverse effects on human health or aquatic life. Constituents were evaluated within constituent groups that were determined on the basis of physical or chemical properties or on uses or sources. Some constituents were evaluated within more than one constituent group. Although comparable objectives were used in the prioritization of constituents within the different constituent groups, differences in the availability of information accessed for each constituent group led to the development of separate prioritization approaches adapted to each constituent group to make best use of available resources. Constituents were assigned to one of three prioritization tiers: Tier 1, those having the highest priority for inclusion in ambient monitoring of water or sediment on a national or regional scale (including NAWQA Cycle 3 monitoring) on the basis of their likelihood of environmental occurrence in ambient water or sediment, or likelihood of effects on human health or aquatic life; Tier 2, those having intermediate priority for monitoring on the basis of their lower likelihood of environmental occurrence or lower likelihood of effects on human health or aquatic life; and Tier 3, those having low or no priority for monitoring on the basis of evidence of nonoccurrence or lack of

  10. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Technical progress report 6, December 16, 1988--March 15, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1989-04-30

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativeities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation. Reaction of ethylene with syngas is used as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of metal catalysts. During the sixth quarter of the project, the mechanism of CO insertion on Ni/SiO{sub 2} was investigated by in-situ infrared spectroscopy. Ni/SiO{sub 2}, a methanation catalyst, has been shown to exhibit CO insertion activity. In situ infrared studies of CO/H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reactions show that the carbonylation of Ni/SiO{sub 2} to Ni(CO){sub 4} leads to an inhibition of methanation in CO hydrogenation but an enhancement of formation of propionaldehyde in C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reaction. The results suggest that the sites for propionaldehyde formation is different from those for methanation.

  11. Association of chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particulate air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis: A panel study among young adults in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Yang, Di; Wei, Hongying; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jing; Li, Hongyu; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2015-09-01

    Ambient particulate air pollution has been associated with increased oxidative stress and atherosclerosis, but the chemical constituents and pollution sources behind the association are unclear. We investigated the associations of various chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particles (PM2.5) with biomarkers of oxidative stress in a panel of 40 healthy university students. Study participants underwent repeated blood collections for 12 times before and after relocating from a suburban campus to an urban campus with high air pollution levels in Beijing, China. Air pollution data were obtained from central air-monitoring stations, and plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and soluble CD36 (sCD36) were determined in the laboratory (n=464). Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the changes in biomarkers in association with exposure variables. PM2.5 iron and nickel were positively associated with Ox-LDL (p<0.05). For each interquartile range increase in iron (1-day, 0.51 μg/m(3)) and nickel (2-day, 2.5 ng/m(3)), there were a 1.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2%, 3.7%] increase and a 1.8% (95% CI: 0.2%, 3.4%) increase in Ox-LDL, respectively. We also found that each interquartile range increase in calcium (1-day, 0.7 μg/m(3)) was associated with a 4.8% (95% CI: 0.7%, 9.1%) increase in sCD36. Among the pollution sources, PM2.5 from traffic emissions and coal combustion were suggestively and positively associated with Ox-LDL. Our findings suggest that a subset of metals in airborne particles may be the major air pollution components that contribute to the increased oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis.

  12. Properties and chemical constituents in ground water from the lower Wilcox Aquifer, Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettijohn, Robert A.; Busby, John F.; Beckman, Jeffery D.

    1993-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis is a study of regional aquifers composed of sediments of mostly Cenozoic age that underlie about 230,000 sq mi of the Gulf Coastal Plain. These regional aquifers are part of three aquifer systems: (1) the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System, (2) the Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System, and (3) the Coastal Lowlands Aquifer System. The water chemistry of the Lower Wilcox Aquifer, which is part of the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System is presented by a series of maps. These maps show the areal distribution of (1) the concentration of dissolved solids and temperature, (2) the primary water types and pH, (3) the concentration of major ions and silica, and (4) the milliequivalent ratios of selected ions. Dissolved constituents, pH, temperature, and ratios are based on the median values of all samples in each 100-sq-mi area. The concentration of dissolved solids in water from the Lower Wilcox Aquifer ranges from 18 mg/L near the outcrop in western Tennessee to 122,000 mg/L in a down-dip area in southern Mississippi. The primary water type is calcium bicarbonate in the outcrop area and sodium bicarbonate in all other areas of the aquifer within the limits of available data. The concentrations of major ions generally increase from the outcrop area to the down-dip limit of the data in the southern part of the aquifer area east of the Mississippi River. The milliequivalent ratio maps of selected ions in water from the Lower Wilcox Aquifer indicate some trends. The milliequivalent ratio of magnesium plus calcium to bicarbonate ranges from less than 0.1 to 40.4 and generally decreases from outcrop to down-dip limit of the data in the southern part of the aquifer area east of the Mississippi River. The milliequivalent ratio of bicarbonate to chloride ranges from 0.01 in southern Mississippi to 52.3 in northwestern Mississippi. This ratio increases from the outcrop toward the Mississippi River and from north to south in the

  13. Spatial variation of chemical constituents from the burning of commonly used biomass fuels in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saud, T.; Saxena, M.; Singh, D. P.; Saraswati; Dahiya, Manisha; Sharma, S. K.; Datta, A.; Gadi, Ranu; Mandal, T. K.

    2013-06-01

    In the present paper, we have determined emission factor of chemical composition of the emission from the burning of biomass (e.g. Dung cake, Acacia, Neem, Mulberry, Indian Rosewood, Pigeon pea etc.) commonly used as a residential fuel in the rural sector of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) (Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal), India. For comparison, we have selected only those biomass fuels, which are used in at least three of the above mentioned states. Dung cake from all the states reports highest emission of particulate matter (PM) (15.68 g kg-1), Organic Carbon (OC) (4.32 g kg-1) and Elemental Carbon (EC) (0.51 g kg-1). Among all biomass fuels studied, agricultural residue reports substantial amount of emission of Na+ (104 mg kg-1), K+ (331 mg kg-1) and Cl- (447 mg kg-1) particularly in Pigeon pea and Mustard stem. Eucalyptus (fuel wood) emits large amounts of Ca2+ (21.47 mg kg-1) and NO3- (614 mg kg-1). The emission of PM from dung cake is higher in Delhi (19.31 g kg-1) and followed by Uttar Pradesh (17.58 g kg-1) > Haryana (15.46 g kg-1) > Bihar (14.99 g kg-1) > Punjab (12.06 g kg-1) > West Bengal (5.90 g kg-1). Carbonaceous aerosols (OC and EC) and dominant Ionic species (Cl-, K+, SO42-, NO3- and PO43-) are altogether contributing 40-70% of total emissions. Characteristics and ratios of chemical species of emissions may help to develop a methodology of discriminating the sources of ambient particulate matter. Using a laboratory determined emission factor of chemical species, we have determined the emission budget over IGP, India.

  14. Chemical characteristics of beddings for swine: effects of bedding depths and of addition of inoculums in a pilot-scale.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, E K; Corezzolla, J L; Corrêa, M N; Bianchi, I; Gil-Turnes, C; Lucia, T

    2012-11-01

    The effect of depths and of addition of inoculums on the chemical content of swine beddings was evaluated. For beddings 0.25m (25D) and 0.50m (50D) deep, three treatments were tested in two repeats with the same beddings: control (no inoculums); T1 (250g of Bacillus cereus var. toyoii at 8.4×10(7)CFU/g); and T2 (250g of a pool of Bacillus sp. at 8.4×10(7)CFU/g) (250g for 25D and 500g for 50D). For 25D, the C:N ratio was lower, but N, K and C contents were greater than for 50D (P<0.05). The inoculums did not benefit any chemical parameter (P>0.05). In the second repeat, beddings presented lower C:N ratio and greater N, P and K contents than in the first repeat (P<0.05). Thus, the compost produced after using 25D twice had greater fertilizer value than that of 50D.

  15. Additive effects on the androgen signaling pathway by chemicals with different modes of action-COW2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessments have traditionally been developed on a chemical-by-chemical basis. However, regulatory agencies recently have been considering cumulative effects of chemicals that act via a common mechanism of toxicity. Here we present data on several mixture studies of chemic...

  16. Sediment deposition and occurrence of selected nutrients, other chemical constituents, and diatoms in bottom sediment, Perry Lake, northeast Kansas, 1969-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2003-01-01

    A combination of bathymetric surveying and bottom-sediment coring was used to investigate sediment deposition and the occurrence of selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 26 metals and trace elements, 15 organochlorine compounds, 1 radionuclide, and diatoms in bottom sediment of Perry Lake, northeast Kansas. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited from 1969 through 2001 in the original conservation-pool area of the lake was 2,470 million cubic feet (56,700 acre-feet) and 97,200 million pounds (44,100 million kilograms), respectively. The estimated sediment volume occupied about 23 percent of the original conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the lake. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1969 was estimated to be 3,040 million pounds (1,379 million kilograms). Mean annual sediment yield from the Perry Lake Basin was estimated to be 2,740,000 pounds per square mile (4,798 kilograms per hectare). The estimated mean annual net loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of Perry Lake were 7,610,000 pounds per year (3,450,000 kilograms per year) and 3,350,000 pounds per year (1,520,000 kilograms per year), respectively. The estimated mean annual yields of total nitrogen and total phosphorus from the Perry Lake Basin were 6,850 pounds per square mile per year (12.0 kilograms per hectare per year) and 3,020 pounds per square mile per year (5.29 kilograms per hectare per year), respectively. A statistically significant positive trend for total nitrogen deposition in the bottom sediment of Perry Lake was indicated. However, the trend may be due solely to analytical variance. No statistically significant trend for total phosphorus deposition was indicated. Overall, the transport and deposition of these constituents have been relatively uniform throughout the history of Perry Lake. On the basis of nonenforceable sediment-quality guidelines established by the U

  17. Efficiency improvement using bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonamide lithium salt as a chemical additive in porphyrin based organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Arrechea, Susana; Aljarilla, Ana; de la Cruz, Pilar; Palomares, Emilio; Sharma, Ganesh D; Langa, Fernando

    2016-10-20

    Two new conjugated acceptor-π-donor-π-acceptor (A-π-D-π-A) porphyrins have been synthesised using 3-ethylrhodanine (1a) or dicyanovinylene (1b) groups as acceptor units. Their optical and electrochemical properties made these materials excellent electron donors along with PC71BM as the acceptor for solution-processed bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. The devices based on 1a:PC71BM (1 : 2) and 1b:PC71BM (1 : 2) processed with CB showed low power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of 2.30% and 2.80%, respectively. Nonetheless, after processing the active layer using a mixture of 3 vol% of a pyridine additive in THF, the PCE was enhanced up to 5.14% and 6.06% for 1a:PC71BM and 1b:PC71BM, respectively. Moreover, when we used LiTFSI as the chemical additive in pyridine/CB-processed 1b:PC71BM an excellent PCE of 7.63% was recorded. The effects over the film morphology and the device characteristics (Jsc, Voc and FF) due to the introduction of LiTFSI are discussed.

  18. Evaluation of Military Field-Water Quality. Volume 2. Constituents of Military Concern from Natural and Anthropogenic Sources. Part 1. Organic Chemical Contaminants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    metabolites of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and associated gram-negative filamentous bacteria % actinomycetes ), can produce taste and odor problems and...of military field-water quality. Our assessment revealed that there are two taste- and odor-causing metabolites of cyanobacteria and actinomycetes ...Additionally, geosmin and 2-methylisobomeol, which are two metabolites of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and associated gram-negative filamentous bacteria

  19. Characterization and identification of the chemical constituents from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn) by high performance liquid chromatography/photodiode array detector/linear ion trap FTICR hybrid mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qiang; Wu, Caisheng; Ren, Yan; Zhang, Jinlan

    2013-02-15

    In recent years tartary buckwheat has become popular healthful food due to its antioxidant, antidiabetic and antitumor activities. However, its chemical constituents have not yet been fully characterized and identified. In this paper, a novel high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector and linear ion trap FTICR hybrid mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA/LTQ-FTICRMS) method was established to characterize and identify a total of 36 compounds by a single run. The retention time, maximum UV absorption wavelength, accurate mass weight and characteristic fragment ions were collected on line. To confirm the structures, 11 compounds were isolated and identified by MS and NMR experiments. 1, 3, 6, 6'-tetra-feruloyl sucrose named taroside was a new phenlypropanoid glycoside, together with 3, 6-di-p-coumaroyl-1, 6'-di-feruloyl sucrose, 1, 6, 6'-tri-feruloyl-3-p-coumaroyl sucrose, N-trans-feruloyltyramine and quercetin-3-O-[β-D-xyloxyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnoside] were isolated for the first time from the Fagopyrum species. The research enriched the chemical information of tartary buckwheat.

  20. Simultaneous Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Chemical Constituents in YiQiFuMai Injection by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhua; Ju, Aichun; Zhou, Dazheng; Li, Dekun; Kou, Junping; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin

    2016-05-18

    YiQiFuMai injection (YQFM) is a modern lyophilized powder preparation derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Sheng-mai san (SMS) used for treating cardiovascular diseases, such as chronic heart failure. However, its chemical composition has not been fully elucidated, particularly for the preparation derived from Ophiopogon japonicus. This study aimed to establish a systematic and reliable method to quickly and simultaneously analyze the chemical constituents in YQFM by ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-IT-TOF/MS). Sixty-five compounds in YQFM were tentatively identified by comparison with reference substances or literature data. Furthermore, twenty-one compounds, including three ophiopogonins, fifteen ginsenosides and three lignans were quantified by UFLC-IT-TOF/MS. Notably, this is the first determination of steroidal saponins from O. japonicus in YQFM. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra- and inter-day precision, reproducibility and stability were <4.9% and all analytes showed good linearity (R² ≥ 0.9952) and acceptable recovery of 91.8%-104.2% (RSD ≤ 5.4%), indicating that the methods were reliable. These methods were successfully applied to quantitative analysis of ten batches of YQFM. The developed approach can provide useful and comprehensive information for quality control, further mechanistic studies in vivo and clinical application of YQFM.

  1. Variation in some chemical parameters and organic matter in soils regenerated by the addition of municipal solid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Carlos; Hernandez, Teresa; Costa, Francisco

    1992-11-01

    The organic fraction of a municipal solid waste was added in different doses to an eroded soil formed of loam and with no vegetal cover. After three years, the changes in macronutrient content and the chemical-structural composition of its organic matter were studied. The addition of the organic fraction from a municipal solid waste had a positive effect on soil regeneration, the treated soils being covered with spontaneous vegetation from 1 yr onwards. An increase in electrical conductivity and a fall in pH were noted in the treated soils as were increases in macronutrients, particularly N and available P and the different carbon fractions. Optical density measurements of the organic matter extracted with sodium pyrophosphate showed that the treated soils contained an organic matter with less condensed compounds and with a greater tendency to evolve than the control. A pyrolysis-gas chromatography study of the organic matter extracted with pyrophosphate showed large quantities of benzene both in the treated soils and control; pyrrole was also relatively abundant, although this fragment decreased as the dose rose. Xylenes and pyridine were present in greater quantities in the control and furfural in the treated soils. Three years after addition to the soil, the organic matter had a higher proportion of fragments derived from aromatic compounds and a smaller proportion derived from hydrocarbons. Similarity indices showed that, although the added and newly formed organic matter 3 yr after addition continued to differ from that of the original soil and to be more mineralizable, the transformations it has undergone made it more similar to the original organic matter of the soil than it was at the moment of being added.

  2. Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole (1836) and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    de Assis Lage, Tiago Coelho; Montanari, Ricardo Marques; Fernandes, Sergio Antonio; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; de Oliveira Souza Senra, Tatiane; Zeringota, Viviane; da Silva Matos, Renata; Daemon, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (common name "alecrim-do-campo" in Brazil) is a plant with widespread distribution in South America that is the botanical origin of green propolis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of B. dracunculifolia and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on unengorged larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). The essential oil yield was 0.8% of dry mass and the major constituents were nerolidol (22.3%), germacrene D (7.2%), limonene (6.9%), β-pinene (6.7) and bicyclogermacrene (6.5%). The acaricidal activity of the essential oil and the pure compounds nerolidol and (R)-(+)-limonene were assessed in the laboratory through the modified larval packet test (LPT) and the female immersion test (FIT). In the LPT, the essential oil and nerolidol were both active, causing more than 90% mortality at concentrations from 15.0 and 10.0 mg mL(-1), respectively, whereas (R)-(+)-limonene was not active. In the FIT, the oil and nerolidol caused reduction in the quantity and quality of eggs produced, with control percentages of 96.3% and 90.3% at concentrations of 60.0 and 50.0 mg mL(-1), respectively. It can be concluded that the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of B. dracunculifolia and its major component nerolidol have high activity on R. microplus larvae and engorged females.

  3. Comparative analysis of chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of ethylacetate extracts of Polygonum cuspidatum and its endophytic actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. A0916.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Qiu, Peng; Long, Xiu-Feng; Zhang, Shuai; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Tian, Yong-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigated the chemical composition of ethylacetate extracts from an endophytic actinomycete Streptomyces sp. A0916 and its host Polygonum cuspidatum. A comparative analysis of the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the extracts was also conducted. 32 compounds of P. cuspidatum and 23 compounds of Streptomyces sp. A0916 were isolated and identified by GC/MS. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts were evaluated using eight microbial strains (3 Gram-positive bacteria, 3 Gram-negative bacteria, and 2 fungi). The Streptomyces sp. A0916 extracts showed a wide range of antimicrobial activities and presented greater antimicrobial effectiveness than the P. cuspidatum extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Streptomyces sp. A0916 extracts against the ampicillin-resistant strain Enterococcus faecium SIIA843 was 32 μg·mL(-1). Furthermore, the extracts had greater antimicrobial effect against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. Finally, the antioxidant activity of the Streptomyces sp. A0916 extracts was equal to that of the P. cuspidatum extracts. In conclusion, our results suggest that the endophytic actinomycetes of the medicinal plants are an important source of bioactive substances.

  4. Constituents of Quinchamalium majus with potential antitubercular activity.

    PubMed

    Gua, Jian-Qiao; Wang, Yuehong; Franzblau, Scott G; Montenegro, Gloria; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2004-01-01

    Antitubercular bioassay-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extracts of the above-ground biomass and roots of Quinchamalium majus led to the identification of six known constituents, betulinic acid (1), daucosterol (2), 5,7-dihydroxyflavone (3), oleanolic acid (4), (-)-2S-pinocembrin (5), and ursolic acid (6), for the first time in this species. Their chemical structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and chemical transformation methods. All of these compounds along with additional 11 analogues were evaluated for their antitubercular potential against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a microplate alamar blue assay, and the primary structure-activity relationships (SARs) for 4 and 6 were discussed. In addition, all the isolates were tested for cytotoxicity against African green monkey Vero cells in order to evaluate for their selectivity potential.

