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Sample records for addition chemical constituents

  1. Chemical constituents from Abutilon indicum.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ping-Chung; Yang, Mei-Lin; Wu, Pei-Lin; Shih, Hui-Nung; Thang, Tran Dinh; Dung, Nguyen Xuan; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2008-01-01

    The investigation on the chemical constituents of the whole plant of Abutilon indicum has resulted in the isolation of two new compounds, abutilin A (1) and (R)-N-(1'-methoxycarbonyl-2'-phenylethyl)-4-hydroxybenzamide (2), as well as 28 known compounds. The structures of the two new compounds were established on the basis of the spectroscopic analysis, and the known compounds were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic and physical data with those reported in the literature. PMID:18636384

  2. Chemical constituents of fugitive dust.

    PubMed

    Van Pelt, R Scott; Zobeck, Ted M

    2007-07-01

    Wind erosion selectively winnows the fine, most chemically concentrated portions of surface soils and results in the inter-regional transport of fugitive dust containing plant nutrients, trace elements and other soil-borne contaminants. We sampled and analyzed surface soils, sediments in transport over eroding fields, and attic dust from a small area of the Southern High Plains of Texas to characterize the physical nature and chemical constituents of these materials and to investigate techniques that would allow relatively rapid, low cost techniques for estimating the chemical constituents of fugitive dust from an eroding field. From chemical analyses of actively eroding sediments, it would appear that Ca is the only chemical species that is enriched more than others during the process of fugitive dust production. We found surface soil sieved to produce a sub-sample with particle diameters in the range of 53-74 microm to be a reasonably good surrogate for fugitive dust very near the source field, that sieved sub-samples with particle diameters <10 microm have a crustal enrichment factor of approximately 6, and that this factor, multiplied by the chemical contents of source soils, may be a reasonable estimator of fugitive PM(10) chemistry from the soils of interest. We also found that dust from tractor air cleaners provided a good surrogate for dust entrained by tillage and harvesting operations if the chemical species resulting from engine wear and exhaust were removed from the data set or scaled back to the average of enrichment factors noted for chemical species with no known anthropogenic sources. Chemical analyses of dust samples collected from attics approximately 4 km from the nearest source fields indicated that anthropogenic sources of several environmentally important nutrient and trace element species are much larger contributors, by up to nearly two orders of magnitude, to atmospheric loading and subsequent deposition than fugitive dust from eroding

  3. Chemical constituents of Abies delavayi.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xian-Wen; Li, Su-Mei; Li, Yong-Li; Feng, Lin; Shen, Yun-Heng; Lin, Shen; Tian, Jun-Mian; Zeng, Hua-Wu; Wang, Ning; Steinmetz, Andre; Liu, Yonghong; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2014-09-01

    Systematic phytochemical investigations on Abies delavayi afforded 110 compounds, including 49 terpenoids, 13 lignans, 20 flavonoids, three coumarins, and 25 other chemical constituents. By detailed analysis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic and high-resolution mass spectrometric data, 10 previously unreported compounds were identified: they comprised three sesquiterpenoids, two diterpenoids, one triterpenoid, one monoterpenoid, one flavonoid, and two phenols. These 10 compounds and some previously known ones were subjected to two cytotoxic bioassays against three human tumor cell lines and NO production inhibition on RAW264.7 macrophages, respectively. (25R)-24,25-Dihydroabieslactone had the strongest cytotoxic activity against Colo-205 cells with an IC50 value of 19.0±3.7μg/mL. (+)-T-cadinol, 8,11,13-abietatrien-15-ol-18-yl acetate, 18-acetoxy-13-epi-manool, imperatorin, bergapten, and 5,7-O-dimethyl poriol exhibited weak inhibitory activity against LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages with IC50 values of approximately 50μg/mL.

  4. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of starfish.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guang; Xu, Tunhai; Yang, Bin; Lin, Xiuping; Zhou, Xuefeng; Yang, Xianwen; Liu, Yonghong

    2011-05-01

    Starfish have been the research topic in many chemical and pharmacological laboratories due to their complex secondary metabolites and diverse bioactivities. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date review on the chemistry and bioactivity of compounds isolated from all kinds of starfish to illustrate the chemodiversity and biological significance of these constituents, along with their geographical distribution where it is discernible.

  5. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  6. Deicing chemicals as source of constituents of highway runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The dissolved major and trace constituents of deicing chemicals as a source of constituents in highway runoff must be quantified for interpretive studies of highway runoff and its effects on surface water and groundwater. Dissolved constituents of the deicing chemicals-sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and premix (a mixture of sodium and calcium chloride)-were determined by analysis of salt solutions created in the laboratory and are presented as mass ratios to chloride. Deicing chemical samples studied are about 98 and 97 percent pure sodium chloride and calcium chloride, respectively: however, each has a distinct major and trace ion constituent signature. The greatest impurity in sodium chloride road sail samples was sulfate, followed by calcium, potassium, bromide, vanadium, magnesium, fluoride, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. The greatest impurity in the calcium chloride road salt samples was sodium, followed by potassium, sulfate, bromide, silica, fluoride. strontium, magnesium, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. Major constituents of deicing chemicals in highway runoff may account for a substantial source of annual chemical loads. Comparison of estimated annual loads and first flush concentrations of deicing chemical constituents in highway runoff with those reported in the literature indicate that although deicing chemicals are not a primary source of trace constituents, they are not a trivial source, either. Therefore, deicing chemicals should be considered as a source of many major and trace constituents in highway and urban runoff.

  7. [Chemical constituents of leaves of Psidium guajava].

    PubMed

    Shao, Meng; Wang, Ying; Jian, Yu-Qing; Sun, Xue-Gang; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2014-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the 95% ethanol extract of Psidium guajava. Compounds were separated by using a combination of various chromatographic methods including silica gel, D101 macroporous resin, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectral data Eighteen compounds were isolated and identified as (+) -globulol (1), clovane-2beta, 9alpha-diol (2), 2beta-acetoxyclovan-9alpha-ol (3), (+) -caryolane-1 ,9beta-diol (4), ent-T-muurolol (5), clov-2-ene-9alpha-ol (6), isophytol (7), tamarixetin (8), gossypetin (9), quercetin (10), kaempferol (11), guajaverin (12), avicularin (13), chrysin 6-C-glucoside (14), 3'-O-methyl-3, 4-methylenedioxyellagic acid 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (15), p-hydroxy-benzoic acid (16), guavinoside A (17) and guavinoside B (18). Compounds 2-9 and 14-16 were isolated from this plant for the first time. The ethanol extract showed 61.3% inhibition against the proliferation of colon cancer cell line SW480. PMID:24956844

  8. [Analysis of constituents in urushi wax, a natural food additive].

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhe-Long; Tada, Atsuko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Masuda, Aino; Yamagata, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2006-08-01

    Urushi wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive. In order to evaluate the quality of urushi wax as a food additive and to obtain information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in urushi wax, using the same sample as scheduled for toxicity testing. After methanolysis of urushi wax, the composition of fatty acids was analyzed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main fatty acids were palmitic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid. LC/MS analysis of urushi wax provided molecular-related ions of the main constituents. The main constituents were identified as triglycerides, namely glyceryl tripalmitate (30.7%), glyceryl dipalmitate monooleate (21.2%), glyceryl dioleate monopalmitate (2.1%), glyceryl monooleate monopalmitate monostearate (2.6%), glyceryl dipalmitate monostearate (5.6%), glyceryl distearate monopalmitate (1.4%). Glyceryl dipalmitate monooleate isomers differing in the binding sites of each constituent fatty acid could be separately determined by LC/MS/MS. PMID:16984037

  9. [Studies on chemical constituents from Psychotria straminea].

    PubMed

    Fu, Yan-hui; Huang, Li-gang; Wang, Xiao-cui; Li, Xiao-bao; Li, Ke-kai; Wu, Shui-ling; Liu, Yan-ping

    2015-06-01

    The chemical consituents from Psychotria straminea were separated and purified by column chromatographies on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS and RP-HPLC. The strictures of the isolated compounds were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis, as well as comparisons with the data in literature. Sixteen compounds were isolated and elucidated as tectochrysin (1), apigenin (2), kaempferol (3), luteolin (4), diosmetin (5), quercetin (6), kaempferol-4'-O-methylether (7), rhamnetin (8), 7-hydroxycoumarin (9), 7-methoxycoumarin (10), scopoletin (11), lupeol (12), 30-oxo-lupeol (13), lupenyl acetate (14), α-amyrin (15), and ursolic acid (16). This is the first study on the chemical composition of P. Straminea, and all compounds were isolated from P. straminea for the first time. In addition to compounds 6 and 9, the other compounds were isolated from the genus Psychotria for the first time. PMID:26552170

  10. The EPA National Fuels Surveillance Network. I. Trace constituents in gasoline and commercial gasoline fuel additives.

    PubMed

    Jungers, R H; Lee, R E; von Lehmden, D J

    1975-04-01

    A National Fuels Surveillance Network has been established to collect gasoline and other fuels through the 10 regional offices of the Environmental Protection Agency. Physical, chemical, and trace element analytical determinations are made on the collected fuel samples to detect components which may present an air pollution hazard or poison exhaust catalytic control devices. A summary of trace elemental constituents in over 50 gasoline samples and 18 commercially marketed consumer purchased gasoline additives is presented. Quantities of Mn, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, Fe, Sb, B, Mg, Pb, and S were found in most regular and premium gasoline. Environmental implications of trace constituents in gasoline are discussed. PMID:1157783

  11. [Chemical constituents of bufadienolides in cinobufacino injection].

    PubMed

    Han, Ling-Yu; Si, Nan; Liu, Jun-Qiu; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Yang, Jian; Bian, Bao-Lin; Wang, Hong-Jie

    2014-11-01

    Cinobufacino injection is purified from water extraction of the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans, which has been widely used for various cancers in clinic with significant anti-tumor effects. Bufadienolides were regarded as the main active constituents of cinobufacino injection in previous reports. In present study, 6 bufadienolides were isolated and purified from Cinobufacino injection. Their structures were identified as 3-epi-ψ-bufarenogin (1), ψ-bufarenogin (2), 3-epi-arenobufagin (3), arenobufagin (4), 3-epi-gamabufotalin (5), and 3-oxo-arenobufagin (6), separately. Among them, 1 and 3 were new compounds, 5 and 6 were new natural products. Compounds 1, 2 and compounds 3, 4 were two pairs configuration isomers at C-3, separately. PMID:25757284

  12. Handbook of RCRA ground-water monitoring constituents: Chemical and physical properties (40 CFR part 264, Appendix 9). Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.

    1992-09-01

    The Handbook contains physical and chemical properties of constituents listed in 40 CFR Part 264, Appendix 9. The constituents contained in the Handbook are those currently listed in Appendix 9, however, the Handbook also contains constituents that are being considered for addition to or deletion from Appendix 9.

  13. Chemical Constituents of the Lichen Ramalina hierrensis.

    PubMed

    González, A G; Barrera, J B; Pérez, E M; Padrón, C E

    1992-04-01

    The following compounds have been isolated from the lichen RAMALINA HIERRENSIS, collected on savin, and endemic to the Canary Islands: ursolic acid, iso-arborinol acetate, beta-sitosterol, ergosterol peroxide, cerevisterol, (-)-sandaracopimaric acid, parietin, (+)-usnic acid, (+)-iso-usnic acid, divaricatic acid, atranorin, stictic acid, gangaleodin, variolaric acid, montagnetol, and hierridin. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by physical, spectral, and chemical methods. PMID:17226459

  14. Chemical constituents from rhizome of Anemone amurensis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chong-Ning; Li, Yan-Jiao; Wang, Jing; Qin, Ru-Lan; Lei, Tian-Li; Lu, Jin-Cai

    2016-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the 70% EtOH extract of the rhizome of Anemone amurensis led to the isolation of two new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1 and 2. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectral analysis, including 1D, 2D NMR data, and HR-ESI-MS. Compounds 1 and 2 were tested for cytotoxicities against two human cancer cell lines (A549 and Hep-G2). Compound 2 showed potent cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 38.53 and 66.17 μM, respectively, while compound 1 with IC50 > 100 μM. PMID:26978669

  15. [Studies on chemical constituents of Tinospora hainanesis].

    PubMed

    Guo, Y; Lin, L; Shen, J

    1998-05-01

    Tinospora hainanesis is a new species of Menispermaceae plant. It is used as folk remedy for joint pain and physical injury. Five compounds were isolated from the vine stalk of Tinospora hainanesis. By spectral analysis and chemical methods, the structures of the compounds were identified as makisterone A (I), 2,3-dimethoxy-9,10-dihydroxy-N-methyltetrahydroproto-berberine quaternary salt (II), palmatine (III), beta-amyrin (IV) and docosyl ferulate (V). II is a new quaternary alkaloid named as haitinosporine. I, IV and V were isolated for the first time from the plants of Tinospora genus. PMID:12017002

  16. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of Panax ginseng (C. A. Mey.).

    PubMed

    Ru, Wenwen; Wang, Dongliang; Xu, Yunpeng; He, Xianxian; Sun, Yang-En; Qian, Liyan; Zhou, Xiangshan; Qin, Yufeng

    2015-02-01

    Ginseng, Panax ginseng (C. A. Mey.), is a well-known Chinese traditional medicine in the Far East and has gained popularity in the West during the last decade. There is extensive literature on the chemical constituents and bioactivities of ginseng. In this paper we compiled the chemical constituents isolated and detected from ginseng including polysaccharides, ginsenosides, peptides, polyacetylenic alcohols, fatty acids, etc. Meanwhile we summarized the biological activities of ginseng, which have been reported over the past few decades, including: anti-aging activity, anti-diabetic activity, immunoregulatory activity, anti-cancer activity, neuroregulation activity, wound and ulcer healing activity, etc. Nevertheless, further studies to exploit other kinds of constituents and new biological activities of ginseng are still necessary to facilitate research and development in the future.

  17. Chemical constituents of the ascomycete Daldinia concentrica.

    PubMed

    Quang, Dang Ngoc; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Masami; Baumgartner, Manuela; Stadler, Marc; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2002-12-01

    Four compounds, daldinone A (1), daldinone B (2), daldiniapyrone (4-methoxy-5-carbomethoxy-6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one, 3), and daldinialanone (22R-hydroxylanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-3-one, 4), were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of fruit bodies of Daldinia concentrica collected in Europe. In addition, 11 known compounds, 4:5:4':5'-tetrahydroxy-1:1'-binaphthyl (5), 3,4,5-trihydroxy-1-tetralone (6), (+)-orthosporin (7), curuilignan D (8), (22E)-cholesta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (9), 3beta,22-dihydroxylanosta-7,9(11),24-triene (10), concentricol (11), concentricol B (12), concentricol C (13), concentricol D (14), and phenochalasin B (15), were obtained. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 2D NMR, MS, IR, and UV spectra and by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The absolute configurations of 1 and 4 were determined by CD spectroscopy and the modified Mosher's method, respectively. The chemotaxonomic relevance of the compounds obtained in this investigation is discussed. PMID:12502330

  18. Research Progress on Chemical Constituents of Lonicerae japonicae flos.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingna; Jiang, Qiu; Hu, Jinghong; Zhang, Yongqing; Li, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Lonicerae japonicae flos is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years with confirmed curative effects. Except for medicine, it is also used in healthy food, cosmetics, and soft beverages for its specific activities. Therefore, the chemical constituents, mainly including organic acids, flavonoids, iridoids, triterpenoids, and volatile oils, have been well studied by many scholars in recent years and a comprehensive and systematic review on chemical constituents of Lonicerae japonicae flos is indispensable. This paper aims at reviewing the chemical components of LJF in recent years through searching for the literatures both at home and abroad. Our results show that 212 components have been isolated from Lonicerae japonicae flos, including 27 flavonoids, 40 organic acids, 83 iridoids, 17 triterpenoids, and 45 other compounds, which could lay a foundation for the further application of Lonicerae japonicae flos.

  19. Research Progress on Chemical Constituents of Lonicerae japonicae flos

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingna; Jiang, Qiu; Hu, Jinghong; Zhang, Yongqing; Li, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Lonicerae japonicae flos is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years with confirmed curative effects. Except for medicine, it is also used in healthy food, cosmetics, and soft beverages for its specific activities. Therefore, the chemical constituents, mainly including organic acids, flavonoids, iridoids, triterpenoids, and volatile oils, have been well studied by many scholars in recent years and a comprehensive and systematic review on chemical constituents of Lonicerae japonicae flos is indispensable. This paper aims at reviewing the chemical components of LJF in recent years through searching for the literatures both at home and abroad. Our results show that 212 components have been isolated from Lonicerae japonicae flos, including 27 flavonoids, 40 organic acids, 83 iridoids, 17 triterpenoids, and 45 other compounds, which could lay a foundation for the further application of Lonicerae japonicae flos. PMID:27403439

  20. Chemical Constituents, Quality Control, and Bioactivity of Epimedii Folium (Yinyanghuo).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Jia; Tang, Zheng-Hai; Li, Xi-Wen; Xie, Cai-Xiang; Lu, Jin-Jian; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Epimedii Folium (Yinyanghuo in Chinese) is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicines. Its main active components are flavonoids, which exhibit multiple biological activities, such as promotion of bone formation and sexual function, protection of the nervous system, and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Flavonoids also show anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. Various effective methods, including genetic and chemical approaches, have been developed for the quality control of Yinyanghuo. In this review, the studies conducted in the last decade about the chemical constituents, quality control, and bioactivity of Yinyanghuo are summarized and discussed. PMID:26243581

  1. Diuretic Properties and Chemical Constituent Studies on Stauntonia brachyanthera

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan Li; Wang, Dan Dan; Wang, Zi Hao; Meng, Da Li

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacological evaluation demonstrated that the extracts from the stem of S. brachyanthera could significantly increase the outputs of urine of rats compared to those of furosemide treated group, and the effect could last for a longer period of time. The best effect appeared in the first two hours, which scientifically confirmed the diuretic effect of the plant. The comparative pharmacognosy study showed that the characters of the crude drugs of the stem of S. brachyanthera were similar to those of Akebia caulis. Further systemic work on its chemical constituents by chromatographic methods and NMR elucidations led to the isolation of 10 triterpenoids, 6 flavonoids, 4 lignanoids, and 3 phenylethanoid glycosides, whose structural types were much similar to those of A. quinata. Among them, 7 compounds were firstly reported in the genus of Stauntonia and calceolarioside B was the common characteristic constituent in both plants. From the similar pharmacognosy characters, pharmacological effects, and chemical constituents, it could be concluded that S. brachyanthera have a great possibility to be a succedaneum of Akebia caulis, whose supply is extremely short in recent years. PMID:27057193

  2. [Advances in chemical constituents and bioactivity of Salvia genus].

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-06-01

    The genus Salvia in the family Lamiaceae with nearly 1 000 species, is widespread in temperate and tropical regions around the world. Many species of genus Salvia are important medicinal plants with a long history of which Danshen (the dried roots and rhizomes of S. miltiorrhiza) is one of the most popular herbal traditional medicines in Asian countries. The chemical constituents from Salvia plants mainly contain sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids and polyphenols etc, which exhibit antibacterial, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antiplatelet aggregation activities and so on. In this article, the development of new constituents and their biological activities of Salvia genus in the past five years were reviewed and summarized for its further development and utilization. PMID:26552163

  3. Chemical constituents of the genus Prunus and their medicinal properties.

    PubMed

    Poonam, V; Raunak; Kumar, G; Reddy L, C S; Jain, R; Sharma, S K; Prasad, A K; Parmar, V S

    2011-01-01

    Prunus is a genus of trees and shrubs, including the plums, cherries, peaches, apricots and almonds. Nearly five hundred seventy chemical compounds have so far been isolated from several Prunus species. This comprehensive review summarizes the isolation of chemical compounds reported during the period 1908 to June 2010. As per scrutiny of literature, we did not find any review on the chemistry or biology of genus Prunus or on the biological activities of its constituents. Extensive work has been done at the Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi by several groups on the isolation, identification, biological activity evaluation and synthesis of a large number of novel compounds from different Prunus species during the the last six decades (1940-2000), primarly by Seshadri, Nagarajan and Parmar et al. on P. domestica, P. cerasus, P. cerasoides, P. puddum and P. communis. This comprehensive review will benefit a large number of researchers in the fields of chemistry, botany, drug industries and pharmacology. PMID:21831039

  4. Chemical constituents of Solanum coagulans and their antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xu-Jie; Lunga, Paul-Keilah; Zhao, Yun-Li; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed at determining the chemical constituents of Solanum coagulans and their antimicrobial activities. The compounds were isolated by various chromatographic techniques and their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, chemical methods, and comparison with reported spectroscopic data. One new phenolic glycoside, methyl salicylate 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), together with 12 known compounds (2-13), were isolated from the aerial parts of Solanum coagulans. Compound 1 was a new phenolic glycoside, and 2-6 were isolated from Solanum genus for the first time. The antimicrobial activities of the isolated compounds were also evaluated. Compound 7 showed remarkable antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes, M. gypseum and E. floccosum with MIC values being 3.13, 1.56 and 3.13 μg·mL(-1), respectively. PMID:27114320

  5. Chemical Constituents of the Aerial Parts of Euphorbia nematocypha.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Jia, Hai-Yang; Zuo, Bo; Liao, Zhi-Xin; Ji, Lan-Ju; Sun, Hong-Fa; Wang, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Chemical constituents of the dried aerial parts of Euphorbia nematocypha were investigated. A new oleanane triterpenoid, trans, trans-2',4'- hexadienedioicacid-1'-β-amyrin ester (1), together with, β-amyrin (2), β-amyrin acetate (3), betulinic acid (4), ellagic acid (5), oleanolic acid (6), β-sitosterol (7), kaempferol (8), quercetin (9), lupeol (10) and pseudo-taraxasterol (11) were isolated from the methylene chloride extract. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (1D- & 2D-NMR) and ESI-MS analysis and comparison with data reported in the literature. The new isolated triterpenoid showed moderate cytotoxic activities against HeLa and MCF-7cell lines. PMID:27032194

  6. Chemical constituents of Panax ginseng exposed to. gamma. irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Joongho; Belanger, J.M.R.; Sigouin, M.; Lanthier, J.; Willemot, C.; Pare, J.R.J. )

    1990-03-01

    Chemical constituents were monitored to assess the biochemical and nutritional safety of Panax ginseng powders that were irradiated at doses of 1-10 kGy. Quantitative analysis has shown that the main effective components - saponins - are not altered by {sup 60}Co {gamma} irradiation. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} was not affected by the treatment. Negligible changes were observed in the free carbohydrate contents. Doses of more than 5 kGy caused significant decreases in sulfur-containing amino acids and in tyrosine. At doses of 10 kGy, free amino acids, such as proline and lysine, showed an appreciable increase. The composition in minerals was not altered irrespective of the applied doses.

  7. [Chemical constituents from the roots of Angelica polymorpha Maxim].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Zhang, Yang; Ren, Feng-Xia; Yu, Neng-Jiang; Xu, Rui; Zhao, Yi-Min

    2013-05-01

    Angelica polymorpha Maxim. is a plant of the Angelica genus (Umbelliferae). The root and stem of this plant is a folk medicine known to have the actions of relieving rheumatism and cold and subsiding swelling and pains. To investigate the chemical constituents in the root of A. polymorpha Maxim., seven compounds were isolated from an 80% ethanol extract by column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated according to the spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1 is a new sesquiterpene, named as bisabolactone. Its absolute configuration was determined by 1D NOESY and CD analysis. The others were identified as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (2), hycandinic acid ester 1 (3), ferulic acid (4), isooxypeucedanin (5), noreugenin (6) and cimifugin (7). Compound 2 and 3 were isolated from this genus for the first time and compound 4 was isolated from this plant for the first time.

  8. Cytotoxic activity and chemical constituents of Anthemis mirheydari.

    PubMed

    Jassbi, Amir Reza; Firuzi, Omidreza; Miri, Ramin; Salhei, Sajad; Zare, Somayeh; Zare, Mehdi; Masroorbabanari, Mehdi; Chandran, Jima N; Schneider, Bernd; Baldwin, Ian T

    2016-10-01

    Context The genus Anthemis L. (Asteraceae) comprises about 195 species which are widely used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. Objective Anthemis mirheydari Iranshar, an endemic plant from Iran, was investigated for its cytotoxic properties and chemical constituents. Materials and methods The whole parts of the plant (320 g) were extracted by dichloromethane and methanol for four days, successively. The cytotoxic activity of both dichloromethane and methanol extracts were assayed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric methods against three human cancer cell lines including LS180, MCF-7 and MOLT-4. Different concentrations (10-100 μg/mL) of the plant extracts were tested to obtain IC50 values. The dichloromethane extract of A. mirheydari was subjected to silica gel-column and thin layer chromatography for purification of its chemical constituents and the isolated compounds were further tested against MOLT-4 cells. The structures of the pure compounds were elucidated using different spectral data including nuclear magnetic resonance and electron impact mass spectra. Results The IC50 values of the dichloromethane extract were 30.8 ± 6.7, 25.2 ± 6.5 and 8.6 ± 1.1 μg/mL (means ± standard error) for the above-mentioned cell lines, respectively. Two triterpenoids, taraxasterol (1) and pseudotaraxasterol (2), one sterol, β-sitosterol (3) and one coumarin, 7-methoxycoumarin (4) were isolated from the extract. The IC50 of the mixture of compounds 1 and 2 as well as compounds 3 and 4 were higher (>100 μM) than that reported for the dichloromethane extract against MOLT-4 cells. Conclusion The dichloromethane extract was the most active one among the tested material.

  9. Chemical constituents and antihistamine activity of Bixa orellana leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bixa orellana L. has been traditionally used in Central and South America to treat a number of ailments, including internal inflammation, and in other tropical countries like Malaysia as treatment for gastric ulcers and stomach discomfort. The current study aimed to determine the major chemical constituents of the aqueous extract of B. orellana (AEBO) and to evaluate the antihistamine activity of AEBO during acute inflammation induced in rats. Methods Acute inflammation was produced by subplantar injection of 0.1 mL of 0.1% histamine into the right hind paw of each rat in the control and treatment groups. The degree of edema was measured before injection and at the time points of 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min after injection. Changes of peritoneal vascular permeability were studied using Evans blue dye as a detector. Vascular permeability was evaluated by the amount of dye leakage into the peritoneal cavity in rats. To evaluate the inhibitory effect of AEBO on biochemical mediators of vascular permeability, the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined in histamine-treated paw tissues. The major constituents of AEBO were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Results AEBO produced a significant inhibition of histamine-induced paw edema starting at 60 min time point, with maximal percentage of inhibition (60.25%) achieved with a dose of 150 mg/kg of AEBO at 60 min time point. Up to 99% of increased peritoneal vascular permeability produced by histamine was successfully suppressed by AEBO. The expression of biochemical mediators of vascular permeability, NO and VEGF, was also found to be downregulated in the AEBO treated group. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the major constituent in AEBO was acetic acid. Conclusions The experimental findings demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory activity of AEBO was due to its inhibitory

  10. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of the plants of genus Flemingia Roxb. et Ait. (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Zhai, Fengyan; Liu, Zhongdong

    2012-09-01

    The genus Flemingia Roxb. et Ait. (Leguminosae) has been used for disease prevention and therapy in China since ancient times. So the material basis of the pharmacological activity in the genus Flemingia should be clear for how to use this kind of traditional Chinese medicines more reasonably in pharmacology. Therefore, this review gives an account of the current knowledge on the chemical constituents, biological activities and pharmacological properties of the plants of the genus. Several different classes of compounds were previously isolated, which the main groups are flavones, particularly prenylated flavones, and triterpenes accompanied with sterols, anthraquinones, and others. The names and structures of the chemical constituents are given in this review. In addition, the pharmacological effects of the extracts and individual compounds (mainly for flavones) derived from the genus plants have been found, including neuroprotection, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, cytotoxicity, hormone-like effects, antimicrobial activities, and so on.

  11. Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

  12. Chemical structures of constituents from the whole plant of Bacopa monniera.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Tomoe; Nakamura, Seikou; Nakashima, Souichi; Oda, Yoshimi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Fukaya, Masashi; Yano, Mamiko; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-07-01

    Two new dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, bacomosaponins A and B, and three new phenylethanoid glycosides, bacomosides A, B1, and B2, were isolated from the whole plant of Bacopa monniera Wettst. The chemical structures of the new constituents were characterized on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. In the present study, bacomosaponins A and B with acyl groups were obtained from the whole plant of B. monniera. This is the first report of acylated dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides isolated from B. monniera. In addition, dammarane-type triterpene saponins significantly inhibited the aggregation of 42-mer amyloid β-protein.

  13. [Chemical constituents from endophyte Chaetomium globosum in Imperata cylindrical].

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Zhu, Li; Wei, Zhong-qi; Li, Xiao-wen; Li, Ming; Song, Yong-chun

    2015-12-01

    Isolation and purification of chemical constituents from solid culture of endophyte Chaetomium globosum in Imperata cylindrical was performed through silica gel column chromatography, gel filtration over Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Nine compounds were obtained and their structures were determined as chaetoglobosin F(1), chaetoglobosin Fex(2), chaetoglobosin E(3) cytoglobosin A(4), penochalasin C(S), isochaetoglobosin D (6), N-benzoylphenylalaninyl-N-benzoyphenylalaninate(7), uracil(8) and 5-methyluracil(9), respectively, based on HR-MS and NMR data and comparison with literatures. Compound 7 was isolated from Chaeeomium sp. for the first time. In vitro cytotoxicity of compounds was evaluated using MTT mothed and 1,3,4 and 5 showed inhibition activity to the human cervical carcinoma cell HeLa with IC50 values of 99.43, 23.77, 97.92, 86.25 micromol x L(-1), while positive cotolocisnin Ad apno1ch alse IC50 24.33 micromol x L(-1). PMID:27141677

  14. Testing with fragrance mix. Is the addition of sorbitan sesquioleate to the constituents useful?

    PubMed

    Frosch, P J; Pilz, B; Burrows, D; Camarasa, J G; Lachapelle, J M; Lahti, A; Menné, T; Wilkinson, J D

    1995-05-01

    In a multicentre study, the value of adding sorbitan sesquioleate (SSO) to the constituents of the 8% fragrance mix (FM) was investigated. In 7 centres, 709 consecutive patients were tested with 2 types of FM from different sources, its 8 constituents with 1% SSO, its 8 constituents without SSO, and 20% SSO. 5 patients (0.71%) reacted to the emulsifier SSO itself, read as definitely allergic on day 3/4. 53 patients reacted to either one of the mixes with an allergic type of reaction. When tested with the constituents without SSO, 41.5% showed an allergic reaction versus 54.7% with SSO. If both types of reactions were considered (allergic and irritant) 38.3% of 73 patients showed a positive "breakdown" result without SSO, versus 54.8% with SSO. The differences were statistically significant. Reactivity to FM constituents was changed in a specific pattern by addition of SSO--irritant reactions increased, particularly for cinnamic alcohol, eugenol, geraniol, oak moss and hydroxycitronellal, whereas others showed only a slight change. Allergic reactions were also increased by SSO, but the rank order of the top 3 sensitizers (isoeugenol, oak moss and eugenol) did not change. Cinnamic alcohol was the only constituent with decreased reactivity after addition of SSO. A positive history of fragrance sensitivity (HFS) was clearly associated with a positive allergic reaction to either the mix or 1 of its constituents (51% versus 28.6% with a negative HFS). Irritant reactions were linked to a negative HFS in a high proportion (64.3%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Chemical constituents and pharmacological properties of Poria cocos.

    PubMed

    Ríos, José-Luis

    2011-05-01

    Poria cocos (Polyporaceae) is a saprophytic fungus that grows in diverse species of Pinus. Its sclerotium, called fu-ling or hoelen, is used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine for its diuretic, sedative, and tonic effects. Various studies of this fungus have demonstrated its marked anti-inflammatory activity in different experimental models of acute and chronic inflammation. It is widely used as a constituent of many preparations in Asian medicine, but the number of research papers on its clinical properties is insufficient for establishing its efficacy and safety from a scientific point of view. In this review, we have compiled all the published data concerning the chemistry, pharmacology, and clinical uses of this drug in order to evaluate its clinical interest for future use against various pathologies in which inflammation and immunodepression are implicated. We selected the papers for review on the basis of their ethnopharmacological relevance, using the most relevant databases for the biomedical sciences. Studies on various fungus extracts as well as on the major phytochemical compounds (polysaccharides and triterpenoids) present in Poria cocos comprised the principal objectives of this review. In several of the studies reviewed, the inhibitory effects of triterpenes on phospholipase A (2) (PLA (2)) have been clearly demonstrated. In addition, the inhibitory effects of Poria cocoson the secretion of different cytokines from human peripheral blood monocytes have also been described. Triterpenoids are known to have a pivotal influence on certain diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, autoimmune uveitis, septic shock, and possibly bronchial asthma, while polysaccharides can potentiate the immune response. Reviewing the literature, we found that polysaccharides from Poria cocos enhanced the secretion of immune stimulators and suppressed the secretion of immune suppressors, thus potentiating the immune response. In addition, they showed

  16. [Advances in research of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of common used spices].

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao-nan; Zhu, Yuan; Xu, Xi-ming; Yu, Jiang-nan

    2014-11-01

    Spices have enjoyed a long history and a worldwide application. Of particular interest is the pharmaceutical value of spices in addition to its basic seasoning function in cooking. Concretely, equipped with complex chemical compositions, spices are of significant importance in pharmacologic actions, like antioxidant, antibacterial, antitumor, as well as therapeutical effects in gastrointestinal disorders and cardiovascular disease. Although increasing evidences in support of its distinct role in the medical field has recently reported, little information is available for substantive, thorough and sophisticated researches on its chemical constituents and pharmacological activities, especially mechanism of these actions. Therefore, in popular wave of studies directed at a single spice, this review presents systematic studies on the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities associated with common used spices, together with current typical individual studies on functional mechanism, in order to pave the way for the exploitation and development of new medicines derived from the chemical compounds of spice (such as, piperine, curcumin, geniposide, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, linalool, estragole, perillaldehyde, syringic acid, crocin).

  17. Provenance of Corexit-related chemical constituents found in nearshore and inland Gulf Coast waters.

    PubMed

    Hayworth, Joel S; Clement, T Prabakhar

    2012-10-01

    The dispersants Corexit 9527 and Corexit 9500 were extensively used during the response to the Deepwater Horizon accident in 2010. In addition to the monitoring programs established by federal and state governments, local communities also conducted studies to determine if chemical constituents from these dispersants impacted nearshore and inland waters. One community (the City of Orange Beach, Alabama) collected water samples between September, 2010 and January, 2011, and found the dispersant-related chemicals propylene glycol, 2-butoxyethanol, and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate at nearshore and inland water sampling sites. In this paper, we examine their dataset in an attempt to discern the origin of these chemicals. Our assessment indicates that these compounds are unlikely to be present as a result of the use of Corexit dispersants; rather, they are likely related to point and non-point source stormwater discharge.

  18. Modification of chemical additives to elastomeric compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhutdinov, A. A.; Grishin, B. S.

    1994-08-01

    The physicochemical principles of the modification of crystalline chemical additives to elastomeric compositions are examined. A classification of various types of modifications based on scientific principles is given. The modifications are subdivided into physical and physicochemical depending on the configuration of the molecules in the crystals, the defectiveness and dispersity of the crystalline particles, the melting points of the crystals, and the presence of necleophilic and electrophylic centres in the molecules of the components of binary and complex eutectic mixtures. The effectiveness of the modification of the chemical additives is determined by the manifestation in binary systems of these components in elastomeric compositions of physical and chemical synergism due to the occurrence of the relevant processes in such systems. A relation has been discovered between the physical and chemical phenomena accompanying the modification of the chemical additives in binary and complex eutectic mixtures, their influence on the properties of the elastomeric composition is examined, the ecological problems associated with the processing of such materials are discussed, and the relation between the structure and properties of the molecules of the additives is analysed using quantum-chemical calculations. The bibliography includes 92 references.

  19. Chemical-Help Application for Classification and Identification of Stormwater Constituents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.; Driskell, Timothy R.; Nunes, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    A computer application called Chemical Help was developed to facilitate review of reports for the National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis (NDAMS). The application provides a tool to quickly find a proper classification for any constituent in the NDAMS review sheets. Chemical Help contents include the name of each water-quality property, constituent, or parameter, the section number within the NDAMS review sheet, the organizational levels within a classification hierarchy, the database number, and where appropriate, the chemical formula, the Chemical Abstract Service number, and a list of synonyms (for the organic chemicals). Therefore, Chemical Help provides information necessary to research available reference data for the water-quality properties and constituents of potential interest in stormwater studies. Chemical Help is implemented in the Microsoft help-system interface. (Computer files for the use and documentation of Chemical Help are included on an accompanying diskette.)

  20. Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant

    PubMed Central

    Monção, Nayana Bruna Nery; Costa, Luciana Muratori; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Araújo, Bruno Quirino; Lustosa, Maria do Carmo Gomes; Rodrigues, Klinger Antônio da França; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim; Costa, Amilton Paulo Raposo; Lopes Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae) is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation), as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia was submitted to derivatization by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identification of chemical constituents. In vitro toxicological evaluation was performed by MTT assay in murine macrophages and by Artemia salina lethality assay, and the in vivo acute oral toxicity and androgenic evaluation in rats. Results: Totally, 32 components were detected: Phytol-TMS (11.66%), lactic acid-2TMS (9.16%), α-tocopherol-TMS (7.34%) and β-sitosterol-TMS (6.80%) were the major constituents. At the concentrations analyzed, the ethanol extract showed low cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and murine macrophages. In addition, the extract did not exhibit any toxicological effect or androgenic activity in rats. Conclusions: The derivatization by silylation allowed a rapid identification of chemical compounds from the M. caesalpiniifolia leaves extract. Besides, this species presents a good safety profile as observed in toxicological studies, and possess a great potential in the production of herbal medicines or as for food consumption. PMID:25298660

  1. [Chemical constituents from Callicarpa nudiflora and their cytotoxic activities].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan-Chun; Zhang, Min; Xu, Wen-Tong; Feng, Shi-Xiu; Lei, Ming; Yi, Bo

    2014-08-01

    The chemical consitituents from cytotoxic fraction of the Callicarpa nudiflora extract were isolated and purified by a combination of HP-20 macroporous resin, silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. The structures were elucidated on the basis of the spectroscopic data and comparison of their spectroscopic data with reported data. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTT assay. The 50% and 70% EtOH elutions of EtOH-extract showed significant cytotoxic activities, leading to the isolation of twelve compounds, which were identified as luteoloside(1), lutedin-4'-O-β-D-glucoside(2), 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-β-glucoside(3), lutedin-7-O-neohesperidoside(4), rhoifolin (5), luteolin-7, 4'-di-O-glucoside (6), forsythoside B (7), acteoside (8), alyssonoside (9), catalpol(10), nudifloside(11), and leonuride(12). Compounds 3-6, 10 and 12 were isolated from this genus for the first time, and compound 9 was isolated from this plant for the first time. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that flavonoids 1-6, in various concentrations, showed monolithic proliferation inhibitory activities against Hela, A549 and MCF-7 cell lines. Compounds 3, 5 and iridoid glycoside 11 possessed higher cytotoxicacivities. In short, flavonoids are the main components of cytotoxic extract from C. nudiflora, while phenylethanoid glycosides are the predominant ingredient but inactive to cancer cell lines. In addition, the minor iridoid glycoside expressed weak cytotoxic activity.

  2. [Analysis and identification of chemical constituents in Siwu decoction by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS(E)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Fang; Zhao, Yang; Pang, Xu; Yu, He-Shui; Kang, Li-Ping; Gao, Yue; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2013-11-01

    This research analyzed the chemical constituents of Siwu decoction by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS(E). Base on the data of mass and related-literatures, 43 peaks were profiled and 25 compounds, which contain 8 monoterpene glycosides from Paeonia lactiflora and 13 phthalides from Rhizoma chuanxiong and Radix angelica sinensis mainly, were identified in both positive and negative mode respectively. Meanwhile, chemical constituents of water extract and 60% ethanol extract of Siwu decoction were compared by the principal constituent analysis with MarkerLynx software, which provides the basis for the active ingredients of Siwu decoction. PMID:24494558

  3. An Alternative Treatment of Trace Chemical Constituents in Calculated Chemical Source Terms for Hanford Tank Farms Safety Analsyes

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, James L.

    2006-09-26

    Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tank accident analyses require chemical waste toxicity source terms to assess potential accident consequences. Recent reviews of the current methodology used to generate source terms and the need to periodically update the sources terms has brought scrutiny to the manner in which trace waste constituents are included in the source terms. This report examines the importance of trace constituents to the chemical waste source terms, which are calculated as sums of fractions (SOFs), and recommends three changes to the manner in which trace constituents are included in the calculation SOFs.

