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Sample records for addition chemical constituents

  1. [Chemical constituents of Desmodium sambuense].

    PubMed

    Li, Chuankuan; Zhang, Qianjun; Huang, Zhongbi; Chen, Qing; Yao, Rongjun

    2010-09-01

    The chemical constituents of Desmodium sambuense were studied. Chromatographic techniques were applied to isolate and purify the constituents, and the structures were identified on the basis of physico-chemical and spectroscopeic methods. Thirteen compounds were isolated from the 75% ethanol extract of Desmodium sambuens and elucidated as beta-amyrin(1), betulic acid(2), daucosterol(3), triacontanoic acid(4), lup-20(29)-en-3-one(5), tetracosanoic-2,3-dihydroxypropylester(6), stigmast-5-ene-3beta, 7alpha-ol (7),methyl phaeophorbidea(8), o-hydroxy benzoic acid(9),beta-sitosterol(10),d-catechin(11), luteolin (12), epigallocatechin (13). All of the compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:21141491

  2. Chemical constituents from Abutilon indicum.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ping-Chung; Yang, Mei-Lin; Wu, Pei-Lin; Shih, Hui-Nung; Thang, Tran Dinh; Dung, Nguyen Xuan; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2008-01-01

    The investigation on the chemical constituents of the whole plant of Abutilon indicum has resulted in the isolation of two new compounds, abutilin A (1) and (R)-N-(1'-methoxycarbonyl-2'-phenylethyl)-4-hydroxybenzamide (2), as well as 28 known compounds. The structures of the two new compounds were established on the basis of the spectroscopic analysis, and the known compounds were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic and physical data with those reported in the literature. PMID:18636384

  3. [Chemical constituents from Bidens bipinnata].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Guan-Ru; Deng, Zi-Yun; Zhao, Jie; Ge, Jin-Fang; Li, Ning; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of the whole plants of Bidens bipinnata, the separation and purification of constituents were performed by chromatography on macroporous resin, silica gel, MCI and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data as quercetin (1), quercetin-3-0-alpha-L-rhamnoside (2), keampferol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), keampferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (4), 3', 5-dyhydroxy-3, 6, 4'-trimethoxyl -7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside flavonoid (5), 7, 8, 3', 4'-tetraflavanone(6), (2S)- and (2R)-isookanin-7-O-beta-D- glucopyranoside (7a/7b), (2S)- and (2R)-3'-methoxy-isookanin-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8a/8b), 6, 7, 3', 4'-tetrahydroxyaurone(9), maritimetin (10), esculetin (11), 3-O-caffeoyl-2-methyl-d-erythrono-1, 4-lactone (12), (7S, 8R) balanophonin-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (13), eugenyl-O-beta-apiofuranosyl-( 1"-6') -O-beta-glucopyranoside (14), and (+)-syringaresinol-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (15). Compounds 8, 13, 14, and 15 were isolated from this genus for the first time. Compounds 1 and 6 were potent inhibitors against HSC-T6 cells in vitro and compounds 1, 2, 6, and 7 were capable of decreasing the inflammatory cytokine production of macrophage cells in vitro. PMID:25282892

  4. [Chemical constituents of Dipsacus asper].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Er-Wei; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Yi

    2013-07-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Dipsacus asper, chromatographic methods such as D101 macroporous resin, silica gel, octadecylsilyl (ODS) column chromatographic techniques and preparative HPLC were used, and five compounds were isolated from 70% (v/v) ethanol extract of the plant. By using spectroscopic techniques including 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and TOF-MS, the compounds were identified as 3beta-hydroxy-24-nor-urs-4 (23), 12-dien-28-oic acid (1), ursolic acid (2), oleanolic acid (3), 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnosyl(1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-rhamnosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (4), 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 4)] [alpha-L-rhamnosyl(1 --> 3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-rhamnosyl(1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin (5), separately. Among them, 1 is a new compound, and 2 is isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:24133979

  5. [Chemical constituents of Lepidium meyenii].

    PubMed

    Liang, Wen-juan; Xu, Hong-bo; Yang, Cai-yan; Geng, Chang-an; Zhang Xue-mei; Chen, Ji-jun

    2015-12-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Lepidium meyenii, the air-dried rhizome of L. meyenii was extracted with 70% EtOH. The extract was condensed to a small amount of volume and extracted with petroleum ether, EtOAc and n-BuOH, successively. The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography, and identified based on spectral analyses (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HRESIMS). Eighteen compounds were isolated from L. meyenii, including 7 alkaloids and 4 fatty acids and 7 other compounds. They were characterized as (3-hydroxybenzyl) carbamic acid(1), phenylmethanamine(2), N-benzylformamide (3), N-benzylacetamide (4), pyridin-4-ylmethanamine(5), n-(4-methoxybenzyl) aniline(6), uracil(7), succininc acid(8), decanedioic acid(9), n-hexa- decanoic acid methyl ester(10), heptanoic acid(11), solerole(12), pyromucic acid methyl ester(13), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancar- boxadehyde(14), 5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde(15), 1,7-dihydroxy-2,3, 4-trimethoxyxanthone (16), 1,7-di- hydroxy-3,4- dimethoxy-xanthone(17), (+)-pinoresinol(18). Meanwhile, compounds 1-18 were obtained from L. neyenii for the first time. PMID:27141659

  6. [Chemical constituents from Euphorbia lunulata].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Wu, Shuang; Li, Jun; Tang, Wan-Xia; Wang, Jin-Lan; Zhang, Shu-Jun

    2014-06-01

    The chemical constituents from Euphorbia lunulata was investigated in this paper. Fourteen compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatographies on silica gel and preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified by physiochemical properties and NMR data analysis as lupeol (1), euphol (2), cassipourol(3) , 24-methylenecycloartan-3beta-ol (4), 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25-en-3beta-ol (5), 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3beta-ol (6), betulin (7), uvaol (8), (23E) -25-methoxycycloart-23-en-3beta-ol (9), (23E) -cycloart-23,25-dien-3beta-ol (10), 24-methylenecycloartan-3beta, 28-diol (11), salicinolide (12), 2alpha, 3beta, 5alpha, 9alpha, 15beta-pentaacetoxy-11,12-epoxy-7beta, 8alpha-diisobutyryloxyjatropha-6 (17) -en-14-one (13) and 3beta, 5alpha, 15beta-triacetoxy-7beta-isobutyryloxy-9alpha-nicotinoyloxyjatropha-6 (17), 11(E)-dien-14-one (14). Among them, compounds 1-11 were isolated from E. lunulata for the first time. PMID:25244761

  7. [Chemical constituents from Cinnamomum cassia].

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-fei

    2015-09-01

    Various column chromatography, such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS, and semi-preparative HPLC was used to isolate and purify the chemical constituents from Cinnamomum cassia. The structures were determined on the basis of NMR and MS spectral data analysis, together with the comparison with literature data. Fifteen compounds were isolated from the 85% aqueous ethanol extract of C. cassia, and their structures were identified as (2R, 3R)-5,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavan-3-ol( 1), (2R, 3R)-5,7-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan-3-ol (2), coumarin (3), cinnamic acid (4), (E)-2-hydroxy-phenylpropionic acid cinnamoyl ester (5), 3, 3', 4, 4'-tetrahydroxy biphenyl (6), methylstictic acid (7), epi-boscialin (8), (1R,2S,3S,4S)-2,3-epoxy-1, 4-dihydroxy-5-methyl-5-cyelohexene (9), 4,5-dihydroxy-3-methyl cyclohex-2-enone (10), cis-4-hydroxymellein (11), and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyl-cinnamaldehyde (12). Compounds 5-11 were obtained from this genus plants for the first time. PMID:26983207

  8. Chemical constituents of Equisetum debile.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jun-Ming; Qiu, Yi-Hua; Tan, Xin-Qi; Tan, Chang-Heng; Xiao, Kai

    2011-09-01

    Three new compounds, debilitriol (1), debilignanoside (2), and equisetumine (3), along with nine known compounds, were isolated from the whole plant of Equisetum debile. Their structures were elucidated by spectral and chemical methods. PMID:21830885

  9. Chemical constituents of Saniculiphyllum guangxiense.

    PubMed

    Geng, Chang-An; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Lei, Li-Gong; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2012-08-01

    The first phytochemical investigation on Saniculiphyllum guangxiense resulted in the isolation of two new triterpenoids, 16β-hydroxybryodulcosigenin (3) and 3α-O-feruloylolean-12-en-27-oic acid (6), together with six known compounds, menisdaurin (1), purshianin (2), oleanolic acid (4), 3β-hydroxyolean-12-en-27-oic acid (5), β-sitosterol (7), and daucosterol (8), which were characterized by extensive spectroscopic analyses and in one case by X-ray diffraction. According to this primary investigation, S. guangxiense is rich in nitrile glucosides and triterpenoids, of which menisdaurin (1; 0.06%) and purshianin (2; 0.015%) are the main constituents. Compounds 1-6 were assayed for their anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities against the secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg, as well as HBV DNA replication on Hep G 2.2.15 cell line in vitro. The most active compound, menisdaurin (1), inhibits HBV DNA replication with an IC(50) value of 0.32 mM (SI>11.97). PMID:22899611

  10. [Chemical constituents from Spatholobus sinensis].

    PubMed

    Yin, Ting; Liu, Hua; Wang, Bin; Tu, Guang-Zhong; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Yu-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Spatholobus sinensis is a plant of the Spatholobus genus (Leguminosae family). Its caulis are used as "ji-xue-teng" regionally. However, to our knowledge, no phytochemical investigation on S. sinensis has been reported to date. In this study, eight compounds were isolated from the ethanol extract of the caulis of S. sinensis, by solvents extraction and column chromatography methods. By analysis of their physic-chemical constants and spectral data, the structures of 8 compounds were identified as spatholosineside A (1), 2',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyisoflavone (2), isoliquiritigenin (3), lupinalbin A (4), coumestrol (5), naringenin (6), protocatechuic acid (7), leonuriside A (8). Compound 1 is a new compound. PMID:18357735

  11. [Chemical constituents from Imperata cylindrica].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Binfeng; Chou, Guixin; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2012-08-01

    Chemical investigation of Imperata cylindrica led to the isolation of thirteen compounds using various chromatographic techniques. The structure of these compounds were identified as: three phenylpropanoids, 1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1,2,3-propanetriol ( 1 ), 1-O-p-coumaroylglycerol (2), 4-methoxy-5-methyl coumarin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3); four organic acids, 4-hydroxybenzene carboxylic acid(4), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (5), vanillic acid (6), 3, 4-dihydroxybutyric acid (7); one phenolic compound, salicin (8); and five triterpenes, namely, arundoin (9), cylindrin (10), fernenol (11), simiarenol (12), glutinone (13) by their physicochemical properties and spectral data analysis. Among them, compounds 1-8 were isolated from the genus Imperata for the first time. PMID:23189737

  12. [Study on chemical constituents of Picrasma quassioides].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chenchen; Deng, Guihua; Lin, Chaozhan

    2011-04-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Picrasma quassioides. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by chromatographic methods over Sephadex LH-20 and silica gel column, and structurally elucidated by spectral analysis, including UV, IR, MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR. Fourteen compounds were obtained and identified as trifolirhizin(1), maackiain(2), 3', 7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxylisoflavone(3), umbelliferone(4), emodin(5), nigakilactone F(6), picrasin B(7),picraqualide B (8),4-methoxy-5-hydroxycanthin-6-one(9), 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one (10),5-methoxycanthin-6-one(11), 11-hydroxycanthin-6-one(12) , 1-methoxycarbonyl-beta-carboline(13), 1-hydroxymethyl-beta-carboline(14). Compounds 1-5 are reported from the first time for the genus Pricrasma. PMID:21761728

  13. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  14. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  15. CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE CONSTITUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project addresses the problem of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge disposal to land. Specifically, the chemical species of FGD sludge constituents are thermodynamically modeled using the equilibrium constant approach, in an attempt to predict the constituent concentratio...

  16. Deicing chemicals as source of constituents of highway runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The dissolved major and trace constituents of deicing chemicals as a source of constituents in highway runoff must be quantified for interpretive studies of highway runoff and its effects on surface water and groundwater. Dissolved constituents of the deicing chemicals-sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and premix (a mixture of sodium and calcium chloride)-were determined by analysis of salt solutions created in the laboratory and are presented as mass ratios to chloride. Deicing chemical samples studied are about 98 and 97 percent pure sodium chloride and calcium chloride, respectively: however, each has a distinct major and trace ion constituent signature. The greatest impurity in sodium chloride road sail samples was sulfate, followed by calcium, potassium, bromide, vanadium, magnesium, fluoride, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. The greatest impurity in the calcium chloride road salt samples was sodium, followed by potassium, sulfate, bromide, silica, fluoride. strontium, magnesium, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. Major constituents of deicing chemicals in highway runoff may account for a substantial source of annual chemical loads. Comparison of estimated annual loads and first flush concentrations of deicing chemical constituents in highway runoff with those reported in the literature indicate that although deicing chemicals are not a primary source of trace constituents, they are not a trivial source, either. Therefore, deicing chemicals should be considered as a source of many major and trace constituents in highway and urban runoff.

  17. [Chemical constituents of Sapium sebiferum leaves].

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Tian, Hua; Lv, Pei-jun; Wang, Jia-ping; Wang, Yi-fen

    2015-04-01

    Chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract of Sapium sebiferum leaves were isolated and purified by various chromatographic methods, including column chromatographies over silica gel, macroporous adsorption resin, and Sephadex LH-20, as well as preparative TLC and semi preparative HPLC. As a results, 15 compounds were separated from Sapium sebiferum leaves and their structures were examined by spectral analysis including NMR and MS data and identified as( + )-(7R,7'R,7"S,7'"S,8S,8'S,8"S,8'"S)-4", 4"'-dihydroxy-3,3',3",3',5,5'-hexamethoxy-7,9';7',9-diepoxy-4,8";4',8'"-bisoxy-8,8'-dineo-lignan-7",7"',9",9"'-tetraol(1) ,1-(4'- hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-[4"-(3-hydroxypropyl) -2", 6"-dimethoxyphenoxy] propane-1, 3-diol (2), Thero-2, 3-bis-(4-hydroxy-3- methoxypheyl)-3-methoxy-propanol(3) , threo-5-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyphenyl propane-8,9-diol (4), boropinol B (5), threo-8S-7-methoxysyringylglycerol(6), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural(7), 5-( methoxy-methyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (8), quercetin (9) , kaempferol (10), ethyl gallate(11), coniferaldehyde(12), vanillin(13), 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1-henzopyran-2-one(14),and 1-heptacosanol (15). All compounds except for compounds 9-11,14 were separated from this plant for the first time. PMID:26281591

  18. [Chemical constituents from roots of Andrographis paniculata].

    PubMed

    Xu, Chong; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of the roots of Andrographis paniculata, 28 compounds were isolated and identified from the 80% ethanol extract. There are 20 flavonoids: 5, 5'-dihydroxy-7, 8, 2'-trimetroxyflavone (1), 5-hydroxy-7, 8, 2', 6'-tetramethoxyflavone (2), 5, 3'-dihydroxy-7, 8, 4'-trimethoxyflavone (3), 2'-hydroxy-5, 7, 8-trimethoxyflavone (4), 5-hydroxy-7, 8, 2', 3', 4'-pentamethoxyflavone (6), wightin (7), 5, 2', 6'-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), 5, 7, 8, 2'-tetramethoxyflavone (10), 5-hydroxy-7, 8-dimethoxyflavanone (11), 5-hydroxy-7, 8-dimethoxyflavone (12), 5, 2'-dihydroxy-7, 8-dimethoxyflavone (13), 5-hydroxy-7, 8, 2', 5'-tetramethoxyflavone (14), 5-hydroxy-7, 8, 2', 3'-tetramethoxyflavone (15), 5-hydroxy-7, 8, 2'-trimethoxyflavone (16), 5, 4'-dihydroxy-7, 8, 2', 3'-tetramethoxyflavone (17), dihydroneobaicalein (18), andrographidine A (19), andrographidine B (20), andrographidine C (21) and 5, 2'-dihydroxy-7, 8-dimethoxyflavone 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (22); three diterpenoids: andrograpanin (23), neoandrographolide (24) and andrographolide (25); two phenylpropanoids: trans-cinnamic acid (26) and 4-hydroxy-2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (5); and oleanolic acid (9), beta-sitosterol (27) and beta-daucosterol (28). Compound 1 is a new flavone, compound 4 is a new natural product, compounds 2, 3 and 5 were isolated from the Androggraphis genus for the first time and compounds 6-9 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:21626787

  19. [Studies on chemical constituents from Psychotria straminea].

    PubMed

    Fu, Yan-hui; Huang, Li-gang; Wang, Xiao-cui; Li, Xiao-bao; Li, Ke-kai; Wu, Shui-ling; Liu, Yan-ping

    2015-06-01

    The chemical consituents from Psychotria straminea were separated and purified by column chromatographies on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS and RP-HPLC. The strictures of the isolated compounds were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis, as well as comparisons with the data in literature. Sixteen compounds were isolated and elucidated as tectochrysin (1), apigenin (2), kaempferol (3), luteolin (4), diosmetin (5), quercetin (6), kaempferol-4'-O-methylether (7), rhamnetin (8), 7-hydroxycoumarin (9), 7-methoxycoumarin (10), scopoletin (11), lupeol (12), 30-oxo-lupeol (13), lupenyl acetate (14), α-amyrin (15), and ursolic acid (16). This is the first study on the chemical composition of P. Straminea, and all compounds were isolated from P. straminea for the first time. In addition to compounds 6 and 9, the other compounds were isolated from the genus Psychotria for the first time. PMID:26552170

  20. Chemical constituents of marijuana: the complex mixture of natural cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Slade, Desmond

    2005-12-22

    The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) and products thereof (such as marijuana, hashish and hash oil) have a long history of use both as a medicinal agent and intoxicant. Over the last few years there have been an active debate regarding the medicinal aspects of cannabis. Currently cannabis products are classified as Schedule I drugs under the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Controlled Substances act, which means that the drug is only available for human use as an investigational drug. In addition to the social aspects of the use of the drug and its abuse potential, the issue of approving it as a medicine is further complicated by the complexity of the chemical make up of the plant. This manuscript discusses the chemical constituents of the plant with particular emphasis on the cannabinoids as the class of compounds responsible for the drug's psychological properties. PMID:16199061

  1. The EPA National Fuels Surveillance Network. I. Trace constituents in gasoline and commercial gasoline fuel additives.

    PubMed

    Jungers, R H; Lee, R E; von Lehmden, D J

    1975-04-01

    A National Fuels Surveillance Network has been established to collect gasoline and other fuels through the 10 regional offices of the Environmental Protection Agency. Physical, chemical, and trace element analytical determinations are made on the collected fuel samples to detect components which may present an air pollution hazard or poison exhaust catalytic control devices. A summary of trace elemental constituents in over 50 gasoline samples and 18 commercially marketed consumer purchased gasoline additives is presented. Quantities of Mn, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, Fe, Sb, B, Mg, Pb, and S were found in most regular and premium gasoline. Environmental implications of trace constituents in gasoline are discussed. PMID:1157783

  2. The EPA National Fuels Surveillance Network. I. Trace constituents in gasoline and commercial gasoline fuel additives.

    PubMed Central

    Jungers, R H; Lee, R E; von Lehmden, D J

    1975-01-01

    A National Fuels Surveillance Network has been established to collect gasoline and other fuels through the 10 regional offices of the Environmental Protection Agency. Physical, chemical, and trace element analytical determinations are made on the collected fuel samples to detect components which may present an air pollution hazard or poison exhaust catalytic control devices. A summary of trace elemental constituents in over 50 gasoline samples and 18 commercially marketed consumer purchased gasoline additives is presented. Quantities of Mn, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, Fe, Sb, B, Mg, Pb, and S were found in most regular and premium gasoline. Environmental implications of trace constituents in gasoline are discussed. PMID:1157783

  3. [Studies on chemical constituents of Tinospora hainanesis].

    PubMed

    Guo, Y; Lin, L; Shen, J

    1998-05-01

    Tinospora hainanesis is a new species of Menispermaceae plant. It is used as folk remedy for joint pain and physical injury. Five compounds were isolated from the vine stalk of Tinospora hainanesis. By spectral analysis and chemical methods, the structures of the compounds were identified as makisterone A (I), 2,3-dimethoxy-9,10-dihydroxy-N-methyltetrahydroproto-berberine quaternary salt (II), palmatine (III), beta-amyrin (IV) and docosyl ferulate (V). II is a new quaternary alkaloid named as haitinosporine. I, IV and V were isolated for the first time from the plants of Tinospora genus. PMID:12017002

  4. Chemical constituents from rhizome of Anemone amurensis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chong-Ning; Li, Yan-Jiao; Wang, Jing; Qin, Ru-Lan; Lei, Tian-Li; Lu, Jin-Cai

    2016-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the 70% EtOH extract of the rhizome of Anemone amurensis led to the isolation of two new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1 and 2. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectral analysis, including 1D, 2D NMR data, and HR-ESI-MS. Compounds 1 and 2 were tested for cytotoxicities against two human cancer cell lines (A549 and Hep-G2). Compound 2 showed potent cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 38.53 and 66.17 μM, respectively, while compound 1 with IC50 > 100 μM. PMID:26978669

  5. On the chemical constituents of Dipsacus asper.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Ying-Hong; Liu, Hong-Yue; Yu, Shi-Shan; Fang, Wei-Shuo

    2007-12-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of 95% EtOH extract from the roots of Dipsacus asper lead to the isolation of some phenolic acids (caffeic acid, 2,6-dihydroxycinnamic acid, vanillic acid, 2'-O-caffeoyl-D-glucopyranoside ester, and caffeoylquinic acid) as the major active components, and five new iridoid glucoside dimers (1-5) and one new iridoid glucoside monomer (6), other known iridoid glycosides loganin, cantleyoside, triplostoside A, lisianthioside, 6'-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl sweroside, as well as triterpenoids oleanic acid and akebiasaponin D. The structures of new compounds 1-6 were determined as dipsanosides C (1), D (2), E (3), F (4), G (5), and 3'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl sweroside (6) by spectroscopic, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and chemical methods. PMID:18057739

  6. Research Progress on Chemical Constituents of Lonicerae japonicae flos

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingna; Jiang, Qiu; Hu, Jinghong; Zhang, Yongqing; Li, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Lonicerae japonicae flos is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years with confirmed curative effects. Except for medicine, it is also used in healthy food, cosmetics, and soft beverages for its specific activities. Therefore, the chemical constituents, mainly including organic acids, flavonoids, iridoids, triterpenoids, and volatile oils, have been well studied by many scholars in recent years and a comprehensive and systematic review on chemical constituents of Lonicerae japonicae flos is indispensable. This paper aims at reviewing the chemical components of LJF in recent years through searching for the literatures both at home and abroad. Our results show that 212 components have been isolated from Lonicerae japonicae flos, including 27 flavonoids, 40 organic acids, 83 iridoids, 17 triterpenoids, and 45 other compounds, which could lay a foundation for the further application of Lonicerae japonicae flos. PMID:27403439

  7. [Study on chemical constituents from seed of Oroxylum indicum].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xiang-yu; Xiao, Wei; Yang, Biao; Meng, Zhao-qing; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Kai-jin

    2015-08-01

    Oroxylum indicum was a traditional Chinese medicine. In order to study the chemical constituents from the seed of O. indicum, the chemical constituents of 80% methanol extract of seeds of O. indicum were subjected to chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and preparative HPLC, leading to the isolation of eleven compounds. The structures were identified by various spectroscopic data including ESI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR data as oroxin B (1), chrysin (2), baicalein (3), neglectein (4), quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopy ranoside (5), quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), 2α,3β-dihydroxylluPeol (7), lupeol (8), rengyol (9), β-sitostero (10), and stigmasterol (11). Among them, compound 5 were firstly obtained from O. indicum. PMID:26677703

  8. Diuretic Properties and Chemical Constituent Studies on Stauntonia brachyanthera

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan Li; Wang, Dan Dan; Wang, Zi Hao; Meng, Da Li

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacological evaluation demonstrated that the extracts from the stem of S. brachyanthera could significantly increase the outputs of urine of rats compared to those of furosemide treated group, and the effect could last for a longer period of time. The best effect appeared in the first two hours, which scientifically confirmed the diuretic effect of the plant. The comparative pharmacognosy study showed that the characters of the crude drugs of the stem of S. brachyanthera were similar to those of Akebia caulis. Further systemic work on its chemical constituents by chromatographic methods and NMR elucidations led to the isolation of 10 triterpenoids, 6 flavonoids, 4 lignanoids, and 3 phenylethanoid glycosides, whose structural types were much similar to those of A. quinata. Among them, 7 compounds were firstly reported in the genus of Stauntonia and calceolarioside B was the common characteristic constituent in both plants. From the similar pharmacognosy characters, pharmacological effects, and chemical constituents, it could be concluded that S. brachyanthera have a great possibility to be a succedaneum of Akebia caulis, whose supply is extremely short in recent years. PMID:27057193

  9. [Advances in chemical constituents and bioactivity of Salvia genus].

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-06-01

    The genus Salvia in the family Lamiaceae with nearly 1 000 species, is widespread in temperate and tropical regions around the world. Many species of genus Salvia are important medicinal plants with a long history of which Danshen (the dried roots and rhizomes of S. miltiorrhiza) is one of the most popular herbal traditional medicines in Asian countries. The chemical constituents from Salvia plants mainly contain sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids and polyphenols etc, which exhibit antibacterial, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antiplatelet aggregation activities and so on. In this article, the development of new constituents and their biological activities of Salvia genus in the past five years were reviewed and summarized for its further development and utilization. PMID:26552163

  10. Chemical Constituents of Ligularia wilsoniana Collected in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yasuko; Taniguchi, Mizuho; Nakashima, Katsuyuki; Gong, Xun; Hanai, Ryo; Kuroda, Chiaki; Tori, Motoo

    2016-02-01

    The chemical constituents of Ligularia wilsoniana were studied for the first time, using four samples collected in Chongqing City, China. Two new compounds, 6β-(2',3'-epoxy-2'-methylpropanoyloxy)-β,10β-epoxyfuranoeremophilane and 11αH-6β-(2'-hydroxymethylacryloyloxy)-1β,10β;7β,8β- diepoxyeremophilanolide, as well as eight known compounds, were isolated from one of the samples, while three to four known furanoeremophilanes were isolated from the other three samples. No compound was common to the two classes of the samples, demonstrating the presence of at least two chemotypes of this species. PMID:27032188

  11. Diversity in Chemical Constituents of Ligularia longihastata Collected in China.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yasuko; Taniguchi, Mizuho; Terada, Kaori; Nakashima, Katsuyuki; Gong, Xun; Hanai, Ryo; Tori, Motoo; Kuroda, Chiaki

    2016-02-01

    Root constituents of Ligularia longihastata were examined for the first time. Fourteen eremophilane sesquiterpenes, including two new eremophilanes identified as 3α-isobutyroyloxy-7βH-eremophila-9,11-dien-8-one and 3β-angeloyloxy-1β,10β-epoxyfuranoeremophilan-9-one, and three eudesmanes were isolated. From samples collected in Baiyu County, Sichuan Province, furanoeremophilane derivatives were isolated, while various eremophilan-8-ones were isolated from samples collected in Kangding County, Sichuan. The results suggest chemical diversity in the species. PMID:27032187

  12. Chemical constituents of Solanum coagulans and their antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xu-Jie; Lunga, Paul-Keilah; Zhao, Yun-Li; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed at determining the chemical constituents of Solanum coagulans and their antimicrobial activities. The compounds were isolated by various chromatographic techniques and their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, chemical methods, and comparison with reported spectroscopic data. One new phenolic glycoside, methyl salicylate 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), together with 12 known compounds (2-13), were isolated from the aerial parts of Solanum coagulans. Compound 1 was a new phenolic glycoside, and 2-6 were isolated from Solanum genus for the first time. The antimicrobial activities of the isolated compounds were also evaluated. Compound 7 showed remarkable antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes, M. gypseum and E. floccosum with MIC values being 3.13, 1.56 and 3.13 μg·mL(-1), respectively. PMID:27114320

  13. [Progress in study of chemical constituents and anti-tumor activities of Cnidium monnieri].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ze-wei; Liu, Pei-xun

    2005-09-01

    The main pharmacological constituents of Chinese traditional medicine herb Cnidium monnieri are coumarin compounds and volatile oil. In addition, it contains monoterpene polyols, glucides, as well as recently discovered sesquiterpene components. In recent years, rather active investigations of its anti-tumor were performed at home and abroad. C. monnieri possesses multi-aspect and comprehensive anti-tumor functions, involving directly tumor-inhibitory activity, anti-mutagenicity, reversing multi-drug tolerance of tumor, as well as improving immune functions and so on. In this review, chemical constituents, anti-tumor activities and relevant investigations of Fructus Cnidii were summarized recent decade. PMID:16323535

  14. Crataegus pinnatifida: chemical constituents, pharmacology, and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiaqi; Peng, Wei; Qin, Rongxin; Zhou, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Crataegus pinnatifida (Hawthorn) is widely distributed in China and has a long history of use as a traditional medicine. The fruit of C. pinnatifida has been used for the treatment of cardiodynia, hernia, dyspepsia, postpartum blood stasis, and hemafecia and thus increasing interest in this plant has emerged in recent years. Between 1966 and 2013, numerous articles have been published on the chemical constituents, pharmacology or pharmacologic effects and toxicology of C. pinnatifida. To review the pharmacologic advances and to discuss the potential perspective for future investigation, we have summarized the main literature findings of these publications. So far, over 150 compounds including flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, lignans, hydroxycinnamic acids, organic acids and nitrogen-containing compounds have been isolated and identified from C. pinnatifida. It has been found that these constituents and extracts of C. pinnatifida have broad pharmacological effects with low toxicity on, for example, the cardiovascular, digestive, and endocrine systems, and pathogenic microorganisms, supporting the view that C. pinnatifida has favorable therapeutic effects. Thus, although C. pinnatifida has already been widely used as pharmacological therapy, due to its various active compounds, further research is warranted to develop new drugs. PMID:24487567

  15. Chemical Constituents of the Aerial Parts of Euphorbia nematocypha.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Jia, Hai-Yang; Zuo, Bo; Liao, Zhi-Xin; Ji, Lan-Ju; Sun, Hong-Fa; Wang, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Chemical constituents of the dried aerial parts of Euphorbia nematocypha were investigated. A new oleanane triterpenoid, trans, trans-2',4'- hexadienedioicacid-1'-β-amyrin ester (1), together with, β-amyrin (2), β-amyrin acetate (3), betulinic acid (4), ellagic acid (5), oleanolic acid (6), β-sitosterol (7), kaempferol (8), quercetin (9), lupeol (10) and pseudo-taraxasterol (11) were isolated from the methylene chloride extract. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (1D- & 2D-NMR) and ESI-MS analysis and comparison with data reported in the literature. The new isolated triterpenoid showed moderate cytotoxic activities against HeLa and MCF-7cell lines. PMID:27032194

  16. Chemical constituents from Swietenia macrophylla bark and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Falah, S; Suzuki, T; Katayama, T

    2008-08-15

    Chemical constituents of the bark of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) was investigated not only to develop further bark utilization but also to understand the biochemical function of the bark in the forest environment. A new phenylpropanoid-substituted catechin, namely, swietemacrophyllanin [(2R*,3S*,7"R*)-catechin-8,7"-7,2"-epoxy-(methyl 4",5"-dihydroxyphenylpropanoate)] (1) was isolated from the bark of S. macrophylla together with two known compounds, catechin (2) and epicatechin (3). The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic data and by comparison of the NMR data with those of catiguanins A and B, phenylpropanoid-substituted epicatechins. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of the isolated compounds indicated that all of the three compounds have strong activity compared with trolox as a reference. Swietemacrophyllanin (1) had the strongest activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 56 microg mL(-1). PMID:19266907

  17. [Chemical constituents in higher polar substances from Desmodium caudatum].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Wang, Di; Wang, Guang-Hui; Guo, Zhi-Jian; Zou, Xiu-Hong; Lin, Ting; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2014-08-01

    In this study the chemical constituents of the higher polar sustances from Desmodium caudatum were investigated.The compounds were isolated by using column chromatographies over silicagel, polyamide, ODS, Sephadex LH-20, and preparative HPLC. The structures of these compounds were identified on the basis of NMR and MS spectra. Thirteen compounds were obtained and their structures were identified as vanillin(1), loliolide(2), indole-3-carboxaldehyde(3), salicylic acid(4), swertisin(5), saccharumoside C(6), isosinensin (7), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (8), isovitexin (9), vitexin (10), nothofagin(11), resveratroloside (12), and 2"-α-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-methylvitexin (13). Except for compound 5, the remaining compounds were isolated from D. caudatum for the first time. Compounds 2, 3, 6-8, 11-13 were separated from the genus Desmodium for the first time. PMID:25509297

  18. Chemical constituents of Panax ginseng exposed to. gamma. irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Joongho; Belanger, J.M.R.; Sigouin, M.; Lanthier, J.; Willemot, C.; Pare, J.R.J. )

    1990-03-01

    Chemical constituents were monitored to assess the biochemical and nutritional safety of Panax ginseng powders that were irradiated at doses of 1-10 kGy. Quantitative analysis has shown that the main effective components - saponins - are not altered by {sup 60}Co {gamma} irradiation. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} was not affected by the treatment. Negligible changes were observed in the free carbohydrate contents. Doses of more than 5 kGy caused significant decreases in sulfur-containing amino acids and in tyrosine. At doses of 10 kGy, free amino acids, such as proline and lysine, showed an appreciable increase. The composition in minerals was not altered irrespective of the applied doses.

  19. [Advances on chemical constituents and pharmacological activity of genus Scilla].

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng-Yang; Wang, Yan-Min; Wang, Zhi-Min; Gao, Hui-Min

    2014-01-01

    The genus Scilla consists of 90 species widely distributed in Europe, Asia and Africa, one and its variant of which can be found in China Some species of the genus have been used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases related to inflammation and pain. Phytochemical studies have demonstrated the presence of triterpene and tritepenoid saponins derived from eucosterol, bufadienolides, alkaloids, stilbenoids and lignan in the plants of this genus. Various bioactivities such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumor and glycosidase inhibitory activities, have been reported. In this review, the advance of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of the Scilla species are summarized for further development and utilization of the resource. PMID:24761625

  20. Chemical Constituents and Their Bioactivities of Mushroom Phellinus rhabarbarinus.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tao; Cai, Jin-Long; Li, Xue-Mei; Zhou, Zhong-Yu; Li, Zheng-Hui; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2016-03-01

    Phellinus rhabarbarinus soaked in wine has folk usages by local residents of Ailao mountain of Yunnan province, China, which were to daub the wound to prevent infection and to drink to enhance immunity and treat other diseases such as cough, gastritis, and cancer. Systemic investigation on the chemical constituents of fruiting bodies of P. rhabarbarinus resulted in the isolation of 11 lanostane triterpenoids (1-10) including three new ones, namely, phellibarins A-C (1-3), together with five ergosterols (11-15). This is the first time reporting secondary metabolites of P. rhabarbarinus. Compounds 2, 3, 7, and 8 showed inhibitory activities against nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages, whereas compounds 2-4, 6, 7, and 10 exhibited cytotoxicities against human cancer cell lines. The results of this assessment suggested that the lanostane triterpenoids in fruiting bodies of P. rhabarbarinus played key roles in its folk usages. PMID:26905803

  1. Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

  2. Chemical structures of constituents from the whole plant of Bacopa monniera.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Tomoe; Nakamura, Seikou; Nakashima, Souichi; Oda, Yoshimi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Fukaya, Masashi; Yano, Mamiko; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-07-01

    Two new dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, bacomosaponins A and B, and three new phenylethanoid glycosides, bacomosides A, B1, and B2, were isolated from the whole plant of Bacopa monniera Wettst. The chemical structures of the new constituents were characterized on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. In the present study, bacomosaponins A and B with acyl groups were obtained from the whole plant of B. monniera. This is the first report of acylated dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides isolated from B. monniera. In addition, dammarane-type triterpene saponins significantly inhibited the aggregation of 42-mer amyloid β-protein. PMID:27010932

  3. Chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of Hymenaea courbaril fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, José Cláudio D; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Lavor, Patrícia L; Veras, Helenicy N H; Ferreira, Yana S; Lima, Michele A A; Arriaga, Angela M C; Lemos, Telma L G; Lima, Jefferson Q; de Jesus, Hugo C R; Alves, Péricles B; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2010-12-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils from the peel of ripe and unripe fruits of Hymenaea courbaril L., obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oil from the peel of the ripe fruits were the sesquiterpenes alpha-copaene (11.1%), spathulenol (10.1%) and beta-selinene (8.2%), while germacrene-D (31.9%), beta-caryophyllene (27.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (6.5%) were the major compounds in the oil from unripe fruits. The essential oils were tested against Aedes aegypti larvae and showed LC50 values of 14.8 +/- 0.4 microg/mL and 28.4 +/- 0.3 microg/mL for the ripe and unripe fruit peel oils, respectively. From the peel of the ripe fruits, the diterpenes zanzibaric acid and isoozic acid were isolated, along with the sesquiterpene caryolane-1,9beta-diol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this sesquiterpene in the genus. The structures of all compounds isolated were identified on the basis of their spectral data (IR, MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR) and by comparison with literature spectral data. PMID:21299135

  4. [Chemical constituents from endophyte Chaetomium globosum in Imperata cylindrical].

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Zhu, Li; Wei, Zhong-qi; Li, Xiao-wen; Li, Ming; Song, Yong-chun

    2015-12-01

    Isolation and purification of chemical constituents from solid culture of endophyte Chaetomium globosum in Imperata cylindrical was performed through silica gel column chromatography, gel filtration over Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Nine compounds were obtained and their structures were determined as chaetoglobosin F(1), chaetoglobosin Fex(2), chaetoglobosin E(3) cytoglobosin A(4), penochalasin C(S), isochaetoglobosin D (6), N-benzoylphenylalaninyl-N-benzoyphenylalaninate(7), uracil(8) and 5-methyluracil(9), respectively, based on HR-MS and NMR data and comparison with literatures. Compound 7 was isolated from Chaeeomium sp. for the first time. In vitro cytotoxicity of compounds was evaluated using MTT mothed and 1,3,4 and 5 showed inhibition activity to the human cervical carcinoma cell HeLa with IC50 values of 99.43, 23.77, 97.92, 86.25 micromol x L(-1), while positive cotolocisnin Ad apno1ch alse IC50 24.33 micromol x L(-1). PMID:27141677

  5. [Advances in studies on chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Qian-Jun; Kang, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Long; Zhou, Qing-Di

    2013-12-01

    The chemical constituents isolated from Desmodium species (Leguminosae) included terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids compounds. Modem pharmacological studies have showed that the Desmodium species have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, antipyretic, analgesic and choleretic activity. This article mainly has reviewed the research advances of chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species since 2003. PMID:24791478

  6. Chemical constituents of the genus Polygonatum and their role in medicinal treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xueying; Li, Ji

    2015-04-01

    Polygonatum is a famous traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used in China, Korea and Japan. In the last decade, constituents of the genus have been reported including steroidal saponins, flavones, alkaloids, lignins, amino acids and carbohydrates, some of which show biological properties such as antiviral and antitumor activity, variable effects on the immune system and anticoagulant activity. In addition, some findings provide novel evidence that Polygonatum species may contain potential anti-tumor and anti-viral proteins for possible medical application and large-scale pharmaceutical production. In this review, we focus on the updated research of the chemical constituents of Polygonatum including polysaccharides, steroidal saponins, flavonoids and lectins, and their potential therapeutic roles. PMID:25973509

  7. Chemical constituents of the Vietnamese liverwort Porella densifolia.

    PubMed

    Quang, Dang Ngoc; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2010-09-01

    From the ether extract of Porella densifolia, the first liverwort collected and chemically investigated in Vietnam, a kaurane diterpenoid, ent-kauren-15-one (1) and two sesquiterpene norpinguisone (2) and norpinguisone methyl ester (3) have been purified. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. In addition, an X-ray crystal structure of norpinguisone was obtained, allowing to determine its stereochemistry. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of compounds 1-3 was examined with their IC(50) values of 69.4, 45.5 and 1.68 microM, respectively. PMID:20302921

  8. Provenance of Corexit-related chemical constituents found in nearshore and inland Gulf Coast waters.

    PubMed

    Hayworth, Joel S; Clement, T Prabakhar

    2012-10-01

    The dispersants Corexit 9527 and Corexit 9500 were extensively used during the response to the Deepwater Horizon accident in 2010. In addition to the monitoring programs established by federal and state governments, local communities also conducted studies to determine if chemical constituents from these dispersants impacted nearshore and inland waters. One community (the City of Orange Beach, Alabama) collected water samples between September, 2010 and January, 2011, and found the dispersant-related chemicals propylene glycol, 2-butoxyethanol, and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate at nearshore and inland water sampling sites. In this paper, we examine their dataset in an attempt to discern the origin of these chemicals. Our assessment indicates that these compounds are unlikely to be present as a result of the use of Corexit dispersants; rather, they are likely related to point and non-point source stormwater discharge. PMID:22959174

  9. Chemical-Help Application for Classification and Identification of Stormwater Constituents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.; Driskell, Timothy R.; Nunes, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    A computer application called Chemical Help was developed to facilitate review of reports for the National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis (NDAMS). The application provides a tool to quickly find a proper classification for any constituent in the NDAMS review sheets. Chemical Help contents include the name of each water-quality property, constituent, or parameter, the section number within the NDAMS review sheet, the organizational levels within a classification hierarchy, the database number, and where appropriate, the chemical formula, the Chemical Abstract Service number, and a list of synonyms (for the organic chemicals). Therefore, Chemical Help provides information necessary to research available reference data for the water-quality properties and constituents of potential interest in stormwater studies. Chemical Help is implemented in the Microsoft help-system interface. (Computer files for the use and documentation of Chemical Help are included on an accompanying diskette.)

  10. Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant

    PubMed Central

    Monção, Nayana Bruna Nery; Costa, Luciana Muratori; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Araújo, Bruno Quirino; Lustosa, Maria do Carmo Gomes; Rodrigues, Klinger Antônio da França; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim; Costa, Amilton Paulo Raposo; Lopes Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae) is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation), as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia was submitted to derivatization by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identification of chemical constituents. In vitro toxicological evaluation was performed by MTT assay in murine macrophages and by Artemia salina lethality assay, and the in vivo acute oral toxicity and androgenic evaluation in rats. Results: Totally, 32 components were detected: Phytol-TMS (11.66%), lactic acid-2TMS (9.16%), α-tocopherol-TMS (7.34%) and β-sitosterol-TMS (6.80%) were the major constituents. At the concentrations analyzed, the ethanol extract showed low cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and murine macrophages. In addition, the extract did not exhibit any toxicological effect or androgenic activity in rats. Conclusions: The derivatization by silylation allowed a rapid identification of chemical compounds from the M. caesalpiniifolia leaves extract. Besides, this species presents a good safety profile as observed in toxicological studies, and possess a great potential in the production of herbal medicines or as for food consumption. PMID:25298660

  11. [Chemical constituents from the bark of Hibiscus syriacus L].

    PubMed

    Zhang, E J; Kang, Q S; Zhang, Z

    1993-01-01

    Seven constituents (I-VII) were isolated from the bark of Hibiscus syriacus and identified as nonanedioic acid (I), suberic acid (II), 1-octarcosanol (III), beta-sitosterol (IV), 1,22-docosanediol (V), betulin (VI) and erythrotriol (VII). VII was obtained from the plant for the first time, I, II, III and VI were isolated from Malvaceae plants for the first time. PMID:8323683

  12. [Chemical constituents from Callicarpa nudiflora and their cytotoxic activities].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan-Chun; Zhang, Min; Xu, Wen-Tong; Feng, Shi-Xiu; Lei, Ming; Yi, Bo

    2014-08-01

    The chemical consitituents from cytotoxic fraction of the Callicarpa nudiflora extract were isolated and purified by a combination of HP-20 macroporous resin, silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. The structures were elucidated on the basis of the spectroscopic data and comparison of their spectroscopic data with reported data. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTT assay. The 50% and 70% EtOH elutions of EtOH-extract showed significant cytotoxic activities, leading to the isolation of twelve compounds, which were identified as luteoloside(1), lutedin-4'-O-β-D-glucoside(2), 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-β-glucoside(3), lutedin-7-O-neohesperidoside(4), rhoifolin (5), luteolin-7, 4'-di-O-glucoside (6), forsythoside B (7), acteoside (8), alyssonoside (9), catalpol(10), nudifloside(11), and leonuride(12). Compounds 3-6, 10 and 12 were isolated from this genus for the first time, and compound 9 was isolated from this plant for the first time. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that flavonoids 1-6, in various concentrations, showed monolithic proliferation inhibitory activities against Hela, A549 and MCF-7 cell lines. Compounds 3, 5 and iridoid glycoside 11 possessed higher cytotoxicacivities. In short, flavonoids are the main components of cytotoxic extract from C. nudiflora, while phenylethanoid glycosides are the predominant ingredient but inactive to cancer cell lines. In addition, the minor iridoid glycoside expressed weak cytotoxic activity. PMID:25509294

  13. [Advance in research on chemical constituents from Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix].

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-ping; Sha, Long; Zhao, Yi-wu; Xu, Zhi-liang; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This paper summarized the recent 30 years research progress of the chemical constituents from Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix. The chemical constituents from Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix mainly consist of coumarins, polyene-polyacetylenes, sesquiterpenes, phenolic acids, while steroids and flavonoids were less reported. All constituents were confirmed and corrected through SciFinder. We also checked the Chinese name and English name and listed the CAS number of each compound. It can provide some guidelines for the research, development and utilization of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix in the future. Whether there is columbianin in the Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix need to be further researched. PMID:26677692

  14. Angiostatic effects of Brazilian green propolis and its chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Chikaraishi, Yuichi; Izuta, Hiroshi; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Mishima, Satoshi; Hara, Hideaki

    2010-04-01

    Propolis, a resinous substance collected by honeybees from various plant sources, has several pharmacological actions, such as anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-angiogenic effects of a water extract of Brazilian green propolis (WEP) and its constituents, caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, against angiogenic processes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. We also examined the anti-angiogenic effects of WEP against retinal neovascularization in a murine oxygen-induced retinopathy model in vivo. WEP and its constituents significantly suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced HUVEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro. WEP and its caffeoylquinic acid derivatives suppressed VEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in HUVECs (versus VEGF alone). Moreover, WEP (300 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously for 5 days) significantly suppressed retinal neovascularization in the murine oxygen-induced retinopathy model. These data indicate that (i) WEP has angiostatic effects against angiogenic processes in vitro and in an in vivo model of murine oxygen-induced retinopathy and (ii) the inhibitory effects of WEP against in vitro angiogenesis are chiefly derived from its caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. Judging from these findings, WEP and its caffeoylquinic acid derivatives may represent candidates for preventive or therapeutic agents against diseases caused by angiogenesis. PMID:19960454

  15. Chemical constituents and antibacterial activity of Melastoma malabathricum L.

    PubMed

    Wong, Keng-Chong; Hag Ali, Dafaalla Mohamed; Boey, Peng-Lim

    2012-01-01

    The aqueous methanolic extracts of Melastoma malabathricum L. exhibited antibacterial activity when assayed against seven microorganisms by the agar diffusion method. Solvent fractionation afforded active chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions from the leaves and the flowers, respectively. A phytochemical study resulted in the identification of ursolic acid (1), 2α-hydroxyursolic acid (2), asiatic acid (3), β-sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) and the glycolipid glycerol 1,2-dilinolenyl-3-O-β-D-galactopyanoside (5) from the chloroform fraction. Kaempferol (6), kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (7), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (9), kaempferol 3-O-(2″,6″-di-O-E-p-coumaryl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (10), quercetin (11) and ellagic acid (12) were found in the ethyl acetate fraction. The structures of these compounds were determined by chemical and spectral analyses. Compounds 1-4, the flavonols (6 and 11) and ellagic acid (12) were found to be active against some of the tested microorganisms, while the kaempferol 3-O-glycosides (7-9) did not show any activity, indicating the role of the free 3-OH for antibacterial activity. Addition of p-coumaryl groups results in mild activity for 10 against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Compounds 2-5, 7 and 9-12 are reported for the first time from M. malabathricum. Compound 10 is rare, being reported only once before from a plant, without assignment of the double bond geometry in the p-coumaryl moiety. PMID:21834640

  16. An Alternative Treatment of Trace Chemical Constituents in Calculated Chemical Source Terms for Hanford Tank Farms Safety Analsyes

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, James L.

    2006-09-26

    Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tank accident analyses require chemical waste toxicity source terms to assess potential accident consequences. Recent reviews of the current methodology used to generate source terms and the need to periodically update the sources terms has brought scrutiny to the manner in which trace waste constituents are included in the source terms. This report examines the importance of trace constituents to the chemical waste source terms, which are calculated as sums of fractions (SOFs), and recommends three changes to the manner in which trace constituents are included in the calculation SOFs.

  17. Pharmacological and Chemical Effects of Cigarette Additives

    PubMed Central

    Rabinoff, Michael; Caskey, Nicholas; Rissling, Anthony; Park, Candice

    2007-01-01

    We investigated tobacco industry documents and other sources for evidence of possible pharmacological and chemical effects of tobacco additives. Our findings indicated that more than 100 of 599 documented cigarette additives have pharmacological actions that camouflage the odor of environmental tobacco smoke emitted from cigarettes, enhance or maintain nicotine delivery, could increase the addictiveness of cigarettes, and mask symptoms and illnesses associated with smoking behaviors. Whether such uses were specifically intended for these agents is unknown. Our results provide a clear rationale for regulatory control of tobacco additives. PMID:17666709

  18. Chemical constituents from the whole plant of Gaultheria itoana Hayata.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yi; Lin, Rong-Jyh; Huang, Jin-Cherng; Wu, Yi-Hung; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Hung, His-Chou; Lo, Wen-Li

    2009-10-01

    Two new diterpenoids, 14,18-dihydroxyabieta-8,11,13-trien-7-one (1) and 13-acetyl-14,18-dihydroxy-podocarpa-8,11,13-triene (2), together with eight known compounds, i.e., gaultheric acid (3), vanillic acid (4), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (5), cinnamic acid (6), stearic acid (7), palmitic acid (8), beta-sitosterol (9), and stigmasterol (10), were isolated from the MeOH extract of the whole plant of Gaultheria itoana Hayata (Ericaceae). The structures of the new constituents were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, and 1D- and 2D-NMR) and by mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS). Among them, 1 and 2 were demonstrated to exhibit significant cytotoxic activity against the LNCaP cell line. PMID:19842133

  19. Chemical Constituents of Plants from the Genus Psychotria.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Hongmei; Yang, Caiqiong; Chen, Yegao

    2016-07-01

    Psychotria is a genus of ca. 1500 species in the family Rubiaceae. Up to now, 41 species of the Psychotria genus have been chemically investigated, and 159 compounds, including alkaloids of indole, quinoline and benzoquinolizidine type, terpenoids, steroids, phenolics and aliphatic compounds have been isolated. These compounds show potent bioactivities, such as antimicrobial, antiviral, and antiparasitic activities. PMID:27206020

  20. Chemical structures and hepatoprotective effects of constituents from the leaves of Salacia chinensis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Seikou; Zhang, Yi; Matsuda, Hisashi; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Muraoka, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    The methanolic extract from the leaves of Salacia chinensis collected in Thailand was found to show a protective effect on D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. From the methanolic extract, eight new glycosides, named foliachinenosides E, F, G, H, and I, and foliasalaciosides J, K and L, were isolated together with 26 known constituents. The structures of new glycosides were determined on the basis of physicochemical and chemical evidence. In addition, the hepatoprotective effects of the isolated compounds on D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity were examined. Among them, lignans, eleutheroside E₂ and 7R,8S-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, were found to show the protective effects [inhibition (%) 41.4 ± 3.6 (p < 0.01), 45.5 ± 2.7 (p < 0.01) at 100 µM, respectively]. PMID:21804248

  1. Chemical Constituents and LC-profile of Fresh Formosan Lonicera japonica Flower Buds.

    PubMed

    Lo, I-Wen; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsieh, Yi-Jin; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Shieh, Deng-En; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-01-01

    One new secoiridoid glucoside, ethylsecologanin dimethyl acetal (1), along with 15 known compounds, comprising six iridoid glucosides (2-7), six flavonoids (8-13), two sterol glucosides (14 and 15), and chlorogenic acid (16) were isolated from the flower buds of Formosan Lonicera japonica. The structures of these isolates were determined on the basis of mass and spectroscopic analyzes. In addition, the chemical profiles of fresh Formosan honeysuckle buds and the dried Chinese one were compared by HPLC with a PDA detector. The calibration curve of the active component, chlorogenic acid, was also provided. As a result of the constituent similarity, Formosan L.japonica can be an alternative to the Chinese honeysuckles. PMID:26996003

  2. [Advances in studies on chemical constituents and bioactivities of plants from flacourtiaceae].

    PubMed

    Chai, Xing-Yun; Lu, Ya-Nan; Ren, Hong-Yan; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2006-02-01

    In this article, the research of chemical constituents and bioactivities in recent ten years has been reviewed of plants from the 12 genera in Flacourtiaceae related to the medicinal resources in China. The research in China about the plants from Flacourtiaceae was done very little, but many literatures have been reported abroad. The plants from Flacourtiaceae mostly contain the constituents such as aromatic glucosides, lignanoid glucosides, diterpenoids and cyclopentenoid cyanohydrin glucosides et al. These compounds or plant extracts mainly show antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic activities. The research of plants from Carrierea, Itoa and Bennettiodendron of Flacourtiaceae in China is still blank. The systemic research about chemical constituents and bioactivities of plants from these genera will play important roles in the discovery of novel natural products and active constituents, and provide valuable reference for the classifying of plants from these genera. PMID:16706012

  3. Distribution and Transport of Chemical Constituents in the Clyde Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, F. L. L.; Tranter, M.; Balls, P. W.

    1994-08-01

    Five transects of the Clyde Estuary were carried out between August 1989 and March 1991, always during the last 2 h of the flood tide. The following water-column properties were examined: dissolved, leachable particulate and detrital particulate trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni), pH, alkalinity, salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, dissolved and particulate organic carbon, suspended particulate matter and dissolved nutrients (PO 4, NH 3 + NH 4, NO 3, NO 2, Si). The distribution patterns for both dissolved metals and nutrients reflected their quasi-conservative behaviour in the lower estuary, but were more difficult to interpret in the upper estuary due to the multiplicity of inputs. The suspended particulate material (SPM) collected in the lower estuary at 3 m was depleted in leachable Fe, Zn, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, and enriched in leachable Mn and Pb relative to the upper estuary. For Mn, the degree of enrichment increased towards the mouth of the estuary, and also with decreasing 'effective freshwater input', indicating that the oxidation of Mn(II) proceeds outside the estuary (Firth of Clyde) and to an extent dependent on the residence time of water in that coastal sea area. The quasi-conservative behaviour of most dissolved and particulate constituents within the estuary results from a combination of short residence time (3-7 days) and low SPM (2-10 mg l -1). This behaviour makes it possible to estimate their net seaward fluxes before these become modified by the processes of coagulation (Fe), sorption (Zn, Pb, Co) and oxidative precipitation (Mn) operating in the Firth of Clyde. The seaward fluxes of NH 4 + NH 3, NO 2, PO 4, dissolved Mn, particulate Fe, Zn and Cu are approximately constant throughout the year. Other dissolved and particulate metal fluxes are best represented by an increasing function of freshwater discharge, although the large residual variability attests to the greater complexity of input functions for trace metals.

  4. [Analysis of constituents of ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives].

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Masuda, Aino; Sugimoto, Naoki; Yamagata, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2007-12-01

    The differences in the constituents of ten ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives in Japan (urushi wax, carnauba wax, candelilla wax, rice bran wax, shellac wax, jojoba wax, bees wax, Japan wax, montan wax, and lanolin) were investigated. Several kinds of gum bases showed characteristic TLC patterns of lipids. In addition, compositions of fatty acid and alcohol moieties of esters in the gum bases were analyzed by GC/MS after methanolysis and hydrolysis, respectively. The results indicated that the varieties of fatty acids and alcohols and their compositions were characteristic for each gum base. These results will be useful for identification and discrimination of the ester-type gum bases. PMID:18203503

  5. [Study on chemical constituents of Drosera peltata var. multisepala].

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Huang, Jin; Xu, Xianghua; Zhang, Yao; Cheng, Kejun; Yu, Peizhong

    2012-01-01

    Chemical investigatation of Drosera peltata var. multisepala led to the isolation of eleven compounds using various chromatographic techniques. The structures of these compounds were elucidated as isoshinanolone-4-O-beta-D-glucoside (1), isoshinanolone (2), epi-isoshinanolone (3), plumbagin (4), droserone (5), droserone-5-O-glucoside (6), quercetin (7), kaempferol (8) , gossypetin-8-O-glucoside (9), 3,3'-dimethoxy ellagic acid (10), and ellagic acid (11) by their physicochemical properties and spectral data analysis. Compound 1 was a new compound. Compounds 3, 8, 10, and 11 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:22737855

  6. [Chemical constituents from whole plants of Valeriana hardwickii].

    PubMed

    Chai, Shi-wei; Zhai, Yong-song; Wang, Man-yuan

    2015-10-01

    Chemical investigation of the whole plants of Valeriana hardwickii has led to the isolation of 11 flavones and 2 monoterpe- noids by using various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20, preparative TLC, and preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic data analysis as syzalterin (1), 6-methylapigenin (2), 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (3), genkwanin (4), acacetin (5), apigenin (6), quercetin (7), tricin (8), (-)-farrerol (9), sosakuranetin (10), 5,3',4'-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (11), (-)-bornyl ferulate ( 12) , and (-)-bornyl caffeate ( 13). All compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time, while compounds 1, 9-13 were obtained from this genus for the first time. PMID:27062818

  7. Anti-arthritic active fraction of Capparis spinosa L. fruits and its chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaolu; Lu, Jincai; Xin, Hailiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuliang; Tang, Kexuan

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the anti-arthritic active fraction of Capparis spinosa L. (Capparidaceae) fruits and its chemical constituents. The adjuvant arthritic rat model was developed to evaluate the anti-arthritic effects of different fractions of ethanol extraction from C. spinosa L. The fraction eluted by ethanol-water (50:50, v/v) had the most significant anti-arthritic activity. The chemical constituents of this fraction were therefore studied; seven known compounds were isolated and identified as: P-hydroxy benzoic acid; 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural; bis(5-formylfurfuryl) ether; daucosterol; α-D-fructofuranosides methyl; uracil; and stachydrine. PMID:21372539

  8. Chemical constituents from the roots of Xanthium sibiricum.

    PubMed

    Kan, Suqin; Chen, Guangying; Han, Changri; Chen, Zhong; Song, Xinming; Ren, Ming; Jiang, Hong

    2011-08-01

    Xanthium sibiricum patrin ex Widder (Compositae) is an annual herb which grows all around China. Chemical investigations of its roots resulted in the identification of 15 compounds: stigmast-4-en-6β-ol-3-one (1), β-sitostenone (2), β-sitosterol (3), nonadecanoic acid (4), 5α,8α-epidioxy-22E-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (5), scopoletin (6), Jatrocin B (7), (±)syringaresinol (8), 9,9'-O-di-(E)-feruloyl-(-)-secoisolariciresinol (9), cleomiscosin A (10), cleomiscosin C (11), N-trans-feruloyl tyramine (12), daucosterol (13), 5-methyluracil (14) and uracil (15). Structures were elucidated by spectroscopic (NMR and MS) methods and confirmed by comparing with reference samples and literature data. Compounds 1-2, 4-12, 14, and 15 were isolated from this genus for the first time, while this is the first report of coumarinolignoids in the Compositae family, and coumarinoligoids could be considered as valuable chemotaxonomic markers for the plant. PMID:21854171

  9. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr].

    PubMed

    Yang, J S; Su, Y L; Wang, Y L

    1993-01-01

    A new alkaloid, named desmodimine, C12H15NO4, gum, and a new natural product, named desmodilactone, C8H13NO3, mp 84-85 degrees C have been isolated from the aerial parts of Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr. belonging Leguminosae. On the basis of spectral analysis their structures were deduced as formula I and II. In addition, lupenone (III), lupeol (IV), tritriacontane (V), stearic acid (VI), eicosanoic acid eicosyl ester (VIII) and beta-sitosterol (VII) were isolated for the first time from this plant. PMID:8368079

  10. VARIATION IN SURFACE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF COTTON FIBER AS A FUNCTION OF MATURITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MODERN COTTON YARN PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY HAS MADE IT IMPERATIVE THAT NEW PREDICTORS OF YARN SPINNING EFFICIENCY BE DETERMINED. SURFACE FRICTIONAL FORCES PLAY A LARGE ROLE IN SPINNING EFFICIENCY, YET LITTLE IS KNOWN ABOUT THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS COMPRISING THE COTTON FIBER SURFACE OR THEIR RESPEC...