  5. The Chemical Basis of Thiol Addition to Nitro-conjugated Linoleic Acid, a Protective Cell-signaling Lipid*♦

    PubMed Central

    Turell, Lucía; Vitturi, Darío A.; Coitiño, E. Laura; Lebrato, Lourdes; Möller, Matías N.; Sagasti, Camila; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Woodcock, Steven R.; Alvarez, Beatriz; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    Nitroalkene fatty acids are formed in vivo and exert protective and anti-inflammatory effects via reversible Michael addition to thiol-containing proteins in key signaling pathways. Nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-CLA) is preferentially formed, constitutes the most abundant nitrated fatty acid in humans, and contains two carbons that could potentially react with thiols, modulating signaling actions and levels. In this work, we examined the reactions of NO2-CLA with low molecular weight thiols (glutathione, cysteine, homocysteine, cysteinylglycine, and β-mercaptoethanol) and human serum albumin. Reactions followed reversible biphasic kinetics, consistent with the presence of two electrophilic centers in NO2-CLA located on the β- and δ-carbons with respect to the nitro group. The differential reactivity was confirmed by computational modeling of the electronic structure. The rates (kon and koff) and equilibrium constants for both reactions were determined for different thiols. LC-UV-Visible and LC-MS analyses showed that the fast reaction corresponds to β-adduct formation (the kinetic product), while the slow reaction corresponds to the formation of the δ-adduct (the thermodynamic product). The pH dependence of the rate constants, the correlation between intrinsic reactivity and thiol pKa, and the absence of deuterium solvent kinetic isotope effects suggested stepwise mechanisms with thiolate attack on NO2-CLA as rate-controlling step. Computational modeling supported the mechanism and revealed additional features of the transition states, anionic intermediates, and final neutral products. Importantly, the detection of cysteine-δ-adducts in human urine provided evidence for the biological relevance of this reaction. Finally, human serum albumin was found to bind NO2-CLA both non-covalently and to form covalent adducts at Cys-34, suggesting potential modes for systemic distribution. These results provide new insights into the chemical basis of NO2-CLA

  6. The Chemical Basis of Thiol Addition to Nitro-conjugated Linoleic Acid, a Protective Cell-signaling Lipid.

    PubMed

    Turell, Lucía; Vitturi, Darío A; Coitiño, E Laura; Lebrato, Lourdes; Möller, Matías N; Sagasti, Camila; Salvatore, Sonia R; Woodcock, Steven R; Alvarez, Beatriz; Schopfer, Francisco J

    2017-01-27

    Nitroalkene fatty acids are formed in vivo and exert protective and anti-inflammatory effects via reversible Michael addition to thiol-containing proteins in key signaling pathways. Nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-CLA) is preferentially formed, constitutes the most abundant nitrated fatty acid in humans, and contains two carbons that could potentially react with thiols, modulating signaling actions and levels. In this work, we examined the reactions of NO2-CLA with low molecular weight thiols (glutathione, cysteine, homocysteine, cysteinylglycine, and β-mercaptoethanol) and human serum albumin. Reactions followed reversible biphasic kinetics, consistent with the presence of two electrophilic centers in NO2-CLA located on the β- and δ-carbons with respect to the nitro group. The differential reactivity was confirmed by computational modeling of the electronic structure. The rates (kon and koff) and equilibrium constants for both reactions were determined for different thiols. LC-UV-Visible and LC-MS analyses showed that the fast reaction corresponds to β-adduct formation (the kinetic product), while the slow reaction corresponds to the formation of the δ-adduct (the thermodynamic product). The pH dependence of the rate constants, the correlation between intrinsic reactivity and thiol pKa, and the absence of deuterium solvent kinetic isotope effects suggested stepwise mechanisms with thiolate attack on NO2-CLA as rate-controlling step. Computational modeling supported the mechanism and revealed additional features of the transition states, anionic intermediates, and final neutral products. Importantly, the detection of cysteine-δ-adducts in human urine provided evidence for the biological relevance of this reaction. Finally, human serum albumin was found to bind NO2-CLA both non-covalently and to form covalent adducts at Cys-34, suggesting potential modes for systemic distribution. These results provide new insights into the chemical basis of NO2-CLA

  7. Effect of an iodine-containing additive on the composition, structure, and morphology of chemically deposited lead selenide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Z. I.; Bakanov, V. M.; Maskaeva, L. N.; Markov, V. F.; Voronin, V. I.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of an ammonium iodide additive on the elemental and phase compositions, structural parameters, and surface morphology of lead selenide films synthesized by chemical deposition from aqueous solutions has been studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. It has been established that the obtained PbSe films have a multiphase structure. The iodine content of the films is directly proportional to the NH4I concentration in the reaction mixture and increases linearly with an increase in this concentration to 0.25 mol/L. No individual iodine-containing phases have been detected in the film structure. However, the introduction of iodine leads to an increase in the PbSe phase lattice parameter from ˜6.11 to ˜6.16 Å and to a decrease in the crystal grain size to ˜ 20 nm. It has been found that there is a correlation between the grain size, lattice parameter, and ammonium iodide concentration in the reaction mixture, which can be explained by changes in the film growth mechanism at the initial growth steps.

  8. Fluorescence enhancement in rare earth doped sol-gel glass by N , N dimethylformamide as a drying control chemical additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyler, A. P.; Boye, D. M.; Hoffman, K. R.; Silversmith, A. J.

    Studies of terbium fluorescence intensity as a function of annealing temperature reveal the cause of increased fluorescence yields observed in rare earth doped sol-gel silicates prepared using N , N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as a drying control chemical additive (DCCA). While gels prepared with DMF actually have lower fluorescence yields than gels prepared without DMF at lower annealing temperatures, DMF gels can be annealed at much higher temperatures while retaining high optical quality. At these higher temperatures, terbium fluorescence yields increase dramatically as the sol-gel network undergoes densification, closing the pores of the network and eliminating the fluorescence quenching silanols on pore surfaces. DMF is therefore found to enhance the fluorescence properties of rare earth sol-gel glasses by reducing micro-fracturing and facilitating network densification. Further investigations are underway to determine the effectiveness of other promising DCCAs, such as glycerol, and to explore the possibility of exploiting the solubility properties of DCCAs to improve rare earth dopant dispersion.

  9. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Technical progress report No. 9, September 16, 1989--December 15, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-04-09

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  10. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Technical progress report No. 10, December 16, 1989--March 15, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  11. Evaluation of military field-water quality: Volume 2, Constituents of military concern from natural and anthropogenic sources: Part 1, Organic chemical contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.; Mallon, B.J.; McKone, T.E.; Ricker, Y.E.; Lessard, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    In this part of Volume 2 we focus on the identification and analysis of organic water contaminants that could degrade the performance of military personnel that drink field water. To identify the contaminants of concern, we developed a screening methodology for comparing measured concentrations of organic solutes in US and foreign surface and ground waters against estimated threshold concentrations for toxic and organoleptic effects. If the measured concentration of a substance in water was higher than the concentration used as an effects threshold for toxic or organoleptic responses, we then closely examined the substance's occurrence and toxicity to decide on recommending development of a water standard to protect military personnel from adverse health effects. After comparing the measured concentrations with the threshold concentrations for toxic or organoleptic effects, we concluded that there was only a small probability that troops would experience performance-degrading effects as a result of drinking field water containing organic solutes. However, we identified several organic solutes that could cause taste and odor problems. These compounds include trichloromethane, ethylbenzene, toluene, tetrachloroethene, and chlorinated phenols. Additionally, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, which are two metabolites of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and associated gram-negative filamentous bacteria (actinomycetes), can produce taste and odor problems and are of particular concern, especially when algal blooms are present. Oil and grease could also impair the potability of water supplies, and by fouling reverse-osmosis (RO) membranes, oil and grease could impair the performance of reverse osmosis water purification units (ROWPUs). 30 refs., 5 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Addition of pasture plant essential oil in milk: influence on chemical and sensory properties of milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Tornambé, G; Cornu, A; Verdier-Metz, I; Pradel, P; Kondjoyan, N; Figueredo, G; Hulin, S; Martin, B

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of the addition, to milk, of an essential oil (EO) obtained from the hydrodistillation of plants collected from a mountain natural pasture on the milk and cheese sensory properties. The EO was mainly composed of terpenoid compounds (67 of the 95 compounds identified) as well as ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, esters, alkanes, and benzenic compounds. In milk, the addition of this EO at the concentration of 0.1 microL/L did not influence its sensory properties, whereas at 1.0 microL/L, sensory properties were modified. In cheeses, the effect of adding EO into milk was studied in an experimental dairy plant allowing the production of small Cantal-type cheeses (10 kg) in 3 vats processed in parallel. The control (C) vat contained 110 L of raw milk; in the other 2 vats, 0.1 microL/L (EO1) or 3.0 microL/L (EO30) of EO were added to 110 L of the same milk. Six replicates were performed. After 5 mo of ripening, chemical and sensory analyses were carried out on the cheeses, including determination of the volatile compounds by dynamic headspace combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The EO did not influence the sensory properties of the cheeses at the lower concentration (EO1). However, the EO30 cheeses had a more intense odor and aroma, both characterized as "mint/chlorophyll" and "thyme/oregano." These unusual odors and aromas originated directly from the EO added. In total, 152 compounds desorbing from cheese were found, of which 41 had been added with the EO; in contrast, 54 compounds of the EO were not recovered in the cheese. Few volatile compounds desorbing from cheeses, other than the added compounds, were affected by EO addition. Among them, 2-butanol, propanol, and 3-heptanone suggested a slight effect of the EO on lipid catabolism. The antimicrobial activity of terpenes is not or is only marginally involved in the explanation of the influence of the botanical composition of the meadows on the pressed

  13. Infrared measurements of atmospheric constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murcray, David G.; Murcray, Frank J.; Goldman, Aaron; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Flaud, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this program is to obtain data concerning the concentration versus altitude of various constituents of interest in the photochemistry of the stratospheric ozone layer. Data pertinent to this objective are obtained using balloon-borne instruments to measure the atmospheric transmission and emission in the mid infrared. In addition to obtaining constituent profile information, the spectral data obtained are also used to identify absorption or emission features which may interfere with the retrieval of constituent data from satellite instruments using lower spectral resolution. The spectral resolution obtained with the solar spectral system is 0.0025 cm(exp -1) and represents about a factor of 5 greater resolution than any solar spectra previously obtained in this spectral region. As a result of the increase in spectral resolution, a large number of features are observed in these spectra which were not observed in previous studies. Identification and analysis of these features is in progress. The results of this analysis to date shows a number of HNO3 features which have not been observed before, and these occur where they will interfere with the retrieval of other constituents. An example of the interference is the occurrence of features in the 780.2 cm(exp -1) region which overlap the ClONO2 feature which will be used for retrieval of ClONO2 by the CLAES instrument on UARS. A number of features due to COF2 were also identified in the 1250 cm(exp -1) region which may interfere with retrieval of N2O5.

  14. Constituents from the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa.

    PubMed

    Warashina, Tsutomu; Nagatani, Yoshimi; Noro, Tadataka

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen new phenolic glycosides were obtained by further study of constituents from the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa (MART. ex DC) Standley (Bignoniaceae). The structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, mass spectral and chemical evidence. Most of them have a glycosyl unit esterified by a benzoic acid derivative.

  15. Adsorption of Wine Constituents on Functionalized Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A

    2016-10-18

    The adsorption of macromolecules on solid surfaces is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology, biomaterials, biotechnological, and food processes. In the field of oenology adsorption of wine macromolecules such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, and proteins is much less desirable on membrane materials because of fouling and reduced filtering performance. On the other hand, adsorption of these molecules on processing aids is very beneficial for achieving wine clarity and stability. In this article, the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of white, rosé, and red wine constituents was evaluated. Allylamine, acrylic acid, and ethanol were selected as precursors for plasma polymerization in order to generate coatings rich in amine, carboxyl, and hydroxyl chemical groups, respectively. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the ability of different surface chemical functionalities to adsorb wine constituents were characterized by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results demonstrated that the amine and carboxyl modified surfaces encourage adsorption of constituents from white wine. The hydroxyl modified surfaces have the ability to preferentially adsorb rosé wine constituents, whereas red wine adsorbed to the highest extent on acrylic acid surface.

  16. Methylmercury and other chemical constituents in Pacific coastal fog water from seven sites in Central/Northern California (FogNet) during the summer of 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Heim, W. A.; Fernandez, D.; Coale, K. H.; Oliphant, A. J.; Dann, D.; Porter, M.; Hoskins, D.; Dodge, C.

    2014-12-01

    This project investigates the mercury content in summertime Pacific coastal fog in California and whether fog could be an important vector for ocean emissions of mercury to be deposited via fog drip to upland coastal ecosystems. Efforts began in early 2014 with the building of 7 active-strand fog collectors based on the Colorado State University Caltech CASCC design. The new UCSC CASCC includes doors sealing the collector which open under microcomputer control based on environmental sensing (relative humidity). Seven sites spanning from Trinidad in the north to Marina in the south have collected samples June-August 2014 under a project called FogNet. Fog conditions were favorable for collecting large water volumes (> 250 mL) at many sites. Fog samplers were cleaned with soap and deionized water daily and field blanks taken immediately following cleaning. Fog water samples were collected overnight, split into an aliquot for anion and DOC/DIC analysis and the remaining sample was acidified. Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in samples and field blanks for 3 sites in FogNet are shown in the accompanying figure. The range of MMHg concentrations from 10 fog water samples > 100 mL in volume was 0.9-9.3 ng/L (4.5-46.4 pM). Elevated MMHg concentrations (> 5 ng/L, 25 pM) were observed at 2 sites: UC Santa Cruz and Bodega Bay. The field blanks produced MMHg concentrations of 0.08-0.4 ng/L (0.4-2.0 pM), which was on average < 10% of the sample concentration and suggests the artifact due to sampling was small. The observed MMHg concentrations in fog water observed is this study are 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than MMHg concentrations seen previously in rain water samples from the California coast suggesting an additional source of MMHg to fog. Shipboard measurements of dimethyl mercury (DMHg) in coastal California seawater during the time period of FogNet operations (summer 2014) reveal surface waters that were supersaturated in DMHg which represents a potential

  17. Identification of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine formula using HPLC coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap MS from high doses of medicinal materials to equivalent doses of formula: Study on Xiang-Sha-Liu-Jun-Zi-Jia-Jian granules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengyun; Zhang, Qingqing; Lu, Zhiwei; Wang, Qing; Wang, Meiling; Liu, Yuehong; Fu, Shuang; Gao, Xiaoyan; Tang, Xudong

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry has been a powerful tool for the research of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulas. However, the chromatographic peaks were difficult to discriminate clearly in data collection or analysis because of the complexity and the greatly different content of the constituents in TCM formula, which increased the difficulty of identification. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry based strategy focused on the comprehensive identification of TCM formula constituents was developed. Identification was carried out from a high dose of medicinal materials to equivalent dose of formula. Meanwhile, combined with mass spectrometry data, chromatographic behaviors, reference standards and previous reports, the identification of constituents in Xiang-Sha-Liu-Jun-Zi-Jia-Jian granules was described. 169 compounds were unambiguously or tentatively characterized, mainly including flavonoids, alkaloids, triterpenic acids, triterpene saponins, lactones, sesquiterpenoids and some other compounds. Among them, 11 compounds were unambiguously confirmed by comparing with reference standards. These results demonstrated that the method was effective and reliable for comprehensive identification of constituents of Xiang-Sha-Liu-Jun-Zi-Jia-Jian granules extracts and reveal the material basis of its therapeutic effects. This strategy might propose a research idea for the characterization of multi-constituents in TCM formula.

  18. Variable Temperature Stress in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas) and Its Implications for Sensitivity to an Additional Chemical Stressor

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J.

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies has investigated how chemical sensitivity is affected by temperature, however, almost always under different constant rather than more realistic fluctuating regimes. Here we compared how the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to copper at constant temperatures (8–24°C) and under fluctuation conditions of low (±4°C) and high (±8°C) amplitude (averages of 12, 16, 20°C and 16°C respectively). The DEBkiss model was used to interpret effects on energy budgets. Increasing constant temperature from 12–24°C reduced time to first egg, life-span and population growth rates consistent with temperature driven metabolic rate change. Responses at 8°C did not, however, accord with this pattern (including a deviation from the Temperature Size Rule), identifying a cold stress effect. High amplitude variation and low amplitude variation around a mean temperature of 12°C impacted reproduction and body size compared to nematodes kept at the matching average constant temperatures. Copper exposure affected reproduction, body size and life-span and consequently population growth. Sensitivity to copper (EC50 values), was similar at intermediate temperatures (12, 16, 20°C) and higher at 24°C and especially the innately stressful 8°C condition. Temperature variation did not increase copper sensitivity. Indeed under variable conditions including time at the stressful 8°C condition, sensitivity was reduced. DEBkiss identified increased maintenance costs and increased assimilation as possible mechanisms for cold and higher copper concentration effects. Model analysis of combined variable temperature effects, however, demonstrated no additional joint stressor response. Hence, concerns that exposure to temperature fluctuations may sensitise species to co-stressor effects seem unfounded in this case. PMID:26784453

  19. The effect of aliphatic fuel constituents on the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Gamerdinger, A.P.

    1995-12-01

    In petroleum-derived waste, n-alkanes are often codeposited with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The impact of aliphatic fuel constituents on the biodegradation of the more toxic PAHs is considered. Biodegradation of naphthalene by a Coryneform bacteria was examined in biphasic, slurry systems containing and aliphatic solvent in addition to the aqueous phase. The effect of solvent hydrophobicity was evaluated by varying the solvent treatment; a homologous series of n-alkanes was used. Relative to an aqueous system (no solvent), the extent of naphthalene degradation was enhanced in the presence of decane, dodecane, and hexadecane. Biodegradation was apparent, but decreased in the presence of octane, and was completely absent in the presence of hexane. The impact of aliphatic constituents on PAH biodegradation is a function of solvent hydrophobicity. The results indicate that the presence of multiple chemical constituents in complex systems modifies bioavailability and biodegradation.

  20. [Chemical constituents from seeds of Vigna umbellata].

    PubMed

    Ning, Ying; Sun, Jian; Lv, Hai-Ning; Tu, Peng-Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    Phytochemical investigation was carried out on the seeds of Vigna umbellata. The 70% ethanol extract of the seeds of V. umbellata was subjected to silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS column chromatographies and preparative HPLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopic data Eight compounds were obtained and identified as carboxyatractyligenin (1), 2beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-15alpha-hydroxy-kaur-16-ene-18,19-dicarboxylic acid (2), 2beta-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl) atractyligenin (3), 3R-O-[beta-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-6) -beta-D-glucopyranosyl] oct-1-ene-3-ol (4), (6S, 7E, 9R) -roseoside (5), liriodendrin (6), resveratrol (7) and maltol (8). Compounds 1-7 were isolated from Vigna genus for the first time, and compound 8 was isolated from V. umbellata for the first time.

  1. Chemical constituents from branch of Fraxinus sieboldiana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng; Zhang, Yan-ling; Liu, Ming-tao; Zi, Jia-chen; Gan, Mao-luo; Song, Wei-xia; Fan, Xiao-na; Wang, Xiao-na; Yang, Yong-chun; Shi, Jian-gong

    2015-07-01

    Using a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, macroporous adsorbent resin, and reversed-phase HPLC, 115 compounds including diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, treterpenes, coumarins, lignans, fatty acid derivatives, and simple aromatic derivatives were isolated from an ethanol extract of branch of Fraxinus sieboldiana (Oleaceaue), and their structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1 D, 2D NMR and MS techniques. Among them, 41 compounds were new. In previous reports, we have been described the isolation, structure elucidation, and bioactivities of the 41 new compounds and 22 known orii including 8 coumarins, 4 phenolic and 12 phenylethanoidal glycosides. As a consequence, we herein reported the isolation and structure elucidation of the remaining 50 known compounds including 8- hydroxy-12-oxoabieta-9(11),13-dien-20-oic 8, 20-lactone(1), 6beta-hydroxyfcrruginol(2),(+)-pisiferic acid(3), (+)-pisiferal(4),(+)-7-dehydroabiet6none(5), 1-oxomiltirone(6), subdigitatone(7), linarionoside B(8), (9S)-linarionoside B(9), (3R,9R)-3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-beta-ionol 9-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside(10), ursolic acid(11), betulinic acid(12), euscaphic acid(13), (+)-syringaresinol(14), (+)-fraxiresinol(15), (+)-1-hydroxysyringaresinol(16), pinoresinol(17), medioresinol(18), 8-acetoxypinoresinol(19), epipinoresinol(20), (-)-olivil(21), (+)-cyclo-olivil(22), 3,3'-dimethoxy-4,4',9-trihydroxy-7,9'-epoxylignan-7'-one(23),(+)-1-hydroxypinoresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (24), (+)-1-hydroxypinoresinol 4"-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(25),(+)-syringaresinol O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (26), liriodendrin (27), ehletianol D(28), icariside E5(29) (-)-(7R, 8R)-threo-1-C-syringylglycerol(30),(-)-(7R, 8S)-erythro-guaiacylglycerol (31),(-)-(7R, 8R)-threo-guaiacylglycerol(32), 3-(4-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-3-methoxy)-phenyl-2E-propenol(33),2,3-dihydroxy-l-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-propanone(34), 2,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-propanone (35), 3-hydroxy-l-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-propanone(36), omega-hydroxypropioguaiacone(37), sinapyladehyde(38), trans-p-hydroxycinnamaldehyde(39), syringic acid(40), vanilic acid(41), vanillin(42), 4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (43), (24R)-24-ethyl-5alpha-cholestane-3beta,5,6beta-triol(44), beta-sitosterol(45), daucosterol(46), 2,6-dimethoxy-I,4-benzoquinone(47), 2,6-dimethoxy-pyran-4-one(48), 1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)uracil(49), and mannitol(50). Compouds 1-7,12,18,28-37,44 and 48 were obtained from the genus Fraxinus for the first time.