  4. Chemical constituents and biological activities of two Iranian Cystoseira species.

    PubMed

    Yegdaneh, Afsaneh; Ghannadi, Alireza; Dayani, Ladan

    2016-07-01

    The marine environment represents approximately half of the global biodiversity and could provide unlimited biological resources for the production of therapeutic drugs. Marine seaweeds comprise few thousands of species representing a considerable part of the littoral biomass. Extracts of the Cystoseira indica and Cystoseira merica were subjected to phytochemical and cytotoxicity evaluation. The amount of total phenol was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Cytotoxicity was characterized by IC50 of human cancer cell lines including MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), and HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) using Sulforhodamin assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The analysis revealed that tannins, saponins, sterols and triterpenes were the most abundant constituents in these Cystoseira species while cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides were the least ones. C. indica had the higher content of total phenolics and also showed higher antioxidant activity. Cytotoxic results showed that both species inhibited cell growth effectively, especially against MCF-7 cell line. The present findings suggest potential pharmacological applications of selected seaweeds but require further investigation and identification of their bioactive principles. PMID:27651811

  5. Chemical constituents and biological activities of two Iranian Cystoseira species

    PubMed Central

    Yegdaneh, Afsaneh; Ghannadi, Alireza; Dayani, Ladan

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment represents approximately half of the global biodiversity and could provide unlimited biological resources for the production of therapeutic drugs. Marine seaweeds comprise few thousands of species representing a considerable part of the littoral biomass. Extracts of the Cystoseira indica and Cystoseira merica were subjected to phytochemical and cytotoxicity evaluation. The amount of total phenol was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Cytotoxicity was characterized by IC50 of human cancer cell lines including MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), and HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) using Sulforhodamin assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The analysis revealed that tannins, saponins, sterols and triterpenes were the most abundant constituents in these Cystoseira species while cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides were the least ones. C. indica had the higher content of total phenolics and also showed higher antioxidant activity. Cytotoxic results showed that both species inhibited cell growth effectively, especially against MCF-7 cell line. The present findings suggest potential pharmacological applications of selected seaweeds but require further investigation and identification of their bioactive principles. PMID:27651811

  6. Chemical constituents and biological activities of two Iranian Cystoseira species

    PubMed Central

    Yegdaneh, Afsaneh; Ghannadi, Alireza; Dayani, Ladan

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment represents approximately half of the global biodiversity and could provide unlimited biological resources for the production of therapeutic drugs. Marine seaweeds comprise few thousands of species representing a considerable part of the littoral biomass. Extracts of the Cystoseira indica and Cystoseira merica were subjected to phytochemical and cytotoxicity evaluation. The amount of total phenol was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Cytotoxicity was characterized by IC50 of human cancer cell lines including MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), and HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) using Sulforhodamin assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The analysis revealed that tannins, saponins, sterols and triterpenes were the most abundant constituents in these Cystoseira species while cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides were the least ones. C. indica had the higher content of total phenolics and also showed higher antioxidant activity. Cytotoxic results showed that both species inhibited cell growth effectively, especially against MCF-7 cell line. The present findings suggest potential pharmacological applications of selected seaweeds but require further investigation and identification of their bioactive principles.

  7. Chemical Constituents and LC-profile of Fresh Formosan Lonicera japonica Flower Buds.

    PubMed

    Lo, I-Wen; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsieh, Yi-Jin; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Shieh, Deng-En; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-01-01

    One new secoiridoid glucoside, ethylsecologanin dimethyl acetal (1), along with 15 known compounds, comprising six iridoid glucosides (2-7), six flavonoids (8-13), two sterol glucosides (14 and 15), and chlorogenic acid (16) were isolated from the flower buds of Formosan Lonicera japonica. The structures of these isolates were determined on the basis of mass and spectroscopic analyzes. In addition, the chemical profiles of fresh Formosan honeysuckle buds and the dried Chinese one were compared by HPLC with a PDA detector. The calibration curve of the active component, chlorogenic acid, was also provided. As a result of the constituent similarity, Formosan L.japonica can be an alternative to the Chinese honeysuckles.

  8. Chemical Constituents from Flueggea virosa and the Structural Revision of Dehydrochebulic Acid Trimethyl Ester.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chih-Hua; Lin, Ying-Ju; Cheng, Ju-Chien; Huang, Hui-Chi; Yeh, Yung-Ju; Wu, Tian-Shung; Hwang, Syh-Yuan; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to study the chemical constituents from the twigs and leaves of Flueggea virosa, a new terpenoid, 9(10→20)-abeo-ent-podocarpane, 3β,10α-dihydroxy-12-methoxy-13- methyl-9(10→20)-abeo-ent-podocarpa-6,8,11,13-tetraene (1), as well as five known compounds were characterized. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. In addition, the structure of dehydrochebulic acid trimethyl ester was revised as (2S,3R)-4E-dehydrochebulic acid trimethyl ester based on a single-crystal X-ray diffraction study. The in vitro anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) activity and cytotoxicity against Huh7.5 cells for the isolated compounds were evaluated. PMID:27649134

  9. Chemical Constituents and LC-profile of Fresh Formosan Lonicera japonica Flower Buds.

    PubMed

    Lo, I-Wen; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsieh, Yi-Jin; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Shieh, Deng-En; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-01-01

    One new secoiridoid glucoside, ethylsecologanin dimethyl acetal (1), along with 15 known compounds, comprising six iridoid glucosides (2-7), six flavonoids (8-13), two sterol glucosides (14 and 15), and chlorogenic acid (16) were isolated from the flower buds of Formosan Lonicera japonica. The structures of these isolates were determined on the basis of mass and spectroscopic analyzes. In addition, the chemical profiles of fresh Formosan honeysuckle buds and the dried Chinese one were compared by HPLC with a PDA detector. The calibration curve of the active component, chlorogenic acid, was also provided. As a result of the constituent similarity, Formosan L.japonica can be an alternative to the Chinese honeysuckles. PMID:26996003

  10. Chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antimalarial activities of Zanthoxylum monophyllum.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Guzmán, Raquel; Fulks, Laura C Johansmann; Radwan, Mohamed M; Burandt, Charles L; Ross, Samir A

    2011-09-01

    From the leaves and bark of Zanthoxylum monophyllum, a new lignan, 3-methoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxylignan-4,8,9,9'-tetraol (1), has been isolated along with 22 known compounds (2- 23), fifteen of them reported for the first time from Z. monophyllum. Their chemical structures were elucidated using detailed spectroscopic studies and chemical analysis. All compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities. Alkaloids BIS-[6-(5,6-dihydro-chelerythrinyl)] ether (2) and 6-ethoxy-chelerythrine (4) exhibited strong activity against Aspergillus fumigatus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Compound 4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-quinolone (9) exhibited significant activity against MRSA (IC50 value of 8.0 µM) while compound 5,8,4'-trihydroxy-3,7,3'-trimethoxyflavone (10) showed weak activity against Plasmodium falciparum.

  11. The chemical ecology of soil organic matter molecular constituents.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Myrna J; Simpson, André J

    2012-06-01

    Soil organic matter (OM) contains vast stores of carbon, and directly supports microbial, plant, and animal life by retaining essential nutrients and water in the soil. Soil OM plays important roles in biological, chemical, and physical processes within the soil, and arguably plays a major role in maintaining long-term ecological stability in a changing world. Despite its importance, there is a great deal still unknown about soil OM chemical ecology. The development of sophisticated analytical methods have reshaped our understanding of soil OM composition, which is now believed to be comprised of plant and microbial products at various stages of decomposition. The methods also have recently been applied to study environmental change in various settings and have provided unique insight with respect to soil OM chemical ecology. The goal of this review is to highlight the methods used to characterize soil OM structure, source, and degradation that have enabled precise observations of OM and associated ecological shifts. Although the chemistry of soil OM is important in its overall fate in ecosystems, the studies conducted to date suggest that ecological function is not defined by soil OM chemistry alone. The long-standing questions regarding soil OM stability and recalcitrance will likely be answered when several molecular methods are used in tandem to closely examine structure, source, age, degradation stage, and interactions of specific OM components in soil.

  12. [Analysis of constituents of ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives].

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Masuda, Aino; Sugimoto, Naoki; Yamagata, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2007-12-01

    The differences in the constituents of ten ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives in Japan (urushi wax, carnauba wax, candelilla wax, rice bran wax, shellac wax, jojoba wax, bees wax, Japan wax, montan wax, and lanolin) were investigated. Several kinds of gum bases showed characteristic TLC patterns of lipids. In addition, compositions of fatty acid and alcohol moieties of esters in the gum bases were analyzed by GC/MS after methanolysis and hydrolysis, respectively. The results indicated that the varieties of fatty acids and alcohols and their compositions were characteristic for each gum base. These results will be useful for identification and discrimination of the ester-type gum bases. PMID:18203503

  13. [Analysis on morphological characteristics, photosynthetic characteristics and chemical constituents of Inula lineariifolia from different populations].

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng-chen; Wang, Chang-lin; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Tian, Xin; Qiu, Yuan-yuan

    2015-11-01

    Twelve populations of Inula lineariifolia were used as materials to measure morphological characteristics, photosynthetic parameters and chemical constituents. It aims to provide a theoretical basis for germplasm resources evaluation. The results showed that I. lineariifolia had relatively rich morphological diversity, there were significant differences of morphological characteristics, photosynthetic parameters and chemical constituents among populations. There was positive correlation on morphological characteristics and P(n). Twelve populations were divided into three-type. The three populations of Xuyi, Mingguang and Fengyang were of narrower-longer leaf, bigger biomass,better photosynthetic and higher chemical constituents. Then they were classified for a similar group. It proved that the three populations were more suitable for cultivation and promotion.

  14. [Chemical constituents from whole plants of Valeriana hardwickii].

    PubMed

    Chai, Shi-wei; Zhai, Yong-song; Wang, Man-yuan

    2015-10-01

    Chemical investigation of the whole plants of Valeriana hardwickii has led to the isolation of 11 flavones and 2 monoterpe- noids by using various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20, preparative TLC, and preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic data analysis as syzalterin (1), 6-methylapigenin (2), 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (3), genkwanin (4), acacetin (5), apigenin (6), quercetin (7), tricin (8), (-)-farrerol (9), sosakuranetin (10), 5,3',4'-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (11), (-)-bornyl ferulate ( 12) , and (-)-bornyl caffeate ( 13). All compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time, while compounds 1, 9-13 were obtained from this genus for the first time. PMID:27062818

  15. Chemical constituents from the leaves of Juglans mandshurica.

    PubMed

    Yao, Da Lei; Zhang, Chang Hao; Luo, Jie; Jin, Mei; Zheng, Ming Shan; Cui, Jiong Mo; Son, Jong Keun; Li, Gao

    2015-04-01

    Two new (1 and 3) and two known diarylheptanoids (2 and 4), along with two tetralones (5 and 6), one naphthoquinone (7), four phenylpropanoids (8-11), and one phenol (12) were isolated from the leaves of Juglans mandshurica. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical data. Compounds 2 and 10 are firstly isolated from this plant and 8 and 12 were isolated from the Juglans genus for the first time. Among these compounds, only 7 exhibited moderate cytotoxicities against cultured MGC-803, A549, K562, and HeLa tumor cell lines with IC50 values of 25.90, 28.60, 39.06, 44.90 μM, respectively.

  16. Chemical constituents and biological activities of the genus Linaria (Scrophulariaceae).

    PubMed

    Cheriet, Thamere; Mancini, Ines; Seghiri, Ramdane; Benayache, Fadila; Benayache, Samir

    2015-01-01

    This is a review on 95 references dealing with the genus Linaria (Scrophularioideae-Antirrhineae tribe), a known genus of the Scrophulariaceae family, which comprises about 200 species mainly distributed in Europe, Asia and North Africa. The use of some Linaria species in folk medicine has attracted the attention for chemical and biological studies. This report is aimed to be a comprehensive overview on the isolated or identified known and often new metabolites from the 41 Linaria species so far cited. It is organised presenting first the phytochemical classes of alkaloids, polyphenols including flavonoids, the latter being quite diffused and mostly present as flavones, flavonols and their glycosides, and terpenoids including iridoids and steroids. Second, the results from biological investigation on plant extracts, pure natural products isolated from Linaria species and some synthetic derivatives are reported, with antitumour, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:25674928

  17. Chemical constituents of three Allium species from Romania.

    PubMed

    Vlase, Laurian; Parvu, Marcel; Parvu, Elena Alina; Toiu, Anca

    2012-12-21

    The aim of this work was to study the chemical composition of Allium obliquum L., A. senescens L. subsp. montanum (Fries) Holub, and A. schoenoprasum L. subsp. schoenoprasum. Sulphur-containing compounds analysis was performed by an LC-MS method, the identification and quantification of polyphenolic compounds through a HPLC-UV-MS method, and the presence of five sterols was simultaneously assessed by HPLC-MS-MS. Alliin was identified only in A. obliquum and A. senescens subsp. montanum extracts, whilst allicin was present in all extracts, with higher amounts in A. schoenoprasum and A. obliquum. The pattern of phenol carboxylic acids shows the presence of p-coumaric and ferulic acids in all species. Isoquercitrin was identified in A. obliquum and A. schoenoprasum, and rutin in A. senescens subsp. montanum and A. schoenoprasum. Luteolin and apigenin were identified only in A. obliquum. All three species contain glycosides of kaempferol and quercetol. β-Sitosterol and campesterol were identified in all species. The results obtained showed significant differences in the composition of the three Allium species.

  18. [Relationship between chemical constituents and herbs properties of relative plant herbs].

    PubMed

    Cao, Jia; Wang, Yun

    2013-02-01

    The material fundament of Chinese herbs is chemical constituents which represented the properties of herbs, including five fundamental natures (cold, cool, neutral, warm and hot), seven flavors (sour, bitter, sweet, salty, acerbity, mild and pungent) and twelve meridians (liver, heart, spleen, lung, kidney, Xin Bao, Gall bladder, small intestine, stomach, large intestine, bladder and San Jiao). In this article, authors study the relationship between chemical constituents of plant herbs and their properties. First, authors build a relationship network where the herbs with similar chemical compositions are connected each other. The particular difference of our work is to filter the common chemical constituents that many plants from different families contained. As a result, considering relative plants have similar chemical constituents, the relative plant herbs are clustering closely and the herbs of different family are connected loosely in our network. The results indicates that the method of building the herbs network is correct. The characteristics of herbs' properties in the network are that the same properties are usually connected regardless the plant families. There is "properties hole" phenomenon, that is, the majority of adjacent drugs of a herb have a certain properties, while the drug does not have the properties.

  19. Study of antimalarial activity of chemical constituents from Diospyros quaesita.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cui-Ying; Musoke, Sebisubi Fred; Tan, Ghee Teng; Sydara, Kongmany; Bouamanivong, Somsanith; Southavong, Bounhoong; Soejarto, D Doel; Fong, Harry H S; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2008-11-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation led to the isolation of seven compounds from a sample of the dried leaves, twigs, and branches of Diospyros quaesita Thw. (Ebenaceae). One of the isolates, betulinic acid 3-caffeate (1), showed in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum clones D(6) (chloroquine-sensitive) and W(2) (chloroquine-resistant) with IC(50) values of 1.40 and 0.98 microM, respectively. Evaluation of compound 1 in the human oral epidermoid (KB) cancer cell line revealed cytotoxicity at ED(50) of 4.0 microM. In an attempt to reduce the cytotoxicity of 1, the acetylated derivative 1a and betulinic acid (1b) were prepared. Of the seven isolates, diospyrosin (2) was determined to be a new neolignan. In addition to 1, other known compounds isolated in this study were pinoresinol, lariciresinol, N-benzoyl-L-phenylalaninol, scopoletin, and poriferast-5-en-3beta,7alpha-diol. The structure of 2 was elucidated based on spectroscopic data analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS. PMID:19035573

  20. [Qualitative analysis of chemical constituents in Si-Wu Decoction based on TCM component database].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-fang; Zhao, Yang; Fan, Zi-quan; Kang, Li-ping; Qiao, Li-rui; Zhang, Jie; Gao, Yue; Ma, Bai-ping

    2015-10-01

    In order to clarify the chemical constituents of Si-Wu Decoction rapidly and holistically, we analyzed the ethanol extract of Si-Wu Decoction by UPLC/Q-TOF-MSE and UNIFI which based on traditional Chinese medicine database, the probable structures of 113 compounds were identified. The results show that this method can rapidly and effectively characterize the chemical compounds of Si-Wu Decoction and provide a new solution for identification of components from complex TCM extract.

  1. Effects of growth altitude on chemical constituents and delayed luminescence properties in medicinal rhubarb.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengmeng; Li, Li; Wang, Mei; van Wijk, Eduard; He, Min; van Wijk, Roeland; Koval, Slavik; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan; Wei, Shengli

    2016-09-01

    To improve the quality control of herbal drugs, there has been a major shift from evaluating individual chemicals to evaluating multiple-constituent chemicals, given the multi-pharmacology nature of herbal drugs. Therefore, rapid, systematic assays are needed in order to assess the quality of medicinal herbs using a comprehensive, integrated approach. Light-induced delayed luminescence (DL) is used to measure decaying long-term ultra-weak photon emissions following excitation with light. DL is considered to be a sensitive indicator for characterizing the properties of biological systems and herbal medicines with various therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of using DL as a novel quality-assessment tool using rhubarb material as a model system, and to establish the correlation between DL parameters and the chemical constituents of rhubarb. Raw roots and rhizomes were collected from rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.) at various elevations in western China. HPLC analysis was used to identify fourteen bioactive constituents. Five DL parameters were calculated from the DL decay curves of the rhubarb samples. Statistical tools, including principal component analysis, were used to classify the rhubarb samples using data obtained using two different assays. Finally, Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to quantify the correlation between the bioactive compounds and corresponding DL parameters. We found that both the chemical analysis and DL measurements reflect variations in the quality of rhubarb due to environment factor. The DL parameters were correlated significantly with the bioactive chemical constituents. Our results indicate that DL is a promising tool for evaluating multiple constituents and for assessing the therapeutic properties of herbal medicines. Thus, DL may be used as part of a comprehensive system for assessing the quality and/or therapeutic properties of herbal medicines.

  2. Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents inhibit in vitro growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Alday-Provencio, Samuel; Diaz, Gabriela; Rascon, Lucila; Quintero, Jael; Alday, Efrain; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Astiazaran, Humberto; Hernandez, Javier; Velazquez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Propolis is a cereus resin with a complex chemical composition that possesses a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-Giardia lamblia activity of Sonoran propolis collected from three different areas of Sonoran Desert in northwestern Mexico (Caborca, Pueblo de Alamos, and Ures) and some of its chemical constituents. Additionally, we also analyzed the seasonal effect on the anti-G. lamblia activity of propolis. G. lamblia trophozoite cultures were treated with different concentrations of Sonoran propolis or chemical compounds during 48 h cell proliferation and cell viability were determined. Ures propolis showed the highest inhibitory activity against G. lamblia (IC50 63.8 ± 7.1 µg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner (Ures > Pueblo de Alamos > Caborca). Season had a significant effect on the in vitro anti-G. lamblia activity of Ures propolis. Summer propolis showed the highest inhibitory effect on the G. lamblia trophozoite growth (IC50 23.8 ± 2.3 µg/mL), followed by propolis collected during winter (IC50 59.2 ± 34.7 µg/mL), spring (IC50 102.5 ± 15.3 µg/mL), and autumn (IC50 125.0 ± 3.1 µg/mL). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an Ures propolis exclusive constituent, had the highest growth-inhibitory activity towards G. lamblia [IC50 63.1 ± 0.9 µg/mL (222.1 ± 3.2 µM)]. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that caffeic acid phenethyl ester possesses antiparasitic activity against G. lamblia. Naringenin [IC50 125.7 ± 20.7 µg/mL (461.8 ± 76.3 µM)], hesperetin [IC50 149.6 ± 24.8 µg/mL (494.9 ± 82.2 µM)], and pinocembrin [IC50 174.4 ± 26.0 µg/mL (680.6 ± 101.7 µM)] showed weak anti-G. lamblia activity. On the other hand, chrysin and rutin did not show significant antiparasitic activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents had inhibitory effects on the

  3. Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents inhibit in vitro growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Alday-Provencio, Samuel; Diaz, Gabriela; Rascon, Lucila; Quintero, Jael; Alday, Efrain; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Astiazaran, Humberto; Hernandez, Javier; Velazquez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Propolis is a cereus resin with a complex chemical composition that possesses a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-Giardia lamblia activity of Sonoran propolis collected from three different areas of Sonoran Desert in northwestern Mexico (Caborca, Pueblo de Alamos, and Ures) and some of its chemical constituents. Additionally, we also analyzed the seasonal effect on the anti-G. lamblia activity of propolis. G. lamblia trophozoite cultures were treated with different concentrations of Sonoran propolis or chemical compounds during 48 h cell proliferation and cell viability were determined. Ures propolis showed the highest inhibitory activity against G. lamblia (IC50 63.8 ± 7.1 µg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner (Ures > Pueblo de Alamos > Caborca). Season had a significant effect on the in vitro anti-G. lamblia activity of Ures propolis. Summer propolis showed the highest inhibitory effect on the G. lamblia trophozoite growth (IC50 23.8 ± 2.3 µg/mL), followed by propolis collected during winter (IC50 59.2 ± 34.7 µg/mL), spring (IC50 102.5 ± 15.3 µg/mL), and autumn (IC50 125.0 ± 3.1 µg/mL). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an Ures propolis exclusive constituent, had the highest growth-inhibitory activity towards G. lamblia [IC50 63.1 ± 0.9 µg/mL (222.1 ± 3.2 µM)]. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that caffeic acid phenethyl ester possesses antiparasitic activity against G. lamblia. Naringenin [IC50 125.7 ± 20.7 µg/mL (461.8 ± 76.3 µM)], hesperetin [IC50 149.6 ± 24.8 µg/mL (494.9 ± 82.2 µM)], and pinocembrin [IC50 174.4 ± 26.0 µg/mL (680.6 ± 101.7 µM)] showed weak anti-G. lamblia activity. On the other hand, chrysin and rutin did not show significant antiparasitic activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents had inhibitory effects on the

  4. Antidiabetic activity and chemical constituents of the aerial parts of Heracleum dissectum Ledeb.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hailong; Su, Yaping; Wang, Xinrui; Mi, Jie; Huo, Yayu; Wang, Zhigang; Liu, Ying; Gao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Heracleum dissectum Ledeb. has long been used as a wild edible vegetable by local people in China. The purpose of this study is to investigate the antidiabetic potential of aerial part of H. dissectum methanol extract (HdME) and the chemical constituents. Ten compounds including eight coumarins were isolated and four of them were found from H. dissectum for the first time. HdME potently inhibited the elevation of plasma glucose after its oral administration to glucose-loaded mice, and its petroleum ether (PE) fraction exerted the greatest inhibitory activities. Meanwhile, HdME (125 and 250mg/kg) also significantly decreased the blood glucose level in STZ-induced diabetic mice, but had no effect in normoglycemic mice. Additionally, HdME showed weak inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase activity and DPPH free radicals scavenging. In conclusion, HdME has antidiabetic action and PE fraction is the active part where coumarins possibly play an important role in antidiabetic activity. PMID:27507512

  5. Antidiabetic activity of the chemical constituents of Combretum dolichopetalum root in mice.

    PubMed

    Uzor, Philip F; Osadebe, Patience O

    2016-01-01

    The root of Combretum dolichopetalum (Combreatacea) is used in ethnomedicine for the management of diabetes mellitus. Though some compounds have been isolated from it, the antidiabetic principles have not been identified. The present study was designed to evaluate the chemical constituents from the root of C. dolichopetalum with a view to identifying the antidiabetic principles. The constituents include the alkaloids, echinulin (1) and arestrictin B (2), the terpenoids, arjunolic acid (3) and 4'-dihydrophaseic acid (4) as well as the phenolic acids, ellagic acid (5) and 3, 4, 3'-tri-O-methylellagic acid (6). Twenty eight mice (in seven groups, n = 4) were made diabetic using alloxan monohydrate (i.p., 120 mg/kg) and treated orally with either the vehicle (control group), any of the constituents or glibenclamide (standard drug). The fasting blood glucose of the diabetic animals was monitored for nine hours. Results showed that all the chemical constituents (1-6) exhibited significant (p < 0.05) antidiabetic activity comparable to glibenclamide. The alkaloids exhibited the most profound antidiabetic activity. The present study has thus identified the antidiabetic principles of C. dolichopetalum root as echinulin, arestrictin B, arjunolic acid, 4'-dihydrophaseic acid, ellagic acid and 3, 4, 3'-tri-O-methylellagic acid. The study has further validated the ethnomedicinal use of the root of C. dolichopetalum in diabetes. PMID:27298614

  6. Antidiabetic activity of the chemical constituents of Combretum dolichopetalum root in mice

    PubMed Central

    Uzor, Philip F.; Osadebe, Patience O.

    2016-01-01

    The root of Combretum dolichopetalum (Combreatacea) is used in ethnomedicine for the management of diabetes mellitus. Though some compounds have been isolated from it, the antidiabetic principles have not been identified. The present study was designed to evaluate the chemical constituents from the root of C. dolichopetalum with a view to identifying the antidiabetic principles. The constituents include the alkaloids, echinulin (1) and arestrictin B (2), the terpenoids, arjunolic acid (3) and 4'-dihydrophaseic acid (4) as well as the phenolic acids, ellagic acid (5) and 3, 4, 3'-tri-O-methylellagic acid (6). Twenty eight mice (in seven groups, n = 4) were made diabetic using alloxan monohydrate (i.p., 120 mg/kg) and treated orally with either the vehicle (control group), any of the constituents or glibenclamide (standard drug). The fasting blood glucose of the diabetic animals was monitored for nine hours. Results showed that all the chemical constituents (1-6) exhibited significant (p < 0.05) antidiabetic activity comparable to glibenclamide. The alkaloids exhibited the most profound antidiabetic activity. The present study has thus identified the antidiabetic principles of C. dolichopetalum root as echinulin, arestrictin B, arjunolic acid, 4'-dihydrophaseic acid, ellagic acid and 3, 4, 3'-tri-O-methylellagic acid. The study has further validated the ethnomedicinal use of the root of C. dolichopetalum in diabetes. PMID:27298614

  7. Chemical Constituents from the Fruiting Bodies of Hexagonia apiaria and Their Anti-inflammatory Activity.

    PubMed

    Thang, Tran Dinh; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Bich; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Yang, Mei-Lin; Ta, Shih-Huang; Lee, E-Jian; Kuo, Dai-Huang; Hung, Nguyen Huy; Tuan, Nguyen Ngoc; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2015-11-25

    A chemical investigation of the fruiting bodies of Hexagonia apiaria resulted in the identification of nine compounds including five new triterpenoids, hexagonins A-E (1-5), along with four known compounds. The purified constituents were examined for their anti-inflammatory activity. Among the tested compounds, hexatenuin A displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release. These triterpenoids may have potentials as anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:26575215

  8. [Advances in novel carrier systems of chemical constituents from spice volatile oils].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-jia; Zhu, Yuan; Yu, Jiang-nan; Xu, Xi-ming

    2015-10-01

    Recent years, chemical constituents from spice volatile oils have gained worldwide concern owing to its multiple pharmacological effects and safety for using as the natural antibacterial agents. However, their poor dissolution, strong volatility, serious irritation, weak stability, easy oxidation and low bioavailability characteristics are the major obstacle in the preparation of effective oral formulation and practical application. Therefore, there is an urgent need to select a novel carrier system that can delivery the chemical constituents from spice volatile oils more efficiently with improving their stability as well as alleviating the irritation, and develop the functional food, health products and even medicine for exerting their pharmacological effects, which also is the focus and nodus of the research on their application. This review presents recent systematic studies on their novel carrier systems, including cyclodextrin inclusion complex, liposomes, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, solid dispersion and so on, and summarizes the characteristics, application range and problems of each novel carrier systems, in order to provide some beneficial thoughts in further developing new products of chemical constituents from spice volatile oils. PMID:27062804

  9. [Advances in novel carrier systems of chemical constituents from spice volatile oils].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-jia; Zhu, Yuan; Yu, Jiang-nan; Xu, Xi-ming

    2015-10-01

    Recent years, chemical constituents from spice volatile oils have gained worldwide concern owing to its multiple pharmacological effects and safety for using as the natural antibacterial agents. However, their poor dissolution, strong volatility, serious irritation, weak stability, easy oxidation and low bioavailability characteristics are the major obstacle in the preparation of effective oral formulation and practical application. Therefore, there is an urgent need to select a novel carrier system that can delivery the chemical constituents from spice volatile oils more efficiently with improving their stability as well as alleviating the irritation, and develop the functional food, health products and even medicine for exerting their pharmacological effects, which also is the focus and nodus of the research on their application. This review presents recent systematic studies on their novel carrier systems, including cyclodextrin inclusion complex, liposomes, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, solid dispersion and so on, and summarizes the characteristics, application range and problems of each novel carrier systems, in order to provide some beneficial thoughts in further developing new products of chemical constituents from spice volatile oils.

  10. Standardization of Cassia spectabilis with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis.

    PubMed

    Torey, Angeline; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Yeng, Chen; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2010-05-01

    Quality control standardizations of the various medicinal plants used in traditional medicine is becoming more important today in view of the commercialization of formulations based on these plants. An attempt at standardization of Cassia spectabilis leaf has been carried out with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis. The authentication involved many parameters, including gross morphology, microscopy of the leaves and functional group analysis by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The assay part of standardization involved determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract which could help assess the chemical effects and establish curative values. The MIC of the C. spectabilis leaf extracts was investigated using the Broth Dilution Method. The extracts showed a MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL, independent of the extraction time. The chemical constituent aspect of standardization involves quantification of the main chemical components in C. spectabilis. The GCMS method used for quantification of 2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione in the extract was rapid, accurate, precise, linear (R(2) = 0.8685), rugged and robust. Hence this method was suitable for quantification of this component in C. spectabilis. The standardization of C. spectabilis is needed to facilitate marketing of medicinal plants, with a view to promoting the export of valuable Malaysian Traditional Medicinal plants such as C. spectabilis.

  11. Analysis of Chemical Constituents in Wuzi-Yanzong-Wan by UPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS.

    PubMed

    Zou, Dixin; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Bo; Xie, Suhua; Wang, Qing; Xu, Kexin; Lin, Ruichao

    2015-12-01

    Wuzi-Yanzong-Wan (WZYZW), a classical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription containing Fructus Lych, Semen Cuscutae (fried), Fructus Rubi, Fructus Schisandrae chinensis (steamed) and Semen Plantaginis (fried with salt), is widely used to treat impotence, sterility, spermatorrhea, premature ejaculation, lumbago and post-micturation dribble. However, the chemical profile of WZYZW has not been established yet. In this work, a rapid and sensitive method for systematically screening and identifying the chemical constituents of WZYZW in both positive and negative ion modes using Ultra-Performance LC coupled with ESI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) has been developed. Based on the chromatographic and spectrometric data, and referring to the literature, we could tentatively identify 106 compounds, including organic acids, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, alkaloids and terpenoids. Fourteen ingredients from Fructus Lych were identified, while 10 ingredients were from Semen Cuscutae (fried), 33 ingredients were from Fructus Rubi, 37 ingredients were from Fructus Schisandrae chinensis (steamed), and 20 ingredients were from Semen Plantaginis (fried with salt). The results may provide essential data for further quality control, pharmacological research and clinical evaluation of WZYZW. Furthermore, this study indicates the developed approach based on UPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS is suitable for characterizing the chemical profiles of TCM prescriptions. This is the first report to provide a comprehensive analysis of the chemical constituents of WZYZW.

  12. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory potential and chemical constituents of Origanum dubium Boiss., growing wild in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Karioti, Anastasia; Milošević-Ifantis, Tanja; Pachopos, Nikitas; Niryiannaki, Niki; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Skaltsa, Helen

    2015-02-01

    Origanum dubium Boiss. is a flavouring herb widely used in Cyprus. In this study, both lipophilic and polar extracts of the aerial parts of O. dubium were investigated for their chemical contents and their antioxidant potential. Overall, 20 constituents were isolated and identified, belonging mainly to three significant classes of compounds: terpenes, phenolic derivatives, such as hydroquinone glycosides and flavonoids and alicyclic derivatives. None of them was previously reported as constituent of O. dubium The inhibitory potencies of all total extracts and the isolated compounds on lipid peroxidation and their interaction with 1,1-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity is discussed. The polar extract showed strong interaction with DPPH stable radical and significant inhibition of lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation.

  13. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    than NMC) and the DDB is useful for lithium ion cells with LFP cathodes (potential that is lower than NMC). A 4.5 V class redox shuttle provided by Argonne National Laboratory was evaluated which provides a few cycles of overcharge protection for lithium ion cells containing NMC cathodes but it is not stable enough for consideration. Thus, a redox shuttle with an appropriate redox potential and sufficient chemical and electrochemical stability for commercial use in larger format lithium ion cells with NMC cathodes was not found. Molecular imprinting of the redox shuttle molecule during solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formation likely contributes to the successful reduction of oxidized redox shuttle species at carbon anodes. This helps to understand how a carbon anode covered with an SEI layer, that is supposed to be electrically insulating, can reduce the oxidized form of a redox shuttle.

  14. Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M.; Campbell, L.J.

    1997-06-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake river Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from nine irrigation wells, three domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, one commercial well, one stock well, and one observation well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. Additional sampling at six sites was done to complete the third round of sampling. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

  15. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associations between Particulate Chemical Constituents and Mortality in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jung, Kweon

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have linked fine particles [≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] and health. Most studies focused on the total mass of the particles, although the chemical composition of the particles varies substantially. Which chemical components of fine particles that are the most harmful is not well understood, and research on the chemical composition of PM2.5 and the components that are the most harmful is particularly limited in Asia. Objectives: We characterized PM2.5 chemical composition and estimated the effects of cause-specific mortality of PM2.5 mass and constituents in Seoul, Korea. We compared the chemical composition of particles to those of the eastern and western United States. Methods: We examined temporal variability of PM2.5 mass and its composition using hourly data. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model, adjusting for time, day of week, temperature, and relative humidity to investigate the association between risk of mortality and PM2.5 mass and its constituents in Seoul, Korea, for August 2008 through October 2009. Results: PM2.5 and chemical components exhibited temporal patterns by time of day and season. The chemical characteristics of Seoul’s PM2.5 were more similar to PM2.5 found in the western United States than in the eastern United States. Seoul’s PM2.5 had lower sulfate (SO4) contributions and higher nitrate (NO3) contributions than that of the eastern United States, although overall PM2.5 levels in Seoul were higher than in the United States. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in magnesium (Mg) (0.05 μg/m3) was associated with a 1.4% increase (95% confidence interval: 0.2%, 2.6%) in total mortality on the following day. Several components that were among the largest contributors to PM2.5 total mass—NO3, SO4, and ammonium (NH4)—were moderately associated with same-day cardiovascular mortality at the p < 0.10 level. Other components with smaller mass contributions [Mg and

  16. Current Methods and Challenges for Epidemiological Studies of the Associations Between Chemical Constituents of Particulate Matter and Health.

    PubMed

    Krall, Jenna R; Chang, Howard H; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Peng, Roger D; Waller, Lance A

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have been critical for estimating associations between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution and adverse health outcomes. Because total PM mass is a temporally and spatially varying mixture of constituents with different physical and chemical properties, recent epidemiological studies have focused on PM constituents. Most studies have estimated associations between PM constituents and health using the same statistical methods as in studies of PM mass. However, these approaches may not be sufficient to address challenges specific to studies of PM constituents, namely assigning exposure, disentangling health effects, and handling measurement error. We reviewed large, population-based epidemiological studies of PM constituents and health and describe the statistical methods typically applied to address these challenges. Development of statistical methods that simultaneously address multiple challenges, for example, both disentangling health effects and handling measurement error, could improve estimation of associations between PM constituents and adverse health outcomes.

  17. Antimalarial evaluation of the chemical constituents of hairy root culture of Bixa orellana L.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Bo; Clark, Julie; Ling, Taotao; Connelly, Michele; Medina-Bolivar, Fabricio; Rivas, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Over 216 million malaria cases are reported annually worldwide and about a third of these cases, primarily children under the age of five years old, will not survive the infection. Despite this significant world health impact, only a limited number of therapeutic agents are currently available. The lack of scaffold diversity poses a threat in the event that multi-drug-resistant strains emerge. Terrestrial natural products have provided a major source of chemical diversity for starting materials in many FDA approved drugs over the past century. Bixa orellana L. is a popular plant used in South America for the treatment of malaria. In search of new potential therapeutic agents, the chemical constituents of a selected hairy root culture line of Bixa orellana L. were characterized utilizing NMR and mass spectrometry methods, followed by its biological evaluation against malaria strains 3D7 and K1. The crude extract and its isolated compounds demonstrated EC50 values in the micromolar range. Herein, we report our findings on the chemical constituents of Bixa orellana L. from hairy roots responsible for the observed antimalarial activity. PMID:24406786

  18. Chemical Constituents from Daphne giraldii Nitsche and Their Contents Simultaneous Determination by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Huyiligeqi; Dong, Xiaoxv; Yang, Chunjing; Xu, Guanling; Cao, Sali; Fu, Jing; Lin, Longfei; Ni, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Daphne giraldii Nitsche (Thymelaeaceae) is widely distributed in the Chinese provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai, which has been used in Chinese folk medicine to treat ache and rheumatism. Pharmacologic tests have revealed that the plant has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anticancer activities. However, there is still not enough systemic investigation on the chemical constituents and the method for the contents simultaneous determination in D. giraldii. Therefore, the isolation and characterization of the compounds from the stem barks of this plant were reported. Moreover, a facile, accurate, and reliable method has been developed and validated for their simultaneous determination using HPLC-DAD. PMID:27190543

  19. Chemical Constituents from Daphne giraldii Nitsche and Their Contents Simultaneous Determination by HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Huyiligeqi; Dong, Xiaoxv; Yang, Chunjing; Xu, Guanling; Cao, Sali; Fu, Jing; Lin, Longfei; Ni, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Daphne giraldii Nitsche (Thymelaeaceae) is widely distributed in the Chinese provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai, which has been used in Chinese folk medicine to treat ache and rheumatism. Pharmacologic tests have revealed that the plant has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anticancer activities. However, there is still not enough systemic investigation on the chemical constituents and the method for the contents simultaneous determination in D. giraldii. Therefore, the isolation and characterization of the compounds from the stem barks of this plant were reported. Moreover, a facile, accurate, and reliable method has been developed and validated for their simultaneous determination using HPLC-DAD. PMID:27190543

  20. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from leaves of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Camila de Souza; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Lima, Rafaely Nascimento; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Diniz, Tâmara Coimbra; da Silva Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Background: Annona vepretorum (AV) is a native tree from Caatinga biome (semiarid region of Brazil) popularly known as “araticum” and “pinha da Caatinga.” Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity (AA) of the essential oil from the leaves from AV (EO-Av) collected in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Fresh leaves of AV were cut into pieces, and subjected to distillation for 2 h in a clevenger-type apparatus. Gas chromatograph (GC) analyses were performed using a mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector. The identification of the constituents was assigned on the basis of comparison of their relative retention indices. The antioxidant ability of the EO was investigated through two in vitro models such as radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and β-carotene-linoleate-model system. The positive controls (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene) were those using the standard solutions. Assays were carried out in triplicate. Results: The oil showed a total of 21 components, and 17 were identified, representing 93.9% of the crude EO. Spathulenol (43.7%), limonene (20.5%), caryophyllene oxide (8.1%) and α-pinene (5.5%) were found to be the major individual constituents. Spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide could be considered chemotaxonomic markers of these genera. The EO demonstrated weak AA. PMID:26246740

  1. Anti-angiogenic activity of Morinda citrifolia extracts and its chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Beh, Hooi-Kheng; Seow, Lay-Jing; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Abdul Majid, Amin Malik Shah; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Ismail, Norhayati; Ismail, Zhari

    2012-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. has been used for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-angiogenic effect of M. citrifolia fruits and leaves. Anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in vivo using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Bioactivity-guided fractionation and isolation were performed to identify the active constituent, and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis was then used to quantify the amount of this active constituent in the active extracts and fraction. The methanol extracts of fruits and leaves of M. citrifolia and the subsequent chloroform fraction of the fruit methanolic extract were found to have potential anti-angiogenic activity and were more potent compared to suramin. Scopoletin was identified as one of the chemical constituents that may be partly responsible for the anti-angiogenic activity of M. citrifolia fruits. The present findings further support the use of M. citrifolia in cancer or other pathological conditions related to angiogenesis.

  2. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of Ajania fruticulosa Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun-Yu; Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan; Zhang, Ji

    2016-08-01

    The insecticidal activity and chemical constituents of the essential oil from Ajania fruticulosa were investigated. Twelve constituents representing 91.0% of the essential oil were identified, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (41.40%), (+)-camphor (32.10%), and myrtenol (8.15%). The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults with LD50 values of 105.67 μg/adult and 89.85 μg/cm(2) , respectively. The essential oil also showed fumigant toxicity against two species of insect with LC50 values of 11.52 and 0.65 mg/l, respectively. 1,8-Cineole exhibited excellent fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 5.47 mg/l) against T. castaneum. (+)-Camphor showed obvious fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.43 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. Myrtenol showed contact toxicity (LD50  = 29.40 μg/cm(2) ) and fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.50 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. 1,8-Cineole and (+)-camphor showed strong insecticidal activity to some important insects, and they are main constituents of A. fruticulosa essential oil. The two compounds may be related to insecticidal activity of A. fruticulosa essential oil against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila.

  3. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of Ajania fruticulosa Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun-Yu; Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan; Zhang, Ji

    2016-08-01

    The insecticidal activity and chemical constituents of the essential oil from Ajania fruticulosa were investigated. Twelve constituents representing 91.0% of the essential oil were identified, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (41.40%), (+)-camphor (32.10%), and myrtenol (8.15%). The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults with LD50 values of 105.67 μg/adult and 89.85 μg/cm(2) , respectively. The essential oil also showed fumigant toxicity against two species of insect with LC50 values of 11.52 and 0.65 mg/l, respectively. 1,8-Cineole exhibited excellent fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 5.47 mg/l) against T. castaneum. (+)-Camphor showed obvious fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.43 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. Myrtenol showed contact toxicity (LD50  = 29.40 μg/cm(2) ) and fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.50 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. 1,8-Cineole and (+)-camphor showed strong insecticidal activity to some important insects, and they are main constituents of A. fruticulosa essential oil. The two compounds may be related to insecticidal activity of A. fruticulosa essential oil against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila. PMID:27482698

  4. Communications: Developing relationships between the local chemical reactivity of alloy catalysts and physical characteristics of constituent metal elements

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Hongliang; Schweitzer, Neil; Nikolla, Eranda; Linic, Suljo

    2010-10-22

    We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy and quantum chemical density functional theory calculations to identify critical features in the electronic structure of different sites in alloys that govern the local chemical reactivity. The measurements led to a simple model relating local geometric features of a site in an alloy to its electronic structure and chemical reactivity. The central feature of the model is that the formation of alloys does not lead to significant charge transfer between the constituent metal elements in the alloys, and that the local electronic structure and chemical reactivity can be predicted based on physical characteristics of constituent metal elements in their unalloyed form.