  11. Effects of growth altitude on chemical constituents and delayed luminescence properties in medicinal rhubarb.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengmeng; Li, Li; Wang, Mei; van Wijk, Eduard; He, Min; van Wijk, Roeland; Koval, Slavik; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan; Wei, Shengli

    2016-09-01

    To improve the quality control of herbal drugs, there has been a major shift from evaluating individual chemicals to evaluating multiple-constituent chemicals, given the multi-pharmacology nature of herbal drugs. Therefore, rapid, systematic assays are needed in order to assess the quality of medicinal herbs using a comprehensive, integrated approach. Light-induced delayed luminescence (DL) is used to measure decaying long-term ultra-weak photon emissions following excitation with light. DL is considered to be a sensitive indicator for characterizing the properties of biological systems and herbal medicines with various therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of using DL as a novel quality-assessment tool using rhubarb material as a model system, and to establish the correlation between DL parameters and the chemical constituents of rhubarb. Raw roots and rhizomes were collected from rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.) at various elevations in western China. HPLC analysis was used to identify fourteen bioactive constituents. Five DL parameters were calculated from the DL decay curves of the rhubarb samples. Statistical tools, including principal component analysis, were used to classify the rhubarb samples using data obtained using two different assays. Finally, Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to quantify the correlation between the bioactive compounds and corresponding DL parameters. We found that both the chemical analysis and DL measurements reflect variations in the quality of rhubarb due to environment factor. The DL parameters were correlated significantly with the bioactive chemical constituents. Our results indicate that DL is a promising tool for evaluating multiple constituents and for assessing the therapeutic properties of herbal medicines. Thus, DL may be used as part of a comprehensive system for assessing the quality and/or therapeutic properties of herbal medicines. PMID:27327125

  12. Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents inhibit in vitro growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Alday-Provencio, Samuel; Diaz, Gabriela; Rascon, Lucila; Quintero, Jael; Alday, Efrain; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Astiazaran, Humberto; Hernandez, Javier; Velazquez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Propolis is a cereus resin with a complex chemical composition that possesses a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-Giardia lamblia activity of Sonoran propolis collected from three different areas of Sonoran Desert in northwestern Mexico (Caborca, Pueblo de Alamos, and Ures) and some of its chemical constituents. Additionally, we also analyzed the seasonal effect on the anti-G. lamblia activity of propolis. G. lamblia trophozoite cultures were treated with different concentrations of Sonoran propolis or chemical compounds during 48 h cell proliferation and cell viability were determined. Ures propolis showed the highest inhibitory activity against G. lamblia (IC50 63.8 ± 7.1 µg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner (Ures > Pueblo de Alamos > Caborca). Season had a significant effect on the in vitro anti-G. lamblia activity of Ures propolis. Summer propolis showed the highest inhibitory effect on the G. lamblia trophozoite growth (IC50 23.8 ± 2.3 µg/mL), followed by propolis collected during winter (IC50 59.2 ± 34.7 µg/mL), spring (IC50 102.5 ± 15.3 µg/mL), and autumn (IC50 125.0 ± 3.1 µg/mL). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an Ures propolis exclusive constituent, had the highest growth-inhibitory activity towards G. lamblia [IC50 63.1 ± 0.9 µg/mL (222.1 ± 3.2 µM)]. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that caffeic acid phenethyl ester possesses antiparasitic activity against G. lamblia. Naringenin [IC50 125.7 ± 20.7 µg/mL (461.8 ± 76.3 µM)], hesperetin [IC50 149.6 ± 24.8 µg/mL (494.9 ± 82.2 µM)], and pinocembrin [IC50 174.4 ± 26.0 µg/mL (680.6 ± 101.7 µM)] showed weak anti-G. lamblia activity. On the other hand, chrysin and rutin did not show significant antiparasitic activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents had inhibitory effects on the

  13. Variation in surface chemical constituents of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber as a function of maturity.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Gary R

    2003-12-31

    Modern cotton yarn production technology has made it imperative that new predictors of yarn spinning efficiency be determined. Surface frictional forces play a large role in spinning efficiency, yet little is known about the chemical constituents comprising the cotton fiber surface or their respective roles in inter-fiber frictional behavior. Major cotton fiber surface chemical components including pectin, wax, soluble salts, and sugars were quantified, and their respective relationships to cotton fiber maturity, as measured by micronaire, determined for 87 cotton samples exhibiting large variations in age, micronaire, genetics, and growing region. In the case of pectin and wax, inverse relationships with micronaire were found, whereas salts and sugars exhibit linear relationships with micronaire. Using these mathematical relationships, it will be possible to develop predictive models of whether spinning performance of different cottons is affected by deviations of the chemical constituents from the determined relationships. PMID:14690385

  14. Antidiabetic activity and chemical constituents of the aerial parts of Heracleum dissectum Ledeb.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hailong; Su, Yaping; Wang, Xinrui; Mi, Jie; Huo, Yayu; Wang, Zhigang; Liu, Ying; Gao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Heracleum dissectum Ledeb. has long been used as a wild edible vegetable by local people in China. The purpose of this study is to investigate the antidiabetic potential of aerial part of H. dissectum methanol extract (HdME) and the chemical constituents. Ten compounds including eight coumarins were isolated and four of them were found from H. dissectum for the first time. HdME potently inhibited the elevation of plasma glucose after its oral administration to glucose-loaded mice, and its petroleum ether (PE) fraction exerted the greatest inhibitory activities. Meanwhile, HdME (125 and 250mg/kg) also significantly decreased the blood glucose level in STZ-induced diabetic mice, but had no effect in normoglycemic mice. Additionally, HdME showed weak inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase activity and DPPH free radicals scavenging. In conclusion, HdME has antidiabetic action and PE fraction is the active part where coumarins possibly play an important role in antidiabetic activity. PMID:27507512

  15. Antidiabetic activity of the chemical constituents of Combretum dolichopetalum root in mice

    PubMed Central

    Uzor, Philip F.; Osadebe, Patience O.

    2016-01-01

    The root of Combretum dolichopetalum (Combreatacea) is used in ethnomedicine for the management of diabetes mellitus. Though some compounds have been isolated from it, the antidiabetic principles have not been identified. The present study was designed to evaluate the chemical constituents from the root of C. dolichopetalum with a view to identifying the antidiabetic principles. The constituents include the alkaloids, echinulin (1) and arestrictin B (2), the terpenoids, arjunolic acid (3) and 4'-dihydrophaseic acid (4) as well as the phenolic acids, ellagic acid (5) and 3, 4, 3'-tri-O-methylellagic acid (6). Twenty eight mice (in seven groups, n = 4) were made diabetic using alloxan monohydrate (i.p., 120 mg/kg) and treated orally with either the vehicle (control group), any of the constituents or glibenclamide (standard drug). The fasting blood glucose of the diabetic animals was monitored for nine hours. Results showed that all the chemical constituents (1-6) exhibited significant (p < 0.05) antidiabetic activity comparable to glibenclamide. The alkaloids exhibited the most profound antidiabetic activity. The present study has thus identified the antidiabetic principles of C. dolichopetalum root as echinulin, arestrictin B, arjunolic acid, 4'-dihydrophaseic acid, ellagic acid and 3, 4, 3'-tri-O-methylellagic acid. The study has further validated the ethnomedicinal use of the root of C. dolichopetalum in diabetes. PMID:27298614

  16. Antidiabetic activity of the chemical constituents of Combretum dolichopetalum root in mice.

    PubMed

    Uzor, Philip F; Osadebe, Patience O

    2016-01-01

    The root of Combretum dolichopetalum (Combreatacea) is used in ethnomedicine for the management of diabetes mellitus. Though some compounds have been isolated from it, the antidiabetic principles have not been identified. The present study was designed to evaluate the chemical constituents from the root of C. dolichopetalum with a view to identifying the antidiabetic principles. The constituents include the alkaloids, echinulin (1) and arestrictin B (2), the terpenoids, arjunolic acid (3) and 4'-dihydrophaseic acid (4) as well as the phenolic acids, ellagic acid (5) and 3, 4, 3'-tri-O-methylellagic acid (6). Twenty eight mice (in seven groups, n = 4) were made diabetic using alloxan monohydrate (i.p., 120 mg/kg) and treated orally with either the vehicle (control group), any of the constituents or glibenclamide (standard drug). The fasting blood glucose of the diabetic animals was monitored for nine hours. Results showed that all the chemical constituents (1-6) exhibited significant (p < 0.05) antidiabetic activity comparable to glibenclamide. The alkaloids exhibited the most profound antidiabetic activity. The present study has thus identified the antidiabetic principles of C. dolichopetalum root as echinulin, arestrictin B, arjunolic acid, 4'-dihydrophaseic acid, ellagic acid and 3, 4, 3'-tri-O-methylellagic acid. The study has further validated the ethnomedicinal use of the root of C. dolichopetalum in diabetes. PMID:27298614

  17. Chemical Constituents from the Fruiting Bodies of Hexagonia apiaria and Their Anti-inflammatory Activity.

    PubMed

    Thang, Tran Dinh; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Bich; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Yang, Mei-Lin; Ta, Shih-Huang; Lee, E-Jian; Kuo, Dai-Huang; Hung, Nguyen Huy; Tuan, Nguyen Ngoc; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2015-11-25

    A chemical investigation of the fruiting bodies of Hexagonia apiaria resulted in the identification of nine compounds including five new triterpenoids, hexagonins A-E (1-5), along with four known compounds. The purified constituents were examined for their anti-inflammatory activity. Among the tested compounds, hexatenuin A displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release. These triterpenoids may have potentials as anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:26575215

  18. [Advances in novel carrier systems of chemical constituents from spice volatile oils].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-jia; Zhu, Yuan; Yu, Jiang-nan; Xu, Xi-ming

    2015-10-01

    Recent years, chemical constituents from spice volatile oils have gained worldwide concern owing to its multiple pharmacological effects and safety for using as the natural antibacterial agents. However, their poor dissolution, strong volatility, serious irritation, weak stability, easy oxidation and low bioavailability characteristics are the major obstacle in the preparation of effective oral formulation and practical application. Therefore, there is an urgent need to select a novel carrier system that can delivery the chemical constituents from spice volatile oils more efficiently with improving their stability as well as alleviating the irritation, and develop the functional food, health products and even medicine for exerting their pharmacological effects, which also is the focus and nodus of the research on their application. This review presents recent systematic studies on their novel carrier systems, including cyclodextrin inclusion complex, liposomes, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, solid dispersion and so on, and summarizes the characteristics, application range and problems of each novel carrier systems, in order to provide some beneficial thoughts in further developing new products of chemical constituents from spice volatile oils. PMID:27062804

  19. Chemical constituents and anticancer effects of the essential oil from leaves of Xylopia laevigata.

    PubMed

    Quintans, Jullyana de S S; Soares, Bruno M; Ferraz, Rosana P C; Oliveira, Allan C A; da Silva, Thanany B; Menezes, Leociley R A; Sampaio, Marília F C; Prata, Ana Paula do N; Moraes, Manoel O; Pessoa, Claudia; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Xylopia laevigata, popularly known as "meiú" and "pindaíba", is a medicinal plant used in the folk medicine of the Brazilian Northeast for several purposes. The chemical constituents of the essential oil from leaves of X. laevigata, collected from wild plants growing at three different sites of the remaining Atlantic forest in Sergipe State (Brazilian Northeast), were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS. The effect of the essential oil samples was assessed on tumor cells in culture, as well on tumor growth in vivo. All samples of the essential oil were dominated by sesquiterpene constituents. A total of 44 compounds were identified and quantified. Although some small differences were observed in the chemical composition, the presence of γ-muurolene (0.60-17.99%), δ-cadinene (1.15-13.45%), germacrene B (3.22-7.31%), α-copaene (3.33-5.98%), germacrene D (9.09-60.44%), bicyclogermacrene (7.00-14.63%), and (E)-caryophyllene (5.43-7.98%) were verified as major constituents in all samples of the essential oil. In the in vitro cytotoxic study, the essential oil displayed cytotoxicity to all tumor cell lines tested, with the different samples displaying a similar profile; however, they were not hemolytic or genotoxic. In the in vivo antitumor study, tumor growth inhibition rates were 37.3-42.5%. The treatment with the essential oil did not significantly affect body weight, macroscopy of the organs, or blood leukocyte counts. In conclusion, the essential oil from the leaves of X. laevigata is chemically characterized by the presence of γ-muurolene, δ-cadinene, germacrene B, α-copaene, germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, and (E)-caryophyllene as major constituents and possesses significant in vitro and in vivo anticancer potential. PMID:23307235

  20. Analysis of Chemical Constituents in Wuzi-Yanzong-Wan by UPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS.

    PubMed

    Zou, Dixin; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Bo; Xie, Suhua; Wang, Qing; Xu, Kexin; Lin, Ruichao

    2015-01-01

    Wuzi-Yanzong-Wan (WZYZW), a classical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription containing Fructus Lych, Semen Cuscutae (fried), Fructus Rubi, Fructus Schisandrae chinensis (steamed) and Semen Plantaginis (fried with salt), is widely used to treat impotence, sterility, spermatorrhea, premature ejaculation, lumbago and post-micturation dribble. However, the chemical profile of WZYZW has not been established yet. In this work, a rapid and sensitive method for systematically screening and identifying the chemical constituents of WZYZW in both positive and negative ion modes using Ultra-Performance LC coupled with ESI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) has been developed. Based on the chromatographic and spectrometric data, and referring to the literature, we could tentatively identify 106 compounds, including organic acids, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, alkaloids and terpenoids. Fourteen ingredients from Fructus Lych were identified, while 10 ingredients were from Semen Cuscutae (fried), 33 ingredients were from Fructus Rubi, 37 ingredients were from Fructus Schisandrae chinensis (steamed), and 20 ingredients were from Semen Plantaginis (fried with salt). The results may provide essential data for further quality control, pharmacological research and clinical evaluation of WZYZW. Furthermore, this study indicates the developed approach based on UPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS is suitable for characterizing the chemical profiles of TCM prescriptions. This is the first report to provide a comprehensive analysis of the chemical constituents of WZYZW. PMID:26633334

  1. Particle size and chemical constituents of ambient particulate pollution associated with cardiovascular mortality in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hualiang; Tao, Jun; Du, Yaodong; Liu, Tao; Qian, Zhengmin; Tian, Linwei; Di, Qian; Rutherford, Shannon; Guo, Lingchuan; Zeng, Weilin; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; He, Zhihui; Xu, Yanjun; Ma, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Though significant associations between particulate matter (PM) air pollution and cardiovascular diseases have been widely reported, it remains unclear what characteristics, such as particle size and chemical constituents, may be responsible for the effects. A time-series model was applied to examine the cardiovascular effects of particle size (for the period of 2009-2011) and chemical constituents (2007-2010) in Guangzhou, we controlled for potential confounders in the model, such as time trends, day of the week, public holidays, meteorological factors and influenza epidemic. We found significant associations of cardiovascular mortality with PM10, PM2.5 and PM1; the excess risk (ER) was 6.10% (95% CI: 1.76%, 10.64%), 6.11% (95% CI: 1.76%, 10.64%) and 6.48% (95% CI: 2.10%, 11.06%) for per IQR increase in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at moving averages for the current day and the previous 3 days (lag03), respectively. We did not find significant effects of PM2.5-10 and PM1-2.5. For PM2.5 constituents, we found that organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium were significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality, the corresponding ER for an IQR concentration increase at lag03 was 1.13% (95% CI: 0.10%, 2.17%), 2.77% (95% CI: 0.72%, 4.86%), 2.21% (95% CI: 1.05%, 3.38%), 1.98% (95% CI: 0.54%, 3.44%), and 3.38% (95% CI: 1.56%, 5.23%), respectively. These results were robust to adjustment of other air pollutants and they remained consistent in various sensitivity analyses by changing model parameters. Our study suggests that PM1 and constituents from combustion and secondary aerosols might be important characteristics of PM pollution associated with cardiovascular mortality in Guangzhou. PMID:26561449

  2. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associations between Particulate Chemical Constituents and Mortality in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jung, Kweon

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have linked fine particles [≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] and health. Most studies focused on the total mass of the particles, although the chemical composition of the particles varies substantially. Which chemical components of fine particles that are the most harmful is not well understood, and research on the chemical composition of PM2.5 and the components that are the most harmful is particularly limited in Asia. Objectives: We characterized PM2.5 chemical composition and estimated the effects of cause-specific mortality of PM2.5 mass and constituents in Seoul, Korea. We compared the chemical composition of particles to those of the eastern and western United States. Methods: We examined temporal variability of PM2.5 mass and its composition using hourly data. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model, adjusting for time, day of week, temperature, and relative humidity to investigate the association between risk of mortality and PM2.5 mass and its constituents in Seoul, Korea, for August 2008 through October 2009. Results: PM2.5 and chemical components exhibited temporal patterns by time of day and season. The chemical characteristics of Seoul’s PM2.5 were more similar to PM2.5 found in the western United States than in the eastern United States. Seoul’s PM2.5 had lower sulfate (SO4) contributions and higher nitrate (NO3) contributions than that of the eastern United States, although overall PM2.5 levels in Seoul were higher than in the United States. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in magnesium (Mg) (0.05 μg/m3) was associated with a 1.4% increase (95% confidence interval: 0.2%, 2.6%) in total mortality on the following day. Several components that were among the largest contributors to PM2.5 total mass—NO3, SO4, and ammonium (NH4)—were moderately associated with same-day cardiovascular mortality at the p < 0.10 level. Other components with smaller mass contributions [Mg and

  3. Chemical Constituents from Daphne giraldii Nitsche and Their Contents Simultaneous Determination by HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Huyiligeqi; Dong, Xiaoxv; Yang, Chunjing; Xu, Guanling; Cao, Sali; Fu, Jing; Lin, Longfei; Ni, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Daphne giraldii Nitsche (Thymelaeaceae) is widely distributed in the Chinese provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai, which has been used in Chinese folk medicine to treat ache and rheumatism. Pharmacologic tests have revealed that the plant has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anticancer activities. However, there is still not enough systemic investigation on the chemical constituents and the method for the contents simultaneous determination in D. giraldii. Therefore, the isolation and characterization of the compounds from the stem barks of this plant were reported. Moreover, a facile, accurate, and reliable method has been developed and validated for their simultaneous determination using HPLC-DAD. PMID:27190543

  4. Qualitative analysis of the chemical constituents in Hedyotis diffusa by HPLC-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Cheng, Weiming; Yao, Xinning; Guo, Xingjie

    2012-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS) method was developed for analysing the chemical constituents in Hedyotis diffusa, which is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the field of cancer treatment. The compounds were identified either by comparing the retention time and mass spectrometry data with those of reference compounds or by analysing mass spectrometry data and retrieving reference literature. Among the detected chromatographic peaks, nine components were unambiguously identified, most of which were iridoids. This study is expected to provide an effective and reliable pattern for comprehensive and systematic characterisation of the complex TCM systems. PMID:21838590

  5. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from leaves of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Camila de Souza; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Lima, Rafaely Nascimento; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Diniz, Tâmara Coimbra; da Silva Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Background: Annona vepretorum (AV) is a native tree from Caatinga biome (semiarid region of Brazil) popularly known as “araticum” and “pinha da Caatinga.” Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity (AA) of the essential oil from the leaves from AV (EO-Av) collected in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Fresh leaves of AV were cut into pieces, and subjected to distillation for 2 h in a clevenger-type apparatus. Gas chromatograph (GC) analyses were performed using a mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector. The identification of the constituents was assigned on the basis of comparison of their relative retention indices. The antioxidant ability of the EO was investigated through two in vitro models such as radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and β-carotene-linoleate-model system. The positive controls (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene) were those using the standard solutions. Assays were carried out in triplicate. Results: The oil showed a total of 21 components, and 17 were identified, representing 93.9% of the crude EO. Spathulenol (43.7%), limonene (20.5%), caryophyllene oxide (8.1%) and α-pinene (5.5%) were found to be the major individual constituents. Spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide could be considered chemotaxonomic markers of these genera. The EO demonstrated weak AA. PMID:26246740

  6. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of Ajania fruticulosa Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun-Yu; Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan; Zhang, Ji

    2016-08-01

    The insecticidal activity and chemical constituents of the essential oil from Ajania fruticulosa were investigated. Twelve constituents representing 91.0% of the essential oil were identified, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (41.40%), (+)-camphor (32.10%), and myrtenol (8.15%). The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults with LD50 values of 105.67 μg/adult and 89.85 μg/cm(2) , respectively. The essential oil also showed fumigant toxicity against two species of insect with LC50 values of 11.52 and 0.65 mg/l, respectively. 1,8-Cineole exhibited excellent fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 5.47 mg/l) against T. castaneum. (+)-Camphor showed obvious fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.43 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. Myrtenol showed contact toxicity (LD50  = 29.40 μg/cm(2) ) and fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.50 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. 1,8-Cineole and (+)-camphor showed strong insecticidal activity to some important insects, and they are main constituents of A. fruticulosa essential oil. The two compounds may be related to insecticidal activity of A. fruticulosa essential oil against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila. PMID:27482698

  7. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    than NMC) and the DDB is useful for lithium ion cells with LFP cathodes (potential that is lower than NMC). A 4.5 V class redox shuttle provided by Argonne National Laboratory was evaluated which provides a few cycles of overcharge protection for lithium ion cells containing NMC cathodes but it is not stable enough for consideration. Thus, a redox shuttle with an appropriate redox potential and sufficient chemical and electrochemical stability for commercial use in larger format lithium ion cells with NMC cathodes was not found. Molecular imprinting of the redox shuttle molecule during solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formation likely contributes to the successful reduction of oxidized redox shuttle species at carbon anodes. This helps to understand how a carbon anode covered with an SEI layer, that is supposed to be electrically insulating, can reduce the oxidized form of a redox shuttle.

  8. Phytomedical investigation of Najas minor All. in the view of the chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Topuzovic, Marina D; Radojevic, Ivana D; Dekic, Milan S; Radulovic, Niko S; Vasic, Sava M; Comic, Ljiljana R; Licina, Braho Z

    2015-01-01

    Plants are an abundant natural source of effective antibiotic compounds. Phytomedical investigations of certain plants haven't still been conducted. One of them is Najas minor (N. minor), an aquatic plant with confirmed allelopathy. Research conducted in this study showed the influence of water and ethyl acetate extracts of N. minor on microorganisms, in the view of chemical profiling of volatile constituents and the concentrations of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins. Antimicrobial activity was defined by determining minimum inhibitory and minimum microbicidal concentrations using microdilution method. Influence on bacterial biofilm formation was performed by tissue culture plate method. The total phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannins were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminum chloride and butanol-HCl colorimetric methods. Chemical profiling of volatile constituents was investigated by GC and GC-MS. Water extract didn't have antimicrobial activity below 5000 µg/mL. Ethyl acetate extract has shown strong antimicrobial activity on G+ bacteria - Staphylococcus aureus PMFKGB12 and Bacillus subtilis (MIC < 78.13 µg/mL). The best antibiofilm activity was obtained on Escherichia coli ATCC25922 (BIC50 at 719 µg/mL). Water extract had higher yield. Ethyl acetate extract had a significantly greater amount of total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins. As major constituent hexahydrofarnesyl acetone was identified. The ethyl acetate extract effected only G+ bacteria, but the biofilm formation of G-bacteria was suppressed. There was a connection between those in vivo and in vitro effects against pathogenic bacterial biofilm formation. All of this points to a so far unexplored potential of N. minor. PMID:26535038

  9. Pachira glabra Pasq. essential oil: chemical constituents, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities.

    PubMed

    Lawal, Oladipupo A; Ogunwande, Isiaka A; Salvador, Atinuke F; Sanni, Adetayo A; Opoku, Andy R

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves of Pachira glabra Pasq., (PgEO) has been studied by Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty three constituents representing 98.4% of total contents were identified from the essential oil. The major constituents of oil were limonene (23.2%), β-caryophyllene (14.5%), phtyol (8.5%) and β-bisabolene (6.3%). The antimicrobial activity of the PgEO was evaluated against a panel of ten bacteria and three fungal strain using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Results have shown that the PgEO exhibited moderate to strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms except Citrobacter youagae, Micrococcus spp. and Proteus spp. The activity zones of inhibition (ZI) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged between 13.7 mm-24.0 mm and 0.3 mg/mL-2.5 mg/mL, respectively. The insecticidal activity of PgEO was assayed against the adult Sitophilus zeamais. The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) of the PgEO showed it to be toxic against adult S. zeamais at 32.2 and 53.7 mg/mL, respectively. This is the first report on the chemical composition and in vitro biological activities of essential oil of P. glabra growing in Nigeria. PMID:24881772

  10. 33 CFR 157.31 - Discharges: Chemical additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discharges: Chemical additives. 157.31 Section 157.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.31 Discharges: Chemical additives. No person may use a...

  11. 33 CFR 157.31 - Discharges: Chemical additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharges: Chemical additives. 157.31 Section 157.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.31 Discharges: Chemical additives. No person may use a...

  12. 33 CFR 157.31 - Discharges: Chemical additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharges: Chemical additives. 157.31 Section 157.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.31 Discharges: Chemical additives. No person may use a...

  13. 33 CFR 157.31 - Discharges: Chemical additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharges: Chemical additives. 157.31 Section 157.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.31 Discharges: Chemical additives. No person may use a...

  14. 33 CFR 157.31 - Discharges: Chemical additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discharges: Chemical additives. 157.31 Section 157.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.31 Discharges: Chemical additives. No person may use a...

  15. Mobilization of major and trace constituents of highway runoff in groundwater potentially caused by deicing chemical migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.; Church, Peter E.; Stone, Victoria J.

    1995-01-01

    The quality of water in unsaturated zones and groundwater is affected by the major ions in deicing chemicals applied to roads and highways. The assessment of the environmental effects of highway runoff requires investigations to determine whether other major and trace constituents are mobilized during deicing chemical migration through the unsaturated zone and groundwater. In this regard, groundwater samples were analyzed in February and August 1991, and March, August, and November 1993 at a test site along Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts. Analyses indicated that concentrations of major and trace chemical constituents of highway runoff in groundwater are substantially higher downgradient than upgradient from the highway.

  16. Chemical constituents of fine particulate air pollution and pulmonary function in healthy adults: the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Hao, Yu; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Huang, Jing; Qin, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao

    2013-09-15

    The study examined the associations of 32 chemical constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM₂.₅) with pulmonary function in a panel of 21 college students. Study subjects relocated from a suburban area to an urban area with changing ambient air pollution levels and contents in Beijing, China, and provided daily morning/evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV₂₁) measurements over 6 months in three study periods. There were significant reductions in evening PEF and morning/evening FEV₂₁ associated with various air pollutants and PM₂.₅ constituents. Four PM₂.₅ constituents (copper, cadmium, arsenic and stannum) were found to be most consistently associated with the reductions in these pulmonary function measures. These findings provide clues for the respiratory effects of specific particulate chemical constituents in the context of urban air pollution. PMID:23747477

  17. Chemical Source Inversion using Assimilated Constituent Observations in an Idealized Two-dimensional System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tangborn, Andrew; Cooper, Robert; Pawson, Steven; Sun, Zhibin

    2009-01-01

    We present a source inversion technique for chemical constituents that uses assimilated constituent observations rather than directly using the observations. The method is tested with a simple model problem, which is a two-dimensional Fourier-Galerkin transport model combined with a Kalman filter for data assimilation. Inversion is carried out using a Green's function method and observations are simulated from a true state with added Gaussian noise. The forecast state uses the same spectral spectral model, but differs by an unbiased Gaussian model error, and emissions models with constant errors. The numerical experiments employ both simulated in situ and satellite observation networks. Source inversion was carried out by either direct use of synthetically generated observations with added noise, or by first assimilating the observations and using the analyses to extract observations. We have conducted 20 identical twin experiments for each set of source and observation configurations, and find that in the limiting cases of a very few localized observations, or an extremely large observation network there is little advantage to carrying out assimilation first. However, in intermediate observation densities, there decreases in source inversion error standard deviation using the Kalman filter algorithm followed by Green's function inversion by 50% to 95%.

  18. Chemical constituents of Phragmanthera austroarabica A. G. Mill and J. A. Nyberg with potent antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Jihan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phragmanthera austroarabica A.G. Mill. and J. A. Nyberg is a semi parasitic plant belonging to family Loranthaceae. It was collected from Saudi Arabia. It is widely used in folk medicine among the kingdom in treatment of various diseases including diabetes mellitus. Objective: The total alcoholic extract of P. austroarabica collected from Saudi Arabia was investigated for the chemical structure and prominent biological activity of the main constituents. Materials and Methods: Isolation of the active constituents was performed using different chromatographic techniques including column chromatography packed with silica or sephadex and preparative thin layer chromatography. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on different spectroscopic data as mass spectrum, one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear single quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation). Results: Phytochemical investigation of the plant resulted in isolation of 12 compounds. The isolated compounds were identified as chrysophanic acid, emodin, chrysophanic acid-8-O-glucoside, emodin-8-O-glucoside, pectolinarigenin, quercetin, dillenetin-3-O-glucoside, catechin, catechin-4’-O-gallate, methyl gallate, lupeol and ursolic acid. All the isolated phenolic compounds revealed significant free radical scavenging activities when tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl reagent. Conclusion: The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds can justify the use of P. austroarabica in traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes and verify its possible application as an antihyperglycemic drug. PMID:26692747

  19. Chemical Constituents and Pharmacology of the Aristolochia (馬兜鈴 mădōu ling) species

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ping-Chung; Li, Yue-Chiun; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2012-01-01

    Aristolochia (馬兜鈴 mădōu ling) is an important genus widely cultivated and had long been known for their extensive use in traditional Chinese medicine. The genus has attracted so much great interest because of their numerous biological activity reports and unique constituents, aristolochic acids (AAs). In 2004, we reviewed the metabolites of Aristolochia species which have appeared in the literature, concerning the isolation, structural elucidation, biological activity and literature references. In addition, the nephrotoxicity of aristolochic acids, biosynthetic studies, ecological adaptation, and chemotaxonomy researches were also covered in the past review. In the present manuscript, we wish to review the various physiologically active compounds of different classes reported from Aristolochia species in the period between 2004 and 2011. In regard to the chemical and biological aspects of the constituents from the Aristolochia genus, this review would address the continuous development in the phytochemistry and the therapeutic application of the Aristolochia species. Moreover, the recent nephrotoxicity studies related to aristolochic acids would be covered in this review and the structure-toxicity relationship would be discussed. PMID:24716140

  20. Chemical Constituents of the Culture Broth of Phellinus linteus and Their Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myeong-Seok; Hwang, Byung Soon; Lee, In-Kyoung; Seo, Geon-Sik

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal fungus Phellinus linteus, in the family Hymenochaetaceae, has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. In this study, the chemical constituents of the culture broth of P. linteus were investigated. P. linteus was cultured in potato dextrose broth medium, and the culture broth was extracted with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate-soluble portion was concentrated and subjected to ODS column chromatography, followed by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Six compounds (1~6) were purified by preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Spectroscopic methods identified their structures as caffeic acid (1), inotilone (2), 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one (3), phellilane H (4), (2E,4E)-(+)-4'-hydroxy-γ-ionylideneacetic acid (5), and (2E,4E)-γ-ionylideneacetic acid (6). Compounds 1, 2, and 3 exhibited potent dose-dependent antioxidant activity. PMID:25892914

  1. Distribution of selected chemical constituents in water from the Floridan aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corral, M.A., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Generalized maps showing variations in concentration of chlorides, sulfates, hardness, and dissolved solids in the Floridan aquifer have been prepared as part of a cooperative program with the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report covers 10 counties and parts of 6 others comprising the District. Data used to develop the report were retrieved from the water-quality files of the U.S. Geological Survey. Considerable vertical and areal variation of chemical constituents was found in ground water of the Floridan aquifer. In general, ground water becomes more mineralized with increasing depth and with increasing distance from recharge areas due to solution of minerals from the aquifer. Ground water was also more mineralized with proximity to the coast, due to saltwater intrusion. (USGS)

  2. The Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities of Psoralea corylifolia Linn.: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuenong; Zhao, Wenwen; Wang, Ying; Lu, Jinjian; Chen, Xiuping

    2016-01-01

    Psoralea corylifolia Linn. (P. corylifolia) is an important medicinal plant with thousands of years of clinical application. It has been widely used in many traditional Chinese medicine formulas for the treatment of various diseases such as leucoderma and other skin diseases, cardiovascular diseases, nephritis, osteoporosis, and cancer. Phytochemical studies indicated that coumarins, flavonoids, and meroterpenes are the main components of P. corylifolia, and most of these components are present in the seeds or fruits. The extracts and active components of P. corylifolia demonstrated multiple biological activities, including estrogenic, antitumor, anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, osteoblastic, and hepatoprotective activities. This paper systematically summarized literatures on the chemical constituents and biological activities of P. corylifolia, which provided useful information for the further research and development toward this potent medicinal plant. PMID:26916913

  3. Biological activities of crude extracts and chemical constituents of Bael, Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.

    PubMed

    Maity, Pallab; Hansda, Dhananjay; Bandyopadhyay, Uday; Mishra, Dipak Kumar

    2009-11-01

    Bael (Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.) is an important medicinal plant of India. Leaves, fruits, stem and roots of A. marmelos have been used in ethno medicine to exploit its' medicinal properties including astringent, antidiarrheal antidysenteric, demulcent, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. Compounds purified from bael have been proven to be biologically active against several major diseases including cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Preclinical studies indicate the therapeutic potential of crude extracts of A. marmelos in the treatment of many microbial diseases, diabetes and gastric ulcer. This review covers the biological activities of some isolated chemical constituents of A. marmelos and preclinical studies on some crude extracts and pure compounds to explore novel bioactive compounds for therapeutic application. PMID:20099458

  4. Chemical Constituents from the Fruits of Forsythia suspensa and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo-Feng; Yang, Mei-Lin; Lin, Ya-Hua; Peng, Chi-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Lignans and phenylethanoid glycosides purified from Forsythia suspensa were reported to display various bioactivities in the previous literature, including the antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the chemical constituents of the methanol extracts of fruits of F. suspensa. The methanol extracts of fruits of F. suspensa were fractionated and further purified with the assistance of column chromatography to afford totally thirty-four compounds. Among these isolates, 3β-acetoxy-20α-hydroxyursan-28-oic acid (1) was reported from the natural sources for the first time. Some of the purified principles were subjected to the antimicrobial activity examinations against Escherichia coli to explore new natural lead compounds. PMID:24745011

  5. Major Chemical Constituents of Bamboo Shoots (Phyllostachys pubescens): Qualitative and Quantitative Research.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia; Ding, Zhao-Qing; Gao, Quan; Xun, Hang; Tang, Feng; Xia, Er-Dong

    2016-03-30

    Bamboo shoots are a delicacy in Asia. Two novel compounds, adenine-(1'R,2'R,3'R)-cyclic butanetetraol carbonate (16) and (-)-(7R,8S)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol 9-O-β-d-[6-O-4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoyl])-glucopyranoside (20), together with 12 known nucleosides (1-12), 3 amino acids (13-15), β-carboline (17), and 2 megastigmane glycosides (18, 19) were isolated from bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys pubescens). Their structures and absolute configurations were rigorously determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and the composition of carbohydrates in bamboo shoots was qualitatively detected and quantitatively analyzed with ion chromatography. A simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate HPLC-UV analysis was built for routine edible quality control of bamboo shoots, and 12 major components of bamboo shoots were quantitatively analyzed. The major chemical constituents of bamboo shoots were determined to be carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleotides. These findings are correctives to the usual view of bamboo shoots chemical composition, and the previous research reports about the chemical composition of bamboo shoots may have taken the aromatic amino acids and nucleotides for flavonoids and phenolic acids. PMID:26551795

  6. EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY, SOIL TYPE, AND LITHIUM ADDITION ON SPINACH AND MUSTARD GREENS LEAF CONSTITUENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted near Weslaco, Texas (Lat. 26o 8' N, Long. 97o 57' W) between 14 Dec. 2005 and 17 Feb 2006 to evaluate the effect of soil type, light environment, and lithium addition on the leaf nutrients of spinach and mustard greens. Cultivars Samish (Spinacia oleracea) and...

  7. Analysis of the constituents in jojoba wax used as a food additive by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Jin, Zhe-Long; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2005-10-01

    Jojoba wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive in Japan, and is obtained from jojoba oil with a characteristically high melting point. Although the constituents of jojoba oil have been reported, the quality of jojoba wax used as a food additive has not yet been clarified. In order to evaluate its quality as a food additive and to obtain basic information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in jojoba wax. LC/MS analysis of the jojoba wax showed six peaks with [M+H]+ ions in the range from m/z 533.6 to 673.7 at intervals of m/z 28. After isolation of the components of the four main peaks by preparative LC/MS, the fatty acid and long chain alcohol moieties of the wax esters were analyzed by methanolysis and hydrolysis, followed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main constituents in jojoba wax were various kinds of wax esters, namely eicosenyl octadecenoate (C20:1-C18:1) (1), eicosenyl eicosenoate (C20:1-C20:1) (II), docosenyl eicosenoate (C22:1-C20:1) (III), eicosenyl docosenoate (C20:1-C22:1) (IV) and tetracosenyl eiosenoate (C24:1-C20:1) (V). To confirm and quantify the wax esters in jojoba wax directly, LC/MS/MS analysis was performed. The product ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the wax esters were observed, and by using the product ions derived from the protonated molecular ions of wax esters the fatty acid moieties were identified by MRM analysis. The concentrations of the wax esters I, II and III, in jojoba wax were 5.5, 21.4 and 37.8%, respectively. In summary, we clarified the main constituents of jojoba wax and quantified the molecular species of the wax esters without hydrolysis by monitoring their product ions, using a LC/MS/MS system. PMID:16305174

  8. Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Additivity-Based Approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Powerpoint presentation includes additivity-based chemical mixture risk assessment methods. Basic concepts, theory and example calculations are included. Several slides discuss the use of "common adverse outcomes" in analyzing phthalate mixtures.

  9. Chemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of Indian Green Leafy Vegetable Cardiospermum halicacabum.

    PubMed

    Jeyadevi, R; Sivasudha, T; Ilavarasi, A; Thajuddin, N

    2013-06-01

    The present study was carried out to analyze chemical constituents and antibacterial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum (ECH). The FT-IR spectrum confirmed the presence of alcohols, phenols, alkanes, alkynes, aliphatic ester and flavonoids in ECH. The GC-MS analysis revealed that ECH contained about twenty four compounds. The major chemical compounds identified were cyclohexane-1, 4, 5-triol-3-one-1-carboxylic acid, benzene acetic acid, caryophyllene, phytol and neophytadiene. The ECH was screened for its antibacterial activity against different bacterial strains and anti fungal activity against Candida albicans by agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. ECH exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity. All the tested bacterial strains showed MIC values ranging from 80 to 125 μg of extract/ml and C. albicans showed 190 μg of extract/ml as a MIC. The maximum activity ECH was observed against human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus followed by Escherichia coli and the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. ECH exhibited moderate activity against some of the tested multidrug resistant strains. PMID:24426110

  10. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to sue chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. (VC)

  11. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  12. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1988-11-14

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies including temperature programmed desorption, infrared study of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  13. A review of selected chemical additives in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S

    2014-01-01

    The addition of chemical additives to consumer cosmetic products is a common practice to increase cosmetic effectiveness, maintain cosmetic efficacy, and produce a longer-lasting, more viable product. Recently, manufacturers have come under attack for the addition of chemicals including dioxane, formaldehyde, lead/lead acetate, parabens, and phthalate, as these additives may prove harmful to consumer health. Although reports show that these products may indeed adversely affect human health, these studies are conducted using levels of the aforementioned chemicals at much higher levels of exposure than those found in cosmetic products. When cosmeceuticals are used as per manufacturer's instructions, it is estimated that the levels of harmful additives found in these products are considerably lower than reported toxic concentrations. PMID:25052592

  14. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.; Balakos, M.W.

    1991-09-20

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additives on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. 27 refs. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from the bacterium Bacillus sp. and their nematicidal activities.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Liming; Jin, Hui; Lu, Dengxue; Yang, Xiaoyan; Pan, Le; Cui, Haiyan; He, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Hongdeng; Qin, Bo

    2015-10-01

    A strain SMrs28 was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a toxic plant Stellera chamaejasme and identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of morphological and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The crude extract of SMrs28 fermentation broth showed strong nematocidal activities in preliminary test. To define the active nematocidal metabolites of SMrs28, a novel compound (1), 4-oxabicyclo[3.2.2]nona-1(7), 5,8-triene, along with five known compounds (2-6), were isolated from the strain by various column chromatographic techniques and characterized on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Results of the in vitro nematicidal tests showed that the metabolites presented different levels of activity at certain exposure conditions. Compounds (1-3) displayed LC50 values of 904.12, 451.26, 232.98 µg/ml and 1594.0, 366.62, 206.38 µg/ml against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Ditylenchus destructor at 72 h, respectively. This is the first report of the nematicidal activity of the compounds as constituents of Bacillus sp.. Our findings help to find potential chemical structures to develop nematicides from microbial source for the management of nematode-infected plant diseases. PMID:26058971

  16. [Isolation of chemical constituents from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. with recycling preparative high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Li, Guozhu; Meng, Qingyan; Luo, Bi; Ge, Zhenghong; Liu, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    The combination of alternate recycling and direct recycling preparative liquid chromatography method was developed for the isolation of chemical constituents from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. The crude extract was obtained from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. by solvent extraction, column chromatography and reversed-phase (RP) flash chromatography. All the separations were performed with methanol and water as mobile phases and the developed recycling preparative method was used with twin RP columns switched by a two-position ten-way valve for the separation. The mobile phase was recycled in close loop with a two-position six-way valve. The fraction I and fraction II from reversed-phase flash chromatography were selected for the demonstration of separation power of the proposed protocol, and five compounds were obtained from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. The isolated five compounds were identified as pinocembrin-7-O-rutinoside, pinocembrin-7-O-rutinoside, acacetin-7-O-rutinoside, picein and protocatechuic acid with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The experimental results showed that the developed preparation method exhibited higher separation efficiency with less mobile phase used than the reported methods, and could be expected as an effective method for the separation of complex natural products, especially the compounds with similar structures. PMID:25958674

  17. [Chemical constituents of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx and their anti-complementary activity].

    PubMed

    Yao, Shi; Xu, Nai-Yu; Chu, Chun-Jun; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2013-01-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx and their anti-complementary activity on the basis of preliminary studies. Target isolation guided by anti-complementary activity test, compounds in the chloroform and n-butanol fractions were isolated and purified by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and preparative HPLC. The structures were identified by various spectroscopic data including ESI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR data. The compounds were evaluated for anti-complementary activity in vitro. Eleven compounds were isolated from the chloroform and n-butanol soluble fractions and identified as stigmasterol (1), stigmas-9 (11) -en-3-ol (2), glaucocalyxin D (3), kamebakaurin (4), maslinic acid (5), corosolic acid (6), minheryins I (7), diosmetin (8), caffeic acid ethylene ester (9), caffeic acid (10) and vitexin (11). Isoquercetrin, rutin, quercetin, 3-methylquercetin, luteolin, 7-methylluteolin, and apigenin which were isolated from the preliminary studies together with compounds 9 and 10 showed inhibition of the complement system by the classical pathway. Compounds 2, 4, 6-9 and 11 were obtained from this plant for the first time. Caffeic acid (10) showed the strongest activity in vitro with a CH50 value of 0.041 g x L(-1). PMID:23672041

  18. [Chemical constituents from stems of Hedyotis hedyotidea and their immunosuppressive activity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-tian; Gao, Sha-sha; Hou, Jun-jie; Zhou, Yong-qin; Zhou, Jie-wen; Wang, Xiao-gang; Qin, Nan; Chen, Jia-chun; Duan, Hong-quan; Fang, Jin-bo

    2015-06-01

    Hedyotis hedyotidea has been traditionally used for the treatment of arthritis, cold, cough, gastro-enteritis, headstroke, etc. But few studies have screened the active compounds from extracts of H. hedyotidea. In this study, the structure of the chemical constituents from stems of H. hedyotidea were determined and the immunosuppressive activity of the compounds was evaluated. The compounds were separated and purified with silica gel, gel column chromatographies and preparative HPLC, and their structures were identified by spectral methods such as MS and NMR. Eleven compounds were obtained and identified as(6S,9S) -vomifoliol (1), betulonic acid (2), betulinic acid (3), betulin(4), 3-epi-betulinic acid (5), ursolic acid (6), β-sitosterol (7), stigmast-4-en-3-one (8), 7β-hydroxysitosterol (9), (3β,7β) -7-methoxystigmast-5-en-3-ol (10) and morindacin (11). This is the first report of compounds 1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11 from H. hedyotidea. Compounds 1, 2 and 8-11 were firstly isolated from the genus Hedyotis, and compounds 9 and 10 were isolated from the family Rubiaceae for the first time. The immunosuppressive activity of these compounds was tested using the lymphocyte transsormationtest. Compounds 4, 6 and 9 showed significant immunosuppressive activity. PMID:26591525

  19. Expression of Terpenoid Biosynthetic Genes and Accumulation of Chemical Constituents in Valeriana fauriei.

    PubMed

    Park, Yun Ji; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Lim, Soon Sung; Kim, Yeon Bok; Lee, Sang Won; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-01

    Valeriana fauriei (V. fauriei), which emits a characteristic and unpleasant odor, is important in traditional medicine. In this study, the expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes was investigated in different organs that were also screened for volatile compounds including valerenic acid and its derivatives. Specific expression patterns from different parts of V. fauriei were observed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The highest transcript levels of biosynthetic genes involved in mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) production were found in the stem. Although the amounts of volatile compounds were varied by organ, most of the volatile terpenoids were accumulated in the root. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis identified 128 volatile compounds, which represented 65.33% to 95.66% of total volatiles. Certain compounds were only found in specific organs. For example, isovalerenic acid and valerenic acid and its derivatives were restricted to the root. Organs with high transcript levels did not necessarily have high levels of the corresponding chemical constituents. According to these results, we hypothesize that translocation may occur between different organs in V. fauriei. PMID:27240331

  20. Transformation of chemical constituents of lychee wine by simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dai; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2016-04-01

    This work examined for the first time the impact of malolactic fermentation (MLF) on the chemical constituents of lychee wine. Oenococcus oeni Viniflora Oenos (MLF inducer) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae MERIT.ferm were co-inoculated into lychee juice to induce simultaneous alcoholic fermentation (AF) and MLF. MLF did not affect sugar utilisation and ethanol production statistically (8.54% v/v for MLF and 9.27% v/v for AF). However, MLF resulted in dramatic degradation of malic and citric acids with concomitant increases of lactic acid, ethyl lactate and pH. The final concentrations of acetic and succinic acids between AF and MLF wines had no significant difference. The MLF wine contained significantly higher amounts of amino acids than the AF wine. More importantly, MLF significantly elevated the levels of potent aroma-active compounds including isoamyl acetate, linalool, geraniol and cis-rose oxide (to levels above or near respective detection thresholds), suggesting that MLF is an effective way of retaining the original lychee flavour. PMID:26593581

  1. Toxicity of Alangium salvifolium Wang chemical constituents against the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura Fab.

    PubMed

    Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Revathi, Kannan; Chandrasekaran, Rajamanickam; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Edwin, Edward Sam; Pradeepa, Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Widespread use of synthetic pesticides has resulted in the development of insecticide-resistant populations of pests and harmful effects on human health and the environment. There is a need to identify alternative pest management strategies to reduce our reliance on conventional chemical pesticides. In recent years the use of botanical pesticides for protecting crops from insect pests has assumed greater importance. Methanol extract of Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wang has potential insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura Fab. The active fractions were identified through chromatographic techniques as F-IV (Rf value=0.45) and F-VI (Rf value=0.63) and were subjected to GC-MS (GCMATE II). Fifty, 100 and 200ppm of active fractions were applied to fourth instar larvae and the mortality increased with higher concentrations. Relative consumption rate, relative growth rate, efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food values all decreased in treated larvae, but approximate digestibility rate increased after treatment. The hydrolytic enzymes, such as acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase were inhibited in treated larvae compared with controls. The histopathology study revealed that the epithelial columnar cells were enlarged, completely atrophied; intercellular spaces were swollen, and also noted a cytoplasmic ooze of cell material that mixed with food column. The present study clearly showed the active fractions from A. salvifolium as potential botanicals to control the larvae of S. litura. This is the first report for nutritional indices, enzymatic activities and histological effects of A. salvifolium chemical constituents against S. litura. Thus probably, this will be used as an alternative for synthetic pesticides against the polyphagous pest like S. litura. PMID:26778440

  2. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of additives on the ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow them to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. 49 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Identification of the chemical constituents in aqueous extract of Zhi-Qiao and evaluation of its antidepressant effect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhou, Chao; Jia, Hongmei; Ma, Zhuo; Zou, Zhongmei

    2015-01-01

    The immature fruit of Citrus aurantium L. (Zhi-Qiao, ZQ) has been used as a traditional medicine in China. Our previous study has shown that ZQ decoction may contribute to the antidepressant-like action of Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San. However, there are no reports on the chemical constituents of ZQ aqueous extract or its anti-depression effects. Firstly, this research reported the on-line identification of the chemical constituents in the aqueous extract of ZQ by coupling ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). A total of 31 chemical constituents were identified in ZQ aqueous extract, including one tannic acid, five flavones, 13 flavanones, one limonoid, three coumarins, three cyclic peptides, and five polymethoxylated flavonoids. The antidepressant effect of ZQ aqueous extract was evaluated in vivo and the results indicated that the mice immobility time during the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test were significantly reduced with ZQ treatment. MTT assays showed both ZQ aqueous extract and its major constituents (naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, and nobiletin) had neuroprotective effect on corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. The in vivo and in vitro results suggest that ZQ has an antidepressant effect. PMID:25913931

  4. Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.

    PubMed

    Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level. PMID:23552653

  5. THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS SOIL ADDITIVES. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. IT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF MODULES DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDY DATA. SECTIONS ARE (1) PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ALTERATION OF SOIL WITH CHEMICAL ADDITIVES, (2) TERMINOLOGY AND COMPUTATIONS, (3)…

  6. Chemical constituents: water-soluble vitamins, free amino acids and sugar profile from Ganoderma adspersum.

    PubMed

    Kıvrak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma adspersum presents a rigid fruiting body owing to chitin content and having a small quantity of water or moisture. The utility of bioactive constituent of the mushroom can only be available by extraction for human usage. In this study, carbohydrate, water-soluble vitamin compositions and amino acid contents were determined in G. adspersum mushroom. The composition in individual sugars was determined by HPLC-RID, mannitol (13.04 g/100 g) and trehalose (10.27 g/100 g) being the most abundant sugars. The examination of water-soluble vitamins and free amino acid composition was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Essential amino acid constituted 67.79% of total amino acid, which is well worth the attention with regard to researchers and consumers. In addition, G. adspersum, which is also significantly rich in B group vitamins and vitamin C, can provide a wide range of notable applications in the pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food and dietary supplement industries. G. adspersum revealed its value for pharmacy and nutrition fields. PMID:25169839

  7. Chemical Constituents and Activity of Murraya microphylla Essential Oil against Lasioderma serricorne.

    PubMed

    You, Chun-Xue; Guo, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-09-01

    The chemical composition, contact and repellent activities of the essential oil from Murraya microphylla branches and leaves against Lasioderma serricorne adults were determined and six compounds from the essential oil were isolated as well. The essential oil of M microphylla obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis; 22 compounds were identified. The main constituents of the essential oil included β-caryophyllene (18.0%), α-pinene (13.8%), spathulenol (9.5%), α-humulene (6.0%), γ-elemene (5.1%) and zingiberene (4.6%), followed by α-cadinol (3.9%) and caryophyllene oxide (3.8%). Six of these compounds were isolated and fully identified as α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, caryophyllene oxide, spathulenol and α-cadinol. L. serricorne adults had different sensitivities to the crude essential oil and isolated compounds. α-Humulene exhibited the strongest contact activity against L. serricorne, showing an LD50 value of 13.1 µg adult(-1). However, spathulenol, the crude essential oil and α-cadinol showed stronger contact activity against L. serricorne than caryophyllene oxide and β-caryophyllene. The essential oil, α-humulene and spathulenol showed comparable repellency against L. serricorne adults at 2 h after exposure, relative to the positive control, DEET. The results demonstrate that the essential oil and isolated compounds exhibited important contact and repellent activities against L. serricorne. Thus, they could become potential natural insecticides or repellents for control of insects in stored products. PMID:26594776

  8. Enhancement of nutritionally significant constituents of black currant seeds by chemical elicitor application.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gema; Ruiz del Castillo, María Luisa

    2016-03-01

    Black currant seeds are obtained as a residue during juice production. Black currant seed oil contains high amounts of nutritionally desirable constituents such as γ-linolenic acid (GLA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and stearidonic acid (SA), as well as certain phenolic acids, which act as natural antioxidants. Fatty acids and phenolic acids of seeds from black currant cultivars after elicitation with methyl jasmonate (MJ) were examined. GLA contents around 25% with respect to total fatty acid content were measured in seeds after pre-harvest treatment of black currants with 0.02mM MJ in 0.05% Tween-20. High GLA samples also exhibited high SA content (higher than 10% with respect to total fatty acid content); however, ALA dropped (from 16% to 10%). High GLA content seeds also showed increased contents of gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids. In particular, seeds from 0.02mM MJ treated Ben Hope black currants exerted contents of gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids of 201.4, 125.9, 201.3 and 112.5μgg(-1)vs 124.3, 58.6, 165.4 and 95.8μgg(-1) measured in seeds from untreated Ben Hope black currants. Comparable results were obtained for Ben Alder and Ben Gairn berries. Chemical elicitation with 0.02 MJ is proposed as an industrial practice in such a way that, after consideration of quality issues, it would be obtained high added value black currant seeds. PMID:26471680

  9. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1989-02-04

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of studies including temperature programmed desorption, infrared study of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation over Rh catalysts. Ethylene hydroformylation has often served as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of Rh catalysts. The mechanism of CO insertion in ethylene hydroformylation over Rh/SiO{sub 2} was investigated.

  10. Chemical constituents of the hemiparasitic plant Phoradendron brachystachyum DC Nutt (Viscaceae).

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Sugey; Navarrete-Vázquez, Gabriel; Estrada-Soto, Samuel; León-Rivera, Ismael; Rios, María Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Phoradendron brachystachyum is a hemiparasitic plant widely distributed in México that belongs to the Viscaceae family. It has been commonly used in folk medicine as a substitute for the European mistletoe. In this chemical study, morolic acid was isolated as the major component (47.54% of the total composition of acetone extract) of this plant. In addition, 19 known compounds were identified: β-sitosteryl and stigmasteryl linoleates, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, triacontanol, squalene, α- and β-amyrin, lupeol, lupenone, betulin aldehyde, betulon aldehyde, oleanolic aldehyde, betulinic acid, betulonic acid, moronic acid, morolic acid, oleanolic acid, flavonoids acacetin and acacetin 7-methyl ether. There have been no previous reports in the literature on the chemical composition of this potential natural source of hypoglycaemic and antihypertensive compounds. PMID:22360797

  11. Change in chemical constituents and free radical-scavenging activity during Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivar fruit development.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Eun Hee; Yun, Hae Rim; Jeong, Hang Yeon; Lee, Yu Geon; Kim, Wol-Soo; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Changes in chemical constituent contents and DPPH radical-scavenging activity in fruits of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivars during the development were investigated. The fruits of seven cultivars (cv. Niitaka, Chuhwangbae, Wonhwang, Hwangkeumbae, Hwasan, Manpungbae, and Imamuraaki) were collected at 15-day intervals after day 20 of florescence. Vitamins (ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol), arbutin, chlorogenic acid, malaxinic acid, total caffeic acid, total flavonoids, and total phenolics were the highest in immature pear fruit on day 20 after florescence among samples at different growth stages. All of these compounds decreased gradually in the fruit during the development. Immature pear fruit on day 35 or 50 after florescence exhibited higher free radical-scavenging activity than that at other times, although activities were slightly different among cultivars. The chemical constituent contents and free radical-scavenging activity were largely different among immature fruits of the pear cultivars, but small differences were observed when they matured. PMID:25348501

  12. Phytochemical investigation of Gynura bicolor leaves and cytotoxicity evaluation of the chemical constituents against HCT 116 cells.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wuen Yew; Tan, Hooi Poay; Ling, Sui Kiong; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Sim, Kae Shin

    2016-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) is a popular vegetable in Asia and believed to confer a wide range of benefits including anti-cancer. Our previous findings showed that the ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor possessed cytotoxicity and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). A combination of column chromatography had been used to purify chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate and water extract of G. bicolor leaves. Eight chemical constituents 5-p-trans-coumaroylquinic acid (I), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (II), rutin (III), kampferol-3-O-rutinoside (IV), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), kampferol-3-O-glucoside (VI), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) were isolated from G. bicolor grown in Malaysia. To our best knowledge, all chemical constituents were isolated for the first time from G. bicolor leaves except rutin (III). 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) demonstrated selective cytotoxicity (selective index>3) against HCT 116 cancer cells compared to CCD-18Co human normal colon cells. PMID:25738869

  13. Blood Pressure Changes and Chemical Constituents of Particulate Air Pollution: Results from the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation (HVNR) Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Huang, Jing; Wang, Hongyi; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Qin, Yu; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Hao, Yu; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling

    2012-01-01

    Background: Elevated blood pressure (BP) has been associated with particulate matter (PM) air pollution, but associations with PM chemical constituents are still uncertain. Objectives: We investigated associations of BP with various chemical constituents of fine PM (PM2.5) during 460 repeated visits among a panel of 39 university students. Methods: Resting BP was measured using standardized methods before and after the university students relocated from a suburban campus to an urban campus with different air pollution contents in Beijing, China. Air pollution data were obtained from central monitors close to student residences. We used mixed-effects models to estimate associations of various PM2.5 constituents with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and pulse pressure. Results: An interquartile range increase of 51.2 μg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with a 1.08-mmHg (95% CI: 0.17, 1.99) increase in SBP and a 0.96-mmHg (95% CI: 0.31, 1.61) increase in DBP on the following day. A subset of PM2.5 constituents, including carbonaceous fractions (organic carbon and elemental carbon), ions (chloride and fluoride), and metals/metalloid elements (nickel, zinc, magnesium, lead, and arsenic), were found to have robust positive associations with different BP variables, though robust negative associations of manganese, chromium, and molybdenum with SBP or DBP also were observed. Conclusions: Our results support relationships between specific PM2.5 constituents and BP. These findings have potential implications for the development of pollution abatement strategies that maximize public health benefits. PMID:23086577

  14. Antioxidant activities of Lampaya medicinalis extracts and their main chemical constituents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) is a plant used by Aymara and Quechua ethnic groups from Northern Chile as folk medicine in the treatment and cure of various diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity, total phenols content, total flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and identify the principal chemical constituents. Methods The crude hydroethanolic extract (HEE) and its partitioned fraction: hexane (HF), dichloromethane (DF), ethyl acetate (EAF), n-butanol (BF) and soluble residual aqueous fraction (RWF) were evaluated for their antioxidant activity using different assays namely, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, β-carotene bleaching assay. The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were measured by Folin-Ciocalteau and by the AlCl3 colorimetric method, respectively. Reducing power was determined by phosphomolybdate and hexacyanoferrate (III) methods. Biotoxicity assays were performed on shrimps of Artemia salina. The EAF was fractionated using chromatographic methods. Results Considerable amount of phenolic and flavonoid contents were recorded in the hydroethanolic extract (HEE) and its derived fractions. Although HEE and all its derived fractions exhibited good antioxidant activities, the most distinguished radical scavenging potential was observed for ethyl acetate fraction (EAF). EAF showed the higher radical scavenging activity by DPPH (95%) and by ABTS (98%), antioxidant activity by FRAP (158.18 ± 5.79 mg equivalent Trolox/g fraction), β-carotene bleaching assay (86.8%), the highest total phenols content (101.26 ± 1.07 mg GAE/g fraction), the highest total flavonoids content (66.26 ± 3.31 μg quercetin/g fraction). The EAF extract showed an reducing power of 78% and 65% using the phosphomolybdate and hexacyanoferrate (III) assays, respectively. Four flavonoids, two p-hydroxyacetophenone derivatives and one iridoid were isolated from Lampaya

  15. Chemical constituents of Marrubium vulgare as potential inhibitors of nitric oxide and respiratory burst.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Farzana; Rasoola, Shagufta; Shah, Zafar Ali; Soomro, Samreen; Jabeen, Almas; Mesaik, M Ahmed; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2014-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the whole plant of Marrubium vulgare L., led to the isolation of three new secondary metabolites, 11-oxomarrubiin (1), vulgarcoside A (2) and 3-hydroxyapigenin-4'-O-(6"-O-p-coumaroyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), along with four known constituents 4-7 from the polar fractions of the methanolic extract. The structures of all compounds were deduced on the basis of NMR data and HRESI-MS measurements. The new constituents 1-3 exhibited moderate to low level of inhibition on nitric oxide (NO.) production. The compound 2 also showed a moderate inhibition on pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. The new constituents 1-3 showed no inhibitory effect on Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production. PMID:25230489

  16. Chemical structure-related mechanisms underlying in vivo genotoxicity induced by nitrofurantoin and its constituent moieties in gpt delta rats.