  2. Studies on chemical constituents from Ilex pubescens.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Ding, Y; Sun, Z-H; Zhang, D-M

    2006-09-01

    Two new phenolic glycosides, ilexpubsides A and B, along with four known lignan glycosides were isolated from the roots of Ilex pubescens. By spectral evidence, the structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 4-O-beta-D-[6'-O-(4''-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylvanilloyl)glucopyranosyl] vanillic acid (1) and syringinic 6'-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (2). The known compounds were identified to be liriodendrin (3), (-)-olivil (4), tortoside A (5) and (+)-cyclo-olivil (6). All compounds were first isolated from Ilex pubescens.

  3. [Chemical constituents of Begonia evansiana Andr].

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Chen, Y; Li, B; Wang, M

    1997-05-01

    Six compounds were isolated from Begonia evansiana. By means of TLC, mp, 1H and 13CNMR, they were idenified as beta-sitosterol, beta-amyrin, daucosterol, stigmasterol, stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 4', 5', 7-trihydroxy-flavone-6-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. All the compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  4. Chemical constituents from roots of Taraxacum formosanum.

    PubMed

    Leu, Yann-Lii; Wang, Yu-Li; Huang, Shih-Chin; Shi, Li-Shian

    2005-07-01

    Two new compounds, taraxafolide (1) and (+)-taraxafolin-B (2) together with eighteen known compounds, which include one sesquiterpene, thirteen benzenoids, two indole alkaloids, one pyridine derivative and steroid mixtures were isolated and characterized from the fresh roots of Taraxacum formosanum. Structures of new compounds were determined by spectral analysis. (+)-Taraxafolin-B had the bioactive caffeic acid moiety, but its activity was weaker than alpha-tocopherol in DPPH radicals scavenging activity assay.

  5. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of Glinus oppositifolius

    PubMed Central

    Ragasa, Consolacion Y.; Cabrera, Esperanza C.; Torres, Oscar B.; Buluran, Adiel Inah; Espineli, Dinah L.; Raga, Dennis D.; Shen, Chien-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To isolate the secondary metabolites from the dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of Glinus oppositifolius; to test for the cytotoxicity of a new triterpene, oppositifolone (1); and to test for the hypoglycemic, analgesic, and antimicrobial potentials of 1, DCM and aqueous leaf extracts of G. oppositifolius. Methods: The compounds were isolated by silica gel chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity potential of 1 was tested using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Triterpene 1, DCM, and aqueous leaf extracts were tested for hypoglycemic potential using the oral glucose tolerance test; analgesic potential using the tail-flick assay, and antimicrobial potential using the disc diffusion method. Results: The DCM extracts of G. oppositifolius afforded 1, squalene, spinasterol, oleanolic acid, phytol, and lutein from the leaves; squalene and spergulagenin A from the stems; and spinasterol from the roots. Triterpene 1 was cytotoxic against human colon carcinoma 116 with an IC50 value of 28.7 but did not exhibit cytotoxicity against A549. The aqueous leaf extract at 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) exhibited hypoglycemic activity with a pronounced % blood glucose reduction of 70.76% ±17.4% within 0.5 h after introduction. The DCM leaf extract showed a lower % blood glucose reduction of 18.52% ±13.5% at 200 mg/kg BW within 1.5 h after introduction, while 1 did not exhibit hypoglycemic activity. The samples did not exhibit analgesic property and were inactive against multiple drug resistant bacterial pathogens. Conclusion: The compounds responsible for the hypoglycemic activity of G. oppositifolius which are fast acting (0.5 h) are found in the aqueous leaf extract. PMID:25829787

  6. Chemical constituents from Myristica fragrans fruit.

    PubMed

    Francis, K Sajin; Suresh, Eringathodi; Nair, Mangalam S

    2014-01-01

    A neolignan, erythrosurinamensin and a diaryl phenyl propanoid, virolane were isolated from Myristica fragrans for the first time. Apart from these two, previously known steroids, other lignans and neolignans were isolated from the fruit pericarp of M. fragrans. The structures of the compounds were identified by employing various spectroscopic methods.

  7. [Chemical constituents from leaves of Ilex latifolia].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cun-Qin; Wang, Lei; Li, Bao-Jing; Fan, Chun-Lin; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2014-01-01

    Nine compounds were isolated from the leaves of Ilex latifolia. Their structures were respectively identified as 5-hydroxy-6, 7, 8, 4'-tetramethoxyflavone (1), tangeretin (2), nobiletin (3), 5-hydroxy-6, 7, 8, 3', 4'-pentamethoxyflavone (4), 5, 6, 7, 8, 4'-pentamethoxyflavonol (5), 5, 6, 7, 8, 3', 4'-hexamethoxy-flavonol (6), 5-hydroxy-3', 4', 7-trimethoxyflavanone (7), soyacerebroside I (8), and soyacerebroside II (9) by their physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data Compounds 1-9 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  8. Tetrapleura tetraptera: molluscicidal activity and chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Aladesanmi, Adetunji J

    2006-08-28

    Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schumach. And Thonn) Taub, Mimosaceae, commonly known as Aridan (fruit), A single stemmed, robust, perennial tree of about 30 m. It has a grey/brown, smooth/rough bark with glabrous yound branchlets. The flower is yellow/pink and racemes white the fruit has dark brown, four winged pods 12-25 x 3.5-6.5 cm. It is generally found in the lowland forest of tropical Africa. The fruit consists of a fleshy pulp with small, brownish-black seeds. The fruit possesses a fragrant, characteristically pungent aromatic odour, which is attributed to its insect repellent property. It is used as spices and aroma (exotic tropical scents) and fish poisoning. It is one of the molluscicidal medicinal plants of Nigeria, also useful in the management of convulsions, leprosy, inflammation and/or rheumatoid pains. The documented biological and-or pharmacological activities are found to be molluscicidal, cardio-vascular, neuromuscular, hypotensive, anti-convulsant, trypanocidal, hirudinicidal, schistosomiasis control, anti-ulcerative, ectoxicity, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, anti-microbial, emulsifying property, birth control, food value and the control of intestinal parasites. Activity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of the fruits of T. tetraptera led to the isolation of a saponin glycoside with an oleanolic acid aglycone, a monodesmosidic diglycoside of the rare sapogenin 27-hydroxyolean-12 (13)-en-28-oic acid; echinocystic acid-3-0-sodium sulfate from the stembark, umbelliferone and ferulic acid from the leaves and branches respectively. Also isolated from the fruits were aridanin and three of its olean-12-en-28-oic acid derivatives. All the compounds isolated either from the fruits or other parts were found to exhibit strong molluscicidal properties against the schistosomiasis-transmitting snails Biomphalaria glabrata.

  9. Chemical constituents of Croton oligandrum (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Abega, Destaing F; Kapche, Deccaux W F G; Ango, Patrick Y; Mapitse, Renameditswe; Yeboah, Samuel O; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T

    2014-01-01

    A new clerodane diterpene derivative named crotonoligaketone was obtained from the stem bark of Croton oligandrum along with eight known compounds including crotonadiol, imbricatadiol, crotonzambefuran B, 7-acetoxytrachiloban-18-oic acid, 3-O-acetylaleuritolic acid, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. The structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of their spectral data and by comparison with those reported in the literature.

  10. [Chemical constituents of Osmanthus fragrans fruits].

    PubMed

    Yin, Wei; Liu, Jin-Qi; Zhang, Guo-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    By Silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and other materials for isolation and purification and by physicochemical methods and spectral analysis for structural identification, 23 compounds were isolated and identified from ethyl acetate portion of alcohol extract solution of Osmanthus fragrans fruits. Their structures were identified as nicotinamide (1), D-allitol (2), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde (3), acetyloleanolic acid (4), benzoic acid (5), ergosta-7,22-dien-3-one (6), beta-sitosterol (7), borreriagenin (8), cerevistero (9), c-veratroylglycol (10), methyl-2-O-beta-glucopyranosylbenzoate (11), 3', 7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavon (12), umbelliferone (13), caffeic acid methyl ester (14), oleanolic acid (15), (-) -chicanine (16), dillapiol (17), 3beta,5alpha, 9alpha-trihydroxyergosta-7-22-dien-6-one (18), 2alpha-hydroxy-oleanolic acid (19), betulinic acid (20), betulin (21), 3, 3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (22), and lupeol (23). All compounds were isolated from the osmanthus fruit for the first time. Except for compounds 4, 7, 15, 19, 23, the rest ones were isolated from the this plant for the first time.

  11. Antibacterial constituents from Melodinus suaveolens.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang-Ling; Lunga, Paul-Keilah; Zhao, Yun-Li; Qin, Xu-Jie; Yang, Xing-Wei; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the non-alkaloidal chemical constituents of the stems and leaves of Melodinus suaveolens and their antibacterial activities. Compounds were isolated and purified by repeated silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, RP18, and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by comparison with published spectroscopic data, as well as on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The antibacterial screening assays were performed by the dilution method. Fourteen compounds were isolated, and identified as lycopersene (1), betulinic aldehyde (2), 3β-acetoxy-22,23,24,25,26,27-hexanordammaran-20-one (3), 3a-acetyl-2, 3, 5-trimethyl-7a-hydroxy-5-(4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecanyl)-1,3a,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-4-oxainden-1-one (4), 3β-hydroxy-28-norlup-20(29)-ene-17β-hydroperoxide (5), 3β-hydroxy-28-norlup-20(29)-ene-17α-hydroperoxide (6), β-sitosterol (7), 28-nor-urs-12-ene-3β, 17β-diol (8), α-amyrin (9), ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (10), 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-olide (11), betulin (12), obtusalin (13), and ursolic acid (14). Among the isolates, compounds 1, 2, 6, 8, 10, and 14 showed potent antibacterial activities against the four bacteria. This is the first report of the antibacterial activity of the constituents of Melodinus suaveolens.

  12. Analysis on Soil Seed Bank Diversity Characteristics and Its Relation with Soil Physical and Chemical Properties after Substrate Addition

    PubMed Central

    He, Mengxuan; Lv, Lingyue; Li, Hongyuan; Meng, Weiqing; Zhao, Na

    2016-01-01

    Aims Considered as an essential measure in the application of soil seed bank (SSB) projects, the mixing of substrate and surface soil can effectively improve soil condition. This research is aimed at exploring the diversity characteristics of SSBs and the relationships between SSBs and soil properties. Methods Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was adopted to describe the ordination of SSBs on soil properties’ gradients; multiple linear regressions were adopted to analyze the relationship between average growth height and soil properties, density and soil properties. Results Experimental groups of mixed substrate (the mixture of organic and inorganic substrates) had high diversity indexes, especially the Shannon-Wiener Index compared with those of single substrate. Meanwhile, a higher number of species and increased density were also noted in those of mixed substrate. The best test group, No.16, had the highest diversity indexes with a Shannon-Wiener of 1.898, Simpson of 0.633 and Pielou of 0.717, and also showed the highest density of 14000 germinants /m2 and 21 species. In addition, an improvement of the soil’s chemical and physical properties was noted when the substrates were mixed. The mixed substrate of turfy soil and perlite could effectively enhance the soil moisture content, whilst a mixed substrate of rice husk carbon and vermiculite could improve the content of available potassium (AK) and phosphorus (AP) and strengthen soil fertility. The germinated plants also reflected obvious regularities of ordination on soil factor gradients. Three distinct cluster groups were presented, of which the first cluster was distributed in an area with a relatively higher content of AK and AP; the second cluster was distributed at places with relatively higher soil moisture content; and the third cluster of plants didn’t show any obvious relationship with soil physical and chemical properties. Through CCA analysis, AK and AP were considered the most important

  13. Study on prevention of two-stage skin carcinogenesis by Hibiscus rosa sinensis extract and the role of its chemical constituent, gentisic acid, in the inhibition of tumour promotion response and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Khan, N; Sultana, S

    2004-02-01

    We designed the present study to investigate the role of gentisic acid in the chemopreventive activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis extract on 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/croton oil-mediated carcinogenesis in mouse skin via 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced tumour promotion response and oxidative stress. Single topical application of DMBA followed by twice weekly applications of croton oil after one week for 20 weeks resulted in 100% incidence of tumours in animals in 15 weeks. However, application of H. rosa sinensis extract 30 minutes prior to the application of croton oil twice weekly for 20 weeks caused significant reduction in the number of tumours per mouse and the percentage of tumour-bearing mice. Also, the latency period for the appearance of the first tumour was delayed on H. rosa sinensis pretreatment. A single topical application of TPA caused significant depletion in reduced glutathione (GSH) content, activities of its metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes, while malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, H2O2 content, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and DNA synthesis were significantly increased. Interestingly, pretreatment of H. rosa sinensis extract (3.5 mg and 7 mg/kg body weight) and gentisic acid (2.0 microg and 4.0 microg/0.2 ml acetone per animal) restored the levels of GSH, and its metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes (P<0.05). There was also a statistically significant reduction in MDA formation and H2O2 content (P<0.05) at both doses. Although inhibition of ODC activity by gentisic acid was not dose-dependent, thymidine incorporation in DNA (P<0.05) was dose-dependently recovered by the plant extract and its chemical constituent. We therefore propose that gentisic acid has a role in the modulatory activity of H. rosa sinensis extract.

  14. Constituents in kava extracts potentially involved in hepatotoxicity: a review.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Line R; Grillo, Mark P; Skonberg, Christian

    2011-07-18

    Aqueous kava root preparations have been consumed in the South Pacific as an apparently safe ceremonial and cultural drink for centuries. However, several reports of hepatotoxicity have been linked to the consumption of kava extracts in Western countries, where mainly ethanolic or acetonic extracts are used. The mechanism of toxicity has not been established, although several theories have been put forward. The composition of the major constituents, the kava lactones, varies according to preparation method and species of kava plant, and thus, the toxicity of the individual lactones has been tested in order to establish whether a single lactone or a certain composition of lactones may be responsible for the increased prevalence of kava-induced hepatotoxicity in Western countries. However, no such conclusion has been made on the basis of current data. Inhibition or induction of the major metabolizing enzymes, which might result in drug interactions, has also gained attention, but ambiguous results have been reported. On the basis of the chemical structures of kava constituents, the formation of reactive metabolites has also been suggested as an explanation of toxicity. Furthermore, skin rash is a side effect in kava consumers, which may be indicative of the formation of reactive metabolites and covalent binding to skin proteins leading to immune-mediated responses. Reactive metabolites of kava lactones have been identified in vitro as glutathione (GSH) conjugates and in vivo as mercapturates excreted in urine. Addition of GSH to kava extracts has been shown to reduce cytotoxicity in vitro, which suggests the presence of inherently reactive constituents. Only a few studies have investigated the toxicity of the minor constituents present in kava extract, such as pipermethystine and the flavokavains, where some have been shown to display higher in vitro cytotoxicity than the lactones. To date, there remains no indisputable reason for the increased prevalence of kava

  15. Successes and failures of the constituent quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Our approach considers the model as a possible bridge between QCD and the experimental data and examines its predictions to see where these succeed and where they fail. We also attempt to improve the model by looking for additional simple assumptions which give better fits to the experimental data. But we avoid complicated models with too many ad hoc assumptions and too many free parameters; these can fit everything but teach us nothing. We define our constituent quark model by analogy with the constituent electron model of the atom and the constituent nucleon model of the nucleus. In the same way that an atom is assumed to consist only of constituent electrons and a central Coulomb field and a nucleus is assumed to consist only of constituent nucleons hadrons are assumed to consist only of their constituent valence quarks with no bag, no glue, no ocean, nor other constituents. Although these constituent models are oversimplified and neglect other constituents we push them as far as we can. Atomic physics has photons and vacuum polarization as well as constituent electrons, but the constituent model is adequate for calculating most features of the spectrum when finer details like the Lamb shift are neglected. 54 references.

  16. Building a Constituency for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Margie

    One of the goals of the West Virginia Task Force on Children, Youth and Families is to build a constituency for children. Two critical factors in building a constituency for children are a shared vision and influential leaders. The four principles used by the Task Force for building a constituency are: (1) defining a regional target for organizing…

  17. Method for verification of constituents of a process stream

    DOEpatents

    Baylor, L.C.; Buchanan, B.R.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a method for validating a process stream for the presence or absence of a substance of interest such as a chemical warfare agent; that is, for verifying that a chemical warfare agent is present in an input line for feeding the agent into a reaction vessel for destruction, or, in a facility for producing commercial chemical products, that a constituent of the chemical warfare agent has not been substituted for the proper chemical compound. The method includes the steps of transmitting light through a sensor positioned in the feed line just before the chemical constituent in the input line enters the reaction vessel, measuring an optical spectrum of the chemical constituent from the light beam transmitted through it, and comparing the measured spectrum to a reference spectrum of the chemical agent and preferable also reference spectra of surrogates. A signal is given if the chemical agent is not entering a reaction vessel for destruction, or if a constituent of a chemical agent is added to a feed line in substitution of the proper chemical compound.

  18. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  19. Application of multivariate analysis to the effects of additives on chemical and sensory quality of stored coffee brew.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, Mónica; Sopelana, Patricia; de Peña, M Paz; Cid, Concepción

    2008-12-24

    The aim of this work was to obtain a black coffee brew to be consumed hot by extension of its shelf life, by addition of additives. Four pH-regulator agents (sodium and potassium carbonates and bicarbonates), one pH regulator and antioxidant (sodium citrate), three antioxidants [sodium ascorbate, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA), and sodium sulfite], and lactoserum were tested by sensory analysis. Sodium carbonate and bicarbonate were selected for a study of the physicochemical (soluble and volatile compounds related to the sensory properties) and sensorial quality of coffee brew stored for 90 days at 4 degrees C. Although both additives extended the shelf life of the coffee brew up to 60 days, sodium carbonate was the chosen additive because it was the most useful in limiting the pH decrease and perception of sourness, which are some of the main factors involved in the rejection of stored coffee brews, and it better maintained the aroma and taste/flavor. Moreover, the application of multivariate analysis facilitated first the description of the global changes of the coffee brews with or without additives throughout the storage using principal component analysis and second the obtainment of a simple equation only with pH and caffeic acid parameters to discriminate the three types of coffee brews and simplify the analytical process, by means of the stepwise discriminant analysis.

  20. Clarifying the chemical state of additives in membranes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells by X-ray absorption fine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanuma, Toshihiro; Itoh, Takanori

    2016-02-01

    Cerium and manganese compounds are used in the membrane for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) as radical scavengers to mitigate chemical degradation of the membrane. The chemical states of cerium and manganese in the membrane were investigated using a fluorescence X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technique. Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were subjected to open circuit voltage (OCV) condition, under which hydroxyl radicals attack the membrane; a shift in absorption energy in X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra was compared between Ce- and Mn-containing membranes before and after OCV testing. In the case of the Ce-containing MEA, there was no significant difference in XANES spectra before and after OCV testing, whereas in the case of the Mn-containing MEA, there was an obvious shift in XANES absorption energy after OCV testing, indicating that Mn atoms with higher valence state than 2+ exist in the membrane after OCV testing. This can be attributed to the difference in the rate of reduction; the reaction of Ce4+ with ·OOH is much faster than that of Mn3+ with ·OOH, leaving some of the Mn atoms with higher valence state. It was confirmed that cerium and manganese redox couples reduced the attack from radicals, mitigating membrane degradation.

  1. A quantum chemical study of the mechanisms of olefin addition to group 9 transition metal dioxo compounds.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Issahaku; Tia, Richard; Adei, Evans

    2016-01-01

    The mechanistic aspects of ethylene addition to MO2(CH2)(CH3) (M=Co, Rh, Ir) have been investigated with a Hartree-Fock/DFT hybrid functional at the MO6/LACVP* and B3LYP/LACVP* levels of theory to elucidate the reaction pathways on the singlet, doublet and triplet potential energy surfaces (PES). In the reaction of the IrO2CH2CH3 complex with ethylene, [3 + 2]C,O addition is the most plausible pathway on the singlet PES, the [3 + 2]O,O addition is the most favoured pathway on the doublet surface whiles the stepwise [1 + 1] addition involving the oxygen atom of the complex in the first step and the carbon atom of the complex in the second step is the most plausible pathway on the triplet PES. For the reaction of the RhO2(CH2)(CH3) complex, the [2 + 2]Rh,O addition pathway is the most favoured on the singlet surface, the [2 + 2]Rh,C is the most plausible pathway on the triplet PES and [3 + 2]C,O is the most plausible on the doublet surface. For the reactions of the CoO2(CH2)(CH3) complex, the [1 + 2]O addition is the most plausible on the singlet PES, [3 + 2]C=Co=O cycloaddition to form the five-membered intermediate is the most preferred pathway on the doublet PES, whiles on the triplet PES the preferred pathway is the [3 + 2] addition across the O=Co=O bond of the metal complex. The reactions of olefins with the Co dioxo complex have lower activation barriers for the preferred [3 + 2] and [2 + 2] addition pathways as well as fewer side reactions than those of the rhodium and iridium systems. This could imply that the cobalt dioxo complexes can efficiently and selectively catalyze specific reactions in oxidation of olefins than Rh and Ir oxo complexes will do and therefore Co oxo complexes may be better catalysts for specific oxidation reactions of olefins than Rh and Ir complexes are. The activation barriers for the formation of the four-or five-membered metallacycle intermediates through [2 + 2] or [3 + 2] cyclo-addition are lower on the

  2. The effects of additives in napier grass silages on chemical composition, feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass.