  5. 33 CFR 157.31 - Discharges: Chemical additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discharges: Chemical additives. 157.31 Section 157.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.31 Discharges: Chemical additives. No person may use a...

  6. 33 CFR 157.31 - Discharges: Chemical additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharges: Chemical additives. 157.31 Section 157.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.31 Discharges: Chemical additives. No person may use a...

  7. 33 CFR 157.31 - Discharges: Chemical additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discharges: Chemical additives. 157.31 Section 157.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.31 Discharges: Chemical additives. No person may use a...

  8. 33 CFR 157.31 - Discharges: Chemical additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharges: Chemical additives. 157.31 Section 157.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.31 Discharges: Chemical additives. No person may use a...

  9. 33 CFR 157.31 - Discharges: Chemical additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharges: Chemical additives. 157.31 Section 157.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.31 Discharges: Chemical additives. No person may use a...

  10. Phytomedical investigation of Najas minor All. in the view of the chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Topuzovic, Marina D; Radojevic, Ivana D; Dekic, Milan S; Radulovic, Niko S; Vasic, Sava M; Comic, Ljiljana R; Licina, Braho Z

    2015-01-01

    Plants are an abundant natural source of effective antibiotic compounds. Phytomedical investigations of certain plants haven't still been conducted. One of them is Najas minor (N. minor), an aquatic plant with confirmed allelopathy. Research conducted in this study showed the influence of water and ethyl acetate extracts of N. minor on microorganisms, in the view of chemical profiling of volatile constituents and the concentrations of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins. Antimicrobial activity was defined by determining minimum inhibitory and minimum microbicidal concentrations using microdilution method. Influence on bacterial biofilm formation was performed by tissue culture plate method. The total phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannins were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminum chloride and butanol-HCl colorimetric methods. Chemical profiling of volatile constituents was investigated by GC and GC-MS. Water extract didn't have antimicrobial activity below 5000 µg/mL. Ethyl acetate extract has shown strong antimicrobial activity on G+ bacteria - Staphylococcus aureus PMFKGB12 and Bacillus subtilis (MIC < 78.13 µg/mL). The best antibiofilm activity was obtained on Escherichia coli ATCC25922 (BIC50 at 719 µg/mL). Water extract had higher yield. Ethyl acetate extract had a significantly greater amount of total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins. As major constituent hexahydrofarnesyl acetone was identified. The ethyl acetate extract effected only G+ bacteria, but the biofilm formation of G-bacteria was suppressed. There was a connection between those in vivo and in vitro effects against pathogenic bacterial biofilm formation. All of this points to a so far unexplored potential of N. minor.

  11. Phytomedical investigation of Najas minor All. in the view of the chemical constituents

    PubMed Central

    Topuzovic, Marina D.; Radojevic, Ivana D.; Dekic, Milan S.; Radulovic, Niko S.; Vasic, Sava M.; Comic, Ljiljana R.; Licina, Braho Z.

    2015-01-01

    Plants are an abundant natural source of effective antibiotic compounds. Phytomedical investigations of certain plants haven't still been conducted. One of them is Najas minor (N. minor), an aquatic plant with confirmed allelopathy. Research conducted in this study showed the influence of water and ethyl acetate extracts of N. minor on microorganisms, in the view of chemical profiling of volatile constituents and the concentrations of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins. Antimicrobial activity was defined by determining minimum inhibitory and minimum microbicidal concentrations using microdilution method. Influence on bacterial biofilm formation was performed by tissue culture plate method. The total phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannins were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminum chloride and butanol-HCl colorimetric methods. Chemical profiling of volatile constituents was investigated by GC and GC-MS. Water extract didn't have antimicrobial activity below 5000 µg/mL. Ethyl acetate extract has shown strong antimicrobial activity on G+ bacteria - Staphylococcus aureus PMFKGB12 and Bacillus subtilis (MIC < 78.13 µg/mL). The best antibiofilm activity was obtained on Escherichia coli ATCC25922 (BIC50 at 719 µg/mL). Water extract had higher yield. Ethyl acetate extract had a significantly greater amount of total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins. As major constituent hexahydrofarnesyl acetone was identified. The ethyl acetate extract effected only G+ bacteria, but the biofilm formation of G-bacteria was suppressed. There was a connection between those in vivo and in vitro effects against pathogenic bacterial biofilm formation. All of this points to a so far unexplored potential of N. minor. PMID:26535038

  12. Phytomedical investigation of Najas minor All. in the view of the chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Topuzovic, Marina D; Radojevic, Ivana D; Dekic, Milan S; Radulovic, Niko S; Vasic, Sava M; Comic, Ljiljana R; Licina, Braho Z

    2015-01-01

    Plants are an abundant natural source of effective antibiotic compounds. Phytomedical investigations of certain plants haven't still been conducted. One of them is Najas minor (N. minor), an aquatic plant with confirmed allelopathy. Research conducted in this study showed the influence of water and ethyl acetate extracts of N. minor on microorganisms, in the view of chemical profiling of volatile constituents and the concentrations of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins. Antimicrobial activity was defined by determining minimum inhibitory and minimum microbicidal concentrations using microdilution method. Influence on bacterial biofilm formation was performed by tissue culture plate method. The total phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannins were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminum chloride and butanol-HCl colorimetric methods. Chemical profiling of volatile constituents was investigated by GC and GC-MS. Water extract didn't have antimicrobial activity below 5000 µg/mL. Ethyl acetate extract has shown strong antimicrobial activity on G+ bacteria - Staphylococcus aureus PMFKGB12 and Bacillus subtilis (MIC < 78.13 µg/mL). The best antibiofilm activity was obtained on Escherichia coli ATCC25922 (BIC50 at 719 µg/mL). Water extract had higher yield. Ethyl acetate extract had a significantly greater amount of total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins. As major constituent hexahydrofarnesyl acetone was identified. The ethyl acetate extract effected only G+ bacteria, but the biofilm formation of G-bacteria was suppressed. There was a connection between those in vivo and in vitro effects against pathogenic bacterial biofilm formation. All of this points to a so far unexplored potential of N. minor. PMID:26535038

  13. [Chemical constituents from lipophilic parts in roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi].

    PubMed

    Deng, Gai-Gai; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Zhang, You-Bo; Xu, Wei; Wei, Wei; Chen, Tian-Li

    2015-06-01

    The chemical constituents from lipophilic parts in the roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi were studied in this paper. The compounds were separated and purified by repeated column chromatographic methods on silica gel and HPLC, and the chemical structures of compounds were determined by spectral data analyses. Twenty-nine compounds were obtained and identified as isoimperatorin (1), β-sitosterol (2), imperatorin (3), bergapten (4), osthenol (5), xanthotoxin (6), isoimpinellin (7), dehydrogeijerin (8), phellopterin (9), isodemethylfuropinarine (10), 7-demethylsuberosin (11), alloimperatorin (12), xanthotoxol (13), isooxypeucedanin (14), alloisoimperatorin (15), demethylfuropinarine (16), 5-hydroxy-8-methoxypsoralen (17), oxypeucedanin methanolate (18), pabulenol (19), byakangelicin (20), marmesin (21), (+) -decursinol (22), heraclenol (23), oxypeucedanin hydrate (24), marmesinin (25), ulopterol (26), erythro-guaiacylglycerol-β-ferulic acid ether (27), threo-guaiacylglycerol-β-ferulic acid ether (28), and uracil (29). Compounds 5, 8, 11, 18, 21-23, and 26-28 were obtained from the roots of title plant for the first time.

  14. Chemical constituents of the lichen, Candelaria concolor: a complete NMR and chemical degradative investigation.

    PubMed

    Dias, Daniel A; Urban, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    A detailed chemical and spectroscopic investigation of the terrestrial lichen Candelaria concolor has yielded several lichenic metabolites belonging to the pulvinic acid series, as well as several depside derivatives including pulvinic dilactone (1), vulpinic acid (4) and calycin (5). The chemical transformation of 1 to pulvinic acid (3) is reported for the first time, as is the conversion of atranorin (6) to 5-chloroatranorin (7) and then finally to 5,5'-dichloroatranorin (8) under very mild conditions. Also presented is the complete 1D and 2D NMR assignment for compounds 1, 3, 4, 5 and 8, including partial NMR chemical shift assignments for the unstable depside (7). Previously, these metabolites had only been partially assigned by NMR spectroscopy. PMID:19521906

  15. Mobilization of major and trace constituents of highway runoff in groundwater potentially caused by deicing chemical migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.; Church, Peter E.; Stone, Victoria J.

    1995-01-01

    The quality of water in unsaturated zones and groundwater is affected by the major ions in deicing chemicals applied to roads and highways. The assessment of the environmental effects of highway runoff requires investigations to determine whether other major and trace constituents are mobilized during deicing chemical migration through the unsaturated zone and groundwater. In this regard, groundwater samples were analyzed in February and August 1991, and March, August, and November 1993 at a test site along Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts. Analyses indicated that concentrations of major and trace chemical constituents of highway runoff in groundwater are substantially higher downgradient than upgradient from the highway.

  16. Chemical constituents of fine particulate air pollution and pulmonary function in healthy adults: the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Hao, Yu; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Huang, Jing; Qin, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao

    2013-09-15

    The study examined the associations of 32 chemical constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM₂.₅) with pulmonary function in a panel of 21 college students. Study subjects relocated from a suburban area to an urban area with changing ambient air pollution levels and contents in Beijing, China, and provided daily morning/evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV₂₁) measurements over 6 months in three study periods. There were significant reductions in evening PEF and morning/evening FEV₂₁ associated with various air pollutants and PM₂.₅ constituents. Four PM₂.₅ constituents (copper, cadmium, arsenic and stannum) were found to be most consistently associated with the reductions in these pulmonary function measures. These findings provide clues for the respiratory effects of specific particulate chemical constituents in the context of urban air pollution. PMID:23747477

  17. Chemical constituents of fine particulate air pollution and pulmonary function in healthy adults: the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Hao, Yu; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Huang, Jing; Qin, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao

    2013-09-15

    The study examined the associations of 32 chemical constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM₂.₅) with pulmonary function in a panel of 21 college students. Study subjects relocated from a suburban area to an urban area with changing ambient air pollution levels and contents in Beijing, China, and provided daily morning/evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV₂₁) measurements over 6 months in three study periods. There were significant reductions in evening PEF and morning/evening FEV₂₁ associated with various air pollutants and PM₂.₅ constituents. Four PM₂.₅ constituents (copper, cadmium, arsenic and stannum) were found to be most consistently associated with the reductions in these pulmonary function measures. These findings provide clues for the respiratory effects of specific particulate chemical constituents in the context of urban air pollution.

  18. Chemical Source Inversion using Assimilated Constituent Observations in an Idealized Two-dimensional System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tangborn, Andrew; Cooper, Robert; Pawson, Steven; Sun, Zhibin

    2009-01-01

    We present a source inversion technique for chemical constituents that uses assimilated constituent observations rather than directly using the observations. The method is tested with a simple model problem, which is a two-dimensional Fourier-Galerkin transport model combined with a Kalman filter for data assimilation. Inversion is carried out using a Green's function method and observations are simulated from a true state with added Gaussian noise. The forecast state uses the same spectral spectral model, but differs by an unbiased Gaussian model error, and emissions models with constant errors. The numerical experiments employ both simulated in situ and satellite observation networks. Source inversion was carried out by either direct use of synthetically generated observations with added noise, or by first assimilating the observations and using the analyses to extract observations. We have conducted 20 identical twin experiments for each set of source and observation configurations, and find that in the limiting cases of a very few localized observations, or an extremely large observation network there is little advantage to carrying out assimilation first. However, in intermediate observation densities, there decreases in source inversion error standard deviation using the Kalman filter algorithm followed by Green's function inversion by 50% to 95%.

  19. Chemical constituents of Phragmanthera austroarabica A. G. Mill and J. A. Nyberg with potent antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Jihan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phragmanthera austroarabica A.G. Mill. and J. A. Nyberg is a semi parasitic plant belonging to family Loranthaceae. It was collected from Saudi Arabia. It is widely used in folk medicine among the kingdom in treatment of various diseases including diabetes mellitus. Objective: The total alcoholic extract of P. austroarabica collected from Saudi Arabia was investigated for the chemical structure and prominent biological activity of the main constituents. Materials and Methods: Isolation of the active constituents was performed using different chromatographic techniques including column chromatography packed with silica or sephadex and preparative thin layer chromatography. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on different spectroscopic data as mass spectrum, one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear single quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation). Results: Phytochemical investigation of the plant resulted in isolation of 12 compounds. The isolated compounds were identified as chrysophanic acid, emodin, chrysophanic acid-8-O-glucoside, emodin-8-O-glucoside, pectolinarigenin, quercetin, dillenetin-3-O-glucoside, catechin, catechin-4’-O-gallate, methyl gallate, lupeol and ursolic acid. All the isolated phenolic compounds revealed significant free radical scavenging activities when tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl reagent. Conclusion: The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds can justify the use of P. austroarabica in traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes and verify its possible application as an antihyperglycemic drug. PMID:26692747

  20. Chemical Constituents and Pharmacology of the Aristolochia (馬兜鈴 mădōu ling) species

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ping-Chung; Li, Yue-Chiun; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2012-01-01

    Aristolochia (馬兜鈴 mădōu ling) is an important genus widely cultivated and had long been known for their extensive use in traditional Chinese medicine. The genus has attracted so much great interest because of their numerous biological activity reports and unique constituents, aristolochic acids (AAs). In 2004, we reviewed the metabolites of Aristolochia species which have appeared in the literature, concerning the isolation, structural elucidation, biological activity and literature references. In addition, the nephrotoxicity of aristolochic acids, biosynthetic studies, ecological adaptation, and chemotaxonomy researches were also covered in the past review. In the present manuscript, we wish to review the various physiologically active compounds of different classes reported from Aristolochia species in the period between 2004 and 2011. In regard to the chemical and biological aspects of the constituents from the Aristolochia genus, this review would address the continuous development in the phytochemistry and the therapeutic application of the Aristolochia species. Moreover, the recent nephrotoxicity studies related to aristolochic acids would be covered in this review and the structure-toxicity relationship would be discussed. PMID:24716140

  1. Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Additivity-Based Approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Powerpoint presentation includes additivity-based chemical mixture risk assessment methods. Basic concepts, theory and example calculations are included. Several slides discuss the use of "common adverse outcomes" in analyzing phthalate mixtures.

  2. Mechanism of concentration addition toxicity: they are different for nonpolar narcotic chemicals, polar narcotic chemicals and reactive chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhifen; Du, Jianwei; Yin, Kedong; Wang, Liansheng; Yu, Hongxia

    2004-03-01

    According to the toxicity mechanism of the individual chemicals, the concentration addition toxicity mechanism is revealed for nonpolar-narcotic-chemical mixtures, polar-narcotic-chemical mixtures and reactive-chemical mixtures, respectively. For nonpolar-narcotic-chemical mixtures, the partitioning of individual chemicals from water to biophase was determined, and the result shows that their concentration additive effect results from no competitive partitioning among individual chemicals. For polar-narcotic-chemical mixtures, their toxicity are contributed by two factors (the total baseline toxicity and the hydrogen bond donor activity of individual chemicals), and it is the concentration additive effect for either of these two factors that leads to their concentration addition toxicity. In addition, the interactions between the reactive chemicals and the biological macromolecules are discussed thoroughly. The results suggest that the net effect of these interactions is zero, and it is this zero net effect that leads to the concentration addition toxicity mechanism for reactive-chemical mixtures.

  3. Chemical Constituents from the Fruits of Forsythia suspensa and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo-Feng; Yang, Mei-Lin; Lin, Ya-Hua; Peng, Chi-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Lignans and phenylethanoid glycosides purified from Forsythia suspensa were reported to display various bioactivities in the previous literature, including the antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the chemical constituents of the methanol extracts of fruits of F. suspensa. The methanol extracts of fruits of F. suspensa were fractionated and further purified with the assistance of column chromatography to afford totally thirty-four compounds. Among these isolates, 3β-acetoxy-20α-hydroxyursan-28-oic acid (1) was reported from the natural sources for the first time. Some of the purified principles were subjected to the antimicrobial activity examinations against Escherichia coli to explore new natural lead compounds. PMID:24745011

  4. Osteo-dental fluorosis in relation to chemical constituents of drinking waters.

    PubMed

    Choubisa, S L

    2012-01-01

    Study was conducted in 17 fluoride endemic villages to find out association between the prevalence and severity of osteo-dental fluorosis with different chemical constituents of drinking waters. These villages were arranged in 7 sets, each containing 2 to 3 villages with identical mean fluoride (F) concentrations in the range 1.0 to 5.8 mg/L but having different mean values of total hardness, alkalinity and nitrate (NO3) content in drinking water sources. A close association or relationship was found between the prevalence of fluorosis and the total hardness and alkalinity of potable waters. A low prevalence of fluorosis was found at low alkalinity and at high total hardness. But no specific association was observed between the prevalence figures of fluorosis with pH and NO3 levels which is also discussed in the present communication.

  5. [Isolation and structure identification of chemical constituents from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans].

    PubMed

    Dai, Li-Ping; Gao, Hui-Min; Wang, Zhi-Min; Wang, Wei-Hao

    2007-08-01

    The skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans, originated from Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (Bufonidae), is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of hepatoma, lung cancer and etc. The preparation of the aqueous components has significant therapeutic effect against the digestive tract cancer. The water-soluble chemical constituents in the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans were then investigated to make clear the active compounds. Six compounds were isolated and purified by recrystallization and column chromatography on silica gel and ODS, their structures were elucidated as 4-amido-3-hydroxymethyl-cyclooctylamidezotetra-alpha-furanone (I), bufogargarizanine C (II), bufothionine (III), dehydrobufotenine hydrobromide (IV), suberic acid (V) and succinic acid (VI) on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data (UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS). Of the above compounds, compounds I and II are new compounds and named bufogargarizanine B and C, respectively. PMID:17944235

  6. [Chemical constituents and antitumor activity on leukemia K562 cell of Leonurus heterophyllus].

    PubMed

    Cong, Yue; Guo, Jinggong; Wang, Tianxiao; Li, Mian; Li, Ke; Wang, Jinhui; Li, Qin

    2009-07-01

    The chemical constituents of Leonurus heterophyllus were separated and purified by repeated column chromatography on silica gel, HPD 100, Sephadex LH-20, and PHPLC. Each compound was characterized by spectroscopic and physical data. Eight compounds have been purified and identified to be quercetin 3-O-robinobioside (1), rutin (2), isoquerci trin (3), hyperoside (4), quercetin (5), apigenin (6), genkwanin (7), and benzoic acid (8). Among them, compounds 2, 5-7 were isolated from L. heterophyllus for the first time; Compounds 1, 3, 4, 8 were obtained for the first time from the genus Leonurus. The in vitro activities against leukemia K562 Cells of pure components were evaluated by testing their IC50. Compounds 1-6, 8 exhibited in-vitro inhibitory activities against leukemia K562 cells in different extent. PMID:19894515

  7. [Chemical constituents and antitumor activity on leukemia K562 cell of Leonurus heterophyllus].

    PubMed

    Cong, Yue; Guo, Jinggong; Wang, Tianxiao; Li, Mian; Li, Ke; Wang, Jinhui; Li, Qin

    2009-07-01

    The chemical constituents of Leonurus heterophyllus were separated and purified by repeated column chromatography on silica gel, HPD 100, Sephadex LH-20, and PHPLC. Each compound was characterized by spectroscopic and physical data. Eight compounds have been purified and identified to be quercetin 3-O-robinobioside (1), rutin (2), isoquerci trin (3), hyperoside (4), quercetin (5), apigenin (6), genkwanin (7), and benzoic acid (8). Among them, compounds 2, 5-7 were isolated from L. heterophyllus for the first time; Compounds 1, 3, 4, 8 were obtained for the first time from the genus Leonurus. The in vitro activities against leukemia K562 Cells of pure components were evaluated by testing their IC50. Compounds 1-6, 8 exhibited in-vitro inhibitory activities against leukemia K562 cells in different extent.

  8. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1988-11-14

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies including temperature programmed desorption, infrared study of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  9. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to sue chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. (VC)

  10. A review of selected chemical additives in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S

    2014-01-01

    The addition of chemical additives to consumer cosmetic products is a common practice to increase cosmetic effectiveness, maintain cosmetic efficacy, and produce a longer-lasting, more viable product. Recently, manufacturers have come under attack for the addition of chemicals including dioxane, formaldehyde, lead/lead acetate, parabens, and phthalate, as these additives may prove harmful to consumer health. Although reports show that these products may indeed adversely affect human health, these studies are conducted using levels of the aforementioned chemicals at much higher levels of exposure than those found in cosmetic products. When cosmeceuticals are used as per manufacturer's instructions, it is estimated that the levels of harmful additives found in these products are considerably lower than reported toxic concentrations.

  11. Statistical summary of selected physical, chemical, and toxicity characteristics and estimates of annual constituent loads in urban stormwater, Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fossum, Kenneth D.; O'Day, Christie M.; Wilson, Barbara J.; Monical, Jim E.

    2001-01-01

    Stormwater and streamflow in Maricopa County were monitored to (1) describe the physical, chemical, and toxicity characteristics of stormwater from areas having different land uses, (2) describe the physical, chemical, and toxicity characteristics of streamflow from areas that receive urban stormwater, and (3) estimate constituent loads in stormwater. Urban stormwater and streamflow had similar ranges in most constituent concentrations. The mean concentration of dissolved solids in urban stormwater was lower than in streamflow from the Salt River and Indian Bend Wash. Urban stormwater, however, had a greater chemical oxygen demand and higher concentrations of most nutrients. Mean seasonal loads and mean annual loads of 11 constituents and volumes of runoff were estimated for municipalities in the metropolitan Phoenix area, Arizona, by adjusting regional regression equations of loads. This adjustment procedure uses the original regional regression equation and additional explanatory variables that were not included in the original equation. The adjusted equations had standard errors that ranged from 161 to 196 percent. The large standard errors of the prediction result from the large variability of the constituent concentration data used in the regression analysis. Adjustment procedures produced unsatisfactory results for nine of the regressions?suspended solids, dissolved solids, total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, total recoverable cadmium, total recoverable copper, total recoverable lead, total recoverable zinc, and storm runoff. These equations had no consistent direction of bias and no other additional explanatory variables correlated with the observed loads. A stepwise-multiple regression or a three-variable regression (total storm rainfall, drainage area, and impervious area) and local data were used to develop local regression equations for these nine constituents. These equations had standard errors from 15 to 183 percent.

  12. Analysis of the constituents in jojoba wax used as a food additive by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Jin, Zhe-Long; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2005-10-01

    Jojoba wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive in Japan, and is obtained from jojoba oil with a characteristically high melting point. Although the constituents of jojoba oil have been reported, the quality of jojoba wax used as a food additive has not yet been clarified. In order to evaluate its quality as a food additive and to obtain basic information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in jojoba wax. LC/MS analysis of the jojoba wax showed six peaks with [M+H]+ ions in the range from m/z 533.6 to 673.7 at intervals of m/z 28. After isolation of the components of the four main peaks by preparative LC/MS, the fatty acid and long chain alcohol moieties of the wax esters were analyzed by methanolysis and hydrolysis, followed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main constituents in jojoba wax were various kinds of wax esters, namely eicosenyl octadecenoate (C20:1-C18:1) (1), eicosenyl eicosenoate (C20:1-C20:1) (II), docosenyl eicosenoate (C22:1-C20:1) (III), eicosenyl docosenoate (C20:1-C22:1) (IV) and tetracosenyl eiosenoate (C24:1-C20:1) (V). To confirm and quantify the wax esters in jojoba wax directly, LC/MS/MS analysis was performed. The product ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the wax esters were observed, and by using the product ions derived from the protonated molecular ions of wax esters the fatty acid moieties were identified by MRM analysis. The concentrations of the wax esters I, II and III, in jojoba wax were 5.5, 21.4 and 37.8%, respectively. In summary, we clarified the main constituents of jojoba wax and quantified the molecular species of the wax esters without hydrolysis by monitoring their product ions, using a LC/MS/MS system. PMID:16305174

  13. Analysis of the constituents in jojoba wax used as a food additive by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Jin, Zhe-Long; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2005-10-01

    Jojoba wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive in Japan, and is obtained from jojoba oil with a characteristically high melting point. Although the constituents of jojoba oil have been reported, the quality of jojoba wax used as a food additive has not yet been clarified. In order to evaluate its quality as a food additive and to obtain basic information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in jojoba wax. LC/MS analysis of the jojoba wax showed six peaks with [M+H]+ ions in the range from m/z 533.6 to 673.7 at intervals of m/z 28. After isolation of the components of the four main peaks by preparative LC/MS, the fatty acid and long chain alcohol moieties of the wax esters were analyzed by methanolysis and hydrolysis, followed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main constituents in jojoba wax were various kinds of wax esters, namely eicosenyl octadecenoate (C20:1-C18:1) (1), eicosenyl eicosenoate (C20:1-C20:1) (II), docosenyl eicosenoate (C22:1-C20:1) (III), eicosenyl docosenoate (C20:1-C22:1) (IV) and tetracosenyl eiosenoate (C24:1-C20:1) (V). To confirm and quantify the wax esters in jojoba wax directly, LC/MS/MS analysis was performed. The product ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the wax esters were observed, and by using the product ions derived from the protonated molecular ions of wax esters the fatty acid moieties were identified by MRM analysis. The concentrations of the wax esters I, II and III, in jojoba wax were 5.5, 21.4 and 37.8%, respectively. In summary, we clarified the main constituents of jojoba wax and quantified the molecular species of the wax esters without hydrolysis by monitoring their product ions, using a LC/MS/MS system.

  14. Identification of chemical constituents in two traditional Chinese medicine formulae by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and off-line nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufang; Zhu, Yunxiang; Shao, Qing; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2016-01-01

    There have been increasing works on identification of the chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). However, isomers cannot be distinguished generally only by MS data, and the structures of unknown compounds cannot be confirmed. In this study, semi-preparative LC guided by LC-MS was used to prepare the isomers in microscale followed by off-line NMR analysis to confirm their structures. This approach was applied to identifying the constituents in two TCM formulae, Zhi-Zi-Gan-Cao-Chi-Tang (ZZGCCT) and Zhi-Zi-Bai-Pi-Tang (ZZBPT). A total number of 119 constituents were identified tentatively or unambiguously by LC-IT-MS, LC-Q-TOF-MS, and NMR. Among them, 20 constituents were characterized unambiguously by comparing with the reference substances. In addition, 21 constituents without reference substances were prepared for the following 1D-NMR and/or 2D-NMR analysis, and their structures were unambiguously identified by MS, 1D-NMR, and 2D-NMR. Two triterpenoid glycosides (compounds 134 and 140) and one flavonoid glycoside (compound 62a or 62b) were showed to be novel compounds. Compounds 125 and 129, as well as 62a,b, were epimers.

  15. A composite numerical model for assessing subsurface transport of oily wastes and chemical constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, S.; Wu, Y. S.; Huyakorn, P. S.; Wade, S. C.; Saleem, Z. A.

    1997-02-01

    Subsurface fate and transport models are utilized to predict concentrations of chemicals leaching from wastes into downgradient receptor wells. The contaminant concentrations in groundwater provide a measure of the risk to human health and the environment. The level of potential risk is currently used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to determine whether management of the wastes should conform to hazardous waste management standards. It is important that the transport and fate of contaminants is simulated realistically. Most models in common use are inappropriate for simulating the migration of wastes containing significant fractions of nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs). The migration of NAPL and its dissolved constituents may not be reliably predicted using conventional aqueous-phase transport simulations. To overcome this deficiency, an efficient and robust regulatory assessment model incorporating multiphase flow and transport in the unsaturated and saturated zones of the subsurface environment has been developed. The proposed composite model takes into account all of the major transport processes including infiltration and ambient flow of NAPL, entrapment of residual NAPL, adsorption, volatilization, degradation, dissolution of chemical constituents, and transport by advection and hydrodynamic dispersion. Conceptually, the subsurface is treated as a composite unsaturated zone-saturated zone system. The composite simulator consists of three major interconnected computational modules representing the following components of the migration pathway: (1) vertical multiphase flow and transport in the unsaturated zone; (2) areal movement of the free-product lens in the saturated zone with vertical equilibrium; and (3) three-dimensional aqueous-phase transport of dissolved chemicals in ambient groundwater. Such a composite model configuration promotes computational efficiency and robustness (desirable for regulatory assessment applications). Two examples are

  16. Chemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of Indian Green Leafy Vegetable Cardiospermum halicacabum.

    PubMed

    Jeyadevi, R; Sivasudha, T; Ilavarasi, A; Thajuddin, N

    2013-06-01

    The present study was carried out to analyze chemical constituents and antibacterial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum (ECH). The FT-IR spectrum confirmed the presence of alcohols, phenols, alkanes, alkynes, aliphatic ester and flavonoids in ECH. The GC-MS analysis revealed that ECH contained about twenty four compounds. The major chemical compounds identified were cyclohexane-1, 4, 5-triol-3-one-1-carboxylic acid, benzene acetic acid, caryophyllene, phytol and neophytadiene. The ECH was screened for its antibacterial activity against different bacterial strains and anti fungal activity against Candida albicans by agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. ECH exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity. All the tested bacterial strains showed MIC values ranging from 80 to 125 μg of extract/ml and C. albicans showed 190 μg of extract/ml as a MIC. The maximum activity ECH was observed against human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus followed by Escherichia coli and the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. ECH exhibited moderate activity against some of the tested multidrug resistant strains. PMID:24426110

  17. Chemical constituents of marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Exophiala oligosperma EN-21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang; Li, Ke; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bingui

    2011-01-01

    Seven compounds (1-7) were identified from the cultivation of the endophytic fungus Exophiala oligosperma (EN-21) that was isolated from the inner tissue of the marine red alga Laurencia similis. Their structures were identified with spectroscopic and chemical methods as 2-phenoxynaphthalene ( 1), (2 S, 3 R, 4 E, 8 E)-1- O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-hydroxy-2-[( R)-2'-hydroxyoctadecanoyl] amino-9-methyl-4, 8-octadeca-diene ( 2), (22 E,24 R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6β-triol ( 3), (22 E, 24 R)-3β, 5α, 9α-trihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-dien-6-one ( 4), (22 E, 24 R)-5α, 6α-epoxy-ergosta-8, 22-dien-3β, 7α-diol ( 5), (22 E, 24 R)-ergosta-4, 6, 8(14), 22-tetraen-3-one ( 6), and euphorbol ( 7). This paper reports for the first time the chemical constituents of fungus Exophiala oligosperma and the discovery of compound 1 as a natural product from the fungus.

  18. [Chemical constituents from polarity part in roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi].

    PubMed

    Deng, Gai-gai; Gui, Zhi-jia; Yang, Xiu-wei

    2015-10-01

    The chemical constituents from polarity part in the roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi were studied in this paper. The compounds were separated and purified by repeated column chromatographic methods on silica gel and HPLC, and the chemical structures of compounds were determined by spectral data analyses. Fourteen compounds were obtained and identified as tert-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(R)-byakangelicin (1), (2"S) -3"-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oxypeucedanin hydrate (2), marmesinin (3), sec-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-byakangelicin (4), isofraxidin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), benzyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), 8-O-β-D-glycopyranosylxanthotoxol (7), prenyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), scopolin (9), (2' R) -5'-hydroxymarmesin-5'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), (2'S,3'R) -3'-hydroxymarmesinin (11), skimmin (12), benzyl-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1"--> 6')-β-D-glucopyranoside (13), and decuroside IV (14). Among them, compounds 2, 5, 6, 8, and 10-13 were obtained from the roots of title plant for the first time.

  19. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of additives on the ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow them to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. 49 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Statistical summary of selected physical, chemical, and microbial characteristics, and estimates of constituent loads in urban stormwater, Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Fossum, K.D.; Phillips, J.V.; Monical, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Stormwater and streamflow in the Phoenix, Arizona, area were monitored to determine the physical, chemical, and microbial characteristics of storm- water from areas having different land uses; to describe the characteristics of streamflow in a river that receives urban stormwater; and to estimate constituent loads in stormwater from unmonitored areas in Maricopa County, Arizona. Land use affects urban stormwater chemistry mostly because the percentage of impervious area controls the suspended-solids concentrations and varies with the type of land use. Urban activities also seem to concentrate cadmium, lead, and zinc in sediments. Urban stormwater had larger concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand, oil and grease, and higher counts of fecal bacteria than streamflow and could degrade the quality of the Salt River. Most regression equations for estimating constituent loads require three explanatory variables (total rainfall, drainage area, and per- centage of impervious area) and had standard errors that were from 65 to 266 percent. Localized areas that appear to contribute a large proportion of the constituent loads typically have 40 percent or more impervious area and are associated with industrial, commercial, and high-density residential land uses. The use of the mean value of the event-mean constituent concentrations measured in stormwater may be the best way of estimating constituent concentrations.

  1. Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.

    PubMed

    Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level.

  2. Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.

    PubMed

    Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level. PMID:23552653

  3. Transformation of chemical constituents of lychee wine by simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dai; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2016-04-01

    This work examined for the first time the impact of malolactic fermentation (MLF) on the chemical constituents of lychee wine. Oenococcus oeni Viniflora Oenos (MLF inducer) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae MERIT.ferm were co-inoculated into lychee juice to induce simultaneous alcoholic fermentation (AF) and MLF. MLF did not affect sugar utilisation and ethanol production statistically (8.54% v/v for MLF and 9.27% v/v for AF). However, MLF resulted in dramatic degradation of malic and citric acids with concomitant increases of lactic acid, ethyl lactate and pH. The final concentrations of acetic and succinic acids between AF and MLF wines had no significant difference. The MLF wine contained significantly higher amounts of amino acids than the AF wine. More importantly, MLF significantly elevated the levels of potent aroma-active compounds including isoamyl acetate, linalool, geraniol and cis-rose oxide (to levels above or near respective detection thresholds), suggesting that MLF is an effective way of retaining the original lychee flavour. PMID:26593581

  4. [Chemical constituents from stems of Hedyotis hedyotidea and their immunosuppressive activity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-tian; Gao, Sha-sha; Hou, Jun-jie; Zhou, Yong-qin; Zhou, Jie-wen; Wang, Xiao-gang; Qin, Nan; Chen, Jia-chun; Duan, Hong-quan; Fang, Jin-bo

    2015-06-01

    Hedyotis hedyotidea has been traditionally used for the treatment of arthritis, cold, cough, gastro-enteritis, headstroke, etc. But few studies have screened the active compounds from extracts of H. hedyotidea. In this study, the structure of the chemical constituents from stems of H. hedyotidea were determined and the immunosuppressive activity of the compounds was evaluated. The compounds were separated and purified with silica gel, gel column chromatographies and preparative HPLC, and their structures were identified by spectral methods such as MS and NMR. Eleven compounds were obtained and identified as(6S,9S) -vomifoliol (1), betulonic acid (2), betulinic acid (3), betulin(4), 3-epi-betulinic acid (5), ursolic acid (6), β-sitosterol (7), stigmast-4-en-3-one (8), 7β-hydroxysitosterol (9), (3β,7β) -7-methoxystigmast-5-en-3-ol (10) and morindacin (11). This is the first report of compounds 1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11 from H. hedyotidea. Compounds 1, 2 and 8-11 were firstly isolated from the genus Hedyotis, and compounds 9 and 10 were isolated from the family Rubiaceae for the first time. The immunosuppressive activity of these compounds was tested using the lymphocyte transsormationtest. Compounds 4, 6 and 9 showed significant immunosuppressive activity.

  5. Transformation of chemical constituents of lychee wine by simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dai; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2016-04-01

    This work examined for the first time the impact of malolactic fermentation (MLF) on the chemical constituents of lychee wine. Oenococcus oeni Viniflora Oenos (MLF inducer) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae MERIT.ferm were co-inoculated into lychee juice to induce simultaneous alcoholic fermentation (AF) and MLF. MLF did not affect sugar utilisation and ethanol production statistically (8.54% v/v for MLF and 9.27% v/v for AF). However, MLF resulted in dramatic degradation of malic and citric acids with concomitant increases of lactic acid, ethyl lactate and pH. The final concentrations of acetic and succinic acids between AF and MLF wines had no significant difference. The MLF wine contained significantly higher amounts of amino acids than the AF wine. More importantly, MLF significantly elevated the levels of potent aroma-active compounds including isoamyl acetate, linalool, geraniol and cis-rose oxide (to levels above or near respective detection thresholds), suggesting that MLF is an effective way of retaining the original lychee flavour.

  6. [Chemical constituents of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx and their anti-complementary activity].

    PubMed

    Yao, Shi; Xu, Nai-Yu; Chu, Chun-Jun; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2013-01-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx and their anti-complementary activity on the basis of preliminary studies. Target isolation guided by anti-complementary activity test, compounds in the chloroform and n-butanol fractions were isolated and purified by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and preparative HPLC. The structures were identified by various spectroscopic data including ESI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR data. The compounds were evaluated for anti-complementary activity in vitro. Eleven compounds were isolated from the chloroform and n-butanol soluble fractions and identified as stigmasterol (1), stigmas-9 (11) -en-3-ol (2), glaucocalyxin D (3), kamebakaurin (4), maslinic acid (5), corosolic acid (6), minheryins I (7), diosmetin (8), caffeic acid ethylene ester (9), caffeic acid (10) and vitexin (11). Isoquercetrin, rutin, quercetin, 3-methylquercetin, luteolin, 7-methylluteolin, and apigenin which were isolated from the preliminary studies together with compounds 9 and 10 showed inhibition of the complement system by the classical pathway. Compounds 2, 4, 6-9 and 11 were obtained from this plant for the first time. Caffeic acid (10) showed the strongest activity in vitro with a CH50 value of 0.041 g x L(-1). PMID:23672041

  7. [Isolation of chemical constituents from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. with recycling preparative high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Li, Guozhu; Meng, Qingyan; Luo, Bi; Ge, Zhenghong; Liu, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    The combination of alternate recycling and direct recycling preparative liquid chromatography method was developed for the isolation of chemical constituents from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. The crude extract was obtained from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. by solvent extraction, column chromatography and reversed-phase (RP) flash chromatography. All the separations were performed with methanol and water as mobile phases and the developed recycling preparative method was used with twin RP columns switched by a two-position ten-way valve for the separation. The mobile phase was recycled in close loop with a two-position six-way valve. The fraction I and fraction II from reversed-phase flash chromatography were selected for the demonstration of separation power of the proposed protocol, and five compounds were obtained from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. The isolated five compounds were identified as pinocembrin-7-O-rutinoside, pinocembrin-7-O-rutinoside, acacetin-7-O-rutinoside, picein and protocatechuic acid with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The experimental results showed that the developed preparation method exhibited higher separation efficiency with less mobile phase used than the reported methods, and could be expected as an effective method for the separation of complex natural products, especially the compounds with similar structures. PMID:25958674

  8. Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from the bacterium Bacillus sp. and their nematicidal activities.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Liming; Jin, Hui; Lu, Dengxue; Yang, Xiaoyan; Pan, Le; Cui, Haiyan; He, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Hongdeng; Qin, Bo

    2015-10-01

    A strain SMrs28 was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a toxic plant Stellera chamaejasme and identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of morphological and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The crude extract of SMrs28 fermentation broth showed strong nematocidal activities in preliminary test. To define the active nematocidal metabolites of SMrs28, a novel compound (1), 4-oxabicyclo[3.2.2]nona-1(7), 5,8-triene, along with five known compounds (2-6), were isolated from the strain by various column chromatographic techniques and characterized on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Results of the in vitro nematicidal tests showed that the metabolites presented different levels of activity at certain exposure conditions. Compounds (1-3) displayed LC50 values of 904.12, 451.26, 232.98 µg/ml and 1594.0, 366.62, 206.38 µg/ml against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Ditylenchus destructor at 72 h, respectively. This is the first report of the nematicidal activity of the compounds as constituents of Bacillus sp.. Our findings help to find potential chemical structures to develop nematicides from microbial source for the management of nematode-infected plant diseases.

  9. Toxicity of Alangium salvifolium Wang chemical constituents against the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura Fab.

    PubMed

    Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Revathi, Kannan; Chandrasekaran, Rajamanickam; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Edwin, Edward Sam; Pradeepa, Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Widespread use of synthetic pesticides has resulted in the development of insecticide-resistant populations of pests and harmful effects on human health and the environment. There is a need to identify alternative pest management strategies to reduce our reliance on conventional chemical pesticides. In recent years the use of botanical pesticides for protecting crops from insect pests has assumed greater importance. Methanol extract of Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wang has potential insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura Fab. The active fractions were identified through chromatographic techniques as F-IV (Rf value=0.45) and F-VI (Rf value=0.63) and were subjected to GC-MS (GCMATE II). Fifty, 100 and 200ppm of active fractions were applied to fourth instar larvae and the mortality increased with higher concentrations. Relative consumption rate, relative growth rate, efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food values all decreased in treated larvae, but approximate digestibility rate increased after treatment. The hydrolytic enzymes, such as acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase were inhibited in treated larvae compared with controls. The histopathology study revealed that the epithelial columnar cells were enlarged, completely atrophied; intercellular spaces were swollen, and also noted a cytoplasmic ooze of cell material that mixed with food column. The present study clearly showed the active fractions from A. salvifolium as potential botanicals to control the larvae of S. litura. This is the first report for nutritional indices, enzymatic activities and histological effects of A. salvifolium chemical constituents against S. litura. Thus probably, this will be used as an alternative for synthetic pesticides against the polyphagous pest like S. litura. PMID:26778440

  10. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1989-02-04

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of studies including temperature programmed desorption, infrared study of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation over Rh catalysts. Ethylene hydroformylation has often served as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of Rh catalysts. The mechanism of CO insertion in ethylene hydroformylation over Rh/SiO{sub 2} was investigated.