    PubMed

    Kijima, Aki; Ishii, Yuji; Takasu, Shinji; Matsushita, Kohei; Kuroda, Ken; Hibi, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yuta; Nohmi, Takehiko; Umemura, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    Nitrofurans are antimicrobial compounds containing a nitro group at the 5-position of the furan ring and an amine or hydrazide side chain derivative. One member of the nitrofurans, nitrofurantoin (NFT), is a renal carcinogen in male rats despite its still controversial genotoxicity. We investigated chemical structure-related modes of action of NFT, and reporter gene mutation assays for NFT and its constituent moieties were performed. NFT, 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde (NFA), or 1-aminohydantoin (AHD) was administered to male F344 gpt delta rats by gavage for 4 or 13 weeks at a carcinogenic or the maximum tolerated dose. NFT caused a significant increase in gpt mutant frequency (MF) at 13 weeks with G-base substitution mutations. An increase in gpt MF was also observed in the NFA-treated group at 13 weeks, but not in the AHD-treated group. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in the kidney DNA of NFT-treated rats were significantly increased after 4 weeks. NFT caused accumulation of hyaline droplets indicated by positive immunostaining and western blot analysis for α2u-globulin in the proximal tubules. An additional study, in which female gpt delta rats were given NFT at the same dose used for males, was performed to mitigate the effect of α2u-globulin. NFT exerted the same effects on female rat kidneys to the same extent as males in terms of gpt MF and 8-OHdG level. Thus, it is highly probable that the structure of the nitro furan plays a key role in NFT-induced genotoxicity and genotoxic mechanisms including oxidative DNA damage are involved in NFT-induced renal carcinogenesis. α2u-globulin-mediated nephropathy may be a prerequisite for NFT-induced renal carcinogenesis in male rats, and additionally NFT could be a latent carcinogen in female rats and other animal species. PMID:25772432

  17. Effects of chemical additives on microbial enhanced oil recovery processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, R.S.; Chase, K.L.; Bertus, K.M.; Stepp, A.K.

    1989-12-01

    An extensive laboratory study has been conducted to determine (1) the role of the microbial cells and products in oil displacement, (2) the relative rates of transport of microbial cells and chemical products from the metabolism of nutrient in porous media, and (3) the effects of chemical additives on the oil recovery efficiency of microbial formulations. This report describes experiments relating to the effects of additives on oil recovery efficiency of microbial formulations. The effects of additives on the oil recovery efficiency of microbial formulations were determined by conducting oil displacement experiments in 1-foot-long Berea sandstone cores. Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), a low-molecular-weight polyacrylamide polymer, a lignosulfonate surfactant, and sodium bicarbonate were added to a microbial formulation at a concentration of 1%. The effects of using these additives in a preflush prior to injection of the microbial formulation were also evaluated. Oil-displacement experiments with and without a sodium bicarbonate preflush were conducted in 4-foot-long Berea sandstone cores, and samples of in situ fluids were collected at various times at four intermediate points along the core. The concentrations of metabolic products and microbes in the fluid samples were determined. 9 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Data for First Responder Use of Photoionization Detectors for Vapor Chemical Constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Keith A. Daum; Matthew G. Watrous; M. Dean Neptune; Daniel I. Michael; Kevin J. Hull; Joseph D. Evans

    2006-11-01

    First responders need appropriate measurement technologies for evaluating incident scenes. This report provides information about photoionization detectors (PIDs), obtained from manufacturers and independent laboratory tests, and the use of PIDs by first responders, obtained from incident commanders in the United States and Canada. PIDs are valued for their relatively low cost, light weight, rapid detection response, and ease of use. However, it is clear that further efforts are needed to provide suitable instruments and decision tools to incident commanders and first responders for assessing potential hazardous chemical releases. Information provided in this report indicates that PIDs should always be part of a decision-making context in which other qualitative and more definitive tests and instruments are used to confirm a finding. Possible amelioratory actions ranging from quick and relatively easy fixes to those requiring significant additional effort are outlined in the report.

  19. Automated determination of chemical functionalisation addition routes based on magnetic susceptibility and nucleus independent chemical shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Lier, G.; Ewels, C. P.; Geerlings, P.

    2008-07-01

    We present a modified version of our previously reported meta-code SACHA, for systematic analysis of chemical addition. The code automates the generation of structures, running of quantum chemical codes, and selection of preferential isomers based on chosen selection rules. While the selection rules for the previous version were based on the total system energy, predicting purely thermodynamic addition patterns, we examine here the possibility of using other system parameters, notably magnetic susceptibility as a descriptor of global aromaticity, and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS) as local aromaticity descriptor.

  20. Global identification and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicinal formula Qi-Fu-Yin by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-Ning; Dong, Xin; Gao, Wen; Liu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Rui; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2015-10-10

    Qi-Fu-Yin (QFY), a classical traditional Chinese medicine formula, is proven to have significant neuroprotective effects by modern pharmacological studies. However, the chemical constituents of QFY have not been fully explored. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) was developed for comprehensive analysis of chemical constituents in QFY. By using characteristic ions and fragmentation rules, a reliable identification of 156 compounds was described here, including 69 triterpene saponins, 23 oligosaccharide esters, 22 flavanoids, 9 alkaloids, 9 phenolic acids, 8 phthalides, 7 phenylethanoid glycosides, 3 xanthones, 3 sesquiterpene lactones, 2 ionones and 1 iridoid glycoside. Twenty-six major compounds were then determined in a single run by UHPLC coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (QQQ MS) with fast positive/negative polarity switching. It allows for the acquisition of MS data in both ionization modes from a single run. The proposed method was then validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision and recovery. The overall recoveries for 26 analytes ranged from 91.35% to 109.58%, with RSDs ranging from 0.82% to 4.83%. In addition, the content of 26 analytes in QFY prepared by five batches of herbal materials was also analyzed. These results demonstrated that our present method was effective and reliable for comprehensive quality evaluation of QFY. Meanwhile, the study might provide the chemical evidence for revealing the material basis of its therapeutic effects. PMID:26112926

  1. Melastoma malabathricum (L.) Smith Ethnomedicinal Uses, Chemical Constituents, and Pharmacological Properties: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Joffry, S. Mohd.; Yob, N. J.; Rofiee, M. S.; Affandi, M. M. R. Meor Mohd.; Suhaili, Z.; Othman, F.; Akim, A. Md.; Desa, M. N. M.; Zakaria, Z. A.

    2012-01-01

    Melastoma malabathricum L. (Melastomataceae) is one of the 22 species found in the Southeast Asian region, including Malaysia. Considered as native to tropical and temperate Asia and the Pacific Islands, this commonly found small shrub has gained herbal status in the Malay folklore belief as well as the Indian, Chinese, and Indonesian folk medicines. Ethnopharmacologically, the leaves, shoots, barks, seeds, and roots of M. malabathricum have been used to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, hemorrhoids, cuts and wounds, toothache, and stomachache. Scientific findings also revealed the wide pharmacological actions of various parts of M. malabthricum, such as antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antidiarrheal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. Various types of phytochemical constituents have also been isolated and identifed from different parts of M. malabathricum. Thus, the aim of the present review is to present comprehensive information on ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of M. malabathricum. PMID:22242040

  2. Characterization of chemical constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heyun; Yin, Ran; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Mao, Xinjuan; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Hou, Xiaohong; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-12-01

    A sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was established to separate and identify the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 × 3.0 mm, 2.2 μm) using a gradient elution program. The detection was performed on a Waters Xevo G2 Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in both positive and negative modes. With the optimized conditions, a total of 82 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. Of the 82 compounds, 21 compounds were identified by comparing the retention time and MS data with reference standards, the rest were characterized by analyzing MS data and retrieving the reference literature. In addition, 31 compounds were identified from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, ten compounds were identified from Rheum palmatum L., 33 compounds were identified from Citrus aurantium L., and eight compounds were identified from Sojae Semen Praeparatum. Results indicated that iridoids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, coumarins, glycosides of crocetin, monoterpenoids, and organic acids were major constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. It is concluded that the developed ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method with high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, and the analysis provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. PMID:25195935

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1989-04-30

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativeities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation. Reaction of ethylene with syngas is used as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of metal catalysts. During the sixth quarter of the project, the mechanism of CO insertion on Ni/SiO{sub 2} was investigated by in-situ infrared spectroscopy. Ni/SiO{sub 2}, a methanation catalyst, has been shown to exhibit CO insertion activity. In situ infrared studies of CO/H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reactions show that the carbonylation of Ni/SiO{sub 2} to Ni(CO){sub 4} leads to an inhibition of methanation in CO hydrogenation but an enhancement of formation of propionaldehyde in C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reaction. The results suggest that the sites for propionaldehyde formation is different from those for methanation.

  5. Association between airborne PM2.5 chemical constituents and birth weight—implication of buffer exposure assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen; Bell, Michelle L.

    2014-08-01

    Several papers reported associations between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and birth weight, though findings are inconsistent across studies. Conflicting results might be due to (1) different PM2.5 chemical structure across locations, and (2) various exposure assignment methods across studies even among the studies that use ambient monitors to assess exposure. We investigated associations between birth weight and PM2.5 chemical constituents, considering issues arising from choice of buffer size (i.e. distance between residence and pollution monitor). We estimated the association between each pollutant and term birth weight applying buffers of 5 to 30 km in Connecticut (2000-2006), in the New England region of the USA. We also investigated the implication of the choice of buffer size in relation to population characteristics, such as socioeconomic status. Results indicate that some PM2.5 chemical constituents, such as nitrate, are associated with lower birth weight and appear more harmful than other constituents. However, associations vary with buffer size and the implications of different buffer sizes may differ by pollutant. A homogeneous pollutant level within a certain distance is a common assumption in many environmental epidemiology studies, but the validity of this assumption may vary by pollutant. Furthermore, we found that areas close to monitors reflect more minority and lower socio-economic populations, which implies that different exposure approaches may result in different types of study populations. Our findings demonstrate that choosing an exposure method involves key tradeoffs of the impacts of exposure misclassification, sample size, and population characteristics.

  6. The Association between Airborne PM2.5 Chemical Constituents and Birth Weight–Implication of Buffer Exposure Assignment

    PubMed Central

    Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen; Bell, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Several papers reported associations between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and birth weight, though findings are inconsistent across studies. Conflicting results might be due to (1) different PM2.5 chemical structure across locations, and (2) various exposure assignment methods across studies even among the studies that use ambient monitors to assess exposure. We investigated associations between birth weight and PM2.5 chemical constituents, considering issues arising from choice of buffer size (i.e. distance between residence and pollution monitor). We estimated the association between each pollutant and term birth weight applying buffers of 5 to 30km in Connecticut (2000–2006), in the New England region of the U.S. We also investigated the implication of the choice of buffer size in relation to population characteristics, such as socioeconomic status. Results indicate that some PM2.5 chemical constituents, such as nitrate, are associated with lower birth weight and appear more harmful than other constituents. However, associations vary with buffer size and the implications of different buffer sizes may differ by pollutant. A homogeneous pollutant level within a certain distance is a common assumption in many environmental epidemiology studies, but the validity of this assumption may vary by pollutant. Furthermore, we found that areas close to monitors reflect more minority and lower socio-economic populations, which implies that different exposure approaches may result in different types of study populations. Our findings demonstrate that choosing an exposure method involves key tradeoffs of the impacts of exposure misclassification, sample size, and population characteristics. PMID:26594233

  7. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Senecio aegyptius var. discoideus Boiss.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Wafaa; Al-Gendy, Amal; Al-Youssef, Hanan; El-Shazely, Assem

    2012-01-01

    A new eremophilane sesquiterpene, 1-beta-hydroxy-8-oxoeremophila-7,9-dien-12-oic acid (1), in addition to two known flavonol glycosides, rutin (2) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside-7-O-rutinoside (3), was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from the aqueous alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Senecio aegyptius var. discoideus Boiss. (family Asteraceae). The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were established by 1D and 2D NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY, HMQC, HMBC), MS and UV data, and through comparison with the literature. The ethyl acetate fraction and the isolated rutin showed significant cytotoxic activity against colorectal carcinoma (HCT 116) and to less extent against brain (U 251) and breast carcinoma (MCF 7). The ethyl acetate fraction showed a significant level of activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, while the total extract showed the best antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was significant (96.7%) when compared to ascorbic acid. It also showed anti-inflammatory activity but no diuretic effect. PMID:22624330

  8. Effect of MoO3 constituents on the growth of MoS2 nanosheets by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Yong Ping; Qian Chen, Zhi

    2016-06-01

    The highly crystalline and uniform MoS2 film was grown on Si substrate by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition method using S and MoO3 as precursors at an elevated temperature. The structures and properties of MoS2 nanosheets vary greatly with the content of MoO3 constituents in the films. The nanostructured MoS2 film exhibits strong photoluminescence in the visible range. This work may provide a pathway to synthesizing MoS2 nanosheets and facilitate the development of applicable devices.

  9. Chemical constituents of Machaerium hirtum Vell. (Fabaceae) leaves and branches and its anti-inflammatory activity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ignoato, Marlene C; Fabrão, Rodrigo M; Schuquel, Ivânia T A; Botelho, Marcos F P; Bannwart, Geanderson; Pomini, Armando M; Arruda, Laura L M; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A; Santin, Silvana M O

    2013-01-01

    Leaves and branches of Machaerium hirtum Vell. (Fabaceae), native to South America, were subjected to phytopharmacological investigation in order to identify its major chemical constituents and evaluate its extracts, fractions and isolated compounds in assays for anti-inflammatory activities. These were performed using mouse ear edema model, pleurisy and myeloperoxidase activity assays. Six compounds were isolated and identified as the flavanones swertisin and isovitexin, the alkaloid 4-hydroxy-N-methylproline, the triterpenes friedelin and lupeol, and the steroids sitosterol and stigmasterol. These compounds were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance of (1)H and (13)C data, in comparison with literature. PMID:23126578

  10. Concentrations and annual fluxes of sediment-associated chemical constituents from conterminous US coastal rivers using bed sediment data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Elrick, Kent A.; Smith, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal rivers represent a significant pathway for the delivery of natural and anthropogenic sediment-associated chemical constituents to the Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the conterminous USA. This study entails an accounting segment using published average annual suspended sediment fluxes with published sediment-associated chemical constituent concentrations for (1) baseline, (2) land-use distributions, (3) population density, and (4) worldwide means to estimate concentrations/annual fluxes for trace/major elements and total phosphorus, total organic and inorganic carbon, total nitrogen, and sulphur, for 131 coastal river basins. In addition, it entails a sampling and subsequent chemical analysis segment that provides a level of ‘ground truth’ for the calculated values, as well as generating baselines for sediment-associated concentrations/fluxes against which future changes can be evaluated. Currently, between 260 and 270 Mt of suspended sediment are discharged annually from the conterminous USA; about 69% is discharged from Gulf rivers (n = 36), about 24% from Pacific rivers (n = 42), and about 7% from Atlantic rivers (n = 54). Elevated sediment-associated chemical concentrations relative to baseline levels occur in the reverse order of sediment discharges:Atlantic rivers (49%)>Pacific rivers (40%)>Gulf rivers (23%). Elevated trace element concentrations (e.g. Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) frequently occur in association with present/former industrial areas and/or urban centres, particularly along the northeast Atlantic coast. Elevated carbon and nutrient concentrations occur along both the Atlantic and Gulf coasts but are dominated by rivers in the urban northeast and by southeastern and Gulf coast (Florida) ‘blackwater’ streams. Elevated Ca, Mg, K, and Na distributions tend to reflect local petrology, whereas elevated Ti, S, Fe, and Al concentrations are ubiquitous, possibly because they have substantial natural as well as anthropogenic sources

  11. Identification of Chemical Constituents in the Extract and Rat Serum from Ziziphus Jujuba Mill by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Jingze; Zhang, Zhidan; Gao, Wenyuan; Yan, Yanan; Li, Xia; Liu, Changxiao

    2014-01-01

    Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) has long been widely used for human consumption and medicinal purposes in China. It has been reported to possess several vital biological activities. However, the systematic study on the chemical constituents absorbed into plasma and their metabolites is still insufficient.A high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector-electrospray ionization ion-mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn) method was established to analyze the ethanol extract in Ziziphus jujuba Mill and the constituents absorbed into rat serum. In the present study, a dose of 10 mL/Kg of ethanol extract of jujube, which is equivalent to 12.5 g crude dried herb/Kg, was orally administrated to rats. The main components were analyzed in the ethanol extract of Ziziphus jujuba Mill and the parent constituents and metabolites were studied in rat plasma samples after oral administration of the ethanol extract of jujube.D101 macroporous polystyrene resin was a good pretreatment method to obtain better separation and impurity removal effect. Twenty-two compounds were identified in the ethanol extract of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Four parent compounds and four metabolites were detected in rat serum. Among them, seventeen compounds were reported for the first time. PMID:25276208

  12. Chemical Constituents of Plants from the Genus Eupatorium (1904-2014).

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Yu; Liu, Dan; Li, Wei-Huan; Zhao, Ting; Sauriol, Françoise; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Shi, Qing-Wen; Zhang, Man-Li

    2015-10-01

    Eupatorium (family: Compositae), which comprises nearly 1200 species, is distributed throughout tropical America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. Up to now, the reported constituents from the genus Eupatorium involve flavonoids, terpenoids, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, quinonoids, essential oils, and some others, altogether more than 300 compounds. Studies have shown that Eupatorium and its active principles possess a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as cytotoxic, antifungal, insecticidal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive activities. Currently, effective monomeric compounds or active parts have been screened for pharmacological activities from Eupatorium in vivo and in vitro. Increasing amount of data supports application and exploitation for new drug development. PMID:26460556

  13. Thyroid disrupting chemicals in plastic additives and thyroid health.

    PubMed

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2012-01-01

    The globally escalating thyroid nodule incidence rates may be only partially ascribed to better diagnostics, allowing for the assessment of environmental risk factors on thyroid disease. Endocrine disruptors or thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDC) like bisphenol A, phthalates, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers are widely used as plastic additives in consumer products. This comprehensive review studied the magnitude and uncertainty of TDC exposures and their effects on thyroid hormones for sensitive subpopulation groups like pregnant women, infants, and children. Our findings qualitatively suggest the mixed, significant (α = 0.05) TDC associations with natural thyroid hormones (positive or negative sign). Future studies should undertake systematic meta-analyses to elucidate pooled TDC effect estimates on thyroid health indicators and outcomes. PMID:22690712

  14. Leachability of chemical constituents in soil–plant systems irrigated with synthetic graywater.

    PubMed

    Negahban-Azar, Masoud; Sharvelle, Sybil E; Qian, Yaling; Shogbon, Alicia

    2013-04-01

    Over recent years, reuse of graywater for irrigation has become increasingly widespread internationally. While this practice is rapidly growing, there remain unanswered questions with respect to impacts to environmental quality and human health. The objective of this research was to determine the leachability of graywater constituents after applied to soil through a set of controlled greenhouse experiments. Four plant species including bermudagrass, tall fescue, Meyer Lemon and Emerald Gaiety Euonymus were included in the study. Three replicate columns for each species were set up and irrigated either with synthetic graywater or potable water for a 17 month duration. Leachate quality was assessed for dissolved organic carbon, nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorous, boron, sodium adsorption ratio, conductivity, surfactants, and total dissolved solids. The same constituents and also organic matter were measured in soil samples collected at the end of experiments. Phosphorus did not leach through the 50 cm deep soil columns. Salts, including boron, showed potential to leach through graywater irrigated soil. A portion of the applied nitrogen was assimilated by plants, but leaching of nitrogen was still observed as documented by statistically higher nitrogen in leachate collected from graywater-irrigated columns compared to potable water-irrigated columns (P ≤ 0.05). A low percentage of surfactants added to columns leached through (7 ± 6% on average) and a mass balance on surfactant parent compounds showed that 92–96% of added surfactants were biodegraded. PMID:23653909

  15. Chemical constituents and activities of the essential oil from Myristica fragrans against cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne.

    PubMed

    Du, Shu-Shan; Yang, Kai; Wang, Cheng-Fang; You, Chun-Xue; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Guo, Shan-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Zhi-Long

    2014-09-01

    Essential oil extracted from nutmeg seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) by hydrodistillation was subjected to GC/MS and GC analysis. A total of 27 constituents were identified, of which eugenol (19.9%), methylisoeugenol (16.8%), methyleugenol (16.7%), sabinene (11.8%), and terpinen-4-ol (8.5%) were the major components. The essential oil was tested against Lasioderma serricorne for insecticidal and repellent activity, the LD50 value at the end of 24 h exposure period was 19.3 μg/adult. Six active compounds were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. They were identified as eugenol (1), methyleugenol (2), methylisoeugenol (3), elemicin (4), myristicin (5), and safrole (6). Among these isolates, 4 showed the strongest contact toxicity against L. serricorne adults with an LD50 value of 9.8 μg/adult. Repellency of crude oil and active compounds were also determined. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 were strongly repellent against the cigarette beetle and exhibited the same level of repellency compared with the positive control, DEET. The results indicate that the essential oil of M. fragrans and its active constituents have potential for development as natural insecticides and repellents to control L. serricorne. PMID:25238085

  16. Identification and chemical characterization of specific organic constituents of petrochemical effluents.

    PubMed

    Botalova, Oxana; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Frauenrath, Tom; Dsikowitzky, Larissa

    2009-08-01

    Based on extensive GC/MS screening analyses, the molecular diversity of petrochemical effluents discharged to a river in North Rhine-Westphalia was characterised. Within a wide spectrum of organic wastewater constituents, specific compounds that might act as source indicators have been determined. This differentiation was based on (i) the individual molecular structures, (ii) the quantitative appearance of organic compounds in treated effluents and (iii) the information on their general occurrence in the technosphere and hydrosphere. Principally, site-specific indicators have been distinguished from candidates to act as general petrochemical indicators. Further on, monitoring the environmental behaviour of target organic contaminants in an aquatic system shortly after their release into the river allowed a first evaluation of the impact of the petrogenic emission in terms of the quantity and spatial distribution. The identification of petrogenic contaminants was not restricted to constituents of the effluents only, but comprised the compounds circulating in the wastewater systems within a petrochemical plant. A number of environmentally relevant and structurally specific substances that are normally eliminated by wastewater treatment facilities were identified. Insufficient wastewater treatment, careless waste handling or accidents at industrial complexes are potential sources for a single release of the pollutants. This study demonstrates the relevance of source specific organic indicators to be an important tool for comprehensive assessment of the potential impact of petrochemical activities to the contamination of an aquatic environment. PMID:19577787

  17. Efficiency of a stormwater detention pond in reducing loads of chemical and physical constituents in urban streamflow, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrowitz, I.H.; Woodham, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    A multipurpose wet stormwater detention pond in Pinellas Park, Florida was studied to determine its effectiveness in reducing the load of selected water-quality constituents commonly found in urban streamflow. Water-quality samples, and data on streamflow and precipitation were collected at the outflow and principal inflow of detention area 3 on Saint Joe Creek. To compare the constituent loads entering and leaving the detention pond, flows and water quality were monitored simultaneously at the inflow and outflow sites for six storms, and were monitored intermittently during periods of base flow. Lodas od 19 selected chemical and physical constituents were determined. Because all the stormwater entering the detention pond was not measured at the inflow site, computed stormwater inflow loads were adjusted to account for loads from the unmonitored areas. The ratio of storm- water volume measured at the outflow site to stormwater volume measured at the inflow site was used to adjust inflow loads for individual storms. Pond efficiencies for selected water- quality constituents for each of the storms were estimated by dividing the difference in outflow and adjusted inflow loads by the adjusted inflow load. Stormwater loads of the major ions (chloride, calcium and bicarbonate) and dissolved solids at the outflow site exceeded loads at the inflow site, partly as a result of mixing with base flow stored within the pond. However, the detention pond was effective in reducing the stormwater load of such urban-runoff contaminants as metals, nutrients, suspended solids, and biochemical and chemical oxygen demand. Estimated median pond efficiencies for reducing constituent loads ranged from 25 to more than 60 percent for metals, 2 to 52 percent for nutrients, 2 to 52 percent for nutrients, 7 to 11 percent for two measurements of suspended solids, and 16 to 49 percent for the oxygen- consuming substances. The reductions of constituent loads in stormwater are probably a result of

  18. Isolation, Cytotoxicity Evaluation and HPLC-Quantification of the Chemical Constituents from Prangos pabularia

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Saleem; Shakeel-u-Rehman; Dangroo, Nisar Ahmad; Priya, Dev; Banday, Javid Ahmad; Sangwan, Pyare Lal; Qurishi, Mushtaq Ahmad; Koul, Surrinder; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the dichloromethane:methanol (1∶1) extract of root parts of Prangos pabularia led to the isolation of twelve cytotoxic constituents, viz., 6-hydroxycoumarin (1), 7-hydroxycoumarin (2), heraclenol-glycoside (3), xanthotoxol (4), heraclenol (5), oxypeucedanin hydrate (6), 8-((3,3-dimethyloxiran-2-yl)methyl)-7-methoxy-2H-chromen-2-one (7), oxypeucedanin hydrate monoacetate (8), xanthotoxin (9), 4-((2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl)oxy)-7H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-7-one (10), imperatorin (11) and osthol (12). The isolates were identified using spectral techniques in the light of literature. 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity screening of the isolated constituents was carried out against six human cancer cell lines including lung (A549 and NCI-H322), epidermoid carcinoma (A431), melanoma (A375), prostate (PC-3) and Colon (HCT-116) cell lines. Osthol (12) exhibited the highest cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 3.2, 6.2, 10.9, 14.5, 24.8, and 30.2 µM against epidermoid carcinoma (A431), melanoma (A375), lung (NCI-H322), lung (A549), prostate (PC-3) and colon (HCT-116) cell lines respectively. Epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431 was sensitive to most of the compounds followed by lung (A549) cancer cell line. Finally a simple and reliable HPLC method was developed (RP-HPLC-DAD) and validated for the simultaneous quantification of these cytotoxic constituents in Prangos pabularia. The extract was analyzed using a reversed-phase Agilent ZORBAX eclipse plus column C18 (4.6×250 mm, 5 µm) at 250 nm wavelength using a gradient water-methanol solvent system at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. The RP-HPLC method is validated in terms of recovery, linearity, accuracy and precision (intra and inter-day validation). This method, because of shorter analysis time, makes it valuable for the commercial quality control of Prangos pabularia extracts and its future pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:25314269

  19. Chemical constituents and larvicidal property of the essential oil of Blumea mollis (D. Don) Merr. against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Annadurai; Kannathasan, Krishnan; Venkatesalu, Venugopalan

    2008-09-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of Blumea mollis was extracted and the chemical constituents and the larvicidal against Culex quinquefasciatus effects studied. The analyses of gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the leaf essential oil of B. mollis contained 39 compounds, and the major chemical compounds identified were linalool (19.43%), gamma-elemene (12.19%), copaene (10.93%), estragole (10.81%), Allo-ocimene (10.03%), gamma-terpinene (8.28%) and Allo-aromadendrene (7.44%). The essential oil had significant toxic effect against early fourth-instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus with LC50=71.71 and LC90=143.41 ppm. The results could be useful in search of newer, safer and more effective natural larvicidal agent against C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:18566831

  20. Developmental patterns of jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) plant and the chemical constituents of roots grown in Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M V; Warid, W A; Loaiza, J M; Montiel, A

    1997-01-01

    The developmental pattern of jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) was studied by sampling plants aged 20 to 36 weeks at weekly intervals. There was an increase in all characteristics of foliage: fresh and dry weight, number of leaves per plant, main stem length, number of leaves, nodes and internodes of the main stem; and in all root characteristics: fresh and dry weight, diameter and length. The chemical analysis was determined for roots at different plant ages. The range values for dry matter were 16.19-22.28%, protein 1.11-1.62%, fat 0.553-0.867%, crude fiber 0.3048-0.3943%, and ash 0.669-1.089%. The chemical constituents fluctuated with age but without specific trends. These values are considered the first record of roots produced by plants grown in Mexico. PMID:9477422

  1. [Advances in studies on pharmacological action of main chemical constituent of Curcuma Zedoary in preventing in-stent restenosis].

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuan-yuan; Liu, Jian-gang; Zhao, Fu-hai; Shi, Da-zhuo

    2015-04-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Curcuma Zedoary ( E'Zhu) contains essential oil, curcuminoid and other effective constituents, with such pharmacological actions as anti-platelet aggregation, lowing blood lipid, anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. In recent years, studies have showed that certain extracts and chemical components of E'Zhu could mitigate myocardial cell mitochondria injury and protect vascular endothelium by enhancing heme oxygenase-1 activity, inhibit nuclear factor NF-kappaB, target genes interleukin-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1), tumor necrosis factor receptor-6 (TRAF-6) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), reduce inflammatory infiltration, and inhibit growth factor-induced smooth muscle cells (SMCs) proliferation and migration by impacting oxidation of cellular phosphatases. Due to its different functions in vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, E'Zhu has been applied in drug-eluting stents, with a potential effect in preventing in-stent restenosis and thrombogenesis. In this paper, studies on pharmacological effects and mechanisms of extracts and main chemical constituents from E'Zhu in preventing vascular restenosis were summarized. PMID:26281537

  2. Chemical constituents derived from Artocarpus xanthocarpus as inhibitors of melanin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yu-Jing; Lin, Cha-Chi; Lu, Tzy-Ming; Li, Jih-Heng; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Ko, Horng-Huey

    2015-09-01

    Twenty-four compounds, including the previously unknown artoxanthocarpuone A, artoxanthocarpuone B, hydroxylakoochin A, methoxylakoochin A, epoxylakoochin A, and artoxanthol, were isolated and characterized spectroscopically. Among them, artoxanthol is stilbene oligomer presumably constructed in a 5,11,12-triphenyl hexahydrochrysene scaffold by a Diels-Alder type of reaction, for which a biosynthetic pathway is proposed. Artoxanthol, alboctalol, steppogenin, norartocarpetin, resveratrol, oxyresveratrol, and chlorophorin potently inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity with IC50 values from 0.9 to 5.7 μM that were all far stronger than the positive controls. Artoxanthocarpuone A, artoxanthocarpuone B, methoxylakoochin A, lakoochin A, cudraflavone C, artonin A, resveratrol, and chlorophorin reduced tyrosinase activity and inhibited α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells without affecting cell proliferation. Collectively, the results suggest that the constituents of Artocarpus xanthocarpus have potential to be used as depigmentation agents. PMID:26188915

  3. Chemical constituents, antioxidant and antimocrobial activity of essential oil of Pogostemon paniculatus (Willd.).

    PubMed

    Manoj, Godbole; Manohar, Shiragambi Hanumantagouda; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil extracted from the leaves of Pogostemon paniculatus (Willd.) Benth. (Lamiaceae), was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nineteen compounds constituting 85.36% of the total oil were identified in the oil. Patchouli alcohol (30.65%), α-guaiene (10.67%), β-guaiene (9.09%), caryophyllene (8.64%), eicosene (5.27%) were the major constituents present. The essential oil was analysed for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibition concentration against six bacteria and three fungi. Results showed inhibitory activity against some of the tested microorganisms. The essential oil was also tested for the DPPH free-radical scavenging activity and had an inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value of 18.5 µg mL(-1). PMID:22132692

  4. Cholinesterase-inhibitory diterpenoids and chemical constituents from aerial parts of Caryopteris mongolica.

    PubMed

    Murata, Toshihiro; Selenge, Erdenechimeg; Oikawa, Saki; Ageishi, Keita; Batkhuu, Javzan; Sasaki, Kenroh; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko

    2015-10-01

    A diterpenoid diglucoside (12,19-di-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-11-hydroxyabieta-8,11,13-triene-19-one), isoscutellarein 7-O-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside, isoscutellarein 7-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside, hypolaetin 7-O-[6″-O-(p-E-coumaroyl)]-β-D-glucopyranoside, hypolaetin 7-O-[6″-O-(E-caffeoyl)]-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 15 known compounds were isolated from aerial parts of the Mongolian medicinal plant Caryopteris mongolica. The cholinesterase-inhibitory activities of the constituents were estimated. The abietane diterpenoids (12-O-demethylcryptojaponol and 6α-hydroxydemethylcryptojaponol) showed potent inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase from human erythrocytes and electric eel, and against butyrylcholinesterase from horse serum. PMID:25900047

  5. Chemical constituents of ambient particulate air pollution and biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and homocysteine in healthy adults: A prospective panel study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ambient air pollution has been associated with activation of systemic inflammation and hypercoagulability and increased plasma homocysteine, but the chemical constituents behind the association are not well understood. We examined the relations of various chemical constituents of fine particles (PM2.5) and biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and homocysteine in the context of traffic-related air pollution. Methods A panel of 40 healthy college students underwent biweekly blood collection for 12 times before and after their relocation from a suburban campus to an urban campus with changing air pollution contents in Beijing. Blood samples were measured for circulatory biomarkers of high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), von Willebrand factor (vWF), soluble platelet selectin (sP-selectin), and total homocysteine (tHcy). Various air pollutants were measured in a central air-monitoring station in each campus and 32 PM2.5 chemical constituents were determined in the laboratory. We used three different mixed-effects models (single-constituent model, constituent-PM2.5 joint model and constituent residual model) controlling for potential confounders to estimate the effects of PM2.5 chemical constituents on circulatory biomarkers. Results We found consistent positive associations between the following biomarkers and PM2.5 chemical constituents across different models: TNF-α with secondary organic carbon, chloride, zinc, molybdenum and stannum; fibrinogen with magnesium, iron, titanium, cobalt and cadmium; PAI-1 with titanium, cobalt and manganese; t-PA with cadmium and selenium; vWF with aluminum. We also found consistent inverse associations of vWF with nitrate, chloride and sodium, and sP-selectin with manganese. Two positive associations of zinc with TNF-α and of cobalt with fibrinogen, and two inverse

  6. Chemical constituents and antiproliferative effects of cultured Mougeotia nummuloides and Spirulina major against cancerous cell lines.

    PubMed

    Erenler, Ramazan; Pabuccu, Koksal; Yaglioglu, Ayse Sahin; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Gul, Fatih

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effect of Mougeotia nummuloides and Spirulina major on Vero cells (African green monkey kidney), C6 cells (rat brain tumor cells) and HeLa cells (human uterus carcinoma) was investigated in vitro. The antiproliferative effect of the methanol extract of M. nummuloides and S. major compared with 5-fluorourasil (5-FU) and cisplatin was tested at various concentrations using the BrdU Cell Proliferation ELISA. Both M. nummuloides and S. major extracts significantly inhibited the proliferation of Vero, HeLa and C6 cancer cell lines with IC50 and IC75 values. The M. nummuloides extract exhibited higher activity than 5-FU and cisplatin on Vero and C6 cells at high concentrations. The S. major extract revealed better antifproliferative activity than standards against Vero cells at 500 μg/mL. The compounds of methanol extracts were determined by GC-MS after the silylation process. Trehalose, monostearin and 1-monopalmitin were detected as major products in the M. nummuloides extract where as in the S. major extract; monostearin, 1-monopalmitin and hexyl alcohol were the main constituents. PMID:26985685

  7. Chemical Analysis of Dietary Constituents in Rosa roxburghii and Rosa sterilis Fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-Hua; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Yuan-He; Lu, Xian-Yuan; Fu, Wei-Ming; He, Jing-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Both Rosa roxburghii and R. sterilis, belonging to the Rosaceae, are endemic species in Guizhou Province, China. The fruits of these two species are mixed-used as functional food in the region. Aiming to elucidate the phytochemical characteristics of R. roxburghii and R. sterilis fruits, the essential oils and constituents in a methanol extract have been analyzed and compared by GC-MS and UFLC/Q-TOF-MS, respectively. As a result, a total of 135 volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS and 91 components were different between R. roxburghii and R. sterilis fruits; a total of 59 compounds in methanol extracts were identified by UFLC/Q-TOF-MS, including 13 organic acids, 12 flavonoids, 11 triterpenes, nine amino acids, five phenylpropanoid derivatives, four condensed tannins, two stilbenes, two benzaldehyde derivatives and one benzoic acid derivative; and nine characteristic compounds were found between R. roxburghii and R. sterilis fruits. This systematic study plays an important role for R. roxburghii and R. sterilis fruits in the product development. PMID:27618004

  8. Chemical constituents from Tribulus terrestris and screening of their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Hammoda, Hala M; Ghazy, Nabila M; Harraz, Fathalla M; Radwan, Mohamed M; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Abdallah, Ingy I

    2013-08-01

    Two oligosaccharides (1,2) and a stereoisomer of di-p-coumaroylquinic acid (3) were isolated from the aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris along with five known compounds (4-8). The structures of the compounds were established as O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→6)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(6→2)-β-D-fructofuranoside (1), O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-fructofuranoside (2), 4,5-di-p-cis-coumaroylquinic acid (3) by different spectroscopic methods including 1D NMR ((1)H, (13)C and DEPT) and 2D NMR (COSY, TOCSY, HMQC and HMBC) experiments as well as ESI-MS analysis. This is the first report for the complete NMR spectral data of the known 4,5-di-p-trans-coumaroylquinic acid (4). The antioxidant activity represented as DPPH free radical scavenging activity was investigated revealing that the di-p-coumaroylquinic acid derivatives possess potent antioxidant activity so considered the major constituents contributing to the antioxidant effect of the plant. PMID:23642392

  9. Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-02-01

    Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods.

  10. Chemical characterization of the main bioactive constituents from fruits of Ziziphus jujuba.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lu; Zhang, Hai; Liu, Qingchao; Zhao, Yong; Cui, Xueqin; Guo, Sen; Zhang, Li; Ho, Chi-Tang; Bai, Naisheng

    2016-06-15

    The fruit of Ziziphus jujuba Mill., also called hongzao in Chinese, has a long history of cultivation in China. From the fruit of Z. jujuba, twenty-seven known compounds were isolated and identified as the main constituents of these fruits. They were 3-O-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-alphitolic acid (1), 3-O-(cis-p-coumaroyl)-alphitolic acid (2), 3β-O-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-maslinic acid (3), pomonic acid (4), 2-oxo-pomolic acid (5), benthamic acid (6), terminic acid (7), oleanic acid (8), betulinic acid (9), quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (10), quercetin 3-O-robinobioside (11), apigenin (12), traumatic acid (13), (Z)-4-oxotetradec-5-enoic acid (14), 7(E)-9-keto-hexadec-7-enoic acid (15), 9(E)-11-oxo-octadecenoic acid (9CI) (16), and magnoflorine (27), etc. The HPLC fingerprint of Z. jujuba fruits was established at the same time. Compounds 4, 5, 7, 11, 14, 15 and 16 were isolated from Z. jujuba for the first time. Compound 14 was isolated from the nature for the first time. Furthermore, cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines (MCF-7, A549, HepG2 and HT-29) of the isolated compounds (1-17 and 27) was evaluated. Among these compounds, compounds 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 9 and 12 had strong growth inhibitory effects on cancer cell lines. These results indicated that jujube extracts exhibited cytotoxicity on these cancer cell lines. PMID:27232543

  11. Chemical constituents and antioxidant and biological activities of the essential oil from leaves of Solanum spirale.

    PubMed

    Keawsa-ard, Sukanya; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee; Teerawutgulrag, Aphiwat; Pyne, Stephen G

    2012-07-01

    The essential oil of the leaves Solanium spirale Roxb. was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed for the first time using GC and GC-MS. Thirty-nine constituents were identified, constituting 73.36% of the total chromatographical oil components. (E)-Phytol (48.10%), n-hexadecanoic acid (7.34%), beta-selinene (3.67%), alpha-selinene (2.74%), octadecanoic acid (2.12%) and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (2.00%) were the major components of this oil. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated by using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay. The oil exhibited week antioxidant activity with an IC50 of 41.89 mg/mL. The essential oil showed significant antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 43.0 microg/mL and 21.5 microg/mL, respectively. It also showed significant cytotoxicity against KB (oral cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer) and NCI-H187 (small cell lung cancer) with the IC50 values of 26.42, 19.69, and 24.02 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:22908592

  12. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Galinsoga parviflora cav. (Asteraceae) from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Islam; Abd El-Aziz, Ehsan; Hafez, Samia; El-Shazly, Assem

    2013-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of an aqueous ethanolic extract of Galinsoga parviflora Cav. (Asteraceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of eleven compounds namely: triacontanol, phytol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, 7-hydroxy-beta-sitosterol, 7-hydroxystigmasterol, beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, protocatechuic acid, fumaric acid, and uracil. Furthermore, 48 volatile constituents were identified in the hydrodistilled oil of the aerial parts. The ethanolic extract at a content of 400 mg/kg body weight (BW) exerted 87% reduction in the alanine aminotransferase enzyme level in cirrhotic rats compared with the standard silymarin (150 mg/kg BW) and also exerted a reduction in the blood glucose level equivalent to that of glibenclamide (5 mg/kg BW) in diabetic rats. The ethanolic extract, light petroleum and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited substantial antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans. The ethyl acetate fraction showed strong antioxidant activity at a concentration of 150 mg/mL as compared with 0.1 M ascorbic acid. The cytotoxic effect against the MCF-7 cell line was found to be weak. PMID:24066513

  13. Association between particulate matter and its chemical constituents of urban air pollution and daily mortality or morbidity in Beijing City.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Yuesi; Li, Guoxing; Pan, Xiaochuan; Wang, Shigong; Cheng, Mengtian; Wen, Tianxue; Wang, Guangcheng; Liu, Zirui

    2015-01-01

    Recent time series studies have indicated that daily mortality and morbidity are associated with particulate matters. However, about the relative effects and its seasonal patterns of fine particulate matter constituents is particularly limited in developing Asian countries. In this study, we examined the role of particulate matters and its key chemical components of fine particles on both mortality and morbidity in Beijing. We applied several overdispersed Poisson generalized nonlinear models, adjusting for time, day of week, holiday, temperature, and relative humidity, to investigate the association between risk of mortality or morbidity and particulate matters and its constituents in Beijing, China, for January 2005 through December 2009. Particles and several constituents were associated with multiple mortality or morbidity categories, especially on respiratory health. For a 3-day lag, the nonaccident mortality increased by 1.52, 0.19, 1.03, 0.56, 0.42, and 0.32% for particulate matter (PM)2.5, PM10, K(+), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), and NO3(-) based on interquartile ranges of 36.00, 64.00, 0.41, 8.75, 1.43, and 2.24 μg/m(3), respectively. The estimates of short-term effects for PM2.5 and its components in the cold season were 1 ~ 6 times higher than that in the full year on these health outcomes. Most of components had stronger adverse effects on human health in the heavy PM2.5 mass concentrations, especially for K(+), NO3(-), and SO4(2-). This analysis added to the growing body of evidence linking PM2.5 with mortality or morbidity and indicated that excess risks may vary among specific PM2.5 components. Combustion-related products, traffic sources, vegetative burning, and crustal component and resuspended road dust may play a key role in the associations between air pollution and public health in Beijing. PMID:25074829

  14. Study on effects of sulfur fumigation on chemical constituents of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Boju.

    PubMed

    Li, You-lian; Wang, Shan; Zhu, Jing-jing; Wang, Wei-hao; Xiang, Shi-xie; Feng, Wei-hong; Chen, Liang-mian; Wang, Zhi-min; Lu, Tu-lin

    2015-07-01

    A comprehensively comparison of the chemical profiles between sun-drying BJ (NBJ) and sulfur-fumigated BJ (SBJ) was conducted by HPLC analysis and the discrepant peaks were identified or tentatively assigned by HPLC-ESI-MSn. A total of 32 chemical components were used for qualitative comparison. Meanwhile, a quantitative comparison of BJwere conducted by HPLC analysis and determining seven compounds from 3 NBJ and 3 SBJ samples dramatic chemical changes were found. After sulfur fumigation, the contents of flavonoids glycosides and phenolic acids were remarkably reduced, but the contents of flavonoids aglycones were significantly increased. Multivariate statistics, including principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) were used to investigate the potential damaging effect of sulfur-fumigating process. The PCA score plots showed six samples were clearly classified into the sun-drying and sulfur-fumigating groups. And according to VIP >1, the most important chemical markers were apigenin, luteolin and 3,5-dicaffeoylquninic acid which could be used to distinguish NBJ and SBJ samples. Combining the results of qualitative and quantitative analysis, it showed that the sulfur fumigation has a significant effect on BJ. PMID:26697689

  15. Chemical constituents of Swertia longifolia Boiss. with α-amylase inhibitory activity

    PubMed Central

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Ara, Leila; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Read, Roger W.; Arshadi, Sattar; Nikan, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    α-Amylase inhibitors play a critical role in the control of diabetes and many of medicinal plants have been found to act as α-amylase inhibitors. Swertia genus, belonging to the family Gentianaceae, comprises different species most of which have been used in traditional medicine of several cultures as antidiabetic, anti-pyretic, analgesic, liver and gastrointestinal tonic. Swertia longifolia Boiss. is the only species of Swertia growing in Iran. In the present investigation, phytochemical study of S. longifolia was performed and α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant fractions and purified compounds were determined. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with hexane, chloroform, methanol and water, respectively. The components of the hexane and chloroform fractions were isolated by different chromatographic methods and their structures were determined by 1H NMR and 13C NMR data. α-Amylase inhibitory activity was determined by a colorimetric assay using 3,5-dinitro salysilic acid. During phytochemical examination, α-amyrin, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol were purified from the hexane fraction, while ursolic acid, daucosterol and swertiamarin were isolated from chloroform fraction. The results of the biochemical assay revealed α-amylase inhibitory activity of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water fractions, of which the chloroform and methanol fractions were more potent (IC50 16.8 and 18.1 mg/ml, respectively). Among examined compounds, daucosterol was found to be the most potent α-amylase inhibitor (57.5% in concentration 10 mg/ml). With regard to α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant extracts, purified constituents, and antidiabetic application of the species of Swertia genus in traditional medicine of different countries, S. longifolia seems more appropriate species for further mechanistic antidiabetic evaluations. PMID:27051429

  16. Chemical constituents of Swertia longifolia Boiss. with α-amylase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Ara, Leila; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Read, Roger W; Arshadi, Sattar; Nikan, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    α-Amylase inhibitors play a critical role in the control of diabetes and many of medicinal plants have been found to act as α-amylase inhibitors. Swertia genus, belonging to the family Gentianaceae, comprises different species most of which have been used in traditional medicine of several cultures as antidiabetic, anti-pyretic, analgesic, liver and gastrointestinal tonic. Swertia longifolia Boiss. is the only species of Swertia growing in Iran. In the present investigation, phytochemical study of S. longifolia was performed and α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant fractions and purified compounds were determined. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with hexane, chloroform, methanol and water, respectively. The components of the hexane and chloroform fractions were isolated by different chromatographic methods and their structures were determined by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR data. α-Amylase inhibitory activity was determined by a colorimetric assay using 3,5-dinitro salysilic acid. During phytochemical examination, α-amyrin, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol were purified from the hexane fraction, while ursolic acid, daucosterol and swertiamarin were isolated from chloroform fraction. The results of the biochemical assay revealed α-amylase inhibitory activity of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water fractions, of which the chloroform and methanol fractions were more potent (IC50 16.8 and 18.1 mg/ml, respectively). Among examined compounds, daucosterol was found to be the most potent α-amylase inhibitor (57.5% in concentration 10 mg/ml). With regard to α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant extracts, purified constituents, and antidiabetic application of the species of Swertia genus in traditional medicine of different countries, S. longifolia seems more appropriate species for further mechanistic antidiabetic evaluations. PMID:27051429

  17. Studies on chemical constituents of the leaves of Smallantus sonchifolius (yacon): structures of two new diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Dou, De-Qiang; Tian, Fang; Qiu, Ying-Kun; Xiang, Zheng; Xu, Bi Xia; Kang, Ting Guo; Dong, Feng

    2010-01-01

    The extract from the leaves of Smallantus sonchifolius (yacon) was found to show potent anti-diabetic activity. Two new diterpenes, named ent-kaurane-3beta,16beta,17, 19-tetrol (1) and ent-kaurane-16beta,17,18,19-tetrol (2), were isolated from the extract, together with six known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. PMID:20013471

  18. Two new chemical constituents from the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    See, Irene; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Teh, Soek Sin; Kadir, Arifah Abdul; Daud, Shaari

    2014-01-01

    A detailed chemical study on the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana resulted in the successful isolation of one new prenylated xanthone, mangaxanthone B (1), one new benzophenone, mangaphenone (2), and two known xanthones, mangostanin (3) and mangostenol (4). The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. PMID:24901833

  19. [Study on chemical constituents in stems of Nelumbo nucifera by UPLC-ESI/Q-TOF-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Shan, Feng; Yuan, Yuan; Kang, Li-ping; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-08-01

    This paper employed UPLC-Electrospray Ionization /Quadrupole-Time of Flight-Mass /Mass Spectrometry( UPLC-ESI/Q-TOF-MS/MS) to analyze the chemical constituents in the stems of Nelumbo nucifera. The stems of N. nucifera were extracted with 75% methanol, and we applied an Agilent Zorbax SB-Aq column (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.8 μm) to UPLC analysis with water methanol-water( containing 0.05% formic acid) in gradient as mobile phase. The eluates were then detected by ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Results indicated that 22 benzylisoquinoline alkaloids were indendified. Among them, one alkaloid may be a new compound and a component was found in the Lotus for the first time. We fully identify the composition of the Lotus stems for the first time, Which could provides theoretical foundation for further study and utilization of the medicinal resources. PMID:26790299

  20. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents of Centipeda minima by HPLC-QTOF-MS & HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chi-On; Jin, Deng-Ping; Dong, Nai-Ping; Chen, Si-Bao; Mok, Daniel Kam Wah

    2016-06-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS) method in both positive and negative ion modes was established to investigate the major constituents in the ethanolic extract of Centipeda minima (EBSC). Twelve common components including flavones and their glycosides, phenolic and polyphenolic acids, and sesquiterpene lactone were identified in ten batches of samples based on comparison with the retention time and accurate mass of external standards (mass accuracy within 3ppm) or the fragmentation patterns of tandem MS. Meanwhile, a simple, accurate and reliable HPLC-DAD method was also developed to determine the content of 10 chemical markers simultaneously. Results obtained from method validations including linearity, accuracy and precision showed that this new method is reliable and robust. Isochlorogenic acid A and brevilin A were found to be the most abundant in the ethanol extract of EBSC and could be served as markers for quality control of EBSC. PMID:27131150

  1. BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF TOXICITY CAUSED BY CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS ELUTED FROM SITE SOILS COLLECTED AT THE DRAKE CHEMICAL SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The site was used to manufactured specialty intermediate chemicals for the producers of dyes, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, herbicides, and pesticides. he herbicide Fenac (2,3,6-trichlorophenylacetic acid) is a major on- and off-site contaminant. ne hundred twenty -eight soils were...

  2. Larvicidal efficacy and chemical constituents of O. gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil against Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Sumitha, K V; Thoppil, John E

    2016-02-01

    The current study accentuates the use of botanicals as an alternative to the chemical compounds in vector control by estimating the mosquito larvicidal potential of Ocimum gratissimum L. leaf essential oil against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of essential oil from leaves was evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. GC/MS revealed that the essential oil of O. gratissimum contained 51 compounds. The major chemical constituents identified were 3-allyl-6-methoxyphenol (19.30%), 4-(5-ethenyl-1-azabicyclo (2, 2, 2) octan-2) (16.82%), 1-(2, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-propanol (12.23%) and 1-(1-hydroxybutyl)-2, 5-dimethoxybenzene (5.53%). The essential oil showed pertinent larvicidal effect, and the LC50 value in 24 h was 26.10 ppm (LC90 = 82.83 ppm). Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used for different applications, and they are more promising pesticides or insecticides for control of mosquito populations than synthetic ones. The results of the present investigation justify the larvicidal potential of leaf essential oil of O. gratissimum as a safer and more effective larvicide against A. albopictus. PMID:26462801

  3. Inhibitory Effect on Lipid Absorption and Variability of Chemical Constituents from Capparis sicula subsp. sicula and Capparis orientalis.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Argentieri, Maria Pia; Avato, Pinarosa; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2016-06-01

    In continuation of our research program on Mediterranean dietary plants, a bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from several accessions of Capparis sicula subsp. sicula and Capparis orientalis aerial parts was carried out. Antilipidemic activity of samples was assayed using inhibition of pancreatic lipase. To study the metabolic variability in Capparis species, HPTLC analyses were performed in order to characterize the species through the detection, isolation, and quantitative evaluation of rutin taken as significant chemical marker. The best activity was exerted by C. orientalis accession no. C10 and C. sicula subsp. sicula accession no. C6. The bioactivity evaluation of specific chemical markers, rutin and glucocapparin, led to the identification of a potent antilipidemic compound rutin. The HPTLC analysis showed large variation among the different analyzed samples with respect to rutin concentration. The chemical investigation showed a different composition between the species and between the collection zones. The variations showed by the studied accessions of caper could be attributed to exogenous factors. Capparis species contained predominantly quercetin rutinoside (rutin), accompanied by other constituents such as the glucosinolate glucocapparin. These rutin-rich extracts exhibited pronounced dose-dependent enzyme inhibitory activities toward pancreatic lipase. PMID:27138247

  4. New chemical constituents from Oryza sativa straw and their algicidal activities against blue-green algae.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ateeque; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Ali, Mohd; Park, Inmyoung; Kim, Jin-Seog; Kim, Eun-Hye; Lim, Ju-Jin; Kim, Seul-Ki; Chung, Ill-Min

    2013-08-28

    Five new constituents, 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,3'-dimethoxyflavone-4'-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-2a-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b→1c)-2b-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-2c-octadecanoate (1), 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,3'-dimethoxyflavone-4'-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-2a-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b→1c)-2b-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2c→1d)-2c-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-2d-octadecanoate (2), kaempferol-3-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-2a-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b→1c)-2b-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2c→1d)-2c-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-2d-hexadecanoate (3), methyl salicylate-2-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-2a-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b→1c)-2b-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2c→1d)-2c-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2d→1e)-2d-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2e→1f)-2e-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2f→1g)-2f-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2g→1h)-2g-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-2h-geranilan-8',10'-dioic acid-1'-oate (4), and oleioyl-β-D-arabinoside (5), along with eight known compounds, were isolated from a methanol extract of Oryza sativa straw. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopies in combination with IR, ESI/MS, and HR-ESI/FTMS. In bioassays with blue-green algae, the efficacies of the algicidal activities of the five new compounds (1-5) were evaluated at concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 mg/L. Compound 5 had the highest growth inhibition (92.6 ± 0.3%) for Microcystis aeruginosa UTEX 2388 at a concentration of 100 ppm (mg/L). Compound 5 has high potential for the ecofriendly control of weeds and algae harmful to water-logged rice. PMID:23889328

  5. Seasonal variation of PM10 chemical constituents in different French urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Dalia; Golly, Benjamin; Besombes, Jean Luc; Alleman, Laurent; Favez, Olivier; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM10, with a diameter less than 10 μm) is a heterogeneous mixture of natural and anthropogenic components including organic and elemental carbon (OC, and EC), sulfates, nitrates, ammonium, mineral dust, trace elements, seasalt, which has been linked to adverse impact on human health, visibility, and climate change. Atmospheric PM concentration and composition can vary widely due to different climatic conditions and local features such as anthropogenic source types, emission rates and dispersion patterns. Moreover, the contribution of natural sources (e.g. seasalt and dust) varies from one region to another. However, a fundamental step towards a better understanding and identification of the sources of PM10 is constituted by the study of aerosol chemical composition. Moreover, in order to define cost effective emission abatement strategies, research studies to interpret the variability of PM10 levels and components and to identify the main emission sources influencing ambient air PM10 levels is still needed. In a national context of a better understanding of PM composition and sources, and therefore the implementation of efficient reduction plans of PM in France, various monitoring campaigns were carried out recently within different air quality programs, where PM10 filter samples were collected on a 24 hour basis at various type of French sites (e.g. urban, rural, etc.,), located in different urban environments. An extensive chemical characterization of PM10 composition at these sites was performed, and a large range of analytical techniques was used to determine the concentrations of various chemical species which included the analysis of OC, and EC, major ionic species (SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, NH4+, K+, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+), metals and trace elements (e.g. Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, etc.,), and organic compounds (e.g. sugars, polyols, PAH, methyl PAH, sulfur PAH, alkanes, hopanes, and methoxyphenols). The seasonal and spatial

  6. Chemical constituents from the leaves of Annona reticulata and their inhibitory effects on NO production.

    PubMed

    Thang, Tran Dinh; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Hung, Nguyen Huy; Huang, Bow-Shin; Yang, Mei-Lin; Luong, Ngo Xuan; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the chemical investigation of the leaves of Annona reticulata has resulted in the identification of nine compounds, including annonaretin A, a new triterpenoid. The purified compounds were subjected to the examination of their effects on NO inhibition in LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages and most of them exhibited significant NO inhibition, with IC₅₀ values in the range of 48.6 ± 1.2 and 99.8 ± 0.4 μM. PMID:23591927

  7. Chemical Constituents from Andrographis echioides and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shen, De-Yang; Juang, Shin-Hun; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Chan, Yu-Yi; Damu, Amooru G.; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the whole plants of Andrographis echioides afforded two new 2′-oxygenated flavonoids (1) and (2), two new phenyl glycosides (3) and (4), along with 37 known structures. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by spectral analysis and chemical transformation studies. Among the isolated compounds, (1–2) and (6–19) were subjected into the examination for their iNOS inhibitory bioactivity. The structure-activity relationships of the flavonoids for their inhibition of NO production were also discussed. PMID:23271366

  8. Chemical characterization of secondary organic aerosol constituents from isoprene ozonolysis in the presence of acidic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, Matthieu; Budisulistiorini, Sri Hapsari; Zhang, Zhenfa; Gold, Avram; Surratt, Jason D.

    2016-04-01

    Isoprene is the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon emitted into Earth's atmosphere and is predominantly derived from terrestrial vegetation. Prior studies have focused largely on the hydroxyl (OH) radical-initiated oxidation of isoprene and have demonstrated that highly oxidized compounds, such as isoprene-derived epoxides, enhance the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through heterogeneous (multiphase) reactions on acidified sulfate aerosol. However, studies on the impact of acidified sulfate aerosol on SOA formation from isoprene ozonolysis are lacking and the current work systematically examines this reaction. SOA was generated in an indoor smog chamber from isoprene ozonolysis under dark conditions in the presence of non-acidified or acidified sulfate seed aerosol. The effect of OH radicals on SOA chemical composition was investigated using diethyl ether as an OH radical scavenger. Aerosols were collected and chemically characterized by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-QTOFMS) and gas chromatography/electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS). Analysis revealed the formation of highly oxidized compounds, including organosulfates (OSs) and 2-methylterols, which were significantly enhanced in the presence of acidified sulfate seed aerosol. OSs identified in the chamber experiments were also observed and quantified in summertime fine aerosol collected from two rural locations in the southeastern United States during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS).

  9. Chemical constituents of marine mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima EN-192

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong; Gao, Shushan; Li, Xiaoming; Li, Chunshun; Wang, Bingui

    2013-03-01

    A chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima EN-192, an endophytic fungus obtained from the stems of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa, resulted in the isolation of nine known secondary metabolites, including four indole-diterpenoids: penijanthine A ( 1), paspaline ( 2), paspalinine ( 3), and penitrem A ( 4); three tricycloalternarene derivatives: tricycloalternarene 3a ( 5), tricycloalternarene 1b ( 6), and tricycloalternarene 2b ( 7); and two alternariol congeners: djalonensone ( 8) and alternariol ( 9). The chemical structures of these metabolites were characterized through a combination of detailed spectroscopic analyses and their comparison with reports from the literature. The inhibitory activities of each isolated compound against four bacteria were evaluated and compounds 5 and 8 displayed moderate activity against the aquaculture pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum, with inhibition zone diameters of 8 and 9 mm, respectively, at 100 μg/disk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the secondary metabolites of mangrove-derived A lternaria tenuissima and also the first report of the isolation of indole-diterpenoids from fungal genus A lternaria.