  3. Effects of drying control chemical additive on properties of Li 4Ti 5O 12 negative powders prepared by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Seo Hee; Kang, Yun Chan

    High-density Li 4Ti 5O 12 powders comprising spherical particles are prepared by spray pyrolysis from a solution containing dimethylacetamide (drying control chemical additive) and citric acid and ethylene glycol (organic additives). The prepared powders have high discharge capacities and good cycle properties. The optimum concentration of dimethylacetamide is 0.5 M. The addition of dimethylacetamide to the polymeric spray solutions containing citric acid and ethylene glycol helps in the effective control of the morphology of the Li 4Ti 5O 12 powders. At a constant current density of 0.17 mA g -1, the initial discharge capacities of the powders obtained from the spray solution with and without the organic additives are 171 and 167 mAh g -1, respectively.

  4. Androgen Receptor Involvement in Rat Amelogenesis: An Additional Way for Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals to Affect Enamel Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jedeon, Katia; Loiodice, Sophia; Salhi, Khaled; Le Normand, Manon; Houari, Sophia; Chaloyard, Jessica; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2016-11-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that interfere with the steroid axis can affect amelogenesis, leading to enamel hypomineralization similar to that of molar incisor hypomineralization, a recently described enamel disease. We investigated the sex steroid receptors that may mediate the effects of EDCs during rat amelogenesis. The expression of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor (ER)-α, and progesterone receptor was dependent on the stage of ameloblast differentiation, whereas ERβ remained undetectable. AR was the only receptor selectively expressed in ameloblasts involved in final enamel mineralization. AR nuclear translocation and induction of androgen-responsive element-containing promoter activity upon T treatment, demonstrated ameloblast responsiveness to androgens. T regulated the expression of genes involved in enamel mineralization such as KLK4, amelotin, SLC26A4, and SLC5A8 but not the expression of genes encoding matrix proteins, which determine enamel thickness. Vinclozolin and to a lesser extent bisphenol A, two antiandrogenic EDCs that cause enamel defects, counteracted the actions of T. In conclusion, we show, for the first time, the following: 1) ameloblasts express AR; 2) the androgen signaling pathway is involved in the enamel mineralization process; and 3) EDCs with antiandrogenic effects inhibit AR activity and preferentially affect amelogenesis in male rats. Their action, through the AR pathway, may specifically and irreversibly affect enamel, potentially leading to the use of dental defects as a biomarker of exposure to environmental pollutants. These results are consistent with the steroid hormones affecting ameloblasts, raising the issue of the hormonal influence on amelogenesis and possible sexual dimorphism in enamel quality.

  5. Adherent and Conformal Zn(S,O,OH) Thin Films by Rapid Chemical Bath Deposition with Hexamethylenetetramine Additive.

    PubMed

    Opasanont, Borirak; Van, Khoa T; Kuba, Austin G; Choudhury, Kaushik Roy; Baxter, Jason B

    2015-06-03

    ZnS is a wide band gap semiconductor whose many applications, such as photovoltaic buffer layers, require uniform and continuous films down to several nanometers thick. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) is a simple, low-cost, and scalable technique to deposit such inorganic films. However, previous attempts at CBD of ZnS have often resulted in nodular noncontinuous films, slow growth rates at low pH, and high ratio of oxygen impurities at high pH. In this work, ZnS thin films were grown by adding hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) to a conventional recipe that uses zinc sulfate, nitrilotriacetic acid trisodium salt, and thioacetamide. Dynamic bath characterization showed that HMTA helps the bath to maintain near-neutral pH and also acts as a catalyst, which leads to fast nucleation and deposition rates, continuous films, and less oxygen impurities in the films. Films deposited on glass from HMTA-containing bath were uniform, continuous, and 90 nm thick after 1 h, as opposed to films grown without HMTA that were ∼3 times thinner and more nodular. On Cu2(Zn,Sn)Se4, films grown with HMTA were continuous within 10 min. The films have comparatively few oxygen impurities, with S/(S+O) atomic ratio of 88%, and high optical transmission of 98% at 360 nm. The Zn(S,O,OH) films exhibit excellent adhesion to glass and high resistivity, which make them ideal nucleation layers for other metal sulfides. Their promise as a nucleation layer was demonstrated with the deposition of thin, continuous Sb2S3 overlayers. This novel HMTA chemistry enables rapid deposition of Zn(S,O,OH) thin films to serve as a nucleation layer, a photovoltaic buffer layer, or an extremely thin continuous coating for thin film applications. HMTA may also be applied in a similar manner for solution deposition of other metal chalcogenide and oxide thin films with superior properties.

  6. CoCr F75 scaffolds produced by additive manufacturing: Influence of chemical etching on powder removal and mechanical performance.

    PubMed

    Van Hooreweder, Brecht; Lietaert, Karel; Neirinck, Bram; Lippiatt, Nicholas; Wevers, Martine

    2017-04-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) allow carefully controlled production of complex porous structures such as scaffolds. These advanced structures can offer many interesting advantages over conventionally produced products in terms of biological response and patient specific design. The surface finish of AM parts is often poor because of the layer wise nature of the process and adhering particles. Loosening of these particles after implantation should be avoided, as this could put the patient's health at risk. In this study the use of hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide mixtures for surface treatment of cobalt-chromium F75 scaffolds produced by SLM is investigated. A 27% HCl and 8% H2O2 etchant proved effective in removing adhering particles while retaining the quasi-static and fatigue performance of the scaffolds.

  7. Constituents of response rates

    PubMed Central

    Pear, Joseph J.; Rector, Brian L.

    1979-01-01

    Response rate and the proportion of time pigeons allocated to a key-pecking activity were measured on several basic types of reinforcement schedules. Reinforcement frequency was varied within each type of basic schedule, and the effects on two constituents of response rate were noted. Propensity, the proportion of time the birds spent on a platform in front of the key, showed very consistent effects as reinforcement frequency varied: in general, it decreased when reinforcement frequency markedly decreased and it increased when reinforcement frequency increased. Speed, key pecks per unit of time spent on the platform, showed inconsistent effects when reinforcement frequency varied. Consequently, response rate showed less consistent effects than did propensity. Cumulative response records demonstrated the existence of several different types of transitions or boundary states between the key-pecking activity and other activities. The types of transitions that occurred between activities depended on both the type of reinforcement schedule and the frequency of reinforcement. The propensity data support the position that general laws of behavior can be based on temporal measures of behavior. The speed data suggest that, if a complete assessment of the dynamic properties of behavior is to be achieved, measures of behavior must incorporate the structural variations in the operant unit. PMID:16812155

  8. Chemical additive to enhance antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine and control cross-contamination during immersion chill of broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Schambach, B T; Berrang, M E; Harrison, M A; Meinersmann, R J

    2014-09-01

    Immersion chilling of broiler carcasses can be a site for cross-contamination between the occasional highly contaminated carcass and those that are co-chilled. Chlorine is often used as an antimicrobial but can be overcome by organic material. A proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128) based on phosphoric acid-propylene glycol was tested as a chill tank additive in experiments simulating commercial broiler chilling. In bench-scale experiments, 0.5% T-128 was compared with plain water (control), 50 ppm of chlorine, and the combination of 0.5% T-128 with 50 ppm of chlorine to control transfer of Salmonella and Campylobacter from inoculated wing drummettes to co-chilled uninoculated drummettes. Both chlorine and T-128 lessened cross-contamination with Salmonella (P < 0.05); T-128 and T-128 with chlorine were significantly more effective (P < 0.05) than the control or plain chlorine for control of Campylobacter. T-128 treatments were noted to have a pH of less than 4.0; an additional experiment demonstrated that the antimicrobial effect of T-128 was not due merely to a lower pH. In commercial broiler chilling, a pH close to 6.0 is preferred to maximize chlorine effectiveness, while maintaining water-holding capacity of the meat. In a set of pilot-scale experiments with T-128, a near-ideal pH of 6.3 was achieved by using tap water instead of the distilled water used in bench-scale experiments. Pilot-scale chill tanks were used to compare the combination of 0.5% T-128 and 50 ppm of chlorine with 50 ppm of plain chlorine for control of cross-contamination between whole carcasses inoculated with Salmonella and Campylobacter and co-chilled uninoculated carcasses. The T-128 treatment resulted in significantly less crosscontamination by either direct contact or water transfer with both organisms compared with plain chlorine treatment. T-128 may have use in commercial broiler processing to enhance the effectiveness of chlorine in processing water.

  9. Infrared Measurements of Atmospheric Constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murcray, Frank J.

    1998-01-01

    This research program studies atmospheric trace gas concentrations and altitude distributions, particularly for those gases that are important in stratospheric chemistry and radiative balance. Measurements are made with infrared remote sensing instruments, either ground based or balloon-borne. Most of the ground based instruments are part of the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), including a very high spectral resolution solar absorption spectrometer at Mauna Loa Observatory and similar system at McMurdo Station, Antarctica (operated in collaboration with the New Zealand NIWA). Additionally, we are deriving stratospheric constituent data from the spectra obtained at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program's site in north-central Oklahoma. We have an atmospheric emission spectrometer system at the South Pole (with additional support from NSF), and an identical NSF support instrument at Eureka, NWT, Canada. Our balloon-borne instruments include a very high resolution solar absorption spectrometer system, a smaller, slightly lower resolution solar spectrometer system, a high resolution atmospheric emission spectrometer, and several medium resolution emission spectrometers (CAESRs) that are usually flown piggyback. During the past year, we participated in the MANTRA balloon flight from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, with the high resolution solar spectrometer system. Several of our instruments were extensively compared to (UARS) Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite observations, and so provide a data set with known connections to UARS. In the longer term, the data can be used to relate UARS data to (EOS) Earth Observing System and (ADEOS) Advanced Airborne Earth Observing System.

  10. Responses of secondary chemicals in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings to UV-B, springtime warming and nitrogen additions.

    PubMed

    Sager, E P S; Hutchinson, T C

    2006-10-01

    Anticipated effects of climate change involve complex interactions in the field. To assess the effects of springtime warming, ambient ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) and nitrogen fertilization on the foliar chemistry and herbivore activity of native sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings, we carried out a field experiment for 2 years at two sugar maple forests growing on soils of contrasting acidity. At the Oliver site, soils are derived from a strongly calcareous till, whereas the naturally acidic soils and base-poor soils of the Haliburton site are derived from the largely granitic Precambrian Shield. At both sites, removal of ambient UV-B led to increases in chlorogenic acid and some flavonoids and reduced herbivore activity. At Haliburton, ammonium nitrate fertilization led to further increases in foliar manganese (Mn), whereas at Oliver there were no such changes. Nitrogen additions led to decreases in the concentrations of some flavonoids at both sites, but seedlings at Oliver had significantly higher concentrations of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid than seedlings at Haliburton. We suggest that this could be associated with increased mobilization of Mn due to increased soil acidity, which interferes with the role of calcium (Ca) in the phenolic biosynthetic pathway. It appears that the composition of the forest soil governs the response of seedlings when they are exposed to abiotic stressors.

  11. Relation of Mercury to Other Chemical Constituents in Ground Water in the Kirkwood-Cohansey Aquifer System, New Jersey Coastal Plain, and Mechanisms for Mobilization of Mercury from Sediments to Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, Julia L.; MacLeod, Cecilia L.

    2001-01-01

    Water from 265 domestic wells that tap the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey contained concentrations of mercury that are equal to or exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2 ug/L (micrograms per liter). The wells range in depth from 50 to 200 feet, and are located in 32 discrete, mostly residential, areas that were developed primarily on former agricultural land during the 1950?s through the 1970?s. Concentrations in two other areas exceeded 1 ug/L. Naturally occurring mercury concentrations in ground water from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system typically are less than 0.01 ug/L, but concentrations in water from some wells were as much as 42 ug/L. No evidence currently exists that conclusively links known point sources such as landfills, industrial operations, or commercial enterprises to most of the elevated concentrations of mercury in ground water in the residential areas. Possible sources of the mercury include pesticides and atmospheric deposition. Analysis of water from wells in 6 of the 34 areas for other constituents indicates that nitrate concentrations also commonly are elevated above background levels (which typically are undetectable at 0.01 milligrams per liter), and exceed the MCL of 10 milligrams per liter in some samples. Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including chloroform, also have been measured in water from wells at many of the 34 sites. Analytical results for water samples collected at several depths from boreholes at 2 of the 34 sites indicate elevated concentrations of calcium, magnesium, barium, strontium, nitrate, and chloride, which may be related to both agricultural chemical applications and septic-system effluent. Determinations of tritium and helium concentrations indicate that water containing elevated concentrations of mercury recharged the aquifer between 9.4 and 79 years ago, which includes the period during which many of the 34

  12. Effect of addition of nano-hydroxyapatite on physico-chemical and antibiofilm properties of calcium silicate cements

    PubMed Central

    GUERREIRO-TANOMARU, Juliane Maria; VÁZQUEZ-GARCÍA, Fernando Antonio; BOSSO-MARTELO, Roberta; BERNARDI, Maria Inês Basso; FARIA, Gisele; TANOMARU, Mario

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) is a calcium silicate cement composed of Portland cement (PC) and bismuth oxide. Hydroxyapatite has been incorporated to enhance mechanical and biological properties of dental materials. This study evaluated physicochemical and mechanical properties and antibiofilm activity of MTA and PC associated with zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAn). Material and Methods White MTA (Angelus, Brazil); PC (70%)+ZrO2 (30%); PC (60%)+ZrO2 (30%)+HAn (10%); PC (50%)+ZrO2 (30%)+HAn (20%) were evaluated. The pH was assessed by a digital pH-meter and solubility by mass loss. Setting time was evaluated by using Gilmore needles. Compressive strength was analyzed by mechanical test. Samples were radiographed alongside an aluminum step wedge to evaluate radiopacity. For the antibiofilm evaluation, materials were placed in direct contact with E. faecalis biofilm induced on dentine blocks. The number of colony-forming units (CFU mL-1) in the remaining biolfilm was evaluated. The results were submitted to ANOVA and the Tukey test, with 5% significance. Results There was no difference in pH levels of PC+ZrO2, PC+ZrO2+HAn (10%) and PC+ZrO2+HAn (20%) (p>0.05) and these cements presented higher pH levels than MTA (p<0.05). The highest solubility was observed in PC+ZrO2+HAn (10%) and PC+ZrO2+HAn (20%) (p<0.05). MTA had the shortest initial setting time (p<0.05). All the materials showed radiopacity higher than 3 mmAl. PC+ZrO2 and MTA had the highest compressive strength (p<0.05). Materials did not completely neutralize the bacterial biofilm, but the association with HAn provided greater bacterial reduction than MTA and PC+ZrO2 (p<0.05) after the post-manipulation period of 2 days. Conclusions The addition of HAn to PC associated with ZrO2 harmed the compressive strength and solubility. On the other hand, HAn did not change the pH and the initial setting time, but improved the radiopacity (HAn 10%), the final setting time

  13. Detection and characterisation of frauds in bovine meat in natura by non-meat ingredient additions using data fusion of chemical parameters and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Karen M; Andrade, Marcus Vinícius O; Santos Filho, Antônio M P; Lasmar, Marcelo C; Sena, Marcelo M

    2016-08-15

    Concerns about meat authenticity are increasing recently, due to great fraud scandals. This paper analysed real samples (43 adulterated and 12 controls) originated from criminal networks dismantled by the Brazilian Police. This fraud consisted of injecting solutions of non-meat ingredients (NaCl, phosphates, carrageenan, maltodextrin) in bovine meat, aiming to increase its water holding capacity. Five physico-chemical variables were determined, protein, ash, chloride, sodium, phosphate. Additionally, infrared spectra were recorded. Supervised classification PLS-DA models were built with each data set individually, but the best model was obtained with data fusion, correctly detecting 91% of the adulterated samples. From this model, a variable selection based on the highest VIPscores was performed and a new data fusion model was built with only one chemical variable, providing slightly lower predictions, but a good cost/performance ratio. Finally, some of the selected infrared bands were specifically associated to the presence of adulterants NaCl, tripolyphosphate and carrageenan.

  14. An Assessment of the Model of Concentration Addition for Predicting the Estrogenic Activity of Chemical Mixtures in Wastewater Treatment Works Effluents

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Karen L.; Gross-Sorokin, Melanie; Johnson, Ian; Brighty, Geoff; Tyler, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of simple mixtures of chemicals, with similar mechanisms of action, can be predicted using the concentration addition model (CA). The ability of this model to predict the estrogenic effects of more complex mixtures such as effluent discharges, however, has yet to be established. Effluents from 43 U.K. wastewater treatment works were analyzed for the presence of the principal estrogenic chemical contaminants, estradiol, estrone, ethinylestradiol, and nonylphenol. The measured concentrations were used to predict the estrogenic activity of each effluent, employing the model of CA, based on the relative potencies of the individual chemicals in an in vitro recombinant yeast estrogen screen (rYES) and a short-term (14-day) in vivo rainbow trout vitellogenin induction assay. Based on the measured concentrations of the four chemicals in the effluents and their relative potencies in each assay, the calculated in vitro and in vivo responses compared well and ranged between 3.5 and 87 ng/L of estradiol equivalents (E2 EQ) for the different effluents. In the rYES, however, the measured E2 EQ concentrations in the effluents ranged between 0.65 and 43 ng E2 EQ/L, and they varied against those predicted by the CA model. Deviations in the estimation of the estrogenic potency of the effluents by the CA model, compared with the measured responses in the rYES, are likely to have resulted from inaccuracies associated with the measurement of the chemicals in the extracts derived from the complex effluents. Such deviations could also result as a consequence of interactions between chemicals present in the extracts that disrupted the activation of the estrogen response elements in the rYES. E2 EQ concentrations derived from the vitellogenic response in fathead minnows exposed to a series of effluent dilutions were highly comparable with the E2 EQ concentrations derived from assessments of the estrogenic potency of these dilutions in the rYES. Together these data support the

  15. An assessment of the model of concentration addition for predicting the estrogenic activity of chemical mixtures in wastewater treatment works effluents.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Karen L; Gross-Sorokin, Melanie; Johnson, Ian; Brighty, Geoff; Tyler, Charles R

    2006-04-01

    The effects of simple mixtures of chemicals, with similar mechanisms of action, can be predicted using the concentration addition model (CA). The ability of this model to predict the estrogenic effects of more complex mixtures such as effluent discharges, however, has yet to be established. Effluents from 43 U.K. wastewater treatment works were analyzed for the presence of the principal estrogenic chemical contaminants, estradiol, estrone, ethinylestradiol, and nonylphenol. The measured concentrations were used to predict the estrogenic activity of each effluent, employing the model of CA, based on the relative potencies of the individual chemicals in an in vitro recombinant yeast estrogen screen (rYES) and a short-term (14-day) in vivo rainbow trout vitellogenin induction assay. Based on the measured concentrations of the four chemicals in the effluents and their relative potencies in each assay, the calculated in vitro and in vivo responses compared well and ranged between 3.5 and 87 ng/L of estradiol equivalents (E2 EQ) for the different effluents. In the rYES, however, the measured E2 EQ concentrations in the effluents ranged between 0.65 and 43 ng E2 EQ/L, and they varied against those predicted by the CA model. Deviations in the estimation of the estrogenic potency of the effluents by the CA model, compared with the measured responses in the rYES, are likely to have resulted from inaccuracies associated with the measurement of the chemicals in the extracts derived from the complex effluents. Such deviations could also result as a consequence of interactions between chemicals present in the extracts that disrupted the activation of the estrogen response elements in the rYES. E2 EQ concentrations derived from the vitellogenic response in fathead minnows exposed to a series of effluent dilutions were highly comparable with the E2 EQ concentrations derived from assessments of the estrogenic potency of these dilutions in the rYES. Together these data support the

  16. Acoustic cues to Nehiyawewin constituency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Clare; Muehlbauer, Jeff

    2005-04-01

    This study examines how speakers use acoustic cues, e.g., pitch and pausing, to establish syntactic and semantic constituents in Nehiyawewin, an Algonquian language. Two Nehiyawewin speakers autobiographies, which have been recorded, transcribed, and translated by H. C. Wolfart in collaboration with a native speaker of Nehiyawewin, provide natural-speech data for the study. Since it is difficult for a non-native-speaker to reliably distinguish Nehiyawewin constituents, an intermediary is needed. The transcription provides this intermediary through punctuation marks (commas, semi-colons, em-dashes, periods), which have been shown to consistently mark constituency structure [Nunberg, CSLI 1990]. The acoustic cues are thus mapped onto the punctuated constituents, and then similar constituents are compared to see what acoustic cues they share. Preliminarily, the clearest acoustic signal to a constituent boundary is a pitch drop preceding the boundary and/or a pitch reset on the syllable following the boundary. Further, constituent boundaries marked by a period consistently end on a low pitch, are followed by a pitch reset of 30-90 Hz and have an average pause of 1.9 seconds. I also discuss cross-speaker cues, and prosodic cues that do not correlate to punctuation, with implications for the transcriptional view of orthography [Marckwardt, Oxford 1942].