  11. Identification of the chemical constituents in aqueous extract of Zhi-Qiao and evaluation of its antidepressant effect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhou, Chao; Jia, Hongmei; Ma, Zhuo; Zou, Zhongmei

    2015-01-01

    The immature fruit of Citrus aurantium L. (Zhi-Qiao, ZQ) has been used as a traditional medicine in China. Our previous study has shown that ZQ decoction may contribute to the antidepressant-like action of Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San. However, there are no reports on the chemical constituents of ZQ aqueous extract or its anti-depression effects. Firstly, this research reported the on-line identification of the chemical constituents in the aqueous extract of ZQ by coupling ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). A total of 31 chemical constituents were identified in ZQ aqueous extract, including one tannic acid, five flavones, 13 flavanones, one limonoid, three coumarins, three cyclic peptides, and five polymethoxylated flavonoids. The antidepressant effect of ZQ aqueous extract was evaluated in vivo and the results indicated that the mice immobility time during the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test were significantly reduced with ZQ treatment. MTT assays showed both ZQ aqueous extract and its major constituents (naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, and nobiletin) had neuroprotective effect on corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. The in vivo and in vitro results suggest that ZQ has an antidepressant effect.

  12. Downhole chemical addition owing to convection in annular liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, D.R.; Dhodapkar, P.K.; Pradhan, S.P.; Sharma, A.N.

    1994-03-01

    Production of waxy crude oils normally is associated with such operational problems as wax deposition in the tubulars and gelling of flowlines. Different methods are available to control wax deposition. Continuous addition of certain chemicals at low dosages to the well is popular because it reduces oil viscosity and other downstream problems. These chemicals, known as pour-point depressants (PPD's), remain in semisolid state at ambient temperatures. During winter, the chemical solution needs more expensive solvents or heating to maintain its fluidity. To avoid the costs involved in the surface setup and its maintenance and monitoring, the authors tried a simple method in a few pumping wells with satisfactory results. In this method, the oil column in the casing above the pump suction depth is replaced with a chemical solution. Density of the solution is maintained below that of the produced liquid. This prevents gravity swapping and ensures the presence of a chemical reservoir within the wellbore. When the pump is in operation, the temperature of the tubing's outer surface is a few degrees higher than that of the casing's inner surface. Natural convection currents occur in the liquid trapped between the two surfaces. The liquid rises along the tubing and moves in the opposite direction near the casing. Near the pump suction level, a constant exchange of mass between the crude entering the pump and the chemical reservoir takes place.

  13. Effects of Particulate Matter and Its Chemical Constituents on Elderly Hospital Admissions Due to Circulatory and Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Tatiane Morais; Forti, Maria Cristina; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Nascimento, Felipe Parra; Junger, Washington Leite; Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Various fractions of particulate matter have been associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The purpose of our study is to analyze the associations between concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5–10, PM10 and their chemical constituents (soluble ions) with hospital admissions due to circulatory and respiratory diseases among the elderly in a medium-sized city in Brazil. A time series study was conducted using Poisson regression with generalized additive models adjusted for confounders. Statistically significant associations were identified between PM10 and PM2.5–10 and respiratory diseases. Risks of hospitalization increased by 23.5% (95% CI: 13.5; 34.3) and 12.8% (95% CI: 6.0; 20.0) per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5-10 and PM10, respectively. PM2.5 exhibited a significant association with circulatory system diseases, with the risk of hospitalization increasing by 19.6% (95% CI: 6.4; 34.6) per 10 μg/m3. Regarding the chemical species; SO42−, NO3−, NH4+ and K+ exhibited specific patterns of risk, relative to the investigated outcomes. Overall, SO42− in PM2.5–10 and K+ in PM2.5 were associated with increased risk of hospital admissions due to both types of diseases. The results agree with evidence indicating that the risks for different health outcomes vary in relation to the fractions and chemical composition of PM10. Thus, PM10 speciation studies may contribute to the establishment of more selective pollution control policies. PMID:27669280

  14. Effects of Particulate Matter and Its Chemical Constituents on Elderly Hospital Admissions Due to Circulatory and Respiratory Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Tatiane Morais; Forti, Maria Cristina; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Nascimento, Felipe Parra; Junger, Washington Leite; Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Various fractions of particulate matter have been associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The purpose of our study is to analyze the associations between concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5-10, PM10 and their chemical constituents (soluble ions) with hospital admissions due to circulatory and respiratory diseases among the elderly in a medium-sized city in Brazil. A time series study was conducted using Poisson regression with generalized additive models adjusted for confounders. Statistically significant associations were identified between PM10 and PM2.5-10 and respiratory diseases. Risks of hospitalization increased by 23.5% (95% CI: 13.5; 34.3) and 12.8% (95% CI: 6.0; 20.0) per 10 μg/m³ of PM2.5-10 and PM10, respectively. PM2.5 exhibited a significant association with circulatory system diseases, with the risk of hospitalization increasing by 19.6% (95% CI: 6.4; 34.6) per 10 μg/m³. Regarding the chemical species; SO₄(2-), NO₃(-), NH₄⁺ and K⁺ exhibited specific patterns of risk, relative to the investigated outcomes. Overall, SO₄(2-) in PM2.5-10 and K⁺ in PM2.5 were associated with increased risk of hospital admissions due to both types of diseases. The results agree with evidence indicating that the risks for different health outcomes vary in relation to the fractions and chemical composition of PM10. Thus, PM10 speciation studies may contribute to the establishment of more selective pollution control policies. PMID:27669280

  15. Chemical constituents: water-soluble vitamins, free amino acids and sugar profile from Ganoderma adspersum.

    PubMed

    Kıvrak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma adspersum presents a rigid fruiting body owing to chitin content and having a small quantity of water or moisture. The utility of bioactive constituent of the mushroom can only be available by extraction for human usage. In this study, carbohydrate, water-soluble vitamin compositions and amino acid contents were determined in G. adspersum mushroom. The composition in individual sugars was determined by HPLC-RID, mannitol (13.04 g/100 g) and trehalose (10.27 g/100 g) being the most abundant sugars. The examination of water-soluble vitamins and free amino acid composition was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Essential amino acid constituted 67.79% of total amino acid, which is well worth the attention with regard to researchers and consumers. In addition, G. adspersum, which is also significantly rich in B group vitamins and vitamin C, can provide a wide range of notable applications in the pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food and dietary supplement industries. G. adspersum revealed its value for pharmacy and nutrition fields.

  16. Chemical Constituents and Activity of Murraya microphylla Essential Oil against Lasioderma serricorne.

    PubMed

    You, Chun-Xue; Guo, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-09-01

    The chemical composition, contact and repellent activities of the essential oil from Murraya microphylla branches and leaves against Lasioderma serricorne adults were determined and six compounds from the essential oil were isolated as well. The essential oil of M microphylla obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis; 22 compounds were identified. The main constituents of the essential oil included β-caryophyllene (18.0%), α-pinene (13.8%), spathulenol (9.5%), α-humulene (6.0%), γ-elemene (5.1%) and zingiberene (4.6%), followed by α-cadinol (3.9%) and caryophyllene oxide (3.8%). Six of these compounds were isolated and fully identified as α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, caryophyllene oxide, spathulenol and α-cadinol. L. serricorne adults had different sensitivities to the crude essential oil and isolated compounds. α-Humulene exhibited the strongest contact activity against L. serricorne, showing an LD50 value of 13.1 µg adult(-1). However, spathulenol, the crude essential oil and α-cadinol showed stronger contact activity against L. serricorne than caryophyllene oxide and β-caryophyllene. The essential oil, α-humulene and spathulenol showed comparable repellency against L. serricorne adults at 2 h after exposure, relative to the positive control, DEET. The results demonstrate that the essential oil and isolated compounds exhibited important contact and repellent activities against L. serricorne. Thus, they could become potential natural insecticides or repellents for control of insects in stored products.

  17. Chemical Constituents and Activity of Murraya microphylla Essential Oil against Lasioderma serricorne.

    PubMed

    You, Chun-Xue; Guo, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-09-01

    The chemical composition, contact and repellent activities of the essential oil from Murraya microphylla branches and leaves against Lasioderma serricorne adults were determined and six compounds from the essential oil were isolated as well. The essential oil of M microphylla obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis; 22 compounds were identified. The main constituents of the essential oil included β-caryophyllene (18.0%), α-pinene (13.8%), spathulenol (9.5%), α-humulene (6.0%), γ-elemene (5.1%) and zingiberene (4.6%), followed by α-cadinol (3.9%) and caryophyllene oxide (3.8%). Six of these compounds were isolated and fully identified as α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, caryophyllene oxide, spathulenol and α-cadinol. L. serricorne adults had different sensitivities to the crude essential oil and isolated compounds. α-Humulene exhibited the strongest contact activity against L. serricorne, showing an LD50 value of 13.1 µg adult(-1). However, spathulenol, the crude essential oil and α-cadinol showed stronger contact activity against L. serricorne than caryophyllene oxide and β-caryophyllene. The essential oil, α-humulene and spathulenol showed comparable repellency against L. serricorne adults at 2 h after exposure, relative to the positive control, DEET. The results demonstrate that the essential oil and isolated compounds exhibited important contact and repellent activities against L. serricorne. Thus, they could become potential natural insecticides or repellents for control of insects in stored products. PMID:26594776

  18. Enhancement of nutritionally significant constituents of black currant seeds by chemical elicitor application.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gema; Ruiz del Castillo, María Luisa

    2016-03-01

    Black currant seeds are obtained as a residue during juice production. Black currant seed oil contains high amounts of nutritionally desirable constituents such as γ-linolenic acid (GLA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and stearidonic acid (SA), as well as certain phenolic acids, which act as natural antioxidants. Fatty acids and phenolic acids of seeds from black currant cultivars after elicitation with methyl jasmonate (MJ) were examined. GLA contents around 25% with respect to total fatty acid content were measured in seeds after pre-harvest treatment of black currants with 0.02mM MJ in 0.05% Tween-20. High GLA samples also exhibited high SA content (higher than 10% with respect to total fatty acid content); however, ALA dropped (from 16% to 10%). High GLA content seeds also showed increased contents of gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids. In particular, seeds from 0.02mM MJ treated Ben Hope black currants exerted contents of gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids of 201.4, 125.9, 201.3 and 112.5μgg(-1)vs 124.3, 58.6, 165.4 and 95.8μgg(-1) measured in seeds from untreated Ben Hope black currants. Comparable results were obtained for Ben Alder and Ben Gairn berries. Chemical elicitation with 0.02 MJ is proposed as an industrial practice in such a way that, after consideration of quality issues, it would be obtained high added value black currant seeds.

  19. Enhancement of nutritionally significant constituents of black currant seeds by chemical elicitor application.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gema; Ruiz del Castillo, María Luisa

    2016-03-01

    Black currant seeds are obtained as a residue during juice production. Black currant seed oil contains high amounts of nutritionally desirable constituents such as γ-linolenic acid (GLA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and stearidonic acid (SA), as well as certain phenolic acids, which act as natural antioxidants. Fatty acids and phenolic acids of seeds from black currant cultivars after elicitation with methyl jasmonate (MJ) were examined. GLA contents around 25% with respect to total fatty acid content were measured in seeds after pre-harvest treatment of black currants with 0.02mM MJ in 0.05% Tween-20. High GLA samples also exhibited high SA content (higher than 10% with respect to total fatty acid content); however, ALA dropped (from 16% to 10%). High GLA content seeds also showed increased contents of gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids. In particular, seeds from 0.02mM MJ treated Ben Hope black currants exerted contents of gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids of 201.4, 125.9, 201.3 and 112.5μgg(-1)vs 124.3, 58.6, 165.4 and 95.8μgg(-1) measured in seeds from untreated Ben Hope black currants. Comparable results were obtained for Ben Alder and Ben Gairn berries. Chemical elicitation with 0.02 MJ is proposed as an industrial practice in such a way that, after consideration of quality issues, it would be obtained high added value black currant seeds. PMID:26471680

  20. Additives initiate selective production of chemicals from biomass pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Leng, Shuai; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Huizhe; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Fengyun; Liu, Jingmei; Wang, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    To improve chemicals selectivity under low temperature, a new method that involves the injection of additives into biomass pyrolysis is introduced. This method allows biomass pyrolysis to achieve high selectivity to chemicals under low temperature (300°C), while nothing was obtained in typical pyrolysis under 300°C. However, by using the new method, the first liquid drop emerged at the interval between 140°C and 240°C. Adding methanol to mushroom scrap pyrolysis obtained high selectivity to acetic acid (98.33%), while adding ethyl acetate gained selectivity to methanol (65.77%) in bagasse pyrolysis and to acetone (72.51%) in corncob pyrolysis. Apart from basic chemicals, one high value-added chemical (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran) was also detected, which obtained the highest selectivity (10.33%) in corncob pyrolysis through the addition of ethyl acetate. Comparison of HZSM-5 and CaCO3 catalysis showed that benzene emerged in the liquid because of the larger degree of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation over HZSM-5. PMID:24508091

  1. Additives initiate selective production of chemicals from biomass pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Leng, Shuai; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Huizhe; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Fengyun; Liu, Jingmei; Wang, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    To improve chemicals selectivity under low temperature, a new method that involves the injection of additives into biomass pyrolysis is introduced. This method allows biomass pyrolysis to achieve high selectivity to chemicals under low temperature (300°C), while nothing was obtained in typical pyrolysis under 300°C. However, by using the new method, the first liquid drop emerged at the interval between 140°C and 240°C. Adding methanol to mushroom scrap pyrolysis obtained high selectivity to acetic acid (98.33%), while adding ethyl acetate gained selectivity to methanol (65.77%) in bagasse pyrolysis and to acetone (72.51%) in corncob pyrolysis. Apart from basic chemicals, one high value-added chemical (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran) was also detected, which obtained the highest selectivity (10.33%) in corncob pyrolysis through the addition of ethyl acetate. Comparison of HZSM-5 and CaCO3 catalysis showed that benzene emerged in the liquid because of the larger degree of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation over HZSM-5.

  2. Chemical constituents and anticancer activity of yellow camellias against MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Ni; Lin, Hui-Yi; Yang, Ning-Sun; Li, Yen-Hsien; Lee, Maw-Rong; Chuang, Chung-Hsiang; Ho, Chi-Tang; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Way, Tzong-Der

    2013-10-01

    Yellow camellia, with its golden yellow flowers, is rare in the world. Most studies of yellow camellia have focused on its ornamental properties; however, there are fewer published studies on its medical values. The purpose of this study was to define the chemical constituents and the biological potential of the water extract of leaves in six species of yellow camellia. The data showed that Camellia murauchii had significantly higher total catechins and total polyphenol content than others; Camellia euphlebia had the highest total amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid. The results indicated that Camellia tunghinensis exhibited the highest free radical scavenging capacity and showed potent anticancer activities. Camellia nitidissima had stronger inhibitory effect than other species on fatty acid synthesis. In addition to catechins, 3-p-coumaroylquinic acid, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were detected in C. tunghinensis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Taken together, yellow camellias possess biological activity and are worthy of continued study.

  3. Chemical constituents of the hemiparasitic plant Phoradendron brachystachyum DC Nutt (Viscaceae).

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Sugey; Navarrete-Vázquez, Gabriel; Estrada-Soto, Samuel; León-Rivera, Ismael; Rios, María Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Phoradendron brachystachyum is a hemiparasitic plant widely distributed in México that belongs to the Viscaceae family. It has been commonly used in folk medicine as a substitute for the European mistletoe. In this chemical study, morolic acid was isolated as the major component (47.54% of the total composition of acetone extract) of this plant. In addition, 19 known compounds were identified: β-sitosteryl and stigmasteryl linoleates, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, triacontanol, squalene, α- and β-amyrin, lupeol, lupenone, betulin aldehyde, betulon aldehyde, oleanolic aldehyde, betulinic acid, betulonic acid, moronic acid, morolic acid, oleanolic acid, flavonoids acacetin and acacetin 7-methyl ether. There have been no previous reports in the literature on the chemical composition of this potential natural source of hypoglycaemic and antihypertensive compounds.

  4. Change in chemical constituents and free radical-scavenging activity during Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivar fruit development.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Eun Hee; Yun, Hae Rim; Jeong, Hang Yeon; Lee, Yu Geon; Kim, Wol-Soo; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Changes in chemical constituent contents and DPPH radical-scavenging activity in fruits of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivars during the development were investigated. The fruits of seven cultivars (cv. Niitaka, Chuhwangbae, Wonhwang, Hwangkeumbae, Hwasan, Manpungbae, and Imamuraaki) were collected at 15-day intervals after day 20 of florescence. Vitamins (ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol), arbutin, chlorogenic acid, malaxinic acid, total caffeic acid, total flavonoids, and total phenolics were the highest in immature pear fruit on day 20 after florescence among samples at different growth stages. All of these compounds decreased gradually in the fruit during the development. Immature pear fruit on day 35 or 50 after florescence exhibited higher free radical-scavenging activity than that at other times, although activities were slightly different among cultivars. The chemical constituent contents and free radical-scavenging activity were largely different among immature fruits of the pear cultivars, but small differences were observed when they matured.

  5. Long-term trend of chemical constituents in precipitation in Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, from 1990 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tomoaki; Iwase, Tamami; Ueda, Hideko; Suda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Shigeru; Dokiya, Yukiko; Fushimi, Katsuhiko; Hosoe, Morikazu

    2005-03-01

    In order to understand the actual status and mechanism of acid rain, it is important to know the pH of precipitation and its chemical constituents on a continuous and regular basis over a wide area. This study examines acid rain over a wide area using an observational network in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, and analyzes the major chemical constituents of every precipitation sample. Precipitation was collected continuously for a period of 12 years from June 1990 to May 2002 at several sampling sites in the Tokyo metropolitan area, and its pH and chemical constituent concentrations were measured. The average pH ranged from 4.23 to 4.62, clearly indicating acidification of precipitation over the entire Tokyo metropolitan area. A time-trend model was applied to describe temporal variations of chemical constituent concentrations, including annual change rate, seasonal variation, and precipitation effects. Seasonal and annual trends for the past 12 years were examined with the model, using the least squares method. Nonsea salt (nss)-Ca2+ shows a maximum value in early spring, a seasonality probably caused by calcium-rich particles in airborne yellow dust from Asia. Slightly decreasing annual trends of nss-SO4(2-) may correspond to the recent decreasing trend of atmospheric SO2 gas concentrations in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The annual trends of NO3-, NH4+, and nss-Ca2+ show a large site-to-site difference. The increasing NO3-, NH4+, and nss-Ca2+ concentrations at inland suburban sites may be caused by increases in their local sources such as vehicle traffic and municipal waste incineration. The annual change rate of H+ is slightly negative or almost zero at every site, so the acidification of precipitation has not become worse since 1990 over the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  6. Phytochemical investigation of Gynura bicolor leaves and cytotoxicity evaluation of the chemical constituents against HCT 116 cells.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wuen Yew; Tan, Hooi Poay; Ling, Sui Kiong; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Sim, Kae Shin

    2016-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) is a popular vegetable in Asia and believed to confer a wide range of benefits including anti-cancer. Our previous findings showed that the ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor possessed cytotoxicity and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). A combination of column chromatography had been used to purify chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate and water extract of G. bicolor leaves. Eight chemical constituents 5-p-trans-coumaroylquinic acid (I), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (II), rutin (III), kampferol-3-O-rutinoside (IV), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), kampferol-3-O-glucoside (VI), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) were isolated from G. bicolor grown in Malaysia. To our best knowledge, all chemical constituents were isolated for the first time from G. bicolor leaves except rutin (III). 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) demonstrated selective cytotoxicity (selective index>3) against HCT 116 cancer cells compared to CCD-18Co human normal colon cells. PMID:25738869

  7. Automated determination of chemical functionalisation addition routes based on magnetic susceptibility and nucleus independent chemical shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Lier, G.; Ewels, C. P.; Geerlings, P.

    2008-07-01

    We present a modified version of our previously reported meta-code SACHA, for systematic analysis of chemical addition. The code automates the generation of structures, running of quantum chemical codes, and selection of preferential isomers based on chosen selection rules. While the selection rules for the previous version were based on the total system energy, predicting purely thermodynamic addition patterns, we examine here the possibility of using other system parameters, notably magnetic susceptibility as a descriptor of global aromaticity, and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS) as local aromaticity descriptor.

  8. Antioxidant activities of Lampaya medicinalis extracts and their main chemical constituents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) is a plant used by Aymara and Quechua ethnic groups from Northern Chile as folk medicine in the treatment and cure of various diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity, total phenols content, total flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and identify the principal chemical constituents. Methods The crude hydroethanolic extract (HEE) and its partitioned fraction: hexane (HF), dichloromethane (DF), ethyl acetate (EAF), n-butanol (BF) and soluble residual aqueous fraction (RWF) were evaluated for their antioxidant activity using different assays namely, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, β-carotene bleaching assay. The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were measured by Folin-Ciocalteau and by the AlCl3 colorimetric method, respectively. Reducing power was determined by phosphomolybdate and hexacyanoferrate (III) methods. Biotoxicity assays were performed on shrimps of Artemia salina. The EAF was fractionated using chromatographic methods. Results Considerable amount of phenolic and flavonoid contents were recorded in the hydroethanolic extract (HEE) and its derived fractions. Although HEE and all its derived fractions exhibited good antioxidant activities, the most distinguished radical scavenging potential was observed for ethyl acetate fraction (EAF). EAF showed the higher radical scavenging activity by DPPH (95%) and by ABTS (98%), antioxidant activity by FRAP (158.18 ± 5.79 mg equivalent Trolox/g fraction), β-carotene bleaching assay (86.8%), the highest total phenols content (101.26 ± 1.07 mg GAE/g fraction), the highest total flavonoids content (66.26 ± 3.31 μg quercetin/g fraction). The EAF extract showed an reducing power of 78% and 65% using the phosphomolybdate and hexacyanoferrate (III) assays, respectively. Four flavonoids, two p-hydroxyacetophenone derivatives and one iridoid were isolated from Lampaya

  9. Chemical constituents of Marrubium vulgare as potential inhibitors of nitric oxide and respiratory burst.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Farzana; Rasoola, Shagufta; Shah, Zafar Ali; Soomro, Samreen; Jabeen, Almas; Mesaik, M Ahmed; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2014-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the whole plant of Marrubium vulgare L., led to the isolation of three new secondary metabolites, 11-oxomarrubiin (1), vulgarcoside A (2) and 3-hydroxyapigenin-4'-O-(6"-O-p-coumaroyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), along with four known constituents 4-7 from the polar fractions of the methanolic extract. The structures of all compounds were deduced on the basis of NMR data and HRESI-MS measurements. The new constituents 1-3 exhibited moderate to low level of inhibition on nitric oxide (NO.) production. The compound 2 also showed a moderate inhibition on pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. The new constituents 1-3 showed no inhibitory effect on Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production.

  10. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  11. Data for First Responder Use of Photoionization Detectors for Vapor Chemical Constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Keith A. Daum; Matthew G. Watrous; M. Dean Neptune; Daniel I. Michael; Kevin J. Hull; Joseph D. Evans

    2006-11-01

    First responders need appropriate measurement technologies for evaluating incident scenes. This report provides information about photoionization detectors (PIDs), obtained from manufacturers and independent laboratory tests, and the use of PIDs by first responders, obtained from incident commanders in the United States and Canada. PIDs are valued for their relatively low cost, light weight, rapid detection response, and ease of use. However, it is clear that further efforts are needed to provide suitable instruments and decision tools to incident commanders and first responders for assessing potential hazardous chemical releases. Information provided in this report indicates that PIDs should always be part of a decision-making context in which other qualitative and more definitive tests and instruments are used to confirm a finding. Possible amelioratory actions ranging from quick and relatively easy fixes to those requiring significant additional effort are outlined in the report.

  12. Global identification and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicinal formula Qi-Fu-Yin by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-Ning; Dong, Xin; Gao, Wen; Liu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Rui; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2015-10-10

    Qi-Fu-Yin (QFY), a classical traditional Chinese medicine formula, is proven to have significant neuroprotective effects by modern pharmacological studies. However, the chemical constituents of QFY have not been fully explored. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) was developed for comprehensive analysis of chemical constituents in QFY. By using characteristic ions and fragmentation rules, a reliable identification of 156 compounds was described here, including 69 triterpene saponins, 23 oligosaccharide esters, 22 flavanoids, 9 alkaloids, 9 phenolic acids, 8 phthalides, 7 phenylethanoid glycosides, 3 xanthones, 3 sesquiterpene lactones, 2 ionones and 1 iridoid glycoside. Twenty-six major compounds were then determined in a single run by UHPLC coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (QQQ MS) with fast positive/negative polarity switching. It allows for the acquisition of MS data in both ionization modes from a single run. The proposed method was then validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision and recovery. The overall recoveries for 26 analytes ranged from 91.35% to 109.58%, with RSDs ranging from 0.82% to 4.83%. In addition, the content of 26 analytes in QFY prepared by five batches of herbal materials was also analyzed. These results demonstrated that our present method was effective and reliable for comprehensive quality evaluation of QFY. Meanwhile, the study might provide the chemical evidence for revealing the material basis of its therapeutic effects.

  13. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.; Pien, S.I.

    1991-06-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativeities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation. Reaction of ethylene with syngas is used as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of metal catalysts. During the sixth quarter of the project, the mechanism of CO insertion on Ni/SiO{sub 2} was investigated by in-situ infrared spectroscopy. Ni/SiO{sub 2}, a methanation catalyst, has been shown to exhibit CO insertion activity. In situ infrared studies of CO/H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reactions show that the carbonylation of Ni/SiO{sub 2} to Ni(CO){sub 4} leads to an inhibition of methanation in CO hydrogenation but an enhancement of formation of propionaldehyde in C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reaction. The results suggest that the sites for propionaldehyde formation is different from those for methanation.

  14. Characterization of chemical constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heyun; Yin, Ran; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Mao, Xinjuan; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Hou, Xiaohong; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-12-01

    A sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was established to separate and identify the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 × 3.0 mm, 2.2 μm) using a gradient elution program. The detection was performed on a Waters Xevo G2 Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in both positive and negative modes. With the optimized conditions, a total of 82 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. Of the 82 compounds, 21 compounds were identified by comparing the retention time and MS data with reference standards, the rest were characterized by analyzing MS data and retrieving the reference literature. In addition, 31 compounds were identified from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, ten compounds were identified from Rheum palmatum L., 33 compounds were identified from Citrus aurantium L., and eight compounds were identified from Sojae Semen Praeparatum. Results indicated that iridoids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, coumarins, glycosides of crocetin, monoterpenoids, and organic acids were major constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. It is concluded that the developed ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method with high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, and the analysis provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. PMID:25195935

  15. Characterization of chemical constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heyun; Yin, Ran; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Mao, Xinjuan; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Hou, Xiaohong; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-12-01

    A sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was established to separate and identify the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 × 3.0 mm, 2.2 μm) using a gradient elution program. The detection was performed on a Waters Xevo G2 Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in both positive and negative modes. With the optimized conditions, a total of 82 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. Of the 82 compounds, 21 compounds were identified by comparing the retention time and MS data with reference standards, the rest were characterized by analyzing MS data and retrieving the reference literature. In addition, 31 compounds were identified from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, ten compounds were identified from Rheum palmatum L., 33 compounds were identified from Citrus aurantium L., and eight compounds were identified from Sojae Semen Praeparatum. Results indicated that iridoids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, coumarins, glycosides of crocetin, monoterpenoids, and organic acids were major constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. It is concluded that the developed ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method with high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, and the analysis provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction.

  16. Melastoma malabathricum (L.) Smith Ethnomedicinal Uses, Chemical Constituents, and Pharmacological Properties: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Joffry, S. Mohd.; Yob, N. J.; Rofiee, M. S.; Affandi, M. M. R. Meor Mohd.; Suhaili, Z.; Othman, F.; Akim, A. Md.; Desa, M. N. M.; Zakaria, Z. A.

    2012-01-01

    Melastoma malabathricum L. (Melastomataceae) is one of the 22 species found in the Southeast Asian region, including Malaysia. Considered as native to tropical and temperate Asia and the Pacific Islands, this commonly found small shrub has gained herbal status in the Malay folklore belief as well as the Indian, Chinese, and Indonesian folk medicines. Ethnopharmacologically, the leaves, shoots, barks, seeds, and roots of M. malabathricum have been used to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, hemorrhoids, cuts and wounds, toothache, and stomachache. Scientific findings also revealed the wide pharmacological actions of various parts of M. malabthricum, such as antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antidiarrheal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. Various types of phytochemical constituents have also been isolated and identifed from different parts of M. malabathricum. Thus, the aim of the present review is to present comprehensive information on ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of M. malabathricum. PMID:22242040

  17. Thyroid disrupting chemicals in plastic additives and thyroid health.

    PubMed

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2012-01-01

    The globally escalating thyroid nodule incidence rates may be only partially ascribed to better diagnostics, allowing for the assessment of environmental risk factors on thyroid disease. Endocrine disruptors or thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDC) like bisphenol A, phthalates, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers are widely used as plastic additives in consumer products. This comprehensive review studied the magnitude and uncertainty of TDC exposures and their effects on thyroid hormones for sensitive subpopulation groups like pregnant women, infants, and children. Our findings qualitatively suggest the mixed, significant (α = 0.05) TDC associations with natural thyroid hormones (positive or negative sign). Future studies should undertake systematic meta-analyses to elucidate pooled TDC effect estimates on thyroid health indicators and outcomes. PMID:22690712

  18. Chemical constituents of Malagasy liverworts, part III: sesquiterpenoids from Bazzania decrescens and Bazzania madagassa.

    PubMed

    Harinantenaina, Liva; Kurata, Ritsu; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2005-05-01

    In the continuation of our investigation of the phytochemical constituents of Malagasy liverworts, a new cuparane-type sesquiterpenoid together with five known compounds was isolated from Bazzania decresens. Bazzania madagassa furnished a new cyclomyltaylane-type sesquiterpenoid and a new acoradienol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined based on a combination of physical and spectroscopic evidence. The chemosystematics of the genus Bazzania as well as the biogenesis of cyclomyltaylane sesquiterpenoids in liverworts is discussed.

  19. Association between airborne PM2.5 chemical constituents and birth weight—implication of buffer exposure assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen; Bell, Michelle L.

    2014-08-01

    Several papers reported associations between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and birth weight, though findings are inconsistent across studies. Conflicting results might be due to (1) different PM2.5 chemical structure across locations, and (2) various exposure assignment methods across studies even among the studies that use ambient monitors to assess exposure. We investigated associations between birth weight and PM2.5 chemical constituents, considering issues arising from choice of buffer size (i.e. distance between residence and pollution monitor). We estimated the association between each pollutant and term birth weight applying buffers of 5 to 30 km in Connecticut (2000-2006), in the New England region of the USA. We also investigated the implication of the choice of buffer size in relation to population characteristics, such as socioeconomic status. Results indicate that some PM2.5 chemical constituents, such as nitrate, are associated with lower birth weight and appear more harmful than other constituents. However, associations vary with buffer size and the implications of different buffer sizes may differ by pollutant. A homogeneous pollutant level within a certain distance is a common assumption in many environmental epidemiology studies, but the validity of this assumption may vary by pollutant. Furthermore, we found that areas close to monitors reflect more minority and lower socio-economic populations, which implies that different exposure approaches may result in different types of study populations. Our findings demonstrate that choosing an exposure method involves key tradeoffs of the impacts of exposure misclassification, sample size, and population characteristics.

  20. Concentrations and annual fluxes of sediment-associated chemical constituents from conterminous US coastal rivers using bed sediment data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Elrick, Kent A.; Smith, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal rivers represent a significant pathway for the delivery of natural and anthropogenic sediment-associated chemical constituents to the Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the conterminous USA. This study entails an accounting segment using published average annual suspended sediment fluxes with published sediment-associated chemical constituent concentrations for (1) baseline, (2) land-use distributions, (3) population density, and (4) worldwide means to estimate concentrations/annual fluxes for trace/major elements and total phosphorus, total organic and inorganic carbon, total nitrogen, and sulphur, for 131 coastal river basins. In addition, it entails a sampling and subsequent chemical analysis segment that provides a level of ‘ground truth’ for the calculated values, as well as generating baselines for sediment-associated concentrations/fluxes against which future changes can be evaluated. Currently, between 260 and 270 Mt of suspended sediment are discharged annually from the conterminous USA; about 69% is discharged from Gulf rivers (n = 36), about 24% from Pacific rivers (n = 42), and about 7% from Atlantic rivers (n = 54). Elevated sediment-associated chemical concentrations relative to baseline levels occur in the reverse order of sediment discharges:Atlantic rivers (49%)>Pacific rivers (40%)>Gulf rivers (23%). Elevated trace element concentrations (e.g. Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) frequently occur in association with present/former industrial areas and/or urban centres, particularly along the northeast Atlantic coast. Elevated carbon and nutrient concentrations occur along both the Atlantic and Gulf coasts but are dominated by rivers in the urban northeast and by southeastern and Gulf coast (Florida) ‘blackwater’ streams. Elevated Ca, Mg, K, and Na distributions tend to reflect local petrology, whereas elevated Ti, S, Fe, and Al concentrations are ubiquitous, possibly because they have substantial natural as well as anthropogenic sources

  1. Identification of Chemical Constituents in the Extract and Rat Serum from Ziziphus Jujuba Mill by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Jingze; Zhang, Zhidan; Gao, Wenyuan; Yan, Yanan; Li, Xia; Liu, Changxiao

    2014-01-01

    Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) has long been widely used for human consumption and medicinal purposes in China. It has been reported to possess several vital biological activities. However, the systematic study on the chemical constituents absorbed into plasma and their metabolites is still insufficient.A high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector-electrospray ionization ion-mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn) method was established to analyze the ethanol extract in Ziziphus jujuba Mill and the constituents absorbed into rat serum. In the present study, a dose of 10 mL/Kg of ethanol extract of jujube, which is equivalent to 12.5 g crude dried herb/Kg, was orally administrated to rats. The main components were analyzed in the ethanol extract of Ziziphus jujuba Mill and the parent constituents and metabolites were studied in rat plasma samples after oral administration of the ethanol extract of jujube.D101 macroporous polystyrene resin was a good pretreatment method to obtain better separation and impurity removal effect. Twenty-two compounds were identified in the ethanol extract of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Four parent compounds and four metabolites were detected in rat serum. Among them, seventeen compounds were reported for the first time. PMID:25276208

  2. Chemical Constituents of Plants from the Genus Eupatorium (1904-2014).

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Yu; Liu, Dan; Li, Wei-Huan; Zhao, Ting; Sauriol, Françoise; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Shi, Qing-Wen; Zhang, Man-Li

    2015-10-01

    Eupatorium (family: Compositae), which comprises nearly 1200 species, is distributed throughout tropical America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. Up to now, the reported constituents from the genus Eupatorium involve flavonoids, terpenoids, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, quinonoids, essential oils, and some others, altogether more than 300 compounds. Studies have shown that Eupatorium and its active principles possess a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as cytotoxic, antifungal, insecticidal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive activities. Currently, effective monomeric compounds or active parts have been screened for pharmacological activities from Eupatorium in vivo and in vitro. Increasing amount of data supports application and exploitation for new drug development. PMID:26460556

  3. Chemical constituents and some biological activities of plants from the genus Ceriops.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Li, Min-Yi; Wu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    In this review, the literature data on phytochemical and biological investigations of the genus Ceriops are compiled. The Ceriops species are mangrove plants widely distributed along the sea coasts of Africa, Madagascar, South Asia, and South Pacific islands. To date, 43 diterpenes and 29 triterpenes have been reported from the embryos, fruits, hypocotyls, roots, stems, and twigs of C. tagal and C. decandra. Diterpenoids and triterpenoids are the main constituents of this genus. The isolated terpenes showed an enormous structural diversity and exhibited various biological properties, such as antitumor, antibacterial, and larvicidal activities.

  4. NMR characterization of cellulose acetate: chemical shift assignments, substituent effects, and chemical shift additivity.

    PubMed

    Kono, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Hisaho; Shimizu, Yuuichi

    2015-03-15

    A series of cellulose acetates (CA) with degrees of substitution (DS) ranging from 2.92-0.92 dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-d6 and cellulose dissolved in tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF)/DMSO-d6 were investigated by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The NMR spectroscopic analysis allowed the determination of the (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts of the eight anhydroglucose units (AGUs) that contain CA: 2,3,6-tri-, 2,3-di-, 2,6-di-, 3,6-di-, 2-mono-, 3-mono-, 6-mono-, and unacetylated AGUs. A comparative analysis of the chemical shift data revealed the substituent effect of acetyl groups at the 2-, 3-, and 6-positions on the (1)H and (13)C nuclei in the same AGU. In addition, chemical shift additivity could be applied to the (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts of CA because the chemical shifts of the diacetylated and triacetylated AGUs could be almost completely explained by the acetyl substituent effects at the 2-, 3-, and 6-positions.

  5. Leachability of chemical constituents in soil–plant systems irrigated with synthetic graywater.

    PubMed

    Negahban-Azar, Masoud; Sharvelle, Sybil E; Qian, Yaling; Shogbon, Alicia

    2013-04-01

    Over recent years, reuse of graywater for irrigation has become increasingly widespread internationally. While this practice is rapidly growing, there remain unanswered questions with respect to impacts to environmental quality and human health. The objective of this research was to determine the leachability of graywater constituents after applied to soil through a set of controlled greenhouse experiments. Four plant species including bermudagrass, tall fescue, Meyer Lemon and Emerald Gaiety Euonymus were included in the study. Three replicate columns for each species were set up and irrigated either with synthetic graywater or potable water for a 17 month duration. Leachate quality was assessed for dissolved organic carbon, nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorous, boron, sodium adsorption ratio, conductivity, surfactants, and total dissolved solids. The same constituents and also organic matter were measured in soil samples collected at the end of experiments. Phosphorus did not leach through the 50 cm deep soil columns. Salts, including boron, showed potential to leach through graywater irrigated soil. A portion of the applied nitrogen was assimilated by plants, but leaching of nitrogen was still observed as documented by statistically higher nitrogen in leachate collected from graywater-irrigated columns compared to potable water-irrigated columns (P ≤ 0.05). A low percentage of surfactants added to columns leached through (7 ± 6% on average) and a mass balance on surfactant parent compounds showed that 92–96% of added surfactants were biodegraded. PMID:23653909

  6. Chemical constituents and activities of the essential oil from Myristica fragrans against cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne.

    PubMed

    Du, Shu-Shan; Yang, Kai; Wang, Cheng-Fang; You, Chun-Xue; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Guo, Shan-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Zhi-Long

    2014-09-01

    Essential oil extracted from nutmeg seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) by hydrodistillation was subjected to GC/MS and GC analysis. A total of 27 constituents were identified, of which eugenol (19.9%), methylisoeugenol (16.8%), methyleugenol (16.7%), sabinene (11.8%), and terpinen-4-ol (8.5%) were the major components. The essential oil was tested against Lasioderma serricorne for insecticidal and repellent activity, the LD50 value at the end of 24 h exposure period was 19.3 μg/adult. Six active compounds were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. They were identified as eugenol (1), methyleugenol (2), methylisoeugenol (3), elemicin (4), myristicin (5), and safrole (6). Among these isolates, 4 showed the strongest contact toxicity against L. serricorne adults with an LD50 value of 9.8 μg/adult. Repellency of crude oil and active compounds were also determined. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 were strongly repellent against the cigarette beetle and exhibited the same level of repellency compared with the positive control, DEET. The results indicate that the essential oil of M. fragrans and its active constituents have potential for development as natural insecticides and repellents to control L. serricorne.

  7. Chemical constituents and activities of the essential oil from Myristica fragrans against cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne.

    PubMed

    Du, Shu-Shan; Yang, Kai; Wang, Cheng-Fang; You, Chun-Xue; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Guo, Shan-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Zhi-Long

    2014-09-01

    Essential oil extracted from nutmeg seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) by hydrodistillation was subjected to GC/MS and GC analysis. A total of 27 constituents were identified, of which eugenol (19.9%), methylisoeugenol (16.8%), methyleugenol (16.7%), sabinene (11.8%), and terpinen-4-ol (8.5%) were the major components. The essential oil was tested against Lasioderma serricorne for insecticidal and repellent activity, the LD50 value at the end of 24 h exposure period was 19.3 μg/adult. Six active compounds were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. They were identified as eugenol (1), methyleugenol (2), methylisoeugenol (3), elemicin (4), myristicin (5), and safrole (6). Among these isolates, 4 showed the strongest contact toxicity against L. serricorne adults with an LD50 value of 9.8 μg/adult. Repellency of crude oil and active compounds were also determined. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 were strongly repellent against the cigarette beetle and exhibited the same level of repellency compared with the positive control, DEET. The results indicate that the essential oil of M. fragrans and its active constituents have potential for development as natural insecticides and repellents to control L. serricorne. PMID:25238085

  8. Efficiency of a stormwater detention pond in reducing loads of chemical and physical constituents in urban streamflow, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrowitz, I.H.; Woodham, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    A multipurpose wet stormwater detention pond in Pinellas Park, Florida was studied to determine its effectiveness in reducing the load of selected water-quality constituents commonly found in urban streamflow. Water-quality samples, and data on streamflow and precipitation were collected at the outflow and principal inflow of detention area 3 on Saint Joe Creek. To compare the constituent loads entering and leaving the detention pond, flows and water quality were monitored simultaneously at the inflow and outflow sites for six storms, and were monitored intermittently during periods of base flow. Lodas od 19 selected chemical and physical constituents were determined. Because all the stormwater entering the detention pond was not measured at the inflow site, computed stormwater inflow loads were adjusted to account for loads from the unmonitored areas. The ratio of storm- water volume measured at the outflow site to stormwater volume measured at the inflow site was used to adjust inflow loads for individual storms. Pond efficiencies for selected water- quality constituents for each of the storms were estimated by dividing the difference in outflow and adjusted inflow loads by the adjusted inflow load. Stormwater loads of the major ions (chloride, calcium and bicarbonate) and dissolved solids at the outflow site exceeded loads at the inflow site, partly as a result of mixing with base flow stored within the pond. However, the detention pond was effective in reducing the stormwater load of such urban-runoff contaminants as metals, nutrients, suspended solids, and biochemical and chemical oxygen demand. Estimated median pond efficiencies for reducing constituent loads ranged from 25 to more than 60 percent for metals, 2 to 52 percent for nutrients, 2 to 52 percent for nutrients, 7 to 11 percent for two measurements of suspended solids, and 16 to 49 percent for the oxygen- consuming substances. The reductions of constituent loads in stormwater are probably a result of

  9. Application of Toxicological and Health Risk Assessment Approaches to Investigate Chemical Constituents in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical disinfection of water has been practiced since the beginning of the 20th century and has resulted in significant gains in public health protection due to decreased exposure to microorganisms responsible for water-borne diseases. While disinfection chemicals, such as ch...