  10. Biological activities and chemical constituents of some mangrove species from Sundarban estuary: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Simlai, Aritra; Roy, Amit

    2013-01-01

    This review represents the studies performed on some beneficial mangrove plants such as Ceriops decandra, Xylocarpus granatum, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Excoecaria agallocha, Sarcolobus globosus, Sonneratia caseolaris and Acanthus ilicifolius from the Sundarban estuary spanning India and Bangladesh with regard to their biological activities and chemical investigations till date. Sundarban is the largest single chunk of mangrove forest in the world. The forest is a source of livelihood to numerous people of the region. Several of its plant species have very large applications in the traditional folk medicine; various parts of these plants are used by the local people as cure for various ailments. Despite such enormous potential, remarkably few reports are available on these species regarding their biological activities and the active principles responsible for such activities. Though some chemical studies have been made on the mangrove plants of this estuary, reports pertaining to their activity-structure relationship are few in number. An attempt has been made in this review to increase the awareness for the medicinal significance as well as conservation and utilization of these mangrove species as natural rich sources of novel bioactive agents. PMID:24347925

  11. Biological activities and chemical constituents of some mangrove species from Sundarban estuary: An overview.

    PubMed

    Simlai, Aritra; Roy, Amit

    2013-07-01

    This review represents the studies performed on some beneficial mangrove plants such as Ceriops decandra, Xylocarpus granatum, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Excoecaria agallocha, Sarcolobus globosus, Sonneratia caseolaris and Acanthus ilicifolius from the Sundarban estuary spanning India and Bangladesh with regard to their biological activities and chemical investigations till date. Sundarban is the largest single chunk of mangrove forest in the world. The forest is a source of livelihood to numerous people of the region. Several of its plant species have very large applications in the traditional folk medicine; various parts of these plants are used by the local people as cure for various ailments. Despite such enormous potential, remarkably few reports are available on these species regarding their biological activities and the active principles responsible for such activities. Though some chemical studies have been made on the mangrove plants of this estuary, reports pertaining to their activity-structure relationship are few in number. An attempt has been made in this review to increase the awareness for the medicinal significance as well as conservation and utilization of these mangrove species as natural rich sources of novel bioactive agents. PMID:24347925

  12. Chemical constituents from Nelumbo nucifera leaves and their anti-obesity effects.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jong Hoon; Kim, Eun Sil; Lee, Chul; Kim, Soonok; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2013-06-15

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae), commonly called lotus, is widely distributed throughout Eastern Asia. It has been used for food and medicine for a long time. A phytochemical investigation of N. nucifera leaves led to the isolation of 13 megastigmanes (1-13), including a new megastigmane, nelumnucifoside A (1), and a new eudesmane sesquiterpene, nelumnucifoside B (14), eight alkaloids (15-22), and 11 flavonoids (23-33). Their chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods including 1D, 2D NMR and MS spectrometry. The relative and absolute stereochemistry of the compounds was determined by NOESY and CD spectrometry, respectively. Compounds 19 and 22 significantly inhibited pancreatic lipase, whereas compounds 15 and 16 showed a strong inhibitory effect on adipocyte differentiation. Therefore, the leaves of N. nucifera have potential as an anti-obesity agent by inhibiting pancreatic lipase and adipocyte differentiation. PMID:23642481

  13. Chemical constituents from the flowering buds of Bauhinia tomentosa Linn (FBBT).

    PubMed

    Radha, Raja; Vasantha, Vairathevar Sivasamy; Pitchumani, Kasi

    2016-07-01

    Isolation and characterisation of compounds, 1-(2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)-3-(4″-methoxyphenyl)-2-hydroxypropane-1,3-dione (1), 5-hydroxyflavone (2), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (3), 3,5,7,2',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (4) and 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone-3-O-rhamnoside (5) are reported from the air dried flowering buds of Bauhinia tomentosa Linn. Their structures are determined on the basis of extensive chemical and spectral evidences. Compound (1) is reported for the first time from the plant source. While compounds (2) and (4) are reported for the first time from this genus, compound (2) is reported for the second time from the natural source. PMID:26745556

  14. Chemical constituents, in vitro protein digestibility, and presence of antinutritional substances in amaranth grains.

    PubMed

    Correa, A D; Jokl, L; Carlsson, R

    1986-06-01

    The chemical composition, content of antinutritional factors, and the in vitro protein digestibility of grains of the pseudo-cereal Amaranthus were analyzed. The plants were grown in Brazil (without fertilizer), Puerto Rico (100 kg N/ha), and California (200 kg N/ha). The seed analysis gave the following values (%DM): 14.4 - 16.9 protein (N X 6.25), 4.8 - 6.8 fat, 2.5 - 3.9 ash, and 2.3 - 2.9 crude fiber. The trypsin inhibitors, phenolics and saponine contents were low, and the phytohemagglutinin activity, fairly low. The in vitro protein digestibility was 61 - 76%. Digestibility was not correlated to the analyzed proximal composition nor to the antinutritional factors. The grain composition indicates a food value equivalent to that of conventional food grains. PMID:3632210

  15. Chemical constituents from Sonneratia ovata Backer and their in vitro cytotoxicity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi-Hoai-Thu; Pham, Huu-Viet-Thong; Pham, Nguyen-Kim-Tuyen; Quach, Ngo-Diem-Phuong; Pudhom, Khanitha; Hansen, Poul Erik; Nguyen, Kim-Phi-Phung

    2015-06-01

    Sonneratia ovata Backer, Sonneratiaceae, is a widespread plant in mangrove forests in Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia. Sonneratia ovata's chemical composition remains mostly unknown. Therefore, we now report on the structural elucidation of three new phenolics, sonnerphenolic A (1), sonnerphenolic B (2), and sonnerphenolic C (23), a new cerebroside, sonnercerebroside (3) together with nineteen known compounds, including nine lignans (5-13), two steroids (14, 15), two triterpenoids (16, 17), three gallic acid derivatives (18-20), two phenolic derivatives (4, 22) and a 1-O-benzyl-β-d-glucopyranose (21) isolated from the leaves of Sonneratia ovata. Their chemical structures were established by spectroscopic data, as well as high resolution mass spectra and comparison with literature data. The in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and cytotoxic activities against HeLa (human epithelial carcinoma), NCI-H460 (human lung cancer), MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cancer cell lines and PHF (primary human fibroblast) cell were evaluated on some extracts and purified compounds at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Compounds (5, 6, 23) exhibited cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 cell line with the IC50 values of 146.9±9.0, 114.5±7.2, and 112.8±9.4 μM, respectively, while they showed nontoxic with the normal cell (PHF) with IC50s >277 μM. Among 15 tested compounds, (S)-rhodolatouchol (22) showed inhibition against AChE with an IC50 value of 96.1±14.5 μM. PMID:25933595

  16. Chemical constituents and cytotoxic evaluation of essential oils from leaves of Porcelia macrocarpa (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Erica Biolcati P; Matsuo, Alisson L; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Chaves, Mariana H; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, João Henrique G

    2013-02-01

    This work reports the chemical composition and cytotoxic evaluation of the essential oils from three different samples of the leaves of Porcelia macrocarpa R. E. Fries (Annonaceae). The crude oils, obtained by hydrodistillation procedures, were chemically analyzed by GC/MS. The obtained data indicated the predominance of sesquiterpenes (89.8 +/- 0.7%), the main compounds being germacrene D (47 +/-+/- 1%) and bicyclogermacrene (37 +/- 1%). These oils also contained the monoterpene verbanyl acetate (0.5 +/- 0.06%) and the diterpene phytol (1.2 +/- 0.3%). The crude oils obtained from leaves were pooled and tested in vitro against six cancer cell lineages--murine melanoma (B16F10-Nex2), human glioblastome (U87), human cervical carcinoma (HeLa), human leukemia (HL-60), human colon carcinoma (HCT), human breast adenocarcinoma (SKBr), and human melanoma (A2058), as well as against a non-tumorigenic human cell line (HFF). Since the essential oil reduced more than 50% of the viability of several tumor cells at 100 microg/mL, indicating the presence of active compounds, the crude material was subjected to fractionation over a SiO2/AgNO3 column. This procedure afforded different fractions composed of pure as well as different mixtures of bicyclogermacrene and germacrene D, which were tested against the same tumor cell lines, indicating a significant cytotoxic potential against HL-60 cells. These results suggested that the crudeoils and their components, mainly germacrene D, could be used as prototypes for the development of new anti-cancer agents for the treatment of human leukemia. PMID:23513748

  17. Ethnobotany, chemical constituents and biological activities of the flowers of Hydnora abyssinica A.Br. (Hydnoraceae).

    PubMed

    Al-Fatimi, M; Ali, N A A; Kilian, N; Franke, K; Arnold, N; Kuhnt, C; Schmidt, J; Lindequist, U

    2016-04-01

    Hydnora abyssinica A.Br. (Hydnoraceae), a holoparasitic herb, is for the first time recorded for Abyan governorate of South Yemen. Flowers of this species were studied for their ethnobotanical, biological and chemical properties for the first time. In South Yemen, they are traditionally used as wild food and to cure stomach diseases, gastric ulcer and cancer. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed the presence of terpenes, tannins, phenols, and flavonoids. The volatile components of the air-dried powdered flowers were identified using a static headspace GC/MS analysis as acetic acid, ethyl acetate, sabinene, α-terpinene, (+)-D-limonene and γ-terpinene. These volatile compounds that characterize the odor and taste of the flowers were detected for the first time in a species of the family Hydnoraceae. The flowers were extracted by n-hexane, dichlormethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water. With exception of the water extract all extracts demonstrated activities against Gram-positive bacteria as well as remarkable radical scavenging activities in DPPH assay. Ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts exhibited good antifungal activities. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts against FL cells, measured in neutral red assay, was only weak (IC50 > 500 μg/mL). The results justify the traditional use of the flowers of Hydnora abyssinica in South Yemen. PMID:27209704

  18. Chemical composition of the bark of Tetrapterys mucronata and identification of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory constituents.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Marcos Marçal Ferreira; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; Zeraik, Maria Luiza; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Marcourt, Laurence; Cuendet, Muriel; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Hamburger, Matthias; da Silva Bolzani, Vanderlan; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2014-03-28

    The secondary metabolite content of Tetrapterys mucronata, a poorly studied plant that is used occasionally in Brazil for the preparation of a psychotropic plant decoction called "Ayahuasca", was determined to establish its chemical composition and to search for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. The ethanolic extract of the bark of T. mucronata exhibited in vitro AChE inhibition in a TLC bioautography assay. To localize the active compounds, biological profiling for AChE inhibition was performed using at-line HPLC-microfractionation in 96-well plates and subsequent AChE inhibition bioautography. The analytical HPLC-PDA conditions were transferred geometrically to a preparative medium-pressure liquid chromatography column using chromatographic calculations for the efficient isolation of the active compounds at the milligram scale. Twenty-two compounds were isolated, of which six are new natural products. The structures of the new compounds (9, 10, 16-18, and 20) were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. Compounds 1, 5, 6, 9, and 10 inhibited AChE with IC50 values below 15 μM. PMID:24521095

  19. Chemical constituents from the leaves of Boehmeria rugulosa with antidiabetic and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Rawat, Usha; Semwal, Ravindra; Singh, Randhir; Krishan, Pawan; Singh, Manjeet; Singh, Gur Jas Preet

    2009-12-01

    Three new flavonoid glycosides, named chalcone-6'-hydroxy-2',3,4-trimethoxy-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), isoflavone-3',4',5,6-tetrahydroxy-7-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside] (2), and isoflavone-3',4',5,6-tetrahydroxy-7-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside] (3), were isolated from the leaves of Boehmeria rugulosa, together with five known compounds, beta-sitosterol, quercetin, 3,4-dimethoxy-omega-(2'-piperidyl)-acetophenone (4), boehmeriasin A (5), and quercetin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by means of chemical and spectral data including 2D NMR experiments. The ethanolic extract of leaves showed significant hypoglycemic activity on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Glibenclamide, an oral hypoglycemic agent (5 mg/kg, p.o.), was used as a positive control. The ethanolic extract of the plant as well as the isolated compounds 1-3 (25 microg/ml) showed potent antimicrobial activity against two bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans) and three fungus pathogens (Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton rubrum). The activities of the isolated compounds 1-3 have been compared with positive controls, novobiocin, and erythromycin (15 microg/ml). PMID:20183275

  20. Identification of chemical constituents and rat metabolites of Kangxianling granule by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lu; Fang, Lianxiang; Cong, Haijian; Xiang, Ting; Xue, Ming; Yao, Zhongqing; Wu, Bin; Lin, Wenhui

    2015-11-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass tandem mass spectrometry method was established to characterize the chemical constituents of Kangxianling granule (KXL), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, and the metabolic profile in rat urine and plasma after oral administration of KXL. A total of 27 compounds in KXL extract and 13 prototype compounds with 12 metabolites in rat urine and plasma were identified. Among the 27 detected compounds, 15 were identified by comparing the retention time and MS data with that of reference compounds and the other 12 compounds were tentatively assigned based on the MS data and reference literature. The main prototype components absorbed in rat were amygdalin, salvianolic acid B, tanshinones and anthraquinones. Hydroxylation, glucuronidation and sulfation were the principal metabolic pathways in rat. The results revealed that the 25 compounds identified in rat urine and plasma were the potential active ingredients of KXL, which provides helpful chemical information for further study of the pharmacology mechanism of KXL. PMID:25990409

  1. 75 FR 53867 - Additions to Listing of Exempt Chemical Mixtures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ...Under this Direct Final Rule, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is updating the Table of Exempt Chemical Mixtures. This action is in response to DEA's review of new applications for exemption. Having reviewed applications and relevant information, DEA finds that these 21 preparations meet the applicable exemption criteria. Therefore, these products are exempted from the application of......

  2. Structural elucidation of chemical constituents from Benincasa hispida seeds and Carissa congesta roots by gas chromatography: Mass spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Gaurav M.; Nalawade, Vivek V.; Mukadam, Aaditi S.; Chaskar, Pratip K.; Zine, Sandeep P.; Somani, Rakesh R.; Une, Hemant D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Benincasa hispida (BH) and Carissa congesta (CC) are regarded as ethnopharmacological imperative plants in Asian countries. Objective: Phytochemical screening of the extracts has shown the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, tannins, phenolic compounds, fixed oils, and fats in the BH and CC extracts. The presence of lupeol has been reported previously by us using high-performance thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Materials and Methods: Present research studies encompasses identification of chemical constituents in BH seeds and CC roots petroleum ether extracts by hyphenated technique such as gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (MS) which when coupled gives a clear insight of constituents. Results: The components were identified by matching mass spectra with MS libraries. There were 13 and 10 different compounds analyzed from CC and BH, respectively. The components present were Pentanoic acid, 5-hydroxy, 2,4-butylphenyl; n-Hexadecanoic acid (Palmitic acid); Sulfurous acid, 2-ethylhexylhepatdecyl ester; n-Tridecane; 6-methyltridecane; (9E, 12E)-9,12-Octadecadienyl chloride, Hexadecanoic acid, 3-(trimethylsilyl)-oxy] propyl ester; 9,12-Octadecadenoic acid, 2 hydroxy-1-(hyroxymethylethyl) ester; 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, 2,3 dihydroxypropyl ester; n-Propyl-9,12-Octadecadienoate, Lupeol; Taraxasterol; 6a, 14a-Methanopicene, perhydro-12,4a, 61a, 9,9,12a-hepatmethyl-10-hydoxy and 9-Octadecene; 2-Isoprpenyl-5-methyl-6-hepten-1-ol; n-Hexadecanoic acid, 2-hyroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ether; Butyl-9,12-Octadecadieonate; Friedoolean-8-en-3-one; friedours-7-en-3-one; 13,27-Cyclosuran-3-one; Stigmaste-7,25-dien-3-ol (3β, 5α); Stigmasta-7,16-dien-3-ol; chrondrillasterol in BH seeds and CC roots extracts respectively. Conclusion: Eluted components from the extracts could provide further researchers to work with various pharmacological activities related models and studies. PMID:26130941

  3. Chemical constituents and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from Amomum tsaoko against two stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Kai; Chen, Ran; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Du, Shu-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical constituents and toxicities of the essential oil derived from Amomum tsaoko Crevost et Lemarie fruits against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius). Essential oil of A. tsaoko was obtained from hydrodistillation and was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 43 components, of which eucalyptol (23.87%), limonene (22.77%), 2-isopropyltoluene (6.66%) and undecane (5.74%) were the major components. With a further isolation, two active constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as eucalyptol and limonene. The essential oil and the two isolated compounds exhibited potential insecticidal activities against two storedproduct insects. Limonene showed pronounced contact toxicity against both insect species (LD50 = 14.97 μg/adult for T. castaneum; 13.66 μg/adult for L. serricorne) and was more toxic than eucalyptol (LD50 = 18.83 μg/adult for T. castaneum; 15.58 μg/adult for L. serricorne). The essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LD50 values of 16.52 and 6.14 μg/adult, respectively. Eucalyptol also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against both insect species (LC50 = 5.47 mg/L air for T. castaneum; 5.18 mg/L air for L. serricorne) and was more toxic than limonene (LC50 = 6.21 mg/L air for T. castaneum; 14.07 mg/L air for L. serricorne), while the crude essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LC50 values of 5.85 and 8.70 mg/L air, respectively. These results suggested that the essential oil of A. tsaoko and the two compounds may be used in grain storage to combat insect pests. PMID:25213443

  4. Chemical constituents of Rhododendron formosanum show pronounced growth inhibitory effect on non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Way, Tzong-Der; Tsai, Shang-Jie; Wang, Chao-Min; Ho, Chi-Tang; Chou, Chang-Hung

    2014-01-29

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Rhododendron formosanum Hemsl. (Ericaceae), an endemic species in Taiwan, exhibits antineoplastic potential against non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). R. formosanum was successively extracted with methanol and then separated into dichloromethane (RFL-DCM), ethyl acetate (RFL-EA), n-butanol (RFL-BuOH), and water (RFL-H2O) fractions. Among these extracts, RFL-EA exhibited the most effective antineoplastic effect. This study also demonstrated that fractions 2 and 3 from the RFL-EA extract (RFL-EA-2, RFL-EA-3) possessed the strongest antineoplastic potential against NSCLC cells. The major phytochemical constituents of RFL-EA-2 and RFL-EA-3 were ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, and betulinic acid. This study indicated that ursolic acid demonstrated the most efficient antineoplastic effects on NSCLC cells. Ursolic acid inhibited growth of NSCLC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and stimulated apoptosis. Apoptosis was substantiated by activation of caspase-3 and -9, and a decrease in Bcl-2 and an elevation of the Bax were also observed following ursolic acid treatment. Ursolic acid activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and then inhibited the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which controls protein synthesis and cell growth. Moreover, ursolic acid decreased the expression and/or activity of lipogenic enzymes, such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) via AMPK activation. Collectively, these data provide insight into the chemical constituents and anticancer activity of R. formosanum against NSCLC cells, which are worthy of continued study. PMID:24447325

  5. EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL ADDITIVES FROM POLYVINYL CHLORIDE POLYMER EXTRUSION PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a model to predict worker inhalation exposure due to off-gassing of additives during polyvinyl chloride (PVC) extrusion processing. ata on off-gassing of additives were reviewed in the literature, the off-gassing at normal PVC processing temperatures was stud...

  6. Chemical constituents of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ka-Li; Li, Xian; Ye, Ji; Lu, Lu; Xu, Xi-Ke; Li, Hui-Liang; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Shen, Yun-Heng

    2016-09-01

    Two new flavan derivatives tazettones C-D (1-2), one new β-coumaranone (tazettone E, 3), one new flavan (tazettone F, 4), and one new phenylpropanoid (tazettone G, 5), together with six known flavonoids (6-11), were isolated from the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis Roem. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. In addition, the structures of 1-3 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. All isolated compounds were tested for antioxidant activity by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Compounds 6-8 and 10-11 exhibited potent antioxidant activity against H2O2-induced impairment in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells at tested concentrations. PMID:27476617

  7. Exposure to chemical additives from polyvinyl chloride polymer extrusion processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, C.S.

    1989-12-01

    The report presents a model to predict worker inhalation exposure due to off-gassing of additives during polyvinyl chloride (PVC) extrusion processing. Data on off-gassing of additives were reviewed in the literature, the off-gassing at normal PVC processing temperatures was studied in the laboratory, process variables were estimated from an equipment manufacturer survey, and worker-activities and possible exposure sources were observed in an industrial survey. The purpose of the study was to develop a theoretical model to predict worker inhalation exposure to additives used during PVC extrusion processing. A model to estimate the generation rate of the additive from the polymer extrudate was derived from the mass transport equations governing diffusion. The mass flow rate, initial additive volatile weight fraction, off-gassing time, diffusivity, and slab thickness are required to determine the generation rate from the model.

  8. Chemical constituents in particulate emissions from an integrated iron and steel facility.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Chen, Chih-Yu; Ding, Jian-Yuan; Choa, Ching-Guan; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2007-08-17

    Particle emissions from four integrated iron and steel plant processes, i.e., coke making, sintering, cold forming, and hot forming, were investigated in this study. Particle compositions of 21 element species, 11 ionic species, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and 16 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed to create "fingerprints" of the particles emitted from various processes in an integrated iron and steel plant. Results indicated that element compositions (0.11-0.42 g/g), water-soluble ions (0.34-0.52 g/g), elemental carbon (0.008-0.14 g/g), organic carbon (0.02-0.06 g/g) and PAHs (0.52-6.2 mg/g) contributed to the particle mass. In general, sulfur had a higher mass contribution than the other elements, which resulted from the use of coal, flux, heavy oil, and many recycled materials in the iron and steel plant. The particle mass contribution of potassium and chlorine in the sinter plant was higher than in other processes; this may be attributed to the lower boiling point and volatility of potassium. In addition, many recycled materials were fed into the sinter plant, causing a high concentration of potassium and chlorine in the particle phase. Eight PAH compounds were analyzed in the four processes. The carcinogenic compound Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was detectable only in the sintering process. PMID:17276592

  9. Antimicrobial activities of Eugenia caryophyllata extract and its major chemical constituent eugenol against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Park, Seok-Won; Chae, Sung-Won; Song, Jae-Jun; Kim, Ho Chul

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the antimicrobial activities of both Eugenia caryophyllata (Ec) extract and its major component eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by microdilution method. Pneumococcal biofilms were detected by crystal-violet microtiter plate assay, followed by colony-forming unit counts and visualized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The synergistic effect of eugenol and penicillin was determined by checker-board method. Both the eugenol and the Ec extract inhibited pneumococcal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. The MIC and MBC of eugenol were 0.06% and 0.12%, respectively. Eugenol at a concentration of 0.12% completely killed S. pneumoniae within 60 min of exposure. The kill rate of planktonic cells was most rapid during the first 15 min of contact with eugenol. The addition of eugenol or Ec extract inhibited in vitro biofilm formation. In already established biofilms, the inhibitory effect of eugenol or Ec extract was more significant in terms of cell viability than in terms of disruption of the biofilm matrix. SEM analysis revealed non-viable and disruptive action of eugenol on the cell membrane of bacteria of biofilms. It was found that eugenol and penicillin produced a synergistic effect against S. pneumoniae. In conclusion, eugenol and Ec extract efficiently inhibited S. pneumoniae in planktonic growth and within biofilms. PMID:23594212

  10. Quantitative analysis of the relative mutagenicity of five chemical constituents of tobacco smoke in the mouse lymphoma assay.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Heflich, Robert H; Dial, Stacey L; Richter, Patricia A; Moore, Martha M; Mei, Nan

    2016-05-01

    Quantifying health-related biological effects, like genotoxicity, could provide a way of distinguishing between tobacco products. In order to develop tools for using genotoxicty data to quantitatively evaluate the risk of tobacco products, we tested five carcinogens found in cigarette smoke, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), cadmium (in the form of CdCl2), 2-amino-3,4-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), in the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA). The resulting mutagenicity dose responses were analyzed by various quantitative approaches and their strengths and weaknesses for distinguishing responses in the MLA were evaluated. L5178Y/Tk (+/-) 3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cells were treated with four to seven concentrations of each chemical for 4h. Only CdCl2 produced a positive response without metabolic activation (S9); all five chemicals produced dose-dependent increases in cytotoxicity and mutagenicity with S9. The lowest dose exceeding the global evaluation factor, the benchmark dose producing a 10%, 50%, 100% or 200% increase in the background frequency (BMD10, BMD50, BMD100 and BMD200), the no observed genotoxic effect level (NOGEL), the lowest observed genotoxic effect level (LOGEL) and the mutagenic potency expressed as a mutant frequency per micromole of chemical, were calculated for all the positive responses. All the quantitative metrics had similar rank orders for the agents' ability to induce mutation, from the most to least potent as CdCl2(-S9) > BaP(+S9) > CdCl2(+S9) > MeIQ(+S9) > 4-ABP(+S9) > NNK(+S9). However, the metric values for the different chemical responses (i.e. the ratio of the greatest value to the least value) for the different chemicals ranged from 16-fold (BMD10) to 572-fold (mutagenic potency). These results suggest that data from the MLA are capable of discriminating the mutagenicity of various constituents of cigarette smoke, and that quantitative analyses are available

  11. Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Wehnke, Amy J.; Hall, L. Flint; Campbell, Linford J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 14 sites as part of an ongoing study to monitor the water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer between the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Burley-Twin Falls-Hagerman area. The State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality, Division of INL Oversight and Radiation Control cosampled with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources and their analytical results are included in this report. The samples were collected from four domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, four irrigation wells, one observation well, and one stock well and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. Two quality-assurance samples, sequential replicates, also were collected and analyzed. None of the concentrations of radiochemical or organic-chemical constituents exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, the concentration of one inorganic-chemical constituent, nitrate (as nitrogen), in water from site MV-43 was 20 milligrams per liter which exceeded the maximum contaminant level for that constituent. Of the radiochemical and chemical concentrations analyzed for in the replicate-sample pairs, 267 of the 270 pairs (with 95 percent confidence) were statistically equivalent.

  12. Effect of Zn2+, Fe3+ and Cr3+ addition to hydroxyapatite for its application as an active constituent of sunscreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araujo, T. S.; de Souza, S. O.; de Sousa, E. M. B.

    2010-11-01

    Biocompatible phosphate materials are used in different applications like bone and dental implants, drug delivery systems and others, but could also be applied in inorganic sunscreens. Using sunscreens is extremely necessary, because long time exposure to sun can cause skin cancer. In this work chemical precipitation method has been used to produce hydroxyapatite. Cr3+, Zn2+ and Fe3+ doped samples were characterized using powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Optical Absorption techniques. X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the materials were in the expected crystalline structures. The crystallite size as measured from the X-ray pattern was 23-27 nm (±1). The absorption spectra in the ultraviolet and visible ranges indicate that appropriately doped and sized hydroxyapatite particles may have potential applications as active constituents of sunscreens.

  13. Assessment of Basalt Waste Isolation Project's borehole mud pits soils and sediments for chemical constituents: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Connelly, M.P.; Chou, C.J.

    1989-05-01

    As part of an effort to characterize the geologic formations underlying the Hanford Site, 98 boreholes were drilled in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. Review of drillings records indicated that certain drilling operations between 1973 and 1983 may have introduced hazardous substances into the environment. The suspected substances are constituents of drilling fluids that were channelled into pits adjacent to the drill sites. This report details operations at the seven boreholes determined to have the greatest potential for contamination. It also describes the study conducted to determine if hazardous chemicals are present, and if so identifies their concentrations and spatial distribution. The study was intended to provide input for decisions regarding remedial action. The data presorted herein were reviewed to the regulations of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The findings are listed. The mudpits are not considered dangerous according to the guidelines set by the Washington Department of Ecology. The pits do not require action under the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The original borehole reclamation project will proceed as planned. 9 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. A physical chemical screening model for anticipating widespread contamination of community water supply wells by gasoline constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arey, J. Samuel; Gschwend, Philip M.

    2005-01-01

    Continuing modifications of fuels like gasoline should include evaluations of the proposed constituents for their potential to damage environmental resources such as subsurface water supplies. Consequently, we developed a screening model to estimate well water concentrations and transport times for gasoline components migrating from underground fuel tank (UFT) releases to typical at-risk community water supply wells. Representative fuel release volumes and hydrogeologic characteristics were used to parameterize the transport calculation. Subsurface degradation processes were neglected in the model in order to make risk-conservative assessments. The model was tailored to individual compounds based on their abundances in gasoline, gasoline-water partition coefficients ( Kgw), and organic matter-water partition coefficients ( Kom). Transport calculations were conducted for 20 polar and 4 nonpolar compounds found in gasoline, including methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other ether oxygenates, ethanol, methanol, and some aromatic hydrocarbons. With no calibration, the screening model successfully captured the reported magnitude of MTBE contamination of at-risk community supply wells. Such screening indicates that other oxygenates would cause similar widespread problems unless they were biodegradable. Stochastic analysis of field parameter variability concluded that community supply well contamination estimates had order-of-magnitude reliability. This indicated that such pre-manufacturing analyses may reasonably anticipate widespread environmental problems and/or inspire focused investigations into chemical properties (e.g., biodegradability) before industrial adoption of new fuel formulations.

  15. Chemical constituents of Hericium erinaceum associated with the inhibitory activity against cellular senescence in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hyung Jun; Yang, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Geum Soog; Lee, Seung Eun; Lee, Dae Young; Choi, Je Hun; Kim, Seung Yu; Lee, Eun Suk; Ji, Seung Heon; Kang, Ki Sung; Park, Hye-Jin; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Hericium erinaceum is an edible and medicinal mushroom widely used in Korea, Japan, and China. On the search for biologically active compounds supporting the medicinal usage, the MeOH extract of the fruiting bodies of H. erinaceum was investigated for its chemical constituents. Six compounds were isolated and identified as hericenone D (1), (22E,24R)-5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (2), erinacerin B (3), hericenone E (4), hericenone F (5) and isohericerin (6) by comparing their spectroscopic data with previously reported values. The inhibitory effects on adriamycin-induced cellular senescence in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) of the isolates (1-6) were studied. Among the isolated compounds, ergosterol peroxide (2) reduced senescence associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity increased in HUVECs treated with adriamycin. According to experimental data obtained, the active compound may inspire the development of a new pharmacologically useful substance to be used in the treatment and prevention of age-related diseases. PMID:25676326

  16. Global analysis of chemical constituents in Shengmai injection using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Cheng, Tao-fang; Dong, Xin; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a specific and reliable method to comprehensively analyze the chemical constituents in Shengmai injection (SMI) using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The qualitative analysis of SMI was achieved on a Kromasil 100-5C18 column, and the results demonstrated that a total of sixty-two compounds in SMI were unambiguously assigned or tentatively identified, and further, twenty-one compounds including fourteen saponins, six lignans and one L-borneol-7-O-[β-D-apiofuranosyl (1→6)]-β-D-gluco-pyranoside were quantified by HPLC-MS. Furthermore, L-borneol-7-O-[β-D-apio-furanosyl (1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside, originated from Radix ophiopogonis, was identified and quantified in SMI for the first time. The method validation results indicated that the methods were simple, specific and reliable. All the investigated compounds showed good linearity (r(2)≥0.9992) with a relatively wide concentration range and acceptable recovery at 90.13-109.09%. Consequently, the developed methods were successfully applied to ten batches of SMI samples analysis. The proposed methods may provide a useful and comprehensive reference for the quality control of SMI, and thus to provide supporting data for the quality control and application of SMI clinically. PMID:26342447

  17. A physical-chemical screening model for anticipating widespread contamination of community water supply wells by gasoline constituents.

    PubMed

    Arey, J Samuel; Gschwend, Philip M

    2005-01-01

    Continuing modifications of fuels like gasoline should include evaluations of the proposed constituents for their potential to damage environmental resources such as subsurface water supplies. Consequently, we developed a screening model to estimate well water concentrations and transport times for gasoline components migrating from underground fuel tank (UFT) releases to typical at-risk community water supply wells. Representative fuel release volumes and hydrogeologic characteristics were used to parameterize the transport calculation. Subsurface degradation processes were neglected in the model in order to make risk-conservative assessments. The model was tailored to individual compounds based on their abundances in gasoline, gasoline-water partition coefficients (Kgw), and organic matter-water partition coefficients (Kom). Transport calculations were conducted for 20 polar and 4 nonpolar compounds found in gasoline, including methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other ether oxygenates, ethanol, methanol, and some aromatic hydrocarbons. With no calibration, the screening model successfully captured the reported magnitude of MTBE contamination of at-risk community supply wells. Such screening indicates that other oxygenates would cause similar widespread problems unless they were biodegradable. Stochastic analysis of field parameter variability concluded that community supply well contamination estimates had order-of-magnitude reliability. This indicated that such pre-manufacturing analyses may reasonably anticipate widespread environmental problems and/or inspire focused investigations into chemical properties (e.g., biodegradability) before industrial adoption of new fuel formulations. PMID:15588575

  18. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1992-03-06

    The objective of this research was to investigate the reaction mechanism of higher alcohol and aldehyde synthesis from syngas and the role of additives in the synthesis. An in situ IR reaction system and probe molecule technique were developed to study adsorbed species, active sites, and reaction pathway during reaction. The catalysts used for this study included silica-supported Rh, Ru, and Ni. (VC)

  19. Quantitative analysis of routine chemical constituents in tobacco by near-infrared spectroscopy and support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Cong, Qian; Xie, Yunfei; JingxiuYang; Zhao, Bing

    2008-12-15

    It is important to monitor quality of tobacco during the production of cigarette. Therefore, in order to scientifically control the tobacco raw material and guarantee the cigarette quality, fast and accurate determination routine chemical of constituents of tobacco, including the total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, the total nitrogen and so on, is needed. In this study, 50 samples of tobacco from different cultivation areas were surveyed by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and the spectral differences provided enough quantitative analysis information for the tobacco. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), artificial neural network (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM), were applied. The quantitative analysis models of 50 tobacco samples were studied comparatively in this experiment using PLSR, ANN, radial basis function (RBF) SVM regression, and the parameters of the models were also discussed. The spectrum variables of 50 samples had been compressed through the wavelet transformation technology before the models were established. The best experimental results were obtained using the (RBF) SVM regression with gamma=1.5, 1.3, 0.9, and 0.1, separately corresponds to total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, and total nitrogen, respectively. Finally, compared with the back propagation (BP-ANN) and PLSR approach, SVM algorithm showed its excellent generalization for quantitative analysis results, while the number of samples for establishing the model is smaller. The overall results show that NIR spectroscopy combined with SVM can be efficiently utilized for rapid and accurate analysis of routine chemical compositions in tobacco. Simultaneously, the research can serve as the technical support and the foundation of quantitative analysis of other NIR applications. PMID:18538628

  20. Quantitative analysis of routine chemical constituents in tobacco by near-infrared spectroscopy and support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Cong, Qian; Xie, Yunfei; Yang, Jingxiu; Zhao, Bing

    2008-12-01

    It is important to monitor quality of tobacco during the production of cigarette. Therefore, in order to scientifically control the tobacco raw material and guarantee the cigarette quality, fast and accurate determination routine chemical of constituents of tobacco, including the total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, the total nitrogen and so on, is needed. In this study, 50 samples of tobacco from different cultivation areas were surveyed by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and the spectral differences provided enough quantitative analysis information for the tobacco. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), artificial neural network (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM), were applied. The quantitative analysis models of 50 tobacco samples were studied comparatively in this experiment using PLSR, ANN, radial basis function (RBF) SVM regression, and the parameters of the models were also discussed. The spectrum variables of 50 samples had been compressed through the wavelet transformation technology before the models were established. The best experimental results were obtained using the (RBF) SVM regression with γ = 1.5, 1.3, 0.9, and 0.1, separately corresponds to total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, and total nitrogen, respectively. Finally, compared with the back propagation (BP-ANN) and PLSR approach, SVM algorithm showed its excellent generalization for quantitative analysis results, while the number of samples for establishing the model is smaller. The overall results show that NIR spectroscopy combined with SVM can be efficiently utilized for rapid and accurate analysis of routine chemical compositions in tobacco. Simultaneously, the research can serve as the technical support and the foundation of quantitative analysis of other NIR applications.

  1. 76 FR 20992 - Sun Chemical Corp.; Filing of Color Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Sun Chemical Corp.; Filing of Color Additive Petition AGENCY... announcing that Sun Chemical Corp. has filed a petition proposing that the color additive regulations for D&C... been filed by Sun Chemical Corp., 5020 Spring Grove Ave., Cincinnati, OH 45232. The petition...

  2. 15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3 Advance... a Schedule 3 chemical above the declaration threshold; (ii) You plan to produce at a plant declared under § 714.1(a)(1)(ii) of the CWCR an additional Schedule 3 chemical above the declaration...

  3. 15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3 Advance... a Schedule 3 chemical above the declaration threshold; (ii) You plan to produce at a plant declared under § 714.1(a)(1)(ii) of the CWCR an additional Schedule 3 chemical above the declaration...

  4. 15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3 Advance... a Schedule 3 chemical above the declaration threshold; (ii) You plan to produce at a plant declared under § 714.1(a)(1)(ii) of the CWCR an additional Schedule 3 chemical above the declaration...

  5. 15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3 Advance... a Schedule 3 chemical above the declaration threshold; (ii) You plan to produce at a plant declared under § 714.1(a)(1)(ii) of the CWCR an additional Schedule 3 chemical above the declaration...

  6. Chemical fingerprinting of Shexiang Baoxin Pill and simultaneous determination of its major constituents by HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection and electrospray mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shi-Kai; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Run-Hui; Zhan, Yong-Cheng

    2006-07-01

    High-performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattered detection (ELSD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS) was employed to establish chemical fingerprint of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP) and to simultaneously determinate its seven major constituents, including cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, cinobufagin, recibufogenin, and ginsenoside Rb1. The analysis was performed on a C18 column with water-acetonitrile gradient elution, and the investigated constituents were authenticated by comparing their retention times and mass spectra with those of reference compounds. The proposed method was applied to analyze nine SBP samples and produced data with acceptable linearity, precision, stability and accuracy. Both the chemical fingerprints and quantification data were used to evaluate the quality of various SBP products. The proposed method allows obtaining chemical fingerprint and quantification of multi-components in one run, and therefore can be readily utilized as a comprehensive quality control approach for traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:16819233

  7. A nudged chemistry-climate model simulation of chemical constituent distribution at northern high-latitude stratosphere observed by SMILES and MLS during the 2009/2010 stratospheric sudden warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyoshi, H.; Nakamura, T.; Miyasaka, T.; Shiotani, M.; Suzuki, M.

    2016-02-01

    Stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) is a dramatic phenomenon of the winter stratosphere in which the distribution of chemical constituents, associated chemical tendency, and transport of chemical constituents differ significantly inside and outside of the polar vortex. In this study, the chemical constituent distributions in the major SSW of 2009/2010 were simulated by the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate 3.2-Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM) nudged toward the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts-Interim Re-Analysis data. The results were compared with Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations. In addition, ozone tendency due to ozone transport and chemical ozone loss in the high-latitude lower stratosphere before and after the SSW was analyzed for the period from 1 January 2010 to 11 February 2010. The evolution and distribution of ozone and HCl inside/outside the polar vortex associated with the vortex shift to the midlatitudes in January are quite similar between SMILES and MLS. Those of ClO are also similar, considering the difference in the local time for the measurement. Analyses of the nudged CCM run indicate that inside the polar vortex at 50 hPa, the ozone concentration increased moderately owing to partial cancelation between the large negative ozone tendency due to chemical ozone destruction and large positive ozone tendency due to horizontal ozone influx from outside of the vortex as well as downward advection. In the region of a high ozone concentration with the same area as that of the polar vortex at 50 hPa, the large increase in ozone was primarily due to a downward advection of ozone. SMILES and MLS observations, nudged CCM simulations, and ozone tendency analyses revealed a highly longitudinal dependent ozone tendency at high latitudes during the SSW.

  8. Bioactivity and chemical constituents of the essential oil from Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul. against two stored insects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; You, Chun-Xue; Yang, Kai; Wang, Ying; Su, Yang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul. is a perennial herb commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. In this work, we took Dendranthema indicum as a target plant and two stored insects which include Tribolium castaneum and Stegobium paniceum adults as target insects. Essential oil obtained from Dendranthema indicum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 31 components representing 92.44% of the oil were identified and the main compounds were found to be chamazulene (15.93%), β-caryophyllene (13.78%), germacrene D (9.11%), and b-cis-farnesene (6.59%). With a further isolation, three constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as chamazulene, β-caryophyllene and eucalyptol. Significantly, in the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil and chamazulene exhibited stronger insecticidal and repellent activities against Stegobium paniceum than Tribolium castaneum. The results indicate that additional to its traditional use as Chinese medicinal herb, the essential oil of Dendranthema indicum aerial parts and isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides or repellents for control of insects in stored grains. PMID:25843281

  9. Relation of precipitation quality to storm type, and deposition of dissolved chemical constituents from precipitation in Massachusetts, 1983-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gay, F.B.; Melching, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Precipitation samples were collected for 83 storms at a rural inland site in Princeton, Mass., and 73 storms at a rural coastal site in Truro, Mass., to examine the quality of precipitation from storms and relate quality to three storm types (oceanic cyclone, continental cyclone, and cold front). At the inland site, Princeton, ranked-means of precipitation depth, storm duration, specific conductance, and concentrations and loads of hydrogen, sulfate, aluminum, bromide, and copper ions were affected by storm type. At the coastal site, Truro, ranked means of precipitation depth, storm duration, and concentrations and loads of calcium, chloride, magnesium, potassium, and sodium ions were affected by storm type. Precipitation chemistry at the coastal site was 85 percent oceanic in orgin, whereas precipitation 72 kilometers inland was 60 percent hydrogen, nitrate, and sulfate ions, reflecting fossil-fuel combustion. Concentrations and loads for specific conductance and 9 chemical constituents on an annual and seasonal basis were determined from National Atmospheric Deposition Program data for spring 1983 through winter 1985 at Quabbin (rural, inland), Waltham (suburban, inland) and Truro (rural, coastal), Massachusetts. Concentrations of magnesium, potassium, sodium, and chloride concentrations were highest at the coast and much lower inland, with very little difference between Waltham and Quabbin. Loads of ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, and hydrogen are highest at Quabbin and are about equal at Waltham and Truro. About twice as much nitrate and hydrogen and about 35 percent more sulfate is deposited at Quabbin than at Waltham or Truro; this pattern indicates that the interior of Massachusetts receives more acidic precipitation than do the eastern or the coastal areas of Massachusetts.

  10. Chemical constituents in water from wells in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1991--93

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, B.J.; Knobel, L.L.; Bartholomay, R.C.

    1995-11-01

    The US Geological Survey, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office, Idaho Branch Office, sampled 14 wells during 1991--93 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. Water samples were analyzed for manmade contaminants and naturally occurring constituents. One hundred sixty-one samples were collected from 10 ground-water monitoring wells and 4 production wells. Twenty-one quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed; 2 were blank samples and 19 were replicate samples. The two blank samples contained concentrations of six inorganic constituents that were slightly greater than the laboratory reporting levels (the smallest measured concentration of a constituent that can be reported using a given analytical method). Concentrations of other constituents in the blank samples were less than their respective reporting levels. The 19 replicate samples and their respective primary samples generated 614 pairs of analytical results for a variety of chemical and radiochemical constituents. Of the 614 data pairs, 588 were statistically equivalent at the 95% confidence level; about 96% of the analytical results were in agreement. Two pairs of turbidity measurements were not evaluated because of insufficient information and one primary sample collected in January 1992 contained tentatively identified organic compounds when the replicate sample did not.

  11. Identification and Characterization of the Major Chemical Constituents in Fructus Akebiae by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yun; Zhang, Qing; Zhu, Dan-dan; Chen, Fei; Kong, Xiu-hua; Liao, Liang

    2016-02-01

    Fructus Akebiae (FA), the dry fruit of Akebia quinata (THUNB.) DECNE., possesses potent antidepressant properties. Owing to the structural complexity, high polarity and thermal lability in plants, it is difficult and time-consuming to analyze the major chemical constituents by traditional strategies that involve extraction, isolation, purification and identification by chemical manipulations and spectroscopic methods. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS-MS) method was established for quickly identifying the chemical constituents in the extract of Fructus Akebiae. The main saponin components in the extract of Fructus Akebiae were detected with the HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS-MS in negative-ion mode. These components were further analyzed by MS(2) spectra, and compared with the corresponding reference substances and literature data. Nineteen saponins in the extract of Fructus Akebiae were well separated in one run. The new method is accurate and rapid. It can be used to identify the main chemical constituents in the extract of Fructus Akebiae and can be suitable for the quality control of Fructus Akebiae. PMID:26311648

  12. Associations between Long-Term Exposure to Chemical Constituents of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Mortality in Medicare Enrollees in the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Dominici, Francesca; Wang, Yun; Coull, Brent A.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    mortality. These results provide new evidence that chemical composition can partly explain the differential toxicity of PM2.5. Citation: Chung Y, Dominici F, Wang Y, Coull BA, Bell ML. 2015. Associations between long-term exposure to chemical constituents of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mortality in Medicare enrollees in the eastern United States. Environ Health Perspect 123:467–474; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307549 PMID:25565179

  13. Identification of the chemical constituents of Chinese medicine Yi-Xin-Shu capsule by molecular feature orientated precursor ion selection and tandem mass spectrometry structure elucidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-ping; Chen, Chang; Liu, Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun; Wu, Hong-Wei; Xiao, Hong-Bin

    2015-11-01

    The incomplete identification of the chemical components of traditional Chinese medicinal formula has been one of the bottlenecks in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. Tandem mass spectrometry has been widely used for the identification of chemical substances. Current automatic tandem mass spectrometry acquisition, where precursor ions were selected according to their signal intensity, encounters a drawback in chemical substances identification when samples contain many overlapping signals. Compounds in minor or trace amounts could not be identified because most tandem mass spectrometry information was lost. Herein, a molecular feature orientated precursor ion selection and tandem mass spectrometry structure elucidation method for complex Chinese medicine chemical constituent analysis was developed. The precursor ions were selected according to their two-dimensional characteristics of retention times and mass-to-charge ratio ranges from herbal compounds, so that all precursor ions from herbal compounds were included and more minor chemical constituents in Chinese medicine were identified. Compared to the conventional automatic tandem mass spectrometry setups, the approach is novel and can overcome the drawback for chemical substances identification. As an example, 276 compounds from the Chinese Medicine of Yi-Xin-Shu capsule were identified. PMID:26311399

  14. Direct Observation of micrometeor differential ablation: Insights into the evaporation of the meteoroid chemical constituents and their relation to ice particles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janches, D.; Dyrud, L. P.; Broadley, S. L.; Plane, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    Meteoric smoke is believed to provide a major source of condensation nuclei (CN) for the formation of ice particles in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT). Smoke particles may therefore be a necessary precursor to the formation of noctilucent clouds (NLC) and polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE). The smoke forms from the condensation of meteoric material ablated from the billions of extraterrestrial particles entering our atmosphere every day. However, it is not clear, from all the chemical constituents evaporated from the meteoroid, which is the best candidate for the formation of smoke. This makes the accurate understanding of the meteoroid ablation process a crucial step towards the complete elucidation of the microphysics of ice layers. We present the first direct observation of meteoroid differential ablation, providing evidence that this is the main mechanism through which micron-sized particles deposit their mass in the MLT. These results are obtained utilizing two state-of-the-art models to correlate temporal behavior in the received signal of observed radar meteor head-echoes with the precise moment at which a particular chemical constituent is predicted to evaporate from the main body. Prior to this work, differential ablation was merely a hypothesis and there was no known mechanism for remote sensing the individual chemical constituents of meteors so small that they create no measurable light. The coupling of a differential ablation model with an astronomical model of the meteoric flux, combined with large aperture radar observations, will therefore enable the origins of meteoroids within the solar system to be related to the deposition of their constituents in the upper atmosphere, and shed new light on their aeronomical impacts.

  15. Rapid characterization of chemical constituents and rats metabolites of the traditional Chinese patent medicine Gegen-Qinlian-Wan by UHPLC/DAD/qTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Miao, Wen-juan; Wang, Qing; Bo, Tao; Ye, Min; Qiao, Xue; Yang, Wen-zhi; Xiang, Cheng; Guan, Xiang-yu; Guo, De-an

    2013-01-01

    Gegen-Qinlian-Wan (GQW) is a popular traditional Chinese patent medicine for the treatment of diarrhea. It is composed of four herbal medicines, Puerariae Radix, Scutellariae Radix, Coptidis Rhizoma, and Glycyrrhizae Radix. In this study, a rapid and sensitive method based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-qTOF-MS) was established to characterize the chemical constituents and rats metabolites of GQW. Samples were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse Plus-C(18) column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) by gradient elution using acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase. On the basis of UV and qTOF high-accuracy mass spectral analysis, a total of 62 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized from GQW, including 42 flavonoids, 8 alkaloids, 6 triterpenoids, 3 phenylethanoid glycosides, and 3 other types. Among them, 27 compounds were confirmed by comparing with reference standards. Furthermore, metabolites in rats plasma and urine after oral administration of GQW were also analyzed. A total of 42 compounds were identified, including 29 prototypes and 13 metabolites through metabolic pathways of demethylation, methylation, hydrolysis, sulfate conjugation, and glucuronide conjugation. Glucuronidated flavonoids were the main constituents in the plasma, and were then transformed into aglycones and excreted from urine. This is the first systematic study on the chemical constituents and metabolic profiling of GQW. PMID:23146232

  16. Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil from Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Leaves Cultivated in Hidrolândia, Goiás, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Sandra Ribeiro; Oliveira, Thiago Levi Silva; Bara, Maria Teresa Freitas; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Rezende, Maria Helena; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; de Paula, José Realino

    2012-01-01

    Several studies involving the family Verbenaceae, occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado, have emphasized the popular use of many aromatic species. We highlight the use of Lippia sidoides Cham., known as “alecrim pimenta,” native to northeastern Brazil and northern Minas Gerais. Leaves of this species were collected in antropized Brazilian Cerrado area, in Hidrolândia, Goiás, and their essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and thereafter analyzed GC/MS. Among the compounds identified in this study were the most abundant oxygenated monoterpenes, followed by sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons. The oxygenated monoterpene 1,8-cineole was the major constituent followed by isoborneol and bornyl acetate. The chemical composition of essential oil described in this paper differs from that described in the literature for L. sidoides found in its native environment, where the major constituents are thymol and carvacrol. PMID:22505916

  17. Characterization of chemical constituents in Rhodiola Crenulate by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (HPLC-FT-ICR MS).

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Li, Yanting; Mao, Xinjuan; Xu, Rui; Yin, Ran

    2016-05-01

    In this work, an approach using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (HPLC-FT-ICR MS) for the identification and profiling of chemical constituents in Rhodiola crenulata was developed for the first time. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Inertsil ODS-3 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm,3 µm) using a gradient elution program, and the detection was performed on a Bruker Solarix 7.0 T mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in both positive and negative modes. Under the optimized conditions, a total of 48 chemical compounds, including 26 alcohols and their glycosides, 12 flavonoids and their glycosides, 5 flavanols and gallic acid derivatives, 4 organic acids and 1 cyanogenic glycoside were identified or tentatively characterized. The results indicated that the developed HPLC-FT-ICR MS method with ultra-high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents in R. crenulata. And it provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on R. crenulata. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27194521

  18. Effects of Jefferson Road stormwater-detention basin on loads and concentrations of selected chemical constituents in East Branch of Allen Creek at Pittsford, Monroe County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Donald A.

    2004-01-01

    Discharge and water-quality data collection at East Branch Allen Creek from 1990 through 2000 provide a basis for estimating the effect of the Jefferson Road detention basin on loads and concentrations of chemical constituents downstream from the basin. Mean monthly flow for the 5 years prior to construction of the detention basin (8.71 ft3/s) was slightly lower than after (9.08 ft3/s). The slightly higher mean monthly flow after basin construction may have been influenced by the peak flow for the period of record that occurred in July 1998 or variations in flow diverted from the canal. No statistically significant difference in average monthly mean flow before and after basin installation was indicated. Total phosphorus was the only constituent to show no months with significant differences in load after basin construction. Several constituents showed months with significantly smaller loads after basin construction than before, whereas some constituents showed certain months with smaller and some months with greater loads, after basin construction. Statistical analysis of the 'mean monthly load' for all months before and all months after construction of the detention basin showed only one constituent (ammonia + organic nitrogen) with a significantly lower load after construction and none with higher loads. Median concentrations of ammonia + organic nitrogen showed a statistically significant decrease (from 0.78 mg/L to 0.60 mg/L) after basin installation, as did nitrite + nitrate (from 1.50 mg/L to 0.96 mg/L); in contrast, the median concentration of dissolved chloride increased from 95.5 mg/L before basin installation to 109 mg/L thereafter. A trend analysis of constituent concentrations before and after installation of the detention basin showed that total phosphorus had a downward trend after installation. Analysis of the data collected at East Branch Allen Creek indicates that the Jefferson Road detention basin, in some cases, provides an improvement

  19. Comprehensive chemical characterization of Rapé tobacco products: Nicotine, un-ionized nicotine, tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and flavor constituents.

    PubMed

    Stanfill, Stephen B; Oliveira da Silva, André Luiz; Lisko, Joseph G; Lawler, Tameka S; Kuklenyik, Peter; Tyx, Robert E; Peuchen, Elizabeth H; Richter, Patricia; Watson, Clifford H

    2015-08-01

    Rapé, a diverse group of smokeless tobacco products indigenous to South America, is generally used as a nasal snuff and contains substantial amount of plant material with or without tobacco. Previously uncharacterized, rapé contains addictive and harmful chemicals that may have public health implications for users. Here we report % moisture, pH, and the levels of total nicotine, un-ionized nicotine, flavor-related compounds, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for manufactured and hand-made rapé. Most rapé products were mildly acidic (pH 5.17-6.23) with total nicotine ranging from 6.32 to 47.6 milligram per gram of sample (mg/g). Calculated un-ionized nicotine ranged from 0.03 to 18.5 mg/g with the highest values associated with hand-made rapés (pH 9.75-10.2), which contain alkaline ashes. In tobacco-containing rapés, minor alkaloid levels and Fourier transform infrared spectra were used to confirm the presence of Nicotiana rustica, a high nicotine tobacco species. There was a wide concentration range of TSNAs and PAHs among the rapés analyzed. Several TSNAs and PAHs identified in the products are known or probable carcinogens according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Milligram quantities of some non-tobacco constituents, such as camphor, coumarin, and eugenol, warrant additional evaluation. PMID:25934468

  20. Evaluation of military field-water quality: Volume 2: Constituents of military concern from natural and anthropogenic sources: Part 3: Inorganic chemicals and physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Dainels, J.I.; Hirabayashi, J.M.; Crow, N.B.; Layton, D.W.; Ricker, Y.E.

    1988-01-01

    In this part of Volume 2 we identify those inorganic chemical constituents and physical properties of field-water supplies that can be present at levels that could degrade the performance of exposed military personnel. To identify these inorganic constituents and physical properties of most concern, we employed a screening methodology for comparing measured concentrations of inorganic chemicals in US and foreign surface and ground waters against estimated threshold concentrations that might produce toxic and/or organoleptic effects in humans. In order to complement the results derived from the screening comparisons and identify the physical properties of most concern in field water we examined the occurrence, toxicity, and organoleptic (e.g., color, odor, taste) data contained in review literature addressing each substance of interest. This combination of screening and survey of the review literature revealed that only arsenic, chloride, cyanide, magnesium, sulfate, total dissolved solids (TDS), and turbidity and color are likely to be of concern to military personnel consuming field water. Thus, only the inorganic substances and physical properties of water with field drinking-water-quality standards in current versions of military manuals pose potential health risks of significance to exposed troops. Consequently, up-to-date criteria documents and recommendations for field drinking-water-quality standards need to be prepared for these inorganic constituents and physical properties. We also determined that, with the possible exception of cyanide, inorganic constituents of field water will not produce performance-degrading health effects in military personnel exposed externally as a result of swimming, showering, or bathing. 95 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. MIXTURES OF THYROID DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: TESTING ADDITIVITY OF HEPATIC INDUCERS AND THYROID PEROXIDASE INHIBITORS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed to chemical mixtures via diet, occupation, and the environment. Previous data demonstrated that low doses of polycyclic halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) acting through similar mechanisms result in an additive reduction of thyroxine (T4). If xenobioti...

  2. 15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals. 714.3 Section 714.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS...

  3. Determination of the chemical constituents of the different processed products of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Rhizomes by high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ying; Zhao, Lulu; Lin, Dongju; Liu, Yuyang; Zhang, Mengyu; Song, ShaoJiang

    2016-04-01

    In this work, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a hybrid quadrupole time of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS/MS) was used to study chemical compositions of different processed products of Rhizoma Anemarrhenae (RA). A Grace Alltima(TM) C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) was used for separation. Mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile, using gradient elution. ESI-MS data was acquired in both positive and negative mode. The experiment was established on the basis of a series of reference substances (two xanthone and seven saponins) to qualitatively identify the chemical compounds of different processed products of RA by MS analysis. There was no difference in the type of chemical constituents between different processed products of RA. A total of 25 compounds were identified, including four xanthones, 21 steroidal saponins and eight pairs of isomers. PMID:26230281

  4. CLAYFORM: a FORTRAN 77 computer program apportioning the constituents in the chemical analysis of a clay or other silicate mineral into a structural formula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodine, M.W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The FORTRAN 77 computer program CLAYFORM apportions the constituents of a conventional chemical analysis of a silicate mineral into a user-selected structure formula. If requested, such as for a clay mineral or other phyllosilicate, the program distributes the structural formula components into appropriate default or user-specified structural sites (tetrahedral, octahedral, interlayer, hydroxyl, and molecular water sites), and for phyllosilicates calculates the layer (tetrahedral, octahedral, and interlayer) charge distribution. The program also creates data files of entered analyses for subsequent reuse. ?? 1987.