  17. Superhydrophobic powder additives to enhance chemical agent resistant coating systems for military equipment for the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPAC) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, Steven J.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Haynes, James A.

    2015-07-01

    The primary goal of the CPAC program at ORNL was to explore the feasibility of introducing various silica-based superhydrophobic (SH) powder additives as a way to improve the corrosion resistance of US Department of Defense (DOD) military-grade chemical agent resistant coating (CARC) systems. ORNL had previously developed and patented several SH technologies of interest to the USMC, and one of the objectives of this program was to identify methods to incorporate these technologies into the USMC’s corrosion-resistance strategy. This report discusses findings of the CPAC and their application.

  18. Effects of N{sub 2}O gas addition on the properties of ZnO films grown by catalytic reaction-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, Kanji Morioka, Makoto; Kanauchi, Shingo; Ohashi, Yuki; Kato, Takahiro; Tamayama, Yasuhiro

    2015-11-15

    The influence of N{sub 2}O gas addition on the properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown on a-plane (11–20) sapphire (a-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates was investigated, using a chemical vapor deposition method based on the reaction between dimethylzinc and high-temperature H{sub 2}O produced by a catalytic H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} reaction on platinum (Pt) nanoparticles. The addition of N{sub 2}O was found to increase the size of the crystalline facets and to improve the crystal orientation along the c-axis. The electron mobility at 290 K was also increased to 234 cm{sup 2}/Vs following the addition of N{sub 2}O gas at a pressure of 3.2 × 10{sup −3 }Pa. In addition, the minimum full width at half maximum of the most intense photoluminescence peak derived from neutral donor bound excitons at 10 K decreased to 0.6 meV by the addition of N{sub 2}O gas at a pressure of 3.1 × 10{sup −2 }Pa.

  19. Removal of strontium and transuranics from Hanford tank waste via addition of metal cations and chemical oxidant: FY 1995 test results

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, R.J.; Zacher, A.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Elliott, K.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Gano, S.R.

    1995-09-01

    Chelating organics and some of their degradation products in the Hanford tank waste, such as EDTA, HEDTA, and NTA act to solubilize strontium and transuranics (TRU) in the tank waste supernatant. Displacement of strontium and TRU will facilitate the removal of these radionuclides via precipitation/filtration, ion exchange, or solvent extraction so that low-level waste feed specifications can be met. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has investigated two methods for releasing organic-complexed strontium and TRU components to allow for effective pretreatment of tank waste supernatant: metal cation addition (to promote displacement and flocculation) and chemical oxidant (pennanganate) addition (to promote chelator destruction/defunctionalization and possibly flocculation). These methods, which can be conducted at near-ambient. temperatures and pressures, could be deployed as intank processes.

  20. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists.

  1. Effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides inoculants, or a chemical additive on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and nutritive value of crimped wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Adesogan, A T; Salawu, M B; Ross, A B; Davies, D R; Brooks, A E

    2003-05-01

    The preservation of crimped wheat grains by three bacterial inoculants or a chemical additive was compared. Crimped wheat grain [56.8 g dry matter (DM)/kg] was conserved in 1.75-kg plastic bag, mini-silos without treatment, with 4L/tonne of Crimpstore (CS; an additive containing a mixture of ammonium formate, propionate, ethyl benzoate, and benzoate, SAS Kelvin Cave, Ltd., UK) or 1 x 10(5) cfu/g of each of three inoculant additives containing Lactobacillus fermentum (A), Leuconostoc mesenteroides (B), and Lactobacillus buchneri (C). Six replicates were conserved per treatment. Ensiling DM losses, chemical composition, fermentation characteristics, and aerobic stability were measured in the silages after 68 d of ensiling. All the silages were well fermented and remained stable for 84 h after aeration. Subsequently, the rate of deterioration was slowest in crimped grains treated with CS treatment, followed by those treated with inoculant C, while those treated with inoculant A deteriorated most rapidly. Residual water-soluble carbohydrate concentration was higher in crimped grains treated with CS than those treated with the inoculants. Ammonia nitrogen concentrations were lowest in CS-treated crimped grains, followed by inoculants C and A. DM losses were greater in CS-treated crimped grains than in crimped grains treated with inoculants A and C. In vivo digestibility was also measured in Texel-cross lambs fed a grass silage basal diet supplemented with the additive-treated crimped grains or a conventional, lamb finisher concentrate. Dry matter intake and digestibility were unaffected by treatment. In conclusion, bacterial inoculants containing L. buchneri are promising preservatives for crimped wheat grains.

  2. Constituent Particle Clustering and Pitting Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, D. Gary

    2012-08-01

    Corrosion is a primary degradation mechanism that affects the durability and integrity of structures made of aluminum alloys, and it is a concern for commercial transport and military aircraft. In aluminum alloys, corrosion results from local galvanic coupling between constituent particles and the metal matrix. Due to variability in particle sizes, spatial location, and chemical composition, to name a few critical variables, corrosion is a complex stochastic process. Severe pitting is caused by particle clusters that are located near the material surface, which, in turn, serve as nucleation sites for subsequent corrosion fatigue crack growth. These evolution processes are highly dependent on the spatial statistics of particles. The localized corrosion growth rate is primarily dependent on the galvanic process perpetuated by particle-to-particle interactions and electrochemical potentials. Frequently, severe pits are millimeters in length, and these pits have a dominant impact on the structural prognosis. To accommodate large sizes, a model for three-dimensional (3-D) constituent particle microstructure is proposed. To describe the constituent particle microstructure in three dimensions, the model employs a fusion of classic stereological techniques, spatial point pattern analyses, and qualitative observations. The methodology can be carried out using standard optical microscopy and image analysis techniques.

  3. Atmospheric Constituent Explorer System (ACES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrach, M. R.; Madzunkov, S.; Neidholdt, E.; Simcic, J.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the Atmospheric Constituent Explorer System (ACES), a mass spectrometer based instrument for atmospheric probe missions (e.g. Venus and ice giant) that can determine abundances and isotopic ratios of the noble-gases and trace species.

  4. Indicator bacteria and associated water quality constituents in stormwater and snowmelt from four urban catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galfi, H.; Österlund, H.; Marsalek, J.; Viklander, M.

    2016-08-01

    Four indicator bacteria were measured in association with physico-chemical constituents and selected inorganics during rainfall, baseflow and snowmelt periods in storm sewers of four urban catchments in a northern Swedish city. The variation patterns of coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens concentrations were assessed in manually collected grab samples together with those of phosphorus, nitrogen, solids, and readings of pH, turbidity, water conductivity, temperature and flow rates to examine whether these constituents could serve as potential indicators of bacteria sources. A similar analysis was applied to variation patterns of eight selected inorganics typical for baseflow and stormwater runoff to test the feasibility of using these inorganics to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of inflow into storm sewers. The monitored catchments varied in size, the degree of development, and land use. Catchment and season (i.e., rainy or snowmelt periods) specific variations were investigated for sets of individual stormwater samples by the principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the constituents with variation patterns similar to those of indicator bacteria, and to exclude the constituents with less similarity. In the reduced data set, the similarities were quantified by the clustering correlation analysis. Finally, the positive/negative relationships found between indicator bacteria and the identified associated constituent groups were described by multilinear regressions. In the order of decreasing concentrations, coliforms, E. coli and enterococci were found in the highest mean concentrations during both rainfall and snowmelt generated runoff. Compared to dry weather baseflow, concentrations of these three indicators in stormwater were 10 (snowmelt runoff) to 102 (rain runoff) times higher. C. perfringens mean concentrations were practically constant regardless of the season and catchment. The type and number of

  5. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  6. Evaluation of food additives and low-toxicity compounds as alternative chemicals for the control of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum on citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Palou, Lluís; Usall, Josep; Smilanick, Joseph L; Aguilar, Maria-José; Viñas, Inmaculada

    2002-05-01

    The effectiveness of low-toxicity chemicals as possible alternatives to synthetic fungicides for the control of post-harvest green and blue moulds of citrus was evaluated. A preliminary selection of chemicals, mostly common food additives, was made through in vivo primary screenings with oranges artificially inoculated with Penicillium digitatum or P italicum. Selected compounds and mixtures were tested as heated solutions in small-scale trials. Immersion of artificially inoculated oranges or lemons for 120 s in solutions at 40.6 degrees C and natural pH of potassium sorbate (0.2 M), sodium benzoate (0.2 M) or mixtures (0.1 + 0.1 M) of potassium sorbate with sodium benzoate, sodium propionate or sodium acetate were the most effective organic acid salts tested and reduced green mould by 70-80% after 7 days of storage at 20 degrees C. The mixtures did not significantly enhance the effectiveness of potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate alone. These solutions were as effective as sodium carbonate or calcium polysulphide treatments and, in general, they were more effective on lemons than on oranges. Satisfactory control of green and blue moulds was obtained by dipping oranges for 150 s in solutions of sodium molybdate (24.2 mM) or ammonium molybdate (1.0 mM) at 48 or 53 degrees C, but not at 20 degrees C. At 53 degrees C, however, the effectiveness of hot water was not enhanced by either molybdate. Molybdenum salts at higher concentrations were phytotoxic and stained the fruit. At non-phytotoxic concentrations, the effectiveness of these solutions was more influenced by temperature than by concentration. In general, the inhibitory effects of all compounds tested were not fungicidal but fungistatic and not very persistent. In conclusion, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate and ammonium molybdate, among the wide range of chemicals tested, were superior for the control of post-harvest Penicillium decay of citrus fruit.

  7. Modeling of Alkane Oxidation Using Constituents and Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Jasette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

    2010-01-01

    It is currently not possible to perform simulations of turbulent reactive flows due in particular to complex chemistry, which may contain thousands of reactions and hundreds of species. This complex chemistry results in additional differential equations, making the numerical solution of the equation set computationally prohibitive. Reducing the chemical kinetics mathematical description is one of several important goals in turbulent reactive flow modeling. A chemical kinetics reduction model is proposed for alkane oxidation in air that is based on a parallel methodology to that used in turbulence modeling in the context of the Large Eddy Simulation. The objective of kinetic modeling is to predict the heat release and temperature evolution. This kinetic mechanism is valid over a pressure range from atmospheric to 60 bar, temperatures from 600 K to 2,500 K, and equivalence ratios from 0.125 to 8. This range encompasses diesel, HCCI, and gas-turbine engines, including cold ignition. A computationally efficient kinetic reduction has been proposed for alkanes that has been illustrated for n-heptane using the LLNL heptane mechanism. This model is consistent with turbulence modeling in that scales were first categorized into either those modeled or those computed as progress variables. Species were identified as being either light or heavy. The heavy species were decomposed into defined 13 constituents, and their total molar density was shown to evolve in a quasi-steady manner. The light species behave either in a quasi-steady or unsteady manner. The modeled scales are the total constituent molar density, Nc, and the molar density of the quasi-steady light species. The progress variables are the total constituent molar density rate evolution and the molar densities of the unsteady light species. The unsteady equations for the light species contain contributions of the type gain/loss rates from the heavy species that are modeled consistent with the developed mathematical

  8. Quantum-Chemical Study of the Discrimination against dNTP in the Nucleotide Addition Reaction in the Active Site of RNA Polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Roßbach, Sven; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2017-04-11

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerase II catalyzes the transcription of DNA into mRNA very efficiently and with an extremely low error rate with regard to matching base and sugar moiety. Despite its importance, little is known about how it discriminates against 2'-deoxy NTPs during the chemical reaction. To investigate the differences in the addition reactions of ATP and dATP, we used FF-MD and QM/MM calculations within a nudged elastic band approach, which allowed us to find the energetically accessible reaction coordinates. By converging the QM size, we found that 800 QM atoms are necessary to properly describe the active site. We show how the absence of a single hydrogen bond between the enzyme and the NTP 2'-OH group leads to an increase of the reaction barrier by 16 kcal/mol and therefore conclude that Arg446 is the key residue in the discrimination process.

  9. Characterizing a switching reagent ion chemical ionization high resolution time of flight mass spectrometer: Standard additions, External calibrations, and Inlet response during SOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, P.; Farmer, D.

    2013-12-01

    A high-resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HRToF-CIMS) with switching reagent ion source and low pressure, gas-phase inlet was deployed during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) in Brent, Alabama. Acetate chemistry was employed for the detection of small acids and iodine chemistry for the detection of peroxy acids. Switching between the two ion sources was found to be possible on less than ten minute time scales with minimal artifacts observed. Online calibrations for formic acid on both the acetate and iodine sources were performed every hour using both standard addition techniques as well as external standard calibrations; offline formic acid calibrations were also conducted. Inlet responses were investigated though a number of experiments finding that the inlet has minimal hysteresis and rapid response times.

  10. Increased pattern transfer fidelity ZEP 520A during reactive ion etching through chemical modifications by additional dosing of the electron beam resist.

    SciTech Connect

    Czaplewski, D. A.; Ocola, L. E.

    2011-03-01

    This article describes a postdevelopment, additional electron exposure to enhance the etch selectivity and improve pattern transfer fidelity of an electron beam resist, ZEP 520A, through chemical changes of the resist. After the critical features were patterned and developed, the resist was exposed at 5 kV accelerating voltage to a second dose of electrons ranging from 300 to 300,000 {micro}C/cm{sup 2}. The etch rate of the resist decreased by approximately 25% in a CHF{sub 3} and O{sub 2} plasma. More critically, the fidelity of the pattern transfer was improved. Infrared and Raman spectroscopies were used to characterize the resist before and after electron beam exposure for doses up to 3000 {micro}C/cm{sup 2}. The carbonyl bonding in the polymer showed significant changes after electron beam exposure that can be associated with improvement in the etch performance of this resist.

  11. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  12. Antibacterial activity and mode of action of the Artemisia capillaris essential oil and its constituents against respiratory tract infection-causing pathogens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang; Hu, Dong-Hui; Feng, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Inhalation therapy using essential oils has been used to treat acute and chronic sinusitis and bronchitis. The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia capillaris, and evaluate the antibacterial effects of the essential oil and its main components, against common clinically relevant respiratory bacterial pathogens. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography‑mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 25 chemical constituents, the main constituents being: α‑pinene, β‑pinene, limonene, 1,8‑cineole, piperitone, β‑caryophyllene and capillin. The antibacterial activities of the essential oil, and its major constituents, were evaluated against Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin‑resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), MRSA (clinical strain), methicillin‑gentamicin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MGRSA), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli. The essential oil and its constituents exhibited a broad spectrum and variable degree of antibacterial activity against the various strains. The essential oil was observed to be much more potent, as compared with any of its major chemical constituents, exhibiting low minimum inhibitory and bacteriocidal concentration values against all of the bacterial strains. The essential oil was most active against S. pyogenes, MRSA (clinical strain), S. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and E. coli. Piperitone and capillin were the most potent growth inhibitors, among the major chemical constituents. Furthermore, the essential oil of A. capillaris induced significant and dose‑dependent morphological changes in the S. aureus bacterial strain, killing >90% of the bacteria when administered at a higher dose; as determined by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the essential oil induced a significant leakage of potassium and phosphate ions from the S. aureus bacterial cultures. These results indicate that

  13. Characterization of constituents in the peel of Citrus kawachiensis (Kawachibankan).

    PubMed

    Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Ouchi, Kazusa; Okuyama, Satoshi; Furukawa, Yoshiko; Yoshida, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen constituents, including a new compound, were isolated from an ethanolic extract of the peel of Citrus kawachiensis Hort. ex. Y. Tanaka (Japanese brand name, kawachibankan) which is one of the citrus products specific to Ehime, Japan. The new compound was characterized as 4'-dihydrophaseic acid β-glucopyranose ester (15) on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence.

  14. LC-MS characterization of constituents of mesquite flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using an LC-MS method in conjunction with two complementary types of chromatographic retention modes—namely reversed phase and aqueous normal phase (ANP)—various compounds present in mesquite flour extracts were identified. Because of the diverse types of chemical constituents found in such natural ...

  15. Further constituents from the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa.

    PubMed

    Warashina, Tsutomu; Nagatani, Yoshimi; Noro, Tadataka

    2005-03-01

    Further study on the constituents from the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC) Standley afforded twelve compounds, consisting of four iridoid glycosides, one phenylethanoid glycoside, five phenolic glycosides, and one lignan glycoside, along with seven known compounds. The structures of these compounds were determined based on the interpretation of their NMR and MS measurements and by chemical evidence.

  16. Identification of drug-binding sites on human serum albumin using affinity capillary electrophoresis and chemically modified proteins as buffer additives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Seung; Austin, John; Hage, David S

    2002-03-01

    A technique based on affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) and chemically modified proteins was used to screen the binding sites of various drugs on human serum albumin (HSA). This involved using HSA as a buffer additive, following the site-selective modification of this protein at two residues (tryptophan 214 or tyrosine 411) located in its major binding regions. The migration times of four compounds (warfarin, ibuprofen, suprofen and flurbiprofen) were measured in the presence of normal or modified HSA. These times were then compared and the mobility shifts observed with the modified proteins were used to identify the binding regions of each injected solute on HSA. Items considered in optimizing this assay included the concentration of protein placed into the running buffer, the reagents used to modify HSA, and the use of dextran as a secondary additive to adjust protein mobility. The results of this method showed good agreement with those of previous reports. The advantages and disadvantages of this approach are examined, as well as its possible extension to other solutes.

  17. Effect of organic additives in catalyst preparation on the growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes prepared by catalyst-assisted chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lihua; Zhang, Xiaobin; Li, Yu; Yang, Xiaofang; Luo, Junhang; Xu, Guoliang

    2004-03-01

    The effect of organic additives, including citric acid, PEG (2000) and PEG (200), on the yield and quality of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) synthesized by a Fe-Mo catalyst dispersed on an alumina matrix prepared by the sol-gel process in assisted chemical vapour deposition (CVD) has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Raman spectroscopy. Different morphologies of catalyst including big flakes, spherical particles and porous supporting materials were obtained using citric acid, PEG (2000) and PEG (200) as dispersant, respectively. SWNT yields of 10 wt%, 16 wt% and 33 wt% were obtained using citric acid, PEG (2000) and PEG (200) as the dispersants, respectively, which implies that the PEG (200) is the most effective at improving the yield of SWNTs due to the effect of additives on the specific surface area of the catalyst. The as-grown SWNTs are mostly in large bundles with diameters of 0.5-2 nm, but in some cases, isolated tubes with much larger diameters can also be found. Finally a preliminary explanation for the increased SWNT yield using PEG (200) is presented.

  18. Unprecedented chemical reactivity of a paramagnetic endohedral metallofullerene La@C(s)-C82 that leads hydrogen addition in the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction.