  10. Developmental patterns of jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) plant and the chemical constituents of roots grown in Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M V; Warid, W A; Loaiza, J M; Montiel, A

    1997-01-01

    The developmental pattern of jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) was studied by sampling plants aged 20 to 36 weeks at weekly intervals. There was an increase in all characteristics of foliage: fresh and dry weight, number of leaves per plant, main stem length, number of leaves, nodes and internodes of the main stem; and in all root characteristics: fresh and dry weight, diameter and length. The chemical analysis was determined for roots at different plant ages. The range values for dry matter were 16.19-22.28%, protein 1.11-1.62%, fat 0.553-0.867%, crude fiber 0.3048-0.3943%, and ash 0.669-1.089%. The chemical constituents fluctuated with age but without specific trends. These values are considered the first record of roots produced by plants grown in Mexico. PMID:9477422

  11. Chemical constituents and larvicidal property of the essential oil of Blumea mollis (D. Don) Merr. against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Annadurai; Kannathasan, Krishnan; Venkatesalu, Venugopalan

    2008-09-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of Blumea mollis was extracted and the chemical constituents and the larvicidal against Culex quinquefasciatus effects studied. The analyses of gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the leaf essential oil of B. mollis contained 39 compounds, and the major chemical compounds identified were linalool (19.43%), gamma-elemene (12.19%), copaene (10.93%), estragole (10.81%), Allo-ocimene (10.03%), gamma-terpinene (8.28%) and Allo-aromadendrene (7.44%). The essential oil had significant toxic effect against early fourth-instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus with LC50=71.71 and LC90=143.41 ppm. The results could be useful in search of newer, safer and more effective natural larvicidal agent against C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:18566831

  12. Chemical constituents derived from Artocarpus xanthocarpus as inhibitors of melanin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yu-Jing; Lin, Cha-Chi; Lu, Tzy-Ming; Li, Jih-Heng; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Ko, Horng-Huey

    2015-09-01

    Twenty-four compounds, including the previously unknown artoxanthocarpuone A, artoxanthocarpuone B, hydroxylakoochin A, methoxylakoochin A, epoxylakoochin A, and artoxanthol, were isolated and characterized spectroscopically. Among them, artoxanthol is stilbene oligomer presumably constructed in a 5,11,12-triphenyl hexahydrochrysene scaffold by a Diels-Alder type of reaction, for which a biosynthetic pathway is proposed. Artoxanthol, alboctalol, steppogenin, norartocarpetin, resveratrol, oxyresveratrol, and chlorophorin potently inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity with IC50 values from 0.9 to 5.7 μM that were all far stronger than the positive controls. Artoxanthocarpuone A, artoxanthocarpuone B, methoxylakoochin A, lakoochin A, cudraflavone C, artonin A, resveratrol, and chlorophorin reduced tyrosinase activity and inhibited α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells without affecting cell proliferation. Collectively, the results suggest that the constituents of Artocarpus xanthocarpus have potential to be used as depigmentation agents.

  13. Chemical constituents derived from Artocarpus xanthocarpus as inhibitors of melanin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yu-Jing; Lin, Cha-Chi; Lu, Tzy-Ming; Li, Jih-Heng; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Ko, Horng-Huey

    2015-09-01

    Twenty-four compounds, including the previously unknown artoxanthocarpuone A, artoxanthocarpuone B, hydroxylakoochin A, methoxylakoochin A, epoxylakoochin A, and artoxanthol, were isolated and characterized spectroscopically. Among them, artoxanthol is stilbene oligomer presumably constructed in a 5,11,12-triphenyl hexahydrochrysene scaffold by a Diels-Alder type of reaction, for which a biosynthetic pathway is proposed. Artoxanthol, alboctalol, steppogenin, norartocarpetin, resveratrol, oxyresveratrol, and chlorophorin potently inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity with IC50 values from 0.9 to 5.7 μM that were all far stronger than the positive controls. Artoxanthocarpuone A, artoxanthocarpuone B, methoxylakoochin A, lakoochin A, cudraflavone C, artonin A, resveratrol, and chlorophorin reduced tyrosinase activity and inhibited α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells without affecting cell proliferation. Collectively, the results suggest that the constituents of Artocarpus xanthocarpus have potential to be used as depigmentation agents. PMID:26188915

  14. Chemical constituents of essential oils from the leaves, stems, roots and fruits of Alpinia polyantha.

    PubMed

    Huong, Le T; Thang, Tran D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2015-02-01

    The essential oils obtained from the leaves, stems, roots and fruits of Alpinia polyantha D. Fang (Zingiberaceae) have been studied. The leaf oil was comprised mainly of camphor (16.1%), α-pinene (15.2%) and β-agarofuran (12.9%), while the major constituents of the stem oil were α-pinene (12.4%), β-cubebene (10.6%), β-agarofuran (10.3%) and globulol (8.8%). However, β-cubebene (12.6%), fenchyl acetate (10.8%), β-maaliene (9.0%), aristolone (8.8%) and α-pinene (8.2%) were the compounds occurring in higher amounts in the root oil. The quantitatively significant compounds of the fruit oil were δ-cadinene (10.9%), β-caryophyllene (9.1%), β-pinene (8.7%) and α-muurolene (7.7%).

  15. Hematite Surface Activation by Chemical Addition of Tin Oxide Layer.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Waldemir M; Souza, Flavio L

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the effect of tin (Sn(4+) ) modification on the surface of hematite electrodes synthesized by an aqueous solution route at different times (2, 5, 10, 18, and 24 h) is investigated. As confirmed from X-ray diffraction results, the as-synthesized electrode exhibits an oxyhydroxide phase, which is converted into a pure hematite phase after being subjected to additional thermal treatment at 750 °C for 30 min. The tin-modified hematite electrode is prepared by depositing a solution of Sn(4+) precursor on the as-synthesized electrode, followed by thermal treatment under the same abovementioned conditions. This modification results in an enhancement of the photocurrent response for all hematite electrodes investigated and attains the highest values of around 1.62 and 2.3 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 and 1.4 V versus RHE, respectively, for electrodes obtained in short synthesis times (2 h). Contact angle measurements suggest that the deposition of Sn(4+) on the hematite electrode provides a more hydrophilic surface, which favors a chemical reaction at the interface between the electrode and electrolyte. This result generates new perspectives for understanding the deposition of Sn(4+) on the hematite electrode surface, which is in contrast with several studies previously reported; these studies state that the enhancement in photocurrent density is related to either the induction of an increased donor charge density or shift in the flat-band potential, which favors charge separation.

  16. Variation in amino acid digestibility of rapeseed meal studied in caecectomised laying hens and relationship with chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, M; Kluth, H; Bulang, M; Rodehutscord, M

    2012-01-01

    1. The objectives were to study the variation in amino acid (AA) digestibility of rapeseed meal in laying hens and to investigate whether the variation in AA digestibility can be explained by chemical constituents of the rapeseed meal. Nine rapeseed meals from different processing plants operating in Germany were used. The crude protein and crude fibre concentrations of the meals ranged from 367 to 410 and 137 to 175 g/kg dry matter (DM), respectively. The concentrations of total glucosinolates varied between 5.1 and 12.9 mmol/kg DM. Each meal was included in one of the experimental diets at an inclusion level of 200 g/kg at the expense of maize starch. 2. A total of 16 Lohmann Brown laying hens were used for this experiment and were surgically caecectomised. They were housed individually in metabolism cages. Each of the 10 diets was fed to at least 6 hens in 4 periods of two weeks duration. Excreta were collected during the last 5 d of each period. The digestibility coefficient of AA was calculated for each diet. The digestibility of the rapeseed meals was calculated by multiple linear regression analysis. 3. Mean essential AA digestibility of rapeseed meals varied between 0.78 and 0.84. Among the essential amino acids, the ighest level of digestibility was found for arginine (0.88) and methionine (0.87), and the lowest for lysine (0.74) and threonine (0.75). The highest variation between rapeseed meals in digestibility was found for threonine (0.68 to 0.79) and lysine (0.68 to 0.78). The concentration of neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen of the rapeseed meals was negatively correlated with the digestibility of lysine, but was not significantly correlated with digestibility of any other AA. Glucosinolate concentration was significantly correlated with valine digestibility. 4. Multiple regression analysis showed that the concentrations of crude protein and ash together were the major factors considered to explain variation in digestibility of essential AA

  17. [Correlation between chemical constituents and ecological factors of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing-zhen; Wang, Zeng-hui; Fu, Juan; Liu, De-wang; Huang, Lin-fang

    2015-03-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis (CA) were applied to analyze the correlation of the main chemical components in Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and ecological factors. The results showed that the contents of astragaloside, campanulin, ononin, kaempferol and astragalus polysaccharides (APS) of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus produced. in Shanxi were significantly higher than in Inner Mongolia and Gansu. The main climatic factors for affecting the contents of chemical ingredients in A. membranaceus var. mongholicus were annual average relative humidity, sunshine hours and average July temperature. Calcium was the main factor in the soil affecting the chemical ingredient contents, and calcium was negatively correlated with the contents of calycosin glycosides, kaempferol, ononin, quercetin and APS in A. membranaceus var. mongholicus within a certain range. PMID:26211053

  18. Association between particulate matter and its chemical constituents of urban air pollution and daily mortality or morbidity in Beijing City.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Yuesi; Li, Guoxing; Pan, Xiaochuan; Wang, Shigong; Cheng, Mengtian; Wen, Tianxue; Wang, Guangcheng; Liu, Zirui

    2015-01-01

    Recent time series studies have indicated that daily mortality and morbidity are associated with particulate matters. However, about the relative effects and its seasonal patterns of fine particulate matter constituents is particularly limited in developing Asian countries. In this study, we examined the role of particulate matters and its key chemical components of fine particles on both mortality and morbidity in Beijing. We applied several overdispersed Poisson generalized nonlinear models, adjusting for time, day of week, holiday, temperature, and relative humidity, to investigate the association between risk of mortality or morbidity and particulate matters and its constituents in Beijing, China, for January 2005 through December 2009. Particles and several constituents were associated with multiple mortality or morbidity categories, especially on respiratory health. For a 3-day lag, the nonaccident mortality increased by 1.52, 0.19, 1.03, 0.56, 0.42, and 0.32% for particulate matter (PM)2.5, PM10, K(+), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), and NO3(-) based on interquartile ranges of 36.00, 64.00, 0.41, 8.75, 1.43, and 2.24 μg/m(3), respectively. The estimates of short-term effects for PM2.5 and its components in the cold season were 1 ~ 6 times higher than that in the full year on these health outcomes. Most of components had stronger adverse effects on human health in the heavy PM2.5 mass concentrations, especially for K(+), NO3(-), and SO4(2-). This analysis added to the growing body of evidence linking PM2.5 with mortality or morbidity and indicated that excess risks may vary among specific PM2.5 components. Combustion-related products, traffic sources, vegetative burning, and crustal component and resuspended road dust may play a key role in the associations between air pollution and public health in Beijing.

  19. Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-02-01

    Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods.

  20. Chemical constituents from Tribulus terrestris and screening of their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Hammoda, Hala M; Ghazy, Nabila M; Harraz, Fathalla M; Radwan, Mohamed M; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Abdallah, Ingy I

    2013-08-01

    Two oligosaccharides (1,2) and a stereoisomer of di-p-coumaroylquinic acid (3) were isolated from the aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris along with five known compounds (4-8). The structures of the compounds were established as O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→6)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(6→2)-β-D-fructofuranoside (1), O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-fructofuranoside (2), 4,5-di-p-cis-coumaroylquinic acid (3) by different spectroscopic methods including 1D NMR ((1)H, (13)C and DEPT) and 2D NMR (COSY, TOCSY, HMQC and HMBC) experiments as well as ESI-MS analysis. This is the first report for the complete NMR spectral data of the known 4,5-di-p-trans-coumaroylquinic acid (4). The antioxidant activity represented as DPPH free radical scavenging activity was investigated revealing that the di-p-coumaroylquinic acid derivatives possess potent antioxidant activity so considered the major constituents contributing to the antioxidant effect of the plant.

  1. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Galinsoga parviflora cav. (Asteraceae) from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Islam; Abd El-Aziz, Ehsan; Hafez, Samia; El-Shazly, Assem

    2013-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of an aqueous ethanolic extract of Galinsoga parviflora Cav. (Asteraceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of eleven compounds namely: triacontanol, phytol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, 7-hydroxy-beta-sitosterol, 7-hydroxystigmasterol, beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, protocatechuic acid, fumaric acid, and uracil. Furthermore, 48 volatile constituents were identified in the hydrodistilled oil of the aerial parts. The ethanolic extract at a content of 400 mg/kg body weight (BW) exerted 87% reduction in the alanine aminotransferase enzyme level in cirrhotic rats compared with the standard silymarin (150 mg/kg BW) and also exerted a reduction in the blood glucose level equivalent to that of glibenclamide (5 mg/kg BW) in diabetic rats. The ethanolic extract, light petroleum and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited substantial antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans. The ethyl acetate fraction showed strong antioxidant activity at a concentration of 150 mg/mL as compared with 0.1 M ascorbic acid. The cytotoxic effect against the MCF-7 cell line was found to be weak. PMID:24066513

  2. Chemical Analysis of Dietary Constituents in Rosa roxburghii and Rosa sterilis Fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-Hua; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Yuan-He; Lu, Xian-Yuan; Fu, Wei-Ming; He, Jing-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Both Rosa roxburghii and R. sterilis, belonging to the Rosaceae, are endemic species in Guizhou Province, China. The fruits of these two species are mixed-used as functional food in the region. Aiming to elucidate the phytochemical characteristics of R. roxburghii and R. sterilis fruits, the essential oils and constituents in a methanol extract have been analyzed and compared by GC-MS and UFLC/Q-TOF-MS, respectively. As a result, a total of 135 volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS and 91 components were different between R. roxburghii and R. sterilis fruits; a total of 59 compounds in methanol extracts were identified by UFLC/Q-TOF-MS, including 13 organic acids, 12 flavonoids, 11 triterpenes, nine amino acids, five phenylpropanoid derivatives, four condensed tannins, two stilbenes, two benzaldehyde derivatives and one benzoic acid derivative; and nine characteristic compounds were found between R. roxburghii and R. sterilis fruits. This systematic study plays an important role for R. roxburghii and R. sterilis fruits in the product development. PMID:27618004

  3. Chemical constituents and antiproliferative effects of cultured Mougeotia nummuloides and Spirulina major against cancerous cell lines.

    PubMed

    Erenler, Ramazan; Pabuccu, Koksal; Yaglioglu, Ayse Sahin; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Gul, Fatih

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effect of Mougeotia nummuloides and Spirulina major on Vero cells (African green monkey kidney), C6 cells (rat brain tumor cells) and HeLa cells (human uterus carcinoma) was investigated in vitro. The antiproliferative effect of the methanol extract of M. nummuloides and S. major compared with 5-fluorourasil (5-FU) and cisplatin was tested at various concentrations using the BrdU Cell Proliferation ELISA. Both M. nummuloides and S. major extracts significantly inhibited the proliferation of Vero, HeLa and C6 cancer cell lines with IC50 and IC75 values. The M. nummuloides extract exhibited higher activity than 5-FU and cisplatin on Vero and C6 cells at high concentrations. The S. major extract revealed better antifproliferative activity than standards against Vero cells at 500 μg/mL. The compounds of methanol extracts were determined by GC-MS after the silylation process. Trehalose, monostearin and 1-monopalmitin were detected as major products in the M. nummuloides extract where as in the S. major extract; monostearin, 1-monopalmitin and hexyl alcohol were the main constituents. PMID:26985685

  4. Chemical and biological analyses of the essential oils and main constituents of Piper species.

    PubMed

    Moura do Carmo, Dominique F; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; Machado, Gérzia M C; Leon, Leonor Laura; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de Andrade

    2012-02-13

    The essential oils obtained from leaves of Piper duckei and Piper demeraranum by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main constituents found in P. demeraranum oil were limonene (19.3%) and β-elemene (33.1%) and in P. duckei oil the major components found were germacrene D (14.7%) and trans-caryophyllene (27.1%). P. demeraranum and P. duckei oils exhibited biological activity, with IC(50) values between 15 to 76 μg mL(-1) against two Leishmania species, P. duckei oil being the most active. The cytotoxicity of the essential oils on mice peritoneal macrophage cells was insignificant, compared with the toxicity of pentamidine. The main mono- and sesquiterpene, limonene (IC(50) = 278 μM) and caryophyllene (IC(50) = 96 μM), were tested against the strains of Leishmania amazonensis, and the IC(50) values of these compounds were lower than those found for the essential oils of the Piper species. The HET-CAM test was used to evaluate the irritation potential of these oils as topical products, showing that these oils can be used as auxiliary medication in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, with less side effects and lower costs.

  5. Study on effects of sulfur fumigation on chemical constituents of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Boju.

    PubMed

    Li, You-lian; Wang, Shan; Zhu, Jing-jing; Wang, Wei-hao; Xiang, Shi-xie; Feng, Wei-hong; Chen, Liang-mian; Wang, Zhi-min; Lu, Tu-lin

    2015-07-01

    A comprehensively comparison of the chemical profiles between sun-drying BJ (NBJ) and sulfur-fumigated BJ (SBJ) was conducted by HPLC analysis and the discrepant peaks were identified or tentatively assigned by HPLC-ESI-MSn. A total of 32 chemical components were used for qualitative comparison. Meanwhile, a quantitative comparison of BJwere conducted by HPLC analysis and determining seven compounds from 3 NBJ and 3 SBJ samples dramatic chemical changes were found. After sulfur fumigation, the contents of flavonoids glycosides and phenolic acids were remarkably reduced, but the contents of flavonoids aglycones were significantly increased. Multivariate statistics, including principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) were used to investigate the potential damaging effect of sulfur-fumigating process. The PCA score plots showed six samples were clearly classified into the sun-drying and sulfur-fumigating groups. And according to VIP >1, the most important chemical markers were apigenin, luteolin and 3,5-dicaffeoylquninic acid which could be used to distinguish NBJ and SBJ samples. Combining the results of qualitative and quantitative analysis, it showed that the sulfur fumigation has a significant effect on BJ. PMID:26697689

  6. Auto-digital gain balancing: a new detection scheme for high-speed chemical species tomography of minor constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Sandip; McCann, Hugh

    2011-11-01

    In many dynamic gas-phase reaction processes, there is great interest to measure the distribution of minor constituents, i.e. <10-3 by volume (1000 ppm). One such case is the after-treatment of automotive gasoline engine exhaust by catalytic conversion, where a characteristic challenge is to image the distribution of 10 ppm (average) of carbon monoxide (CO) at 1000 frames per second across a 50 mm diameter exhaust pipe; this particular problem has been pursued as a case study. In this paper, we present a novel electronic scheme that achieves the required measurement of around 10-3 absorption with 10-4 precision at kHz bandwidth. This was not previously achievable with any known technology. We call the new scheme Auto-Digital Gain Balancing. It is amenable to replication for many simultaneous measurement channels, and it permits simultaneous measurement of multiple species, in some circumstances. Experimental demonstrations are presented in the near-infrared. In single scans of a tunable diode laser, measurements of both CO and CO2 have been made with 20 dB signal-to-noise ratio at peak absorption. This work paves the way for chemical species tomography of minor constituents in many dynamic gas-phase systems.

  7. Comprehensive analysis of chemical constituents in Xingxiong injection by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Duan, Li; Liu, Ke; Bi, Zhi-Ming; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2015-09-01

    Xingxiong injection (XXI) is a widely used Chinese herbal formula prepared by the folium ginkgo extract and ligustrazine for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Compared with the pharmacological studies, chemical analysis and quality control studies on this formula are relatively limited. In the present study, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF MS) method was applied to comprehensive analysis of constituents in XXI. According to the fragmentation rules and previous reports, thirty ginkgo flavonoids, four ginkgo terpene lactones, and one alkaloid were identified. A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QQQ MS) method was then applied to quantify ten major constituents in XXI. The method validation results indicated that the developed method had desirable specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The total contents of ginkgo flavonoids were about 22.05-25.51 μg·mL(-1) and the ginkgo terpene lactones amounts were about 4.41-8.70 μg·mL(-1) in six batches of XXI samples, respectively. Furthermore, cosine ratio algorithm and distance measurements were employed to evaluate the similarity of XXI samples, and the results demonstrated a high-quality consistency. This work could provide comprehensive information on the quality control of Xingxiong injection, which be helpful in the establishment of a rational quality control standard.

  8. Chemical constituents of Swertia longifolia Boiss. with α-amylase inhibitory activity

    PubMed Central

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Ara, Leila; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Read, Roger W.; Arshadi, Sattar; Nikan, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    α-Amylase inhibitors play a critical role in the control of diabetes and many of medicinal plants have been found to act as α-amylase inhibitors. Swertia genus, belonging to the family Gentianaceae, comprises different species most of which have been used in traditional medicine of several cultures as antidiabetic, anti-pyretic, analgesic, liver and gastrointestinal tonic. Swertia longifolia Boiss. is the only species of Swertia growing in Iran. In the present investigation, phytochemical study of S. longifolia was performed and α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant fractions and purified compounds were determined. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with hexane, chloroform, methanol and water, respectively. The components of the hexane and chloroform fractions were isolated by different chromatographic methods and their structures were determined by 1H NMR and 13C NMR data. α-Amylase inhibitory activity was determined by a colorimetric assay using 3,5-dinitro salysilic acid. During phytochemical examination, α-amyrin, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol were purified from the hexane fraction, while ursolic acid, daucosterol and swertiamarin were isolated from chloroform fraction. The results of the biochemical assay revealed α-amylase inhibitory activity of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water fractions, of which the chloroform and methanol fractions were more potent (IC50 16.8 and 18.1 mg/ml, respectively). Among examined compounds, daucosterol was found to be the most potent α-amylase inhibitor (57.5% in concentration 10 mg/ml). With regard to α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant extracts, purified constituents, and antidiabetic application of the species of Swertia genus in traditional medicine of different countries, S. longifolia seems more appropriate species for further mechanistic antidiabetic evaluations. PMID:27051429

  9. Chemical constituents of Swertia longifolia Boiss. with α-amylase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Ara, Leila; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Read, Roger W; Arshadi, Sattar; Nikan, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    α-Amylase inhibitors play a critical role in the control of diabetes and many of medicinal plants have been found to act as α-amylase inhibitors. Swertia genus, belonging to the family Gentianaceae, comprises different species most of which have been used in traditional medicine of several cultures as antidiabetic, anti-pyretic, analgesic, liver and gastrointestinal tonic. Swertia longifolia Boiss. is the only species of Swertia growing in Iran. In the present investigation, phytochemical study of S. longifolia was performed and α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant fractions and purified compounds were determined. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with hexane, chloroform, methanol and water, respectively. The components of the hexane and chloroform fractions were isolated by different chromatographic methods and their structures were determined by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR data. α-Amylase inhibitory activity was determined by a colorimetric assay using 3,5-dinitro salysilic acid. During phytochemical examination, α-amyrin, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol were purified from the hexane fraction, while ursolic acid, daucosterol and swertiamarin were isolated from chloroform fraction. The results of the biochemical assay revealed α-amylase inhibitory activity of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water fractions, of which the chloroform and methanol fractions were more potent (IC50 16.8 and 18.1 mg/ml, respectively). Among examined compounds, daucosterol was found to be the most potent α-amylase inhibitor (57.5% in concentration 10 mg/ml). With regard to α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant extracts, purified constituents, and antidiabetic application of the species of Swertia genus in traditional medicine of different countries, S. longifolia seems more appropriate species for further mechanistic antidiabetic evaluations. PMID:27051429

  10. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents of Centipeda minima by HPLC-QTOF-MS & HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chi-On; Jin, Deng-Ping; Dong, Nai-Ping; Chen, Si-Bao; Mok, Daniel Kam Wah

    2016-06-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS) method in both positive and negative ion modes was established to investigate the major constituents in the ethanolic extract of Centipeda minima (EBSC). Twelve common components including flavones and their glycosides, phenolic and polyphenolic acids, and sesquiterpene lactone were identified in ten batches of samples based on comparison with the retention time and accurate mass of external standards (mass accuracy within 3ppm) or the fragmentation patterns of tandem MS. Meanwhile, a simple, accurate and reliable HPLC-DAD method was also developed to determine the content of 10 chemical markers simultaneously. Results obtained from method validations including linearity, accuracy and precision showed that this new method is reliable and robust. Isochlorogenic acid A and brevilin A were found to be the most abundant in the ethanol extract of EBSC and could be served as markers for quality control of EBSC.

  11. [Research progress of phytoestrogens-like chemical constituents in natural medicines].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Nai-Dan; He, Yong-Jing; Li, Mei; Xu, Hong-Tao; Zhang, Qiao-Yan

    2014-12-01

    Phytoestrogens, which can bind with estrogen receptor and produce estrogen-like effects, are a kind of nonsteroidal compound in plant. Phytoestrogens chemically include isoflavones, coumarins, lignans and other compounds. Phytoestrogens are selective estrogen receptor modulator, and have therapeutical effects on breast cancer, prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease, menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis and other disease, however, do not produce stimulatory hyperplasia effects on uterus, mammary glands and other tissues and organs with positive estrogen receptor. Long-term exposure or excessive use of phytoestrogens maybe affects male reproductive system and hematopoietic function of fetus. Some questions need to be further studied, such as evaluation criteria on biological activity, adverse effects, and action mechanism of phytoestrogen. This review covers plant sources, chemical structure, pharmacological activity and safety of phytoestrogens. It will provide a useful reference for intensive research and rational utilization the phytoestrogens. PMID:25911795

  12. [Research progress of phytoestrogens-like chemical constituents in natural medicines].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Nai-Dan; He, Yong-Jing; Li, Mei; Xu, Hong-Tao; Zhang, Qiao-Yan

    2014-12-01

    Phytoestrogens, which can bind with estrogen receptor and produce estrogen-like effects, are a kind of nonsteroidal compound in plant. Phytoestrogens chemically include isoflavones, coumarins, lignans and other compounds. Phytoestrogens are selective estrogen receptor modulator, and have therapeutical effects on breast cancer, prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease, menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis and other disease, however, do not produce stimulatory hyperplasia effects on uterus, mammary glands and other tissues and organs with positive estrogen receptor. Long-term exposure or excessive use of phytoestrogens maybe affects male reproductive system and hematopoietic function of fetus. Some questions need to be further studied, such as evaluation criteria on biological activity, adverse effects, and action mechanism of phytoestrogen. This review covers plant sources, chemical structure, pharmacological activity and safety of phytoestrogens. It will provide a useful reference for intensive research and rational utilization the phytoestrogens.

  13. Two new chemical constituents from the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    See, Irene; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Teh, Soek Sin; Kadir, Arifah Abdul; Daud, Shaari

    2014-06-04

    A detailed chemical study on the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana resulted in the successful isolation of one new prenylated xanthone, mangaxanthone B (1), one new benzophenone, mangaphenone (2), and two known xanthones, mangostanin (3) and mangostenol (4). The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques.

  14. Chemical constituents from the leaves of Annona reticulata and their inhibitory effects on NO production.

    PubMed

    Thang, Tran Dinh; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Hung, Nguyen Huy; Huang, Bow-Shin; Yang, Mei-Lin; Luong, Ngo Xuan; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2013-04-16

    In the present study, the chemical investigation of the leaves of Annona reticulata has resulted in the identification of nine compounds, including annonaretin A, a new triterpenoid. The purified compounds were subjected to the examination of their effects on NO inhibition in LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages and most of them exhibited significant NO inhibition, with IC₅₀ values in the range of 48.6 ± 1.2 and 99.8 ± 0.4 μM.

  15. Larvicidal efficacy and chemical constituents of O. gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil against Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Sumitha, K V; Thoppil, John E

    2016-02-01

    The current study accentuates the use of botanicals as an alternative to the chemical compounds in vector control by estimating the mosquito larvicidal potential of Ocimum gratissimum L. leaf essential oil against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of essential oil from leaves was evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. GC/MS revealed that the essential oil of O. gratissimum contained 51 compounds. The major chemical constituents identified were 3-allyl-6-methoxyphenol (19.30%), 4-(5-ethenyl-1-azabicyclo (2, 2, 2) octan-2) (16.82%), 1-(2, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-propanol (12.23%) and 1-(1-hydroxybutyl)-2, 5-dimethoxybenzene (5.53%). The essential oil showed pertinent larvicidal effect, and the LC50 value in 24 h was 26.10 ppm (LC90 = 82.83 ppm). Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used for different applications, and they are more promising pesticides or insecticides for control of mosquito populations than synthetic ones. The results of the present investigation justify the larvicidal potential of leaf essential oil of O. gratissimum as a safer and more effective larvicide against A. albopictus.

  16. Larvicidal efficacy and chemical constituents of O. gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil against Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Sumitha, K V; Thoppil, John E

    2016-02-01

    The current study accentuates the use of botanicals as an alternative to the chemical compounds in vector control by estimating the mosquito larvicidal potential of Ocimum gratissimum L. leaf essential oil against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of essential oil from leaves was evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. GC/MS revealed that the essential oil of O. gratissimum contained 51 compounds. The major chemical constituents identified were 3-allyl-6-methoxyphenol (19.30%), 4-(5-ethenyl-1-azabicyclo (2, 2, 2) octan-2) (16.82%), 1-(2, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-propanol (12.23%) and 1-(1-hydroxybutyl)-2, 5-dimethoxybenzene (5.53%). The essential oil showed pertinent larvicidal effect, and the LC50 value in 24 h was 26.10 ppm (LC90 = 82.83 ppm). Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used for different applications, and they are more promising pesticides or insecticides for control of mosquito populations than synthetic ones. The results of the present investigation justify the larvicidal potential of leaf essential oil of O. gratissimum as a safer and more effective larvicide against A. albopictus. PMID:26462801

  17. Inhibitory Effect on Lipid Absorption and Variability of Chemical Constituents from Capparis sicula subsp. sicula and Capparis orientalis.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Argentieri, Maria Pia; Avato, Pinarosa; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2016-06-01

    In continuation of our research program on Mediterranean dietary plants, a bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from several accessions of Capparis sicula subsp. sicula and Capparis orientalis aerial parts was carried out. Antilipidemic activity of samples was assayed using inhibition of pancreatic lipase. To study the metabolic variability in Capparis species, HPTLC analyses were performed in order to characterize the species through the detection, isolation, and quantitative evaluation of rutin taken as significant chemical marker. The best activity was exerted by C. orientalis accession no. C10 and C. sicula subsp. sicula accession no. C6. The bioactivity evaluation of specific chemical markers, rutin and glucocapparin, led to the identification of a potent antilipidemic compound rutin. The HPTLC analysis showed large variation among the different analyzed samples with respect to rutin concentration. The chemical investigation showed a different composition between the species and between the collection zones. The variations showed by the studied accessions of caper could be attributed to exogenous factors. Capparis species contained predominantly quercetin rutinoside (rutin), accompanied by other constituents such as the glucosinolate glucocapparin. These rutin-rich extracts exhibited pronounced dose-dependent enzyme inhibitory activities toward pancreatic lipase.

  18. Chemical Constituents from Andrographis echioides and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shen, De-Yang; Juang, Shin-Hun; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Chan, Yu-Yi; Damu, Amooru G.; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the whole plants of Andrographis echioides afforded two new 2′-oxygenated flavonoids (1) and (2), two new phenyl glycosides (3) and (4), along with 37 known structures. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by spectral analysis and chemical transformation studies. Among the isolated compounds, (1–2) and (6–19) were subjected into the examination for their iNOS inhibitory bioactivity. The structure-activity relationships of the flavonoids for their inhibition of NO production were also discussed. PMID:23271366

  19. Seasonal variation of PM10 chemical constituents in different French urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Dalia; Golly, Benjamin; Besombes, Jean Luc; Alleman, Laurent; Favez, Olivier; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM10, with a diameter less than 10 μm) is a heterogeneous mixture of natural and anthropogenic components including organic and elemental carbon (OC, and EC), sulfates, nitrates, ammonium, mineral dust, trace elements, seasalt, which has been linked to adverse impact on human health, visibility, and climate change. Atmospheric PM concentration and composition can vary widely due to different climatic conditions and local features such as anthropogenic source types, emission rates and dispersion patterns. Moreover, the contribution of natural sources (e.g. seasalt and dust) varies from one region to another. However, a fundamental step towards a better understanding and identification of the sources of PM10 is constituted by the study of aerosol chemical composition. Moreover, in order to define cost effective emission abatement strategies, research studies to interpret the variability of PM10 levels and components and to identify the main emission sources influencing ambient air PM10 levels is still needed. In a national context of a better understanding of PM composition and sources, and therefore the implementation of efficient reduction plans of PM in France, various monitoring campaigns were carried out recently within different air quality programs, where PM10 filter samples were collected on a 24 hour basis at various type of French sites (e.g. urban, rural, etc.,), located in different urban environments. An extensive chemical characterization of PM10 composition at these sites was performed, and a large range of analytical techniques was used to determine the concentrations of various chemical species which included the analysis of OC, and EC, major ionic species (SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, NH4+, K+, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+), metals and trace elements (e.g. Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, etc.,), and organic compounds (e.g. sugars, polyols, PAH, methyl PAH, sulfur PAH, alkanes, hopanes, and methoxyphenols). The seasonal and spatial

  20. Biological activities and chemical constituents of some mangrove species from Sundarban estuary: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Simlai, Aritra; Roy, Amit

    2013-01-01

    This review represents the studies performed on some beneficial mangrove plants such as Ceriops decandra, Xylocarpus granatum, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Excoecaria agallocha, Sarcolobus globosus, Sonneratia caseolaris and Acanthus ilicifolius from the Sundarban estuary spanning India and Bangladesh with regard to their biological activities and chemical investigations till date. Sundarban is the largest single chunk of mangrove forest in the world. The forest is a source of livelihood to numerous people of the region. Several of its plant species have very large applications in the traditional folk medicine; various parts of these plants are used by the local people as cure for various ailments. Despite such enormous potential, remarkably few reports are available on these species regarding their biological activities and the active principles responsible for such activities. Though some chemical studies have been made on the mangrove plants of this estuary, reports pertaining to their activity-structure relationship are few in number. An attempt has been made in this review to increase the awareness for the medicinal significance as well as conservation and utilization of these mangrove species as natural rich sources of novel bioactive agents. PMID:24347925

  1. Chemical constituents of marine mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima EN-192

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong; Gao, Shushan; Li, Xiaoming; Li, Chunshun; Wang, Bingui

    2013-03-01

    A chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima EN-192, an endophytic fungus obtained from the stems of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa, resulted in the isolation of nine known secondary metabolites, including four indole-diterpenoids: penijanthine A ( 1), paspaline ( 2), paspalinine ( 3), and penitrem A ( 4); three tricycloalternarene derivatives: tricycloalternarene 3a ( 5), tricycloalternarene 1b ( 6), and tricycloalternarene 2b ( 7); and two alternariol congeners: djalonensone ( 8) and alternariol ( 9). The chemical structures of these metabolites were characterized through a combination of detailed spectroscopic analyses and their comparison with reports from the literature. The inhibitory activities of each isolated compound against four bacteria were evaluated and compounds 5 and 8 displayed moderate activity against the aquaculture pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum, with inhibition zone diameters of 8 and 9 mm, respectively, at 100 μg/disk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the secondary metabolites of mangrove-derived A lternaria tenuissima and also the first report of the isolation of indole-diterpenoids from fungal genus A lternaria.

  2. Chemical characterization of secondary organic aerosol constituents from isoprene ozonolysis in the presence of acidic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, Matthieu; Budisulistiorini, Sri Hapsari; Zhang, Zhenfa; Gold, Avram; Surratt, Jason D.

    2016-04-01

    Isoprene is the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon emitted into Earth's atmosphere and is predominantly derived from terrestrial vegetation. Prior studies have focused largely on the hydroxyl (OH) radical-initiated oxidation of isoprene and have demonstrated that highly oxidized compounds, such as isoprene-derived epoxides, enhance the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through heterogeneous (multiphase) reactions on acidified sulfate aerosol. However, studies on the impact of acidified sulfate aerosol on SOA formation from isoprene ozonolysis are lacking and the current work systematically examines this reaction. SOA was generated in an indoor smog chamber from isoprene ozonolysis under dark conditions in the presence of non-acidified or acidified sulfate seed aerosol. The effect of OH radicals on SOA chemical composition was investigated using diethyl ether as an OH radical scavenger. Aerosols were collected and chemically characterized by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-QTOFMS) and gas chromatography/electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS). Analysis revealed the formation of highly oxidized compounds, including organosulfates (OSs) and 2-methylterols, which were significantly enhanced in the presence of acidified sulfate seed aerosol. OSs identified in the chamber experiments were also observed and quantified in summertime fine aerosol collected from two rural locations in the southeastern United States during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS).

  3. Chemical constituents, in vitro protein digestibility, and presence of antinutritional substances in amaranth grains.

    PubMed

    Correa, A D; Jokl, L; Carlsson, R

    1986-06-01

    The chemical composition, content of antinutritional factors, and the in vitro protein digestibility of grains of the pseudo-cereal Amaranthus were analyzed. The plants were grown in Brazil (without fertilizer), Puerto Rico (100 kg N/ha), and California (200 kg N/ha). The seed analysis gave the following values (%DM): 14.4 - 16.9 protein (N X 6.25), 4.8 - 6.8 fat, 2.5 - 3.9 ash, and 2.3 - 2.9 crude fiber. The trypsin inhibitors, phenolics and saponine contents were low, and the phytohemagglutinin activity, fairly low. The in vitro protein digestibility was 61 - 76%. Digestibility was not correlated to the analyzed proximal composition nor to the antinutritional factors. The grain composition indicates a food value equivalent to that of conventional food grains. PMID:3632210

  4. Chemical constituents from Nelumbo nucifera leaves and their anti-obesity effects.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jong Hoon; Kim, Eun Sil; Lee, Chul; Kim, Soonok; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2013-06-15

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae), commonly called lotus, is widely distributed throughout Eastern Asia. It has been used for food and medicine for a long time. A phytochemical investigation of N. nucifera leaves led to the isolation of 13 megastigmanes (1-13), including a new megastigmane, nelumnucifoside A (1), and a new eudesmane sesquiterpene, nelumnucifoside B (14), eight alkaloids (15-22), and 11 flavonoids (23-33). Their chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods including 1D, 2D NMR and MS spectrometry. The relative and absolute stereochemistry of the compounds was determined by NOESY and CD spectrometry, respectively. Compounds 19 and 22 significantly inhibited pancreatic lipase, whereas compounds 15 and 16 showed a strong inhibitory effect on adipocyte differentiation. Therefore, the leaves of N. nucifera have potential as an anti-obesity agent by inhibiting pancreatic lipase and adipocyte differentiation.

  5. Chemical constituents from Nelumbo nucifera leaves and their anti-obesity effects.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jong Hoon; Kim, Eun Sil; Lee, Chul; Kim, Soonok; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2013-06-15

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae), commonly called lotus, is widely distributed throughout Eastern Asia. It has been used for food and medicine for a long time. A phytochemical investigation of N. nucifera leaves led to the isolation of 13 megastigmanes (1-13), including a new megastigmane, nelumnucifoside A (1), and a new eudesmane sesquiterpene, nelumnucifoside B (14), eight alkaloids (15-22), and 11 flavonoids (23-33). Their chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods including 1D, 2D NMR and MS spectrometry. The relative and absolute stereochemistry of the compounds was determined by NOESY and CD spectrometry, respectively. Compounds 19 and 22 significantly inhibited pancreatic lipase, whereas compounds 15 and 16 showed a strong inhibitory effect on adipocyte differentiation. Therefore, the leaves of N. nucifera have potential as an anti-obesity agent by inhibiting pancreatic lipase and adipocyte differentiation. PMID:23642481

  6. Chemical constituents from Sonneratia ovata Backer and their in vitro cytotoxicity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi-Hoai-Thu; Pham, Huu-Viet-Thong; Pham, Nguyen-Kim-Tuyen; Quach, Ngo-Diem-Phuong; Pudhom, Khanitha; Hansen, Poul Erik; Nguyen, Kim-Phi-Phung

    2015-06-01

    Sonneratia ovata Backer, Sonneratiaceae, is a widespread plant in mangrove forests in Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia. Sonneratia ovata's chemical composition remains mostly unknown. Therefore, we now report on the structural elucidation of three new phenolics, sonnerphenolic A (1), sonnerphenolic B (2), and sonnerphenolic C (23), a new cerebroside, sonnercerebroside (3) together with nineteen known compounds, including nine lignans (5-13), two steroids (14, 15), two triterpenoids (16, 17), three gallic acid derivatives (18-20), two phenolic derivatives (4, 22) and a 1-O-benzyl-β-d-glucopyranose (21) isolated from the leaves of Sonneratia ovata. Their chemical structures were established by spectroscopic data, as well as high resolution mass spectra and comparison with literature data. The in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and cytotoxic activities against HeLa (human epithelial carcinoma), NCI-H460 (human lung cancer), MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cancer cell lines and PHF (primary human fibroblast) cell were evaluated on some extracts and purified compounds at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Compounds (5, 6, 23) exhibited cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 cell line with the IC50 values of 146.9±9.0, 114.5±7.2, and 112.8±9.4 μM, respectively, while they showed nontoxic with the normal cell (PHF) with IC50s >277 μM. Among 15 tested compounds, (S)-rhodolatouchol (22) showed inhibition against AChE with an IC50 value of 96.1±14.5 μM.