  5. Bioactive chemical constituents of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes extract inhibit the growth of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Lateef, Ezzat; Mahmoud, Faten; Hammam, Olfat; El-Ahwany, Eman; El-Wakil, Eman; Kandil, Sherihan; Abu Taleb, Hoda; El-Sayed, Mortada; Hassenein, Hanaa

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify the chemical constituents of the methanolic extract of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes and their inhibitory effect on a hepatoma cell line. The methanolic extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify the volatile constituents and the other part of the same extract was subjected to liquid column chromatographic separation to isolate curcumin. The inhibition of cell growth in the hepatoma cell line and the cytopathological changes were studied. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fifty compounds in the methanolic extract of C. longa. The major compounds were ar-turmerone (20.50 %), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.20 %) and curcumenol (5.11 %). Curcumin was identified using IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The inhibition of cell growth by curcumin (IC50 = 41.69 ± 2.87 μg mL-1) was much more effective than that of methanolic extract (IC50 = 196.12 ± 5.25 μg mL-1). Degenerative and apoptotic changes were more evident in curcumin- treated hepatoma cells than in those treated with the methanol extract. Antitumor potential of the methanolic extract may be attributed to the presence of sesquiterpenes and phenolic constituents including curcumin (0.051 %, 511.39 μg g-1 dried methanol extract) in C. longa rhizomes. PMID:27383887

  6. A rapid and sensitive UHPLC-FT-ICR MS/MS method for identification of chemical constituents in Rhodiola crenulata extract, rat plasma and rat brain after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Li, Yanting; Ma, Li; Liu, Tianfeng; Wu, Yawen; Xu, Rui; Song, Aihua; Yin, Ran

    2016-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive UHPLC-FT-ICR MS/MS method was developed for the first time to analyze the extract of Rhodiola crenulata and the constituents absorbed into rat blood and brain after oral administration. Under the optimized conditions, a total of 64 chemical constituents were identified or tentatively characterized in vitro in 30min, and also 24 and 9 chemical constituents were detected in rat plasma and brain respectively, by comparing the retention time, accurate mass and/or MS/MS data of blank and dosed sample. The results indicated that the developed UHPLC-FT-ICR MS/MS method was suitable for detection and identifying the chemical constituents in Rhodiola crenulata extract, rat plasma and rat brain, and it could be used as a powerful and reliable analytical strategy for rapid identification of chemical constituents in vitro and in vivo for other traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCMs). Furthermore, the detected chemical constituents in rat brain could be speculated to be the pharmacodynamic substances of Rhodiola crenulata for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it could also provide useful chemical information for further mass spectrometry imaging and bioactive substances research on Rhodiola crenulata. PMID:27591603

  7. Explanation of non-additive effects in mixtures of similar mode of action chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Masashi; Yokomizo, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Many models have been developed to predict the combined effect of drugs and chemicals. Most models are classified into two additive models: independent action (IA) and concentration addition (CA). It is generally considered if the modes of action of chemicals are similar then the combined effect obeys CA; however, many empirical studies report nonlinear effects deviating from the predictions by CA. Such deviations are termed synergism and antagonism. Synergism, which leads to a stronger toxicity, requires more careful management, and hence it is important to understand how and which combinations of chemicals lead to synergism. In this paper, three types of chemical reactions are mathematically modeled and the cause of the nonlinear effects among chemicals with similar modes of action was investigated. Our results show that combined effects obey CA only when the modes of action are exactly the same. Contrary to existing knowledge, combined effects are generally nonlinear even if the modes of action of the chemicals are similar. Our results further show that the nonlinear effects vanish out when the chemical concentrations are low, suggesting that the current management procedure of assuming CA is rarely inappropriate because environmental concentrations of chemicals are generally low. PMID:26134580

  8. Thyroid-hormone-disrupting chemicals: evidence for dose-dependent additivity or synergism.

    PubMed

    Crofton, Kevin M; Craft, Elena S; Hedge, Joan M; Gennings, Chris; Simmons, Jane E; Carchman, Richard A; Carter, W Hans; DeVito, Michael J

    2005-11-01

    Endocrine disruption from environmental contaminants has been linked to a broad spectrum of adverse outcomes. One concern about endocrine-disrupting xenobiotics is the potential for additive or synergistic (i.e., greater-than-additive) effects of mixtures. A short-term dosing model to examine the effects of environmental mixtures on thyroid homeostasis has been developed. Prototypic thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers have been shown to alter thyroid hormone homeostasis in this model primarily by up-regulating hepatic catabolism of thyroid hormones via at least two mechanisms. Our present effort tested the hypothesis that a mixture of TDCs will affect serum total thyroxine (T4) concentrations in a dose-additive manner. Young female Long-Evans rats were dosed via gavage with 18 different polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons [2 dioxins, 4 dibenzofurans, and 12 PCBs, including dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like PCBs] for 4 consecutive days. Serum total T4 was measured via radioimmunoassay in samples collected 24 hr after the last dose. Extensive dose-response functions (based on seven to nine doses per chemical) were determined for individual chemicals. A mixture was custom synthesized with the ratio of chemicals based on environmental concentrations. Serial dilutions of this mixture ranged from approximately background levels to 100-fold greater than background human daily intakes. Six serial dilutions of the mixture were tested in the same 4-day assay. Doses of individual chemicals that were associated with a 30% TH decrease from control (ED30), as well as predicted mixture outcomes were calculated using a flexible single-chemical-required method applicable to chemicals with differing dose thresholds and maximum-effect asymptotes. The single-chemical data were modeled without and with the mixture data to determine, respectively, the expected mixture response (the additivity model

  9. The effect of lactic acid bacterial starter culture and chemical additives on wilted rice straw silage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Su; Shi, Wei; Huang, Lin-Ting; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are suitable for rice straw silage fermentation, but have been studied rarely, and rice straw as raw material for ensiling is difficult because of its disadvantages, such as low nutrition for microbial activities and low abundances of natural populations of LAB. So we investigated the effect of application of LAB and chemical additives on the fermentation quality and microbial community of wilted rice straw silage. Treatment with chemical additives increased the concentrations of crude protein (CP), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), acetic acid and lactic acid, reduced the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), but did not effectively inhibit the growth of spoilage organisms. Inoculation with LABs did not improve the nutritional value of the silage because of poor growth of LABs in wilted rice straw. Inoculation with LAB and addition of chemical materials improved the quality of silage similar to the effects of addition of chemical materials alone. Growth of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria was inhibited by this mixed treatment and the LAB gradually dominated the microbial community. In summary, the fermentation quality of wilted rice straw silage had improved by addition of LAB and chemical materials. PMID:26429595

  10. The associations between birth weight and exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its chemical constituents during pregnancy: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Luo, Xiping; Zhao, Chunmei; Zhang, Bo; Tao, Jun; Yang, Zuyao; Ma, Wenjun; Liu, Tao

    2016-04-01

    We performed this meta-analysis to estimate the associations of maternal exposure to PM2.5 and its chemical constituents with birth weight and to explore the sources of heterogeneity in regard to the findings of these associations. A total of 32 studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, PUBMED, Embase, China Biological Medicine and Wanfang electronic databases before April 2015. We estimated the statistically significant associations of reduced birth weight (β = -15.9 g, 95% CI: -26.8, -5.0) and LBW (OR = 1.090, 95% CI: 1.032, 1.150) with PM2.5 exposure (per 10 μg/m(3) increment) during the entire pregnancy. Trimester-specific analyses showed negative associations between birth weight and PM2.5 exposure during the second (β = -12.6 g) and third (β = -10.0 g) trimesters. Other subgroup analyses indicated significantly different pooled-effect estimates of PM2.5 exposure on birth weight in studies with different exposure assessment methods, study designs and study settings. We further observed large differences in the pooled effect estimates of the PM2.5 chemical constituents for birth weight decrease and LBW. We concluded that PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight, and late pregnancy might be the critical window. Some specific PM2.5 constituents may have larger toxic effects on fetal weight. Exposure assessment methods, study designs and study settings might be important sources of the heterogeneity among the included studies. PMID:26736054

  11. Steam sauna and mother roasting in Lao PDR: practices and chemical constituents of essential oils of plant species used in postpartum recovery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fundamental in traditional postpartum recovery in Lao PDR is the use of hotbeds, mother roasting, steam sauna and steam baths. During these treatments medicinal plants play a crucial role, but little has been published about how the treatments are carried out precisely, which species are used, the medicinal properties of these species, and the medicinal efficacy of their chemical constituents. Methods Sixty-five interviews, in 15 rural villages, with women of 4 different ethnic groups were conducted to survey confinement rituals, and postpartum plant use and salience. Essential oils from the main species used were extracted using steam distillation and the main chemical constituents characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results A total of 10 different species were used by three or more of the ethnic groups included in this study. All species were used in steam sauna and bath, but only 3 species were used in hotbed and mother roasting. Essential oils of Amomum villosum, Amomum microcarpum and Blumea balsamifera were found to contain significant amounts of the following terpenes: β-pinene, camphor, bornyl acetate, borneol, linalool, D-limonene, fenchone, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpinene. Conclusions Many of these terpenes have documented antimicrobial and analgesic properties, and some have also synergistic interactions with other terpenes. The mode of application in hotbed and mother roasting differs from the documented mechanisms of action of these terpenes. Plants in these two practices are likely to serve mainly hygienic purposes, by segregating the mother from infection sources such as beds, mats, stools, cloth and towels. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through inhalation of essential oils vapors can possibly have medicinal efficacy, but is unlikely to alleviate the ailments commonly encountered during postpartum convalescence. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through dermal condensation of essential oils, and steam bath

  12. Chemical TOPAZ: Modifications to the heat transfer code TOPAZ: The addition of chemical reaction kinetics and chemical mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A.L. III.

    1990-06-07

    This is a report describing the modifications which have been made to the heat flow code TOPAZ to allow the inclusion of thermally controlled chemical kinetics. This report is broken into parts. The first part is an introduction to the general assumptions and theoretical underpinning that were used to develop the model. The second section describes the changes that have been implemented into the code. The third section is the users manual for the input for the code. The fourth section is a compilation of hints, common errors, and things to be aware of while you are getting started. The fifth section gives a sample problem using the new code. This manual addenda is written with the presumption that most readers are not fluent with chemical concepts. Therefore, we shall in this section endeavor to describe the requirements that must be met before chemistry can occur and how we have modeled the chemistry in the code.

  13. Singular vector based targeted observations of chemical constituents: description and first application of the EURAD-IM-SVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goris, N.; Elbern, H.

    2015-08-01

    Measurements of the large dimensional chemical state of the atmosphere provide only sparse snapshots of the state of the system due to their typically insufficient temporal and spatial density. In order to optimize the measurement configurations despite those limitations, the present work describes the identification of sensitive states of the chemical system as optimal target areas for adaptive observations. For this purpose, the technique of singular vector analysis (SVA), which has been proved effective for targeted observations in numerical weather predication, is implemented into the chemical transport model EURAD-IM (EURopean Air pollution and Dispersion - Inverse Model) yielding the EURAD-IM-SVA. Besides initial values, emissions are investigated as critical simulation controlling targeting variables. For both variants, singular vectors are applied to determine the optimal placement for observations and moreover to quantify which chemical compounds have to be observed with preference. Based on measurements of the airship based ZEPTER-2 campaign, the EURAD-IM-SVA has been evaluated by conducting a comprehensive set of model runs involving different initial states and simulation lengths. Since the considered cases are restricted in terms of considered chemical compounds and selected areas, they allow for a retracing of the results and a confirmation of their correctness. Our analysis shows that the optimal placement for observations of chemical species is not entirely determined by mere transport and mixing processes. Rather, a combination of initial chemical concentrations, chemical conversions, and meteorological processes determine the influence of chemical compounds and regions. We furthermore demonstrate that the optimal placement of observations of emission strengths is highly dependent on the location of emission sources and that the benefit of including emissions as target variables outperforms the value of initial value optimisation with growing

  14. Chemical constituents in sediment in Lake Pontchartrain and in street mud and canal sediment in New Orleans, Louisiana, following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Horowitz, Arthur J.; Skrobialowski, Stanley C.; Foreman, William T.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Elrick, Kent A.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Smith, James J.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    Samples of street mud, suspended and bottom sediment in canals discharging to Lake Ponchartrain, and suspended and bottom sediment in the lake were collected and analyzed for chemical constituents to help evaluate the effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and the subsequent unwatering of New Orleans, Louisiana. The approach used for sampling and analysis of chemical data for the study is presented herein. Radionuclides, major and trace elements, and numerous organic compounds in sediment were analyzed. The organic compounds include organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, urban waste indicator compounds, and current-use pesticides. Methods for the analysis of urban waste indicator compounds and current-use pesticides in sediment were developed only recently.

  15. Analysis of the chemical constituents and rats metabolites after oral administration of Nauclea officinalis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fenxia; Chen, Jiaquan; Wang, Hui; Jia, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxia; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhai, Xiaoting; Xu, Jindi; Tan, Wei; Ning, Qing; Gu, Junfei

    2015-12-15

    Nauclea officinalis has long been used in China for the treatment of cold, fever, swelling of throat, pink eyes, and so on; however, the in vivo integrated metabolism of its multiple bioactive components remains unknown. In this paper, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) method was established to identify chemical constituents in N. officinalis and metabolites in rat biological fluids after oral administration of N. officinalis. First, 40 chemical constituents in N. officinalis were detected within 19min by UPLC-QTOF/MS. Among them, 18 alkaloids and 7 phenolic acids and iridoids were identified or tentatively characterized. Secondly, 22 metabolites were identified after oral administration of N. officinalis extract, including 3, 9, 6 and 4 metabolites in the plasma, feces, urine and bile samples, respectively. Finally, the metabolic pathway was proposed, which were the hydroxylation, the hydroxylation of deglycosyation product of parent compound, the hydroxylation and dehydrogenation product of parent compound, and acetylation. Among these, hydroxylation was considered as the main metabolic processes. This work suggests that the integrative metabolism approach makes a useful template for drug metabolism research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). PMID:26571455

  16. Hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1989 through 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Orr, B.R.; Liszewski, M.J.; Jensen, R.G.

    1995-08-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains a continuous monitoring network at the INEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1989-91. Water in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer moves principally through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer is recharged principally from irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, and ground-water inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins. Water levels in wells throughout the INEL generally declined during 1989-91 due to drought. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEL decreased or remained constant during 1989-91. Decreased concentrations are attributed to reduced rates of radioactive-waste disposal, sorption processes, radioactive decay, and changes in waste-disposal practices. Detectable concentrations of chemical constituents in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEL were variable during 1989-91. Sodium and chloride concentrations in the southern part of the INEL increased slightly during 1989-91 because of increased waste-disposal rates and a lack of recharge from the Big Lost River. Plumes of 1,1,1-trichloroethane have developed near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex as a result of waste disposal practices.

  17. Elucidating the Chemical Complexity of Organic Aerosol Constituents Measured During the Southeastern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, L.; Isaacman, G. A.; Spielman, S. R.; Worton, D. R.; Zhang, H.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Wilson, K. R.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    Thousands of volatile organic compounds are uniquely created in the atmosphere, many of which undergo chemical transformations that result in more highly-oxidized and often lower vapor pressure species. These species can contribute to secondary organic aerosol, a complex mixture of organic compounds that is still not chemically well-resolved. Organic aerosol collected on filters taken during the Southeastern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) constitute hundreds of unique chemical compounds. Some of these include known anthropogenic and biogenic tracers characterized using standardized analytical techniques (e.g. GC-MS, UPLC, LC-MS), but the majority of the chemical diversity has yet to be explored. By employing analytical techniques involving sample derivatization and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) with high-resolution-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-MS), we elucidate the chemical complexity of the organic aerosol matrix along the volatility and polarity grids. Further, by utilizing both electron impact (EI) and novel soft vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization mass spectrometry, a greater fraction of the organic mass is fully speciated. The GC x GC-HR-ToF-MS with EI/VUV technique efficiently provides an unprecedented level of speciation for complex ambient samples. We present an extensive chemical characterization and quantification of organic species that goes beyond typical atmospheric tracers in the SOAS samples. We further demonstrate that complex organic mixtures can be chemically deconvoluted by elucidation of chemical formulae, volatility, functionality, and polarity. These parameters provide insight into the sources (anthropogenic vs. biogenic), chemical processes (oxidation pathways), and environmental factors (temperature, humidity), controlling organic aerosol growth in the Southeastern United States.

  18. Methods and additives for delaying the release of chemicals in aqueous fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, J.W.; Briscoe, J.E.; Elphingstone, E.A.

    1980-05-13

    Additives are provided for bringing about the delayed release of a chemical such as a gel breaker or demulsifier in an aqueous fluid such as a gelled oil well hydraulic fracturing or fracture-acidizing fluid. The additives are pelletized solids consisting of the chemical to be released such as sodium laryl sulfate. A gelling agent capable of being hydrated such as a polysaccharide, and a breaker for the gel produced by the gelling agent when hydrated such as a persulfate or an enzyme. 33 claims.

  19. Chemical constituents of Chinese natural medicine, morindae radix, the dried roots of morinda officinalis how.: structures of morindolide and morofficinaloside.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Yamaguchi, S; Nishisaka, H; Yamahara, J; Murakami, N

    1995-09-01

    A new iridoid lactone, morindolide, and a new iridoid glucoside, morofficinaloside, have been isolated from a Chinese natural medicine, Morindae Radix, the dried root of Morinda officinalis How. together with a number of known compounds: five anthraquinones, four iridoid glucosides, a monoterpene glycoside, two sterols, an ursane-type triterpene, and a lactone compound. The chemical structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. PMID:7586069

  20. Tests of proprietary chemical additives as antiscalants for hypersaline geothermal brine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrar, J.E.; Locke, F.E.; Otto, C.H. Jr.; Deutscher, S.B.; Frey, W.P.; Lorensen, L.E.; Snell, E.O.; Lim, R.; Ryon, R.W.; Quong, R.

    1980-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory brine treatment test system has been used to carry out a short-term evaluation of a number of proprietary chemical additives as antiscalants for the hypersaline brine of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. In addition, a test of sludge seeding was conducted as a technique for scale control. The effect of each additive on the rate of precipitation of silica from the effluent brine at 90/sup 0/C was measured, and scaling rates of brine treated with nine of the additives were measured at 125 and 210/sup 0/C. Corrosion rates of mild steel in the treated brines were estimated using Petrolite linear polarization resistance equipment. None of the additives had a direct effect on the rates of silica precipitation, and none had a beneficial effect on the scale formed at 210/sup 0/C. At 125/sup 0/C, two additives, Drewsperse 747 (Drew Chemical) and SC-210 (Southwest Specialty Chemicals) afforded a marginal degree of scale reduction. The Austral-Erwin additive diminished the adherence of scale formed at points of high velocity fluid flow but increased solids accumulation at other points. Sludge seeding shows some promise because it reduces the degree of silica supersaturation of the brine. Results of analyses of solids precipitated from effluent brines (Woolsey No. 1 and acidified Magmamax No. 1) are presented.

  1. Characterization of chemical constituents and rats metabolites of an alkaloidal extract of Alstonia scholaris leaves by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jing; Shen, Hong-Mei; Wang, Qi; Qian, Yi; Guo, Hong-Cheng; Li, Kai; Qiao, Xue; Guo, De-An; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Ye, Min

    2016-07-15

    Alstonia scholaris has been used in "Dai" ethnic medicine to treat chronic respiratory diseases for a long history, and the major bioactive constituents are alkaloids. An alkaloidal extract of A. scholaris leaves (AAS) has been developed into an investigational new drug, and has been approved for phase I/II clinical trials by China Food and Drug Administration. However, little is known on the chemical composition and in vivo metabolism of AAS, thus far. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/qTOF-MS) method was established to characterize the chemical constituents of AAS. Samples were separated on an ACQUITY UPLC CSH column (2.1×100mm, 1.7μm) with acetonitrile and water containing 0.3% formic acid as the mobile phase. On the basis of high-accuracy mass spectral analysis, a total of 35 alkaloids were characterized from AAS, including 11 scholaricine-type, 9 vallesamine-type, 12 picrinine-type, and 3 tubotaiwine-type alkaloids. Furthermore, the metabolic pathways of 4 representative alkaloids in rats were studied. They mainly undertook hydroxylation and glucuronidation reactions. Based on the above metabolic pathways, the metabolism of AAS (10mg/kg) in rats after oral administration was studied by LC/MS. A total of 33 compounds in plasma, 40 compounds in urine, and 38 compounds in feces were characterized. The results indicated that scholaricine-type alkaloids could get into circulation more readily than the other types. This is the first systematic study on chemical profiling and metabolites identification of AAS. PMID:26275898

  2. Reducing the matrix effects in chemical analysis: fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliano, Enea; Meija, Juris

    2016-04-01

    The combination of isotope dilution and mass spectrometry has become an ubiquitous tool of chemical analysis. Often perceived as one of the most accurate methods of chemical analysis, it is not without shortcomings. Current isotope dilution equations are not capable of fully addressing one of the key problems encountered in chemical analysis: the possible effect of sample matrix on measured isotope ratios. The method of standard addition does compensate for the effect of sample matrix by making sure that all measured solutions have identical composition. While it is impossible to attain such condition in traditional isotope dilution, we present equations which allow for matrix-matching between all measured solutions by fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods.

  3. Chemical fingerprinting and quantitative constituent analysis of Siwu decoction categorized formulae by UPLC-QTOF/MS/MS and HPLC-DAD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Siwu decoction categorized formulae (SWDCF) are widely used for treating gynecological diseases. This study aims to elucidate the differences of bioactive constituents in SWDCF by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC - QTOF - MS /MS) and HPLC-DAD. Methods An efficient method based on UPLC - QTOF - MS /MS was developed for identifying the chemical profiles of SWDCF. HPLC-DAD method was used for quantifying seven chemical markers in SWDCF. Results Eighty four components were identified or characterized, including ten organic acids, thirty glycosides (monoterpene or iridoid or phenylpropanoids glycosides), fourteen lactones, eighteen flavonoids, and eleven alkaloids in the complex system. The datasets of tR-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with supervised orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis to compare these decoction samples. After a clear classification was established, OPLS-DA was performed and 16 common components with relative quantity in SWDCF samples were determined. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, and senkyunolide I were selected as the chemical markers to identify SWDCF by HPLC-DAD. Conclusion The chemical profiles with 84 components in SWDCF, including monoterpene glycosides, acetophenones, galloyl glucoses, even some isomers in the complex system were characterized by UPLC–QTOF–MS/MS. PMID:23453004

  4. Chemical constituents of cape aloe and their synergistic growth-inhibiting effect on Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kametani, Saeda; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko; Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Kennedy, David Opare; Honzawa, Mayumi; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao

    2007-05-01

    The constituents of cape aloe were investigated after a preliminary screening of the growth-inhibiting effect on Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC) of several extracts of this plant. Ten compounds were isolated from the dichloromethane (CH(2)Cl(2)) extract that showed the strongest activity, and their structures were elucidated as aloe-emodin (1), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (2), p-hydroxyacetophenone (3), pyrocatechol (4), 10-oxooctadecanoic acid (5), 10-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid (6), methyl 10-hydroxyoctadecanoate (7), 7-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylchromone (8), furoaloesone (9), and 2-acetonyl-8-(2-furoylmethyl)-7-hydroxy-5-methylchromone (10) based on MS and various NMR spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 2-7 were isolated for the first time from cape aloe. Compounds 4-7 and 10 showed a significant growth-inhibiting effect, and compound 1 exhibited a remarkable synergistic effect on compounds 8-10, which was not observed with the treatment by each compound alone on EATC. These results suggest that the strong growth-inhibiting effect of the CH(2)Cl(2) extract was dependent not on one compound alone, but on the synergistic effect from the combination of compound 1 and the other compounds. PMID:17485848

  5. GENOTOXICITY IN MOUSE LYMPHOMA CELLS OF CHEMICAL CAPABLE OF MICHAEL ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical agents that react via the Michael addition reaction have important industrial and consumer applications. ne of them, acrylamide, is used largely in the production of polymers as a flocculent in sewage and wastewater treatment, for coagulant treatment of potable water and...

  6. PM2.5 Chemical Constituents and Mortality in 49 U.S. Communities from 2001 to 2005

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Short-term exposure to ambient particulate matter less than 2.5 urn in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) is consistently associated with adverse health outcomes in population studies. The PM2.5 mass represents a chemically diverse mixture of pollutants and there is limited...

  7. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bartholomay; B. V. Twining; L. J. Campbell

    1999-06-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from 2 domestic wells, 12 irrigation wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public supply well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the reported radiochemical or chemical constituent concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the respective reporting levels. Most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels.

  8. Chemical and toxicological characterization of organic constituents in fluidized-bed and pulverized coal combustion: a topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Chess, E.K.; Later, D.W.; Wilson, B.W.; Harris, W.R.; Remsen, J.F.

    1984-04-01

    Coal combustion fly ash from both conventional pulverized coal combustion (PCC) and fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) have been characterized as to their organic constituents and microbial mutagenic activity. The PCC fly ash was collected from a commercial utility generating plant using a low sulfur coal. The FBC fly ash was from a bench-scale developmental unit at the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. Bulk samples of each fly ash were extracted using benzene/methanol and further separated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Subfractions from the HPLC separation were analyzed by gas chromatography using both element-specific nitrogen-phosphorus detectors and flame ionization detectors. Microbial mutagenicity assay results indicated that the crude organic extracts were mutagenic, and that both the specific activity and the overall activity of the PCC material was greater than that of the FBC material. Comparison of results from assays using S. typhimurium, TA1538NR indicated that nitrated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) were responsible for much of the mutagenic activity of the PCC material. Similar results were obtained for assays of the FBC organic extract with standard and nitroreductase-deficient strains of S. typhimurium, TA100 and TA1538. Mutagenically active HPLC fractions were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and GC mass spectrometry (GC/MS), as well as probe inlet low and high resolutions MS. The discovery and identification of nitrated, oxygenated PAC are important because the presence of both nitro and/or keto functionalities on certain PAC has been shown to confer or enhance mutagenic activity.

  9. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaf essential oil of Juglans regia L. and its constituents.

    PubMed

    Rather, Manzoor A; Dar, Bilal A; Dar, Mohd Yousuf; Wani, Bilal A; Shah, Wajahat A; Bhat, Bilal A; Ganai, Bashir A; Bhat, Khursheed A; Anand, Rajneesh; Qurishi, Mushtaq A

    2012-10-15

    The essential oil from the leaves of Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae) growing wild in Kashmir (India) was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by a combination of capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 38 compounds, representing 92.7% of the oil, were identified and the major components were found to be α-pinene (15.1%), β-pinene (30.5%), β-caryophyllene (15.5%) germacrene D (14.4%) and limonene (3.6%). The essential oil and the main individual constituents were screened for antibacterial activity and the essential oil evaluated for antioxidant activity. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using the disc diffusion and microdilution methods against a group of clinically significant Gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis MTCC-435, Bacillus subtilis MTCC-441, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Proteus vulgaris MTCC-321, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC-1688, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dyssenteriae, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli). The essential oil and its major components exhibited broad spectrum inhibition against all the bacterial strains with Gram-positive being more susceptible to the oil than Gram-negative bacteria. Antioxidant activity of the oil was evaluated by the scavenging effect on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radicals. In general, the essential oil exhibited high antioxidant activity which was comparable to the reference standards at the same dose (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl toluene, BHT) with IC(50) values of 34.5 and 56.4μg/ml calculated by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays respectively. PMID:22951389

  10. Studies in the Chemical Constituents of Azadirachta indica Part II: Isolation and Structure of the New Triterpenoid Azadirachtol.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, S; Siddiqui, B S; Faizi, S

    1985-12-01

    A new triterpenoid named azadirachtol ( 1) has been isolated from the fruits of AZADIRACHTA INDICA Juss. (neem) of which the structure is reported on the basis of chemical and spectral data. Azadirachtol appears to be the first apo-tirucallol (apo-euphol) derivative possessing an eight carbons side-chain with an oxygenated ring system isolated from neem. Moreover, it is the first instance of the isolation of an 11-hydroxy triterpenoid from any of the various parts of neem. PMID:17345262

  11. Chemical constituents of Cynanchum wilfordii and the chemotaxonomy of two species of the family Asclepiadacease, C. wilfordii and C. auriculatum.

    PubMed

    Jiang, YanFu; Choi, Hyun Gyu; Li, Ying; Park, Yu Mi; Lee, Jong Hwa; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Je-Hyun; Son, Jong Keun; Na, MinKyun; Lee, Seung Ho

    2011-12-01

    Definitive identification of original plant species is important for standardizing herbal medicine. Although only the dried roots of Cynanchum wilfordii (Asclepiadaceae) are prescribed as Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix in Korean Pharmacopoeia, the roots of C. wilfordii and C. auriculatum are often misused in the Korean herbal market due to their morphological similarity and similar name. Therefore, it would be very useful to discover an effective chemical marker for the identification of the two species. To this end, we carried out a phytochemical study on the roots of C. wilfordii. As a result, twenty compounds were isolated from the roots of C. wilfordii and their chemical structures were identified as β-sitosterol (1), wilfoside C1N (2), wilfoside C3N (3), wilfoside K1N (4), methyleugenol (5), wilfoside C1G (6), cynauriculoside A (7), daucosterol (8), 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone (9), cynandione A (10), 2,5-dihydroxyacetophenone (11), acetovanillone (12), p-hydroxyacetophenone (13), sucrose (14), conduritol F (15), geniposide (16), succinic acid (17), 3-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)-2,3-dihydro-6H-1,3-oxazine-2,6-dione (18), bungeiside A (19), cynanoneside B (20). Among them, compounds 15, 16, 18, 19, and 20 were isolated for the first time from this species. Furthermore, conduritol F (15) was demonstrated to be contained only in C. wilfordii. Therefore, it may be useful as a chemical marker to identify the two species C. wilfordii and C. auriculatum. PMID:22210026

  12. Presence of chemical additives and microbial inhibition capacity in grapefruit seed extracts used in apiculture.

    PubMed

    Spinosi, Valerio; Semprini, Primula; Langella, Vincenzo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Calvarese, Silvano

    2007-01-01

    American foulbrood, caused by Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (White 1906) is one of the most serious diseases of honey bees, causing beekeepers and health workers to make difficult, complex decisions and leading to the development of 'organic' treatments, such as grapefruit seed extract, with minor residue problems in the end product. This study evaluates the chemical composition of grapefruit seed extracts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the detection of benzethonium chloride, cetrimonium bromide and decyltrimethylammonium chloride. The results obtained suggest a close correlation between the microbial effect and the presence of chemical additives in the samples analysed. PMID:20411504

  13. Spinel dissolution via addition of glass forming chemicals. Results of preliminary experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Johnson, F. C.

    2015-11-01

    Increased loading of high level waste in glass can lead to crystallization within the glass. Some crystalline species, such as spinel, have no practical impact on the chemical durability of the glass, and therefore may be acceptable from both a processing and a product performance standpoint. In order to operate a melter with a controlled amount of crystallization, options must be developed for remediating an unacceptable accumulation of crystals. This report describes preliminary experiments designed to evaluate the ability to dissolve spinel crystals in simulated waste glass melts via the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs).

  14. Chemical Constituents of Malaysian U. cordata var. ferruginea and Their in Vitro α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Nur Hakimah; Salim, Fatimah; Ahmad, Rohaya

    2016-01-01

    Continuing our interest in the Uncaria genus, the phytochemistry and the in-vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Malaysian Uncaria cordata var. ferruginea were investigated. The phytochemical study of this plant, which employed various chromatographic techniques including recycling preparative HPLC, led to the isolation of ten compounds with diverse structures comprising three phenolic acids, two coumarins, three flavonoids, a terpene and an iridoid glycoside. These constituents were identified as 2-hydroxybenzoic acid or salicylic acid (1), 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3), scopoletin or 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-coumarin (4), 3,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin (5), quercetin (6), kaempferol (7), taxifolin (8), loganin (9) and β-sitosterol (10). Structure elucidation of the compounds was accomplished with the aid of 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectral data and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). In the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, the crude methanolic extract of the stems of the plant and its acetone fraction exhibited strong α-glucosidase inhibition activity of 87.7% and 89.2%, respectively, while its DCM fraction exhibited only moderate inhibition (75.3%) at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The IC50 values of both fractions were found to be significantly lower than the standard acarbose suggesting the presence of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors. Selected compounds isolated from the active fractions were then subjected to α-glucosidase assay in which 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and quercetin showed strong inhibitory effects against the enzyme with IC50 values of 549 and 556 μg/mL compared to acarbose (IC50 580 μg/mL) while loganin and scopoletin only showed weak α-glucosidase inhibition of 44.9% and 34.5%, respectively. This is the first report of the isolation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and loganin from the genus and

  15. Properties and chemical constituents in ground water from the middle Wilcox aquifer, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettijohn, Robert A.; Busby, John F.; Beckman, Jeffery D.

    1993-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis is a study of regional aquifers composed of sediments of mostly Cenozoic age that underlie about 230,000 sq mi of the Gulf Coastal Plain. These regional aquifers are part of three aquifer systems: (1) the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System, (2) the Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System, and (3) the Coastal Lowlands Aquifer System. The water chemistry of the Middle Wilcox Aquifer, which is part of the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System and the Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System is presented by a series of maps. These maps show the area1 distribution of (1) the concentration of dissolved solids and temperature, (2) the primary water types and pH, (3) the concentration of major ions and silica, and (4) the milliequivalent ratios of selected ions. Dissolved constituents, pH, temperature, and ratios are based on the median values of all samples in each 100-sq-mi area. The concentration of dissolved solids in water from the Middle Wilcox Aquifer ranges from 26 mg/L in the northern part of the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System to 125,500 mg/L in a down-dip area in southeastern Texas. The primary water types, which are based on the most frequently observed type in each 100-sq-mi area, are calcium bicarbonate in the outcrop in Missouri, Kentucky, Mississippi, and southern Texas; sodium bicarbonate in the remaining outcrop areas and all areas from outcrop to mid-dip; and sodium chloride in all down-dip areas. The concentrations of major ions in water from the Middle Wilcox Aquifer generally increase from the outcrop area to the down-dip limit of the data. The milliequivalent ratio of magnesium plus calcium to bicarbonate ranges from less than 0.01 to 158 and generally decreases from outcrop to mid-dip and increases from mid-dip to the down-dip limit of the data. From the Sabine Uplift eastward to southwestern Alabama the ratio of bicarbonate to chloride generally decreases from outcrop to down-dip in the area west of

  16. Chemical constituents of the mangrove-associated fungus Capnodium sp. SZ-F22. A new eremophilane sesquiterpene.

    PubMed

    He, Haibing; Ma, Zhongjun; Wang, Qianqian; Liu, Yu; Xu, Hualin

    2016-07-01

    A new eremophilane sesquiterpene, capnodiumone (1), along with five known eremophilane sesquiterpenes (2-6) and eight other compounds (7-14), have been isolated from a mangrove-associated fungus Capnodium sp. SZ-F22. The chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The broth extract of the fungus exhibited a good inhibitory effect on the mycelium growth against Fusarium graminearum at 100 μg/mL, however, all the 14 compounds showed no expected antifungal activity. The probable reasons were discussed. PMID:26615670

  17. Physico-chemical characterization of grease interceptors with and without biological product addition.

    PubMed

    He, Xia; Osborne, Jason; de los Reyes, Francis L

    2012-03-01

    Hardened and insoluble fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits are the primary cause of sewer line blockages leading to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). However, there have been very few long-term assessments of the physico-chemical characteristics of full-scale grease interceptors (GIs), the first "line of defense" against FOG buildup in sewer lines. In this study, we assessed the physico-chemical characteristics of two full-scale GIs (at a restaurant and a retirement community kitchen) over a one-year period. Statistically significant differences between bioaugmented and untreated cycles were detected for several chemical and physical properties. The treated cycles had lower BOD and COD at the grease interceptor outlet. While the combined data for all treated cycles did not show lower FOG concentrations in the GI outlet compared to the combined data for all untreated cycles, comparison of specific individual treated and untreated cycles show a positive effect due to the addition of product. PMID:22755486

  18. Use of chemical additives with steam injection to increase oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, L.L.

    1984-09-01

    Surfactants and certain inorganic bases have been evaluated as possible chemical additives to improve performance of steamfloods. Special emphasis was given to chemicals which would reduce the residual oil saturation in regions flooded by hot water below the steam zone. Problems considered were the effect of prolonged exposure to steam temperature on the stability of petroleum sulfonates, the effect of temperature on surfactant adsorption and the effect of temperature on interfacial tensions. Methods were developed for measuring quantitatively the thermal stability of the aryl sulfonate class of surfactant. This class includes the petroleum sulfonates. The best of the surfactants evaluated in this study had marginal stability for use with steamfloods. The surfactants in combination with elevated temperatures do reduce residual oil saturations. Data are presented on the temperature effects on interfacial tensions and on adsorption. Certain inorganic chemicals which give high pH are effective and inexpensive but hydroxyl ions react with silica in the reservoir. This reaction is accentuated at higher temperatures. Data show that the pH of the injected hot water with caustic decreases with contact time. The experiments did not permit determining if an equilibrium pH would be obtained which would be high enough to be effective in recovering oil. Core floods showed that pH's in excess of 12 would be required to reduce residual oil saturations if sodium hydroxide was the injected chemical. The addition of surfactants with caustic or the use of sodium carbonate may permit recovery of oil at lower pH's. A reservoir simulator is being developed to predict performance of steamfloods with chemical additives. This has been completed for simple linear floods but is being extended to three dimensions and to more complicated flooding operations. 31 references, 43 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Occurrence and Trends of Selected Chemical Constituents in Bottom Sediment, Grand Lake O' the Cherokees, Northeast Oklahoma, 1940-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Becker, Mark F.

    2009-01-01

    After over 100 years of continuous activity, lead and zinc mining in the Tri-State Mining District (hereafter referred to as the TSMD) in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma ended in the 1970s. The mining activity resulted in substantial historical and ongoing input of cadmium, lead, and zinc to the environment including Grand Lake O' the Cherokees (hereafter referred to as Grand Lake), a large reservoir in northeast Oklahoma. To help determine the extent and magnitude of contamination in Grand Lake, a one-year study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Bottom-sediment coring at five sites was used to investigate the occurrence of cadmium, lead, zinc, and other selected constituents in the bottom sediment of Grand Lake. Cadmium concentrations in the bottom sediment of Grand Lake ranged from 2.3 to 3.6 mg/kg (milligrams per kilogram) with a median of 3.5 mg/kg (5 samples). Compared to an estimated local background concentration of 0.6 mg/kg, the historical mining activity increased cadmium concentrations by about 280 to 500 percent. Lead concentrations ranged from 35 to 102 mg/kg with a median of 59 mg/kg (50 samples). Compared to an estimated local background concentration of 20 mg/kg, the historical mining activity increased lead concentrations by about 75 to 410 percent. The range in zinc concentrations was 380 to 986 mg/kg with a median of 765 mg/kg (50 samples). Compared to an estimated local background concentration of 100 mg/kg, the historical mining activity increased zinc concentrations by about 280 to 890 percent. With the exception of the most upstream coring site, the lead and zinc depositional profiles generally were similar in terms of the range in concentrations measured and the temporal pattern observed. Depositional profiles for lead and zinc indicated mid-core peaks followed by concentrations that decreased since about the 1980s. The depositional

  20. Modes of Antiviral Action of Chemical Portions and Constituents from Woad Root Extract against Influenza Virus A FM1

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jia-Hang; Diao, Rui-Gang; Lv, Shu-Guang; Mou, Xiao-Dong; Li, Kefeng

    2016-01-01

    Woad root has been used for the prevention of influenza for hundreds of years in many Asian countries. In this study, the antiviral modes of clemastanin B (CB), epigoitrin, phenylpropanoid portion (PEP), and the mixture of phenylpropanoids, alkaloids, and organic acid portions (PEP + ALK + OA) from wood root extract against influenza virus A FM1 were investigated. The results revealed that CB, epigoitrin, PEP, and PEP + ALK + OA exert their anti-influenza activity via inhibiting the virus multiplication, prophylaxis, and blocking the virus attachment. The primary mode of action of PEP and PEP + ALK + OA is the inhibition of virus replication. The inhibitory effect on virus attachment and multiplication is the main modes for epigoitrin. All the compounds or chemical portions from woad root extract tested in this study do not have direct virucidal activity. Our results provided the comprehensive analysis of the antiviral mechanism of wood root extract. PMID:26989425

  1. CMB topography and electrical conductivity as additional constraints for the lowermost mantle thermo-chemical structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschamps, F.; Yin, Y.; Tackley, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    A variety of seismic observations, including tomographic models, indicate that the lowermost mantle is strongly heterogeneous. Seismic observations further support a thermo-chemical origin for the large scale heterogeneities. In particular, the large low-shear wave velocity provinces (LLSVP) observed by global tomographic images are better explained by a combination of thermal and chemical anomalies. Despite the accuracy of seismic information, uncertainties and trade-off still prevent the determination of a detailed lower mantle thermo-chemical structure. For instance, the nature of chemical heterogeneities and the exact role played by the post-perovskite phase transition are still debated. Additional constraints are needed to discriminate between the possible models of structure and dynamics of the lower mantle. Here, we consider two potential additional constraints, the electrical conductivity and the dynamic topography at the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Unlike density and seismic velocities, electrical conductivity increases with temperature. In addition, it strongly varies with the iron and silicate content. Using appropriate mineral physics data, we calculated a 3D distribution of electrical conductivity in lower mantle from the thermo-chemical structure inferred by probabilistic tomography, which maps iron and silicate excess in the LLSVP. In the lowermost mantle, we observe a belt of high conductivity, with maximum values around 20 S/m located in the LLSVP. Such a belt may trigger electric currents in the lowermost mantle and induce magnetic field variations with period of one year or more. It may thus be seen by global models of electrical conductivity. Unfortunately, such models do not sample yet regions deeper than 2000 km. A second, independent constraint we explored is the dynamic topography at the CMB. We used stagYY to calculate the dynamic topography associated with several models of thermo-chemical convection, and observe strong differences

  2. Sedimentation and Occurrence and Trends of Selected Chemical Constituents in Bottom Sediment, Empire Lake, Cherokee County, Kansas, 1905-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2006-01-01

    For about 100 years (1850-1950), the Tri-State Mining District in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma was one of the primary sources of lead and zinc ore in the world. The mining activity in the Tri-State District has resulted in substantial historical and ongoing input of cadmium, lead, and zinc to the environment including Empire Lake in Cherokee County, southeast Kansas. The environmental contamination caused by the decades of mining activity resulted in southeast Cherokee County being listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priority List as a superfund hazardous waste site in 1983. To provide some of the information needed to support efforts to restore the ecological health of Empire Lake, a 2-year study was begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Kansas Department of Health and Environment. A combination of sediment-thickness mapping and bottom-sediment coring was used to investigate sediment deposition and the occurrence of cadmium, lead, zinc, and other selected constituents in the bottom sediment of Empire Lake. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment in Empire Lake were 44 million cubic feet and 2,400 million pounds, respectively. Most of the bottom sediment was located in the main body and the Shoal Creek arm of the reservoir. Minimal sedimentation was evident in the Spring River arm of the reservoir. The total mass of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the bottom sediment of Empire Lake was estimated to be 78,000 pounds, 650,000 pounds, and 12 million pounds, respectively. In the bottom sediment of Empire Lake, cadmium concentrations ranged from 7.3 to 76 mg/kg (milligrams per kilogram) with an overall median concentration of 29 mg/kg. Compared to an estimated background concentration of 0.4 mg/kg, the historical mining activity increased the median cadmium concentration by about 7,200 percent. Lead concentrations ranged from 100 to

  3. Anti-herbivore Structures of Paulownia tomentosa: Morphology, Distribution, Chemical Constituents and Changes During Shoot and Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Sawa; Asai, Teigo; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Kohshima, Shiro

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent studies have shown that small structures on plant surfaces serve ecological functions such as resistance against herbivores. The morphology, distribution, chemical composition and changes during shoot and leaf development of such small structures were examined on Paulownia tomentosa. Methods The morphology and distribution of the structures were studied under light microscopy, and their chemical composition was analysed using thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. To further investigate the function of these structures, several simple field experiments and observations were also conducted. Key Results Three types of small structures on P. tomentosa were investigated: bowl-shaped organs, glandular hairs and dendritic trichomes. The bowl-shaped organs were densely aggregated on the leaves near flower buds and were determined to be extrafloral nectarines (EFNs) that secrete sugar and attract ants. Nectar production of these organs was increased by artificial damage to the leaves, suggesting an anti-herbivore function through symbiosis with ants. Glandular hairs were found on the surfaces of young and/or reproductive organs. Glandular hairs on leaves, stems and flowers secreted mucilage containing glycerides and trapped small insects. Secretions from glandular hairs on flowers and immature fruits contained flavonoids, which may provide protection against some herbivores. Yellow dendritic trichomes on the adaxial side of leaves also contained flavonoids identical to those secreted by the glandular hairs on fruits and flowers. Three special types of leaves, which differed from the standard leaves in shape, size and identity of small structures, developed near young shoot tips or young flower buds. The density of small structures on these leaf types was higher than on standard leaves, suggesting that these leaf types may be specialized to protect young leaves or reproductive organs. Changes in the small structures

  4. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Linnes, Jacqueline; Young, Anna; Gomez-Marquez, Jose; Gerrard, Victoria

    2014-03-15

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument.

  5. Chemical Constituents of Mangifera indica and Their Antiausterity Activity against the PANC-1 Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hai Xuan; Do, Truong Nhat Van; Le, Tho Huu; Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Nguyen, Nhan Trung; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Awale, Suresh

    2016-08-26

    Human pancreatic cancer cell lines such as PANC-1 have an altered metabolism, enabiling them to tolerate and survive under extreme conditions of nutrient starvation. The search for candidates that inhibit their viability during nutrition starvation represents a novel antiausterity strategy in anticancer drug discovery. A methanol extract of the bark of Mangifera indica was found to inhibit the survival of PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells preferentially under nutrient-deprived conditions with a PC50 value of 15.5 μg/mL, without apparent toxicity, in normal nutrient-rich conditions. Chemical investigation on this bioactive extract led to the isolation of 19 compounds (1-19), including two new cycloartane-type triterpenes, mangiferolate A (1) and mangiferolate B (2). The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by NMR spectroscopic analysis. Among the isolated compounds, mangiferolate B (2) and isoambolic acid (12) exhibited potent preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells under the nutrition-deprived condition with PC50 values of 11.0 and 4.8 μM, respectively. PMID:27466882

  6. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Linnes, Jacqueline; Young, Anna; Gerrard, Victoria; Gomez-Marquez, Jose

    2014-03-01

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument.

  7. Inflammatory and degranulation effect of yellow sand on RBL-2H3 cells in relation to chemical and biological constituents.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Parida; Hatta, Tamao; Du, Mingyuan; Wakimizu, Kenji; Han, Junkyu; Maki, Taichi; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-10-01

    Recent studie pointed out that allergic diseases have increased during the Asian dust storm event (ADSE) in Japan. Daily observations and the atmospheric concentrations of yellow sand (YS) aerosol have been increasing. In this study, YS samples collected from three sites of Japan during ADSE in 2009-2010 were used. The particles were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray fluorescence-energy dispersive spectrometer (XRF-EDS). We investigate ability of YS extract on enhancing the chemical mediator release and cytokine production from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. The dust particles at Fukuoka and Tsukuba were abundant in aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), potassium (K) and titan (Ti) than those at Naha. Concentration of the trace endotoxin and Cryptomeria japonica pollen allergen (Cry j 1) were measured in YS extract. After exposure of RBL-2H3 cells to YS extract, the β-hexosaminidase (β-hex) release, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production were enhanced in RBL-2H3 cells. This process depends on endotoxin, Cry j 1 and other allergen present in the YS extract. YS water extract also show a strong cytotoxic effect on the cells. This data suggest that low levels of endotoxin and Cry j 1 in YS may cause allergy during the ADSE. PMID:22835726

  8. Phytochemical study and biological evaluation of chemical constituents of Platanus orientalis and Platanus × acerifolia buds.

    PubMed

    Thai, Quoc Dang; Tchoumtchoua, Job; Makropoulou, Maria; Boulaka, Athina; Meligova, Aggeliki K; Mitsiou, Dimitra J; Mitakou, Sophia; Michel, Sylvie; Halabalaki, Maria; Alexis, Michael N; Skaltsounis, Leandros A

    2016-10-01

    One flavonol glycoside, two O-isoprenylated flavonols, one α,α-dimethylallyl flavonol, one dihydrochalcone, two furanocoumarins and one terpenoid previously undescribed, along with 42 known compounds were isolated from the buds of two European Platanaceae, Platanus orientalis and Platanus × acerifolia. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation NMR (COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC) experiments, as well as HRMS data. The estrogen-like and antiestrogen-like activity of dichloromethane and methanol extracts of P. orientalis and P. × acerifolia buds and isolated compounds was evaluated using estrogen-responsive cell lines. The potency of selected estrogen agonists to regulate gene expression through ERα and/or ERβ was compared with their in vitro osteoblastogenic activity. Kaempferol and 8-C-(1,1-dimethyl-2-propen-1-yl)-5,7-dihydroxyflavonol displayed osteoblastogenic as well as ERα-mediated estrogenic activity similar to estradiol. PMID:27179684

  9. Effect of basic additives on sensitivity and diffusion of acid in chemical amplification resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Koji; Ushirogouchi, Tohru; Nakase, Makoto

    1995-06-01

    The effect of amine additives in chemical amplification resists is discussed. Phenolic amines such as 4-aminophenol and 2-(4-aminophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane were investigated as model compounds from the viewpoint of sensitivity, diffusion and resolution. Equal molar amounts of acid and amine deactivated at the very beginning of post-exposure bake, and could not participate in decomposing the inhibitor as a catalyst. Only the acid which survived from the deactivation diffuses in the resist, decomposing the inhibitors from the middle to late stage of PEB. The basic additives reduce the diffusion range of the acid, especially for long-range diffusion, resulting in higher contrast at the interfaces between the exposed and unexposed areas. In addition, the amine concentration required is found to be less than the concentration which causes the resist sensitivity to start decreasing.

  10. Arsenic Remediation Enhancement Through Chemical Additions to Pump and Treat Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wovkulich, K.; Mailloux, B. J.; Stute, M.; Simpson, H. J.; Keimowitz, A. R.; Powell, A.; Lacko, A.; Chillrud, S. N.

    2008-12-01

    Arsenic is a contaminant found at more than 500 US Superfund sites. Since pump and treat technologies are widely used for remediation of contaminated groundwater, increasing the efficiency of contaminant removal at such sites should allow limited financial resources to clean up more sites. The Vineland Chemical Company Superfund site is extensively contaminated with arsenic after waste arsenic salts were stored and disposed of improperly for much of the company's 44 year manufacturing lifetime. Despite approximately eight years of pump and treat remediation, arsenic concentrations in the recovery wells can still be greater than 1000 ppb. The arsenic concentrations in the groundwater remain high because of slow desorption of arsenic from contaminated aquifer solids. Extrapolation of laboratory column experiments suggest that continuing the current groundwater remediation practice based on flushing ambient groundwater through the system may require on the order of hundreds of years to clean the site. However, chemical additions of phosphate or oxalic acid into the aquifer could decrease the remediation time scale substantially. Laboratory results from a soil column experiment using input of 10 mM oxalic acid suggest that site clean up of groundwater could be decreased to as little as four years. Pilot scale forced gradient field experiments will help establish whether chemical additions can be effective for increasing arsenic mobilization from aquifer solids and thus substantially decrease pump and treat clean up time.

  11. Anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Hamelia patens and its chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Suárez, Verónica; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Jiménez-Estrada, Manuel; Alvarado Sánchez, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    Context Hamelia patens Jacq. (Rubiaceae) is traditionally used to treat wounds, inflammation and diabetes. However, there is still a lack of scientific evidence to support these applications. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of Hamelia patens, and identify its bioactive compounds. Materials and methods Four extracts were obtained by maceration and liquid-liquid extraction: HEX, DCM-EtOAc, MeOH-EtOAc and MeOH-Aq. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated orally on rat paw carrageenan-induced oedema over 6 h (50, 200 and 500 mg/kg), and topically in mouse ear oedema induced by 12-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) after 4 h (0.5 and 1 mg/ear). We also evaluated myeloperoxidase levels in ear tissue, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging ability, and in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition. The chemical compounds were separated by column chromatography and identified by spectroscopic analysis. Results We found that the oral administration of the HEX extract at 500 and 200 mg/kg significantly decreased the carrageenan-induced inflammation after 1 and 3 h, respectively. The MeOH-EtOAc extract significantly inhibited myeloperoxidase activity (83.5%), followed by the DCM-EtOAc extract (76%), β-sitosterol/stigmasterol (72.7%) and the HEX extract (55%), which significantly decreased oedema induced by TPA at both doses, giving a similar effect to indomethacin. We also found that the MeOH-EtOAc, MeOH-Aq and DCM-EtOAc extracts showed good DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 values of 18.6, 93.9 and 158.2 μg/mL, respectively). The HEX extract showed the lowest α-glucosidase inhibition (an IC50 value of 26.07 μg/mL), followed by the MeOH-EtOAc extract (an IC50 value of 30.18 μg/mL), β-sitosterol/stigmasterol (IC50 34.6 μg/mL) and compound A ((6E,10E,14E,18E)-2,6,10,14,18,23-hexamethyl-2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene, an IC50 value of 114.6 μg/mL), which were

  12. Effect of selenium foliar spray on physiological and biochemical processes and chemical constituents of wheat under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Fahim; Ahmad, R; Ashraf, M Y; Waraich, E A; Khan, S Z

    2015-03-01

    Selenium (Se) is considered an essential micronutrient for humans, animals and plants due to its physiological and antioxidative properties. The positive role of Se in attenuation of drastic effects of various environmental stresses in plants is, however, still unclear and need to be explored. The present study aimed at investigating the physiological and biochemical changes induced by Se foliar spray to improve the drought tolerance potential of wheat. Additionally, we also examined the effect of supplemental Se on uptake of nutrients using detection by ICP-OES. Foliar Se application significantly lowered osmotic potential (13%) that markedly improved turgor by 63%, enhanced transpiration rate (60%), improved accumulation of total soluble sugars (33%) and free amino acids (118%) and activity of antioxidant system which ultimately increased the grain yield by 24%. Supplemental Se also significantly increased Se contents (5.77µgg(-1)DW) and improved Fe (91%) and Na (16%) uptake, whereas it reduced Zn accumulation by 54% and did not affect Ca contents. The results supported our hypothesis that supplemental Se influences nutrients uptake and wheat yield through maintenance of turgor and gas exchange characteristics and enhancement in antioxidant system activity. PMID:25499052

  13. Particulate matter beyond mass: recent health evidence on the role of fractions, chemical constituents and sources of emission

    PubMed Central

    Héroux, Marie-Eve; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Kelly, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is regulated in various parts of the world based on specific size cut offs, often expressed as 10 or 2.5 µm mass median aerodynamic diameter. This pollutant is deemed one of the most dangerous to health and moreover, problems persist with high ambient concentrations. Continuing pressure to re-evaluate ambient air quality standards stems from research that not only has identified effects at low levels of PM but which also has revealed that reductions in certain components, sources and size fractions may best protect public health. Considerable amount of published information have emerged from toxicological research in recent years. Accumulating evidence has identified additional air quality metrics (e.g. black carbon, secondary organic and inorganic aerosols) that may be valuable in evaluating the health risks of, for example, primary combustion particles from traffic emissions, which are not fully taken into account with PM2.5 mass. Most of the evidence accumulated so far is for an adverse effect on health of carbonaceous material from traffic. Traffic-generated dust, including road, brake and tire wear, also contribute to the adverse effects on health. Exposure durations from a few minutes up to a year have been linked with adverse effects. The new evidence collected supports the scientific conclusions of the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines and also provides scientific arguments for taking decisive actions to improve air quality and reduce the global burden of disease associated with air pollution. PMID:24304307

  14. Determination of chemical-constituent loads during base-flow and storm-runoff conditions near historical mines in Prospect Gulch, upper Animas River watershed, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wirt, Laurie; Leib, K.J.; Bove, D.J.; Mast, M.A.; Evans, J.B.; Meeker, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Prospect Gulch is a major source of iron, aluminum, zinc, and other metals to Cement Creek. Information is needed to prioritize remediation and develop strategies for cleanup of historical abandoned mine sites in Prospect Gulch. Chemical-constituent loads were determined in Prospect Gulch, a high-elevation alpine stream in southwestern Colorado that is affected by natural acid drainage from weathering of hydro-thermally altered igneous rock and acidic metal-laden discharge from historical abandoned mines. The objective of the study was to identify metal sources to Prospect Gulch. A tracer solution was injected into Prospect Gulch during water-quality sampling so that loading of geochemical constituents could be calculated throughout the study reach. A thunderstorm occurred during the tracer study, hence, metal loads were measured for storm-runoff as well as for base flow. Data from different parts of the study reach represents different flow conditions. The beginning of the reach represents background conditions during base flow immediately upstream from the Lark and Henrietta mines (samples PG5 to PG45). Other samples were collected during storm runoff conditions (PG100 to PG291); during the first flush of metal runoff following the onset of rainfall (PG303 to PG504), and samples PG542 to PG700 were collected during low-flow conditions. During base-flow conditions, the percentage increase in loads for major constituents and trace metals was more than an order of magnitude greater than the corresponding 36 % increase in stream discharge. Within the study reach, the highest percentage increases for dissolved loads were 740 % for iron (Fe), 465 % for aluminum (Al), 500 % for lead (Pb), 380 % for copper (Cu), 100 % for sulfate (SO4), and 50 % for zinc (Zn). Downstream loads near the mouth of Prospect Gulch often greatly exceeded the loads generated within the study reach but varied by metal species. For example, the study reach accounts for about 6 % of the dissolved

  15. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  16. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Campbell, Linford J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho Department of Water Resources, and the State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 17 sites as part of the sixth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were collected from eight irrigation wells, three domestic wells, one stock well, one dairy well, one commercial well, one observation well, and two springs and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. One quality-assurance sample, a sequential replicate, also was collected and analyzed. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the reporting levels and most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels. However, none of the reported radiochemical- or chemical-constituent concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical evaluation of the replicate sample pair indicated that, with 95 percent confidence, 132 of the 135 constituent concentrations of the replicate pair were equivalent.

  17. 78 FR 68461 - Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti- Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and...

  18. Chemical constituents of Simarouba versicolor.

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Angela C; de Mesquita, Aldenor C; Pouliquen, Yvone B M; de Lima, Roberto A; Cavalcante, Sergio H; de Carvalho, Mario G; de Siqueira, José A; Alegrio, Leila V; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2002-09-01

    From the roots, stems and fruits of Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae) were isolated quassinoids (3, 5-7), triterpenoids (8-14), a mixture of steroids (15-17), the flavonoid kaempferol (18) and the squalene derivative 11,14-diacetoxy-7,10; 15,18-diepoxy-6,19-dihidroxy-6,7,10,11,14,15,18,19-octahydrosqualene (19). Spectral data were used for structural characterization. PMID:12378309

  19. [Chemical constituents of Euphorbia dracunculoides].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Yu, Ming-Ming; Chi, Yu-Qian; Ouyang, Wen-Bin; Zang, Zhen; Zhao, Yong

    2014-10-01

    Sixteen compounds including daphnoretin (1), isofraxidin (2), scopoletin (3), kaempferol (4), quercetin (5), guaijaverin (6), astragalin (7), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), naringenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (9), 5-O-methylapi- genin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), methyl gallate (11), prionitiside A (12), (2S)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-3- methyl-9,10- dioxoanthracene-2-carboxylate (13), 3,3'-di-O-methyl ellagic acid (14), 3'-O-methyl-3,4-O,O-metheneellagic acid-4'-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (15) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-3'-O-methylellagic acid (16), were isolated from the 70% acetone extract of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. Among them, compounds 1-3, 6-9, 11, and 14 were isolated from E. dracunculoides for the first time, and compounds 10, 12, 13, 15, and 16 were firstly obtained from the genus Euphorbia. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, including 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and ESI-MS. PMID:25751948

  20. Chemical constituents of Melicope ptelefolia.

    PubMed

    Shaari, Khozirah; Zareen, Seema; Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem; Lajis, Nordin Hj

    2011-03-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the methanolic extract of Melicope ptelefolia Champ ex Benth. resulted in the isolation of three new compounds, identified as 3beta-stigmast-5-en-3-ol butyl tridecanedioate (melicoester) (1), (2Z, 6Z, 10Z, 14Z, 18Z, 22Z, 26E)-3', 7', 11', 15', 19', 23', 27', 31'-octamethyldotriaconta-2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30-octadecanoate (melicopeprenoate) (2) and p-O-geranyl-7"-acetoxy coumaric acid (3). The compounds were isolated along with twenty-one other known compounds, lupeol (4), oleanolic acid (5), kokusaginine (6) genistein (7), p-O-geranyl coumaric acid (8), 4-stigmasten-3-one (9), 3beta-hydroxystigma-5-en-7-one (10) cis-phytyl palmitate (11), dodecane, dodecan-1-ol, ceryl alcohol, hentriacontanoic acid, eicosane, n-amyl alcohol, caprylic alcohol, octatriacontane, nonatriacontane, hexatriencontan-1-ol, methyl octacosanoate, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol glucoside. Structures of all the compounds were established on the basis of MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectral data, as well as comparison with reported data. PMID:21485271

  1. Chemical Constituents from Campylotropis hirtella.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yang-Guo; Li, Tao; Wang, Guo-Wei; Ren, Jie; Wang, Xing; Pan, Ya-Ping; Li, Hui-Liang; Yan, Shi-Kai; Jin, Hui-Zi; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2016-05-01

    A phytochemical investigation on the roots of Campylotropis hirtella afforded nine new isoflavones (3-9, 12, 15), two new isoflavans (10 and 11), one new coumestan (1), and three new prenylated benzoic acid derivatives (2, 13, 14), together with twenty-four known compounds. Their structures were established by spectroscopic analysis and circular dichroism data. The isolated compounds were also evaluated for their antibacterial activities against Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella gallinarum, Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Vibrio alginolyticus. PMID:27220079

  2. Chemical Constituents of Cordyceps cicadae.

    PubMed

    Chu, Zhi-Bo; Chang, Jun; Zhu, Ying; Sun, Xun

    2015-12-01

    One new bifuran derivative (1), together with fourteen known compounds, were isolated from Cordyceps cicadae X. Q. Shing. The known compounds included nine nucleosides, uracil (2), uridine (3), 2'-deoxyuridine (4), 2'-deoxyinosine (5), guanosine (6), 2'-deoxyguanosine (7), thymidine (8), adenosine (9), and 2'-deoxyadenosine (10); three amino acids tryptophan (11), phenylalanine (12), and tyrosine (13); and two dopamine analogues N-acetylnoradrenaline (14) and its dimer, trans-2-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-acetylamino-7-(N-acetyl-2"-amino-ethylene)-1,4-benzodioxane (15). Their structures were decisively elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. PMID:26882686

  3. [Chemical constituents from Chenopodium ambrosioides].