    PubMed

    Takano, Yuta; Slanina, Zdenek; Mateos, Jaime; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Kurihara, Hiroki; Uhlik, Filip; Herranz, María Ángeles; Martín, Nazario; Nagase, Shigeru; Akasaka, Takeshi

    2014-12-17

    Synthesizing unprecedented diamagnetic adducts of an endohedral metallofullerene was achieved by using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of paramagnetic La@C(s)-C82 with a simultaneous hydrogen addition. The selective formation of two main products, La@C(s)-C82HCMe2NMeCHPh (2a and 2b), was first detected by HPLC analysis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. 2a and 2b-O, which was readily formed by the oxidation of 2b, were isolated by multistep HPLC separation and were fully characterized by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D-NMR, UV-vis-NIR measurements and electrochemistry. The hydrogen atom was found to be connected to the fullerene cage directly in the case of 2a, and the redox behavior indicated that the C-H bond can still be readily oxidized. The reaction mechanism and the molecular structures of 2a and 2b were reasonably proposed by the interplay between experimental observations and DFT calculations. The feasible order of the reaction process would involve a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition followed by the hydrogen addition through a radical pathway. It is concluded that the characteristic electronic properties and molecular structure of La@C(s)-C82 resulted in a site-selective reaction, which afforded a unique chemical derivative of an endohedral metallofullerene in high yields. Derivative 2a constitutes the first endohedral metallofullerene where the direct linking of a hydrogen atom has been structurally proven.

  19. The Structural Evolution of (Gd, Y)Ba2Cu3Ox Tapes With Zr Addition Made by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, CH; Galstyan, E; Chen, YM; Shi, T; Liu, YH; Khatri, N; Liu, JF; Xiong, XM; Majkic, G; Selvamanickam, V

    2013-06-01

    Structural analysis of (Gd, Y) Ba2Cu3Ox tapes with Zr addition made by metal organic chemical vapor deposition has been conducted with transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Zr content in the films was varied from 0 to 25% in the precursor. In all Zr-doped films, self-assembled nanocolumnar structures of BaZrO3 (BZO) were observed along the c-axis. The amount of BaZrO3 was found to increase steadily with Zr content. Additionally, planar BZO plates were found on the (001) plane of (Gd, Y) Ba2Cu3Ox film. The size and thickness of BZO plates were seen to increase with Zr doping level. Rare-earth copper oxide phases were observed to begin to emerge in the 20% Zr-doped film. Cross-sectional study of the interface between (Gd, Y)Ba2Cu3Ox and LaMnO3 cap layer revealed a thin discrete BZO layer on the LaMnO3 in the 20% Zr doped film.

  20. Understanding Physical Developer (PD): Part II--Is PD targeting eccrine constituents?

    PubMed

    de la Hunty, Mackenzie; Moret, Sébastien; Chadwick, Scott; Lennard, Chris; Spindler, Xanthe; Roux, Claude

    2015-12-01

    Physical developer (PD) is a fingermark development technique that deposits silver onto fingermark ridges. It is the only technique currently in routine operational use that gives results on porous substrates that have been wet. There is a reasonable understanding of the working solution chemistry, but the chemical constituent(s) contained in fingermark residue that are specifically targeted by PD are largely unknown. A better understanding of the PD technique will permit a more informed selection of alternative or complementary detection methods, and greater usage in operational laboratories. Recent research by our group has shown that PD does not selectively target the lipids present in the residue. This research investigated the hypothesis that PD targets the eccrine constituents in fingermark residue. This was tested by comparison of PD and indanedione-zinc (Ind-Zn) treated natural fingermarks that had been deposited successively, and marks that had been deposited with a ten second interval in between depositions. Such an interval allows for the regeneration of secretions from the pores located on the ridges of the fingers. On fingermark depletions with no time interval between depositions, PD and Ind-Zn treated depletions successively (and comparatively) decreased in development intensity as the amount of residue diminished. Short time intervals in between successive depletions resulted in additional secretions from the pores intermittently occurring, the increased development of which was visualised by treatment with both PD and Ind-Zn. The changes in development intensity were seen with both techniques on the same split depletions in a series, comparably and proportionately. These results indicate that the components targeted by PD are contained in the material excreted by the friction ridge pores through its mirrored development with Ind-Zn. Repetition of the experiments on marks that only contained eccrine material showed good Ind-Zn development but poor

  1. Effects of water additions, chemical amendments, and plants on in situ measures of nutrient bioavailability in calcareous soils of southeastern Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.E.; Belnap, J.; Beatty, S.W.; Webb, B.L.

    2006-01-01

    We used ion-exchange resin bags to investigate effects of water additions, chemical amendments, and plant presence on in situ measures of nutrient bioavailability in conjunction with a study examining soil controls of ecosystem invasion by the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. At five dryland sites in southeastern Utah, USA, resin bags were buried in experimental plots randomly assigned to combinations of two watering treatments (wet and dry), four chemical-amendment treatments (KCl, MgO, CaO, and no amendment), and four plant treatments (B. tectorum alone, the perennial bunchgrass Stipa hymenoides R. & S. alone, B. tectorum and S. hymenoides together, and no plants). Resin bags were initially buried in September 1997; replaced in January, April, and June 1998; and removed at the end of the study in October 1998. When averaged across watering treatments, plots receiving KCl applications had lower resin-bag NO 3- than plots receiving no chemical amendments during three of four measurement periods-probably due to NO 3- displacement from resin bags by Cl- ions. During the January-April period, KCl application in wet plots (but not dry plots) decreased resin-bag NH 4+ and increased resin-bag NO 3- . This interaction effect likely resulted from displacement of NH 4+ from resins by K+ ions, followed by nitrification and enhanced NO 3- capture by resin bags. In plots not receiving KCl applications, resin-bag NH 4+ was higher in wet plots than in dry plots during the same period. During the January-April period, resin-bag measures for carbonate-related ions HPO 42- , Ca2+, and Mn2+ tended to be greater in the presence of B. tectorum than in the absence of B. tectorum. This trend was evident only in wet plots where B. tectorum densities were much higher than in dry plots. We attribute this pattern to the mobilization of carbonate-associated ions by root exudates of B. tectorum. These findings indicate the importance of considering potential indirect effects of soil

  2. How people think about the chemicals in cigarette smoke: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jennifer C; Byron, M Justin; Baig, Sabeeh A; Stepanov, Irina; Brewer, Noel T

    2017-02-21

    Laws and treaties compel countries to inform the public about harmful chemicals (constituents) in cigarette smoke. To encourage relevant research by behavioral scientists, we provide a primer on cigarette smoke toxicology and summarize research on how the public thinks about cigarette smoke chemicals. We systematically searched PubMed in July 2016 and reviewed citations from included articles. Four central findings emerged across 46 articles that met inclusion criteria. First, people were familiar with very few chemicals in cigarette smoke. Second, people knew little about cigarette additives, assumed harmful chemicals are added during manufacturing, and perceived cigarettes without additives to be less harmful. Third, people wanted more information about constituents. Finally, well-presented chemical information increased knowledge and awareness and may change behavior. This research area is in urgent need of behavioral science. Future research should investigate whether educating the public about these chemicals increases risk perceptions and quitting.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical abstracts...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  8. Possibility of controlling the chemical pattern of He and Ar “guided streamers” by means of N{sub 2} or O{sub 2} additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gazeli, K.; Svarnas, P. E-mail: franck.clement@univ-pau.fr; Held, B.; Clément, F. E-mail: franck.clement@univ-pau.fr; Marlin, L.

    2015-03-07

    Plasma chemistry at atmospheric pressure and low temperature has met an increased interest due to the effective production of reactive species (mainly reactive nitrogen species and reactive oxygen species) which are demanded in many applications like in biomedicine. Τhe generation of such emissive reactive species is herein studied. A single parameter, i.e., the gas composition, is tuned and abundant chemical species are obtained in a quite controllable manner. The system refers to a small dielectric barrier discharge based reactor fed with He–N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} or Ar–N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} gases, which provides plasma in the form of “guided streamers.” The plasma is sustained by positive high voltage pulses, and the emissive transitions versus the gas composition is determined by UV-VIS optical emission spectroscopy. The relative intensities of emissive species are recorded in the ambient air where the streamers propagate. The evolution of dominant species as a function of the gas composition is mapped, and optimal conditions in terms of species production are clearly revealed. The results show that additives do not necessarily enhance the density of all species, implying the need for plasma chemistry optimization in respect to every application. The study is extended inside the reactor, supporting the above statements. Finally, the rotational and vibrational distributions of critical probe molecules are recorded, testing the dependence of the gas temperature and energy transfer, respectively, on the gas composition.

  9. Selecting the best AOP for isoxazolyl penicillins degradation as a function of water characteristics: Effects of pH, chemical nature of additives and pollutant concentration.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Guzman, Paola; Silva-Agredo, Javier; Florez, Oscar; Giraldo-Aguirre, Ana L; Pulgarin, Cesar; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A

    2017-04-01

    To provide new insights toward the selection of the most suitable AOP for isoxazolyl penicillins elimination, the degradation of dicloxacillin, a isoxazolyl penicillin model, was studied using different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): ultrasound (US), photo-Fenton (UV/H2O2/Fe(2+)) and TiO2 photocatalysis (UV/TiO2). Although all processes achieved total removal of the antibiotic and antimicrobial activity, and increased the biodegradability level of the solutions, significant differences concerning the mineralization extend, the pH of the solution, the pollutant concentration and the chemical nature of additives were found. UV/TiO2 reached almost complete mineralization; while ∼10% mineralization was obtained for UV/H2O2/Fe(2+) and practically zero for US. Effect of initial pH, mineral natural water and the presence of organic (glucose, 2-propanol and oxalic acid) were then investigated. UV/H2O2/Fe(2+) and US processes were improved in acidic media, while natural pH favored UV/TiO2 system. According to both the nature of the added organic compound and the process, inhibition, no effect or enhancement of the degradation rate was observed. The degradation in natural mineral water showed contrasting results according to the antibiotic concentration: US process was enhanced at low concentration of dicloxacillin followed by detrimental effects at high substrate concentrations. A contrary effect was observed during photo-Fenton, while UV/TiO2 was inhibited in all of cases. Finally, a schema illustrating the enhancement or inhibiting effects of water matrix is proposed as a tool for selecting the best process for isoxazolyl penicillins degradation.

  10. The Potential of Mycelium and Culture Broth of Lignosus rhinocerotis as Substitutes for the Naturally Occurring Sclerotium with Regard to Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxic Effect, and Low-Molecular-Weight Chemical Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Beng Fye; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Lee, Hong Boon; Yap, Ken Choy; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of Lignosus rhinocerotis focused mainly on the sclerotium; however, the supply of wild sclerotium is limited. In this investigation, the antioxidant capacity and cytotoxic effect of L. rhinocerotis cultured under different conditions of liquid fermentation (shaken and static) were compared to the sclerotium produced by solid-substrate fermentation. Aqueous methanol extracts of the mycelium (LR-MH, LR-MT) and culture broth (LR-BH, LR-BT) demonstrated either higher or comparable antioxidant capacities to the sclerotium extract (LR-SC) based on their radical scavenging abilities, reducing properties, metal chelating activities, and inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. All extracts exerted low cytotoxicity (IC50>200 µg/ml, 72 h) against selected mammalian cell lines. Several low-molecular-weight compounds, including sugars, fatty acids, methyl esters, sterols, amides, amino acids, phenolics, and triterpenoids, were identified using GC-MS and UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The presence of proteins (<40 kDa) in the extracts was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and SELDI-TOF-MS. Principal component analysis revealed that the chemical profiles of the mycelial extracts under shaken and static conditions were distinct from those of the sclerotium. Results from bioactivity evaluation and chemical profiling showed that L. rhinocerotis from liquid fermentation merits consideration as an alternative source of functional ingredients and potential substitute for the sclerotium. PMID:25054862

  11. Chemical constituent and antimicrobial effect of essential oil from Myrtus communis leaves on microorganisms involved in persistent endodontic infection compared to two common endodontic irrigants: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Nabavizadeh, Mohammadreza; Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Gholami, Ahmad; Sheikhiani, Reza; Shokouhi, Mehdi; Shams, Mahdi Sedigh; Ghasemi, Younes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Persistent infections of human root canals play a fundamental role in the failure of endodontic treatment. The purpose of this study is to determine the chemical composition of Myrtus communis (M. communis) essential oil and to assess its antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans compared to that of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX). Materials and Methods: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the chemical composition of essential oil from M. communis leaves. A micro-dilution susceptibility assay and disk diffusion methods were utilized to evaluate the antimicrobial activity [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal dose concentration] of the tested solutions against selected microorganisms. Results: GC-MS analyses revealed that M. communis contained 1, 8-Cineole (28.62%), α-Pinene (17.8%), Linalool (17.55%), and Geranylacetate (6.3%) as the major compounds and Geraniol (1.6%), α-Humulene (1.5%), eugenol (1.3%), isobutyl-isobutyrate (0.8%), and methyl chavicol (0.5%) as minor components. Chlorhexidine had the lowest MIC value among all medicaments tested. M. communis oil had less MIC values than NaOCl against both bacteria, but it had more MIC value against C. albicans. Conclusion: M. communis essential oil with the minimum inhibitory concentration in the range of 0.032-32 μg/mL was an effective antimicrobial agent against persistent endodontic microorganisms. PMID:25298646

  12. Fibre constituents of some foods.

    PubMed

    Rani, B; Kawatra, A

    1994-06-01

    Some plant foods viz. bottlegourd, carrot, cauliflower, cabbage, green bengalgram, pea, apple, plum, guava, karonda, blackgram husk and lentil husk were analysed for their dietary fibre components. The total dietary fibre contents of these foods varied from 14.68 to 78.21 percent on dry matter basis. As compared to fruits and vegetables, the husks had higher amount of total dietary fibre. Cellulose represented as the major fibre constituent in most of the foods whereas, husks were observed to be good sources of hemicellulose. All foods were low in pectin and lignin contents except guava.

  13. The inorganic constituents of echinoderms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, F.W.; Wheeler, W.C.

    1915-01-01

    In a recent paper on the composition of crinoid skeletons we showed that crinoids contain large quantities of magnesia, and that its proportion varies with the temperature of the water in which the creatures live. This result was so novel and surprising that it seemed desirable to examine other echinoderms and to ascertain whether they showed the same characteristics and regularity. A number of sea urchins and starfishes were therefore studied, their inorganic constituents being analyzed in the same manner as those of the crinoids

  14. Trace constituents in the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gary E.

    The paper examines recent composition measurements, the large-scale distributions of trace constituents, and the interpretation of these global patterns in the light of the current understanding of chemistry and transport. Attention is given to results from the following space missions: the Nimbus 7 LIMS and SAMS experiments; the SMM UV spectrometer solar occultation experiment; the SME UVS and AGS experiments; and the Spacelab 1 solar occultation experiment. A brief summary of measurements and their implications is presented for three long-lived species, CO, NO, and H2O. The reactive or short-lived species OH and O3 are also examined.

  15. Structure factor in chemical sensorics

    SciTech Connect

    Gutman, E.E.; Belysheva, T.V.; Ryabtsev, S.V.; Chibirova, F.H.

    1996-12-31

    Additions of metals and metal oxides to semiconductor metal oxide films improve usually their gas sensitive sensor properties namely for detection of toxic and flammable gases. The aim of this work is the obtaining of new data and the elucidation of the role of the structure and the chemical nature of promoters in semiconductor gas sensorics. As examples, the authors consider the systems CO-SnO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} sensors. The elaboration of mentioned sensors is aimed at the measurement of small gas constituent in Earth`s and Marth`s atmospheres.

  16. Active mineral additives of sapropel ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, V. A.; Danilina, E. V.; Krivonos, O. I.; Plaksin, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the presented research is to establish a scientific rational for the possibility of sapropel ashes usage as an active mineral additive. The research included the study of producing active mineral additives from sapropels by their thermal treatment at 850900 °C and afterpowdering, the investigation of the properties of paste matrix with an ash additive, and the study of the ash influence on the cement bonding agent. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray investigations allowed us to establish that while burning, organic substances are removed, clay minerals are dehydrated and their structure is broken. Sapropel ashes chemical composition was determined. An amorphous ash constituent is mainly formed from silica of the mineral sapropel part and alumosilicagels resulted from clay minerals decomposition. Properties of PC 400 and PC 500A0 sparopel ash additives were studied. Adding ashes containing Glenium plasticizer to the cement increases paste matrix strength and considerably reduces its water absorption. X-ray phase analysis data shows changes in the phase composition of the paste matrix with an ash additive. Ash additives produce a pozzolanic effect on the cement bonding agent. Besides, an ash additive due to the alumosilicagels content causes transformation from unstable calcium aluminate forms to the stable ones.

  17. Vertical constituent transport in the mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Summers, Michael E.; Bevilacqua, Richard M.; Deland, Matthew T.; Allen, Mark

    1987-01-01

    Ground-based microwave spectroscopy measurements of mesospheric CO and H2O vertical mixing ratio profiles are used to infer vertical mixing rates in the upper mesosphere. The CO and H2O data consistently imply vertical eddy diffusion coefficients in the 70- to 85-km region of 100,000-200,000 sq cm/s during spring through summer at midlatidues. Although chemical acceleration of vertical transport is substantial for O and O3, below the mesopause, the divergences of their associated fluxes are modest, with at most a factor of 2 effect on the concentrations of O and O3 for measured variability in gravity wave activity. Comparison of Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) O3 data with model results reinforces the conclusions of slow vertical mixing in the upper mesosphere as a consequence of the reduced HO(x) catalytic loss of odd oxygen. The changes in chemical rate constants recommended by Rusch and Eckman (1985), in conjunction with slow vertical mixing, yield good agreement with SME O3 data. The slow vertical mixing deduced in this study is consistent with upper limits obtained from studies of the mesospheric heat budget and could be construed as evidence for an advectively controlled mesosphere. A comparison of the vertical eddy diffusion coefficients for momentum stresses, constituent transport, and heat transport suggests that the eddy Prandtl number must be of order 10.

  18. Vertical constituent transport in the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Summers, Michael E.; Bevilacqua, Richard M.; Deland, Matthew T.; Allen, Mark

    1987-06-01

    Ground-based microwave spectroscopy measurements of mesospheric CO and H2O vertical mixing ratio profiles are used to infer vertical mixing rates in the upper mesosphere. The CO and H2O data consistently imply vertical eddy diffusion coefficients in the 70- to 85-km region of 100,000-200,000 sq cm/s during spring through summer at midlatidues. Although chemical acceleration of vertical transport is substantial for O and O3, below the mesopause, the divergences of their associated fluxes are modest, with at most a factor of 2 effect on the concentrations of O and O3 for measured variability in gravity wave activity. Comparison of Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) O3 data with model results reinforces the conclusions of slow vertical mixing in the upper mesosphere as a consequence of the reduced HO(x) catalytic loss of odd oxygen. The changes in chemical rate constants recommended by Rusch and Eckman (1985), in conjunction with slow vertical mixing, yield good agreement with SME O3 data. The slow vertical mixing deduced in this study is consistent with upper limits obtained from studies of the mesospheric heat budget and could be construed as evidence for an advectively controlled mesosphere. A comparison of the vertical eddy diffusion coefficients for momentum stresses, constituent transport, and heat transport suggests that the eddy Prandtl number must be of order 10.

  19. Synthesis of multiple constituent ferecrystal heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westover, Richard D.

    The ability to form multiple component heterostructures of two-dimensional materials promises to provide access to hybrid materials with tunable properties different from those of the bulk materials or two-dimensional constituents. By taking advantage of the unique properties of different constituents, numerous applications are possible for which none of the individual components are viable. The synthesis of multiple component heterostructures, however, is nontrivial, relying on either the cleaving and stacking of bulk materials in a "scotch tape" type technique or finding coincidentally favorable growth conditions which allow layers to be grown epitaxially on each other in any order. In addition, alloying of miscible materials occurs when the modulation wavelength is small. These synthetic challenges have limited the ability of scientists to fully utilize the potential of multiple component heterostructures. An alternative synthetic route to multiple component heterostructures may be found through expansion of the modulated elemental reactant technique which allows access to metastable products, known as ferecrystals, which are otherwise inaccessible. This work focuses on the expansion of the modulated elemental reactants technique for the formation of ferecrystals containing multiple constituents. As a starting point, the synthesis of the first alloy ferecrystals (SnSe) 1.16-1.09([NbxMo1-x]Se2) will be discussed. The structural and electrical characterization of these compounds will then be used to determine the intermixing of the first three component ferecrystal heterojunction ([SnSe]1+delta)([{MoxNb1-x}Se 2]1+gamma)([SnSe]1+delta)({NbyMo 1-y}Se2). Then, by synthesizing ([SnSe]1+delta) m([{MoxNb1-x}Se2]1+gamma )1([SnSe]1+delta)m({Nb xMo1-x}Se2)1 (m = 0 - 4) compounds with increasing thicknesses of SnSe, the interdiffusion of miscible constituents in ferecrystals will be studied. In addition, by comparison of the ([SnSe] 1+delta)m ([{MoxNb1-x }Se2]1+gamma)1([Sn

  20. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and bacterial diversity in corn silage contaminated with the pathogen and treated with chemical or microbial additives.