  7. Chemical constituents and cytotoxic evaluation of essential oils from leaves of Porcelia macrocarpa (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Erica Biolcati P; Matsuo, Alisson L; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Chaves, Mariana H; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, João Henrique G

    2013-02-01

    This work reports the chemical composition and cytotoxic evaluation of the essential oils from three different samples of the leaves of Porcelia macrocarpa R. E. Fries (Annonaceae). The crude oils, obtained by hydrodistillation procedures, were chemically analyzed by GC/MS. The obtained data indicated the predominance of sesquiterpenes (89.8 +/- 0.7%), the main compounds being germacrene D (47 +/-+/- 1%) and bicyclogermacrene (37 +/- 1%). These oils also contained the monoterpene verbanyl acetate (0.5 +/- 0.06%) and the diterpene phytol (1.2 +/- 0.3%). The crude oils obtained from leaves were pooled and tested in vitro against six cancer cell lineages--murine melanoma (B16F10-Nex2), human glioblastome (U87), human cervical carcinoma (HeLa), human leukemia (HL-60), human colon carcinoma (HCT), human breast adenocarcinoma (SKBr), and human melanoma (A2058), as well as against a non-tumorigenic human cell line (HFF). Since the essential oil reduced more than 50% of the viability of several tumor cells at 100 microg/mL, indicating the presence of active compounds, the crude material was subjected to fractionation over a SiO2/AgNO3 column. This procedure afforded different fractions composed of pure as well as different mixtures of bicyclogermacrene and germacrene D, which were tested against the same tumor cell lines, indicating a significant cytotoxic potential against HL-60 cells. These results suggested that the crudeoils and their components, mainly germacrene D, could be used as prototypes for the development of new anti-cancer agents for the treatment of human leukemia.

  8. Ethnobotany, chemical constituents and biological activities of the flowers of Hydnora abyssinica A.Br. (Hydnoraceae).

    PubMed

    Al-Fatimi, M; Ali, N A A; Kilian, N; Franke, K; Arnold, N; Kuhnt, C; Schmidt, J; Lindequist, U

    2016-04-01

    Hydnora abyssinica A.Br. (Hydnoraceae), a holoparasitic herb, is for the first time recorded for Abyan governorate of South Yemen. Flowers of this species were studied for their ethnobotanical, biological and chemical properties for the first time. In South Yemen, they are traditionally used as wild food and to cure stomach diseases, gastric ulcer and cancer. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed the presence of terpenes, tannins, phenols, and flavonoids. The volatile components of the air-dried powdered flowers were identified using a static headspace GC/MS analysis as acetic acid, ethyl acetate, sabinene, α-terpinene, (+)-D-limonene and γ-terpinene. These volatile compounds that characterize the odor and taste of the flowers were detected for the first time in a species of the family Hydnoraceae. The flowers were extracted by n-hexane, dichlormethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water. With exception of the water extract all extracts demonstrated activities against Gram-positive bacteria as well as remarkable radical scavenging activities in DPPH assay. Ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts exhibited good antifungal activities. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts against FL cells, measured in neutral red assay, was only weak (IC50 > 500 μg/mL). The results justify the traditional use of the flowers of Hydnora abyssinica in South Yemen.

  9. Chemical composition of the bark of Tetrapterys mucronata and identification of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory constituents.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Marcos Marçal Ferreira; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; Zeraik, Maria Luiza; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Marcourt, Laurence; Cuendet, Muriel; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Hamburger, Matthias; da Silva Bolzani, Vanderlan; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2014-03-28

    The secondary metabolite content of Tetrapterys mucronata, a poorly studied plant that is used occasionally in Brazil for the preparation of a psychotropic plant decoction called "Ayahuasca", was determined to establish its chemical composition and to search for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. The ethanolic extract of the bark of T. mucronata exhibited in vitro AChE inhibition in a TLC bioautography assay. To localize the active compounds, biological profiling for AChE inhibition was performed using at-line HPLC-microfractionation in 96-well plates and subsequent AChE inhibition bioautography. The analytical HPLC-PDA conditions were transferred geometrically to a preparative medium-pressure liquid chromatography column using chromatographic calculations for the efficient isolation of the active compounds at the milligram scale. Twenty-two compounds were isolated, of which six are new natural products. The structures of the new compounds (9, 10, 16-18, and 20) were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. Compounds 1, 5, 6, 9, and 10 inhibited AChE with IC50 values below 15 μM.

  10. Chemical constituents from the leaves of Boehmeria rugulosa with antidiabetic and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Rawat, Usha; Semwal, Ravindra; Singh, Randhir; Krishan, Pawan; Singh, Manjeet; Singh, Gur Jas Preet

    2009-12-01

    Three new flavonoid glycosides, named chalcone-6'-hydroxy-2',3,4-trimethoxy-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), isoflavone-3',4',5,6-tetrahydroxy-7-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside] (2), and isoflavone-3',4',5,6-tetrahydroxy-7-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside] (3), were isolated from the leaves of Boehmeria rugulosa, together with five known compounds, beta-sitosterol, quercetin, 3,4-dimethoxy-omega-(2'-piperidyl)-acetophenone (4), boehmeriasin A (5), and quercetin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by means of chemical and spectral data including 2D NMR experiments. The ethanolic extract of leaves showed significant hypoglycemic activity on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Glibenclamide, an oral hypoglycemic agent (5 mg/kg, p.o.), was used as a positive control. The ethanolic extract of the plant as well as the isolated compounds 1-3 (25 microg/ml) showed potent antimicrobial activity against two bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans) and three fungus pathogens (Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton rubrum). The activities of the isolated compounds 1-3 have been compared with positive controls, novobiocin, and erythromycin (15 microg/ml). PMID:20183275

  11. Ethnobotany, chemical constituents and biological activities of the flowers of Hydnora abyssinica A.Br. (Hydnoraceae).

    PubMed

    Al-Fatimi, M; Ali, N A A; Kilian, N; Franke, K; Arnold, N; Kuhnt, C; Schmidt, J; Lindequist, U

    2016-04-01

    Hydnora abyssinica A.Br. (Hydnoraceae), a holoparasitic herb, is for the first time recorded for Abyan governorate of South Yemen. Flowers of this species were studied for their ethnobotanical, biological and chemical properties for the first time. In South Yemen, they are traditionally used as wild food and to cure stomach diseases, gastric ulcer and cancer. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed the presence of terpenes, tannins, phenols, and flavonoids. The volatile components of the air-dried powdered flowers were identified using a static headspace GC/MS analysis as acetic acid, ethyl acetate, sabinene, α-terpinene, (+)-D-limonene and γ-terpinene. These volatile compounds that characterize the odor and taste of the flowers were detected for the first time in a species of the family Hydnoraceae. The flowers were extracted by n-hexane, dichlormethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water. With exception of the water extract all extracts demonstrated activities against Gram-positive bacteria as well as remarkable radical scavenging activities in DPPH assay. Ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts exhibited good antifungal activities. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts against FL cells, measured in neutral red assay, was only weak (IC50 > 500 μg/mL). The results justify the traditional use of the flowers of Hydnora abyssinica in South Yemen. PMID:27209704

  12. Chemical constituents and larvicidal potential of Feronia limonia leaf essential oil against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, A; Jayaraman, M; Venkatesalu, V

    2013-03-01

    In the present investigation, the leaf essential oil of Feronia limonia was evaluated for chemical constituents and mosquito larvicidal activity against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. GC and GC-MS analyses revealed that the essential oil contain 51 compounds. Estragole (34.69 %) and β-pinene(23.59 %) were identified as the major constituents followed by methyl (Z)-caryophyllene (11.05 %), eugenol (6.50 %), linalool (3.97 %), phytol (3.27 %), sabinene (2.41 %) and limonene (2.27 %). Larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The oil showed remarkable larvicidal activity against A. stephensi (LC(50) = 38.93 and LC(90) = 108.64 ppm (after 12 h); LC(50) = 15.03 and LC(90) = 36.69 ppm (after 24 h)), A. aegypti (LC(50) = 37.60 and LC(90) = 104.69 ppm (after 12 h); LC(50) = 11.59 and LC(90) = 42.95 ppm (after 24 h)) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 52.08 and LC(90) = 124.33 ppm (after 12 h); LC(50) = 22.49 and LC(90) = 60.90 ppm (after 24 h)). Based on the results, the essential oil of F. limonia can be considered as a new source of larvicide for the control of vector mosquitoes.

  13. Chemical constituents and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from Amomum tsaoko against two stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Kai; Chen, Ran; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Du, Shu-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical constituents and toxicities of the essential oil derived from Amomum tsaoko Crevost et Lemarie fruits against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius). Essential oil of A. tsaoko was obtained from hydrodistillation and was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 43 components, of which eucalyptol (23.87%), limonene (22.77%), 2-isopropyltoluene (6.66%) and undecane (5.74%) were the major components. With a further isolation, two active constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as eucalyptol and limonene. The essential oil and the two isolated compounds exhibited potential insecticidal activities against two storedproduct insects. Limonene showed pronounced contact toxicity against both insect species (LD50 = 14.97 μg/adult for T. castaneum; 13.66 μg/adult for L. serricorne) and was more toxic than eucalyptol (LD50 = 18.83 μg/adult for T. castaneum; 15.58 μg/adult for L. serricorne). The essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LD50 values of 16.52 and 6.14 μg/adult, respectively. Eucalyptol also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against both insect species (LC50 = 5.47 mg/L air for T. castaneum; 5.18 mg/L air for L. serricorne) and was more toxic than limonene (LC50 = 6.21 mg/L air for T. castaneum; 14.07 mg/L air for L. serricorne), while the crude essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LC50 values of 5.85 and 8.70 mg/L air, respectively. These results suggested that the essential oil of A. tsaoko and the two compounds may be used in grain storage to combat insect pests.

  14. Chemical characterization, antioxidant properties, and volatile constituents of naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) cultivated in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Oscar; Pérez, Ana M; Vaillant, Fabrice

    2009-03-01

    Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) is a native fruit of the Andes, cultivated and consumed mainly in Ecuador, Colombia, and Central America. Because of its pleasant aroma and attractive color, it has high potential as an ingredient of products such as juices, nectars, and jams. The main characteristics of mature naranjilla fruits cultivated in Costa Rica were assessed, including sugar content, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (H-ORAC), and total polyphenolic and ascorbic acid content. Carotenoid and volatile compound identification was also done. The samples showed sucrose, glucose, and fructose content of 1.6 +/- 0.3, 0.68 +/- 0.05, and 0.7 +/- 0.1 g/100 g, respectively. Total titratable acidity was 2.63 +/- 0.07 g citric acid equivalent / 100 g and total soluble solids amounted to 9.1 +/- 0.5 degrees Brix. H-ORAC value was 17 +/- 1 micromol Trolox equivalent /g, total polyphenolic content was 48 +/- 3 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g and ascorbic acid content was 12.5 +/- 0.0 mg/100 g. Carotenoid content of the whole fruit and pulp was 33.3 +/- 0.6 and 7.2 +/- 0.3 microg/g, respectively. The predominant carotenoid among the compounds identified in the whole fruit was beta-carotene. Ten volatile compounds were identified in naranjillapulp, the predominant being methyl butanoate. The chemical composition of naranjilla cultivated in Costa Rica does not seem to differ from that previously reported in studies at different locations.

  15. Chemical Constituents of the New Endophytic Fungus Mycosphaerella sp. nov. and Their Anti-Parasitic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Eufemio; Varughese, Titto; Spadafora, Carmenza; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.; Gerwick, William H.; Cubilla-Rios, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Chemical investigation of a new endophytic fungus, Mycosphaerella sp. nov. strain F2140 associated with the foliage of the plant Psychotria horizontalis (Rubiaceae) in Panama, resulted in the isolation of cercosporin (1) and a new cercosporin analogue (3) as the major components. The structures of minor compounds in the extract were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis as 2-(2-butyl)-3-hydroxy-6-ethyl-6-methylcyclohex-2-ene-1,5-dione (4), 3-(2-butyl)-6-ethyl-6-methyl-5-hydroxy-2-methoxy-cyclohex-2-eneone (5), and an isomer of 5 (6). To study the influence of the hydroxy groups on the anti-parasitic activity of cercosporin, compound 1 was acetylated to obtain derivative 2. The isolated compounds 1–6 were tested in vitro to determine their anti-parasitic activity against the causal agents of malaria (Plasmodium falciparum), leishmaniasis (Leishmania donovani), and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi). Also, the cytotoxicity and potential anticancer activity of these compounds were evaluated using mammalian Vero cells and MCF7 cancer cell lines, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed high potency against L. donovani (IC50 0.46 and 0.64 μM), T. cruzi (IC50 1.08 and 0.78 μM), P. falciparum (IC50 1.03 and 2.99 μM), and MCF7 cancer cell lines (IC50 4.68 and 3.56 μM). Compounds 3–6 were not active in these assays at a concentration of 10 μg/mL. PMID:21815421

  16. Chemical constituents of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ka-Li; Li, Xian; Ye, Ji; Lu, Lu; Xu, Xi-Ke; Li, Hui-Liang; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Shen, Yun-Heng

    2016-09-01

    Two new flavan derivatives tazettones C-D (1-2), one new β-coumaranone (tazettone E, 3), one new flavan (tazettone F, 4), and one new phenylpropanoid (tazettone G, 5), together with six known flavonoids (6-11), were isolated from the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis Roem. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. In addition, the structures of 1-3 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. All isolated compounds were tested for antioxidant activity by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Compounds 6-8 and 10-11 exhibited potent antioxidant activity against H2O2-induced impairment in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells at tested concentrations. PMID:27476617

  17. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1992-03-06

    The objective of this research was to investigate the reaction mechanism of higher alcohol and aldehyde synthesis from syngas and the role of additives in the synthesis. An in situ IR reaction system and probe molecule technique were developed to study adsorbed species, active sites, and reaction pathway during reaction. The catalysts used for this study included silica-supported Rh, Ru, and Ni. (VC)

  18. Chemical transformations during aging of zerovalent iron nanoparticles in the presence of common groundwater dissolved constituents.

    PubMed

    Reinsch, Brian C; Forsberg, Brady; Penn, R Lee; Kim, Christopher S; Lowry, Gregory V

    2010-05-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) that was aged in simulated groundwater was evaluated for alterations in composition and speciation over 6 months to understand the possible transformations NZVI could undergo in natural waters. NZVI was exposed to 10 mN of various common groundwater anions (Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), HPO(4)(2-), and HCO(3)(-)) or to dissolved oxygen (saturated, approximately 9 mg/L). Fresh and exposed NZVI samples, along with Fe-oxide model compounds, were then analyzed using synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to yield both relative oxidation state, using the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and quantitative speciation information regarding the types and proportions of mineral species present, from analysis of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Over 1 month of aging the dissolved anions inhibited the oxidation of the NZVI to varying degrees. Aging for 6 months, however, resulted in average oxidation states that were similar to each other regardless of the anion used, except for nitrate. Nitrate passivated the NZVI surface such that even after 6 months of aging the particles retained nearly the same mineral and Fe(0) content as fresh NZVI. Linear least-squares combination fitting (LCF) of the EXAFS spectra for 1 month-aged samples indicated that the oxidized particles remain predominantly a binary phase system containing Fe(0) and Fe(3)O(4), while the 6 month aged samples contained additional mineral phases such as vivianite (Fe(3)(PO(4))(2).8H(2)O) and iron sulfate species, possibly schwertmannite (Fe(3+)(16)O(16)(OH,SO(4))(12-13).10-12H(2)O). The presence of these additional mineral species was confirmed using synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD). NZVI exposed to water saturated with dissolved oxygen showed a rapid (<24 h) loss of Fe(0) and evolved both magnetite and maghemite (gamma-Fe(2)O(3)) within the oxide layer. These findings have implications toward the eventual fate, transport

  19. Antimicrobial activities of Eugenia caryophyllata extract and its major chemical constituent eugenol against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Park, Seok-Won; Chae, Sung-Won; Song, Jae-Jun; Kim, Ho Chul

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the antimicrobial activities of both Eugenia caryophyllata (Ec) extract and its major component eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by microdilution method. Pneumococcal biofilms were detected by crystal-violet microtiter plate assay, followed by colony-forming unit counts and visualized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The synergistic effect of eugenol and penicillin was determined by checker-board method. Both the eugenol and the Ec extract inhibited pneumococcal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. The MIC and MBC of eugenol were 0.06% and 0.12%, respectively. Eugenol at a concentration of 0.12% completely killed S. pneumoniae within 60 min of exposure. The kill rate of planktonic cells was most rapid during the first 15 min of contact with eugenol. The addition of eugenol or Ec extract inhibited in vitro biofilm formation. In already established biofilms, the inhibitory effect of eugenol or Ec extract was more significant in terms of cell viability than in terms of disruption of the biofilm matrix. SEM analysis revealed non-viable and disruptive action of eugenol on the cell membrane of bacteria of biofilms. It was found that eugenol and penicillin produced a synergistic effect against S. pneumoniae. In conclusion, eugenol and Ec extract efficiently inhibited S. pneumoniae in planktonic growth and within biofilms.

  20. Biological Activity and Chemical Constituents of Red and Brown Algae from the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Jassbi, Amir Reza; Mohabati, Maryam; Eslami, Saba; Sohrabipour, Jelveh; Miri, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Different solvent extracts of a red algae, Hypnea flagelliformis, and two brown algae, Cystoseira myrica and Sargassum boveanum, which were collected from the Persian Gulf coast were subjected to different bioassays, including: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, antibacterial and antifungal activity by thin layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography, agar disc diffusion (ADD) and nutrient-broth micro-dilution (NBMD) bioassays. The water extracts were found to have the most antioxidant activity. The antibacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the active extracts were determined for the susceptible organisms, Staphylococcus aurous and Bacillus subtilis, using NBMD bioassays. The active substances were identified as free fatty acids (FFA), by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After derivatization to their methyl esters, their concentrations were measured by using GC- lame ionization detection (GC-FID). In addition to the fatty acids, fucosterol, cholesterol and 22-dehydroxychlosterol were detected as the major sterols in S. boveanum extract using GC-MS analyses. PMID:24250640

  1. Chemical constituents of the root of Dystaenia takeshimana and their anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Sun; Kim, Jin Cheul; Shim, Sang Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Jin, WenYi; Bae, KiHwan; Son, Kun Ho; Kim, Hyun Pyo; Kang, Sam Sik; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2006-08-01

    In our ongoing search for bioactive compounds originating from the endemic species in Korea, we found that the hexane and EtOAc fractions of the MeOH extract from the root of Dystaenia takeshimana (Nakai) Kitagawa (Umbelliferae) showed cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) dual inhibitory activity by assessing their effects on the production of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. By activity-guided fractionation, five coumarins, viz. psoralen (2), xanthotoxin (3), scopoletin (4), umbelliferone (5), and (+)-marmesin (6), together with beta-sitosterol (1), were isolated from the hexane fraction, and two phenethyl alcohol derivatives, viz. 2-methoxy-2-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol (7) and 2-hydroxy-2-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol (8), three flavonoids, viz. apigenin (9), luteolin (10), and cynaroside (11), as well as daucosterol (12) were isolated from the EtOAc fraction using silica gel column chromatography. In addition, D-mannitol (13) was isolated from the BuOH fraction by recrystallization. Two of the coumarins, scopoletin (4) and (+)-marmesin (6), the two phenethyl alcohol derivatives (7, 8) and the three flavonoids (9-11) were isolated for the first time from this plant. Among the compounds isolated from this plant, the five coumarins as well as the three flavonoids showed COX-2/5-LOX dual inhibitory activity. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of D. takeshimana might in part occur via the inhibition of the generation of eicosanoids. PMID:16964755

  2. [Study on the microwave extraction and chemical constituents of the essential oil from Amomum tsao-ko in Jinping, Yunnan province].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijuan; Zhang, Zheng; Li, Junfeng; Kong, Weiling; Lin, Jun

    2004-11-01

    Essential oil from Amomum tsao-ko collected in Jinping, Yunnan province was obtained by microwave extraction, common solvent extraction and vapor distillation, respectively. Chemical constituents were analyzed by GC-MS and their relative contents were determined by area-normalized method. PMID:15810587

  3. Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Wehnke, Amy J.; Hall, L. Flint; Campbell, Linford J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 14 sites as part of an ongoing study to monitor the water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer between the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Burley-Twin Falls-Hagerman area. The State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality, Division of INL Oversight and Radiation Control cosampled with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources and their analytical results are included in this report. The samples were collected from four domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, four irrigation wells, one observation well, and one stock well and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. Two quality-assurance samples, sequential replicates, also were collected and analyzed. None of the concentrations of radiochemical or organic-chemical constituents exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, the concentration of one inorganic-chemical constituent, nitrate (as nitrogen), in water from site MV-43 was 20 milligrams per liter which exceeded the maximum contaminant level for that constituent. Of the radiochemical and chemical concentrations analyzed for in the replicate-sample pairs, 267 of the 270 pairs (with 95 percent confidence) were statistically equivalent.

  4. Biotransformation of chemical constituents of durian wine with simultaneous alcoholic fermentation by Torulaspora delbrueckii and malolactic fermentation by Oenococcus oeni.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuyun; Chua, Jian-Yong; Huang, Dejian; Lee, Pin-Rou; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2016-10-01

    This work represents the first study on the biotransformation of chemical constituents of durian wine via simultaneous alcoholic fermentation (AF) and malolactic fermentation (MLF) with non-Saccharomyces yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely, Torulaspora delbrueckii Biodiva and Oenococcus oeni PN4. The presence of PN4 improved the utilization of sugars but did not affect ethanol production. MLF resulted in the significant degradation of malic acid with corresponding increases in pH and lactic acid. The final concentrations of acetic acid (1.29 g/L) and succinic acid (3.70 g/L) in simultaneous AF and MLF were significantly higher than that in AF (1.05 and 1.31 g/L) only. Compared with AF, simultaneous AF and MLF significantly elevated the levels of aroma compounds with higher levels of higher alcohols (isoamyl alcohol, active amyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, and 2-phenylethyl alcohol), acetate esters (ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate), and ethyl esters (ethyl octanoate, ethyl dodecanoate). All the endogenous volatile sulfur compounds decreased to trace or undetectable levels at the end of fermentation. MLF accentuated the reduction of acetaldehyde and sulfides. The initially absent dipropyl disulfide was formed, then catabolized, especially in simultaneous AF and MLF. This study suggested that the simultaneous AF and MLF of non-Saccharomyces and LAB could modify the volatile compositions and potentially modulate the organoleptic properties of durian wine. PMID:27405438

  5. Comparative research of chemical constituents, antifungal and antitumor properties of ether extracts of Panax ginseng and its endophytic fungus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Li; Han, Ting; Wu, Jin-Zhong; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Zhang, Hong; Huang, Bao-Kang; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The chemical compositions and bioactivities of ether extracts of an endophytic fungus Paecilomyces sp. isolated from Panax ginseng were reported, and the comparative analysis of the constituents, antifungal and antitumor properties of the ether extracts from this fungus and its host ginseng were also conducted. By means of GC/MS technique, 51 compounds of Panax ginseng and 38 compounds of Paecilomyce sp. were determined. It is attractive that the extracts derived from Paecilomyce sp. and ginseng samples contained the same compound falcarinol, a natural pesticide and anti-cancer agent. The ether extracts of Paecilomyce sp., tested at 7.8 microg/ml, completely inhibited the visible growth of Pyricularia oryzae. Furthermore, both extracts were tested against four human pathogenic fungi and showed the IC(80) of Paecilomyce sp. was 4 microg/ml against Trichophyton rubrum, equally to the control. Finally, the in vitro antitumor experience showed that the most of the IC(50) values were all being below 20 microg/ml. PMID:19403293

  6. Quantitative analysis of routine chemical constituents in tobacco by near-infrared spectroscopy and support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Cong, Qian; Xie, Yunfei; Yang, Jingxiu; Zhao, Bing

    2008-12-01

    It is important to monitor quality of tobacco during the production of cigarette. Therefore, in order to scientifically control the tobacco raw material and guarantee the cigarette quality, fast and accurate determination routine chemical of constituents of tobacco, including the total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, the total nitrogen and so on, is needed. In this study, 50 samples of tobacco from different cultivation areas were surveyed by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and the spectral differences provided enough quantitative analysis information for the tobacco. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), artificial neural network (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM), were applied. The quantitative analysis models of 50 tobacco samples were studied comparatively in this experiment using PLSR, ANN, radial basis function (RBF) SVM regression, and the parameters of the models were also discussed. The spectrum variables of 50 samples had been compressed through the wavelet transformation technology before the models were established. The best experimental results were obtained using the (RBF) SVM regression with γ = 1.5, 1.3, 0.9, and 0.1, separately corresponds to total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, and total nitrogen, respectively. Finally, compared with the back propagation (BP-ANN) and PLSR approach, SVM algorithm showed its excellent generalization for quantitative analysis results, while the number of samples for establishing the model is smaller. The overall results show that NIR spectroscopy combined with SVM can be efficiently utilized for rapid and accurate analysis of routine chemical compositions in tobacco. Simultaneously, the research can serve as the technical support and the foundation of quantitative analysis of other NIR applications.

  7. Quantitative analysis of routine chemical constituents in tobacco by near-infrared spectroscopy and support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Cong, Qian; Xie, Yunfei; JingxiuYang; Zhao, Bing

    2008-12-15

    It is important to monitor quality of tobacco during the production of cigarette. Therefore, in order to scientifically control the tobacco raw material and guarantee the cigarette quality, fast and accurate determination routine chemical of constituents of tobacco, including the total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, the total nitrogen and so on, is needed. In this study, 50 samples of tobacco from different cultivation areas were surveyed by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and the spectral differences provided enough quantitative analysis information for the tobacco. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), artificial neural network (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM), were applied. The quantitative analysis models of 50 tobacco samples were studied comparatively in this experiment using PLSR, ANN, radial basis function (RBF) SVM regression, and the parameters of the models were also discussed. The spectrum variables of 50 samples had been compressed through the wavelet transformation technology before the models were established. The best experimental results were obtained using the (RBF) SVM regression with gamma=1.5, 1.3, 0.9, and 0.1, separately corresponds to total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, and total nitrogen, respectively. Finally, compared with the back propagation (BP-ANN) and PLSR approach, SVM algorithm showed its excellent generalization for quantitative analysis results, while the number of samples for establishing the model is smaller. The overall results show that NIR spectroscopy combined with SVM can be efficiently utilized for rapid and accurate analysis of routine chemical compositions in tobacco. Simultaneously, the research can serve as the technical support and the foundation of quantitative analysis of other NIR applications.

  8. A nudged chemistry-climate model simulation of chemical constituent distribution at northern high-latitude stratosphere observed by SMILES and MLS during the 2009/2010 stratospheric sudden warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyoshi, H.; Nakamura, T.; Miyasaka, T.; Shiotani, M.; Suzuki, M.

    2016-02-01

    Stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) is a dramatic phenomenon of the winter stratosphere in which the distribution of chemical constituents, associated chemical tendency, and transport of chemical constituents differ significantly inside and outside of the polar vortex. In this study, the chemical constituent distributions in the major SSW of 2009/2010 were simulated by the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate 3.2-Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM) nudged toward the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts-Interim Re-Analysis data. The results were compared with Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations. In addition, ozone tendency due to ozone transport and chemical ozone loss in the high-latitude lower stratosphere before and after the SSW was analyzed for the period from 1 January 2010 to 11 February 2010. The evolution and distribution of ozone and HCl inside/outside the polar vortex associated with the vortex shift to the midlatitudes in January are quite similar between SMILES and MLS. Those of ClO are also similar, considering the difference in the local time for the measurement. Analyses of the nudged CCM run indicate that inside the polar vortex at 50 hPa, the ozone concentration increased moderately owing to partial cancelation between the large negative ozone tendency due to chemical ozone destruction and large positive ozone tendency due to horizontal ozone influx from outside of the vortex as well as downward advection. In the region of a high ozone concentration with the same area as that of the polar vortex at 50 hPa, the large increase in ozone was primarily due to a downward advection of ozone. SMILES and MLS observations, nudged CCM simulations, and ozone tendency analyses revealed a highly longitudinal dependent ozone tendency at high latitudes during the SSW.

  9. 15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals. 714.3 Section 714.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3...

  10. 15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals. 714.3 Section 714.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3...

  11. 15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals. 714.3 Section 714.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3...

  12. 15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals. 714.3 Section 714.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3...

  13. 15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals. 714.3 Section 714.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3...

  14. Bioactivity and chemical constituents of the essential oil from Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul. against two stored insects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; You, Chun-Xue; Yang, Kai; Wang, Ying; Su, Yang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul. is a perennial herb commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. In this work, we took Dendranthema indicum as a target plant and two stored insects which include Tribolium castaneum and Stegobium paniceum adults as target insects. Essential oil obtained from Dendranthema indicum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 31 components representing 92.44% of the oil were identified and the main compounds were found to be chamazulene (15.93%), β-caryophyllene (13.78%), germacrene D (9.11%), and b-cis-farnesene (6.59%). With a further isolation, three constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as chamazulene, β-caryophyllene and eucalyptol. Significantly, in the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil and chamazulene exhibited stronger insecticidal and repellent activities against Stegobium paniceum than Tribolium castaneum. The results indicate that additional to its traditional use as Chinese medicinal herb, the essential oil of Dendranthema indicum aerial parts and isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides or repellents for control of insects in stored grains.

  15. Bioactivity and chemical constituents of the essential oil from Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul. against two stored insects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; You, Chun-Xue; Yang, Kai; Wang, Ying; Su, Yang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul. is a perennial herb commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. In this work, we took Dendranthema indicum as a target plant and two stored insects which include Tribolium castaneum and Stegobium paniceum adults as target insects. Essential oil obtained from Dendranthema indicum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 31 components representing 92.44% of the oil were identified and the main compounds were found to be chamazulene (15.93%), β-caryophyllene (13.78%), germacrene D (9.11%), and b-cis-farnesene (6.59%). With a further isolation, three constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as chamazulene, β-caryophyllene and eucalyptol. Significantly, in the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil and chamazulene exhibited stronger insecticidal and repellent activities against Stegobium paniceum than Tribolium castaneum. The results indicate that additional to its traditional use as Chinese medicinal herb, the essential oil of Dendranthema indicum aerial parts and isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides or repellents for control of insects in stored grains. PMID:25843281

  16. Chemical constituents in water from wells in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1991--93

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, B.J.; Knobel, L.L.; Bartholomay, R.C.

    1995-11-01

    The US Geological Survey, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office, Idaho Branch Office, sampled 14 wells during 1991--93 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. Water samples were analyzed for manmade contaminants and naturally occurring constituents. One hundred sixty-one samples were collected from 10 ground-water monitoring wells and 4 production wells. Twenty-one quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed; 2 were blank samples and 19 were replicate samples. The two blank samples contained concentrations of six inorganic constituents that were slightly greater than the laboratory reporting levels (the smallest measured concentration of a constituent that can be reported using a given analytical method). Concentrations of other constituents in the blank samples were less than their respective reporting levels. The 19 replicate samples and their respective primary samples generated 614 pairs of analytical results for a variety of chemical and radiochemical constituents. Of the 614 data pairs, 588 were statistically equivalent at the 95% confidence level; about 96% of the analytical results were in agreement. Two pairs of turbidity measurements were not evaluated because of insufficient information and one primary sample collected in January 1992 contained tentatively identified organic compounds when the replicate sample did not.

  17. Relation of precipitation quality to storm type, and deposition of dissolved chemical constituents from precipitation in Massachusetts, 1983-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gay, F.B.; Melching, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Precipitation samples were collected for 83 storms at a rural inland site in Princeton, Mass., and 73 storms at a rural coastal site in Truro, Mass., to examine the quality of precipitation from storms and relate quality to three storm types (oceanic cyclone, continental cyclone, and cold front). At the inland site, Princeton, ranked-means of precipitation depth, storm duration, specific conductance, and concentrations and loads of hydrogen, sulfate, aluminum, bromide, and copper ions were affected by storm type. At the coastal site, Truro, ranked means of precipitation depth, storm duration, and concentrations and loads of calcium, chloride, magnesium, potassium, and sodium ions were affected by storm type. Precipitation chemistry at the coastal site was 85 percent oceanic in orgin, whereas precipitation 72 kilometers inland was 60 percent hydrogen, nitrate, and sulfate ions, reflecting fossil-fuel combustion. Concentrations and loads for specific conductance and 9 chemical constituents on an annual and seasonal basis were determined from National Atmospheric Deposition Program data for spring 1983 through winter 1985 at Quabbin (rural, inland), Waltham (suburban, inland) and Truro (rural, coastal), Massachusetts. Concentrations of magnesium, potassium, sodium, and chloride concentrations were highest at the coast and much lower inland, with very little difference between Waltham and Quabbin. Loads of ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, and hydrogen are highest at Quabbin and are about equal at Waltham and Truro. About twice as much nitrate and hydrogen and about 35 percent more sulfate is deposited at Quabbin than at Waltham or Truro; this pattern indicates that the interior of Massachusetts receives more acidic precipitation than do the eastern or the coastal areas of Massachusetts.

  18. Identification and Characterization of the Major Chemical Constituents in Fructus Akebiae by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yun; Zhang, Qing; Zhu, Dan-dan; Chen, Fei; Kong, Xiu-hua; Liao, Liang

    2016-02-01

    Fructus Akebiae (FA), the dry fruit of Akebia quinata (THUNB.) DECNE., possesses potent antidepressant properties. Owing to the structural complexity, high polarity and thermal lability in plants, it is difficult and time-consuming to analyze the major chemical constituents by traditional strategies that involve extraction, isolation, purification and identification by chemical manipulations and spectroscopic methods. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS-MS) method was established for quickly identifying the chemical constituents in the extract of Fructus Akebiae. The main saponin components in the extract of Fructus Akebiae were detected with the HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS-MS in negative-ion mode. These components were further analyzed by MS(2) spectra, and compared with the corresponding reference substances and literature data. Nineteen saponins in the extract of Fructus Akebiae were well separated in one run. The new method is accurate and rapid. It can be used to identify the main chemical constituents in the extract of Fructus Akebiae and can be suitable for the quality control of Fructus Akebiae.

  19. Associations between Long-Term Exposure to Chemical Constituents of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Mortality in Medicare Enrollees in the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Dominici, Francesca; Wang, Yun; Coull, Brent A.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    mortality. These results provide new evidence that chemical composition can partly explain the differential toxicity of PM2.5. Citation: Chung Y, Dominici F, Wang Y, Coull BA, Bell ML. 2015. Associations between long-term exposure to chemical constituents of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mortality in Medicare enrollees in the eastern United States. Environ Health Perspect 123:467–474; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307549 PMID:25565179

  20. Antimalarial efficacy of dynamic compound of plumbagin chemical constituent from Plumbago zeylanica Linn (Plumbaginaceae) against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Sathish-Narayanan, Subbiah; Kirubakaran, Suyambulingam Arunachalam; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan

    2014-08-01

    In the present investigation, the effective root compound of plumbagin of Plumbago zeylanica (Plumbaginaceae) was evaluated for chemical constituent and antimalarial effect against the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera). In the chromatographic analyses of root compound with Rf value of 0.788 and NMR analyses also revealed that the effective compound contain naphthoquinone plumbagin were identified as the major chemical constituent. Larval mortality was observed after 3 h of exposure period. The plumbagin compound showed remarkable larvicidal activity against A. stephensi (LC50 32.65 and LC9072.27 ppm). Histopathological effects of compound was observed in the treated larvae. Based on the results, the plumbagin compound of P. zeylanica can be considered as a new source of natural larvicide for the control of malarial vector.

  1. Chemical and Radiochemical Constituents in Water from Wells in the Vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    L. L. Knobel; R. C. Bartholomay; B. J. Tucker; L. M. Williams

    1999-10-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office, Idaho Branch Office (IBO), samples water from 13 wells during 1996 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality to the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho. The IBO requires information about the mobility of radionuclide- and chemical-waste constituents in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Waste-constituent mobility is determined principally by (1) the rate and direction of ground-water flow; (2) the locations, quantities, and methods of waste disposal; (3) waste-constituents chemistry; and (4) the geochemical processes taking place in the aquifer. The purpose of the data-collection program is to provide IBO with water-chemistry data to evaluate the effect of NRF activities on the water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer. Water samples were analyzed for naturally occurring constituents and man-made contaminants.

  2. MIXTURES OF THYROID DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: TESTING ADDITIVITY OF HEPATIC INDUCERS AND THYROID PEROXIDASE INHIBITORS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed to chemical mixtures via diet, occupation, and the environment. Previous data demonstrated that low doses of polycyclic halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) acting through similar mechanisms result in an additive reduction of thyroxine (T4). If xenobioti...

  3. A new approach to NMR chemical shift additivity parameters using simultaneous linear equation method.

    PubMed

    Shahab, Yosif A; Khalil, Rabah A

    2006-10-01

    A new approach to NMR chemical shift additivity parameters using simultaneous linear equation method has been introduced. Three general nitrogen-15 NMR chemical shift additivity parameters with physical significance for aliphatic amines in methanol and cyclohexane and their hydrochlorides in methanol have been derived. A characteristic feature of these additivity parameters is the individual equation can be applied to both open-chain and rigid systems. The factors that influence the (15)N chemical shift of these substances have been determined. A new method for evaluating conformational equilibria at nitrogen in these compounds using the derived additivity parameters has been developed. Conformational analyses of these substances have been worked out. In general, the results indicate that there are four factors affecting the (15)N chemical shift of aliphatic amines; paramagnetic term (p-character), lone pair-proton interactions, proton-proton interactions, symmetry of alkyl substituents and molecular association.

  4. Characterization of chemical constituents in Rhodiola Crenulate by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (HPLC-FT-ICR MS).

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Li, Yanting; Mao, Xinjuan; Xu, Rui; Yin, Ran

    2016-05-01

    In this work, an approach using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (HPLC-FT-ICR MS) for the identification and profiling of chemical constituents in Rhodiola crenulata was developed for the first time. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Inertsil ODS-3 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm,3 µm) using a gradient elution program, and the detection was performed on a Bruker Solarix 7.0 T mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in both positive and negative modes. Under the optimized conditions, a total of 48 chemical compounds, including 26 alcohols and their glycosides, 12 flavonoids and their glycosides, 5 flavanols and gallic acid derivatives, 4 organic acids and 1 cyanogenic glycoside were identified or tentatively characterized. The results indicated that the developed HPLC-FT-ICR MS method with ultra-high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents in R. crenulata. And it provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on R. crenulata. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil from Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Leaves Cultivated in Hidrolândia, Goiás, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Sandra Ribeiro; Oliveira, Thiago Levi Silva; Bara, Maria Teresa Freitas; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Rezende, Maria Helena; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; de Paula, José Realino

    2012-01-01

    Several studies involving the family Verbenaceae, occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado, have emphasized the popular use of many aromatic species. We highlight the use of Lippia sidoides Cham., known as “alecrim pimenta,” native to northeastern Brazil and northern Minas Gerais. Leaves of this species were collected in antropized Brazilian Cerrado area, in Hidrolândia, Goiás, and their essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and thereafter analyzed GC/MS. Among the compounds identified in this study were the most abundant oxygenated monoterpenes, followed by sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons. The oxygenated monoterpene 1,8-cineole was the major constituent followed by isoborneol and bornyl acetate. The chemical composition of essential oil described in this paper differs from that described in the literature for L. sidoides found in its native environment, where the major constituents are thymol and carvacrol. PMID:22505916

  6. Effects of Jefferson Road stormwater-detention basin on loads and concentrations of selected chemical constituents in East Branch of Allen Creek at Pittsford, Monroe County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Donald A.

    2004-01-01

    Discharge and water-quality data collection at East Branch Allen Creek from 1990 through 2000 provide a basis for estimating the effect of the Jefferson Road detention basin on loads and concentrations of chemical constituents downstream from the basin. Mean monthly flow for the 5 years prior to construction of the detention basin (8.71 ft3/s) was slightly lower than after (9.08 ft3/s). The slightly higher mean monthly flow after basin construction may have been influenced by the peak flow for the period of record that occurred in July 1998 or variations in flow diverted from the canal. No statistically significant difference in average monthly mean flow before and after basin installation was indicated. Total phosphorus was the only constituent to show no months with significant differences in load after basin construction. Several constituents showed months with significantly smaller loads after basin construction than before, whereas some constituents showed certain months with smaller and some months with greater loads, after basin construction. Statistical analysis of the 'mean monthly load' for all months before and all months after construction of the detention basin showed only one constituent (ammonia + organic nitrogen) with a significantly lower load after construction and none with higher loads. Median concentrations of ammonia + organic nitrogen showed a statistically significant decrease (from 0.78 mg/L to 0.60 mg/L) after basin installation, as did nitrite + nitrate (from 1.50 mg/L to 0.96 mg/L); in contrast, the median concentration of dissolved chloride increased from 95.5 mg/L before basin installation to 109 mg/L thereafter. A trend analysis of constituent concentrations before and after installation of the detention basin showed that total phosphorus had a downward trend after installation. Analysis of the data collected at East Branch Allen Creek indicates that the Jefferson Road detention basin, in some cases, provides an improvement

  7. Comprehensive chemical characterization of Rapé tobacco products: Nicotine, un-ionized nicotine, tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and flavor constituents.