    PubMed

    Song, Kun; Wang, Hong-Qing; Liu, Chao; Kang, Jie; Li, Bao-Ming; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Twelve compounds were isolated from the herb of Chenopodium ambrosioides, and their structures were identified by spectroscopic methods as kaempferol-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (1), kaempferol-3,7-di-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2), patuletin (3), quercetin-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (4), grasshopper ketone (5), 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (6), syringaresinol (7), benzyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), dendranthemoside B (9), N-trans-feruloyl tyramine (10), N-trans-feruloyl 4'-O-methyldopamine (11), and 4-hydroxy-N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl] benzamide (12). Among them,compounds 3, 6-8,10, and 12 were isolated from the genus Chenopodium for the first time, and compounds 2-12 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:24761641

  4. Chemical constituents of Nepeta distans.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Bukhari, Nausheen; Hussain, Hidayat; Rehman, Najeeb U; Hussain, Syed Murtaza

    2010-11-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Nepeta distans Raul resulted in the isolation of a new phenolic compound, nepatanol (1), and eight known compounds, markhamioside F, netidiol, nepedinol, thymoquinone, eugenol, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, and beta-sitosterol, which have been isolated for the first time from this source. Structures of all the isolates were established on the basis of MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data. PMID:21213980

  5. Effect of GdL Addition on Physico-chemical Properties of Fermented Sausages during Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Dong-Gyun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of glucono-δ-lactone (GdL) addition on physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented sausages during ripening and drying. Five batches of sausages were produced under ripening conditions: without GdL and with 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75% of GdL addition. Samples from each treatment were taken for physicochemical and microbiological analyses on the 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 25th day of ripening. Chemical analysis showed a significant decrease in moisture content of sausages with increasing amounts of GdL added (p<0.05). The moisture contents decreased, whereas the fat, protein and ash contents increased throughout ripening (p<0.05). Increasing levels of GdL caused a decrease in the pH values (p<0.05), which can have an inhibitory effect against microflora. Water holding capacity content of samples decreased with increasing GdL concentration (p<0.05). The shear force values of fermented sausages showed the highest in T4 (p<0.05). During ripening, the shear force values of sausages were increased on the 25th day compared to day 0 (p<0.05). The higher GdL level produced lighter and more yellow sausages. The addition of 0.75% GdL was effective in controlling bacteria counts. Addition of GdL in sausages resulted in the physicochemical and microbiological attributes equal to or better than no addition of GdL without any harmful effect. PMID:26761846

  6. Improved ultra-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight high-definition mass spectrometry method for the rapid analysis of the chemical constituents of a typical medical formula: Liuwei Dihuang Wan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Lv, Hai tao; Zhang, Ai hua; Sun, Hui; Yan, Guang li; Han, Ying; Wu, Xiu hong; Wang, Xi jun

    2013-11-01

    Liuwei Dihuang Wan (LDW), a classic Chinese medicinal formula, has been used to improve or restore declined functions related to aging and geriatric diseases, such as impaired mobility, vision, hearing, cognition, and memory. It has attracted increasing attention as one of the most popular and valuable herbal medicines. However, the systematic analysis of the chemical constituents of LDW is difficult and thus has not been well established. In this paper, a rapid, sensitive, and reliable ultra-performance LC with ESI quadrupole TOF high-definition MS method with automated MetaboLynx analysis in positive and negative ion mode was established to characterize the chemical constituents of LDW. The analysis was performed on a Waters UPLC™ HSS T3 using a gradient elution system. MS/MS fragmentation behavior was proposed for aiding the structural identification of the components. Under the optimized conditions, a total of 50 peaks were tentatively characterized by comparing the retention time and MS data. It is concluded that a rapid and robust platform based on ultra-performance LC with ESI quadrupole TOF high-definition MS has been successfully developed for globally identifying multiple constituents of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions. This is the first report on the systematic analysis of the chemical constituents of LDW. PMID:24039112

  7. Influence of Alumina Additions on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Lithium-iron-phosphate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huali; Yang, Ruijuan; Wang, Yinghui; Liu, Shiquan

    Alumina improves the properties and depresses the devitrification of soda-lime-silicate glasses. Herein, the influence of alumina on the glass transition temperature, density, chemical durability, crystallization of lithium-iron-phosphate (LIP) glass has been investigated. As alumina was added to replace the iron oxide in a base LIP glass with the molar composition of Li2O:Fe2O3:P2O5=30:20:50, the alumina-containing glasses have increased Tg, densities and chemical stabilities than the base glass. When the amount of alumina is increased from 2 to 6 mol, the Tg value slightly increases, whereas the density decreases. However, the smallest weight loss is shown for the glass containing 3.2 mol of alumina. The variations of the properties with alumina are explained based on the infrared structure analysis results. In addition, it is found the either the base or the alumina-containing glasses have surface crystallization upon heat-treatments. Under the same treatment conditions, the base glass exhibits a thin layer of crystallization with LiFeP2O7 as the main phase. In contrast, alumina-containing glasses show much higher degree of crystallization, which is further increased with the amount of alumina. This trend is opposite to that of silicate glass. Besides the LiFeP2O7 main phase, Fe7(PO4) phase is also identified in the crystallized alumina-containing glasses.

  8. Effect of chemical additives on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) against Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Qiu, S; Huang, T; Huang, Z; Xu, L; Wu, C; Gelbic, I; Guan, X

    2013-06-01

    To examine the effect of chemical additives on Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) against Plutella xylostella (L.), inorganic salts, nitrogenous compounds, protein solubilizing agents, and organic acids were selected and tested. The chosen materials are low in cost and environmentally safe. Results show that many inorganic salts can increase the activity of B. thuringiensis in a range of 1.31- to 3.08-fold. These include calcium acetate, calcium chloride, calcium hydroxide, calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, sodium acetate, potassium hydroxide, potassium carbonate, potassium acetate, magnesium chloride, magnesium sulfate, and zinc sulfate. Nitrogenous compounds, including peptone, sodium nitrate, and ammonium nitrate, can enhance the activity of B. thuringiensis 1.62-, 1.32-, and 1.37-fold, respectively. Among the protein solubilizing agents, EDTA, urea, mercaptoethanol and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate increased the activity of B. thuringiensis 1.62- to 2.34-fold. Among the organic acids, maleic and citric acids boosted the activity 1.45- and 1.55-fold, respectively. Meanwhile, sodium benzoate and resorcinol led to 1.74- and 1.44-fold activity gains, respectively. Use of appropriate additives could provide great benefit not only in reducing the costs for field applications of biological insecticides but also by boosting the efficacy of B. thuringiensis. PMID:23865169

  9. Toxicogenomics concepts and applications to study hepatic effects of food additives and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Stierum, Rob . E-mail: stierum@voeding.tno.nl; Heijne, Wilbert; Kienhuis, Anne; Ommen, Ben van; Groten, John

    2005-09-01

    Transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are genomics technologies with great potential in toxicological sciences. Toxicogenomics involves the integration of conventional toxicological examinations with gene, protein or metabolite expression profiles. An overview together with selected examples of the possibilities of genomics in toxicology is given. The expectations raised by toxicogenomics are earlier and more sensitive detection of toxicity. Furthermore, toxicogenomics will provide a better understanding of the mechanism of toxicity and may facilitate the prediction of toxicity of unknown compounds. Mechanism-based markers of toxicity can be discovered and improved interspecies and in vitro-in vivo extrapolations will drive model developments in toxicology. Toxicological assessment of chemical mixtures will benefit from the new molecular biological tools. In our laboratory, toxicogenomics is predominantly applied for elucidation of mechanisms of action and discovery of novel pathway-supported mechanism-based markers of liver toxicity. In addition, we aim to integrate transcriptome, proteome and metabolome data, supported by bioinformatics to develop a systems biology approach for toxicology. Transcriptomics and proteomics studies on bromobenzene-mediated hepatotoxicity in the rat are discussed. Finally, an example is shown in which gene expression profiling together with conventional biochemistry led to the discovery of novel markers for the hepatic effects of the food additives butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole.

  10. Late Chondritic Additions and Planet and Planetesimal Growth: Evaluation of Physical and Chemical Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Studies of terrestrial peridotite and martian and achondritic meteorites have led to the conclusion that addition of chondritic material to growing planets or planetesimals, after core formation, occurred on Earth, Mars, asteroid 4 Vesta, and the parent body of the angritic meteorites [1-4]. One study even proposed that this was a common process in the final stages of growth [5]. These conclusions are based almost entirely on the highly siderophile elements (HSE; Re, Au, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, Ir, Os). The HSE are a group of eight elements that have been used to argue for late accretion of chondritic material to the Earth after core formation was complete (e.g., [6]). This idea was originally proposed because the D(metal/silicate) values for the HSE are so high, yet their concentration in the mantle is too high to be consistent with such high Ds. The HSE also are present in chondritic relative abundances and hence require similar Ds if this is the result of core-mantle equilibration. Since the work of [6] there has been a realization that core formation at high PT conditions can explain the abundances of many siderophile elements in the mantle (e.g., [7]), but such detailed high PT partitioning data are lacking for many of the HSE to evaluate whether such ideas are viable for all four bodies. Consideration of other chemical parameters reveals larger problems that are difficult to overcome, but must be addressed in any scenario which calls on the addition of chondritic material to a reduced mantle. Yet these problems are rarely discussed or emphasized, making the late chondritic (or late veneer) addition hypothesis suspect.

  11. Streamflow transport of radionuclides and other chemical constituents in the Puerco and the Little Colorado river basins, Arizona and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graf, Julia B.; Wirt, Laurie; Swanson, E.K.; Fisk, G.G.; Gray, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Samples collected at streamflow-gaging stations in the Puerco and Little Colorado rivers show that radioactivity of suspended sediment at gaging stations downstream from inactive uranium mines was not significantly higher than at gaging stations where no mining has occurred upstream. Drinking-water standards for many constituents, however, commonly are exceeded during runoff because concentration of these constituents on sediment from natural processes is high and suspended-sediment loads are high during runoff.

  12. LIFE Chamber Chemical Equilibrium Simulations with Additive Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, J A; Simon, A J

    2009-09-03

    In order to enable continuous operation of a Laser Inertial confinement Fusion Energy (LIFE) engine, the material (fill-gas and debris) in the fusion chamber must be carefully managed. The chamber chemical equilibrium compositions for post-shot mixtures are evaluated to determine what compounds will be formed at temperatures 300-5000K. It is desired to know if carbon and or lead will deposit on the walls of the chamber, and if so: at what temperature, and what elements can be added to prevent this from happening. The simulation was conducted using the chemical equilibrium solver Cantera with a Matlab front-end. Solutions were obtained by running equilibrations at constant temperature and constant specific volume over the specified range of temperatures. It was found that if nothing is done, carbon will deposit on the walls once it cools to below 2138K, and lead below 838K. Three solutions to capture the carbon were found: adding pure oxygen, hydrogen/nitrogen combo, and adding pure nitrogen. The best of these was the addition of oxygen which would readily form CO at around 4000K. To determine the temperature at which carbon would deposit on the walls, temperature solutions to evaporation rate equations needed to be found. To determine how much carbon or any species was in the chamber at a given time, chamber flushing equations needed to be developed. Major concerns are deposition of carbon and/or oxygen on the tungsten walls forming tungsten oxides or tungsten carbide which could cause embrittlement and cause failure of the first wall. Further research is needed.

  13. Testing for Additivity in Chemical Mixtures Using a Fixed-Ratio Ray Design and Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fixed-ratio ray designs have been used for detecting and characterizing interactions of large numbers of chemicals in combination. Single chemical dose-response data are used to predict an “additivity curve” along an environmentally relevant ray. A “mixture curve” is estimated fr...

  14. Review and evaluation of literature on testing of chemical additives for scale control in geothermal fluids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, C.H.; Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    A selected group of reported tests of chemical additives in actual geothermal fluids are reviewed and evaluated to summarize the status of chemical scale-control testing and identify information and testing needs. The task distinguishes between scale control in the cooling system of a flash plant and elsewhere in the utilization system due to the essentially different operating environments involved. Additives for non-cooling geothermal fluids are discussed by scale type: silica, carbonate, and sulfide.

  15. Chemical and Sensory Quality Preservation in Coated Almonds with the Addition of Antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Larrauri, Mariana; Demaría, María Gimena; Ryan, Liliana C; Asensio, Claudia M; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Almonds provide many benefits such as preventing heart disease due to their high content of oleic fatty acid-rich oil and other important nutrients. However, they are susceptible to oxidation reactions causing rancidity during storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical and sensory quality preservation of almonds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose and with the addition of natural and synthetic antioxidants during storage. Four samples were prepared: almonds without coating (C), almonds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), almonds coated with CMC supplemented with peanut skins extract (E), and almonds coated with CMC and supplemented with butylhydroxytoluene (BHT). Proximate composition and fatty acid profile were determined on raw almonds. Almond samples (C, CMC, E and BHT) were stored at 40 °C for 126 d. Lipid oxidation indicators: peroxide value (PV), conjugated dienes (CD), volatile compounds (hexanal and nonanal), and sensory attributes were determined for the stored samples. Samples showed small but significant increases in PV, CD, hexanal and nonanal contents, and intensity ratings of negative sensory attributes (oxidized and cardboard). C had the highest tendency to deterioration during storage. At the end of storage (126 d), C had the highest PV (3.90 meqO2 /kg), and BHT had the lowest PV (2.00 meqO2 /kg). CMC and E samples had similar intermediate PV values (2.69 and 2.57 meqO2 /kg, respectively). CMC coating and the addition of natural (peanut skin extract) and synthetic (BHT) antioxidants provide protection to the roasted almond product. PMID:26595771

  16. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives. PMID:25473499

  17. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives. PMID:25473499

  18. A Four-Step and Four-Criteria Approach for Evaluating Evidence of Dose Addition in Chemical Mixture Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose addition is the most frequently-used component-based approach for predicting dose response for a mixture of toxicologically-similar chemicals and for statistical evaluation of whether the mixture response is consistent with dose additivity and therefore predictable from the ...

  19. Additive Mixture Effects of Estrogenic Chemicals in Human Cell-Based Assays Can Be Influenced by Inclusion of Chemicals with Differing Effect Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Richard Mark; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of experimental evidence indicates that the in vitro effects of mixtures of estrogenic chemicals can be well predicted from the estrogenicity of their components by the concentration addition (CA) concept. However, some studies have observed small deviations from CA. Factors affecting the presence or observation of deviations could include: the type of chemical tested; number of mixture components; mixture design; and assay choice. We designed mixture experiments that address these factors, using mixtures with high numbers of components, chemicals from diverse chemical groups, assays with different in vitro endpoints and different mixture designs and ratios. Firstly, the effects of mixtures composed of up to 17 estrogenic chemicals were examined using estrogenicity assays with reporter-gene (ERLUX) and cell proliferation (ESCREEN) endpoints. Two mixture designs were used: 1) a ‘balanced’ design with components present in proportion to a common effect concentration (e.g. an EC10) and 2) a ‘non-balanced’ design with components in proportion to potential human tissue concentrations. Secondly, the individual and simultaneous ability of 16 potential modulator chemicals (each with minimal estrogenicity) to influence the assay outcome produced by a reference mixture of estrogenic chemicals was examined. Test chemicals included plasticizers, phthalates, metals, PCBs, phytoestrogens, PAHs, heterocyclic amines, antioxidants, UV filters, musks, PBDEs and parabens. In all the scenarios tested, the CA concept provided a good prediction of mixture effects. Modulation studies revealed that chemicals possessing minimal estrogenicity themselves could reduce (negatively modulate) the effect of a mixture of estrogenic chemicals. Whether the type of modulation we observed occurs in practice most likely depends on the chemical concentrations involved, and better information is required on likely human tissue concentrations of estrogens and of potential modulators

  20. Teachers' Misconceptions about the Effects of Addition of More Reactants or Products on Chemical Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Derek; Ma, Hong-jia; Yang, Jie

    2009-01-01

    The importance of research on misconceptions about chemical equilibrium is well recognized by educators, but in the past, researchers' interest has centered on student misconceptions and has neglected teacher misconceptions. Focusing on the effects of adding more reactants or products on chemical equilibrium, this article discusses the various…

  1. 75 FR 17333 - Addition of National Toxicology Program Carcinogens; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... of November 30, 1994 (59 FR 61432) a statement clarifying its interpretation of the section 313(d)(2... 6th RoC (January 12, 1994, 59 FR 1788). Each new version of the RoC adds newly classified chemicals to... past chemical reviews (e.g., January 12, 1994, 59 FR 1788), EPA adopted a production volume screen...

  2. Students' Predictions about the Sensory Properties of Chemical Compounds: Additive versus Emergent Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    We investigated general chemistry students' intuitive ideas about the expected properties of the products of a chemical reaction. In particular, we analyzed college chemistry students' predictions about the color, smell, and taste of the products of chemical reactions represented at the molecular level. The study was designed to explore the extent…

  3. An update of the distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in perched ground water, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, Emphasis 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Linda C.

    2006-01-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastes generated at facilities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) were discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds at the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC) (known as the Test Reactor Area [TRA] until 2005), and the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) and buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Disposal of wastewater to infiltration ponds and infiltration of surface water at waste burial sites resulted in formation of perched ground water in basalts and in sedimentary interbeds above the Snake River Plain aquifer. Perched ground water is an integral part of the pathway for waste-constituent migration to the aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains ground-water monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends, and to monitor the movement of radiochemical and chemical constituents in wastewater discharged from facilities to both perched ground water and the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-quality and water-level data collected from wells completed in perched ground water at the INL during 1999-2001, and summarizes historical disposal data and water-level-and water-quality trends. At the RTC, tritium, strontium-90, cesium-137, dissolved chromium, chloride, sodium, and sulfate were monitored in shallow and deep perched ground water. In shallow perched ground water, no tritium was detected above the reporting level. In deep perched ground water, tritium concentrations generally decreased or varied randomly during 1999-2001. During October 2001, tritium concentrations ranged from less than the reporting level to 39.4?1.4 picocuries per milliliter (pCi/mL). Reportable concentrations of tritium during July-October 2001 were smaller than the reported concentrations measured during July-December 1998. Tritium concentrations in water from wells at the RTC were likely affected by: well's distance from the

  4. Chemical Constituents in Groundwater from Multiple Zones in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Twining, Brian V.

    2010-01-01

    From 2005 to 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey's Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected water-quality samples from multiple water-bearing zones in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Water samples were collected from six monitoring wells completed in about 350-700 feet of the upper part of the aquifer, and the samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, nutrients, selected radiochemical constituents, and selected stable isotopes. Each well was equipped with a multilevel monitoring system containing four to seven sampling ports that were each isolated by permanent packer systems. The sampling ports were installed in aquifer zones that were highly transmissive and that represented the water chemistry of the top four to five model layers of a steady-state and transient groundwater-flow model. The model's water chemistry and particle-tracking simulations are being used to better define movement of wastewater constituents in the aquifer. The results of the water chemistry analyses indicated that, in each of four separate wells, one zone of water differed markedly from the other zones in the well. In four wells, one zone to as many as five zones contained radiochemical constituents that originated from wastewater disposal at selected laboratory facilities. The multilevel sampling systems are defining the vertical distribution of wastewater constituents in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and the concentrations of wastewater constituents in deeper zones in wells Middle 2051, USGS 132, and USGS 103 support the concept of groundwater flow deepening in the southwestern part of the INL.

  5. Effects of xanthan, guar, carrageenan and locust bean gum addition on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Zeynep Ozben; Yılmaz, Ismail; Demirci, Ahmet Şukru

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of xanthan gum, guar gum, carrageenan and locust bean gum on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs. Meatball samples were produced with three different formulations including of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% each gum addition and gum added samples were compared with the control meatballs. Physical and chemical analyses were carried out on raw and cooked samples separately. Moisture contents of raw samples decreased by addition of gums. There were significant decreases (p < 0.05) in moisture and fat contents of raw and cooked meatball samples formulated with gum when compared with control. Ash contents and texture values increased with gum addition to meatballs. Meatball redness decreased with more gum addition in raw and cooked meatball samples, which means that addition of gums resulted in a lighter-coloured product. According to sensory analysis results, locust bean gum added (1%) samples were much preferred by the panelists. PMID:24803701

  6. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.; Click, D.

    2010-01-06

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass - 14 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  7. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D

    2009-02-26

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass-1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma--mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  8. Effect of Operating Parameters and Chemical Additives on Crystal Habit and Specific Cake Resistance of Zinc Hydroxide Precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise

    1999-08-01

    The effect of process parameters and chemical additives on the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates was investigated. The ability of a slurry to be filtered is dependent upon the particle habit of the solid and the particle habit is influenced by certain process variables. The process variables studied include neutralization temperature, agitation type, and alkalinity source used for neutralization. Several commercially available chemical additives advertised to aid in solid/liquid separation were also examined in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation. A statistical analysis revealed that the neutralization temperature and the source of alkalinity were statistically significant in influencing the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates in this study. The type of agitation did not significantly effect the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates. The use of chemical additives in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation had a favorable effect on the filterability. The morphology of the hydroxide precipitates was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy.

  9. Chemical constituents in groundwater from multiple zones in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2009-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hopkins, Candice B.; Maimer, Neil V.

    2015-01-01

    Tritium concentrations in relation to basaltic flow units indicate the presence of wastewater influence in multiple basalt flow groups; however, tritium is most abundant in the South Late Matuyama flow group in the southern boundary wells. The concentrations of wastewater constituents in deep zones in wells Middle 2051, USGS 132, USGS 105, and USGS 103 support the concept of groundwater flow deepening in the southwestern corner of the INL, as indicated by the INL groundwater-flow model.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL FATE CONSTANTS FOR ADDITIONAL 27 ORGANIC CHEMICALS UNDER CONSIDERATION FOR EPA'S HAZARDOUS WASTE IDENTIFICATION PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under Section 301 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), EPA's Office of Solid Waste is in the process of identifying chemicals to be considered in projects called the Hazardous Waste Identification Projects. revious publication (EPA/600/R-93/132) addressed 189 org...

  11. A chemical additive to limit potential bacterial contamination in chill tanks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler carcasses with different types and numbers of bacteria are commonly chilled together in an ice water bath which may lead to transfer of unwanted bacteria from carcass to carcass. Historically chill tanks have been chlorinated to help prevent cross contamination and recently other chemical a...

  12. USING DOSE ADDITION TO ESTIMATE CUMULATIVE RISKS FROM EXPOSURES TO MULTIPLE CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 requires the EPA to consider the cumulative risk from exposure to multiple chemicals that have a common mechanism of toxicity. Three methods, hazard index (HI), point-of-departure index (PODI), and toxicity equivalence factor (TEF), ...

  13. Effects of sorghum flour addition on chemical and rheological properties of hard white winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was carried out to investigate the chemical and rheological properties of different blends prepared using hard white winter wheat and whole or decorticated sorghum. Whole and decorticated sorghum were used to replace 5, 10, 15, and 20% of wheat flour. Wheat samples had higher protein, moi...

  14. 75 FR 72727 - Addition of National Toxicology Program Carcinogens; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... criterion.'' EPA has published in the Federal Register of November 30, 1994 (59 FR 61432) a statement... EPCRA section 313 list of toxic chemicals? As discussed in the proposed rule (75 FR 17333, April 6, 2010... carcinogens? As EPA stated in the proposed rule (75 FR 17334, April 6, 2010), the NTP RoC document...

  15. 78 FR 74218 - Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On August 2, 2013, a determination was made that the Government of Syria used... Notice 8460. That determination resulted in sanctions against the Government of Syria. Section 307(b)...

  16. Correlation of stability/rheology relationship with coal: Properties and chemical additives

    SciTech Connect

    Ohene, F.

    1992-02-19

    Coal-water slurries have the potential of a near term replacement for fuel oil. In order to gain the fundamental understanding of the preparation and handling of coal-water slurries, experiments were performed to identify the relationship between the coal content of a given coal-water slurry and its physical and chemical properties. The objectives of this program were: Investigate the relationship between the chemical and physical properties of coal and the rheology of coal-water slurry Define procedures for evaluating and preparing coal water slurries for a particular coal candidate, based on the characteristic coal properties Develop improved methods of screening surfactants used in coal-water slurry preparation Perform experiments designed to investigate the effect of characteristic coal properties on slurry quality, by examining the effect of the individual coal properties on slurry quality Develop a statistical formulation to predict the coal content of a given coal water slurry content based on the coal characteristic properties.

  17. The Effects of Chemical Wash Additives on the Corrosion of Aerospace Alloys in Marine Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowell, Louis; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Joseph; Hodge, Tim; Barile, Ronald; Heidersbach, Robert; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology for comparing the relative effectiveness of four chemical products used for rinsing airplanes and helicopters. The products were applied on a weekly basis to a series of flat alloy panels exposed to an oceanfront marine environment for one year. The results are presented along with comparisons of exposures of the same alloys that were not washed, were washed with seawater, or washed with de-ionized water.

  18. 75 FR 33824 - Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ...Following receipt of a request dated May 27, 2010 from the United States Trade Representative (USTR) pursuant to section 115 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (URAA) (19 U.S.C. 3524) and section 332(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1332 (g)), the U.S. International Trade Commission (Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-520, Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates,......

  19. Chemical and biological consequences of using carbon dioxide versus acid additions in ocean acidification experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Kimberly K.; DuFore, Christopher M.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Use of different approaches for manipulating seawater chemistry during ocean acidification experiments has confounded comparison of results from various experimental studies. Some of these discrepancies have been attributed to whether addition of acid (such as hydrochloric acid, HCl) or carbon dioxide (CO2) gas has been used to adjust carbonate system parameters. Experimental simulations of carbonate system parameter scenarios for the years 1766, 2007, and 2100 were performed using the carbonate speciation program CO2SYS to demonstrate the variation in seawater chemistry that can result from use of these approaches. Results showed that carbonate system parameters were 3 percent and 8 percent lower than target values in closed-system acid additions, and 1 percent and 5 percent higher in closed-system CO2 additions for the 2007 and 2100 simulations, respectively. Open-system simulations showed that carbonate system parameters can deviate by up to 52 percent to 70 percent from target values in both acid addition and CO2 addition experiments. Results from simulations for the year 2100 were applied to empirically derived equations that relate biogenic calcification to carbonate system parameters for calcifying marine organisms including coccolithophores, corals, and foraminifera. Calculated calcification rates for coccolithophores, corals, and foraminifera differed from rates at target conditions by 0.5 percent to 2.5 percent in closed-system CO2 gas additions, from 0.8 percent to 15 percent in the closed-system acid additions, from 4.8 percent to 94 percent in open-system acid additions, and from 7 percent to 142 percent in open-system CO2 additions.

  20. Reduction of VOCs during pressing of OSB with the use of chemical additives

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.S.; McGinnis, G.D.; Kleinheinz, G.T.; Niemi, B.A.; Flicker, T.M.

    1999-07-01

    As air pollution regulations continue to become increasingly stringent, it is critical for the wood composite industry to develop more efficient and economical methods for handling air pollutant emissions. Technologies currently being used for end of pipeline control are often expensive to install and operate; therefore, more cost-effective methods of reduction are necessary. This project was undertaken to determine the feasibility of using various chemical compounds during pressing or drying of wood particles to minimize/reduce volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from wood composite plants. This study was designed specifically to develop chemical treatment systems, which would reduce VOCs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the oriented strandboard (OSB) manufacturing process. A series of acids, bases, oxidizing agents and nucleophiles were evaluated in this study. The initial model waste stream consisted of furfural and a series of mono-terpenes. The first year results indicated that several of the chemicals did destroy the VOCs; in some cases destruction was observed as high as 75%. The first year of this study was conducted in the laboratory, while the second and third years will combine laboratory studies and OSB plant studies.

  1. Relationships between persistent organic chemicals residues and biochemical constituents in fish from a protected area: the French National Nature Reserve of Camargue.

    PubMed

    Roche, Hélène; Buet, Astrid; Ramade, François

    2002-11-01

    The Reserve of Biosphere of Camargue [French National Nature Reserve of Camargue (NNRC)] is a protected area frequently exposed to natural and anthropogenic environmental alterations. To evaluate potential contamination of fish with lipophilic chemicals-organochlorines (OCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-a biological monitoring survey was carried out. Metabolic reserve levels were evaluated to select appropriate biological indicators able to be significant biomarkers. In addition, the incorporation of xenobiotic molecules in the lipid compartments was investigated. The contents of glycogen, total lipids, proteins and lipidic phosphorus were analyzed in liver and skeletal muscles of three teleostean: the European eel (Anguilla anguilla); the crucian carp (Carassius auratus); and the catfish (Ictalurus melas). The atmospheric origin of the PAH detected in any season in the biomass and the OCs compounds contamination by derive from agricultural treatments are established. In contradiction with some laboratory acute intoxication studies, we observe a positive correlation between tissue concentrations of contaminants and the muscular glycogen amount, a sensitive energy reserve marker. Moreover, it seems likely that the incorporation of these xenobiotics is located preferentially in the membrane structures. PMID:12379424

  2. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Technical progress report 5, September 16, 1988--December 15, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1989-02-04

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of studies including temperature programmed desorption, infrared study of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation over Rh catalysts. Ethylene hydroformylation has often served as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of Rh catalysts. The mechanism of CO insertion in ethylene hydroformylation over Rh/SiO{sub 2} was investigated.

  3. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a* values at a 0.5% addition (p<0.05). Residual nitrite and TBARS values were found to be significantly reduced as the addition levels of SCP increased (p<0.05). As the addition of SCP increased, the sausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (p<0.05). The addition of SCP to sausage significantly (p<0.05) increased the ammonia content (by 0.5% SCP) and aromatic amino acid concentrations (by 1.0% SCP) (p<0.05). Inclusion of SCP in sausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (p<0.05). As expected, the observed changes in a*, W, pH, shear force, texture property, TBARS, fatty acid, amino acid and sensory score of sausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (p<0.05). These results suggest that SCP addition is not an effective way of improving the sensory evaluation of sausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages. PMID:25049766

  4. Evaluation of the protective effect of chemical additives in the oxidation of phenolic compounds catalysed by peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Torres, Juliana Arriel; Chagas, Pricila Maria Batista; Silva, Maria Cristina; Dos Santos, Custódio Donizete; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte

    2016-01-01

    The use of oxidoredutive enzymes in removing organic pollutants has been the subject of much research. The oxidation of phenolic compounds in the presence of chemical additives has been the focus of this study. In this investigation, the influence of the additives polyethylene glycol and Triton X-100 was evaluated in the phenol oxidation, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and total phenolic compounds present in coffee processing wastewater (CPW) at different pH values, performed by turnip peroxidase and peroxidase extracted from soybean seed hulls. The influence of these additives was observed only in the oxidation of phenol and caffeic acid. In the oxidation of other studied phenolic compounds, the percentage of oxidation remained unchanged in the presence of these chemical additives. In the oxidation of CPW in the presence of additives, no change in the oxidation of phenolic compounds was observed. Although several studies show the importance of evaluating the influence of additives on the behaviour of enzymes, this study found a positive response from the economic point of view for the treatment of real wastewater, since the addition of these substances showed no influence on the oxidation of phenolic compounds, which makes the process less costly. PMID:26502790

  5. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility program: Eleven additional chemicals: Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    An Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess the environmental consequences of spill testing eleven hazardous materials at the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility (LGFSTF) at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site (NTS). These chemicals are: chlorosulfonic acid, fluorosulfonic acid, hydrogen chloride, methyl trichlorosilane, nitrogen tetroxide, oleum, silicon tetrachloride, sulfur-trioxide, titanium tetrachloride, trichlorosilane, and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine. DOE has determined that the proposed spill testing of these eleven hazardous materials at LGFSTF at Frenchman Flat is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) will not be prepared.

  6. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of the volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl grown in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Tantawy, Mona E; Shams, Manal M; Afifi, Manal S

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata and Nephrolepis cordifolia obtained by hydro-distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. The essential oils exhibited potential antibacterial and antifungal activities against a majority of the selected microorganisms. NEA oil showed promising cytotoxicity in breast, colon and lung carcinoma cells. The results presented indicate that NEA oil could be useful alternative for the treatment of dermatophytosis. Comparative investigation of hydro-distilled volatile constituents from aerial parts (A) of Nephrolepis exaltata (NE) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (NC) (Family Nephrolepidaceae) was carried out. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that oils differ in composition and percentages of components. Oxygenated compounds were dominant in NEA and NCA. 2,4-Hexadien-1-ol (16.1%), nonanal (14.4%), β-Ionone (6.7%) and thymol (2.7%) were predominant in NEA. β-Ionone (8.0%), eugenol (7.2%) and anethol (4.6%) were the main constituents in NCA. Volatile samples were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities using agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using viability assay in breast (MCF-7), colon (HCT-116) and lung carcinoma (A-549) cells by the MTT assay. The results revealed that NEA oil exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against most of the tested organisms and showed promising cytotoxicity. PMID:26211503

  7. Identification and Quantification Analysis on the Chemical Constituents from Traditional Mongolian Medicine Flos Scabiosae Using UHPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS Combined with UHPLC-QqQ-MS.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hui; Li, Tianer; He, Mingzhen; Li, Zhifeng; Tan, Ting; Zhang, Wugang; Li, Yan; Feng, Yulin; Yang, Shilin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a systematic method was established for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in Flos Scabiosae (FS). First, Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was developed for the identification of the multi-constituents in FS. A total of 48 compounds (9 phenolic acids, 24 flavonoids, 8 iridoids and 7 others) were unambiguously or tentatively identified, including 25 compounds (flavonoids, phenolic acids) identified in FS for the first time. Second, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography combined with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) was developed for the quantitative analysis of 10 phenolic compounds. Ten compounds, either with high contents or strong bioactivities, were chosen as markers. This analytical method was validated through intra- and inter-day precision, repeatability and stability, with respective relative standard deviations <4.43, <8.64, <4.60 and <3.65%, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were <1.09 and <16.96 ng/mL, respectively. The overall recoveries ranged from 96.47 to 103.94% .Then the validated method was applied to determine 10 batches of FS. The results indicated that the new method can be applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of FS. PMID:27107093

  8. Chemical and radiochemical constituents in water from wells in the vicinity of the naval reactors facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Knobel, LeRoy L.; Tucker, Betty J.; Twining, Brian V.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Phtsburgh Naval Reactors Ofilce, Idaho Branch Office, sampled water from 13 wells during 1997?98 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho. Water samples were analyzed for naturally occurring constituents and man-made contaminants. A totalof91 samples were collected from the 13 monitoring wells. The routine samples contained detectable concentrations of total cations and dissolved anions, and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen. Most of the samples also had detectable concentrations of gross alpha- and gross beta-particle radioactivity and tritium. Fourteen qualityassurance samples also were collected and analyze~ seven were field-blank samples, and seven were replicate samples. Most of the field blank samples contained less than detectable concentrations of target constituents; however, some blank samples did contain detectable concentrations of calcium, magnesium, barium, copper, manganese, nickel, zinc, nitrite plus nitrate, total organic halogens, tritium, and selected volatile organic compounds.

  9. Chemical and Radiochemical Constituents in Water from Wells in the Vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1997-98

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bartholomay; L. L. Knobel; B. J. Tucker; B. V. Twining

    2000-06-01

    The US Geological Survey, in response to a request from the U.S Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office, Idaho Branch Office, sampled water from 13 wells during 1997-98 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho. Water samples were analyzed for naturally occurring constituents and man-made contaminants. A total of 91 samples were collected from the 13 monitoring wells. The routine samples contained detectable concentrations of total cations and dissolved anions, and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen. Most of the samples also had detectable concentrations of gross alpha- and gross beta-particle radioactivity and tritium. Fourteen quality-assurance samples were also collected and analyzed; seven were field-blank samples, and seven were replicate samples. Most of the field blank samples contained less than detectable concentrations of target constituents; however some blank samples did contain detectable concentrations of calcium, magnesium, barium, copper, manganese, nickel, zinc, nitrite plus nitrate, total organic halogens, tritium, and selected volatile organic compounds.

  10. Does the Addition of Inert Gases at Constant Volume and Temperature Affect Chemical Equilibrium?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paiva, Joao C. M.; Goncalves, Jorge; Fonseca, Susana

    2008-01-01

    In this article we examine three approaches, leading to different conclusions, for answering the question "Does the addition of inert gases at constant volume and temperature modify the state of equilibrium?" In the first approach, the answer is yes as a result of a common students' alternative conception; the second approach, valid only for ideal…

  11. Chemical additive to maximize antimicrobial effect of chlorine during pilot scale immersion chilling of broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A prior laboratory scale study demonstrated the potential for T-128, a proprietary blend including propylene glycol and phosphoric acid, to enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine during immersion chilling of broiler parts. The objective of the current study was to test the addition of T-128...

  12. 75 FR 17939 - EMD Chemicals, Inc.; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... the Federal Register of September 25, 1998 (63 FR 51359), FDA announced that a color additive petition... published an amended filing notice in the Federal Register of June 21, 1999 (64 FR 33097), indicating that... candies, nutritional supplement tablets and gelatin capsules, and chewing gum (71 FR 31927). The...

  13. Food additives and environmental chemicals as sources of childhood behavior disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, B.

    1982-01-01

    The Feingold hypothesis postulates that many children who exhibit disturbed behavior improve on a diet devoid of certain food additives. Its validity has been examined on the basis of controlled trails. The total evidence, although not wholly consistent, nevertheless suggests that the hypothesis is, in principle, correct. Such a conclusion poses difficult problems and new issues for etiology, treatment, toxicology, and regulation.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of high-strength cheese whey utilizing semicontinuous digesters and chemical flocculant addition

    SciTech Connect

    Barford, J.P.; Cail, R.G.; Callander, I.J.; Floyd, E.J.

    1986-11-01

    Semicontinuous digesters were used to anaerobically treat high-strength whey (70 kg/cubic m COD). A maximum loading of 16.1 kg COD/cubic m/day was obtained with soluble COD removal efficiencies greater than 99%. The use of a chemical flocculant resulted in an increased biomass concentration in the digester compared to a control, thus enabling correspondingly higher space loadings to be applied. With the onset of substantial levels of granulation of the biomass, flocculant dosage was able to be discontinued. This article discusses the performance of the digesters in detail and, briefly, the long-term operational difficulties experienced and the control strategies employed on such systems. 24 references.

  15. Analysis and detection of the chemical constituents of Radix Polygalae and their metabolites in rats after oral administration by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yun; Li, Zhixiong; Chen, Mingcang; Sun, Zhaolin; Fan, Mingsong; Huang, Chenggang

    2013-11-01

    Radix Polygalae (RP), the dried root of Polygala tenuifolia Willd., is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine to mediate sedative, antipsychotic, cognitive improving, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects on the central nervous system. In this work, ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was established for the separation and characterization of the chemical constituents in Radix Polygalae and their metabolites in rat plasma and urine after oral administration. Samples were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse Plus-C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.8μm) with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase under gradient conditions. Overall, 50 compounds were characterized from the RP, 9 of which are to our knowledge reported for the first time. In vivo, 10 components and 2 metabolites were observed in rat plasma, and 27 components and 7 metabolites were detected in rat urine. The results from this work improve our understanding on the chemical constituents of RP and their metabolic profiling. PMID:23860503

  16. Evaluation of background concentrations of selected chemical and radiochemical constituents in water from the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; L. Flint Hall

    2016-01-01

    The upper limit of background concentrations for radiochemical constituents for eastern regional water was 5.43 ±0.574 pCi/L for tritium, 0.0002048 ±0.0000054 pCi/L for chlorine-36, 0.000000865 ±0.000000015 pCi/L for iodine-129, <0.0000054 pCi/L for technetium-99, 0 pCi/L for strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, -240 (undivided), and americium-241, 1.32 ±0.77 pCi/L for uranium-234, 0.016 ±0.012 pCi/L for uranium-235, and 0.477 ±0.044 pCi/L for uranium-238.

  17. Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico Basin, North Carolina and Virginia; chemical analyses of organic compounds and inorganic constituents in streambed sediment, 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodside, M.D.; Simerl, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey began full-scale implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. Long-term goals of the NAWQA program are to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources and to describe the primary natural and human factors that affect these resources. One of the first assessment phases of the NAWQA program is to examine the occurrence and distribution of organic and inorganic constituents in streambed sediment. Streambed sediment was collected at 22 stations in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin that drains into the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, the second largest estuarine system in the United States. Streambed-sediment samples were analyzed for 35 organochlorine and 63 semivolatile compounds; 44 major, minor, and trace elements; and forms of organic carbon.

  18. Effects of Microbial Additives on Chemical Composition and Fermentation Characteristics of Barley Silage

    PubMed Central

    Amanullah, S. M.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, H. J.; Joo, Y. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of bacterial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation indices of barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at 24% dry matter (DM) and wilted to 47.9% DM. The wilted barley forage was chopped to 3–5 cm length and applied with no inoculant (CON), L. plantarum (1×1010 cfu/g, LP) or Effective Microorganisms (0.5×109 cfu/g, EM). Then the forages were ensiled in four replications for each treatment in 20 L mini silos and stored for 100 days. The contents of crude protein and ether extract were higher in CON silage ensiled for 100-d, while the contents of DM and crude ash were higher in EM silage (p<0.05). The contents of ADF, NDF and hemicellulose as well as the in vitro DM digestibility were not affected by microbial inoculation (p>0.05). The pH, ammonia-N concentration and lactate to acetate ratio were higher (p<0.05) in CON silage, while lactate concentrations were higher (p<0.05) in CON and LP silage. Acetate concentration and lactic acid bacteria was increased (p<0.05) by both inoculants (LP and EM), but propionate concentration and yeast was increased (p<0.05) by EM and LP, respectively. These results indicated that the fermentation quality of barley silage was improved by the application of bacterial inoculants. PMID:25049981

  19. Singular vector-based targeted observations of chemical constituents: description and first application of the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goris, N.; Elbern, H.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of the large-dimensional chemical state of the atmosphere provide only sparse snapshots of the state of the system due to their typically insufficient temporal and spatial density. In order to optimize the measurement configurations despite those limitations, the present work describes the identification of sensitive states of the chemical system as optimal target areas for adaptive observations. For this purpose, the technique of singular vector analysis (SVA), which has proven effective for targeted observations in numerical weather prediction, is implemented in the EURAD-IM (EURopean Air pollution and Dispersion - Inverse Model) chemical transport model, yielding the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0. Besides initial values, emissions are investigated as critical simulation controlling targeting variables. For both variants, singular vectors are applied to determine the optimal placement for observations and moreover to quantify which chemical compounds have to be observed with preference. Based on measurements of the airship based ZEPTER-2 campaign, the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0 has been evaluated by conducting a comprehensive set of model runs involving different initial states and simulation lengths. For the sake of brevity, we concentrate our attention on the following chemical compounds, O3, NO, NO2, HCHO, CO, HONO, and OH, and focus on their influence on selected O3 profiles. Our analysis shows that the optimal placement for observations of chemical species is not entirely determined by mere transport and mixing processes. Rather, a combination of initial chemical concentrations, chemical conversions, and meteorological processes determines the influence of chemical compounds and regions. We furthermore demonstrate that the optimal placement of observations of emission strengths is highly dependent on the location of emission sources and that the benefit of including emissions as target variables outperforms the value of initial value optimization with growing

  20. Nonequilibrium hadronization and constituent quark number scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Zschocke, Sven; Horvat, Szabolcs; Mishustin, Igor N.; Csernai, Laszlo P.

    2011-04-15

    The constituent quark number scaling of elliptic flow is studied in a nonequilibrium hadronization and freeze-out model with rapid dynamical transition from ideal, deconfined, and chirally symmetric quark-gluon plasma, to final noninteracting hadrons. In this transition a bag model of constituent quarks is considered, where the quarks gain constituent quark mass while the background bag field breaks up and vanishes. The constituent quarks then recombine into simplified hadron states, while chemical, thermal, and flow equilibrium break down one after the other. In this scenario the resulting temperatures and flow velocities of baryons and mesons are different. Using a simplified few source model of the elliptic flow, we are able to reproduce the constituent quark number scaling, with assumptions on the details of the nonequilibrium processes.

  1. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of essential oil and organic extract from the peel and kernel parts of Citrus japonica Thunb. (kumquat) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Amrah; Shafaghatlonbar, Ali

    2016-05-01

    The constituents of essential oils and organic extracts from peel and kernels of Citrus japonica were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The content of essential oil in peel and kernel was 1.1 and 0.8% based on dry weight. The essential oil of C. japonica peel and kernel was characterised by a higher amount of limonene (51.0 and 47.1%) and germacrene D (12.1 and 6.3%), and the hexane extracts of its peel and kernel were characterised by a higher amount of dodecanol-1(12.9 and 20.8%) and linolenic acid (13.1 and 16.3%), respectively. The antioxidant activities of oils were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The results indicate that both oils from different parts of C. japonica possess considerable antioxidant activity. The fruit peel and kernel essential oil could thus be useful in the industries, chiefly in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26500054

  2. Hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1992 through 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Tucker, B.J.; Ackerman, D.J.; Liszewski, M.J.

    1997-04-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, maintains a monitoring network at the INEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1992--95.

  3. Activation and stabilization of the hydroperoxide lyase enzymatic extract from mint leaves (Mentha spicata) using selected chemical additives.

    PubMed

    Akacha, Najla B; Karboune, Salwa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Kermasha, Selim

    2010-03-01

    The effects of selected lyoprotecting excipients and chemical additives on the specific activity and the thermal stability of the hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) enzymatic extract from mint leaves were investigated. The addition of KCl (5%, w/w) and dextran (2.5%, w/w) to the enzymatic extract, prior to lyophilization, increased the HPL specific activity by 2.0- and 1.2-fold, respectively, compared to the control lyophilized extract. From half-life time (t (1/2)), it can be seen that KCl has enhanced the HPL stability by 1.3- to 2.3-fold, during long-period storage at -20 degrees Celsius and 4 degrees Celsius. Among the selected additives used throughout this study, glycine appeared to be the most effective one. In addition to the activation effect conferred by glycine, it also enhanced the HPL thermal stability. In contrast, polyhydroxyl-containing additives were not effective for stabilizing the HPL enzymatic extract. On the other hand, there was no signification increase in HPL activity and its thermal stability with the presence of Triton X-100. The results also showed that in the presence of glycine (10%), the catalytic efficiency of HPL was increased by 2.45-fold than that without additive. PMID:19430937

  4. Effect of Microbial and Chemical Combo Additives on Nutritive Value and Fermentation Characteristic of Whole Crop Barley Silage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hyeon; Amanullah, Sardar M.; Lee, Hyuk Jun; Joo, Young Ho; Kim, Sam Churl

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of microbial and chemical combo additives on nutritive values, fermentation indices and aerobic stability of whole crop barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at about 30% dry matter (DM) by treatments, chopped to 5 cm length and treated with distilled water only (CON), Lactobacillus plantarum (INO), propionic acid (PRO) or an equal mixture of INO and PRO (MIX). Barley forages were ensiled in 4 replications for 0, 2, 7, and 100 days. On 100 days of ensiling, MIX silage had higher (p<0.05) in vitro DM digestibility than CON silage, but lower (p<0.05) acid detergent fiber concentration. The pH in all treated silages was lower (p<0.05) than CON silage. The MIX silage had higher (p<0.05) lactate concentration and lactate to acetate ratio than in CON, but lower (p<0.05) yeast count. Aerobic stability in CON, PRO, and MIX silages were higher (p<0.05) than in INO silage. It is concluded that microbial and chemical combo additives using L. plantarum and propionic acid could efficiently improve nutritive values of barley silage in terms of increased in vitro DM digestibility compared to other treatments. In addition, all treatments except CON reduced yeast count which is the initiate microorganism of aerobic spoilage. PMID:26323517

  5. Effect of Microbial and Chemical Combo Additives on Nutritive Value and Fermentation Characteristic of Whole Crop Barley Silage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyeon; Amanullah, Sardar M; Lee, Hyuk Jun; Joo, Young Ho; Kim, Sam Churl

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of microbial and chemical combo additives on nutritive values, fermentation indices and aerobic stability of whole crop barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at about 30% dry matter (DM) by treatments, chopped to 5 cm length and treated with distilled water only (CON), Lactobacillus plantarum (INO), propionic acid (PRO) or an equal mixture of INO and PRO (MIX). Barley forages were ensiled in 4 replications for 0, 2, 7, and 100 days. On 100 days of ensiling, MIX silage had higher (p<0.05) in vitro DM digestibility than CON silage, but lower (p<0.05) acid detergent fiber concentration. The pH in all treated silages was lower (p<0.05) than CON silage. The MIX silage had higher (p<0.05) lactate concentration and lactate to acetate ratio than in CON, but lower (p<0.05) yeast count. Aerobic stability in CON, PRO, and MIX silages were higher (p<0.05) than in INO silage. It is concluded that microbial and chemical combo additives using L. plantarum and propionic acid could efficiently improve nutritive values of barley silage in terms of increased in vitro DM digestibility compared to other treatments. In addition, all treatments except CON reduced yeast count which is the initiate microorganism of aerobic spoilage. PMID:26323517

  6. [Effects of different perlite additions on physical and chemical properties of sewage sludge compost and growth of Tagetes patula].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu-Tong; Shi, Lian-Hui; Liu, Deng-Min; Tong, Shao-Wei; Wei, Mei-Yan; Sun, Jie

    2014-07-01

    In order to resolve the problem of poor permeability of sewage sludge compost (SSC) which was used as the substitution of peat, perlite was used to regulate the permeability of the sewage. The pure SSC was used as control. The proportions of perlite in the mixtures with SSC were 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% (V/V), respectively. The effects of different perlite ratios on the physical and chemical properties and the growth of Tagetes patula were studied. The bulk density, water holding porosity and water holding porosity to aeration porosity decreased, but the total porosity and aeration porosity increased with the increasing addition of perlite to the SSC. For the chemical properties, the pH increased, and the EC and nutrient contents decreased with the increasing addition of perlite to the SSC. The aboveground biomass and flowers of T. patula were the highest in the 60% perlite treatment, and the lowest in the pure SSC treatment. The root morphology and activity were the best in the 40%, 60% and 80% perlite treatments. Aeration was the strongest factor to impact the maximum root length and average root diameter. Perlite promoted the growth of T. patula mainly through impacting the physical properties of the SSC. The addition of 60% perlite to the SSC could significantly improve the poor aeration and decrease the high salinity greatly in the SSC and regulate the growth of the root and aboveground of T. patula. PMID:25345044

  7. Chemical composition, larvicidal, and biting deterrent activity of essential oils of two subspecies of Tanacetum argenteum (Asterales: Asteraceae) and individual constituents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Kurkcuoglu, Mine; Duran, Ahmet; Blythe, Eugene K; Khan, Ikhlas A; Baser, K Husnu Can

    2014-07-01

    Water-distilled essential oils from dried aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. argenteum (Lam.) and T. argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. canum (C. Koch) Grierson were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 27 and 32 components were identified representing 97.2 and 98.7% of essential oils of subsp. argenteum and canum, respectively. Main compounds of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum were alpha-pinene (67.9%) and beta-pinene (4.8%), whereas alpha-pinene (53.6%), 1, 8-cineole (14.8%), and camphor (4.7%) were the major constituents of subsp. canum. Essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. canum at 10 microg/cm2 with Biting Deterrent Index (BDI) value of 0.73 showed activity similar to N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) at 25 mol/cm2, whereas the activity of essential oil of subsp. argenteum was lower (BDI = 0.47) than subsp. canum and DEET. Based on 95% CIs, activity of beta-caryophyllene (BDI value = 0.54) and caryophyllene oxide (BDI = 0.66) were significantly lower than DEET. In larval bioassays, essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum showed LC50 value of 93.34 ppm, whereas T. argenteum subsp. canum killed only 40% of the larvae at the highest dose of 125 ppm. Among the pure compounds, beta-caryophyllene (LC50 = 26 ppm) was the most potent compound followed by caryophyllene oxide (LC50 = 29 ppm), which was also similar to (-)-beta-pinene (LC50 = 35.9 ppm) against 1-d-old Ae. aegypti larvae at 24-h post treatment. Compounds (-)-alpha-pinene and (+)-beta-pinene showed similar larvicidal activity. Activity of (+)-alpha-pinene with LC50 value of was similar to the essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum. PMID:25118415

  8. Effect of water treatment additives on lime softening residual trace chemical composition--implications for disposal and reuse.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weizhi; Roessler, Justin; Blaisi, Nawaf I; Townsend, Timothy G

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water treatment residues (WTR) offer potential benefits when recycled through land application. The current guidance in Florida, US allows for unrestricted land application of lime softening WTR; alum and ferric WTR require additional evaluation of total and leachable concentrations of select trace metals prior to land application. In some cases a mixed WTR is produced when lime softening is accompanied by the addition of a coagulant or other treatment chemical; applicability of the current guidance is unclear. The objective of this research was to characterize the total and leachable chemical content of WTR from Florida facilities that utilize multiple treatment chemicals. Lime and mixed lime WTR samples were collected from 18 water treatment facilities in Florida. Total and leachable concentrations of the WTR were measured. To assess the potential for disposal of mixed WTR as clean fill below the water table, leaching tests were conducted at multiple liquid to solid ratios and under reducing conditions. The results were compared to risk-based soil and groundwater contamination thresholds. Total metal concentrations of WTR were found to be below Florida soil contaminant thresholds with Fe found in the highest abundance at a concentration of 3600 mg/kg-dry. Aluminum was the only element that exceeded the Florida groundwater contaminant thresholds using SPLP (95% UCL = 0.23 mg/L; risk threshold = 0.2 mg/L). Tests under reducing conditions showed elevated concentrations of Fe and Mn, ranging from 1 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than SPLP leachates. Mixed lime WTR concentrations (total and leachable) were lower than the ferric and alum WTR concentrations, supporting that mixed WTR are appropriately represented as lime WTR. Testing of WTR under reducing conditions demonstrated the potential for release of certain trace metals (Fe, Al, Mn) above applicable regulatory thresholds; additional evaluation is needed to assess management options where

  9. Effects of chemical mechanical planarization slurry additives on the agglomeration of alumina nanoparticles II: aggregation rate analysis.

    PubMed

    Brahma, Neil; Talbot, Jan B

    2014-04-01

    The aggregation rate and mechanism of 150 nm alumina particles in 1mM KNO3 with various additives used in chemical mechanical planarization of copper were investigated. The pH of each suspension was ∼8 such that the aggregation rate was slow enough to be measured and analyzed over ∼120 min. In general, an initial exponential growth was observed for most suspensions indicating reaction-limited aggregation. After aggregate sizes increase to >500 nm, the rate followed a power law suggesting diffusion-limited aggregation. Stability ratios and fractal dimension numbers were also calculated to further elucidate the aggregation mechanism. PMID:24491325

  10. Isolation, fractionation and identification of chemical constituents from the leaves crude extracts of Mentha piperita L grown in Sultanate of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Al-Hdhrami, Seham Salim; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze and identify the chemical compositions of different organic plants crude extracts of Mentha piperita (M. piperita) grown in Sultanate of Oman by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods The powder sample was extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor. Methanol crude extracts of M. piperita and its derived fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol were prepared. Results Qualitative analyses of various organic plant crude extracts of M. piperita by using GC-MS showed that majority of these compounds are bioactive. Conclusions According to the results of the present study, the plant crude extracts could be used as medicine for the treatment of different diseases. The analysis and identification of the chemical compounds in the plant crude extracts by using GC-MS was the first time. PMID:25183113

  11. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicinal formula Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhixiang; Yang, Xinghao; Wu, Jianbo; Su, Huai; Chen, Chen; Chen, Yin

    2011-04-01

    Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang (TXYF), a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula, has efficient effects on treatment of the diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS), a disease with high incidence worldwide. However, the active principles for this complex formula have not been fully explored so far. In this paper, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) was applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of major chemical constituents in TXYF. Two monoterpene glycosides, one chromone and five polymethoxylated flavones were tentatively characterized based on the retention times, UV spectra and MS data. Fifteen compounds were unambiguously identified by comparison with reference standards. Constituents such as lactone and steroidal, which could not be found by single HPLC method due to the low content in the formula, were identified in this paper. Seven compounds (gallic acid, prim-O-β-D-glucosylcimifugin, paeoniflorin, cimifugin, naringin, hesperidin and 4'-O-β-D-glucosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol) were quantified by HPLC-DAD using a C18 column and gradient elution with acetonitrile and water-0.1% formic acid. The method exhibited intra- and inter-day precision of less than 2.35% and 3.14%, respectively. The LODs and the LOQs for the analytes were less than 0.47 and 1.82 μg ml(-1), respectively. The overall recoveries ranged from 96.82% to 102.47%, with the R.S.D. ranging from 1.17% to 3.94%. These results demonstrated that our present method was effective and reliable for comprehensive quality evaluation of TXYF. Meanwhile, the study might provide the chemical evidence for revealing the material basis of its therapeutic effects. PMID:21458639

  12. Association of chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particulate air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis: A panel study among young adults in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Yang, Di; Wei, Hongying; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jing; Li, Hongyu; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2015-09-01

    Ambient particulate air pollution has been associated with increased oxidative stress and atherosclerosis, but the chemical constituents and pollution sources behind the association are unclear. We investigated the associations of various chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particles (PM2.5) with biomarkers of oxidative stress in a panel of 40 healthy university students. Study participants underwent repeated blood collections for 12 times before and after relocating from a suburban campus to an urban campus with high air pollution levels in Beijing, China. Air pollution data were obtained from central air-monitoring stations, and plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and soluble CD36 (sCD36) were determined in the laboratory (n=464). Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the changes in biomarkers in association with exposure variables. PM2.5 iron and nickel were positively associated with Ox-LDL (p<0.05). For each interquartile range increase in iron (1-day, 0.51 μg/m(3)) and nickel (2-day, 2.5 ng/m(3)), there were a 1.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2%, 3.7%] increase and a 1.8% (95% CI: 0.2%, 3.4%) increase in Ox-LDL, respectively. We also found that each interquartile range increase in calcium (1-day, 0.7 μg/m(3)) was associated with a 4.8% (95% CI: 0.7%, 9.1%) increase in sCD36. Among the pollution sources, PM2.5 from traffic emissions and coal combustion were suggestively and positively associated with Ox-LDL. Our findings suggest that a subset of metals in airborne particles may be the major air pollution components that contribute to the increased oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis. PMID:25981523

  13. Joint effects of heterogeneous estrogenic chemicals in the E-screen--exploring the applicability of concentration addition.

    PubMed

    Silva, Elisabete; Rajapakse, Nissanka; Scholze, Martin; Backhaus, Thomas; Ermler, Sibylle; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    In the last few years, significant advances have been made toward understanding the joint action of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). A number of studies have demonstrated that the combined effects of different types of EDCs (e.g., estrogenic, antiandrogenic, or thyroid-disrupting agents) can be predicted by the model of concentration addition (CA). However, there is still limited information on the effects of mixtures of large numbers of chemicals with varied structural features, which are more representative of realistic human exposure scenarios. The work presented here aims at filling this gap. Using a breast cancer cell proliferation assay (E-Screen), we assessed the joint effects of five mixtures, containing between 3 and 16 estrogenic agents, including compounds as diverse as steroidal hormones (endogenous and synthetic), pesticides, cosmetic additives, and phytoestrogens. CA was employed to predict mixture effects, which were then compared with experimental outcomes. The effects of two of the mixtures tested were additive, being accurately predicted by CA. However, for the three other mixtures, CA slightly overestimated the experimental observations. In view of these results, we hypothesized that the deviations were due to increased metabolism of steroidal estrogens in the mixture setting. We investigated this by testing the impact of two such mixtures on the activation and expression of steroidal estrogen metabolizing enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP 1B1, and CYP 3A4. Activation of CYP 1B1 and, consequently, a reduction in the levels of steroidal estrogens in the mixture could contribute to the shortfall from the additivity prediction that we observed. PMID:21561885

  14. Sustainable nutrients recovery and recycling by optimizing the chemical addition sequence for struvite precipitation from raw swine slurries.

    PubMed

    Taddeo, Raffaele; Kolppo, Kari; Lepistö, Raghida

    2016-09-15

    Livestock farming contributes heavily to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) flows into the environment, a major cause of eutrophication of coastal and freshwater systems. Furthermore, the growing demand for N-P fertilizers is increasing the emission of anthropogenic reactive N into the atmosphere and the depletion of the current P reserves. Therefore, it is essential to minimize the anthropogenic impact on the environment and recycle the wasted N-P for agricultural reuse. This study focused on enhancing struvite (MgNH4PO4*6H2O) precipitation from raw swine slurries in batch and laboratory-scale reactors. Different chemical addition sequences were evaluated, and the best removal efficiency (E%) was obtained when the chemicals were mixed before the precipitation process. Struvite was detected at a pH as low as 6 (E%N-P∼50%), and high E%N-P was found at pH 7-9.5 (80-95%). Furthermore, air stripping was used in place of NaOH to adjust pH, returning the same efficiency as if only alkali had been used. XRD and FE-SEM analysis of the precipitate showed that the recovered struvite was of high purity with orthorhombic crystalline structure and only trace amounts of impurities from matrix organics, co-precipitation products (CaO and amorphous calcium-phosphates), and residuals of added chemicals (MgO). PMID:27208994

  15. Properties and chemical constituents in ground water from the lower Wilcox Aquifer, Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettijohn, Robert A.; Busby, John F.; Beckman, Jeffery D.

    1993-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis is a study of regional aquifers composed of sediments of mostly Cenozoic age that underlie about 230,000 sq mi of the Gulf Coastal Plain. These regional aquifers are part of three aquifer systems: (1) the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System, (2) the Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System, and (3) the Coastal Lowlands Aquifer System. The water chemistry of the Lower Wilcox Aquifer, which is part of the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System is presented by a series of maps. These maps show the areal distribution of (1) the concentration of dissolved solids and temperature, (2) the primary water types and pH, (3) the concentration of major ions and silica, and (4) the milliequivalent ratios of selected ions. Dissolved constituents, pH, temperature, and ratios are based on the median values of all samples in each 100-sq-mi area. The concentration of dissolved solids in water from the Lower Wilcox Aquifer ranges from 18 mg/L near the outcrop in western Tennessee to 122,000 mg/L in a down-dip area in southern Mississippi. The primary water type is calcium bicarbonate in the outcrop area and sodium bicarbonate in all other areas of the aquifer within the limits of available data. The concentrations of major ions generally increase from the outcrop area to the down-dip limit of the data in the southern part of the aquifer area east of the Mississippi River. The milliequivalent ratio maps of selected ions in water from the Lower Wilcox Aquifer indicate some trends. The milliequivalent ratio of magnesium plus calcium to bicarbonate ranges from less than 0.1 to 40.4 and generally decreases from outcrop to down-dip limit of the data in the southern part of the aquifer area east of the Mississippi River. The milliequivalent ratio of bicarbonate to chloride ranges from 0.01 in southern Mississippi to 52.3 in northwestern Mississippi. This ratio increases from the outcrop toward the Mississippi River and from north to south in the

  16. Spatial variation of chemical constituents from the burning of commonly used biomass fuels in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saud, T.; Saxena, M.; Singh, D. P.; Saraswati; Dahiya, Manisha; Sharma, S. K.; Datta, A.; Gadi, Ranu; Mandal, T. K.