    PubMed

    Ogunade, I M; Jiang, Y; Kim, D H; Cervantes, A A Pech; Arriola, K G; Vyas, D; Weinberg, Z G; Jeong, K C; Adesogan, A T

    2017-03-01

    Inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC) in feeds may prevent the transmission or cycling of the pathogen on farms. The first objective of this study was to examine if addition of propionic acid or microbial inoculants would inhibit the growth of EC during ensiling, at silo opening, or after aerobic exposure. The second objective was to examine how additives affected the bacterial community composition in corn silage. Corn forage was harvested at approximately 35% dry matter, chopped to a theoretical length of cut of 10 mm, and ensiled after treatment with one of the following: (1) distilled water (control); (2) 1 × 10(5) cfu/g of EC (ECCH); (3) EC and 1 × 10(6) cfu/g of Lactobacillus plantarum (ECLP); (4) EC and 1 × 10(6) cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri (ECLB); and (5) EC and 2.2 g/kg (fresh weight basis) of propionic acid, containing 99.5% of the acid (ECA). Each treatment was ensiled in quadruplicate in laboratory silos for 0, 3, 7, and 120 d and analyzed for EC, pH, and organic acids. Samples from d 0 and 120 were also analyzed for chemical composition. Furthermore, samples from d 120 were analyzed for ammonia N, yeasts and molds, lactic acid bacteria, bacterial community composition, and aerobic stability. The pH of silages from all treatments decreased below 4 within 3 d of ensiling. Escherichia coli O157:H7 counts were below the detection limit in all silages after 7 d of ensiling. Treatment with L. buchneri and propionic acid resulted in fewer yeasts and greater aerobic stability compared with control, ECCH, and ECLP silages. Compared with the control, the diversity analysis revealed a less diverse bacterial community in the ECLP silage and greater abundance of Lactobacillus in the ECLP and ECA silages. The ECLB silage also contained greater abundance of Acinetobacter and Weissella than other silages. Subsamples of silages were reinoculated with 5 × 10(5) cfu/g of EC either immediately after silo opening or after 168 h of aerobic exposure

  1. Effect of nitrogen content and additional straw on changes in chemical composition, volatile losses, and ammonia emissions from dairy manure during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A; Hunt, T; Lobos, N E

    2012-06-01

    Twelve 200-L barrels were used to determine the effects of N content and straw addition on changes in chemical composition and volatile losses measured by mass balance of dairy manure during a 136-d storage period. In addition, on d 0, 3, 6, 12, 28, 56, and 136, rate of NH₃-N emission was measured, and core samples were collected to characterize fermentation pattern. High N (3.06% N, HN) and low N (2.75% N, LN) manures were obtained from cows fed diets with 17.2 and 15.2% crude protein (dry matter basis), respectively. On d 0, manure scraped from a freestall barn floor was diluted with water to 10% dry matter and loaded in barrels with (+S) or without (-S) mixing 22g of chopped wheat straw per kilogram of undiluted manure. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments and 3 replications. We observed no interaction between treatments for the reported measurements, but several day-of-storage by treatment interactions were found. Throughout storage, total NH₃-N (TAN, NH₃-N + NH₄⁺-N; 71.9 vs. 104.3 mg/dL), pH (6.40 vs. 6.74), and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA, starting on d 12) were lower for LN relative to HN manure. In the presence of straw, crust formation occurred between d 12 and 28, and pH became lower and TVFA became higher starting on d 56, compared with no straw. Treatments did not influence loss of organic matter, organic N, organic C, or N, which averaged 31, 29, 26, and 20%, respectively. However, neutral detergent fiber loss was 44% higher for +S relative to -S manure. Consistent reductions in the C:N ratio indicated proportionally higher volatile C loss than volatile N loss during storage. Overall rate of NH₃-N emission was 36% lower for LN than for HN manure. In the presence of straw, rate of NH₃-N emission did not differ until after crust formation, but was 67% lower on d 56 and 95% lower on d 136, when it was barely detectable, compared with manure with no straw. Manure pH was highly

  2. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Phillip M.; Wiedemann, Rachel; Matty, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer based system that measures the major atmospheric constituents on the International Space Station. A number of limited-life components require periodic change-out, including the ORU 02 analyzer and the ORU 08 Verification Gas Assembly. The most recent ORU 02 and ORU 08 assemblies are operating nominally. For ORU 02, the ion source filaments and ion pump lifetime continue to be key determinants of MCA performance. Additionally, testing is underway to evaluate the capacity of the MCA to analyze ammonia. Finally, plans are being made to bring the second MCA on ISS to an operational configuration.

  3. The effects of flow-path modification on water-quality constituent retention in an urban stormwater detention pond and wetland system, Orlando, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gain, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in constituent retention in a wet stormwater-detention pond and wetland system in Orlando, Florida, were evaluated following the 1988 installation of a flow barrier which approximately doubled the flow path and increased detention time in the pond. The pond and wetland were arranged in series so that stormwater first enters the pond and overflows into the wetland before spilling over to the regional stream system. Several principal factors that contribute to constituent retention were examined, including changes in pond-water quality between storms, stormwater quality, and pond-water flushing during storms. A simple, analytical pond-water mixing model was used as the basis for interpreting changes in retention efficiencies caused by pond modification. Retention efficiencies were calculated by a modified event-mean concentration efficiency method using a minimum variance unbiased estimator approach. The results of this study generally support the hypothesis that changes in the geometry of stormwater treatment systems can significantly affect the constituent retention efficiency of the pond and wetland system. However, the results also indicate that these changes in efficiency are caused not only by changes in residence time, but also by changes in stormwater mixing and pond water flushing during storms. Additionally, the use of average efficiencies as indications of treatment effectiveness may fail to account for biases associated with sample distribution and independent physical properties of the system, such as the range and concentrations of constituents in stormwater inflows and stormwater volume. Changes in retention efficiencies varied among chemical constituents and were significantly different in the pond and wetland. Retention efficiency was related to inflow concentration for most constituents. Increased flushing of the pond after modification caused decreases in retention efficiencies for constituents that concentrate in the pond between storms

  4. Antitumor constituents from the leaves of Carya cathayensis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Dong; Ding, Zhi-Shan; Jiang, Fu-Sheng; Ding, Xing-Hong; Chen, Jian-Zhen; Chen, Su-Hong; Lv, Gui-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to find cytotoxic chemical constituents from Carya cathayensis leaves (LCC) by using various chromatographic procedures. Identification of the chemical constituents was carried out by various spectroscopic techniques and classical chemical methods. The cytotoxic activity of the constituents was assayed on HeLa and HepG2 cell lines by staining with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiahiazol-2-y1)-2,5-di-phenytetrazolium bromide (MTT). Six flavanoids, namely (1) pinostrobin, (2) pinostrobin chalcone, (3) wogonin, (4) cardamonin, (5) alpinetin and (6) tectochrysin were identified from this species. Compounds 2-6 were isolated from this kind of plant for the first time. MTT results showed that wogonin has a moderate cytotoxic activity with IC(50) values of 17.03 ± 2.41 and 44.23 ± 3.87 µM against HeLa and HepG2 cell lines, respectively. According to the correlation of primary the structure and activity, 8-methoxy substituent in these flavones may be a major factor of the antitumor activity.

  5. Comparison of Marketed Cosmetic Products Constituents with the Antigens Included in Cosmetic-related Patch Test

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Seung Hyun; Choi, You Won; Myung, Ki Bum

    2010-01-01

    Background Currently, cosmetic series (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden) is the most widely used cosmetic-related patch test in Korea. However, no studies have been conducted on how accurately it reflects the constituents of the cosmetics in Korea. Objective We surveyed the constituents of various cosmetics and compare with the cosmetic series, to investigate whether it is accurate in determining allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics sold in Korea. Methods Cosmetics were classified into 11 categories and the survey was conducted on the constituents of 55 cosmetics, with 5 cosmetics in each category. The surveyed constituents were classified by chemical function and compared with the antigens of cosmetic series. Results 155 constituents were found in 55 cosmetics, and 74 (47.7%) of constituents were included as antigen. Among them, only 20 constituents (27.0%) were included in cosmetic series. A significant number of constituents, such as fragrance, vehicle and surfactant were not included. Only 41.7% of antigens in cosmetic series were found to be in the cosmetics sampled. Conclusion The constituents not included in the patch test but possess antigenicity are widely used in cosmetics. Therefore, the patch test should be modified to reflect ingredients in the marketed products that may stimulate allergies. PMID:20711261

  6. Effects of Particle Size and Adaptation Duration on the Digestible and Metabolizable Energy Contents and Digestibility of Various Chemical Constituents in Wheat for Finishing Pigs Determined by the Direct or Indirect Method.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuanfang; Ma, Yongxi; Guo, Panpan; Yang, Yuyuan; Xia, Tian; Liu, Ling

    2016-08-19

    This experiment was conducted as a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial design to examine the effects of particle size (mean particle size of 331, 640 or 862 μm), evaluation method (direct vs. indirect method) and adaptation duration (7 or 26 days) on the energy content and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of various chemical components in wheat when fed to finishing pigs. Forty-two barrows (Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire) with an initial body weight of 63.0 ± 0.8 kg were individually placed in metabolic cages and randomly allotted to 1 of 7 diets with 6 pigs fed each diet. For the indirect method, the pigs were fed either a corn-soybean meal based basal diet or diets in which 38.94% of the basal diet was substituted by wheat of the different particle sizes. In the direct method, the diets contained 97.34% wheat with the different particle sizes. For both the direct and indirect methods, the pigs were adapted to their diets for either 7 or 26 days. A reduction in particle size linearly increased the digestible (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents as well as the ATTD of gross energy, crude protein, organic matter, ether extract (EE) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) (p<0.05), and had a trend to increase the ATTD of dry matter of wheat (p=0.084). The DE, ME contents and ATTD of gross energy, crud protein, dry matter and organic matter were higher (p<0.05) when determined by the direct method, but the ATTD of ADF, EE and neutral detergent fiber were higher when determined by the indirect method (p<0.05). Prolongation of the adaption duration decreased the ATTD of neutral detergent fiber (p<0.05) and had a trend to increase the ATTD of EE (P=0.061). There were no interactions between particle size and the duration of the adaptation duration. The ATTD of EE in wheat was influenced by a trend of interaction between method and adaptation duration (p=0.074). The ATTD of ADF and EE in wheat was influenced by an interaction between evaluation method and wheat particle size

  7. Chemical composition of organic matter in a deep soil changed with a positive priming effect due to glucose addition as investigated by 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh organic carbon becomes more accessible to subsoil following losses of surface soil or deep incorporation of crop residues, which can cause the priming effect and influence the quality and quantity of soil organic C (SOC) in subsoil. Chemical compositions of SOC in subsoil (1.0-1.2 m) without ...

  8. Catalysis of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking by chiral chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braguta, V. V.; Kotov, A. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the properties of media with chiral imbalance parametrized by chiral chemical potential. It is shown that depending on the strength of interaction between constituents in the media the chiral chemical potential either creates or enhances dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Thus, the chiral chemical potential plays the role of the catalyst of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Physically, this effect results from the appearance of the Fermi surface and additional fermion states on this surface, which take part in dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. An interesting conclusion which can be drawn is that at sufficiently small temperature chiral plasma is unstable with respect to condensation of Cooper pairs and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking even for vanishingly small interactions between constituents.

  9. Apparatus and method for separating constituents

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A centrifugal separator apparatus and method for improving the efficiency of the separation of constituents in a fluid stream. A cyclone separator includes an assembly for separately discharging both constituents through the same end of the separator housing. A rotary separator includes a rotary housing having a baffle disposed therein for minimizing the differential rotational velocities of the constituents in the housing, thereby decreasing turbulence, and increasing efficiency. The intensity of the centrifugal force and the time which the constituents reside within the housing can be independently controlled to improve efficiency of separation.

  10. Chromatographic Evaluation and Characterization of Components of Gentian Root Extract Used as Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Morimoto, Sara; Yoshida, Takashi; Tada, Atsuko; Ito, Yusai; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Gentian root extract is used as a bitter food additive in Japan. We investigated the constituents of this extract to acquire the chemical data needed for standardized specifications. Fourteen known compounds were isolated in addition to a mixture of gentisin and isogentisin: anofinic acid, 2-methoxyanofinic acid, furan-2-carboxylic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, isovitexin, gentiopicroside, loganic acid, sweroside, vanillic acid, gentisin 7-O-primeveroside, isogentisin 3-O-primeveroside, 6'-O-glucosylgentiopicroside, and swertiajaposide D. Moreover, a new compound, loganic acid 7-(2'-hydroxy-3'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)benzoate (1), was also isolated. HPLC was used to analyze gentiopicroside and amarogentin, defined as the main constituents of gentian root extract in the List of Existing Food Additives in Japan.

  11. Low temperature radio-chemical energy conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Gomberg, H.J.

    1986-11-04

    This patent describes a radio-chemical method of converting radiated energy into chemical energy form comprising the steps of: (a) establishing a starting chemical compound in the liquid phase that chemically reacts endothermically to radiation and heat energy to produce a gaseous and a solid constituent of the compound, (b) irradiating the compound in its liquid phase free of solvents to chemically release therefrom in response to the radiation the gaseous and solid constituents, (c) physically separating the solid and gaseous phase constituents from the liquid, and (d) chemically processing the constituents to recover therefrom energy stored therein by the irradiation step (b).

  12. Multi-Constituent Simulation of Thrombus Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Jamiolkowski, Megan A.; Wagner, William R.; Aubry, Nadine; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present a spatio-temporal mathematical model for simulating the formation and growth of a thrombus. Blood is treated as a multi-constituent mixture comprised of a linear fluid phase and a thrombus (solid) phase. The transport and reactions of 10 chemical and biological species are incorporated using a system of coupled convection-reaction-diffusion (CRD) equations to represent three processes in thrombus formation: initiation, propagation and stabilization. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using the libraries of OpenFOAM were performed for two illustrative benchmark problems: in vivo thrombus growth in an injured blood vessel and in vitro thrombus deposition in micro-channels (1.5 mm × 1.6 mm × 0.1 mm) with small crevices (125 μm × 75 μm and 125 μm × 137 μm). For both problems, the simulated thrombus deposition agreed very well with experimental observations, both spatially and temporally. Based on the success with these two benchmark problems, which have very different flow conditions and biological environments, we believe that the current model will provide useful insight into the genesis of thrombosis in blood-wetted devices, and provide a tool for the design of less thrombogenic devices.

  13. Constituents of south Indian vetiver oils.

    PubMed

    Mallavarapu, Gopal Rao; Syamasundar, Kodakandla V; Ramesh, S; Rao, Bhaskaruni R Rajeswara

    2012-02-01

    The essential oils isolated from vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash.] roots collected from four locations in south India were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Eighty constituents, representing 94.5-97.8% of the oils, have been identified. The oils from Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kundapur, and Mettupalayam were rich in sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes with cedrane, bisabolane, eudesmane, eremophilane, and zizaane skeletons. The main components of the four essential oils were: eudesma-4,6-diene (delta-selinene) + beta-vetispirene (3.9-6.1%), beta-vetivenene (0.9-9.4%), 13-nor-trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-11-one + amorph-4-en-10-ol (5.0-6.4%), trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-12-ol (vetiselinenol) + (E)-opposita-4(15),7(11)-dien-12-ol (3.7-5.9%), eremophila-1 (10),11-dien-2alpha-ol (nootkatol) + ziza-6(13)-en-12-ol (khusimol) (16.1-19.2%), and eremophila-1(10),7(11)-dien-2alpha-ol (isonootkatol) + (E)-eremophila-1(10),7(11)-12-ol (isovalencenol) (5.6-6.9%). The important compounds that impart the characteristic vetiver odor are: khusimene, delta-selinene, beta-vetivenene, cyclocopacamphan-12-ol (epimers A and B), vetiselinenol, khusimol, isovalencenol, khusimone, alpha-vetivone, and beta-vetivone. The chemical profiles of the oils are comparable to Haitian vetiver oil.

  14. Multi-Constituent Simulation of Thrombus Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Jamiolkowski, Megan A.; Wagner, William R.; Aubry, Nadine; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a spatio-temporal mathematical model for simulating the formation and growth of a thrombus. Blood is treated as a multi-constituent mixture comprised of a linear fluid phase and a thrombus (solid) phase. The transport and reactions of 10 chemical and biological species are incorporated using a system of coupled convection-reaction-diffusion (CRD) equations to represent three processes in thrombus formation: initiation, propagation and stabilization. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using the libraries of OpenFOAM were performed for two illustrative benchmark problems: in vivo thrombus growth in an injured blood vessel and in vitro thrombus deposition in micro-channels (1.5 mm × 1.6 mm × 0.1 mm) with small crevices (125 μm × 75 μm and 125 μm × 137 μm). For both problems, the simulated thrombus deposition agreed very well with experimental observations, both spatially and temporally. Based on the success with these two benchmark problems, which have very different flow conditions and biological environments, we believe that the current model will provide useful insight into the genesis of thrombosis in blood-wetted devices, and provide a tool for the design of less thrombogenic devices. PMID:28218279

  15. Chemical compositions and larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils from two eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Huang, Chin-Gi; Chen, Ying-Ju; Yu, Jane-Jane; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oils and their constituents from two eucalyptus species (Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla) against two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, was investigated. In addition, the chemical compositions of the leaf essential oils were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results from the larvicidal tests revealed that essential oil from the leaves of E. camaldulensis had an excellent inhibitory effect against both A. aegypti and A. albopictus larvae. The 12 pure constituents extracted from the two eucalyptus leaf essential oils were also tested individually against two mosquito larvae. Among the six effective constituents, alpha-terpinene exhibits the best larvicidal effect against both A. aegypti and A. albopictus larvae. Results of this study show that the leaf essential oil of E. camaldulensis and its effective constituents might be considered as a potent source for the production of fine natural larvicides.

  16. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis for the chemical impact of solvent addition rate on electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of HCl-doped polyaniline nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantawy, Hesham Ramzy; Kengne, Blaise-Alexis F.; McIlroy, David N.; Nguyen, Tai; Heo, Deukhyoun; Qiang, You; Aston, D. Eric

    2015-11-01

    An in-depth analysis of the chemical functionality in HCl-doped polyaniline (PANI) nanopowders is discussed through interpretations of x-ray photoelectron spectra. The distinctions between three PANI sample types, produced under varied synthesis conditions, are compared on the basis correlations between newly collected electron spectra for chemical analysis (or also x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and electromagnetic (EM) shielding effectiveness (SE) within two frequency bands (100-1500 MHz and ˜2-14 GHz). The findings are discussed with reference to previous data analysis of electrical conductivities and Raman and UV-vis spectra analyzed from replicates of the same PANI nanopowders, where only the 8-12 GHz range for SE was tested. They further corroborate previous results for limited-solvent conditions that enhance EM shielding. The three nanopowder types show distinctive differences in polaron, bipolaron, and polar lattice contributions. The collective findings describe the chemical connections between controlling and, most importantly, limiting the available solvent for polymerization with simultaneously doping and how it is that the newly developed solvent-limited approach for HCl-PANI nanopowders provides better shielding than traditionally solvent-rich methods by having more extended and perhaps even faster polaron delocalization than other PANI-based products. The maximum oxidation (50%) and doping (49%) levels obtained in the solvent-free nanopowders also produced the highest SE values of 37.3 ± 3.7 dB (MHz band) and 68.6 ± 4.6 dB (GHz band).