    PubMed

    Stanfill, Stephen B; Oliveira da Silva, André Luiz; Lisko, Joseph G; Lawler, Tameka S; Kuklenyik, Peter; Tyx, Robert E; Peuchen, Elizabeth H; Richter, Patricia; Watson, Clifford H

    2015-08-01

    Rapé, a diverse group of smokeless tobacco products indigenous to South America, is generally used as a nasal snuff and contains substantial amount of plant material with or without tobacco. Previously uncharacterized, rapé contains addictive and harmful chemicals that may have public health implications for users. Here we report % moisture, pH, and the levels of total nicotine, un-ionized nicotine, flavor-related compounds, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for manufactured and hand-made rapé. Most rapé products were mildly acidic (pH 5.17-6.23) with total nicotine ranging from 6.32 to 47.6 milligram per gram of sample (mg/g). Calculated un-ionized nicotine ranged from 0.03 to 18.5 mg/g with the highest values associated with hand-made rapés (pH 9.75-10.2), which contain alkaline ashes. In tobacco-containing rapés, minor alkaloid levels and Fourier transform infrared spectra were used to confirm the presence of Nicotiana rustica, a high nicotine tobacco species. There was a wide concentration range of TSNAs and PAHs among the rapés analyzed. Several TSNAs and PAHs identified in the products are known or probable carcinogens according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Milligram quantities of some non-tobacco constituents, such as camphor, coumarin, and eugenol, warrant additional evaluation.

  8. 76 FR 20992 - Sun Chemical Corp.; Filing of Color Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Sun Chemical Corp.; Filing of Color Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is... Director, Office of Food Additive Safety, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. BILLING CODE...

  9. Explanation of non-additive effects in mixtures of similar mode of action chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Masashi; Yokomizo, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Many models have been developed to predict the combined effect of drugs and chemicals. Most models are classified into two additive models: independent action (IA) and concentration addition (CA). It is generally considered if the modes of action of chemicals are similar then the combined effect obeys CA; however, many empirical studies report nonlinear effects deviating from the predictions by CA. Such deviations are termed synergism and antagonism. Synergism, which leads to a stronger toxicity, requires more careful management, and hence it is important to understand how and which combinations of chemicals lead to synergism. In this paper, three types of chemical reactions are mathematically modeled and the cause of the nonlinear effects among chemicals with similar modes of action was investigated. Our results show that combined effects obey CA only when the modes of action are exactly the same. Contrary to existing knowledge, combined effects are generally nonlinear even if the modes of action of the chemicals are similar. Our results further show that the nonlinear effects vanish out when the chemical concentrations are low, suggesting that the current management procedure of assuming CA is rarely inappropriate because environmental concentrations of chemicals are generally low.

  10. The effect of lactic acid bacterial starter culture and chemical additives on wilted rice straw silage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Su; Shi, Wei; Huang, Lin-Ting; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are suitable for rice straw silage fermentation, but have been studied rarely, and rice straw as raw material for ensiling is difficult because of its disadvantages, such as low nutrition for microbial activities and low abundances of natural populations of LAB. So we investigated the effect of application of LAB and chemical additives on the fermentation quality and microbial community of wilted rice straw silage. Treatment with chemical additives increased the concentrations of crude protein (CP), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), acetic acid and lactic acid, reduced the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), but did not effectively inhibit the growth of spoilage organisms. Inoculation with LABs did not improve the nutritional value of the silage because of poor growth of LABs in wilted rice straw. Inoculation with LAB and addition of chemical materials improved the quality of silage similar to the effects of addition of chemical materials alone. Growth of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria was inhibited by this mixed treatment and the LAB gradually dominated the microbial community. In summary, the fermentation quality of wilted rice straw silage had improved by addition of LAB and chemical materials. PMID:26429595

  11. The effect of lactic acid bacterial starter culture and chemical additives on wilted rice straw silage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Su; Shi, Wei; Huang, Lin-Ting; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are suitable for rice straw silage fermentation, but have been studied rarely, and rice straw as raw material for ensiling is difficult because of its disadvantages, such as low nutrition for microbial activities and low abundances of natural populations of LAB. So we investigated the effect of application of LAB and chemical additives on the fermentation quality and microbial community of wilted rice straw silage. Treatment with chemical additives increased the concentrations of crude protein (CP), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), acetic acid and lactic acid, reduced the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), but did not effectively inhibit the growth of spoilage organisms. Inoculation with LABs did not improve the nutritional value of the silage because of poor growth of LABs in wilted rice straw. Inoculation with LAB and addition of chemical materials improved the quality of silage similar to the effects of addition of chemical materials alone. Growth of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria was inhibited by this mixed treatment and the LAB gradually dominated the microbial community. In summary, the fermentation quality of wilted rice straw silage had improved by addition of LAB and chemical materials.

  12. Chemical TOPAZ: Modifications to the heat transfer code TOPAZ: The addition of chemical reaction kinetics and chemical mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A.L. III.

    1990-06-07

    This is a report describing the modifications which have been made to the heat flow code TOPAZ to allow the inclusion of thermally controlled chemical kinetics. This report is broken into parts. The first part is an introduction to the general assumptions and theoretical underpinning that were used to develop the model. The second section describes the changes that have been implemented into the code. The third section is the users manual for the input for the code. The fourth section is a compilation of hints, common errors, and things to be aware of while you are getting started. The fifth section gives a sample problem using the new code. This manual addenda is written with the presumption that most readers are not fluent with chemical concepts. Therefore, we shall in this section endeavor to describe the requirements that must be met before chemistry can occur and how we have modeled the chemistry in the code.

  13. CLAYFORM: a FORTRAN 77 computer program apportioning the constituents in the chemical analysis of a clay or other silicate mineral into a structural formula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodine, M.W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The FORTRAN 77 computer program CLAYFORM apportions the constituents of a conventional chemical analysis of a silicate mineral into a user-selected structure formula. If requested, such as for a clay mineral or other phyllosilicate, the program distributes the structural formula components into appropriate default or user-specified structural sites (tetrahedral, octahedral, interlayer, hydroxyl, and molecular water sites), and for phyllosilicates calculates the layer (tetrahedral, octahedral, and interlayer) charge distribution. The program also creates data files of entered analyses for subsequent reuse. ?? 1987.

  14. Bioactive chemical constituents of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes extract inhibit the growth of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Lateef, Ezzat; Mahmoud, Faten; Hammam, Olfat; El-Ahwany, Eman; El-Wakil, Eman; Kandil, Sherihan; Abu Taleb, Hoda; El-Sayed, Mortada; Hassenein, Hanaa

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify the chemical constituents of the methanolic extract of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes and their inhibitory effect on a hepatoma cell line. The methanolic extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify the volatile constituents and the other part of the same extract was subjected to liquid column chromatographic separation to isolate curcumin. The inhibition of cell growth in the hepatoma cell line and the cytopathological changes were studied. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fifty compounds in the methanolic extract of C. longa. The major compounds were ar-turmerone (20.50 %), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.20 %) and curcumenol (5.11 %). Curcumin was identified using IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The inhibition of cell growth by curcumin (IC50 = 41.69 ± 2.87 μg mL-1) was much more effective than that of methanolic extract (IC50 = 196.12 ± 5.25 μg mL-1). Degenerative and apoptotic changes were more evident in curcumin- treated hepatoma cells than in those treated with the methanol extract. Antitumor potential of the methanolic extract may be attributed to the presence of sesquiterpenes and phenolic constituents including curcumin (0.051 %, 511.39 μg g-1 dried methanol extract) in C. longa rhizomes. PMID:27383887

  15. A rapid and sensitive UHPLC-FT-ICR MS/MS method for identification of chemical constituents in Rhodiola crenulata extract, rat plasma and rat brain after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Li, Yanting; Ma, Li; Liu, Tianfeng; Wu, Yawen; Xu, Rui; Song, Aihua; Yin, Ran

    2016-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive UHPLC-FT-ICR MS/MS method was developed for the first time to analyze the extract of Rhodiola crenulata and the constituents absorbed into rat blood and brain after oral administration. Under the optimized conditions, a total of 64 chemical constituents were identified or tentatively characterized in vitro in 30min, and also 24 and 9 chemical constituents were detected in rat plasma and brain respectively, by comparing the retention time, accurate mass and/or MS/MS data of blank and dosed sample. The results indicated that the developed UHPLC-FT-ICR MS/MS method was suitable for detection and identifying the chemical constituents in Rhodiola crenulata extract, rat plasma and rat brain, and it could be used as a powerful and reliable analytical strategy for rapid identification of chemical constituents in vitro and in vivo for other traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCMs). Furthermore, the detected chemical constituents in rat brain could be speculated to be the pharmacodynamic substances of Rhodiola crenulata for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it could also provide useful chemical information for further mass spectrometry imaging and bioactive substances research on Rhodiola crenulata. PMID:27591603

  16. A rapid and sensitive UHPLC-FT-ICR MS/MS method for identification of chemical constituents in Rhodiola crenulata extract, rat plasma and rat brain after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Li, Yanting; Ma, Li; Liu, Tianfeng; Wu, Yawen; Xu, Rui; Song, Aihua; Yin, Ran

    2016-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive UHPLC-FT-ICR MS/MS method was developed for the first time to analyze the extract of Rhodiola crenulata and the constituents absorbed into rat blood and brain after oral administration. Under the optimized conditions, a total of 64 chemical constituents were identified or tentatively characterized in vitro in 30min, and also 24 and 9 chemical constituents were detected in rat plasma and brain respectively, by comparing the retention time, accurate mass and/or MS/MS data of blank and dosed sample. The results indicated that the developed UHPLC-FT-ICR MS/MS method was suitable for detection and identifying the chemical constituents in Rhodiola crenulata extract, rat plasma and rat brain, and it could be used as a powerful and reliable analytical strategy for rapid identification of chemical constituents in vitro and in vivo for other traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCMs). Furthermore, the detected chemical constituents in rat brain could be speculated to be the pharmacodynamic substances of Rhodiola crenulata for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it could also provide useful chemical information for further mass spectrometry imaging and bioactive substances research on Rhodiola crenulata.

  17. Steam sauna and mother roasting in Lao PDR: practices and chemical constituents of essential oils of plant species used in postpartum recovery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fundamental in traditional postpartum recovery in Lao PDR is the use of hotbeds, mother roasting, steam sauna and steam baths. During these treatments medicinal plants play a crucial role, but little has been published about how the treatments are carried out precisely, which species are used, the medicinal properties of these species, and the medicinal efficacy of their chemical constituents. Methods Sixty-five interviews, in 15 rural villages, with women of 4 different ethnic groups were conducted to survey confinement rituals, and postpartum plant use and salience. Essential oils from the main species used were extracted using steam distillation and the main chemical constituents characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results A total of 10 different species were used by three or more of the ethnic groups included in this study. All species were used in steam sauna and bath, but only 3 species were used in hotbed and mother roasting. Essential oils of Amomum villosum, Amomum microcarpum and Blumea balsamifera were found to contain significant amounts of the following terpenes: β-pinene, camphor, bornyl acetate, borneol, linalool, D-limonene, fenchone, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpinene. Conclusions Many of these terpenes have documented antimicrobial and analgesic properties, and some have also synergistic interactions with other terpenes. The mode of application in hotbed and mother roasting differs from the documented mechanisms of action of these terpenes. Plants in these two practices are likely to serve mainly hygienic purposes, by segregating the mother from infection sources such as beds, mats, stools, cloth and towels. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through inhalation of essential oils vapors can possibly have medicinal efficacy, but is unlikely to alleviate the ailments commonly encountered during postpartum convalescence. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through dermal condensation of essential oils, and steam bath

  18. Chemical constituents in sediment in Lake Pontchartrain and in street mud and canal sediment in New Orleans, Louisiana, following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Horowitz, Arthur J.; Skrobialowski, Stanley C.; Foreman, William T.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Elrick, Kent A.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Smith, James J.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    Samples of street mud, suspended and bottom sediment in canals discharging to Lake Ponchartrain, and suspended and bottom sediment in the lake were collected and analyzed for chemical constituents to help evaluate the effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and the subsequent unwatering of New Orleans, Louisiana. The approach used for sampling and analysis of chemical data for the study is presented herein. Radionuclides, major and trace elements, and numerous organic compounds in sediment were analyzed. The organic compounds include organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, urban waste indicator compounds, and current-use pesticides. Methods for the analysis of urban waste indicator compounds and current-use pesticides in sediment were developed only recently.

  19. Analysis of the chemical constituents and rats metabolites after oral administration of Nauclea officinalis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fenxia; Chen, Jiaquan; Wang, Hui; Jia, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxia; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhai, Xiaoting; Xu, Jindi; Tan, Wei; Ning, Qing; Gu, Junfei

    2015-12-15

    Nauclea officinalis has long been used in China for the treatment of cold, fever, swelling of throat, pink eyes, and so on; however, the in vivo integrated metabolism of its multiple bioactive components remains unknown. In this paper, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) method was established to identify chemical constituents in N. officinalis and metabolites in rat biological fluids after oral administration of N. officinalis. First, 40 chemical constituents in N. officinalis were detected within 19min by UPLC-QTOF/MS. Among them, 18 alkaloids and 7 phenolic acids and iridoids were identified or tentatively characterized. Secondly, 22 metabolites were identified after oral administration of N. officinalis extract, including 3, 9, 6 and 4 metabolites in the plasma, feces, urine and bile samples, respectively. Finally, the metabolic pathway was proposed, which were the hydroxylation, the hydroxylation of deglycosyation product of parent compound, the hydroxylation and dehydrogenation product of parent compound, and acetylation. Among these, hydroxylation was considered as the main metabolic processes. This work suggests that the integrative metabolism approach makes a useful template for drug metabolism research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). PMID:26571455

  20. Roseopurpurins: Chemical Diversity Enhanced by Convergent Biosynthesis and Forward and Reverse Michael Additions.

    PubMed

    Shang, Zhuo; Khalil, Zeinab; Li, Li; Salim, Angela A; Quezada, Michelle; Kalansuriya, Pabasara; Capon, Robert J

    2016-09-01

    Cultures of the estuarine fungus Penicillium roseopurpureum (CMB-MF038) yielded a diverse array of polyketides, many of which were related via a highly convergent biosynthetic pathway. In addition to revising and assigning structures, and documenting chemical and biological properties, pro-drug cytotoxic properties were attributed to roseopurpurins H (10) and I (11) on the basis of in situ reverse Michael addition to a cytotoxic Michael acceptor (12). PMID:27537356

  1. Chemical compounds to be used as solid carriers for fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Santambrogio, A.; Mattei, L.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes compositions of dosing additives to fuel for internal combustion engines, comprising (1) solid carrier chemical compounds, which have a melting point between 70/sup 0/C and 130/sup 0/C, are soluble in hydrocarbons and are selected from the group consisting of alkyl-substituted phenols, aromatic carbonates, alkyl-substituted pyrocatechols, and polymers of alkyl-substituted 1,2-dihydroquinoline; and (2) additives for fuel for internal combustion engines which are liquid at room temperature.

  2. Singular vector based targeted observations of chemical constituents: description and first application of the EURAD-IM-SVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goris, N.; Elbern, H.

    2015-08-01

    Measurements of the large dimensional chemical state of the atmosphere provide only sparse snapshots of the state of the system due to their typically insufficient temporal and spatial density. In order to optimize the measurement configurations despite those limitations, the present work describes the identification of sensitive states of the chemical system as optimal target areas for adaptive observations. For this purpose, the technique of singular vector analysis (SVA), which has been proved effective for targeted observations in numerical weather predication, is implemented into the chemical transport model EURAD-IM (EURopean Air pollution and Dispersion - Inverse Model) yielding the EURAD-IM-SVA. Besides initial values, emissions are investigated as critical simulation controlling targeting variables. For both variants, singular vectors are applied to determine the optimal placement for observations and moreover to quantify which chemical compounds have to be observed with preference. Based on measurements of the airship based ZEPTER-2 campaign, the EURAD-IM-SVA has been evaluated by conducting a comprehensive set of model runs involving different initial states and simulation lengths. Since the considered cases are restricted in terms of considered chemical compounds and selected areas, they allow for a retracing of the results and a confirmation of their correctness. Our analysis shows that the optimal placement for observations of chemical species is not entirely determined by mere transport and mixing processes. Rather, a combination of initial chemical concentrations, chemical conversions, and meteorological processes determine the influence of chemical compounds and regions. We furthermore demonstrate that the optimal placement of observations of emission strengths is highly dependent on the location of emission sources and that the benefit of including emissions as target variables outperforms the value of initial value optimisation with growing

  3. 78 FR 68461 - Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Anti- Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug... Chemical Food Additives in Feeds,'' and is seeking comments on this guidance before revisions are made... Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in...

  4. NMR-based metabolomic investigation of bioactivity of chemical constituents in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Giusti, M Monica; Johnson, Jodee L; Rinaldi, Peter L; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Bomser, Joshua A; Miller, A Raymond; Hardy, James K; Reese, R Neil

    2014-02-26

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) (BR) fruit extracts with differing compound profiles have shown variable antiproliferative activities against HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. This study used partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis to develop a high-resolution (1)H NMR-based multivariate statistical model for discerning the biological activity of BR constituents. This model identified specific bioactive compounds and ascertained their relative contribution against cancer cell proliferation. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside were the predominant contributors to the extract bioactivity, but salicylic acid derivatives (e.g., salicylic acid glucosyl ester), quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, methyl ellagic acid derivatives (e.g., methyl ellagic acetyl pentose), and citric acid derivatives also contributed significantly to the antiproliferative activity of the berry extracts. This approach enabled the identification of new bioactive components in BR fruits and demonstrates the utility of the method for assessing chemopreventive compounds in foods and food products.

  5. Elucidating the Chemical Complexity of Organic Aerosol Constituents Measured During the Southeastern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, L.; Isaacman, G. A.; Spielman, S. R.; Worton, D. R.; Zhang, H.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Wilson, K. R.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    Thousands of volatile organic compounds are uniquely created in the atmosphere, many of which undergo chemical transformations that result in more highly-oxidized and often lower vapor pressure species. These species can contribute to secondary organic aerosol, a complex mixture of organic compounds that is still not chemically well-resolved. Organic aerosol collected on filters taken during the Southeastern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) constitute hundreds of unique chemical compounds. Some of these include known anthropogenic and biogenic tracers characterized using standardized analytical techniques (e.g. GC-MS, UPLC, LC-MS), but the majority of the chemical diversity has yet to be explored. By employing analytical techniques involving sample derivatization and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) with high-resolution-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-MS), we elucidate the chemical complexity of the organic aerosol matrix along the volatility and polarity grids. Further, by utilizing both electron impact (EI) and novel soft vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization mass spectrometry, a greater fraction of the organic mass is fully speciated. The GC x GC-HR-ToF-MS with EI/VUV technique efficiently provides an unprecedented level of speciation for complex ambient samples. We present an extensive chemical characterization and quantification of organic species that goes beyond typical atmospheric tracers in the SOAS samples. We further demonstrate that complex organic mixtures can be chemically deconvoluted by elucidation of chemical formulae, volatility, functionality, and polarity. These parameters provide insight into the sources (anthropogenic vs. biogenic), chemical processes (oxidation pathways), and environmental factors (temperature, humidity), controlling organic aerosol growth in the Southeastern United States.

  6. Carbon-13 NMR in conformational analysis of nucleic acid fragments. Heteronuclear chemical shift correlation spectroscopy of RNA constituents.

    PubMed Central

    Lankhorst, P P; Erkelens, C; Haasnoot, C A; Altona, C

    1983-01-01

    The assignment of the non-quaternary 13C resonances by means of two-dimensional heteronuclear chemical shift correlation spectroscopy is presented for several oligoribonucleotides: The dimers m6(2)AU, m6(2)Am6(2)A and mpUm6(2)A and the trimers m6(2)AUm6(2)A and m4(2)Cm4(2)Cm6(2)A. The temperature and concentration dependency of the 13C chemical shifts are studied with emphasis on the behaviour of the dimer m6(2)AU. The present study shows that in the 5-50 mM range the concentration-dependent chemical shift changes of the ribose carbons are negligible compared to chemical shift changes due to intramolecular events. All compounds studied show a surprising correlation between the chemical shifts of the carbon atoms of the ribose ring and the sugar conformational equilibrium as expressed by the percentage N or S conformer. Thus the chemical shift data can be used to obtain the thermodynamical parameters of the two-state N/S equilibrium. Parameters deduced for m6(2)AU are Tm = 306 K and delta S = -25 cal mol-1 K-1, which values are in satisfactory agreement with results obtained earlier from 1H NMR and from Circular Dichroism. PMID:6195595

  7. Spinel dissolution via addition of glass forming chemicals. Results of preliminary experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Johnson, F. C.

    2015-11-01

    Increased loading of high level waste in glass can lead to crystallization within the glass. Some crystalline species, such as spinel, have no practical impact on the chemical durability of the glass, and therefore may be acceptable from both a processing and a product performance standpoint. In order to operate a melter with a controlled amount of crystallization, options must be developed for remediating an unacceptable accumulation of crystals. This report describes preliminary experiments designed to evaluate the ability to dissolve spinel crystals in simulated waste glass melts via the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs).

  8. Chemical fingerprinting and quantitative constituent analysis of Siwu decoction categorized formulae by UPLC-QTOF/MS/MS and HPLC-DAD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Siwu decoction categorized formulae (SWDCF) are widely used for treating gynecological diseases. This study aims to elucidate the differences of bioactive constituents in SWDCF by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC - QTOF - MS /MS) and HPLC-DAD. Methods An efficient method based on UPLC - QTOF - MS /MS was developed for identifying the chemical profiles of SWDCF. HPLC-DAD method was used for quantifying seven chemical markers in SWDCF. Results Eighty four components were identified or characterized, including ten organic acids, thirty glycosides (monoterpene or iridoid or phenylpropanoids glycosides), fourteen lactones, eighteen flavonoids, and eleven alkaloids in the complex system. The datasets of tR-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with supervised orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis to compare these decoction samples. After a clear classification was established, OPLS-DA was performed and 16 common components with relative quantity in SWDCF samples were determined. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, and senkyunolide I were selected as the chemical markers to identify SWDCF by HPLC-DAD. Conclusion The chemical profiles with 84 components in SWDCF, including monoterpene glycosides, acetophenones, galloyl glucoses, even some isomers in the complex system were characterized by UPLC–QTOF–MS/MS. PMID:23453004

  9. Chemical constituents of essential oil of endemic Rhanterium suaveolens Desf. growing in Algerian Sahara with antibiofilm, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities.

    PubMed

    Chemsa, Ahmed Elkhalifa; Erol, Ebru; Öztürk, Mehmet; Zellagui, Amar; Özgür, Ceylan; Gherraf, Noureddine; Duru, Mehmet Emin

    2016-09-01

    Twenty compounds were detected in the essential oil of Rhanterium suaveolens representing 98.01% of the total oil content. Perillaldehyde (45.79%), caryophyllene oxide (24.82%) and β-cadinol (5.61%) were identified as the main constituents. In β-carotene-linoleic acid assay, both the oil and the methanol extract exhibited good lipid peroxidation inhibition activity, with IC50 values of 17.97 ± 5.40 and 11.55 ± 3.39 μg/mL, respectively. In DPPH and CUPRAC assays, however, the methanol extract exhibited a good antioxidant activity. The highest antibiofilm activity has been found 50.30% against Staphylococcus epidermidis (MU 30) at 20 μg/mL for essential oil and 58.34% against Micrococcus luteus (NRRL B-4375) at 25 mg/mL concentration for methanol extract. The in vitro anticholinesterase activity of methanol extract showed a moderate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory (IC50 = 168.76 ± 0.62 μg/mL) and good butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory (IC50 = 54.79 ± 1.89 μg/mL) activities. The essential oil was inactive against both enzymes.

  10. Chemical constituents of Meconopsis horridula and their simultaneous quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiajia; Wu, Haimei; Zheng, Feng; Liu, Wenyuan; Feng, Feng; Xie, Ning

    2014-09-01

    Meconopsis horridula Hook.f. Thoms has been used as a traditional Tibetan medicine to clear away heat, relieve pain, and mobilize static blood. In this study, a reliable method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was established for the identification of components in this herb. A total of 40 compounds (including 17 flavonoids, 15 alkaloids, and eight phenylpropanoids) were identified or tentatively identified. Among them, 17 components were identified in the herb for the first time. Compound 39 appears to be a novel compound, which is confirmed as 3-(kaempferol-8-yl)-2,3-epoxyflavanone by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Moreover, seven major constituents were simultaneously quantified by the developed high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry method. The quantitative method was validated and quality parameters were established. The study provides a comprehensive approach for understanding this herbal medicine. PMID:24975485

  11. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bartholomay; B. V. Twining; L. J. Campbell

    1999-06-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from 2 domestic wells, 12 irrigation wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public supply well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the reported radiochemical or chemical constituent concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the respective reporting levels. Most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels.

  12. Separation of chemical constituents from three plant medicines by counter-current chromatography using a three-phase solvent system at a novel ratio.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyi; Chao, Zhimao; Wang, Chun; Yu, Li

    2015-03-01

    A solvent system of n-hexane, methyl acetate, acetonitrile, and water at a novel volume ratio of 4:3:4:4 forms three layers, i.e. upper phase (UP), middle phase (MP), and lower phase (LP), with a volume ratio of 1:1.20:1.42 at room temperature (25°C). All three two-phases from this three-phase solvent system were successfully used to separate some chemical constituents from three plant medicines with counter-current chromatography (CCC). Eight coumarins (B1-B8) were obtained from petroleum ether extract of fresh roots of Angelica dahurica (Baizhi) with a stationary phase of UP and a mobile phase of LP. Six diarylheptanoids (L1-L6) were obtained from petroleum ether extract of dried rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum (Liangjiang) with a stationary phase of UP and a mobile phase of MP. Three chemical constituents (Z1-Z3) were obtained from ethyl acetate extract of fresh rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides (Zhimu) with a stationary phase of MP and a mobile phase of LP. Preparative HPLC was used for further purification if necessary. Seventeen chemical constituents were identified as oxypeucedanin hydrate (B1), byakangelicin (B2), byakangelicol (B3), bergapten (B4), oxypeucedanin (B5), imperatorin (B6), phellopterin (B7), isoimperatorin (B8), 5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-3-heptanone (L1), 7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-4E-en-3-heptanone (L2), 5-hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone (L3), 1,7-diphenyl-4E-en-3-heptanone (L4), 5-hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-4E,6E-dien-3-heptanone (L5), isomers of 1,7-diphenyl-3,5-heptandione and 5-hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-4E-en-3-heptanone (L6), mangiferin (Z1), timosaponin A-III (Z2), and 2,6,4'-trihydroxy-4-methoxy-benzophenone (Z3) by means of MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR studies. Five compounds of B3, L3, L5, L6, and Z3 were isolated by CCC for the first time.

  13. PM2.5 Chemical Constituents and Mortality in 49 U.S. Communities from 2001 to 2005

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Short-term exposure to ambient particulate matter less than 2.5 urn in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) is consistently associated with adverse health outcomes in population studies. The PM2.5 mass represents a chemically diverse mixture of pollutants and there is limited...

  14. Use of chemical additives with steam injection to increase oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, L.L.

    1984-09-01

    Surfactants and certain inorganic bases have been evaluated as possible chemical additives to improve performance of steamfloods. Special emphasis was given to chemicals which would reduce the residual oil saturation in regions flooded by hot water below the steam zone. Problems considered were the effect of prolonged exposure to steam temperature on the stability of petroleum sulfonates, the effect of temperature on surfactant adsorption and the effect of temperature on interfacial tensions. Methods were developed for measuring quantitatively the thermal stability of the aryl sulfonate class of surfactant. This class includes the petroleum sulfonates. The best of the surfactants evaluated in this study had marginal stability for use with steamfloods. The surfactants in combination with elevated temperatures do reduce residual oil saturations. Data are presented on the temperature effects on interfacial tensions and on adsorption. Certain inorganic chemicals which give high pH are effective and inexpensive but hydroxyl ions react with silica in the reservoir. This reaction is accentuated at higher temperatures. Data show that the pH of the injected hot water with caustic decreases with contact time. The experiments did not permit determining if an equilibrium pH would be obtained which would be high enough to be effective in recovering oil. Core floods showed that pH's in excess of 12 would be required to reduce residual oil saturations if sodium hydroxide was the injected chemical. The addition of surfactants with caustic or the use of sodium carbonate may permit recovery of oil at lower pH's. A reservoir simulator is being developed to predict performance of steamfloods with chemical additives. This has been completed for simple linear floods but is being extended to three dimensions and to more complicated flooding operations. 31 references, 43 figures, 2 tables.

  15. 78 FR 74218 - Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare... chemical weapons in violation of international law or lethal chemical weapons against its own nationals... the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, 22 U.S.C. 5604(a)...

  16. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaf essential oil of Juglans regia L. and its constituents.

    PubMed

    Rather, Manzoor A; Dar, Bilal A; Dar, Mohd Yousuf; Wani, Bilal A; Shah, Wajahat A; Bhat, Bilal A; Ganai, Bashir A; Bhat, Khursheed A; Anand, Rajneesh; Qurishi, Mushtaq A

    2012-10-15

    The essential oil from the leaves of Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae) growing wild in Kashmir (India) was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by a combination of capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 38 compounds, representing 92.7% of the oil, were identified and the major components were found to be α-pinene (15.1%), β-pinene (30.5%), β-caryophyllene (15.5%) germacrene D (14.4%) and limonene (3.6%). The essential oil and the main individual constituents were screened for antibacterial activity and the essential oil evaluated for antioxidant activity. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using the disc diffusion and microdilution methods against a group of clinically significant Gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis MTCC-435, Bacillus subtilis MTCC-441, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Proteus vulgaris MTCC-321, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC-1688, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dyssenteriae, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli). The essential oil and its major components exhibited broad spectrum inhibition against all the bacterial strains with Gram-positive being more susceptible to the oil than Gram-negative bacteria. Antioxidant activity of the oil was evaluated by the scavenging effect on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radicals. In general, the essential oil exhibited high antioxidant activity which was comparable to the reference standards at the same dose (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl toluene, BHT) with IC(50) values of 34.5 and 56.4μg/ml calculated by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays respectively.

  17. Chemical and toxicological characterization of organic constituents in fluidized-bed and pulverized coal combustion: a topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Chess, E.K.; Later, D.W.; Wilson, B.W.; Harris, W.R.; Remsen, J.F.

    1984-04-01

    Coal combustion fly ash from both conventional pulverized coal combustion (PCC) and fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) have been characterized as to their organic constituents and microbial mutagenic activity. The PCC fly ash was collected from a commercial utility generating plant using a low sulfur coal. The FBC fly ash was from a bench-scale developmental unit at the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. Bulk samples of each fly ash were extracted using benzene/methanol and further separated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Subfractions from the HPLC separation were analyzed by gas chromatography using both element-specific nitrogen-phosphorus detectors and flame ionization detectors. Microbial mutagenicity assay results indicated that the crude organic extracts were mutagenic, and that both the specific activity and the overall activity of the PCC material was greater than that of the FBC material. Comparison of results from assays using S. typhimurium, TA1538NR indicated that nitrated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) were responsible for much of the mutagenic activity of the PCC material. Similar results were obtained for assays of the FBC organic extract with standard and nitroreductase-deficient strains of S. typhimurium, TA100 and TA1538. Mutagenically active HPLC fractions were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and GC mass spectrometry (GC/MS), as well as probe inlet low and high resolutions MS. The discovery and identification of nitrated, oxygenated PAC are important because the presence of both nitro and/or keto functionalities on certain PAC has been shown to confer or enhance mutagenic activity.

  18. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaf essential oil of Juglans regia L. and its constituents.

    PubMed

    Rather, Manzoor A; Dar, Bilal A; Dar, Mohd Yousuf; Wani, Bilal A; Shah, Wajahat A; Bhat, Bilal A; Ganai, Bashir A; Bhat, Khursheed A; Anand, Rajneesh; Qurishi, Mushtaq A

    2012-10-15

    The essential oil from the leaves of Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae) growing wild in Kashmir (India) was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by a combination of capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 38 compounds, representing 92.7% of the oil, were identified and the major components were found to be α-pinene (15.1%), β-pinene (30.5%), β-caryophyllene (15.5%) germacrene D (14.4%) and limonene (3.6%). The essential oil and the main individual constituents were screened for antibacterial activity and the essential oil evaluated for antioxidant activity. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using the disc diffusion and microdilution methods against a group of clinically significant Gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis MTCC-435, Bacillus subtilis MTCC-441, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Proteus vulgaris MTCC-321, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC-1688, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dyssenteriae, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli). The essential oil and its major components exhibited broad spectrum inhibition against all the bacterial strains with Gram-positive being more susceptible to the oil than Gram-negative bacteria. Antioxidant activity of the oil was evaluated by the scavenging effect on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radicals. In general, the essential oil exhibited high antioxidant activity which was comparable to the reference standards at the same dose (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl toluene, BHT) with IC(50) values of 34.5 and 56.4μg/ml calculated by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays respectively. PMID:22951389

  19. Effect of Organic Additive on Surface Roughness of Polycrystalline Silicon Film after Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hee-Sub; Park, Jin-Hyung; Yi, Sok-Ho; Paik, Ungyu; Park, Jea-Gun

    2010-01-01

    The effect of an organic additive on the surface roughness of a polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) film was investigated by chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). The surface roughness of the polished poly-Si film was markedly reduced by adding 0.001 wt % hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (HEC) and then decreased slightly with further addition of HEC. We concluded that the reduction of surface roughness was attributed to the formation of a hydroplane layer on the poly-Si surface. Evidence of the hydroplane layer was verified by contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements.

  20. Metal-contaminated soil remediation by means of paper mill sludges addition: chemical and ecotoxicological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Calace, N; Campisi, T; Iacondini, A; Leoni, M; Petronio, B M; Pietroletti, M

    2005-08-01

    Metal pollution of soils is a great environmental problem. The major risks due to metal pollution of soil consist of leaching to groundwater and potential toxicity to plants and/or animals. The objective of this study is to evaluate by means of chemical and ecotoxicological approach the effects of paper mill sludge addition on the mobile metal fraction of polluted metal soils. The study was carried out on acidic soil derived from mining activities and thus polluted with heavy metals, and on two paper mill sludges having different chemical features. The results obtained by leaching experiments showed that the addition of a paper mill sludge, consisting mainly of carbonates, silicates and organic matter, to a heavy-metal polluted soil produces a decrease of available metal forms. The carbonate content seems to play a key role in the chemical stabilisation of metals and consequently in a decrease of toxicity of soil. The leached solutions have a non-toxic effect. The mild remediation by addition of sludge has moreover a lasting effect.

  1. Isolation and purification of chemical constituents from the pericarp of Sophora japonica L. by chromatography on a 12% cross-linked agarose gel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Renmin; Qi, Yuanying; Sun, Ailing; Xie, Hongyan

    2007-08-01

    A chromatographic method using 12% cross-linked agarose gel Superose 12 as the separation medium was developed for isolation and purification of the chemical constituents from the pericarp of Sophora japonica L. The mobile phase used for the separation was 2% acetic acid and 7% acetic acid in gradient elution. As a result, eight compounds including four kinds of flavonoids and four kinds of isoflavonoids were obtained in a one-step separation. A straightforward explanation of the separation mechanism of flavonoids and isoflavonoids on Superose 12 is also given. The flavonoids and isoflavonoids are retained on Superose 12 by a combination of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions between the hydroxyl groups of aglycone and the residues of the cross-linking reagents used in the manufacture of Superose 12. PMID:17638350

  2. Chemical constituents with anti-allergic activity from the root of Edulis Superba, a horticultural cultivar of Paeonia lactiflora.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Tamura, Takayuki; Kadowaki, Makoto; Wang, Zhengtao; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2016-04-01

    The methanolic extract and its subfractions from the dried root of Edulis Superba, a horticultural cultivar of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, showed potent anti-allergic effect as inhibition of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated degranulation in rat basophil leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 26 compounds, including a new norneolignan glycoside, paeonibenzofuran (1), together with 25 known ones (2-26). The chemical structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidences. Among the isolated compounds, mudanpioside E (5) with paeoniflorin-type skeleton and quercetin (16) showed potent inhibitory activity against a degranulation marker, β-hexosaminidase release with IC50 values of 40.34 and 25.05 μM, respectively. A primary structure-activity relationship of these components was discussed.

  3. Chemical constituents with anti-allergic activity from the root of Edulis Superba, a horticultural cultivar of Paeonia lactiflora.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Tamura, Takayuki; Kadowaki, Makoto; Wang, Zhengtao; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2016-04-01

    The methanolic extract and its subfractions from the dried root of Edulis Superba, a horticultural cultivar of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, showed potent anti-allergic effect as inhibition of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated degranulation in rat basophil leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 26 compounds, including a new norneolignan glycoside, paeonibenzofuran (1), together with 25 known ones (2-26). The chemical structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidences. Among the isolated compounds, mudanpioside E (5) with paeoniflorin-type skeleton and quercetin (16) showed potent inhibitory activity against a degranulation marker, β-hexosaminidase release with IC50 values of 40.34 and 25.05 μM, respectively. A primary structure-activity relationship of these components was discussed. PMID:26833191

  4. Effects of temperature and chemical addition on the formation of bromoorganic DBPs during ozonation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangru; Echigo, Shinya; Lei, Hongxia; Smith, Michael E; Minear, Roger A; Talley, Jeffrey W

    2005-01-01

    The effects of temperature and addition of OH radical scavengers/enhancers or HOBr scavenger on the formation of bromoorganic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from ozonation of six raw waters were studied in true batch reactors. The formation of bromoorganic DBPs during ozonation generally increased with the increase of temperature, but might also decrease for the waters with somewhat higher values of specific UV absorbance (SUVA). The addition of hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, or ammonium dramatically decreased the formation of bromoorganic DBPs; t-butanol addition significantly increased the formation of bromoorganic DBPs; bicarbonate addition might increase or decrease bromoorganic DBP formation depending on the water source. For all the waters treated with the chemical addition, the level of total organic bromine (TOBr) varied with the same pace as that of ozone exposure (CT), which suggests that TOBr formed during ozonation may be used to estimate the CT, a measure for the achieved degree of disinfection. The results demonstrate that for each water, the correlation between TOBr and CT was less affected by the change of chemical composition of the water than that between BrO(3)(-) and CT; for a given chemical composition and temperature of a water, there generally were well-defined relationships between TOBr and CT, and bromoform and CT just as that between BrO(3)(-) and CT. The possible mechanisms behind the linear functions of TOBr or BrO(3)(-) versus CT were given. Further study is needed to examine whether the trends found in this research can be applicable for the high SUVA waters.

  5. Anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and sedative activities of the extracts and chemical constituents of Diospyros lotus L.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Ghias; Rauf, Abdur; Siddiqui, Bina S; Muhammad, Naveed; Khan, Ajmal; Shah, Syed Uzair Ali

    2014-06-15

    Diospyros lotus L. is traditionally used in various diseases including pain and sleep disorders. The pain and inflammation are the common problems, which are treated with various synthetic analgesic drugs, and associated the side effects. The natural products have gained significant importance over synthetic drugs. The importance of phyto-medicine the current study has been designed with the aim to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Diospyros lotus and bioassay guided isolation from its crude fractions. Seven known compounds; lupeol (1), 7-methyljuglone (2), β-Sitosterol (3), stigmasterol (4) betulinic acid (5), diospyrin (6; DS) and 8-hydroxyisodiospyrin (7; HDS) which were hitherto unreported from D. lotus. The chloroform fraction (CFDL) and isolated compounds DS and HDS were evaluated for anti-nociceptive, sedative and anti-inflammatory effects. The acetic acid induced writing was significantly (p<0.001) protected by CFDL (72.43%), DS (40.87%) and HDS (65.76%) at higher doses which exhibited peripheral and central analgesic effects in acetic acid and hot-plat pain paradigms. Regarding the anti-inflammatory effect the CFDL (77.43%), DS (80.54%) and HDS (75.87%) protected the carrageenan paw edema after 3rd h. The central analgesic effect was significantly antagonized with naloxone (0.5 mg/kg), showing opiodergic mechanism of action. The CFDL, DS and HDS were also proved sedative in open field animal models. In acute toxicity study the chloroform fraction [CFDL (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg)], DS (5 and 10 mg/kg) and HDS (5 and 10 mg/kg) were found safe. Our study concluded that CFDL, DS and HDS have marked anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and sedative effect. The anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the roots of D. lotus are partially attributed due to the presence of analgesic constituents like diospyrin (DS), 8-hydroxyisodiospyrin (HDS) and strongly supports the ethno-pharmacological uses of D. lotus as anti-nociceptive, anti

  6. Properties and chemical constituents in ground water from the middle Wilcox aquifer, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettijohn, Robert A.; Busby, John F.; Beckman, Jeffery D.