    2013-06-01

    In the present paper, we have determined emission factor of chemical composition of the emission from the burning of biomass (e.g. Dung cake, Acacia, Neem, Mulberry, Indian Rosewood, Pigeon pea etc.) commonly used as a residential fuel in the rural sector of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) (Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal), India. For comparison, we have selected only those biomass fuels, which are used in at least three of the above mentioned states. Dung cake from all the states reports highest emission of particulate matter (PM) (15.68 g kg-1), Organic Carbon (OC) (4.32 g kg-1) and Elemental Carbon (EC) (0.51 g kg-1). Among all biomass fuels studied, agricultural residue reports substantial amount of emission of Na+ (104 mg kg-1), K+ (331 mg kg-1) and Cl- (447 mg kg-1) particularly in Pigeon pea and Mustard stem. Eucalyptus (fuel wood) emits large amounts of Ca2+ (21.47 mg kg-1) and NO3- (614 mg kg-1). The emission of PM from dung cake is higher in Delhi (19.31 g kg-1) and followed by Uttar Pradesh (17.58 g kg-1) > Haryana (15.46 g kg-1) > Bihar (14.99 g kg-1) > Punjab (12.06 g kg-1) > West Bengal (5.90 g kg-1). Carbonaceous aerosols (OC and EC) and dominant Ionic species (Cl-, K+, SO42-, NO3- and PO43-) are altogether contributing 40-70% of total emissions. Characteristics and ratios of chemical species of emissions may help to develop a methodology of discriminating the sources of ambient particulate matter. Using a laboratory determined emission factor of chemical species, we have determined the emission budget over IGP, India.

  17. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Technical progress report 6, December 16, 1988--March 15, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1989-04-30

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativeities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation. Reaction of ethylene with syngas is used as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of metal catalysts. During the sixth quarter of the project, the mechanism of CO insertion on Ni/SiO{sub 2} was investigated by in-situ infrared spectroscopy. Ni/SiO{sub 2}, a methanation catalyst, has been shown to exhibit CO insertion activity. In situ infrared studies of CO/H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reactions show that the carbonylation of Ni/SiO{sub 2} to Ni(CO){sub 4} leads to an inhibition of methanation in CO hydrogenation but an enhancement of formation of propionaldehyde in C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reaction. The results suggest that the sites for propionaldehyde formation is different from those for methanation.

  18. Quality evaluation of commercial Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang based on simultaneous determination of fourteen major chemical constituents using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Ka-Yan; Xu, Jun; Ho, Hing-Man; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Min; Lang, Yan; Han, Quan-Bin

    2013-11-01

    Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT), comprising Coptidis Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Phellodendri Cortex and Gardeniae Fructus, is one of the commonly used Chinese medicine formulas for clearing heat and detoxifying. Quality control of the herbal complex like Chinese medicine formulas still remains a challenge. The successful approval of botanical drug Veregen by FDA indicated the importance of quantitative analysis in quality control of herbal medicines. In this study, an effective quantitative method based on conventional HPLC-DAD was developed for simultaneous determination of fourteen major ingredients (seven alkaloids, four flavonoids, three terpenes) in HLJDT. The established method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability and then successfully applied to quality evaluation of commercial HLJDT samples. The developed method can quantitatively determine up to 70% of the chemicals of commercial HLJDT sample and effectively revealed the significant variation in the quality of the commercial HLJDT samples collected from different locations. PMID:23973454

  19. Analysis of chemical constituents and antinociceptive potential of essential oil of Teucrium Stocksianum bioss collected from the North West of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants are used for the treatment of different diseases in almost all cultures. Teucrium species grow wildly at different geographical locations around the world. Teucrium stocksianum is used in folk medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, cough, jaundice and abdominal pain. Scientific study on Teucrium stocksianum shows that it possesses anthelmintic, cytotoxic and antispasmodic activity. The aim of our present study is to identify the chemical composition and antinociceptive potential of the essential oil extracted from Teucrium stocksianum bioss. Method Essential oil (EO) from the aerial parts of Teucrium stocksianum were extracted by hydrodistillation process. The qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil was determined with Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometer. Antinociceptive activity was determined by acetic acid induced writhing method. Percent inhibition of writhes of the test concentration was determined by comparing it with that of control. Tween-80 emulsion 2.5% (5 ml/kg b.w) was used as a control while Diclofenic sodium 50 mg/kg (b.w) was used as a standard drug. Results The chromatogram of the essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum shows differences both qualitatively and quantatively from essential oil composition reported in other countries. Hydrodistillation of Teucrium stocksianum yielded 0.4% (v/w), pale yellowish oil on dry basis. A total of 26 chemicals were identified by GC-MS accounting for 90.28% of the oil. The major components of essential oil were δ-cadinene (12.92%), α-pinene (10.3%), myrcene (8.64%), β-caryophyllene (8.23%), germacrene D (5.18%) and limonene (2.36%). Essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum has shown outstanding antinociceptive activity. It has been observed that increase in percent writhe inhibition (PWI) occurred from 20-80 mg/kg (b.w) and maximum writhe inhibition has been noted at a concentration of 80 mg/kg (b.w), but PWI decreased at 160 mg/kg, which may be due to some

  20. Comparative analysis of chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of ethylacetate extracts of Polygonum cuspidatum and its endophytic actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. A0916.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Qiu, Peng; Long, Xiu-Feng; Zhang, Shuai; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Tian, Yong-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigated the chemical composition of ethylacetate extracts from an endophytic actinomycete Streptomyces sp. A0916 and its host Polygonum cuspidatum. A comparative analysis of the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the extracts was also conducted. 32 compounds of P. cuspidatum and 23 compounds of Streptomyces sp. A0916 were isolated and identified by GC/MS. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts were evaluated using eight microbial strains (3 Gram-positive bacteria, 3 Gram-negative bacteria, and 2 fungi). The Streptomyces sp. A0916 extracts showed a wide range of antimicrobial activities and presented greater antimicrobial effectiveness than the P. cuspidatum extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Streptomyces sp. A0916 extracts against the ampicillin-resistant strain Enterococcus faecium SIIA843 was 32 μg·mL(-1). Furthermore, the extracts had greater antimicrobial effect against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. Finally, the antioxidant activity of the Streptomyces sp. A0916 extracts was equal to that of the P. cuspidatum extracts. In conclusion, our results suggest that the endophytic actinomycetes of the medicinal plants are an important source of bioactive substances. PMID:26968677

  1. Chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the leaf and rhizome oils of Alpinia pahangensis Ridl., an endemic wild ginger from peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Awang, Khalijah; Ibrahim, Halijah; Rosmy Syamsir, Devi; Mohtar, Mastura; Mat Ali, Rasadah; Azah Mohamad Ali, Nor

    2011-04-01

    The essential oils from the leaves and rhizomes of Alpinia pahangensis Ridl., collected from Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia, were obtained by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were determined by GC and GC/MS analyses. The major components of the rhizome oil were γ-selinene (11.60%), β-pinene (10.87%), (E,E)-farnesyl acetate (8.65%), and α-terpineol (6.38%), while those of the leaf oil were β-pinene (39.61%), α-pinene (7.55%), and limonene (4.89%). The investigation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils using the broth microdilution technique revealed that the rhizome oil of A. pahangensis inhibited five Staphylococcus aureus strains with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 0.08 and 0.31 μg/μl, and four selected fungi with MIC values between 1.25 and 2.50 μg/μl. PMID:21480512

  2. Simultaneous Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Chemical Constituents in YiQiFuMai Injection by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhua; Ju, Aichun; Zhou, Dazheng; Li, Dekun; Kou, Junping; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin

    2016-01-01

    YiQiFuMai injection (YQFM) is a modern lyophilized powder preparation derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Sheng-mai san (SMS) used for treating cardiovascular diseases, such as chronic heart failure. However, its chemical composition has not been fully elucidated, particularly for the preparation derived from Ophiopogon japonicus. This study aimed to establish a systematic and reliable method to quickly and simultaneously analyze the chemical constituents in YQFM by ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-IT-TOF/MS). Sixty-five compounds in YQFM were tentatively identified by comparison with reference substances or literature data. Furthermore, twenty-one compounds, including three ophiopogonins, fifteen ginsenosides and three lignans were quantified by UFLC-IT-TOF/MS. Notably, this is the first determination of steroidal saponins from O. japonicus in YQFM. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra- and inter-day precision, reproducibility and stability were <4.9% and all analytes showed good linearity (R² ≥ 0.9952) and acceptable recovery of 91.8%-104.2% (RSD ≤ 5.4%), indicating that the methods were reliable. These methods were successfully applied to quantitative analysis of ten batches of YQFM. The developed approach can provide useful and comprehensive information for quality control, further mechanistic studies in vivo and clinical application of YQFM. PMID:27213307

  3. Characteristics of concentration-inhibition curves of individual chemicals and applicability of the concentration addition model for mixture toxicity prediction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Wang, Xiaochang C; Ma, Xiaoyan

    2015-03-01

    The concentration addition (CA) model has been widely applied to predict mixture toxicity. However, its applicability is difficult to evaluate due to the complexity of interactions among substances. Considering that the concentration-response curve (CRC) of each component of the mixture is closely related to the prediction of mixture toxicity, mathematical treatments were used to derive a characteristic index kECx (k was the slope of the tangent line of a CRC at concentration ECx). The implication is that the CA model would be applicable for predicting the mixture toxicity only when chemical components have similar kECx in the whole or part of the concentration range. For five selected chemicals whose toxicity was detected using luminescent bacteria, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) showed much higher kECx values than the others and its existence in the binary mixtures brought about overestimation of the mixture toxicity with the CA model. The higher the mass ratio of SDBS in a multi-mixture was, the more the toxicity prediction deviated from measurements. By applying the method proposed in this study to analyze some published data, it is confirmed that some components having significantly different kECx values from the other components could explain the large deviation of the mixture toxicity predicted by the CA model. PMID:25499050

  4. Chemical characteristics of beddings for swine: effects of bedding depths and of addition of inoculums in a pilot-scale.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, E K; Corezzolla, J L; Corrêa, M N; Bianchi, I; Gil-Turnes, C; Lucia, T

    2012-11-01

    The effect of depths and of addition of inoculums on the chemical content of swine beddings was evaluated. For beddings 0.25m (25D) and 0.50m (50D) deep, three treatments were tested in two repeats with the same beddings: control (no inoculums); T1 (250g of Bacillus cereus var. toyoii at 8.4×10(7)CFU/g); and T2 (250g of a pool of Bacillus sp. at 8.4×10(7)CFU/g) (250g for 25D and 500g for 50D). For 25D, the C:N ratio was lower, but N, K and C contents were greater than for 50D (P<0.05). The inoculums did not benefit any chemical parameter (P>0.05). In the second repeat, beddings presented lower C:N ratio and greater N, P and K contents than in the first repeat (P<0.05). Thus, the compost produced after using 25D twice had greater fertilizer value than that of 50D. PMID:22940299

  5. Constituents from Senecio scandens and their antioxidant bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Leu, Yann-Lii; Lin, Chih-Lung; Kuo, Ping-Chung

    2011-03-01

    Forty-one compounds including two new constituents, senecainin A (1) and 3-methoxyisonicotinic acid (2), were characterized from the methanol extracts of the whole plant of Senecio scandens. The structures of the new compounds were comprehensively established with the aid of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The chemical structures of known compounds were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic and physical data with those reported in the literature. In addition, the antioxidant activity of some of the isolates was examined in the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Among the tested compounds, (-)-monoepoxylignanolide, (-)-pinoresinol and (-)-epi-pinoresinol displayed significant antioxidant bioactivity. PMID:21547668

  6. Identification of chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Murraya exotica L. (Rutaceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Shanmugam; Chandrasekaran, Manivachagam; Raj, Gnanaprakasam Adaikala; Jayaraman, Mahalingam; Venkatesalu, Venugopalan

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the phytochemical composition and larvicidal effect of leaf essential oil from Murraya exotica against early fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that the essential oil contained 27 components. The major chemical components identified were β-humulene (40.62%), benzyl benzoate (23.96%), β-caryophyllene (7.05%) and α-terpinene (5.66%). The larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The results revealed that essential oil showed varied levels of larvicidal activity against A. aegypti, A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus. After 12 h of exposure period, the larvicidal activities were LC₅₀ = 74.7 and LC₉₀ = 152.7 ppm (A. aegypti), LC₅₀ = 56.3 and LC₉₀ = 107.8 ppm (A. stephensi ), and LC₅₀ = 74.4 and LC₉₀ = 136.9 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus) and the larvicidal activities after 24 h of exposure period were LC₅₀ = 35.8 and LC₉₀ = 85.4 ppm (A. aegypti), LC₅₀ = 31.3 and LC₉₀ = 75.1 ppm (A. stephensi), and LC₅₀ = 43.2 and LC₉₀ = 103.2 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus). These results suggest that leaf essential oil from M. exotica is a promising and eco-friendly source of natural larvicidal agent against A. aegypti, A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:25697880

  7. Additive effects on the androgen signaling pathway by chemicals with different modes of action-COW2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessments have traditionally been developed on a chemical-by-chemical basis. However, regulatory agencies recently have been considering cumulative effects of chemicals that act via a common mechanism of toxicity. Here we present data on several mixture studies of chemic...

  8. Estimated discharge and chemical-constituent loading from the upper Floridan aquifer to the lower St John's River, northeastern Florida, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spechler, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The lower St. Johns River, a 101-mile long segment of the St. Johns River, begins at the confluence of the Ocklawaha River and ends where the river discharges into the Atlantic Ocean at Mayport. The St. Johns River is affected by tides as far upstream as Lake George, 106 miles from the mouth. Saltwater from the ocean advances inland during each incoming tide and recedes during each outgoing tide. The chemical quality of the lower St. Johns River is highly variable primarily because of the inflow of saltwater from the ocean, and in some areas, from the discharge of mineralized ground water. Three hydrogeologic units are present in the study area: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the Floridan aquifer system. The surficial aquifer system overlies the intermediate confining unit and consists of deposits containing sand, clay, shell, and some limestone and dolomite. The intermediate confining unit underlies all of the study area and retards the vertical movement of water between the surficial aquifer system and the Floridan aquifer system. The intermediate confining unit consists of beds of relatively low permeability sediments that vary in thickness and areal extent and can be breached by sinkholes, fractures, and other openings. The Floridan aquifer system primarily consists of limestone and dolomite. The quality of water in the Upper Floridan aquifer varies throughout the study area. Dissolved solids in water range from about 100 to more than 5,000 milligrams per liter. Chloride and sulfate concentrations in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer range from about 4 to 3,700 milligrams per liter and from 1 to 1,300 milligrams per liter, respectively. The rate of leakage through the intermediate confining unit is controlled by the leakance coefficient of the intermediate confining unit and by the head difference between the Upper Floridan aquifer and the surficial aquifer system. The total ground-water discharge from the Upper Floridan

  9. Evaluation of military field-water quality: Volume 2, Constituents of military concern from natural and anthropogenic sources: Part 1, Organic chemical contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.; Mallon, B.J.; McKone, T.E.; Ricker, Y.E.; Lessard, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    In this part of Volume 2 we focus on the identification and analysis of organic water contaminants that could degrade the performance of military personnel that drink field water. To identify the contaminants of concern, we developed a screening methodology for comparing measured concentrations of organic solutes in US and foreign surface and ground waters against estimated threshold concentrations for toxic and organoleptic effects. If the measured concentration of a substance in water was higher than the concentration used as an effects threshold for toxic or organoleptic responses, we then closely examined the substance's occurrence and toxicity to decide on recommending development of a water standard to protect military personnel from adverse health effects. After comparing the measured concentrations with the threshold concentrations for toxic or organoleptic effects, we concluded that there was only a small probability that troops would experience performance-degrading effects as a result of drinking field water containing organic solutes. However, we identified several organic solutes that could cause taste and odor problems. These compounds include trichloromethane, ethylbenzene, toluene, tetrachloroethene, and chlorinated phenols. Additionally, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, which are two metabolites of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and associated gram-negative filamentous bacteria (actinomycetes), can produce taste and odor problems and are of particular concern, especially when algal blooms are present. Oil and grease could also impair the potability of water supplies, and by fouling reverse-osmosis (RO) membranes, oil and grease could impair the performance of reverse osmosis water purification units (ROWPUs). 30 refs., 5 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Methylmercury and other chemical constituents in Pacific coastal fog water from seven sites in Central/Northern California (FogNet) during the summer of 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Heim, W. A.; Fernandez, D.; Coale, K. H.; Oliphant, A. J.; Dann, D.; Porter, M.; Hoskins, D.; Dodge, C.

    2014-12-01

    This project investigates the mercury content in summertime Pacific coastal fog in California and whether fog could be an important vector for ocean emissions of mercury to be deposited via fog drip to upland coastal ecosystems. Efforts began in early 2014 with the building of 7 active-strand fog collectors based on the Colorado State University Caltech CASCC design. The new UCSC CASCC includes doors sealing the collector which open under microcomputer control based on environmental sensing (relative humidity). Seven sites spanning from Trinidad in the north to Marina in the south have collected samples June-August 2014 under a project called FogNet. Fog conditions were favorable for collecting large water volumes (> 250 mL) at many sites. Fog samplers were cleaned with soap and deionized water daily and field blanks taken immediately following cleaning. Fog water samples were collected overnight, split into an aliquot for anion and DOC/DIC analysis and the remaining sample was acidified. Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in samples and field blanks for 3 sites in FogNet are shown in the accompanying figure. The range of MMHg concentrations from 10 fog water samples > 100 mL in volume was 0.9-9.3 ng/L (4.5-46.4 pM). Elevated MMHg concentrations (> 5 ng/L, 25 pM) were observed at 2 sites: UC Santa Cruz and Bodega Bay. The field blanks produced MMHg concentrations of 0.08-0.4 ng/L (0.4-2.0 pM), which was on average < 10% of the sample concentration and suggests the artifact due to sampling was small. The observed MMHg concentrations in fog water observed is this study are 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than MMHg concentrations seen previously in rain water samples from the California coast suggesting an additional source of MMHg to fog. Shipboard measurements of dimethyl mercury (DMHg) in coastal California seawater during the time period of FogNet operations (summer 2014) reveal surface waters that were supersaturated in DMHg which represents a potential

  11. Method for Derivatization and Detection of Chemical Weapons Convention Related Sulfur Chlorides via Electrophilic Addition with 3-Hexyne.

    PubMed

    Goud, D Raghavender; Pardasani, Deepak; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Sulfur monochloride (S2Cl2) and sulfur dichloride (SCl2) are important precursors of the extremely toxic chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard and classified, respectively, into schedule 3.B.12 and 3.B.13 of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Hence, their detection and identification is of vital importance for verification of CWC. These chemicals are difficult to detect directly using chromatographic techniques as they decompose and do not elute. Until now, the use of gas chromatographic approaches to follow the derivatized sulfur chlorides is not reported in the literature. The electrophilic addition reaction of sulfur monochloride and sulfur dichloride toward 3-hexyne was explored for the development of a novel derivatization protocol, and the products were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. Among various unsaturated reagents like alkenes and alkynes, symmetrical alkyne 3-hexyne was optimized to be the suitable derivatizing agent for these analytes. Acetonitrile was found to be the suitable solvent for the derivatization reaction. The sample preparation protocol for the identification of these analytes from hexane spiked with petrol matrix was also optimized. Liquid-liquid extraction followed by derivatization was employed for the identification of these analytes from petrol matrix. Under the established conditions, the detection and quantification limits are 2.6 μg/mL, 8.6 μg/mL for S2Cl2 and 2.3 μg/mL, 7.7 μg/mL for SCl2, respectively, in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The calibration curve had a linear relationship with y = 0.022x - 0.331 and r(2) = 0.992 for the working range of 10 to 500 μg/mL for S2Cl2 and y = 0.007x - 0.064 and r(2) = 0.991 for the working range of 10 to 100 μg/mL for SCl2, respectively. The intraday RSDs were between 4.80 to 6.41%, 2.73 to 6.44% and interday RSDs were between 2.20 to 7.25% and 2.34 to 5.95% for S2Cl2 and SCl2, respectively. PMID:26054007

  12. Identification of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine formula using HPLC coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap MS from high doses of medicinal materials to equivalent doses of formula: Study on Xiang-Sha-Liu-Jun-Zi-Jia-Jian granules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengyun; Zhang, Qingqing; Lu, Zhiwei; Wang, Qing; Wang, Meiling; Liu, Yuehong; Fu, Shuang; Gao, Xiaoyan; Tang, Xudong

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry has been a powerful tool for the research of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulas. However, the chromatographic peaks were difficult to discriminate clearly in data collection or analysis because of the complexity and the greatly different content of the constituents in TCM formula, which increased the difficulty of identification. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry based strategy focused on the comprehensive identification of TCM formula constituents was developed. Identification was carried out from a high dose of medicinal materials to equivalent dose of formula. Meanwhile, combined with mass spectrometry data, chromatographic behaviors, reference standards and previous reports, the identification of constituents in Xiang-Sha-Liu-Jun-Zi-Jia-Jian granules was described. 169 compounds were unambiguously or tentatively characterized, mainly including flavonoids, alkaloids, triterpenic acids, triterpene saponins, lactones, sesquiterpenoids and some other compounds. Among them, 11 compounds were unambiguously confirmed by comparing with reference standards. These results demonstrated that the method was effective and reliable for comprehensive identification of constituents of Xiang-Sha-Liu-Jun-Zi-Jia-Jian granules extracts and reveal the material basis of its therapeutic effects. This strategy might propose a research idea for the characterization of multi-constituents in TCM formula. PMID:26935761

  13. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Technical progress report No. 11, March 16, 1990--June 15, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to sue chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. (VC)

  14. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Technical progress report No. 4, June 16, 1988--September 15, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1988-11-14

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies including temperature programmed desorption, infrared study of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  15. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Technical progress report No. 10, December 16, 1989--March 15, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  16. Chemical constituents from branch of Fraxinus sieboldiana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng; Zhang, Yan-ling; Liu, Ming-tao; Zi, Jia-chen; Gan, Mao-luo; Song, Wei-xia; Fan, Xiao-na; Wang, Xiao-na; Yang, Yong-chun; Shi, Jian-gong

    2015-07-01

    Using a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, macroporous adsorbent resin, and reversed-phase HPLC, 115 compounds including diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, treterpenes, coumarins, lignans, fatty acid derivatives, and simple aromatic derivatives were isolated from an ethanol extract of branch of Fraxinus sieboldiana (Oleaceaue), and their structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1 D, 2D NMR and MS techniques. Among them, 41 compounds were new. In previous reports, we have been described the isolation, structure elucidation, and bioactivities of the 41 new compounds and 22 known orii including 8 coumarins, 4 phenolic and 12 phenylethanoidal glycosides. As a consequence, we herein reported the isolation and structure elucidation of the remaining 50 known compounds including 8- hydroxy-12-oxoabieta-9(11),13-dien-20-oic 8, 20-lactone(1), 6beta-hydroxyfcrruginol(2),(+)-pisiferic acid(3), (+)-pisiferal(4),(+)-7-dehydroabiet6none(5), 1-oxomiltirone(6), subdigitatone(7), linarionoside B(8), (9S)-linarionoside B(9), (3R,9R)-3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-beta-ionol 9-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside(10), ursolic acid(11), betulinic acid(12), euscaphic acid(13), (+)-syringaresinol(14), (+)-fraxiresinol(15), (+)-1-hydroxysyringaresinol(16), pinoresinol(17), medioresinol(18), 8-acetoxypinoresinol(19), epipinoresinol(20), (-)-olivil(21), (+)-cyclo-olivil(22), 3,3'-dimethoxy-4,4',9-trihydroxy-7,9'-epoxylignan-7'-one(23),(+)-1-hydroxypinoresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (24), (+)-1-hydroxypinoresinol 4"-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(25),(+)-syringaresinol O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (26), liriodendrin (27), ehletianol D(28), icariside E5(29) (-)-(7R, 8R)-threo-1-C-syringylglycerol(30),(-)-(7R, 8S)-erythro-guaiacylglycerol (31),(-)-(7R, 8R)-threo-guaiacylglycerol(32), 3-(4-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-3-methoxy)-phenyl-2E-propenol(33),2,3-dihydroxy-l-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-propanone(34), 2,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-propanone (35), 3-hydroxy-l-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-propanone(36), omega-hydroxypropioguaiacone(37), sinapyladehyde(38), trans-p-hydroxycinnamaldehyde(39), syringic acid(40), vanilic acid(41), vanillin(42), 4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (43), (24R)-24-ethyl-5alpha-cholestane-3beta,5,6beta-triol(44), beta-sitosterol(45), daucosterol(46), 2,6-dimethoxy-I,4-benzoquinone(47), 2,6-dimethoxy-pyran-4-one(48), 1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)uracil(49), and mannitol(50). Compouds 1-7,12,18,28-37,44 and 48 were obtained from the genus Fraxinus for the first time. PMID:26697686

  17. [Study on chemical constituents of Orobanche coerulescens].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Yan, Ming; Huang, Yi; He, Wen-yi; Zhao, Yu

    2007-10-01

    Six compounds were isolated and purified from Orobanche coerulescens by extraction and different kinds of column chromatography. The structures were determined on the basis of spectral analysis. The structures were elucidated as D-mannitol(I), beta-sitosterol(II), succinic acid(III), caffeic acid(IV), protocatechuic aldehyde(V) and daucosterol(VI). All compounds are obtained from this plant for the first time. PMID:18300497

  18. Chemical constituents from Clematis delavayi var. spinescens.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wang, Si-Feng; Zhao, Yan-Li; Liu, Ke-Chun; Wang, Xi-Min; Yang, Yong-Ping; Li, Xiao-Li

    2009-01-01

    A new coumarin, 7-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-5-methylcoumarin (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Clematis delavayi var. spinescens together with 17 known compounds. Their structures were identified by extensive spectral analysis, especially 2D NMR techniques. Antiangiogenic effects of all compounds were evaluated using a zebrafish model. PMID:19924077

  19. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of Glinus oppositifolius

    PubMed Central

    Ragasa, Consolacion Y.; Cabrera, Esperanza C.; Torres, Oscar B.; Buluran, Adiel Inah; Espineli, Dinah L.; Raga, Dennis D.; Shen, Chien-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To isolate the secondary metabolites from the dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of Glinus oppositifolius; to test for the cytotoxicity of a new triterpene, oppositifolone (1); and to test for the hypoglycemic, analgesic, and antimicrobial potentials of 1, DCM and aqueous leaf extracts of G. oppositifolius. Methods: The compounds were isolated by silica gel chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity potential of 1 was tested using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Triterpene 1, DCM, and aqueous leaf extracts were tested for hypoglycemic potential using the oral glucose tolerance test; analgesic potential using the tail-flick assay, and antimicrobial potential using the disc diffusion method. Results: The DCM extracts of G. oppositifolius afforded 1, squalene, spinasterol, oleanolic acid, phytol, and lutein from the leaves; squalene and spergulagenin A from the stems; and spinasterol from the roots. Triterpene 1 was cytotoxic against human colon carcinoma 116 with an IC50 value of 28.7 but did not exhibit cytotoxicity against A549. The aqueous leaf extract at 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) exhibited hypoglycemic activity with a pronounced % blood glucose reduction of 70.76% ±17.4% within 0.5 h after introduction. The DCM leaf extract showed a lower % blood glucose reduction of 18.52% ±13.5% at 200 mg/kg BW within 1.5 h after introduction, while 1 did not exhibit hypoglycemic activity. The samples did not exhibit analgesic property and were inactive against multiple drug resistant bacterial pathogens. Conclusion: The compounds responsible for the hypoglycemic activity of G. oppositifolius which are fast acting (0.5 h) are found in the aqueous leaf extract. PMID:25829787

  20. Chemical Constituents of Trichilia hirta (Meliaceae).

    PubMed

    Vieira, Milena G Curcino; dos Santos, Frances R; Braz Filho, Raimundo; Vieira, Ivo J Curcino

    2016-05-01

    A novel oleanane-type triterpene, 15-chloro-β-amyrone (1), was isolated from Trichilia hirta, together with the known compounds taraxer-3-one (2) and β-taraxerol (3), along with two novel esters, 3-(isobutyryloxy)-2,2,4-trimethylpenty palmitate (4) and 3-(isobutyryloxy)-2,2,3-trimethylpenty stearate (5), and the known 3-hydroxy-2,2,4-trimethylpentyl isobutyrate (6). These compounds were characterized on the basis of their spectroscopic and HRSEIMS data and by comparison with literature data. PMID:27319125

  1. [Chemical constituents of Morinda officinalis How].

    PubMed

    Li, S; Ouyang, Q; Tan, X; Shi, S; Yao, Z

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports the identification of four compounds isolated from the cortex of Morinda officinalis growing in Guangdong Province. These compounds are beta-sitosterol (I), 2-methyl-anthraquinone(II), rubiadin-1-methyl ether(III) and 24-ethylcholesterol(VI). Compounds II and VI are isolated from Morinda Genus for the first time. PMID:1804172

  2. Chemical constituents from Myristica fragrans fruit.

    PubMed

    Francis, K Sajin; Suresh, Eringathodi; Nair, Mangalam S

    2014-01-01

    A neolignan, erythrosurinamensin and a diaryl phenyl propanoid, virolane were isolated from Myristica fragrans for the first time. Apart from these two, previously known steroids, other lignans and neolignans were isolated from the fruit pericarp of M. fragrans. The structures of the compounds were identified by employing various spectroscopic methods. PMID:25011059

  3. Chemical constituents of Croton oligandrum (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Abega, Destaing F; Kapche, Deccaux W F G; Ango, Patrick Y; Mapitse, Renameditswe; Yeboah, Samuel O; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T

    2014-01-01

    A new clerodane diterpene derivative named crotonoligaketone was obtained from the stem bark of Croton oligandrum along with eight known compounds including crotonadiol, imbricatadiol, crotonzambefuran B, 7-acetoxytrachiloban-18-oic acid, 3-O-acetylaleuritolic acid, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. The structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of their spectral data and by comparison with those reported in the literature. PMID:25069155

  4. Chemical and antibacterial constituents of Skimmia anquetelia.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajni Kant; Negi, Devendra Singh; Gibbons, Simon; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2008-02-01

    Investigation of the leaves of Skimmia anquetelia (Rutaceae) led to the isolation of a new coumarin glucoside 7,8-dihdroxy-6-[3'-beta- D-glucopyranosyloxy-2'(xi)-hydroxy-3'-methylbutyl]-coumarin ( 1) together with five known coumarins: 6-(2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-7-methoxycoumarin ( 2), skimmin ( 3), osthol ( 4), esculetin ( 5) and scopuletin ( 6). The antibacterial activity of compounds 1 and 3 was also investigated against the plant bacterial pathogens Agrobacterium tumifaciens, Pseudomonas syringae and Pactobacterium carotovorum. Structures were determined on the basis of analyses of spectral evidence including 1D, 2 D NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY) and mass spectroscopy. PMID:18240101

  5. [Chemical constituents of leaf of Eucommia ulmoides].

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Yue, Zheng-Gang; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Xiu-Peng; Chai, Jiang; Cui, Jiu-Cheng; Song, Xiao-Mei; Mei, Qi-Bing

    2014-04-01

    Ten compounds were isolated from the leaf of Eucommia ulmoides by means of recrystallization and chromatographic techniques such as D-101 macroporous resin, MCI resin, ODS gel, Sephadex LH-20 and Rp-HPLC. Their structures were identified by NMR spectral analyses as kaempferide 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (1), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (2), quercetin (3), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-xylosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-galactoside (4), kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucoside (5), (2S,3S)-taxifolin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (6) ,4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (7), (+)-cycloolivil (8), pinoresinol beta-D-glucoside (9), squalene (10). Among them compounds 1,5-7,10 were isolated from the Eucommia genus for the first time. In the DPPH free radical scavenging assay, compound 2 exhibited significant activity (IC50 13.7 micromol x L(-1)), compared with vitamin C (IC50 59.9 micromol x L(-1)); compounds 1, 3 and 9 showed moderate activity (IC50 161,137, 214 micromol x L(-1)), compared with 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (IC50 236 micromol x L(-1)); compound 4 and 6 showed weak activity (IC50 264, 299 micromol x L(-1)). PMID:25039180

  6. The effect of aliphatic fuel constituents on the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Gamerdinger, A.P.

    1995-12-01

    In petroleum-derived waste, n-alkanes are often codeposited with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The impact of aliphatic fuel constituents on the biodegradation of the more toxic PAHs is considered. Biodegradation of naphthalene by a Coryneform bacteria was examined in biphasic, slurry systems containing and aliphatic solvent in addition to the aqueous phase. The effect of solvent hydrophobicity was evaluated by varying the solvent treatment; a homologous series of n-alkanes was used. Relative to an aqueous system (no solvent), the extent of naphthalene degradation was enhanced in the presence of decane, dodecane, and hexadecane. Biodegradation was apparent, but decreased in the presence of octane, and was completely absent in the presence of hexane. The impact of aliphatic constituents on PAH biodegradation is a function of solvent hydrophobicity. The results indicate that the presence of multiple chemical constituents in complex systems modifies bioavailability and biodegradation.

  7. Variable Temperature Stress in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas) and Its Implications for Sensitivity to an Additional Chemical Stressor

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J.

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies has investigated how chemical sensitivity is affected by temperature, however, almost always under different constant rather than more realistic fluctuating regimes. Here we compared how the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to copper at constant temperatures (8–24°C) and under fluctuation conditions of low (±4°C) and high (±8°C) amplitude (averages of 12, 16, 20°C and 16°C respectively). The DEBkiss model was used to interpret effects on energy budgets. Increasing constant temperature from 12–24°C reduced time to first egg, life-span and population growth rates consistent with temperature driven metabolic rate change. Responses at 8°C did not, however, accord with this pattern (including a deviation from the Temperature Size Rule), identifying a cold stress effect. High amplitude variation and low amplitude variation around a mean temperature of 12°C impacted reproduction and body size compared to nematodes kept at the matching average constant temperatures. Copper exposure affected reproduction, body size and life-span and consequently population growth. Sensitivity to copper (EC50 values), was similar at intermediate temperatures (12, 16, 20°C) and higher at 24°C and especially the innately stressful 8°C condition. Temperature variation did not increase copper sensitivity. Indeed under variable conditions including time at the stressful 8°C condition, sensitivity was reduced. DEBkiss identified increased maintenance costs and increased assimilation as possible mechanisms for cold and higher copper concentration effects. Model analysis of combined variable temperature effects, however, demonstrated no additional joint stressor response. Hence, concerns that exposure to temperature fluctuations may sensitise species to co-stressor effects seem unfounded in this case. PMID:26784453

  8. Variable Temperature Stress in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas) and Its Implications for Sensitivity to an Additional Chemical Stressor.

    PubMed

    Cedergreen, Nina; Nørhave, Nils Jakob; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies has investigated how chemical sensitivity is affected by temperature, however, almost always under different constant rather than more realistic fluctuating regimes. Here we compared how the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to copper at constant temperatures (8-24°C) and under fluctuation conditions of low (±4°C) and high (±8°C) amplitude (averages of 12, 16, 20°C and 16°C respectively). The DEBkiss model was used to interpret effects on energy budgets. Increasing constant temperature from 12-24°C reduced time to first egg, life-span and population growth rates consistent with temperature driven metabolic rate change. Responses at 8°C did not, however, accord with this pattern (including a deviation from the Temperature Size Rule), identifying a cold stress effect. High amplitude variation and low amplitude variation around a mean temperature of 12°C impacted reproduction and body size compared to nematodes kept at the matching average constant temperatures. Copper exposure affected reproduction, body size and life-span and consequently population growth. Sensitivity to copper (EC50 values), was similar at intermediate temperatures (12, 16, 20°C) and higher at 24°C and especially the innately stressful 8°C condition. Temperature variation did not increase copper sensitivity. Indeed under variable conditions including time at the stressful 8°C condition, sensitivity was reduced. DEBkiss identified increased maintenance costs and increased assimilation as possible mechanisms for cold and higher copper concentration effects. Model analysis of combined variable temperature effects, however, demonstrated no additional joint stressor response. Hence, concerns that exposure to temperature fluctuations may sensitise species to co-stressor effects seem unfounded in this case. PMID:26784453

  9. Analysis on Soil Seed Bank Diversity Characteristics and Its Relation with Soil Physical and Chemical Properties after Substrate Addition

    PubMed Central

    He, Mengxuan; Lv, Lingyue; Li, Hongyuan; Meng, Weiqing; Zhao, Na

    2016-01-01

    Aims Considered as an essential measure in the application of soil seed bank (SSB) projects, the mixing of substrate and surface soil can effectively improve soil condition. This research is aimed at exploring the diversity characteristics of SSBs and the relationships between SSBs and soil properties. Methods Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was adopted to describe the ordination of SSBs on soil properties’ gradients; multiple linear regressions were adopted to analyze the relationship between average growth height and soil properties, density and soil properties. Results Experimental groups of mixed substrate (the mixture of organic and inorganic substrates) had high diversity indexes, especially the Shannon-Wiener Index compared with those of single substrate. Meanwhile, a higher number of species and increased density were also noted in those of mixed substrate. The best test group, No.16, had the highest diversity indexes with a Shannon-Wiener of 1.898, Simpson of 0.633 and Pielou of 0.717, and also showed the highest density of 14000 germinants /m2 and 21 species. In addition, an improvement of the soil’s chemical and physical properties was noted when the substrates were mixed. The mixed substrate of turfy soil and perlite could effectively enhance the soil moisture content, whilst a mixed substrate of rice husk carbon and vermiculite could improve the content of available potassium (AK) and phosphorus (AP) and strengthen soil fertility. The germinated plants also reflected obvious regularities of ordination on soil factor gradients. Three distinct cluster groups were presented, of which the first cluster was distributed in an area with a relatively higher content of AK and AP; the second cluster was distributed at places with relatively higher soil moisture content; and the third cluster of plants didn’t show any obvious relationship with soil physical and chemical properties. Through CCA analysis, AK and AP were considered the most important

  10. Study on prevention of two-stage skin carcinogenesis by Hibiscus rosa sinensis extract and the role of its chemical constituent, gentisic acid, in the inhibition of tumour promotion response and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Khan, N; Sultana, S

    2004-02-01

    We designed the present study to investigate the role of gentisic acid in the chemopreventive activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis extract on 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/croton oil-mediated carcinogenesis in mouse skin via 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced tumour promotion response and oxidative stress. Single topical application of DMBA followed by twice weekly applications of croton oil after one week for 20 weeks resulted in 100% incidence of tumours in animals in 15 weeks. However, application of H. rosa sinensis extract 30 minutes prior to the application of croton oil twice weekly for 20 weeks caused significant reduction in the number of tumours per mouse and the percentage of tumour-bearing mice. Also, the latency period for the appearance of the first tumour was delayed on H. rosa sinensis pretreatment. A single topical application of TPA caused significant depletion in reduced glutathione (GSH) content, activities of its metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes, while malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, H2O2 content, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and DNA synthesis were significantly increased. Interestingly, pretreatment of H. rosa sinensis extract (3.5 mg and 7 mg/kg body weight) and gentisic acid (2.0 microg and 4.0 microg/0.2 ml acetone per animal) restored the levels of GSH, and its metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes (P<0.05). There was also a statistically significant reduction in MDA formation and H2O2 content (P<0.05) at both doses. Although inhibition of ODC activity by gentisic acid was not dose-dependent, thymidine incorporation in DNA (P<0.05) was dose-dependently recovered by the plant extract and its chemical constituent. We therefore propose that gentisic acid has a role in the modulatory activity of H. rosa sinensis extract. PMID:15075789

  11. Successes and failures of the constituent quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Our approach considers the model as a possible bridge between QCD and the experimental data and examines its predictions to see where these succeed and where they fail. We also attempt to improve the model by looking for additional simple assumptions which give better fits to the experimental data. But we avoid complicated models with too many ad hoc assumptions and too many free parameters; these can fit everything but teach us nothing. We define our constituent quark model by analogy with the constituent electron model of the atom and the constituent nucleon model of the nucleus. In the same way that an atom is assumed to consist only of constituent electrons and a central Coulomb field and a nucleus is assumed to consist only of constituent nucleons hadrons are assumed to consist only of their constituent valence quarks with no bag, no glue, no ocean, nor other constituents. Although these constituent models are oversimplified and neglect other constituents we push them as far as we can. Atomic physics has photons and vacuum polarization as well as constituent electrons, but the constituent model is adequate for calculating most features of the spectrum when finer details like the Lamb shift are neglected. 54 references.

  12. Method for verification of constituents of a process stream

    DOEpatents

    Baylor, L.C.; Buchanan, B.R.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a method for validating a process stream for the presence or absence of a substance of interest such as a chemical warfare agent; that is, for verifying that a chemical warfare agent is present in an input line for feeding the agent into a reaction vessel for destruction, or, in a facility for producing commercial chemical products, that a constituent of the chemical warfare agent has not been substituted for the proper chemical compound. The method includes the steps of transmitting light through a sensor positioned in the feed line just before the chemical constituent in the input line enters the reaction vessel, measuring an optical spectrum of the chemical constituent from the light beam transmitted through it, and comparing the measured spectrum to a reference spectrum of the chemical agent and preferable also reference spectra of surrogates. A signal is given if the chemical agent is not entering a reaction vessel for destruction, or if a constituent of a chemical agent is added to a feed line in substitution of the proper chemical compound.

  13. Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Dhandapani, R; Sabna, B

    2008-04-01

    Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India. PMID:22557280

  14. Long term effects of annual additions of animal manure on soil chemical, physical, and biological properties in the Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of long-term annual beef manure amendments and wheat and rye cover crops on selected chemical, physical and biological properties of a typical Midwest U.S. soil under corn silage production. The treatments included: manure application/cover cr...

  15. Correlation of stability/rheology relationship with coal: Properties and chemical additives. Final technical report, September 1988--November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ohene, F.

    1992-02-19

    Coal-water slurries have the potential of a near term replacement for fuel oil. In order to gain the fundamental understanding of the preparation and handling of coal-water slurries, experiments were performed to identify the relationship between the coal content of a given coal-water slurry and its physical and chemical properties. The objectives of this program were: Investigate the relationship between the chemical and physical properties of coal and the rheology of coal-water slurry Define procedures for evaluating and preparing coal water slurries for a particular coal candidate, based on the characteristic coal properties Develop improved methods of screening surfactants used in coal-water slurry preparation Perform experiments designed to investigate the effect of characteristic coal properties on slurry quality, by examining the effect of the individual coal properties on slurry quality Develop a statistical formulation to predict the coal content of a given coal water slurry content based on the coal characteristic properties.

  16. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  17. Biochemical analyses of the antioxidative activity and chemical ingredients in eight different Allium alien monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; Matsumoto, Misato; Date, Rie; Harada, Kazuki; Maeda, Toshimichi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    We measured the antioxidant contents and antioxidative activities in eight Allium fistulosum-shallot monosomic addition lines (MAL; FF+1A-FF+8A). The high antioxidative activity lines (FF+2A and FF+6A) showed high polyphenol accumulation. These additional chromosomes (2A and 6A) would therefore have anonymous genes related to the upregulation of polyphenol production, the antioxidative activities consequently being increased in these MALs. PMID:24317054

  18. Clarifying the chemical state of additives in membranes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells by X-ray absorption fine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanuma, Toshihiro; Itoh, Takanori

    2016-02-01

    Cerium and manganese compounds are used in the membrane for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) as radical scavengers to mitigate chemical degradation of the membrane. The chemical states of cerium and manganese in the membrane were investigated using a fluorescence X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technique. Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were subjected to open circuit voltage (OCV) condition, under which hydroxyl radicals attack the membrane; a shift in absorption energy in X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra was compared between Ce- and Mn-containing membranes before and after OCV testing. In the case of the Ce-containing MEA, there was no significant difference in XANES spectra before and after OCV testing, whereas in the case of the Mn-containing MEA, there was an obvious shift in XANES absorption energy after OCV testing, indicating that Mn atoms with higher valence state than 2+ exist in the membrane after OCV testing. This can be attributed to the difference in the rate of reduction; the reaction of Ce4+ with ·OOH is much faster than that of Mn3+ with ·OOH, leaving some of the Mn atoms with higher valence state. It was confirmed that cerium and manganese redox couples reduced the attack from radicals, mitigating membrane degradation.

  19. Predominant chemicals in Hanford site waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Boothe, G.F.

    1996-09-23

    Predominant chemical constituents in Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks are determined. Predominant chemical constituents are defined as those anions, cations, and compounds presenting over 99 percent of the routine risks to workers or members of the public. Toxic chemicals and those chemical constituents in tanks that present the 99 percentile hazards to groundwater and air are identified.

  20. Extending the Applicability of the Dose Addition Model to the Assessment of Chemical Mixtures of Partial Agonists by Using a Novel Toxic Unit Extrapolation Method

    PubMed Central

    Scholze, Martin; Silva, Elisabete; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Dose addition, a commonly used concept in toxicology for the prediction of chemical mixture effects, cannot readily be applied to mixtures of partial agonists with differing maximal effects. Due to its mathematical features, effect levels that exceed the maximal effect of the least efficacious compound present in the mixture, cannot be calculated. This poses problems when dealing with mixtures likely to be encountered in realistic assessment situations where chemicals often show differing maximal effects. To overcome this limitation, we developed a pragmatic solution that extrapolates the toxic units of partial agonists to effect levels beyond their maximal efficacy. We extrapolated different additivity expectations that reflect theoretically possible extremes and validated this approach with a mixture of 21 estrogenic chemicals in the E-Screen. This assay measures the proliferation of human epithelial breast cancers. We found that the dose-response curves of the estrogenic agents exhibited widely varying shapes, slopes and maximal effects, which made it necessary to extrapolate mixture responses above 14% proliferation. Our toxic unit extrapolation approach predicted all mixture responses accurately. It extends the applicability of dose addition to combinations of agents with differing saturating effects and removes an important bottleneck that has severely hampered the use of dose addition in the past. PMID:24533151

  1. The Effects of Additives in Napier Grass Silages on Chemical Composition, Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J. Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass. PMID:25049687

  2. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Final technical report, September 15, 1987--March 15, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1992-03-06

    The objective of this research was to investigate the reaction mechanism of higher alcohol and aldehyde synthesis from syngas and the role of additives in the synthesis. An in situ IR reaction system and probe molecule technique were developed to study adsorbed species, active sites, and reaction pathway during reaction. The catalysts used for this study included silica-supported Rh, Ru, and Ni. (VC)

  3. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  4. Effects of drying control chemical additive on properties of Li 4Ti 5O 12 negative powders prepared by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Seo Hee; Kang, Yun Chan

    High-density Li 4Ti 5O 12 powders comprising spherical particles are prepared by spray pyrolysis from a solution containing dimethylacetamide (drying control chemical additive) and citric acid and ethylene glycol (organic additives). The prepared powders have high discharge capacities and good cycle properties. The optimum concentration of dimethylacetamide is 0.5 M. The addition of dimethylacetamide to the polymeric spray solutions containing citric acid and ethylene glycol helps in the effective control of the morphology of the Li 4Ti 5O 12 powders. At a constant current density of 0.17 mA g -1, the initial discharge capacities of the powders obtained from the spray solution with and without the organic additives are 171 and 167 mAh g -1, respectively.

  5. Chemical additive to enhance antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine and control cross-contamination during immersion chill of broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Schambach, B T; Berrang, M E; Harrison, M A; Meinersmann, R J

    2014-09-01

    Immersion chilling of broiler carcasses can be a site for cross-contamination between the occasional highly contaminated carcass and those that are co-chilled. Chlorine is often used as an antimicrobial but can be overcome by organic material. A proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128) based on phosphoric acid-propylene glycol was tested as a chill tank additive in experiments simulating commercial broiler chilling. In bench-scale experiments, 0.5% T-128 was compared with plain water (control), 50 ppm of chlorine, and the combination of 0.5% T-128 with 50 ppm of chlorine to control transfer of Salmonella and Campylobacter from inoculated wing drummettes to co-chilled uninoculated drummettes. Both chlorine and T-128 lessened cross-contamination with Salmonella (P < 0.05); T-128 and T-128 with chlorine were significantly more effective (P < 0.05) than the control or plain chlorine for control of Campylobacter. T-128 treatments were noted to have a pH of less than 4.0; an additional experiment demonstrated that the antimicrobial effect of T-128 was not due merely to a lower pH. In commercial broiler chilling, a pH close to 6.0 is preferred to maximize chlorine effectiveness, while maintaining water-holding capacity of the meat. In a set of pilot-scale experiments with T-128, a near-ideal pH of 6.3 was achieved by using tap water instead of the distilled water used in bench-scale experiments. Pilot-scale chill tanks were used to compare the combination of 0.5% T-128 and 50 ppm of chlorine with 50 ppm of plain chlorine for control of cross-contamination between whole carcasses inoculated with Salmonella and Campylobacter and co-chilled uninoculated carcasses. The T-128 treatment resulted in significantly less crosscontamination by either direct contact or water transfer with both organisms compared with plain chlorine treatment. T-128 may have use in commercial broiler processing to enhance the effectiveness of chlorine in processing water. PMID:25198851

  6. Effects of calcium hydroxide addition on the physical and chemical properties of a calcium silicate-based sealer

    PubMed Central

    KUGA, Milton Carlos; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro; SANT'ANNA-JÚNIOR, Arnaldo; KEINE, Kátia Cristina; FARIA, Gisele; DANTAS, Andrea Abi Rached; GUIOTTI, Flávia Angélica

    2014-01-01

    Recently, various calcium silicate-based sealers have been introduced for use in root canal filling. The MTA Fillapex is one of these sealers, but some of its physicochemical properties are not in accordance with the ISO requirements. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the flowability, pH level and calcium release of pure MTA Fillapex (MTAF) or containing 5% (MTAF5) or 10% (MTAF10) calcium hydroxide (CH), in weight, in comparison with AH Plus sealer. Material and Methods The flowability test was performed according to the ISO 6876:2001 requirements. For the pH level and calcium ion release analyses, the sealers were placed individually (n=10) in plastic tubes and immersed in deionized water. After 24 hours, 7 and 14 days, the water in which each specimen had been immersed was evaluated to determine the pH level changes and calcium released. Flowability, pH level and calcium release data were analyzed statistically by the ANOVA test (α=5%). Results In relation to flowability: MTAF>AH Plus>MTAF5>MTAF10. In relation to the pH level, for 24 h: MTAF5=MTAF10=MTAF>AH Plus; for 7 and 14 days: MTAF5=MTAF10>MTAF>AH Plus. For the calcium release, for all periods: MTAF>MTAF5=MTAF10>AH Plus. Conclusions The addition of 5% CH to the MTA Fillapex (in weight) is an alternative to reduce the high flowability presented by the sealer, without interfering in its alkalization potential. PMID:25025558

  7. Effect of addition of nano-hydroxyapatite on physico-chemical and antibiofilm properties of calcium silicate cements

    PubMed Central

    GUERREIRO-TANOMARU, Juliane Maria; VÁZQUEZ-GARCÍA, Fernando Antonio; BOSSO-MARTELO, Roberta; BERNARDI, Maria Inês Basso; FARIA, Gisele; TANOMARU, Mario

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) is a calcium silicate cement composed of Portland cement (PC) and bismuth oxide. Hydroxyapatite has been incorporated to enhance mechanical and biological properties of dental materials. This study evaluated physicochemical and mechanical properties and antibiofilm activity of MTA and PC associated with zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAn). Material and Methods White MTA (Angelus, Brazil); PC (70%)+ZrO2 (30%); PC (60%)+ZrO2 (30%)+HAn (10%); PC (50%)+ZrO2 (30%)+HAn (20%) were evaluated. The pH was assessed by a digital pH-meter and solubility by mass loss. Setting time was evaluated by using Gilmore needles. Compressive strength was analyzed by mechanical test. Samples were radiographed alongside an aluminum step wedge to evaluate radiopacity. For the antibiofilm evaluation, materials were placed in direct contact with E. faecalis biofilm induced on dentine blocks. The number of colony-forming units (CFU mL-1) in the remaining biolfilm was evaluated. The results were submitted to ANOVA and the Tukey test, with 5% significance. Results There was no difference in pH levels of PC+ZrO2, PC+ZrO2+HAn (10%) and PC+ZrO2+HAn (20%) (p>0.05) and these cements presented higher pH levels than MTA (p<0.05). The highest solubility was observed in PC+ZrO2+HAn (10%) and PC+ZrO2+HAn (20%) (p<0.05). MTA had the shortest initial setting time (p<0.05). All the materials showed radiopacity higher than 3 mmAl. PC+ZrO2 and MTA had the highest compressive strength (p<0.05). Materials did not completely neutralize the bacterial biofilm, but the association with HAn provided greater bacterial reduction than MTA and PC+ZrO2 (p<0.05) after the post-manipulation period of 2 days. Conclusions The addition of HAn to PC associated with ZrO2 harmed the compressive strength and solubility. On the other hand, HAn did not change the pH and the initial setting time, but improved the radiopacity (HAn 10%), the final setting time

  8. Constituent Particle Clustering and Pitting Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, D. Gary

    2012-08-01

    Corrosion is a primary degradation mechanism that affects the durability and integrity of structures made of aluminum alloys, and it is a concern for commercial transport and military aircraft. In aluminum alloys, corrosion results from local galvanic coupling between constituent particles and the metal matrix. Due to variability in particle sizes, spatial location, and chemical composition, to name a few critical variables, corrosion is a complex stochastic process. Severe pitting is caused by particle clusters that are located near the material surface, which, in turn, serve as nucleation sites for subsequent corrosion fatigue crack growth. These evolution processes are highly dependent on the spatial statistics of particles. The localized corrosion growth rate is primarily dependent on the galvanic process perpetuated by particle-to-particle interactions and electrochemical potentials. Frequently, severe pits are millimeters in length, and these pits have a dominant impact on the structural prognosis. To accommodate large sizes, a model for three-dimensional (3-D) constituent particle microstructure is proposed. To describe the constituent particle microstructure in three dimensions, the model employs a fusion of classic stereological techniques, spatial point pattern analyses, and qualitative observations. The methodology can be carried out using standard optical microscopy and image analysis techniques.

  9. Indicator bacteria and associated water quality constituents in stormwater and snowmelt from four urban catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galfi, H.; Österlund, H.; Marsalek, J.; Viklander, M.

    2016-08-01

    Four indicator bacteria were measured in association with physico-chemical constituents and selected inorganics during rainfall, baseflow and snowmelt periods in storm sewers of four urban catchments in a northern Swedish city. The variation patterns of coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens concentrations were assessed in manually collected grab samples together with those of phosphorus, nitrogen, solids, and readings of pH, turbidity, water conductivity, temperature and flow rates to examine whether these constituents could serve as potential indicators of bacteria sources. A similar analysis was applied to variation patterns of eight selected inorganics typical for baseflow and stormwater runoff to test the feasibility of using these inorganics to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of inflow into storm sewers. The monitored catchments varied in size, the degree of development, and land use. Catchment and season (i.e., rainy or snowmelt periods) specific variations were investigated for sets of individual stormwater samples by the principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the constituents with variation patterns similar to those of indicator bacteria, and to exclude the constituents with less similarity. In the reduced data set, the similarities were quantified by the clustering correlation analysis. Finally, the positive/negative relationships found between indicator bacteria and the identified associated constituent groups were described by multilinear regressions. In the order of decreasing concentrations, coliforms, E. coli and enterococci were found in the highest mean concentrations during both rainfall and snowmelt generated runoff. Compared to dry weather baseflow, concentrations of these three indicators in stormwater were 10 (snowmelt runoff) to 102 (rain runoff) times higher. C. perfringens mean concentrations were practically constant regardless of the season and catchment. The type and number of

  10. Superhydrophobic powder additives to enhance chemical agent resistant coating systems for military equipment for the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPAC) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, Steven J.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Haynes, James A.

    2015-07-01

    The primary goal of the CPAC program at ORNL was to explore the feasibility of introducing various silica-based superhydrophobic (SH) powder additives as a way to improve the corrosion resistance of US Department of Defense (DOD) military-grade chemical agent resistant coating (CARC) systems. ORNL had previously developed and patented several SH technologies of interest to the USMC, and one of the objectives of this program was to identify methods to incorporate these technologies into the USMC’s corrosion-resistance strategy. This report discusses findings of the CPAC and their application.

  11. [Effects of understory removal and nitrogen addition on the soil chemical and biological properties of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation in Keerqin Sandy Land].

    PubMed

    Lin, Gui-Gang; Zhao, Qiong; Zhao, Lei; Li, Hui-Chao; Zeng, De-Hui

    2012-05-01

    A full factorial experiment was conducted to study the effects of understory removal and nitrogen addition (8 g x m(-2)) on the soil NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N concentrations, potential net nitrogen mineralization rate (PNM) and nitrification rate (PNN), microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), MBC/MBN, urease and acid phosphomonoesterase activities, and Olsen-P concentration in a Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation in Keerqin Sandy Land during a growth season. Understory removal decreased the soil NH(4+)-N concentration, PNM, MBC, and MBN/MBN significantly, increased the soil Olsen-P concentration, but had little effects on the soil NO(3-)-N concentration, PNN, and urease and acid phosphomonoesterase activities. Nitrogen addition increased the soil NO(3-)-N concentration, PNM and PNN significantly, but had little effects on the other test properties. The interaction between understory removal and nitrogen addition had significant effects on the soil NH(4+)-N concentration, but little effects on the soil NO(3-)-N concentration. However, the soil NO(3-)-N concentration in the plots of understory removal with nitrogen addition was increased by 27%, compared with the plots of nitrogen addition alone, which might lead to the leaching of NO3-. It was suggested that understory vegetation could play an important role in affecting the soil chemical and biological properties in Mongolian pine plantations, and hence, the importance of understory vegetation should not be neglected when the forest management and restoration were implemented. PMID:22919826

  12. Effects of N{sub 2}O gas addition on the properties of ZnO films grown by catalytic reaction-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, Kanji Morioka, Makoto; Kanauchi, Shingo; Ohashi, Yuki; Kato, Takahiro; Tamayama, Yasuhiro

    2015-11-15

    The influence of N{sub 2}O gas addition on the properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown on a-plane (11–20) sapphire (a-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates was investigated, using a chemical vapor deposition method based on the reaction between dimethylzinc and high-temperature H{sub 2}O produced by a catalytic H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} reaction on platinum (Pt) nanoparticles. The addition of N{sub 2}O was found to increase the size of the crystalline facets and to improve the crystal orientation along the c-axis. The electron mobility at 290 K was also increased to 234 cm{sup 2}/Vs following the addition of N{sub 2}O gas at a pressure of 3.2 × 10{sup −3 }Pa. In addition, the minimum full width at half maximum of the most intense photoluminescence peak derived from neutral donor bound excitons at 10 K decreased to 0.6 meV by the addition of N{sub 2}O gas at a pressure of 3.1 × 10{sup −2 }Pa.

  13. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists. PMID:26604374

  14. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  15. Differential effects of surface and peat fire on soil constituents in a degraded wetland of the northern Florida Everglades.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Newman, S; Garrett, P B; Leeds, J A

    2001-01-01

    The effects of surface (aboveground) and peat (belowground) fire on a number of soil constituents were examined within a hydrologically altered marsh in the northern Florida Everglades. Peat fire resulted in losses of total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), and organic phosphorus (Po), while inorganic phosphorus (Pi) and total calcium (TCa) concentrations increased. In addition, peat fire led to a more pronounced vertical gradient in constituent concentrations between upper and lower soil layers. Surface fire also affected soil constituents, but impacts were small relative to peat fire. The effects of physical versus chemical processes during burning were assessed using ratios of constituent to TCa concentrations. This measure indicated that increases in the levels of total phosphorus (TP) in peat-burned areas were due primarily to the physical reduction of soil, while decreases in TN and TC were the result of volatilization. Increases in concentrations of Pi fractions arose from both chemically and physically mediated processes. In an ecological context, the observed soil transformations may encourage the growth of invasive plant species, such as southern narrow-leaved cattail (Typha domingensis Pers.), which exhibits high growth rates in response to increased P availability. PMID:11790006

  16. Modeling of Alkane Oxidation Using Constituents and Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Jasette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

    2010-01-01

    It is currently not possible to perform simulations of turbulent reactive flows due in particular to complex chemistry, which may contain thousands of reactions and hundreds of species. This complex chemistry results in additional differential equations, making the numerical solution of the equation set computationally prohibitive. Reducing the chemical kinetics mathematical description is one of several important goals in turbulent reactive flow modeling. A chemical kinetics reduction model is proposed for alkane oxidation in air that is based on a parallel methodology to that used in turbulence modeling in the context of the Large Eddy Simulation. The objective of kinetic modeling is to predict the heat release and temperature evolution. This kinetic mechanism is valid over a pressure range from atmospheric to 60 bar, temperatures from 600 K to 2,500 K, and equivalence ratios from 0.125 to 8. This range encompasses diesel, HCCI, and gas-turbine engines, including cold ignition. A computationally efficient kinetic reduction has been proposed for alkanes that has been illustrated for n-heptane using the LLNL heptane mechanism. This model is consistent with turbulence modeling in that scales were first categorized into either those modeled or those computed as progress variables. Species were identified as being either light or heavy. The heavy species were decomposed into defined 13 constituents, and their total molar density was shown to evolve in a quasi-steady manner. The light species behave either in a quasi-steady or unsteady manner. The modeled scales are the total constituent molar density, Nc, and the molar density of the quasi-steady light species. The progress variables are the total constituent molar density rate evolution and the molar densities of the unsteady light species. The unsteady equations for the light species contain contributions of the type gain/loss rates from the heavy species that are modeled consistent with the developed mathematical

  17. Effect of Boric Acid Flux and Drying Control Chemical Additive on the Characteristics of Y2O3:Eu Phosphor Particles Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Hye Young; Ju, Seo Hee; Hong, Seung Kwon; Jung, Dae Soo; Kang, Yun Chan; Jung, Kyeong Youl

    2006-12-01

    Y2O3:Eu phosphor particles with a spherical shape, a fine size, and high brightness under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) illumination were prepared by spray pyrolysis. The polymeric precursors were needed to modify the spray solution to prepare spherical particles. The use of only flux with the polymeric precursors did not produce dense and spherical Y2O3:Eu particles; that is, the produced particles were very porous. The addition of both a drying control chemical additive (DCCA) and boric acid to a spray solution containing polymeric precursors was found to produce Y2O3:Eu phosphor particles with a dense structure while maintaining the spherical morphology. According to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, the DCCA induced an enhancement of crystallinity. The use of boric acid flux improved the photoluminescence (PL) intensity under VUV illumination. In addition, the use of both boric acid flux and a DCCA with polymeric precursors further improved the PL intensity owing to the enhancement of the morphology and the crystallinity.