  17. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis for the chemical impact of solvent addition rate on electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of HCl-doped polyaniline nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Tantawy, Hesham Ramzy; Aston, D. Eric; Kengne, Blaise-Alexis F.; McIlroy, David N.; Qiang, You; Nguyen, Tai; Heo, Deukhyoun

    2015-11-07

    An in-depth analysis of the chemical functionality in HCl-doped polyaniline (PANI) nanopowders is discussed through interpretations of x-ray photoelectron spectra. The distinctions between three PANI sample types, produced under varied synthesis conditions, are compared on the basis correlations between newly collected electron spectra for chemical analysis (or also x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and electromagnetic (EM) shielding effectiveness (SE) within two frequency bands (100–1500 MHz and ∼2–14 GHz). The findings are discussed with reference to previous data analysis of electrical conductivities and Raman and UV-vis spectra analyzed from replicates of the same PANI nanopowders, where only the 8–12 GHz range for SE was tested. They further corroborate previous results for limited-solvent conditions that enhance EM shielding. The three nanopowder types show distinctive differences in polaron, bipolaron, and polar lattice contributions. The collective findings describe the chemical connections between controlling and, most importantly, limiting the available solvent for polymerization with simultaneously doping and how it is that the newly developed solvent-limited approach for HCl-PANI nanopowders provides better shielding than traditionally solvent-rich methods by having more extended and perhaps even faster polaron delocalization than other PANI-based products. The maximum oxidation (50%) and doping (49%) levels obtained in the solvent-free nanopowders also produced the highest SE values of 37.3 ± 3.7 dB (MHz band) and 68.6 ± 4.6 dB (GHz band)

  18. Scheil-Gulliver Constituent Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Arthur D.; Eriksson, Gunnar; Bale, Christopher W.

    2017-03-01

    During solidification of alloys, conditions often approach those of Scheil-Gulliver cooling in which it is assumed that solid phases, once precipitated, remain unchanged. That is, they no longer react with the liquid or with each other. In the case of equilibrium solidification, equilibrium phase diagrams provide a valuable means of visualizing the effects of composition changes upon the final microstructure. In the present study, we propose for the first time the concept of Scheil-Gulliver constituent diagrams which play the same role as that in the case of Scheil-Gulliver cooling. It is shown how these diagrams can be calculated and plotted by the currently available thermodynamic database computing systems that combine Gibbs energy minimization software with large databases of optimized thermodynamic properties of solutions and compounds. Examples calculated using the FactSage system are presented for the Al-Li and Al-Mg-Zn systems, and for the Au-Bi-Sb-Pb system and its binary and ternary subsystems.

  19. N-type crystalline silicon films free of amorphous silicon deposited on glass by HCl addition using hot wire chemical vapour deposition.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yung-Bin; Park, Hyung-Ki; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Song, Jean-Ho; Hwang, Nong-Moon

    2011-09-01

    Since n-type crystalline silicon films have the electric property much better than those of hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films, they can enhance the performance of advanced electronic devices such as solar cells and thin film transistors (TFTs). Since the formation of amorphous silicon is unavoidable in the low temperature deposition of microcrystalline silicon on a glass substrate at temperatures less than 550 degrees C in the plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition and hot wire chemical vapour deposition (HWCVD), crystalline silicon films have not been deposited directly on a glass substrate but fabricated by the post treatment of amorphous silicon films. In this work, by adding the HCl gas, amorphous silicon-free n-type crystalline silicon films could be deposited directly on a glass substrate by HWCVD. The resistivity of the n-type crystalline silicon film for the flow rate ratio of [HCl]/[SiH4] = 7.5 and [PH3]/[SiH4] = 0.042 was 5.31 x 10(-4) ohms cm, which is comparable to the resistivity 1.23 x 10(-3) ohms cm of films prepared by thermal annealing of amorphous silicon films. The absence of amorphous silicon in the film could be confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  20. Effects of boron addition on a-Si(90)Ge(10):H films obtained by low frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Arllene M; Renero, Francisco J; Zúñiga, Carlos; Torres, Alfonso; Santiago, César

    2005-06-29

    Optical, structural and electric properties of (a-(Si(90)Ge(10))(1-y)B(y):H) thin film alloys, deposited by low frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, are presented. The chemical bonding structure has been studied by IR spectroscopy, while the composition was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. A discussion about boron doping effects, in the composition and bonding of samples, is presented. Transport of carriers has been studied by measurement of the conductivity dependence on temperature, which increases from 10(-3) to 10(1) Ω(-1) cm(-1) when the boron content varies from 0 to 50%. Similarly, the activation energy is between 0.62 and 0.19 eV when the doping increases from 0 to 83%. The optical properties have been determined from the film's optical transmission, using Swanepoel's method. It is shown that the optical gap varies from 1.3 to 0.99 eV.

  1. Chemical constituents of Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) roots.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, K; Bhattacharya, T K

    2005-08-31

    Column chromatography of the alcoholic extract of Piper betle roots furnished aristololactam A-II and a new phenyl propene, characterized as 4-allyl resorcinol, while the petroleum-ether extract yielded a diketosteroid, viz. stigmast-4-en-3,6-dione. All these compounds were characterized by spectroscopic means. Isolation of these compounds from this source is being reported here for the first time.

  2. Chemical constituents of the Mexican mistletoe (Psittacanthus calyculatus).

    PubMed

    Moustapha, Bah; Marina, Gutiérrez-Avella Dora; Raúl, Fuentes-Ordaz; Raquel, Castañeda-Moreno; Mahinda, Martínez

    2011-11-09

    A phytochemical study of the methanol-soluble fraction of an aqueous extract of a sample of Psittacanthus calyculatus collected from the host plant Prosopsis laevigata (Smooth Mesquite) using several techniques, including co-chromatography coupled with UV detection, chromatographic purifications and IR, NMR and MS studies, resulted in the identification of gallic acid, two flavonol-3-biosides and the nonprotein amino acid N-methyl-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline.

  3. Chemical Constituents Antioxidant and Anticholinesterasic Activity of Tabernaemontana catharinensis

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Sidnei; Echeverrigaray, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The present work aimed to analyze the alkaloid content of the ethanolic extract of Tabernaemontana catharinensis (Apocynaceae family) and its fractions as well as to evaluate their antioxidant and anticholinesterasic activities. The analyses of the ethanolic extract of T. catharinensis by mass spectrometry allowed identifying the presence of the alkaloids 16-epi-affinine, coronaridine-hydroxyindolenine, voachalotine, voacristine-hydroxyindolenine, and 12-methoxy-n-methyl-voachalotine, as well as an alkaloid with m/z 385.21 whose spectrum suggests a derivative of voacristine or voacangine. The extract and its alkaloid rich fractions showed antioxidant activity, especially those that contain the alkaloid m/z 385.21 or 16-epi-affinine with DPPH scavenging activity (IC50) between 37.18 and 74.69 μg/mL. Moreover, the extract and its fractions exhibited anticholinesterasic activity, particularly the fractions characterized by the presence of 12-methoxy-n-methyl-voachalotine, with IC50 = 2.1 to 2.5 μg/mL. Fractions with 16-epi-affinine combined good antioxidant (IC50 = 65.59 to 74.69 μg/mL) and anticholinesterasic (IC50 = 7.7 to 8.3 μg/mL) activities, representing an option for further studies aimed at treating neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23983637

  4. Review of Pharmacological Properties and Chemical Constituents of Pimpinella anisum

    PubMed Central

    Shojaii, Asie; Abdollahi Fard, Mehri

    2012-01-01

    Pimpinella anisum (anise), belonging to Umbelliferae family, is an aromatic plant which has been used In Iranian traditional medicine (especially its fruits) as carminative, aromatic, disinfectant, and galactagogue. Because the wide traditional usage of Pimpinella anisum for treatment of diseases, in this review published scientific reports about the composition and pharmacological properties of this plant were collected with electronic literature search of GoogleScholar, PubMed, Sciencedirect, Scopus, and SID from 1970 to 2011. So far, different studies were performed on aniseeds and various properties such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, muscle relaxant, analgesic and anticonvulsant activity as well as different effects on gastrointestinal system have been reported of aniseeds. It can also reduce morphine dependence and has beneficial effects on dysmenorrhea and menopausal hot flashes in women. In diabetic patients, aniseeds showed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect and reduce lipid peroxidation. The most important compounds of aniseeds essential oil were trans-anetole, estragole, γ-hymachalen, para-anisaldehyde and methyl cavicol. Due to broad spectrum of pharmacological effects, and very few clinical studies of Pimpinella anisum, more clinical trials are recommended to evaluate the beneficial effects of this plant in human models and synthesis of new drugs from the active ingredients of this plant in future. PMID:22848853

  5. Chemical Constituents of Dichloromethane Extract of Cultivated Satureja khuzistanica

    PubMed Central

    Farimani, Mahdi Moridi; Salahvarzi, Sabah; Amin, Gholamreza

    2007-01-01

    Four compounds β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, ursolic acid and 4′,5,6-trihydroxy-3′, 7-dimethoxyflavone were characterized from the dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts of Satureja khuzistanica (Lamiaceae), a native medicinal plant growing in Iran, on the basis of spectral analysis and comparing with the data in literature. The natural occurrence of these compounds can be conclusive for the chemotaxonomic characterization of the genus Satureja. PMID:17342246

  6. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Mallotus roxburghianus leaves.

    PubMed

    Rana, Virendra S; Rawat, Mohan S M; Pant, Geeta; Nagatsu, Akito

    2005-06-01

    Mallotus roxburghianus is used in the traditional medicine in North-Eastern India, but previously no work has been done on the identification of bioactive compounds. Two new compounds, 3-(1-C-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-2,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid (6) and 2,4,8,9,10-pentahydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyanthracene-6-O-beta-D-rhamnopyranoside (7) together with beta-sitosterol (1), stigmasterol (2), betulinic acid (3), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), beta-sitosterol-beta-D-glucoside (5), and bergenin (8) were isolated and identified from the leaves of M. roxburghianus. The chloroform soluble portion of the alcoholic extract of leaf, and compounds 3, 6, 7, and 8 exhibited encouraging antioxidant activities.

  7. Chemical constituents of the leaves of Campylospermum elongatum.

    PubMed

    Elo-Manga, Savio S; Tih, Anastasie E; Ghogomu, Raphael T; Blond, Alain; Bodo, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    The leaves of Campylospermum elongatum have furnished the cyano-glycoside (lithospermoside), nine isomeric biflavonoid derivatives among which five are I3-II6 linked (robustaflavone; 4'-O-methyl robustaflavone; 4',4″'-di-O-methyl robustaflavone; 7,4',4″-tri-O-methyl robustaflavone; 4',7″-di-O-methyl robustaflavone) and four I3-II8 linked (amentoflavone; 7-O-methyl amentoflavone; 7,7″-di-O-methyl amentoflavone; 7, 4',7″-tri-O-methyl amentoflavone) and a flavone glycoside, 4″-O-methyl-7-O-β-d-galactosylapigenin. All structures were established from a complete spectroscopic analysis (MS, IR, 1D, and 2D NMR, including HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) as well as by comparing the obtained spectroscopic data with literature. This is the first report on the characterization of 4'-O-methyl-7-O-β-d-galactosylapigenin from the genus campylospermum and thus has important chemotaxonomic implications.

  8. Spatial distribution of chemical constituents in the Kuskokwim River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen

    1999-01-01

    The effects of lithologic changes on the water quality of the Kuskokwim River, Alaska, were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey in June 1997. Water, suspended sediments, and bed sediments were sampled from the Kusko-kwim River and from three tributaries, the Holitna River, Red Devil Creek, and Crooked Creek. Dissolved boron, chromium, copper, manganese, zinc, aluminum, lithium, barium, iron, antimony, arsenic, mercury, and strontium were detected. Dissolved manganese and iron concentrations were three and four times higher in the Holitna River than in the Kusko-kwim River. Finely divided ferruginous materials found in the graywacke and shale units of the Kuskokwim Group are the probable source of the iron. The highest concentrations of dissolved strontium and barium were found at McGrath, and the limestone present in the upper basin was the most probable source of strontium. The total mercury concentrations on the Kuskokwim River decreased downstream from McGrath. Dissolved mercury was 24 to 32 percent of the total concentration. The highest concentrations of total mercury, and of dissolved antimony and arsenic were found in Red Devil Creek. The higher concentrations from Red Devil Creek did not affect the main stem mercury transport because the tributary was small relative to the Kuskokwim River. In Red Devil Creek, total mercury exceeded the concentration at which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) indicates that aquatic life is affected and dissolved arsenic exceeded the USEPA's drinking-water standard. Background mercury and antimony concentrations in bed sediments ranged from 0.09 to 0.15 micrograms per gram for mercury and from 1.6 to 2.1 micrograms per gram for antimony. Background arsenic concentrations were greater than 27 micrograms per gram. Sites near the Red Devil mercury mine had mercury and antimony concentrations greater than background concentrations. These concentrations probably reflect the proximity to the ore body and past mining. Crooked Creek had mercury concentrations greater than the background concentration. The transport of suspended sediment-associated trace elements was lower for all elements in the lower river than in the upper river, indicating storage of sediments and their associated metals within the river system.

  9. Cytotoxicity of chemical constituents from the stems of Dalbergia parviflora.

    PubMed

    Songsiang, Uraiwan; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya; Yenjai, Chavi

    2011-12-01

    Three new compounds, dalberpene, dalparvinene B and dalparvone B, as well as 12 known compounds were isolated from the heartwood of Dalbergia parviflora. Isoflavanone 13 showed strong cytotoxicity against KB, MCF-7 and NCI-H187 cell lines with IC₅₀ values ranging from 3.5 to 5.4μg/mL and it was inactive against normal cells.

  10. Estrogenic activity of chemical constituents from Tephrosia candida.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Mohamed-Elamir F; El-Hamd H Mohamed, Abou; El-Halawany, Ali M; Djemgou, Pierre C; Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Paré, Paul W

    2011-05-27

    In a continued investigation of medicinal plants from the genus Tephrosia, phytochemical analysis of a methylene chloride-methanol (1:1) extract of the air-dried aerial parts of Tephrosia candida afforded two new 8-prenylated flavonoids, namely, tephrocandidins A (1) and B (2), a new prenylated chalcone, candidachalcone (3), a new sesquiterpene (4), and a previously reported pea flavonoid phytoalexin, pisatin (5). The structures of 1-4 were established by spectroscopic methods, including HREIMS, and 1H, 13C, DEPT, HMQC, and HMBC NMR experiments. The most potent estrogenic activity of these isolated natural products in an estrogen receptor (ERα) competitive-binding assay was for 3, which exhibited an IC50 value of 80 μM, compared with 18 nM for the natural steroid 17β-estradiol. Results were interpreted via virtual docking of isolated compounds to an ERα crystal structure.

  11. Chemical constituents and physical properties of guayule wood and bark

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 15 Parthenium species grow in the North American continent with P. argentatum (guayule) as the only species containing harvestable amounts of the rubber latex. The predicted commercialization of the guayule plant for its hypoallergenic latex will result in a significant amount of waste fiber o...

  12. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of Clinacanthus nutans aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Tu, Shu-Fen; Liu, Rosa Huang; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsu, Yu-Ming; Du, Ying-Chi; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2014-12-05

    Four new sulfur-containing compounds, named clinamides A-C (1-3), and 2-cis-entadamide A (4), were isolated together with three known compounds from the bioactive ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Clinacanthus nutans. These secondary metabolites possess sulfur atoms and acrylamide functionalities. The structures of the isolated components were established by interpretation of their spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR.

  13. Chemical constituents from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Feng, Xiao-Lin; Gao, Hao; Xie, Zuo-Lei; Dai, Yi; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Ye, Wen-Cai; Zhong, Yi; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    A new lignan glucoside, (+)-(7S,8R,8'R)-lyoniresinol 9-O-β-D-(6″-O-trans-sinapoyl)glucopyranoside (1), and a new iridoid glucoside, 10-O-trans-sinapoylgeniposide (2), together with eight known compounds, were isolated from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. The structures of the isolates were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic studies, including UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, and CD experiments. The short-term-memory-enhancement activities of some compounds were evaluated on an Aβ transgenic drosophila model.

  14. Chemical constituents from the peels of Citrus sudachi.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Takaishi, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Naonobu; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Shibata, Hirofumi; Higuti, Tomihiko

    2006-08-01

    A methanol extract of the peels of Citrus sudachi gave five new compounds (1-5) and 27 known compounds. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Several of these compounds were assayed for antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Helicobacter pylori, and sudachitin (6) and 3'-demethoxysudachitin (7) were the most active.

  15. Phytochemical Investigations on Chemical Constituents of Achillea tenuifolia Lam

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Shirin; Kobarfard, Farzad; Ayatollahi, Seyed Abdol Majid

    2014-01-01

    Achillea tenuifolia Lam. (Asteraceae) afforded a methanolic extract from which after fractionation in solvents with different polarities, two known flavones 3’, 5- dihydroxy- 4’, 6, 7- trimethoxy flavone (eupatorine, compound 3), 5- hydroxy- 3’,4’, 6, 7- tetramethoxyflavone (compound 4), besides stearic acid (compound 1), lupeol (compound 2), daucosterol (β- sitosterol 3-O- β- D- glucopyranoside, compound 5), 2, 4- dihydroxy methyl benzoate (compound 6) were isolated for the first time. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by means of different spectroscopic methods such as UV, IR, Mass and 1H- NMR (1D and 2D) and 13C-NMR. For further confirming the structures of isolated compounds, comparison of the spectral data of them with those reported in the litratures have been done. PMID:25276207

  16. [Chemical constituents of Jasminum giraldii and their antioxidant activity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiu-Peng; Qin, Hui; Yang, Fang; Chai, Jiang; Wang, Xin; Song, Xiao-Mei; Mei, Qi-Bing; Feng, Feng; Yue, Zheng-Gang

    2014-06-01

    Ten compounds were isolated from the barks of Jasminum giraldii by means of various of chromatographic techniques such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and Rp-HPLC. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic data analysis as (+)-medioresinol (1), (+) -syringaresinol (2), syringaresinol-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), oleanic acid (4), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-trans-cinnamaldehyde (5), trans-sinapaldehyde (6), syringaldehyde (7), 1-(4-methoxy -phenyl) -ethanol (8), trans-cinnamic acid (9), and 4-(1-methoxyethyl) -phenol (10). Among them, compounds 1-3, 5-8 and 10 were isolated from the J. genus for the first time and compounds 4 and 9 were obtained from J. giraldii for the first time. In the DPPH free radical scavenging assay, compound 1 exhibited significant activity (IC50 55.1 micromol x L(-1)), compared with vitamin C(IC50 59.9 micromol x L(-1)); and compound 2 showed moderate activity (IC50 79.0 micromol x L(-1)), compared with 2, 6-di-tert-butyl4-methylphenol (IC50 236 micromol x L(-1)).

  17. Studies on the chemical constituents of Ilex pubescens.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu Bo; Wang, Jin-Hui; Li, Xiang Mei; Fu, Xiao Chun; Yan, Zhen; Zeng, Yi Mei; Li, Xian

    2008-01-01

    Three new compounds, ilexisochromane (1), ilex acid A (2), and ilex acid B (3), were isolated from the roots of Ilex pubescens. Their structures were elucidated using the combination of 1- and 2-D NMR and mass spectrometry analyses.

  18. Chemical Mechanisms of Toxic Solute Interactions with Soil Constituents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    been widely reported (References 125-127). However, in days such as montmorillonite and kaolinite , whose cations have been (partially) exchanged with...matrix-isolation methods were used to characterize the sorption of water and fuel compounds on a model soil consisting of montmorillonite clay. The...only under very dry conditions. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Montmorillonite clay, fuels, infrared 15 NUMBER Of PAGES spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible

  19. Chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Gynura bicolor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Mangelinckx, Sven; Adams, An; Li, Wei-Lin; Wang, Zheng-Tao; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2012-12-01

    Gynura bicolor (Willd.) DC., is used in folk recipes for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Sichuan province in the south of China. A previous pharmacological study proved that the plant showed significant hypoglycemic activity on normal and alloxan-diabetic mice. In this study, two terpenes, four megastigmane-type norisoprenoids and two glycosides were isolated from the aqueous ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gynura bicolor and characterized mainly by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Thes e compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant, and no evidence could be found for the previous reported presence of megastigmane-type norisoprenoids in the genus Gynura.

  20. Chemical constituents of Malagasy liverworts: cyclomyltaylanoids from Bazzania madagassa.

    PubMed

    Harinantenaina, Liva; Kurata, Ritsu; Takaoka, Shigeru; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2006-12-01

    Five cyclomyltaylanoids (2-6), together with 1R,5R-diacetoxycyclomyltaylan-10-one (1), (+)-globulol, and ent-4beta,10alpha-dihydroxyaromadendrane have been isolated from the diethyl ether fraction of the Malagasy liverwort, Bazzania madagassa. The structure of 1 was confirmed by X-ray analysis, while those of the compounds were established on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic evidence, and comparison with data reported in the literature. The chemosystematics of B. madagassa are discussed.