  18. Antibacterial activity and mode of action of the Artemisia capillaris essential oil and its constituents against respiratory tract infection-causing pathogens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang; Hu, Dong-Hui; Feng, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Inhalation therapy using essential oils has been used to treat acute and chronic sinusitis and bronchitis. The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia capillaris, and evaluate the antibacterial effects of the essential oil and its main components, against common clinically relevant respiratory bacterial pathogens. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography‑mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 25 chemical constituents, the main constituents being: α‑pinene, β‑pinene, limonene, 1,8‑cineole, piperitone, β‑caryophyllene and capillin. The antibacterial activities of the essential oil, and its major constituents, were evaluated against Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin‑resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), MRSA (clinical strain), methicillin‑gentamicin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MGRSA), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli. The essential oil and its constituents exhibited a broad spectrum and variable degree of antibacterial activity against the various strains. The essential oil was observed to be much more potent, as compared with any of its major chemical constituents, exhibiting low minimum inhibitory and bacteriocidal concentration values against all of the bacterial strains. The essential oil was most active against S. pyogenes, MRSA (clinical strain), S. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and E. coli. Piperitone and capillin were the most potent growth inhibitors, among the major chemical constituents. Furthermore, the essential oil of A. capillaris induced significant and dose‑dependent morphological changes in the S. aureus bacterial strain, killing >90% of the bacteria when administered at a higher dose; as determined by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the essential oil induced a significant leakage of potassium and phosphate ions from the S. aureus bacterial cultures. These results indicate that

  19. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  20. Detection and characterisation of frauds in bovine meat in natura by non-meat ingredient additions using data fusion of chemical parameters and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Karen M; Andrade, Marcus Vinícius O; Santos Filho, Antônio M P; Lasmar, Marcelo C; Sena, Marcelo M

    2016-08-15

    Concerns about meat authenticity are increasing recently, due to great fraud scandals. This paper analysed real samples (43 adulterated and 12 controls) originated from criminal networks dismantled by the Brazilian Police. This fraud consisted of injecting solutions of non-meat ingredients (NaCl, phosphates, carrageenan, maltodextrin) in bovine meat, aiming to increase its water holding capacity. Five physico-chemical variables were determined, protein, ash, chloride, sodium, phosphate. Additionally, infrared spectra were recorded. Supervised classification PLS-DA models were built with each data set individually, but the best model was obtained with data fusion, correctly detecting 91% of the adulterated samples. From this model, a variable selection based on the highest VIPscores was performed and a new data fusion model was built with only one chemical variable, providing slightly lower predictions, but a good cost/performance ratio. Finally, some of the selected infrared bands were specifically associated to the presence of adulterants NaCl, tripolyphosphate and carrageenan. PMID:27006208

  1. Understanding Physical Developer (PD): Part II--Is PD targeting eccrine constituents?

    PubMed

    de la Hunty, Mackenzie; Moret, Sébastien; Chadwick, Scott; Lennard, Chris; Spindler, Xanthe; Roux, Claude

    2015-12-01

    Physical developer (PD) is a fingermark development technique that deposits silver onto fingermark ridges. It is the only technique currently in routine operational use that gives results on porous substrates that have been wet. There is a reasonable understanding of the working solution chemistry, but the chemical constituent(s) contained in fingermark residue that are specifically targeted by PD are largely unknown. A better understanding of the PD technique will permit a more informed selection of alternative or complementary detection methods, and greater usage in operational laboratories. Recent research by our group has shown that PD does not selectively target the lipids present in the residue. This research investigated the hypothesis that PD targets the eccrine constituents in fingermark residue. This was tested by comparison of PD and indanedione-zinc (Ind-Zn) treated natural fingermarks that had been deposited successively, and marks that had been deposited with a ten second interval in between depositions. Such an interval allows for the regeneration of secretions from the pores located on the ridges of the fingers. On fingermark depletions with no time interval between depositions, PD and Ind-Zn treated depletions successively (and comparatively) decreased in development intensity as the amount of residue diminished. Short time intervals in between successive depletions resulted in additional secretions from the pores intermittently occurring, the increased development of which was visualised by treatment with both PD and Ind-Zn. The changes in development intensity were seen with both techniques on the same split depletions in a series, comparably and proportionately. These results indicate that the components targeted by PD are contained in the material excreted by the friction ridge pores through its mirrored development with Ind-Zn. Repetition of the experiments on marks that only contained eccrine material showed good Ind-Zn development but poor

  2. Effects of water additions, chemical amendments, and plants on in situ measures of nutrient bioavailability in calcareous soils of southeastern Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.E.; Belnap, J.; Beatty, S.W.; Webb, B.L.

    2006-01-01

    We used ion-exchange resin bags to investigate effects of water additions, chemical amendments, and plant presence on in situ measures of nutrient bioavailability in conjunction with a study examining soil controls of ecosystem invasion by the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. At five dryland sites in southeastern Utah, USA, resin bags were buried in experimental plots randomly assigned to combinations of two watering treatments (wet and dry), four chemical-amendment treatments (KCl, MgO, CaO, and no amendment), and four plant treatments (B. tectorum alone, the perennial bunchgrass Stipa hymenoides R. & S. alone, B. tectorum and S. hymenoides together, and no plants). Resin bags were initially buried in September 1997; replaced in January, April, and June 1998; and removed at the end of the study in October 1998. When averaged across watering treatments, plots receiving KCl applications had lower resin-bag NO 3- than plots receiving no chemical amendments during three of four measurement periods-probably due to NO 3- displacement from resin bags by Cl- ions. During the January-April period, KCl application in wet plots (but not dry plots) decreased resin-bag NH 4+ and increased resin-bag NO 3- . This interaction effect likely resulted from displacement of NH 4+ from resins by K+ ions, followed by nitrification and enhanced NO 3- capture by resin bags. In plots not receiving KCl applications, resin-bag NH 4+ was higher in wet plots than in dry plots during the same period. During the January-April period, resin-bag measures for carbonate-related ions HPO 42- , Ca2+, and Mn2+ tended to be greater in the presence of B. tectorum than in the absence of B. tectorum. This trend was evident only in wet plots where B. tectorum densities were much higher than in dry plots. We attribute this pattern to the mobilization of carbonate-associated ions by root exudates of B. tectorum. These findings indicate the importance of considering potential indirect effects of soil

  3. Possibility of controlling the chemical pattern of He and Ar “guided streamers” by means of N{sub 2} or O{sub 2} additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gazeli, K.; Svarnas, P. E-mail: franck.clement@univ-pau.fr; Held, B.; Clément, F. E-mail: franck.clement@univ-pau.fr; Marlin, L.

    2015-03-07

    Plasma chemistry at atmospheric pressure and low temperature has met an increased interest due to the effective production of reactive species (mainly reactive nitrogen species and reactive oxygen species) which are demanded in many applications like in biomedicine. Τhe generation of such emissive reactive species is herein studied. A single parameter, i.e., the gas composition, is tuned and abundant chemical species are obtained in a quite controllable manner. The system refers to a small dielectric barrier discharge based reactor fed with He–N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} or Ar–N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} gases, which provides plasma in the form of “guided streamers.” The plasma is sustained by positive high voltage pulses, and the emissive transitions versus the gas composition is determined by UV-VIS optical emission spectroscopy. The relative intensities of emissive species are recorded in the ambient air where the streamers propagate. The evolution of dominant species as a function of the gas composition is mapped, and optimal conditions in terms of species production are clearly revealed. The results show that additives do not necessarily enhance the density of all species, implying the need for plasma chemistry optimization in respect to every application. The study is extended inside the reactor, supporting the above statements. Finally, the rotational and vibrational distributions of critical probe molecules are recorded, testing the dependence of the gas temperature and energy transfer, respectively, on the gas composition.

  4. Possibility of controlling the chemical pattern of He and Ar "guided streamers" by means of N2 or O2 additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazeli, K.; Svarnas, P.; Held, B.; Marlin, L.; Clément, F.

    2015-03-01

    Plasma chemistry at atmospheric pressure and low temperature has met an increased interest due to the effective production of reactive species (mainly reactive nitrogen species and reactive oxygen species) which are demanded in many applications like in biomedicine. Τhe generation of such emissive reactive species is herein studied. A single parameter, i.e., the gas composition, is tuned and abundant chemical species are obtained in a quite controllable manner. The system refers to a small dielectric barrier discharge based reactor fed with He-N2/O2 or Ar-N2/O2 gases, which provides plasma in the form of "guided streamers." The plasma is sustained by positive high voltage pulses, and the emissive transitions versus the gas composition is determined by UV-VIS optical emission spectroscopy. The relative intensities of emissive species are recorded in the ambient air where the streamers propagate. The evolution of dominant species as a function of the gas composition is mapped, and optimal conditions in terms of species production are clearly revealed. The results show that additives do not necessarily enhance the density of all species, implying the need for plasma chemistry optimization in respect to every application. The study is extended inside the reactor, supporting the above statements. Finally, the rotational and vibrational distributions of critical probe molecules are recorded, testing the dependence of the gas temperature and energy transfer, respectively, on the gas composition.

  5. The Potential of Mycelium and Culture Broth of Lignosus rhinocerotis as Substitutes for the Naturally Occurring Sclerotium with Regard to Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxic Effect, and Low-Molecular-Weight Chemical Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Beng Fye; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Lee, Hong Boon; Yap, Ken Choy; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of Lignosus rhinocerotis focused mainly on the sclerotium; however, the supply of wild sclerotium is limited. In this investigation, the antioxidant capacity and cytotoxic effect of L. rhinocerotis cultured under different conditions of liquid fermentation (shaken and static) were compared to the sclerotium produced by solid-substrate fermentation. Aqueous methanol extracts of the mycelium (LR-MH, LR-MT) and culture broth (LR-BH, LR-BT) demonstrated either higher or comparable antioxidant capacities to the sclerotium extract (LR-SC) based on their radical scavenging abilities, reducing properties, metal chelating activities, and inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. All extracts exerted low cytotoxicity (IC50>200 µg/ml, 72 h) against selected mammalian cell lines. Several low-molecular-weight compounds, including sugars, fatty acids, methyl esters, sterols, amides, amino acids, phenolics, and triterpenoids, were identified using GC-MS and UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The presence of proteins (<40 kDa) in the extracts was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and SELDI-TOF-MS. Principal component analysis revealed that the chemical profiles of the mycelial extracts under shaken and static conditions were distinct from those of the sclerotium. Results from bioactivity evaluation and chemical profiling showed that L. rhinocerotis from liquid fermentation merits consideration as an alternative source of functional ingredients and potential substitute for the sclerotium. PMID:25054862

  6. Fibre constituents of some foods.

    PubMed

    Rani, B; Kawatra, A

    1994-06-01

    Some plant foods viz. bottlegourd, carrot, cauliflower, cabbage, green bengalgram, pea, apple, plum, guava, karonda, blackgram husk and lentil husk were analysed for their dietary fibre components. The total dietary fibre contents of these foods varied from 14.68 to 78.21 percent on dry matter basis. As compared to fruits and vegetables, the husks had higher amount of total dietary fibre. Cellulose represented as the major fibre constituent in most of the foods whereas, husks were observed to be good sources of hemicellulose. All foods were low in pectin and lignin contents except guava. PMID:7971775

  7. Volatile constituents of two Hypericum species from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Hosni, Karim; Msaâda, Kamel; Ben Taârit, Mouna; Chahed, Thouraya; Marzouk, Brahim

    2011-11-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of the Tunisian Hypericum perforatum and H. ericoides ssp. roberti was elucidated by a combination of GC and GC-MS analyses. The main constituents of the oil of H. perforatum were alpha-pinene (11.8%), alpha-ylangene (10.4%), germacrene-D (9.5%), n-octane (6.5%) and alpha-selinene (5.9%). The oil of H. ericoides ssp. roberti exhibited a higher amount of aliphatic and branched hydrocarbons and the main constituents were n-octane (29.1%), alpha-pinene (10.9%), pulegone (7.7%) and acetophenone (7%). Both qualitative and quantitative differences were observed between the studied oils. This chemical variability seems likely to result from the genetic variability, since samples of both species were collected at the same location and processed under the same conditions. PMID:22224299

  8. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Phillip M.; Wiedemann, Rachel; Matty, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer based system that measures the major atmospheric constituents on the International Space Station. A number of limited-life components require periodic change-out, including the ORU 02 analyzer and the ORU 08 Verification Gas Assembly. The most recent ORU 02 and ORU 08 assemblies are operating nominally. For ORU 02, the ion source filaments and ion pump lifetime continue to be key determinants of MCA performance. Additionally, testing is underway to evaluate the capacity of the MCA to analyze ammonia. Finally, plans are being made to bring the second MCA on ISS to an operational configuration.

  9. The role of non-nutritive dietary constituents in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Palmer, S; Mathews, R A

    1986-10-01

    Very low levels of a large variety of non-nutritive chemicals occur in the diet. Among those that occur naturally are metabolites of molds (for example, mycotoxins) and bacteria (for example, nitrosamines) and natural constituents of plants (for example, pyrrolizidine alkaloids). Many of these are occasional contaminants, whereas others are normal components of relatively common foods. Some compounds (for example, aflatoxin, nitrosamines, and hydrazones) have been found to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals and mutagenic in bacterial and other systems, thereby posing a potential risk to humans. However, there have been very few definitive epidemiologic studies. Therefore, further investigations are necessary to determine the significance of these experimental findings for humans. It is apparent that many foods naturally contain substances with mutagenic properties and that some substances found in foods can enhance or inhibit the mutagenic activity of other compounds. Furthermore, mutagens can be formed during the cooking or processing of foods. However, caution is needed in the interpretation of these findings. Although mutagens by definition are "suspect" carcinogens, many mutagens detected in foods have not been adequately tested for carcinogenicity, and therefore their significance for human health cannot be fully assessed. With the exception of studies on non-nutritive sweeteners like saccharin and cyclamate, or those on nitrate and nitrite, very few epidemiologic studies have been conducted to examine the effect of food additives on cancer risk. Of the few direct food additives that have been tested and found to be carcinogenic in animals, all except saccharin have been banned from use in the food supply. Minute residues of a few indirect additives that are known either to produce cancer in animals (for example, vinyl chloride and acrylonitrile) or to be carcinogenic in humans (for example, vinyl chloride) are occasionally detected in foods. Thus far, the

  10. Characterization and identification of the chemical constituents in the root of Lindera reflexa Hemsl. using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoya; Zhang, Yunbin; Chen, Suiqing; Fu, Yu

    2016-07-15

    The root of Lindera reflexa Hemsl. (LR) is a newly discovered herbal drug and has been used to treat gastritis and peptic ulcers. Nevertheless, the chemical profile of LR has not been established. In this study, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) was performed to investigate the fragmentation behaviors of multiple compounds from LR. The 12 standards were divided into five types according to their basic skeletons: stilbenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, pyranone I and pyranone II. The MS(n) spectra of the [M+H](+) or [M±NH4](+) ions for these compounds provided a wealth of structural information on the five different types of compounds. Stilbenes yielded ions with successive loss of 78Da (C6H6) and 28Da (CO). The subsequent loss of H2O, CO, RDA and C-ring fragmentation were the most possible fragmentation pathways for flavonoids. Fragmentation with successive loss of 17Da (NH3) or 31Da (CH5N), 32Da (CH4O) and 28Da (CO) in the MS(n) spectra were characteristics of alkaloids. The characteristic ions for Pyranone I were m/z 255.1013, m/z 243.1013 and m/z 237.0909, and the diagnostic ions for Pyranone II were m/z 227.0700, m/z 215.0700, m/z 185.0594 and m/z 131.0489. Using accurate mass measurements for each precursor ion and the subsequent fragmented ions, a total of 42 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized in LR, including 24 potentially new compounds. PMID:27139818

  11. Antitumor constituents from the leaves of Carya cathayensis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Dong; Ding, Zhi-Shan; Jiang, Fu-Sheng; Ding, Xing-Hong; Chen, Jian-Zhen; Chen, Su-Hong; Lv, Gui-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to find cytotoxic chemical constituents from Carya cathayensis leaves (LCC) by using various chromatographic procedures. Identification of the chemical constituents was carried out by various spectroscopic techniques and classical chemical methods. The cytotoxic activity of the constituents was assayed on HeLa and HepG2 cell lines by staining with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiahiazol-2-y1)-2,5-di-phenytetrazolium bromide (MTT). Six flavanoids, namely (1) pinostrobin, (2) pinostrobin chalcone, (3) wogonin, (4) cardamonin, (5) alpinetin and (6) tectochrysin were identified from this species. Compounds 2-6 were isolated from this kind of plant for the first time. MTT results showed that wogonin has a moderate cytotoxic activity with IC(50) values of 17.03 ± 2.41 and 44.23 ± 3.87 µM against HeLa and HepG2 cell lines, respectively. According to the correlation of primary the structure and activity, 8-methoxy substituent in these flavones may be a major factor of the antitumor activity. PMID:22007794

  12. Active mineral additives of sapropel ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, V. A.; Danilina, E. V.; Krivonos, O. I.; Plaksin, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the presented research is to establish a scientific rational for the possibility of sapropel ashes usage as an active mineral additive. The research included the study of producing active mineral additives from sapropels by their thermal treatment at 850900 °C and afterpowdering, the investigation of the properties of paste matrix with an ash additive, and the study of the ash influence on the cement bonding agent. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray investigations allowed us to establish that while burning, organic substances are removed, clay minerals are dehydrated and their structure is broken. Sapropel ashes chemical composition was determined. An amorphous ash constituent is mainly formed from silica of the mineral sapropel part and alumosilicagels resulted from clay minerals decomposition. Properties of PC 400 and PC 500A0 sparopel ash additives were studied. Adding ashes containing Glenium plasticizer to the cement increases paste matrix strength and considerably reduces its water absorption. X-ray phase analysis data shows changes in the phase composition of the paste matrix with an ash additive. Ash additives produce a pozzolanic effect on the cement bonding agent. Besides, an ash additive due to the alumosilicagels content causes transformation from unstable calcium aluminate forms to the stable ones.

  13. The effects of flow-path modification on water-quality constituent retention in an urban stormwater detention pond and wetland system, Orlando, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gain, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in constituent retention in a wet stormwater-detention pond and wetland system in Orlando, Florida, were evaluated following the 1988 installation of a flow barrier which approximately doubled the flow path and increased detention time in the pond. The pond and wetland were arranged in series so that stormwater first enters the pond and overflows into the wetland before spilling over to the regional stream system. Several principal factors that contribute to constituent retention were examined, including changes in pond-water quality between storms, stormwater quality, and pond-water flushing during storms. A simple, analytical pond-water mixing model was used as the basis for interpreting changes in retention efficiencies caused by pond modification. Retention efficiencies were calculated by a modified event-mean concentration efficiency method using a minimum variance unbiased estimator approach. The results of this study generally support the hypothesis that changes in the geometry of stormwater treatment systems can significantly affect the constituent retention efficiency of the pond and wetland system. However, the results also indicate that these changes in efficiency are caused not only by changes in residence time, but also by changes in stormwater mixing and pond water flushing during storms. Additionally, the use of average efficiencies as indications of treatment effectiveness may fail to account for biases associated with sample distribution and independent physical properties of the system, such as the range and concentrations of constituents in stormwater inflows and stormwater volume. Changes in retention efficiencies varied among chemical constituents and were significantly different in the pond and wetland. Retention efficiency was related to inflow concentration for most constituents. Increased flushing of the pond after modification caused decreases in retention efficiencies for constituents that concentrate in the pond between storms

  14. Acyl secoiridoids and antifungal constituents from Gentiana macrophylla.

    PubMed

    Tan, R X; Wolfender, J L; Zhang, L X; Ma, W G; Fuzzati, N; Marston, A; Hostettmann, K

    1996-07-01

    LC-UV-mass spectrometry and bioassay co-directed fractionation of an aqueous acetone extract of the roots of Gentiana macrophylla gave three new chromene derivatives and two novel and six known secoiridoids, along with kurarinone, kushenol I, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, daucosterol, beta-sitosterol-3-O-gentiobioside, alpha-amyrin, oleanolic acid, isovitexin, gentiobiose and methyl 2-hydroxy-3-(1-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxybenzoate. The structures of the new products were established from spectral and chemical evidence as 2-methoxyanofinic acid and macrophyllosides A-D. The six known secoiridoids were gentiopicroside, sweroside, 6'-O-beta-D-glucosylgentiopicroside, 6'-O-beta-D-glucosylsweroside, trifloroside and rindoside. The new acid (2-methoxyanofinic acid), its methyl ester, kurarinone and kushenol I were shown to be active against the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum. The methyl ester and kurarinone inhibited also the growth of the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Structure-activity relationships were studied. Thus, addition of a methoxyl group to the benzene nucleus of anofinic acid (2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-6-carboxylic acid) increased the antifungal activity remarkably whereas glycosylation at the carboxylic moiety was found to remove the activity. Esterification of the new acid induced its activity against C. albicans, but decreased its growth inhibition properties against C. cucumerinum. Hydroxylation of kurarinone at the 3 beta-position removed its activity against C. albicans and decreased the inhibition of C. cucumerinum. In addition, the chemotaxonomic significance of the identified constituents is discussed. PMID:9397205

  15. The presence of antiamoebic constituents in psyllium husk.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Viqar; Manzoor, Syed Munazza; Zaki, Mehreen; Aziz, Nauman; Gilani, Anwar-ul-Hassan

    2002-02-01

    The crude extract of psyllium husk (ispaghula) and its active constituent (petroleum fraction) caused varying degrees of growth inhibition in three different species of Entamoeba, i.e. Entamoeba histolytica, E. invadens and E. dispar. The inhibitory effect of the crude extract was in the dose range of 1-10 mg/mL, whereas a similar inhibitory effect was obtained with the petroleum fraction at a much lower dose (0.1-1.0 mg/mL), indicating that the active chemical(s) is/are concentrated in the petroleum fraction. These data support the traditional use of psyllium husk in amoebic dysentery. PMID:11807972

  16. Apparatus and method for separating constituents

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A centrifugal separator apparatus and method for improving the efficiency of the separation of constituents in a fluid stream. A cyclone separator includes an assembly for separately discharging both constituents through the same end of the separator housing. A rotary separator includes a rotary housing having a baffle disposed therein for minimizing the differential rotational velocities of the constituents in the housing, thereby decreasing turbulence, and increasing efficiency. The intensity of the centrifugal force and the time which the constituents reside within the housing can be independently controlled to improve efficiency of separation.

  17. Characterization and prediction of highway runoff constituent event mean concentration.

    PubMed

    Kayhanian, M; Suverkropp, C; Ruby, A; Tsay, K

    2007-10-01

    Highway stormwater runoff quality data were collected from throughout California during 2000-2003. Samples were analyzed for conventional pollutants (pH, conductivity, hardness, and temperature); aggregates (TSS, TDS, TOC, DOC); total and dissolved metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn); and nutrients (NO(3)-N, TKN, total P, and ortho-P). Storm event and site characteristics for each sampling site were recorded. A statistical summary for chemical characteristics of highway runoff is provided based on statewide urban and non-urban highways. Constituent event mean concentrations (EMCs) were generally higher in urban highways than in non-urban highways. The chemical characteristics of highway runoff in California were compared with national highway runoff chemical characterization data. The results obtained in California were generally similar to those found in other states. The median EMC for Pb measured in studies conducted in previous decades was much higher than the current median Pb EMC in California. The lower Pb EMC in California compared to previous highway runoff monitoring is believed to be due to the elimination of leaded gasoline. An attempt was also made to identify surrogate constituents within a general family of water quality categories using Spearman correlations and selected pairs with Spearman coefficients greater than 0.8. The strongest correlations were observed among parameters associated with dissolved minerals (EC, TDS, and chloride); organic carbon (TOC and DOC); petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH and O & G); and particulate matter (TSS and turbidity). Within the metals category, total iron concentration was highly correlated with most total metal concentrations. The correlations between total and dissolved concentrations were all less than 0.8, even between total and dissolved concentrations of the same metals. Multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of various site and storm event variables on highway runoff

  18. Constituents of south Indian vetiver oils.

    PubMed

    Mallavarapu, Gopal Rao; Syamasundar, Kodakandla V; Ramesh, S; Rao, Bhaskaruni R Rajeswara

    2012-02-01

    The essential oils isolated from vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash.] roots collected from four locations in south India were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Eighty constituents, representing 94.5-97.8% of the oils, have been identified. The oils from Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kundapur, and Mettupalayam were rich in sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes with cedrane, bisabolane, eudesmane, eremophilane, and zizaane skeletons. The main components of the four essential oils were: eudesma-4,6-diene (delta-selinene) + beta-vetispirene (3.9-6.1%), beta-vetivenene (0.9-9.4%), 13-nor-trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-11-one + amorph-4-en-10-ol (5.0-6.4%), trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-12-ol (vetiselinenol) + (E)-opposita-4(15),7(11)-dien-12-ol (3.7-5.9%), eremophila-1 (10),11-dien-2alpha-ol (nootkatol) + ziza-6(13)-en-12-ol (khusimol) (16.1-19.2%), and eremophila-1(10),7(11)-dien-2alpha-ol (isonootkatol) + (E)-eremophila-1(10),7(11)-12-ol (isovalencenol) (5.6-6.9%). The important compounds that impart the characteristic vetiver odor are: khusimene, delta-selinene, beta-vetivenene, cyclocopacamphan-12-ol (epimers A and B), vetiselinenol, khusimol, isovalencenol, khusimone, alpha-vetivone, and beta-vetivone. The chemical profiles of the oils are comparable to Haitian vetiver oil. PMID:22474964

  19. Chemical composition of organic matter in a deep soil changed with a positive priming effect due to glucose addition as investigated by 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh organic carbon becomes more accessible to subsoil following losses of surface soil or deep incorporation of crop residues, which can cause the priming effect and influence the quality and quantity of soil organic C (SOC) in subsoil. Chemical compositions of SOC in subsoil (1.0-1.2 m) without ...

  20. 21 CFR 610.15 - Constituent materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Constituent materials. 610.15 Section 610.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.15 Constituent materials. (a)...

  1. 21 CFR 610.15 - Constituent materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Constituent materials. 610.15 Section 610.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.15 Constituent materials. (a)...

  2. Constituency Leadership: A Model for School Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strodl, Peter

    Principals must integrate information originating from many sectors among the schools' constituents. The degree to which constituent groups participate in school activities helps determine the quality of instruction and learning. Crucial to the role of administrator is a network of interactions between people and things, school board pressures and…

  3. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant capacity of four underutilized fruits from the Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Andre; Jungfer, Elvira; da Silva, Bruno Alexandre; Maia, Jose Guilherme S; Marx, Friedhelm

    2011-07-27

    The Amazon region comprises a plethora of fruit-bearing species of which a large number are still agriculturally unimportant. Because fruit consumption has been attributed to an enhanced physical well-being, interest in the knowledge of the chemical composition of underexplored exotic fruits has increased during recent years. This paper provides a comprehensive identification of the polyphenolic constituents of four underutilized fruits from the Amazon region by HPLC/DAD-ESI-MS(n). Araçá ( Psidium guineense ), jambolão ( Syzygium cumini ), muruci ( Byrsonima crassifolia ), and cutite ( Pouteria macrophylla ) turned out to be primarily good sources of hydrolyzable tannins and/or flavonols. Additionally, different flavanonols and proanthocyanidins were identified in some fruits. The antioxidant capacity was determined by using the total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay. Cutite showed the highest antioxidant capacity followed by jambolão, araçá, and muruci. PMID:21662239

  4. Chemical constituents from Inonotus obliquus and their biological activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Zhao, Cui; Pan, Hong-Hui; Kang, Jie; Yu, Xiong-Tao; Wang, Hong-Qing; Li, Bao-Ming; Xie, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2014-01-24

    Seven new triterpenes, inonotusol A-G (1-7), one new diterpene, inonotusic acid (8), and 22 known compounds were isolated from Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC) experiments. In in vitro assays, compounds 6 and 8-16 showed hepatoprotective effects against d-galactosamine-induced WB-F344 cell damage, with inhibitory effects from 34.4% to 81.2%. Compounds 7, 17, and 18 exhibited selective cytotoxicities against KB, Bel-7402, or A-549 cell lines. Compounds 16 and 17 showed inhibitory effects against protein tyrosine kinases, with IC50 values of 24.6 and 7.7 μM, respectively. PMID:24359303

  5. Chemical Constituents of Plants from the Genus Ixora.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Jun; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Ye-Gao

    2016-03-01

    Ixora is a genus of ca. 400 species in the family Rubiaceae. Since the 1940s, eighty-one compounds including phenolics, peptides, terpenoids, and sterols have been isolated from six species of the genus Ixora. Pharmacological studies have shown that these compounds and extracts from the Ixora genus have extensive activities, such as antitumor, chemoprotective, and antioxidant activities. In this review, we summarize the phytochemical progress and list the compounds isolated from the genus Ixora. The biological activities of this genus are also covered. PMID:26916522

  6. Chemical constituents from the fruiting bodies of Cryptoporus volvatus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junchi; Li, Guangzhi; Lv, Na; Gao, Li; Cao, Li; Shen, Liangang; Si, Jianyong

    2016-06-01

    New drimane-type sesquiterpene cryptoporol A (1), cryptoporic acid derivative 6'-cryptoporic acid E methyl ester (2), and pseudouridine derivative cryptoporine A (3), as well as a known ergosterol 5α,8α-epidioxy-22E-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (4), were isolated from a 90 % alcohol extract of the fruiting bodies of Cryptoporus volvatus. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis and circular dichroism. 5α,8α-epidioxy-22E-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (4) exhibited antiviral activity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and all compounds showed weak antioxidant activities. PMID:27146415

  7. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of Clinacanthus nutans aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Tu, Shu-Fen; Liu, Rosa Huang; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsu, Yu-Ming; Du, Ying-Chi; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Four new sulfur-containing compounds, named clinamides A-C (1-3), and 2-cis-entadamide A (4), were isolated together with three known compounds from the bioactive ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Clinacanthus nutans. These secondary metabolites possess sulfur atoms and acrylamide functionalities. The structures of the isolated components were established by interpretation of their spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR. PMID:25490430

  8. [Studies on chemical constituents of flavonoid from Verbena officinals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gai-min; Zhang, Jian-ye; Zhang, Xiang-pei; Liu, Hong-min

    2006-07-01

    Five compounds have been isolated from Verbena offcinals L. On the basis of spectral analysis and physicochemical properties, the compounds were identified as luteolin (1), kaempferol (2), quercetin (3), apigenin (4) and 4'-hydroxywogonin (5). 1, 2 and 3 were obtained from the genus for the first time. PMID:17059005

  9. Chemical constituents from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Feng, Xiao-Lin; Gao, Hao; Xie, Zuo-Lei; Dai, Yi; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Ye, Wen-Cai; Zhong, Yi; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    A new lignan glucoside, (+)-(7S,8R,8'R)-lyoniresinol 9-O-β-D-(6″-O-trans-sinapoyl)glucopyranoside (1), and a new iridoid glucoside, 10-O-trans-sinapoylgeniposide (2), together with eight known compounds, were isolated from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. The structures of the isolates were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic studies, including UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, and CD experiments. The short-term-memory-enhancement activities of some compounds were evaluated on an Aβ transgenic drosophila model. PMID:22245087

  10. Review of Pharmacological Properties and Chemical Constituents of Pimpinella anisum

    PubMed Central

    Shojaii, Asie; Abdollahi Fard, Mehri

    2012-01-01

    Pimpinella anisum (anise), belonging to Umbelliferae family, is an aromatic plant which has been used In Iranian traditional medicine (especially its fruits) as carminative, aromatic, disinfectant, and galactagogue. Because the wide traditional usage of Pimpinella anisum for treatment of diseases, in this review published scientific reports about the composition and pharmacological properties of this plant were collected with electronic literature search of GoogleScholar, PubMed, Sciencedirect, Scopus, and SID from 1970 to 2011. So far, different studies were performed on aniseeds and various properties such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, muscle relaxant, analgesic and anticonvulsant activity as well as different effects on gastrointestinal system have been reported of aniseeds. It can also reduce morphine dependence and has beneficial effects on dysmenorrhea and menopausal hot flashes in women. In diabetic patients, aniseeds showed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect and reduce lipid peroxidation. The most important compounds of aniseeds essential oil were trans-anetole, estragole, γ-hymachalen, para-anisaldehyde and methyl cavicol. Due to broad spectrum of pharmacological effects, and very few clinical studies of Pimpinella anisum, more clinical trials are recommended to evaluate the beneficial effects of this plant in human models and synthesis of new drugs from the active ingredients of this plant in future. PMID:22848853

  11. Chemical constituents and physical properties of guayule wood and bark

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 15 Parthenium species grow in the North American continent with P. argentatum (guayule) as the only species containing harvestable amounts of the rubber latex. The predicted commercialization of the guayule plant for its hypoallergenic latex will result in a significant amount of waste fiber o...

  12. [Chemical constituents from culture of Streptomyces sp. CPCC 202950].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-hua; Wu, Ye-xiang; Dong, Biao; Fan, Xiu-yong; Yu, Li-yan; Jiang, Wei; Si, Shu-yi

    2015-04-01

    Eleven compounds were isolated from the culture of Streptomyces sp. CPCC 202950 by a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over macroporous resin HP-20, MCI, and reversed-phase HPLC. Their structures were identified as 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide(1),5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioinosine(2), vanillamide(3), trans-3-methylthioacrylamide(4), 1,2,3,4-Tetraydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-carboxylic acid(5), cyclo(L-pro-L-tyr) (6), N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)]ethylacetamide(7), benzamide (8), cyclo ('L-leucyl-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline)(9), cyclo-(Phe-Gly) (10), and tryptophan (11). Among them, compounds 1 and 2 were new natural products. In the preliminary assays, none of the compounds exhibited obvious inhibition of HIV-1 protease activity (IC50 > 10 micromol x L(-1)). PMID:26281555

  13. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Arctium lappa L].

    PubMed

    Wang, H Y; Yang, J S

    1993-01-01

    Six compounds were isolated from the seeds of Arctium lappa L. One of them is a new lignan named neoarctin B(VI). The structure has been elucidated on the basis of spectral (UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT, 2D-NMR and MS) analysis. The other five compounds were identified as daucosterol (I), arctigenin (II), arctiin (III), matairesinol (IV) and lappaol F (V). PMID:8030415

  14. Seasonal variation of the chemical constituents from Croton species.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Pereira, A; Fernandes do Amaral, A C; de Araujo Silva, M; de Aquino Neto, F R

    2001-01-01

    The terpenes, sterols, alkaloid (glaucine) and alpha-tocopherol show seasonal variation for Croton hemiargyreus hemiargyreus and Croton echinocarpus. The amounts of triterpenes are higher during the tropical summer and in most samples the major sesquiterpene was characterized as caryophyllene. The seasonal variation of glaucine showed a maximum between June and October for C. hemiargyreus, and was present only in January and June in C. echinocarpus. PMID:11421450

  15. Phytochemical Investigations on Chemical Constituents of Achillea tenuifolia Lam

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Shirin; Kobarfard, Farzad; Ayatollahi, Seyed Abdol Majid

    2014-01-01

    Achillea tenuifolia Lam. (Asteraceae) afforded a methanolic extract from which after fractionation in solvents with different polarities, two known flavones 3’, 5- dihydroxy- 4’, 6, 7- trimethoxy flavone (eupatorine, compound 3), 5- hydroxy- 3’,4’, 6, 7- tetramethoxyflavone (compound 4), besides stearic acid (compound 1), lupeol (compound 2), daucosterol (β- sitosterol 3-O- β- D- glucopyranoside, compound 5), 2, 4- dihydroxy methyl benzoate (compound 6) were isolated for the first time. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by means of different spectroscopic methods such as UV, IR, Mass and 1H- NMR (1D and 2D) and 13C-NMR. For further confirming the structures of isolated compounds, comparison of the spectral data of them with those reported in the litratures have been done. PMID:25276207

  16. Chemical constituents from the roots and stems of Litsea cubeba.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiang; Bai, Rui-Feng; Su, Guo-Zhu; Zhu, Zhi-Xiang; Zeng, Ke-Wu; Tu, Peng-Fei; Chai, Xing-Yun

    2016-01-01

    A new monoterpene and a new lignan, named litsecols A and B (1 and 2), respectively, together with nine known compounds (3-11), were isolated in a continuous investigation on the roots and stems of Litsea cubeba. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configuration of 1 was resolved by X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 2-5 and 7-9 showed significant inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine microglial (Bv-2) cell line. Compounds 10 and 11 exhibited significant neuroprotective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line. PMID:26651866

  17. [Chemical constituents from Morus notabilis and their cytotoxic effect].

    PubMed

    Zhen, Pan; Ni, Gang; Chen, Xiao-guang; Chen, Ruo-yun; Yang, Han-ze; Yu, De-quan

    2015-05-01

    Une new flavonoids named as notabilisin K (1), together with four known compounds, morusin (2), mulberrofuran A (3), neocyclomorusin (4) and mornigrol F (5) are separated from 95% ethanol extracts of the twigs of Morus notabilis. Compounds 2-5 are separated from this plant for the first time. Notabilisin I, notabilisin J exhibits certain effect against cells of HCT-116, HepG2 and A2780 with IC50 values ranging from 1.47 μmol x L(-1) to 5.46 μmol x L(-1). Morusin exhibits strong effect against five kinds of human cancer cells (BGC823, A2780, HCT-116, HepG2 and NCI-H1650) with IC50 values ranging from 0.74 μmol x L(-1) to 1.58 μmol x L(-1). PMID:26234140

  18. Chemical constituents from Piper hainanense and their cytotoxicities.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Ni; Xin, Ying; Ling, Yi; Li, Xing-Cong; Hao, Chao-Yun; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Dong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Two new compounds, (Z,R)-1-phenylethylcinnamate (1) and (1R,2R,3R,6S)-pipoxide (2) were isolated from the aerial part of Piper hainanense, along with 12 known compounds, including nine benzene derivatives (4-11), one isobutylamide (12), and two polyoxygenated cyclohexene derivatives (13-14). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of the HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, and ECD in cases of 2 and 3. The absolute configuration of ellipeiopsol B (3) was determined for the first time. All these compounds 1-14 were reported from the titled plant for the first time. Most of the isolates were tested for their cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines. Four of which, 2, 3, 9, 14 showed moderate bioactivities. Among them, the new compound 2 showed potential cytotoxicity against SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW-480 with IC50 values of 9.7, 15.0, and 13.2 μM, respectively. PMID:26982483

  19. [Advance of chemical constituents and bioactivity of Saururuaceae plants].

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Wu, Feng; Chen, Rou-yun

    2003-03-01

    Essential oil, flavonoids, alkaloids and lignas were isolated from Saururuaceae plants. They possesses antibacteral, antiviruses, antiinflammatory. Inhibitory of plaleted aggregation activites and exhibit significant neuroleptic activity. PMID:15015297

  20. Review of Pharmacological Properties and Chemical Constituents of Pimpinella anisum.

    PubMed

    Shojaii, Asie; Abdollahi Fard, Mehri

    2012-01-01

    Pimpinella anisum (anise), belonging to Umbelliferae family, is an aromatic plant which has been used In Iranian traditional medicine (especially its fruits) as carminative, aromatic, disinfectant, and galactagogue. Because the wide traditional usage of Pimpinella anisum for treatment of diseases, in this review published scientific reports about the composition and pharmacological properties of this plant were collected with electronic literature search of GoogleScholar, PubMed, Sciencedirect, Scopus, and SID from 1970 to 2011. So far, different studies were performed on aniseeds and various properties such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, muscle relaxant, analgesic and anticonvulsant activity as well as different effects on gastrointestinal system have been reported of aniseeds. It can also reduce morphine dependence and has beneficial effects on dysmenorrhea and menopausal hot flashes in women. In diabetic patients, aniseeds showed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect and reduce lipid peroxidation. The most important compounds of aniseeds essential oil were trans-anetole, estragole, γ-hymachalen, para-anisaldehyde and methyl cavicol. Due to broad spectrum of pharmacological effects, and very few clinical studies of Pimpinella anisum, more clinical trials are recommended to evaluate the beneficial effects of this plant in human models and synthesis of new drugs from the active ingredients of this plant in future. PMID:22848853

  1. Chemical constituents of aerial parts and roots of Pycnanthemum flexuosum.

    PubMed

    Murata, Toshihiro; Nakano, Mari; Miyase, Toshio; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    An extract of whole plants of Pycnanthemum flexuosum showed an inhibitory effect on hyaluronidase activity. From an 80% acetone extract of aerial parts, 3-[(3E)-4-phenylbut-3-enoylamino]propionic acid, 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-echinocystic acid 28-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-[3,4-diacetyl-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)]-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ester, vanillic acid 1-O-[(5-O-syringoyl)-β-D-apiofuranosyl]-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside, and (4S,5R)-4-hydroxy-5-phenyl-tetrahydrofuran-2-one were isolated together with 30 known compounds. Six known compounds were isolated from an 80% acetone extract of roots, and eritrichin was revealed as a hyaluronidase inhibitor in P. flexuosum. PMID:24632638

  2. Chemical constituents of Anacolosa pervilleana and their antiviral activities.

    PubMed

    Bourjot, Mélanie; Leyssen, Pieter; Eydoux, Cécilia; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Canard, Bruno; Rasoanaivo, Philippe; Guéritte, Françoise; Litaudon, Marc

    2012-09-01

    In an effort to identify novel inhibitors of Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Dengue (DENV) virus replication, a systematic study with 820 ethyl acetate extracts of Madagascan plants was performed in a virus-cell-based assay for CHIKV and a DENV NS5 RNA-dependant RNA polymerase (RdRp) assay. The extract obtained from the leaves of Anacolosa pervilleana was selected for its significant activity in both assays. One new (E)-tridec-2-en-4-ynedioic acid named anacolosine (1), together with three known acetylenic acids, the octadeca-9,11,13-triynoic acid (2), (13E)-octadec-13-en-9,11-diynoic acid (3), (13E)-octadec-13-en-11-ynoic acid (4), two terpenoids, lupenone (5) and β-amyrone (6), and one cyanogenic glycoside, (S)-sambunigrin (7) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive analyses of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry data. The inhibitory potency of these compounds was evaluated on CHIKV, DENV RdRp and West-Nile polymerase virus (WNV RdRp). Both terpenoids showed a moderate activity against CHIKV (EC(50) 77 and 86 μM, respectively) and the acetylenic acids produced IC(50) values around 3 μM in the DENV RdRp assay. PMID:22613073

  3. [Study on antioxidant chemical constituents of Lonicera japonica leaves].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-xin; Zhang, Qi-wei; Li, Chun; Liu, Su

    2015-06-01

    Guided by the antioxidant activity, the EtOAc-soluble and n-butanol-soluble fractions of the 50% methanol extract of Lonicera japonica leaves were isolated and purified by various chromatorgraphic methods, and the structures were identified by spectral analysis and comparison to the data reported in literature. As a result, nine compounds were obtained and identified as 5-O-caffeoylquinicacid (1), chlorogenicacid (2), 4-O-caffeoylquinicacid (3), luteolin-7-O-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)] -β-D-glucopyranoside (4), luteoloside (5), 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (6), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (7), 4, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (8) and luteolin (9). The antioxidant activity of the nine compounds were determined by using DPPH free radical scavenging method, and ascorbic acid was used as a positive control. Their antioxidant activities from high to low were 5 > 9 > 2 > 8 > 7 > 6 > 1 > 3 > 4. Among them, luteoloside (5) had the strongest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of 0.018 18 g x L(-1), and luteolin (IC50 0.023 6 g x L(-1)) and chlorogenicacid (IC50 0.035 17 g x L(-1)) ranks No. 2 and 3. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of luteoloside and luteolin were stronger than that of ascorbic acid (IC50 0.027 54 g x L(-1)). These results gave a basis for the further study and utilization of L. japonica leaves. PMID:26591528

  4. Chemical constituents from Echinops nanus and Echinops transiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Echinops, which belongs to the Asteraceae family, comprises about one hundred and twenty species. They are native to Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and south of the mountains of tropical Africa. The roots of Echinops nanus and Echinops transiliensis were both collected at the flowering stage in Kaza...

  5. Chemical constituents of marine medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Minqing; Dai, Haofu; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bingui

    2009-05-01

    Twenty-four compounds including eight steroids ( 1-8), nine triterpenoids ( 9-16, 24), three flavonoids ( 20-22), and four benzenecarboxylic derivatives ( 17-19, 23) were isolated and identified from stems and twigs of medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. Among these metabolites, compounds 1, 4-20 and 22-24 were isolated and identified for the first time from S. caseolaris. In the in vitro cytotoxic assay against SMMC-7721 human hepatoma cells, compound 21 (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) exhibited significant activity with IC50 2.8 μg/mL, while oleanolic acid ( 14), 3,3'-di- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 18), and 3,3',4- O-tri- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 19) showed weak activity. None of these compounds displayed significant antibacterial activites.

  6. Chemical Constituents Antioxidant and Anticholinesterasic Activity of Tabernaemontana catharinensis

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Sidnei; Echeverrigaray, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The present work aimed to analyze the alkaloid content of the ethanolic extract of Tabernaemontana catharinensis (Apocynaceae family) and its fractions as well as to evaluate their antioxidant and anticholinesterasic activities. The analyses of the ethanolic extract of T. catharinensis by mass spectrometry allowed identifying the presence of the alkaloids 16-epi-affinine, coronaridine-hydroxyindolenine, voachalotine, voacristine-hydroxyindolenine, and 12-methoxy-n-methyl-voachalotine, as well as an alkaloid with m/z 385.21 whose spectrum suggests a derivative of voacristine or voacangine. The extract and its alkaloid rich fractions showed antioxidant activity, especially those that contain the alkaloid m/z 385.21 or 16-epi-affinine with DPPH scavenging activity (IC50) between 37.18 and 74.69 μg/mL. Moreover, the extract and its fractions exhibited anticholinesterasic activity, particularly the fractions characterized by the presence of 12-methoxy-n-methyl-voachalotine, with IC50 = 2.1 to 2.5 μg/mL. Fractions with 16-epi-affinine combined good antioxidant (IC50 = 65.59 to 74.69 μg/mL) and anticholinesterasic (IC50 = 7.7 to 8.3 μg/mL) activities, representing an option for further studies aimed at treating neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23983637

  7. Smokers’ and Nonsmokers’ Beliefs About Harmful Tobacco Constituents: Implications for FDA Communication Efforts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Legislation requires the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to release information to the public about harmful constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. To inform these efforts, we sought to better understand how smokers and nonsmokers think about tobacco constituents. Methods: In October 2012, 300U.S. adults aged 18–66 years completed a cross-sectional Internet survey. The questions focused on 20 harmful tobacco constituents that the FDA has prioritized for communicating with the public. Results: Most participants had heard of 7 tobacco constituents (ammonia, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and nicotine), but few participants had heard of the others (e.g., acrolein). Few participants correctly understood that many constituents were naturally present in tobacco. Substances that companies add to cigarette tobacco discouraged people from wanting to smoke more than substances that naturally occur in cigarette smoke (p < .001). Ammonia, arsenic, carbon monoxide, and formaldehyde being in cigarettes elicited the most discouragement from smoking. Constituents elicited greater discouragement from wanting to smoke if respondents were nonsmokers (β = −.34, p < .05), had negative images of smokers (i.e., negative smoker prototypes; β = .19, p < .05), believed constituents are added to tobacco (β = .14, p < .05), or were older (β = .16, p < .05). Conclusions: Our study found low awareness of most tobacco constituents, with greater concern elicited by additives. Efforts to communicate health risks of tobacco constituents should consider focusing on ones that elicited the most discouragement from smoking. PMID:24151139

  8. Phenolic constituents from Drypetes armoracia.

    PubMed

    Wandji, Jean; Tillequin, François; Mulholland, Dulcie A; Temgoua, Agathe D; Wansi, Jean-D; Seguin, Elisabeth; Fomum, Z Tanee

    2003-06-01

    The methanol extract of the dried stem bark of Drypetes armoracia Pax & Hoffm. afforded two compounds named drypearmoracein A, (E)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydroxy-2-benzylhept-2-enoic acid and drypearmoracein B, 2,3-dihydroxy-9,10-tetrahydroanthra-1,4-quinone along with five known compounds: friedelan-3 beta-ol, friedelin, friedelane-3,7-dione, drypemolundein B and beta-stigmasterol. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. PMID:12770597

  9. Use of radiation effects for a controlled change in the chemical composition and properties of materials by intentional addition or substitution of atoms of a certain kind

    SciTech Connect

    Gurovich, B. A.; Prikhod'ko, K. E. Kuleshova, E. A.; Maslakov, K. I.; Komarov, D. A.

    2013-06-15

    This study is a continuation of works [1-12] dealing with the field developed by the authors, namely, to widen the possibilities of radiation methods for a controlled change in the atomic composition and properties of thin-film materials. The effects under study serve as the basis for the following two methods: selective atom binding and selective atom substitution. Such changes in the atomic composition are induced by irradiation by mixed beams consisting of protons and other ions, the energy of which is sufficient for target atom displacements. The obtained experimental data demonstrate that the changes in the chemical composition of thin-film materials during irradiation by an ion beam of a complex composition take place according to mechanisms that differ radically from the well-known mechanisms controlling the corresponding chemical reactions in these materials. These radical changes are shown to be mainly caused by the accelerated ioninduced atomic displacements in an irradiated material during irradiation; that is, they have a purely radiation nature. The possibilities of the new methods for creating composite structures consisting of regions with a locally changed chemical composition and properties are demonstrated for a wide class of materials.

  10. Chromatographic Evaluation and Characterization of Components of Gentian Root Extract Used as Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Morimoto, Sara; Yoshida, Takashi; Tada, Atsuko; Ito, Yusai; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Gentian root extract is used as a bitter food additive in Japan. We investigated the constituents of this extract to acquire the chemical data needed for standardized specifications. Fourteen known compounds were isolated in addition to a mixture of gentisin and isogentisin: anofinic acid, 2-methoxyanofinic acid, furan-2-carboxylic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, isovitexin, gentiopicroside, loganic acid, sweroside, vanillic acid, gentisin 7-O-primeveroside, isogentisin 3-O-primeveroside, 6'-O-glucosylgentiopicroside, and swertiajaposide D. Moreover, a new compound, loganic acid 7-(2'-hydroxy-3'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)benzoate (1), was also isolated. HPLC was used to analyze gentiopicroside and amarogentin, defined as the main constituents of gentian root extract in the List of Existing Food Additives in Japan. PMID:26726749

  11. Blood constituents as phagostimulants for the bed bug Cimex lectularius L.

    PubMed

    Romero, Alvaro; Schal, Coby

    2014-02-15

    Many hematophagous arthropods are stimulated by blood constituents to initiate feeding. We used a membrane-based feeding system to identify chemicals that stimulate acceptance and engorgement responses in various life stages of bed bugs. Water was fortified with a variety of compounds (e.g. salts, amino acids, vitamins, nucleotides, cholesterol and fatty acids) in these bioassays. ATP was the most effective phagostimulant in adults and nymphs, resulting in >70% of bed bugs fully engorging. Addition of NaCl to low ATP solutions that alone elicited <50% engorgement significantly enhanced feeding responses of bed bugs. A comparison of feeding responses with solutions of various adenine nucleotides showed that ATP was more stimulatory than ADP, which was more effective than AMP. Feeding assays with physiological levels of other blood constituents such as d-glucose, albumin, globulin, cholesterol and mixtures of vitamins and amino acids did not stimulate engorgement, suggesting that adenine nucleotides are the most important feeding stimulants in bed bugs. Identification of phagostimulants for bed bugs will contribute towards the development of artificial diets for rearing purposes, as well as for the development of alternative methods to eliminate bed bug infestations. PMID:24198260

  12. Chemical compositions and larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils from two eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Huang, Chin-Gi; Chen, Ying-Ju; Yu, Jane-Jane; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oils and their constituents from two eucalyptus species (Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla) against two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, was investigated. In addition, the chemical compositions of the leaf essential oils were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results from the larvicidal tests revealed that essential oil from the leaves of E. camaldulensis had an excellent inhibitory effect against both A. aegypti and A. albopictus larvae. The 12 pure constituents extracted from the two eucalyptus leaf essential oils were also tested individually against two mosquito larvae. Among the six effective constituents, alpha-terpinene exhibits the best larvicidal effect against both A. aegypti and A. albopictus larvae. Results of this study show that the leaf essential oil of E. camaldulensis and its effective constituents might be considered as a potent source for the production of fine natural larvicides. PMID:18396398

  13. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  14. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis for the chemical impact of solvent addition rate on electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of HCl-doped polyaniline nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Tantawy, Hesham Ramzy; Aston, D. Eric; Kengne, Blaise-Alexis F.; McIlroy, David N.; Qiang, You; Nguyen, Tai; Heo, Deukhyoun

    2015-11-07

    An in-depth analysis of the chemical functionality in HCl-doped polyaniline (PANI) nanopowders is discussed through interpretations of x-ray photoelectron spectra. The distinctions between three PANI sample types, produced under varied synthesis conditions, are compared on the basis correlations between newly collected electron spectra for chemical analysis (or also x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and electromagnetic (EM) shielding effectiveness (SE) within two frequency bands (100–1500 MHz and ∼2–14 GHz). The findings are discussed with reference to previous data analysis of electrical conductivities and Raman and UV-vis spectra analyzed from replicates of the same PANI nanopowders, where only the 8–12 GHz range for SE was tested. They further corroborate previous results for limited-solvent conditions that enhance EM shielding. The three nanopowder types show distinctive differences in polaron, bipolaron, and polar lattice contributions. The collective findings describe the chemical connections between controlling and, most importantly, limiting the available solvent for polymerization with simultaneously doping and how it is that the newly developed solvent-limited approach for HCl-PANI nanopowders provides better shielding than traditionally solvent-rich methods by having more extended and perhaps even faster polaron delocalization than other PANI-based products. The maximum oxidation (50%) and doping (49%) levels obtained in the solvent-free nanopowders also produced the highest SE values of 37.3 ± 3.7 dB (MHz band) and 68.6 ± 4.6 dB (GHz band)

  15. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis for the chemical impact of solvent addition rate on electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of HCl-doped polyaniline nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantawy, Hesham Ramzy; Kengne, Blaise-Alexis F.; McIlroy, David N.; Nguyen, Tai; Heo, Deukhyoun; Qiang, You; Aston, D. Eric

    2015-11-01

    An in-depth analysis of the chemical functionality in HCl-doped polyaniline (PANI) nanopowders is discussed through interpretations of x-ray photoelectron spectra. The distinctions between three PANI sample types, produced under varied synthesis conditions, are compared on the basis correlations between newly collected electron spectra for chemical analysis (or also x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and electromagnetic (EM) shielding effectiveness (SE) within two frequency bands (100-1500 MHz and ˜2-14 GHz). The findings are discussed with reference to previous data analysis of electrical conductivities and Raman and UV-vis spectra analyzed from replicates of the same PANI nanopowders, where only the 8-12 GHz range for SE was tested. They further corroborate previous results for limited-solvent conditions that enhance EM shielding. The three nanopowder types show distinctive differences in polaron, bipolaron, and polar lattice contributions. The collective findings describe the chemical connections between controlling and, most importantly, limiting the available solvent for polymerization with simultaneously doping and how it is that the newly developed solvent-limited approach for HCl-PANI nanopowders provides better shielding than traditionally solvent-rich methods by having more extended and perhaps even faster polaron delocalization than other PANI-based products. The maximum oxidation (50%) and doping (49%) levels obtained in the solvent-free nanopowders also produced the highest SE values of 37.3 ± 3.7 dB (MHz band) and 68.6 ± 4.6 dB (GHz band).

  16. Identification of main corticosteroids as illegal feed additives in milk replacers by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fiori, M; Pierdominici, E; Longo, F; Brambilla, G

    1998-05-22

    Corticosteroids were proposed as growth promoting agents to improve commercial quality of meat. We developed a liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) method able to identify the presence in milk replacers, when given by mouth, of dexamethasone, betamethasone, flumethasone, triamcinolone, predinisotone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone, fludrocortisone and beclomethasone, at levels in the range of 20-100 ppb. C18 solid-phase extraction, LC-RP C8 column separation, data acquisition (positive ions) in the scan range m/z 200-550 allowed us to differentiate and identify compounds by protonated molecules, their methanolic adducts and fragmentation patterns. PMID:9646497

  17. [Search for antidiabetic constituents of medicinal food].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Many foods are known to have not only nutritive and taste values but also medicinal effects. In Chinese traditional medicine, the treatment using medicinal foods has been recommended highly. Recently, we examined the effects of the extract and constituents of several medicinal foods on experimental models of diabetes. In this paper, we focus on the bioactive constituents of four medicinal foods, namely the antidiabetic constituents from 1) the roots, stems and leaves of Salacia plants, 2) the male flowers of Borassus flabellifer, 3) the flower buds of Camellia sinensis, 4) the processed leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii (Hydrangeae Dulcis Folium). PMID:21628977

  18. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  19. Classical relativistic constituent particles and composite states. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Marcia J.

    1985-05-01

    A classical theory of interacting relativistic constituent and composite particles is developed further. The Lorentz-invariant Lagrangian, a function of the single unmeasurable evolution parameter s, is considered for attractive and repulsive harmonic-oscillator forces acting pairwise between constituent particles. Nonrelativistic Newtonian equations of motion can be derived by letting c-->∞ in ``equal-time'' solutions, but, in general, there is a ``surplus'' of solutions which have no nonrelativistic counterpart. These solutions are used to construct classical models of strongly interacting composite particles. Asymptotic selection rules and constituent confinement are postulated and lead to space-time conservation laws for systems of scattering composite particles. Constituent four-vectors are linear combinations of ``kinematic'' terms and ``intrinsic'' normal modes. The latter are identified with internal symmetries of the composite particles, which are labeled by sets of ``intrinsic numbers'' analogous to additive quantum numbers. Formation of two- and three-body composite particles follows an exact analogy to the color quark model, in which the meson is composed of a quark and an antiquark of the same color, and the baryon is formed from three quarks of three different colors. Scattering examples are given analogous to MM-->MM, MB-->MB, and BB-->BB. The reactions take place through constituent exchange, and total intrinsic numbers are conserved. There are other similarities to quantum field theory, such as particle-antiparticle pair creation and annihilation, fixed relative values of internal angular momenta, fixed orbital angular momentum, and many-particle systems characterized by a vacuum state (lowest energy state) and the existence of virtual composite particles as well as physically observable composite particles.

  20. Effects of chemical, biological, and physical aging as well as soil addition on the sorption of pyrene to activated carbon and biochar.

    PubMed

    Hale, Sarah E; Hanley, Kelly; Lehmann, Johannes; Zimmerman, Andrewr; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2011-12-15

    In this study, the suitability of biochar and activated carbon (AC) for contaminated soil remediation is investigated by determining the sorption of pyrene to both materials in the presence and absence of soil and before as well as after aging. Biochar and AC were aged either alone or mixed with soil via exposure to (a) nutrients and microorganisms (biological), (b) 60 and 110 °C (chemical), and (c) freeze-thaw cycles (physical). Before and after aging, the pH, elemental composition, cation exchange capacity (CEC), microporous SA, and sorption isotherms of pyrene were quantified. Aging at 110 °C altered the physicochemical properties of all materials to the greatest extent (for example, pH increased by up to three units and CEC by up to 50% for biochar). Logarithmic K(Fr) values ranged from 7.80 to 8.21 (ng kg(-1))(ng L(-1))(-nF) for AC and 5.22 to 6.21 (ng kg(-1))(ng L(-1))(-nF) for biochar after the various aging regimes. Grinding biochar to a smaller particle size did not significantly affect the sorption of d(10) pyrene, implying that sorption processes operate on the subparticle scale. Chemical aging decreased the sorption of pyrene to the greatest extent (up to 1.8 log unit for the biochar+soil). The sorption to AC was affected more by the presence of soil than the sorption to biochar was. Our results suggest that AC and biochar have a high sorption capacity for pyrene that is maintained both in the presence of soil and during harsh aging. Both materials could therefore be considered in contaminated land remediation. PMID:22077986