    1993-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis is a study of regional aquifers composed of sediments of mostly Cenozoic age that underlie about 230,000 sq mi of the Gulf Coastal Plain. These regional aquifers are part of three aquifer systems: (1) the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System, (2) the Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System, and (3) the Coastal Lowlands Aquifer System. The water chemistry of the Middle Wilcox Aquifer, which is part of the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System and the Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System is presented by a series of maps. These maps show the area1 distribution of (1) the concentration of dissolved solids and temperature, (2) the primary water types and pH, (3) the concentration of major ions and silica, and (4) the milliequivalent ratios of selected ions. Dissolved constituents, pH, temperature, and ratios are based on the median values of all samples in each 100-sq-mi area. The concentration of dissolved solids in water from the Middle Wilcox Aquifer ranges from 26 mg/L in the northern part of the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System to 125,500 mg/L in a down-dip area in southeastern Texas. The primary water types, which are based on the most frequently observed type in each 100-sq-mi area, are calcium bicarbonate in the outcrop in Missouri, Kentucky, Mississippi, and southern Texas; sodium bicarbonate in the remaining outcrop areas and all areas from outcrop to mid-dip; and sodium chloride in all down-dip areas. The concentrations of major ions in water from the Middle Wilcox Aquifer generally increase from the outcrop area to the down-dip limit of the data. The milliequivalent ratio of magnesium plus calcium to bicarbonate ranges from less than 0.01 to 158 and generally decreases from outcrop to mid-dip and increases from mid-dip to the down-dip limit of the data. From the Sabine Uplift eastward to southwestern Alabama the ratio of bicarbonate to chloride generally decreases from outcrop to down-dip in the area west of

  7. The impact of volcanic gases from Miyake island on the chemical constituents in precipitation in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tomoaki; Iwase, Tamami; Ueda, Hideko; Suda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Shigeru; Dokiya, Yukiko; Fushimi, Katsuhiko; Hosoe, Morikazu

    2005-04-01

    The volcano on Miyake Island first erupted in July 2000 and continuous emission of volcanic gas from the collapsed caldera has been observed from the middle of August 2000. The large volcanic emission of SO2 had a strong influence on Tokyo metropolitan area, which is located approximately 150 km north of Miyake Island. We measured major ions in precipitation and dry deposition samples which had been collected at five sampling sites (Yokohama, Kashiwa, Fujisawa, Yokosuka, and Hachioji) in the Tokyo metropolitan area for 12 years since 1990. We have evaluated quantitatively the impact of the volcanic SO2 gas emitted from Miyake Island on the Tokyo metropolitan area by comparing depositional ionic constituents in the volcanic degassing period (from September 2000 to August 2001) with those in the normal period of the past 10 years (September 1990 to August 2000). nss-SO4(2-) concentrations in precipitation at the sampling sites in the Tokyo metropolitan area were 59.5-77.0 microeq/L during the degassing period, and 33.3-44.1 microeq/L during the normal period, respectively. The difference of nss-SO4(2-) concentrations between the two periods was statistically significant. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the concentrations of the other major ions (NH4+, nss-Ca2+, Cl-, and NO3-) between the two periods. The impact of volcanic degassing from Miyake Island on the ionic concentrations in the precipitation of the Tokyo metropolitan area was seen only in the H+ and nss-SO4(2-) concentrations. The annual wet deposition amount of volcanic nss-SO4(2-) into the Tokyo metropolitan area has been quantitatively estimated. The annual wet deposition amounts were calculated as 701+/-277 Meq/year (22.4+/-8.9 kt SO2/year) on the total area of the Tokyo metropolitan area (14,000 km2). The wet deposition amount of nss-SO4(2-) corresponds to only 0.15% of the total annual amount of volcanic SO2 (15 Mt/year) emitted from Miyake Island from September 2000 to August

  8. Anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and sedative activities of the extracts and chemical constituents of Diospyros lotus L.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Ghias; Rauf, Abdur; Siddiqui, Bina S; Muhammad, Naveed; Khan, Ajmal; Shah, Syed Uzair Ali

    2014-06-15

    Diospyros lotus L. is traditionally used in various diseases including pain and sleep disorders. The pain and inflammation are the common problems, which are treated with various synthetic analgesic drugs, and associated the side effects. The natural products have gained significant importance over synthetic drugs. The importance of phyto-medicine the current study has been designed with the aim to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Diospyros lotus and bioassay guided isolation from its crude fractions. Seven known compounds; lupeol (1), 7-methyljuglone (2), β-Sitosterol (3), stigmasterol (4) betulinic acid (5), diospyrin (6; DS) and 8-hydroxyisodiospyrin (7; HDS) which were hitherto unreported from D. lotus. The chloroform fraction (CFDL) and isolated compounds DS and HDS were evaluated for anti-nociceptive, sedative and anti-inflammatory effects. The acetic acid induced writing was significantly (p<0.001) protected by CFDL (72.43%), DS (40.87%) and HDS (65.76%) at higher doses which exhibited peripheral and central analgesic effects in acetic acid and hot-plat pain paradigms. Regarding the anti-inflammatory effect the CFDL (77.43%), DS (80.54%) and HDS (75.87%) protected the carrageenan paw edema after 3rd h. The central analgesic effect was significantly antagonized with naloxone (0.5 mg/kg), showing opiodergic mechanism of action. The CFDL, DS and HDS were also proved sedative in open field animal models. In acute toxicity study the chloroform fraction [CFDL (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg)], DS (5 and 10 mg/kg) and HDS (5 and 10 mg/kg) were found safe. Our study concluded that CFDL, DS and HDS have marked anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and sedative effect. The anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the roots of D. lotus are partially attributed due to the presence of analgesic constituents like diospyrin (DS), 8-hydroxyisodiospyrin (HDS) and strongly supports the ethno-pharmacological uses of D. lotus as anti-nociceptive, anti

  9. Chemical constituents of the mangrove-associated fungus Capnodium sp. SZ-F22. A new eremophilane sesquiterpene.

    PubMed

    He, Haibing; Ma, Zhongjun; Wang, Qianqian; Liu, Yu; Xu, Hualin

    2016-07-01

    A new eremophilane sesquiterpene, capnodiumone (1), along with five known eremophilane sesquiterpenes (2-6) and eight other compounds (7-14), have been isolated from a mangrove-associated fungus Capnodium sp. SZ-F22. The chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The broth extract of the fungus exhibited a good inhibitory effect on the mycelium growth against Fusarium graminearum at 100 μg/mL, however, all the 14 compounds showed no expected antifungal activity. The probable reasons were discussed.

  10. Chemical constituents of essential oils from the leaves and stem barks of four Vietnamese species of Fissistigma (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Thang, Tran D; Luu, Hoang V; Dung, Vo C; Tuan, Nguyen N; Hung, Nguyen H; Dai, Do N; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2014-01-01

    Chemical profiles of essential oils from four Fissistigma species: Fissistigma bracteolatum Chatt., Fissistigma villosissimum Merr., Fissistigma latifolium (Dunal) Merr. and Fissistigma glaucescens (Hance) Merr. were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fissistigma essential oils consist mainly of sesquiterpenes (48.7-83.8%), monoterpenes (3.2-30.9%) and fatty acids (0.5-33.4%). Data on the essential oil composition of F. villosissimum, F. latifolium and F. glaucescens are reported for the first time.

  11. [Effects of nitrogen addition on soil physico-chemical properties and enzyme activities in desertified steppe].

    PubMed

    Su, Jie-Qiong; Li, Xin-Rong; Bao, Jing-Ting

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the impacts of nitrogen (N) enrichment on soil physico-chemical property and soil enzyme activities in desert ecosystems, a field experiment by adding N at 0, 1.75, 3.5, 7, or 14 g N x m(-2) a(-1) was conducted in a temperate desert steppe in the southeastern fringe of the Tengger Desert. The results showed that N addition led to accumulations of total N, NO(3-)-N, NH(4+)-N, and available N in the upper soil (0-10 cm) and subsoil (10-20 cm), however, reductions in soil pH were observed, causing soil acidification to some extent. N addition pronouncedly inhibited soil enzyme activities, which were different among N addition levels, soil depths, and years, respectively. Soil enzyme activities were significantly correlated with the soil N level, soil pH, and soil moisture content, respectively.

  12. Occurrence and Trends of Selected Chemical Constituents in Bottom Sediment, Grand Lake O' the Cherokees, Northeast Oklahoma, 1940-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Becker, Mark F.

    2009-01-01

    After over 100 years of continuous activity, lead and zinc mining in the Tri-State Mining District (hereafter referred to as the TSMD) in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma ended in the 1970s. The mining activity resulted in substantial historical and ongoing input of cadmium, lead, and zinc to the environment including Grand Lake O' the Cherokees (hereafter referred to as Grand Lake), a large reservoir in northeast Oklahoma. To help determine the extent and magnitude of contamination in Grand Lake, a one-year study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Bottom-sediment coring at five sites was used to investigate the occurrence of cadmium, lead, zinc, and other selected constituents in the bottom sediment of Grand Lake. Cadmium concentrations in the bottom sediment of Grand Lake ranged from 2.3 to 3.6 mg/kg (milligrams per kilogram) with a median of 3.5 mg/kg (5 samples). Compared to an estimated local background concentration of 0.6 mg/kg, the historical mining activity increased cadmium concentrations by about 280 to 500 percent. Lead concentrations ranged from 35 to 102 mg/kg with a median of 59 mg/kg (50 samples). Compared to an estimated local background concentration of 20 mg/kg, the historical mining activity increased lead concentrations by about 75 to 410 percent. The range in zinc concentrations was 380 to 986 mg/kg with a median of 765 mg/kg (50 samples). Compared to an estimated local background concentration of 100 mg/kg, the historical mining activity increased zinc concentrations by about 280 to 890 percent. With the exception of the most upstream coring site, the lead and zinc depositional profiles generally were similar in terms of the range in concentrations measured and the temporal pattern observed. Depositional profiles for lead and zinc indicated mid-core peaks followed by concentrations that decreased since about the 1980s. The depositional

  13. Modes of Antiviral Action of Chemical Portions and Constituents from Woad Root Extract against Influenza Virus A FM1

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jia-Hang; Diao, Rui-Gang; Lv, Shu-Guang; Mou, Xiao-Dong; Li, Kefeng

    2016-01-01

    Woad root has been used for the prevention of influenza for hundreds of years in many Asian countries. In this study, the antiviral modes of clemastanin B (CB), epigoitrin, phenylpropanoid portion (PEP), and the mixture of phenylpropanoids, alkaloids, and organic acid portions (PEP + ALK + OA) from wood root extract against influenza virus A FM1 were investigated. The results revealed that CB, epigoitrin, PEP, and PEP + ALK + OA exert their anti-influenza activity via inhibiting the virus multiplication, prophylaxis, and blocking the virus attachment. The primary mode of action of PEP and PEP + ALK + OA is the inhibition of virus replication. The inhibitory effect on virus attachment and multiplication is the main modes for epigoitrin. All the compounds or chemical portions from woad root extract tested in this study do not have direct virucidal activity. Our results provided the comprehensive analysis of the antiviral mechanism of wood root extract. PMID:26989425

  14. Sedimentation and Occurrence and Trends of Selected Chemical Constituents in Bottom Sediment, Empire Lake, Cherokee County, Kansas, 1905-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2006-01-01

    For about 100 years (1850-1950), the Tri-State Mining District in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma was one of the primary sources of lead and zinc ore in the world. The mining activity in the Tri-State District has resulted in substantial historical and ongoing input of cadmium, lead, and zinc to the environment including Empire Lake in Cherokee County, southeast Kansas. The environmental contamination caused by the decades of mining activity resulted in southeast Cherokee County being listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priority List as a superfund hazardous waste site in 1983. To provide some of the information needed to support efforts to restore the ecological health of Empire Lake, a 2-year study was begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Kansas Department of Health and Environment. A combination of sediment-thickness mapping and bottom-sediment coring was used to investigate sediment deposition and the occurrence of cadmium, lead, zinc, and other selected constituents in the bottom sediment of Empire Lake. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment in Empire Lake were 44 million cubic feet and 2,400 million pounds, respectively. Most of the bottom sediment was located in the main body and the Shoal Creek arm of the reservoir. Minimal sedimentation was evident in the Spring River arm of the reservoir. The total mass of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the bottom sediment of Empire Lake was estimated to be 78,000 pounds, 650,000 pounds, and 12 million pounds, respectively. In the bottom sediment of Empire Lake, cadmium concentrations ranged from 7.3 to 76 mg/kg (milligrams per kilogram) with an overall median concentration of 29 mg/kg. Compared to an estimated background concentration of 0.4 mg/kg, the historical mining activity increased the median cadmium concentration by about 7,200 percent. Lead concentrations ranged from 100 to

  15. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of chemical races of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea and their physodic acid, chloroatranorin, atranorin, and olivetoric acid constituents.

    PubMed

    Türk, Hayrettin; Yilmaz, Meral; Tay, Turgay; Türk, Ayşen Ozdemir; Kivanç, Merih

    2006-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity and the MIC values of the ethanol, chloroform, diethyl ether, and acetone extracts of the chemical races of Pseudevernia furfuracea (var. furfuracea and var. ceratea) and their physodic acid, chloroatranorin, atranorin, and olivetoric acid constituents have been investigated against some microorganisms. Nearly all extracts of both chemical races showed antimicrobial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Alternaria alternata, Ascochyta rabiei, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Penicillium notatum. There was no antimicrobial activity of the extracts against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas syringae, Salmonella typhimurium, Alternaria citri, Alternaria tenuissima, and Gaeumannomyces graminis. Chloroatranorin and olivetoric acid were active against the same microorganisms with few exceptions. Physodic acid was active against about the same bacteria and yeasts and inactive against all of the filamentous fungi tested. Also no activity of atranorin against the filamentous fungi was observed. PMID:16989308

  16. Treatment of a dilute waste oil emulsion by chemical addition (CA)-dissolved air flotation (DAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, B.E.; Carriere, P.; Zhu, X.; Lorkowski, T.

    1995-12-31

    Treatment of wastewater from aluminum rolling mill operations is an inherent problem in the aluminum fabrication industry. In this study, wastewater from the manufacturer`s processes was transferred to two holding ponds having a total capacity of about 5 million gallons and a detention time of about 10 days. In the holding ponds, free oil was allowed to rise to the surface where it was periodically removed. Wastewater from the holding ponds was withdrawn from about a depth of 9 ft. and used as influent to a variety of technologies. In this paper, results from the chemical addition (CA)-dissolved air flotation (DAF) portion of the treatability study are presented.

  17. Chemical Constituents of Mangifera indica and Their Antiausterity Activity against the PANC-1 Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hai Xuan; Do, Truong Nhat Van; Le, Tho Huu; Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Nguyen, Nhan Trung; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Awale, Suresh

    2016-08-26

    Human pancreatic cancer cell lines such as PANC-1 have an altered metabolism, enabiling them to tolerate and survive under extreme conditions of nutrient starvation. The search for candidates that inhibit their viability during nutrition starvation represents a novel antiausterity strategy in anticancer drug discovery. A methanol extract of the bark of Mangifera indica was found to inhibit the survival of PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells preferentially under nutrient-deprived conditions with a PC50 value of 15.5 μg/mL, without apparent toxicity, in normal nutrient-rich conditions. Chemical investigation on this bioactive extract led to the isolation of 19 compounds (1-19), including two new cycloartane-type triterpenes, mangiferolate A (1) and mangiferolate B (2). The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by NMR spectroscopic analysis. Among the isolated compounds, mangiferolate B (2) and isoambolic acid (12) exhibited potent preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells under the nutrition-deprived condition with PC50 values of 11.0 and 4.8 μM, respectively. PMID:27466882

  18. Inflammatory and degranulation effect of yellow sand on RBL-2H3 cells in relation to chemical and biological constituents.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Parida; Hatta, Tamao; Du, Mingyuan; Wakimizu, Kenji; Han, Junkyu; Maki, Taichi; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-10-01

    Recent studie pointed out that allergic diseases have increased during the Asian dust storm event (ADSE) in Japan. Daily observations and the atmospheric concentrations of yellow sand (YS) aerosol have been increasing. In this study, YS samples collected from three sites of Japan during ADSE in 2009-2010 were used. The particles were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray fluorescence-energy dispersive spectrometer (XRF-EDS). We investigate ability of YS extract on enhancing the chemical mediator release and cytokine production from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. The dust particles at Fukuoka and Tsukuba were abundant in aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), potassium (K) and titan (Ti) than those at Naha. Concentration of the trace endotoxin and Cryptomeria japonica pollen allergen (Cry j 1) were measured in YS extract. After exposure of RBL-2H3 cells to YS extract, the β-hexosaminidase (β-hex) release, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production were enhanced in RBL-2H3 cells. This process depends on endotoxin, Cry j 1 and other allergen present in the YS extract. YS water extract also show a strong cytotoxic effect on the cells. This data suggest that low levels of endotoxin and Cry j 1 in YS may cause allergy during the ADSE. PMID:22835726

  19. Rhizomes of Eremostachys laciniata: Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Chemical Constituents and a Clinical Trial on Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Delazar, Abbas; Sarker, Satyajit D.; Nahar, Lutfun; Jalali, Shahriar Barzegar; Modaresi, Masoud; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Babaei, Hossein; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Asnaashari, Solmaz; Bamdad Moghadam, Sadeighe

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was the isolation and structure elucidation of chemical compounds from the rhizomes of Eremostachys laciniata (L) Bunge (EL), an Iranian traditional medicinal herb with a thick root and pale purple or white flowers as well as the clinical studies on the therapeutic efficacy and safety of topical application of the EL extract in the management of some inflammatory conditions, e.g., arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and septic arthritis (Riter’s syndrome). Methods: The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated unequivocally on the basis of one and two dimensional NMR, UV and HR-FABMS spectroscopic data analyses. A single-blinded randomized clinical trial was carried out with the extract of the rhizomes of E. laciniata (EL) to determine the efficacy and safety of the traditional uses of EL compared to that of piroxicam in treatment of inflammatory diseases, e.g., osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and Reiter’s syndrome. Results: Eleven iridoid glycosides, two phenylethanoids and two phytosterols were isolated and identified for the first time from the rhizomes of EL. After 14 days of treatment with the EL and piroxicam ointments, all groups showed significant improvements compared to the control groups. EL (5%) ointment induced better initial therapeutic response than piroxicam (5%) onitment. Conclusion: This clinical trial established that EL was suitable for topical applications as a safe and effective complementary therapy for inflammatory diseases. PMID:24312865

  20. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Linnes, Jacqueline; Young, Anna; Gerrard, Victoria; Gomez-Marquez, Jose

    2014-03-01

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument.

  1. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Linnes, Jacqueline; Young, Anna; Gomez-Marquez, Jose; Gerrard, Victoria

    2014-03-15

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument.

  2. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Linnes, Jacqueline; Young, Anna; Gerrard, Victoria; Gomez-Marquez, Jose

    2014-03-01

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument.

  3. Allelopathic activity and chemical constituents of walnut (Juglans regia) leaf litter in walnut-winter vegetable agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Xu, Zheng; Hu, Tingxing; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Chen, Hong; Li, Zhongbin; Ding, Bo; Hu, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    Walnut agroforestry systems have many ecological and economic benefits when intercropped with cool-season species. However, decomposing leaf litter is one of the main sources of allelochemicals in such systems. In this study, lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. angustata) was grown in the soil incorporated with walnut leaf litter to assess its allelopathic activity. Lettuce growth and physiological processes were inhibited by walnut leaf litter, especially during early growth stage (1-2 euphylla period) or with large amount of litter addition. The plants treated by small amount of leaf litter recovered their growth afterwards, while the inhibition for 180 g leaf litter persisted until harvest. Twenty-eight compounds were identified in the leaf litter, and several of them were reported to be phytotoxic, which may be responsible for the stress induced by walnut leaf litter. Thus, for highest economic value of vegetables such as lettuce, excessive incorporation of leaf litter should be discouraged.

  4. Allelopathic activity and chemical constituents of walnut (Juglans regia) leaf litter in walnut-winter vegetable agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Xu, Zheng; Hu, Tingxing; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Chen, Hong; Li, Zhongbin; Ding, Bo; Hu, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    Walnut agroforestry systems have many ecological and economic benefits when intercropped with cool-season species. However, decomposing leaf litter is one of the main sources of allelochemicals in such systems. In this study, lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. angustata) was grown in the soil incorporated with walnut leaf litter to assess its allelopathic activity. Lettuce growth and physiological processes were inhibited by walnut leaf litter, especially during early growth stage (1-2 euphylla period) or with large amount of litter addition. The plants treated by small amount of leaf litter recovered their growth afterwards, while the inhibition for 180 g leaf litter persisted until harvest. Twenty-eight compounds were identified in the leaf litter, and several of them were reported to be phytotoxic, which may be responsible for the stress induced by walnut leaf litter. Thus, for highest economic value of vegetables such as lettuce, excessive incorporation of leaf litter should be discouraged. PMID:24784929

  5. Chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Aster koraiensis with protein glycation and aldose reductase inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun; Lee, Yun Mi; Lee, Byong Won; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Jin Sook

    2012-02-24

    Two new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene glucosides, 9β-O-(E-p-hydroxycinnamoyl)-1β,6β-dihydroxy-trans-eudesm-3-en-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 9α-O-(E-p-hydroxycinnamoyl)-1α,6α-11-trihydroxy-trans-eudesm-3-en-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), were isolated by the activity-guidedfractionation of an EtOAc-soluble fraction from the aerial parts of Aster koraiensis. A new dihydrobenzofuran glucoside, (2R,3S)-6-acetyl-2-[1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2-propenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-methoxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (3), was also isolated, in addition to 15 known compounds. The structures of 1-3 were determined by spectroscopic data interpretation. All of the isolates were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against the formation of advanced glycation end-products and rat lens aldose reductase.

  6. Anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Hamelia patens and its chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Suárez, Verónica; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Jiménez-Estrada, Manuel; Alvarado Sánchez, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    Context Hamelia patens Jacq. (Rubiaceae) is traditionally used to treat wounds, inflammation and diabetes. However, there is still a lack of scientific evidence to support these applications. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of Hamelia patens, and identify its bioactive compounds. Materials and methods Four extracts were obtained by maceration and liquid-liquid extraction: HEX, DCM-EtOAc, MeOH-EtOAc and MeOH-Aq. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated orally on rat paw carrageenan-induced oedema over 6 h (50, 200 and 500 mg/kg), and topically in mouse ear oedema induced by 12-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) after 4 h (0.5 and 1 mg/ear). We also evaluated myeloperoxidase levels in ear tissue, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging ability, and in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition. The chemical compounds were separated by column chromatography and identified by spectroscopic analysis. Results We found that the oral administration of the HEX extract at 500 and 200 mg/kg significantly decreased the carrageenan-induced inflammation after 1 and 3 h, respectively. The MeOH-EtOAc extract significantly inhibited myeloperoxidase activity (83.5%), followed by the DCM-EtOAc extract (76%), β-sitosterol/stigmasterol (72.7%) and the HEX extract (55%), which significantly decreased oedema induced by TPA at both doses, giving a similar effect to indomethacin. We also found that the MeOH-EtOAc, MeOH-Aq and DCM-EtOAc extracts showed good DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 values of 18.6, 93.9 and 158.2 μg/mL, respectively). The HEX extract showed the lowest α-glucosidase inhibition (an IC50 value of 26.07 μg/mL), followed by the MeOH-EtOAc extract (an IC50 value of 30.18 μg/mL), β-sitosterol/stigmasterol (IC50 34.6 μg/mL) and compound A ((6E,10E,14E,18E)-2,6,10,14,18,23-hexamethyl-2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene, an IC50 value of 114.6 μg/mL), which were

  7. Nutrients removal and recovery from anaerobically digested swine wastewater by struvite crystallization without chemical additions.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong-Hui; Qiu, Guang-Lei; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Xiao-Yu; Peng, Jian-Feng; Zeng, Ping; Duan, Liang; Xiang, Lian-Cheng; Qian, Feng

    2011-06-15

    Anaerobically digested swine wastewater contains high concentrations of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N). A pilot-scale experiment was carried out for nutrients removal and recovery from anaerobically digested swine wastewater by struvite crystallization. In the pilot plant, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a continuous-flow reactor with struvite accumulation devices were designed and employed. The wastewater pH value was increased by CO(2) stripping, and the struvite crystallization process was performed without alkali and Mg(2+) additions. Results of the long-term operation of the system showed that, both reactors provided up to 85% P removal and recovery over wide ranges of aeration times (1.0-4.0 h), hydraulic retention times (HRT) (6.0-15.0 h) and temperatures (0-29.5°C) for an extended period of 247 d, in which approximate 30% of P was recovered by the struvite accumulation devices. However, 40-90% of NH(4)(+)-N removed was through air stripping instead of being immobilized in the recovered solids. The recovered products were detected and analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemical methods, which were proved to be struvite with purity of more than 90%. This work demonstrated the feasibility and effects of nutrients removal and recovery from anaerobically digested swine wastewater by struvite crystallization without chemical additions.

  8. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  9. Characterization of peptides in ensiled alfalfa treated with different chemical additives.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wurong; Guo, Xusheng; Ataku, Kazuo

    2013-12-01

    Effects of different chemical additives on peptide composition in ensiled alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were investigated by using gel filtration and determination of N characteristics. The alfalfa silages were prepared untreated (control) or with formic acid, formaldehyde or tannic acid as additives at ensiling. All additives reduced non-protein N (NPN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) and amino acid N (AA-N) in the ensiled forage, and the most effective reduction of NPN and AA-N was observed in the formaldehyde-treated silages. Peptides in the control silage were mainly dipeptides to peptides with five amino acid residues. Most peptides in the formic acid-treated silage contained 4-12 amino acid residues. Although most peptides in the formaldehyde-treated silages contained 4-6 amino acid residues, there was a considerable proportion of peptides with 7-11 amino acid residues. Tannic acid had little effect on peptide size of ensiled alfalfa extract in which most peptides contained 5-6 amino acid residues. Peptide size in formic acid-treated alfalfa silage was greater than that in the other treatments. Addition of formic acid and formaldehyde not only increased the peptide concentration in alfalfa silage, but enlarged the peptide size.

  10. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bartholomay; L. M. Williams; L. J. Campbell

    1998-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from seven domestic wells, six irrigation wells, two springs, one dairy well, one observation well, and one stock well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

  11. Particulate matter beyond mass: recent health evidence on the role of fractions, chemical constituents and sources of emission.

    PubMed

    Cassee, Flemming R; Héroux, Marie-Eve; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Kelly, Frank J

    2013-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is regulated in various parts of the world based on specific size cut offs, often expressed as 10 or 2.5 µm mass median aerodynamic diameter. This pollutant is deemed one of the most dangerous to health and moreover, problems persist with high ambient concentrations. Continuing pressure to re-evaluate ambient air quality standards stems from research that not only has identified effects at low levels of PM but which also has revealed that reductions in certain components, sources and size fractions may best protect public health. Considerable amount of published information have emerged from toxicological research in recent years. Accumulating evidence has identified additional air quality metrics (e.g. black carbon, secondary organic and inorganic aerosols) that may be valuable in evaluating the health risks of, for example, primary combustion particles from traffic emissions, which are not fully taken into account with PM2.5 mass. Most of the evidence accumulated so far is for an adverse effect on health of carbonaceous material from traffic. Traffic-generated dust, including road, brake and tire wear, also contribute to the adverse effects on health. Exposure durations from a few minutes up to a year have been linked with adverse effects. The new evidence collected supports the scientific conclusions of the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines and also provides scientific arguments for taking decisive actions to improve air quality and reduce the global burden of disease associated with air pollution.

  12. Particulate matter beyond mass: recent health evidence on the role of fractions, chemical constituents and sources of emission

    PubMed Central

    Héroux, Marie-Eve; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Kelly, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is regulated in various parts of the world based on specific size cut offs, often expressed as 10 or 2.5 µm mass median aerodynamic diameter. This pollutant is deemed one of the most dangerous to health and moreover, problems persist with high ambient concentrations. Continuing pressure to re-evaluate ambient air quality standards stems from research that not only has identified effects at low levels of PM but which also has revealed that reductions in certain components, sources and size fractions may best protect public health. Considerable amount of published information have emerged from toxicological research in recent years. Accumulating evidence has identified additional air quality metrics (e.g. black carbon, secondary organic and inorganic aerosols) that may be valuable in evaluating the health risks of, for example, primary combustion particles from traffic emissions, which are not fully taken into account with PM2.5 mass. Most of the evidence accumulated so far is for an adverse effect on health of carbonaceous material from traffic. Traffic-generated dust, including road, brake and tire wear, also contribute to the adverse effects on health. Exposure durations from a few minutes up to a year have been linked with adverse effects. The new evidence collected supports the scientific conclusions of the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines and also provides scientific arguments for taking decisive actions to improve air quality and reduce the global burden of disease associated with air pollution. PMID:24304307

  13. Determination of chemical-constituent loads during base-flow and storm-runoff conditions near historical mines in Prospect Gulch, upper Animas River watershed, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wirt, Laurie; Leib, K.J.; Bove, D.J.; Mast, M.A.; Evans, J.B.; Meeker, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Prospect Gulch is a major source of iron, aluminum, zinc, and other metals to Cement Creek. Information is needed to prioritize remediation and develop strategies for cleanup of historical abandoned mine sites in Prospect Gulch. Chemical-constituent loads were determined in Prospect Gulch, a high-elevation alpine stream in southwestern Colorado that is affected by natural acid drainage from weathering of hydro-thermally altered igneous rock and acidic metal-laden discharge from historical abandoned mines. The objective of the study was to identify metal sources to Prospect Gulch. A tracer solution was injected into Prospect Gulch during water-quality sampling so that loading of geochemical constituents could be calculated throughout the study reach. A thunderstorm occurred during the tracer study, hence, metal loads were measured for storm-runoff as well as for base flow. Data from different parts of the study reach represents different flow conditions. The beginning of the reach represents background conditions during base flow immediately upstream from the Lark and Henrietta mines (samples PG5 to PG45). Other samples were collected during storm runoff conditions (PG100 to PG291); during the first flush of metal runoff following the onset of rainfall (PG303 to PG504), and samples PG542 to PG700 were collected during low-flow conditions. During base-flow conditions, the percentage increase in loads for major constituents and trace metals was more than an order of magnitude greater than the corresponding 36 % increase in stream discharge. Within the study reach, the highest percentage increases for dissolved loads were 740 % for iron (Fe), 465 % for aluminum (Al), 500 % for lead (Pb), 380 % for copper (Cu), 100 % for sulfate (SO4), and 50 % for zinc (Zn). Downstream loads near the mouth of Prospect Gulch often greatly exceeded the loads generated within the study reach but varied by metal species. For example, the study reach accounts for about 6 % of the dissolved

  14. Influence of physico-chemical factors on leaching of chemical additives from aluminium foils used for packaging of food materials.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Priyanka; Ojha, C S; Sharma, V P

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the use of aluminium foils to wrap foodstuff and commodities has been increased to a great extent. Aluminium was found to leach out from the foil in different simulants particularly in distilled water, acidic and alkaline medium at 60 +/- 2 degrees C for 2 hours and 40 +/- 2 degrees C for 24 hours. The migration was found to be above the permissible limit as laid down by WHO guidelines, that is of 0.2 mg/L of water. The protocol used for this study was based on the recommendation of Bureau of Indian Standard regarding the migration of chemical additives from packaging materials used to pack food items. Migration of the aluminium metal was found significantly higher in acidic and aqueous medium in comparison to alcoholic and saline medium. Higher temperature conditions also enhanced the rate of migration of aluminium in acidic and aqueous medium. Leaching of aluminium metal occurred in double distilled water, acetic acid 3%, normal saline and sodium carbonate, except ethanol 8%, in which aluminium migration was below the detection limit of the instrument where three brands of the aluminium foil samples studied.

  15. Effect of GdL Addition on Physico-chemical Properties of Fermented Sausages during Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Dong-Gyun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of glucono-δ-lactone (GdL) addition on physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented sausages during ripening and drying. Five batches of sausages were produced under ripening conditions: without GdL and with 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75% of GdL addition. Samples from each treatment were taken for physicochemical and microbiological analyses on the 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 25th day of ripening. Chemical analysis showed a significant decrease in moisture content of sausages with increasing amounts of GdL added (p<0.05). The moisture contents decreased, whereas the fat, protein and ash contents increased throughout ripening (p<0.05). Increasing levels of GdL caused a decrease in the pH values (p<0.05), which can have an inhibitory effect against microflora. Water holding capacity content of samples decreased with increasing GdL concentration (p<0.05). The shear force values of fermented sausages showed the highest in T4 (p<0.05). During ripening, the shear force values of sausages were increased on the 25th day compared to day 0 (p<0.05). The higher GdL level produced lighter and more yellow sausages. The addition of 0.75% GdL was effective in controlling bacteria counts. Addition of GdL in sausages resulted in the physicochemical and microbiological attributes equal to or better than no addition of GdL without any harmful effect. PMID:26761846

  16. Effect of additives on the properties of polyaniline nanofibers prepared by high gravity chemical oxidative polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yibo; Arowo, Moses; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jianfeng

    2015-05-12

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers with improved properties were prepared by high gravity chemical oxidative polymerization in a rotating packed bed with the assistance of p-aminodiphenylamine (AD) and p-phenylenediamine (AP). The effects of reactor type, additive dosage, reaction temperature, and high-gravity level on the properties of products were investigated in detail. Three conclusions were made: (1) a small amount of additive can significantly improve some properties of the nanofibers such as uniformity, specific surface area, and specific capacitance; (2) in order to obtain high-quality nanofibers, the high-gravity level should coordinate with the reaction rate; (3) the molecular weight and conductivity of PANI decrease with the increase of additive dosage. The products have larger specific surface areas of up to 73.9 and 68.4 m(2)/g and consequently improved specific capacitance of up to 527.5 and 552 F/g for the PANI nanofibers prepared with AD and AP, respectively. However, the specific surface area and specific capacitance of pure PANI are only 49.1 m(2)/g and 333.3 F/g, respectively. This research provides a simple, reliable, and scalable method to produce PANI nanofibers of high performances.

  17. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Campbell, Linford J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho Department of Water Resources, and the State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 17 sites as part of the sixth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were collected from eight irrigation wells, three domestic wells, one stock well, one dairy well, one commercial well, one observation well, and two springs and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. One quality-assurance sample, a sequential replicate, also was collected and analyzed. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the reporting levels and most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels. However, none of the reported radiochemical- or chemical-constituent concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical evaluation of the replicate sample pair indicated that, with 95 percent confidence, 132 of the 135 constituent concentrations of the replicate pair were equivalent.

  18. [Chemical constituents from Glechoma longituba].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Li, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Xia; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai

    2014-02-01

    Fourteen compounds were obtained from Glechoma longituba by the chromatographic methods of silica gel, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative of HPLC. According to physicochemical properties and spectral data, these compounds were identified as stilbostemin B (1), trilepisiumic acid (2), 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol ketone (3), bergeninmonohydrate (4), oresbiusin A (5), norbergenin (6), stilbostemin D (7), ehretioside B (8), ethyl ferulate (9), E-p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (10), methyl gallate (11), protocatechuic acid (12), 4'-Hydroxyacetophenone (13), and E-3-2,4-dihydroxyphenyl-2-acrylic acid (14). Among them, compounds 1-10, 13 and 14 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  19. Chemical Constituents of Cordyceps cicadae.

    PubMed

    Chu, Zhi-Bo; Chang, Jun; Zhu, Ying; Sun, Xun

    2015-12-01

    One new bifuran derivative (1), together with fourteen known compounds, were isolated from Cordyceps cicadae X. Q. Shing. The known compounds included nine nucleosides, uracil (2), uridine (3), 2'-deoxyuridine (4), 2'-deoxyinosine (5), guanosine (6), 2'-deoxyguanosine (7), thymidine (8), adenosine (9), and 2'-deoxyadenosine (10); three amino acids tryptophan (11), phenylalanine (12), and tyrosine (13); and two dopamine analogues N-acetylnoradrenaline (14) and its dimer, trans-2-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-acetylamino-7-(N-acetyl-2"-amino-ethylene)-1,4-benzodioxane (15). Their structures were decisively elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. PMID:26882686

  20. [Chemical constituents from Chenopodium ambrosioides].

    PubMed

    Song, Kun; Wang, Hong-Qing; Liu, Chao; Kang, Jie; Li, Bao-Ming; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Twelve compounds were isolated from the herb of Chenopodium ambrosioides, and their structures were identified by spectroscopic methods as kaempferol-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (1), kaempferol-3,7-di-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2), patuletin (3), quercetin-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (4), grasshopper ketone (5), 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (6), syringaresinol (7), benzyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), dendranthemoside B (9), N-trans-feruloyl tyramine (10), N-trans-feruloyl 4'-O-methyldopamine (11), and 4-hydroxy-N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl] benzamide (12). Among them,compounds 3, 6-8,10, and 12 were isolated from the genus Chenopodium for the first time, and compounds 2-12 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  1. Chemical constituents of Nepeta distans.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Bukhari, Nausheen; Hussain, Hidayat; Rehman, Najeeb U; Hussain, Syed Murtaza

    2010-11-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Nepeta distans Raul resulted in the isolation of a new phenolic compound, nepatanol (1), and eight known compounds, markhamioside F, netidiol, nepedinol, thymoquinone, eugenol, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, and beta-sitosterol, which have been isolated for the first time from this source. Structures of all the isolates were established on the basis of MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data.

  2. [Chemical constituents from Aster sampsonii].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yingxia

    2010-09-01

    From the whole plants of Aster sampsonii, ten compounds were isolated, and were characterized as (4alphaR, 4'alphaR, 5S, 5'S, 9alphaR, 9'alphaR)-4, 4', 4alpha, 4'alpha, 5, 5', 6, 6', 7, 7', 8, 8'-dodecahydro-3, 3', 4alpha, 4'alpha, 5, 5'-hexamethyl-2H, 2'H-9alpha, 9' alpha-binaphtho[2, 3-b]furan-2, 2'-dione(1), furanoligularenone(2), (4alphaR, 5S, 8alphaR)-4alpha, 5, 6, 7, 8, 8alpha-hexahydro-8alpha-hydroxy-3, 4alpha, 5-trimethylnaphtho[2, 3-b]furan-2(4H)-one(3), (4alphaR, 5S, 8alphaS)4alpha, 5, 6, 7, 8, 8alpha-hexahydro-8alpha-hydroxy-3, 4alpha, 5-trimethylnaphtho[2, 3-b]furan-2(4H)-one(4), methyl-1'-hydroxy-2', 6'-dimethoxy-4'-oxocyclohexanacetate(5), 1'-hydroxy-2'-methoxy-4'-oxocyclohexanacetate methyl(6), loliolide (7), jacaranone (8), beta-sitosterol(9), friedeline (10). The structures of all compounds were elucidated on the basis spectroscopic data, including IR, EI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR data. The bioassays showed weak sterilization activities for compound 3. Compounds 1-8 were obtained from A. sampsonii for the first time.

  3. Chemical constituents of Nepeta distans.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Bukhari, Nausheen; Hussain, Hidayat; Rehman, Najeeb U; Hussain, Syed Murtaza

    2010-11-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Nepeta distans Raul resulted in the isolation of a new phenolic compound, nepatanol (1), and eight known compounds, markhamioside F, netidiol, nepedinol, thymoquinone, eugenol, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, and beta-sitosterol, which have been isolated for the first time from this source. Structures of all the isolates were established on the basis of MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data. PMID:21213980

  4. [Chemical constituents from Solanum rostratum].

    PubMed

    Hao, Li-Juan; Wang, Shan; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Wang, Zhi-Min; Wei, Shou-Hui

    2014-06-01

    Ten compounds were isolated from the aerial part of Solanum rostratum by means of various chromatographic techniques such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS and preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified as dioscin (1), hypoglaucin H (2), hyperin (3), isoquercitrin (4), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (5), kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (6), smilaxchinoside A (7), 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3beta, 20alpha,26-triol-25 (R) -delta5,22-dienofurostan-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2) -[ alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 4)] -beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), beta-sitosterol (9), and daucosterol (10), on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis. Among them ,compounds 7 and 8 were isolated from the genus Solanum for the first time, and the remaining compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  5. Effect of chemical additives on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) against Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Qiu, S; Huang, T; Huang, Z; Xu, L; Wu, C; Gelbic, I; Guan, X

    2013-06-01

    To examine the effect of chemical additives on Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) against Plutella xylostella (L.), inorganic salts, nitrogenous compounds, protein solubilizing agents, and organic acids were selected and tested. The chosen materials are low in cost and environmentally safe. Results show that many inorganic salts can increase the activity of B. thuringiensis in a range of 1.31- to 3.08-fold. These include calcium acetate, calcium chloride, calcium hydroxide, calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, sodium acetate, potassium hydroxide, potassium carbonate, potassium acetate, magnesium chloride, magnesium sulfate, and zinc sulfate. Nitrogenous compounds, including peptone, sodium nitrate, and ammonium nitrate, can enhance the activity of B. thuringiensis 1.62-, 1.32-, and 1.37-fold, respectively. Among the protein solubilizing agents, EDTA, urea, mercaptoethanol and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate increased the activity of B. thuringiensis 1.62- to 2.34-fold. Among the organic acids, maleic and citric acids boosted the activity 1.45- and 1.55-fold, respectively. Meanwhile, sodium benzoate and resorcinol led to 1.74- and 1.44-fold activity gains, respectively. Use of appropriate additives could provide great benefit not only in reducing the costs for field applications of biological insecticides but also by boosting the efficacy of B. thuringiensis. PMID:23865169

  6. Toxicogenomics concepts and applications to study hepatic effects of food additives and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Stierum, Rob . E-mail: stierum@voeding.tno.nl; Heijne, Wilbert; Kienhuis, Anne; Ommen, Ben van; Groten, John

    2005-09-01

    Transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are genomics technologies with great potential in toxicological sciences. Toxicogenomics involves the integration of conventional toxicological examinations with gene, protein or metabolite expression profiles. An overview together with selected examples of the possibilities of genomics in toxicology is given. The expectations raised by toxicogenomics are earlier and more sensitive detection of toxicity. Furthermore, toxicogenomics will provide a better understanding of the mechanism of toxicity and may facilitate the prediction of toxicity of unknown compounds. Mechanism-based markers of toxicity can be discovered and improved interspecies and in vitro-in vivo extrapolations will drive model developments in toxicology. Toxicological assessment of chemical mixtures will benefit from the new molecular biological tools. In our laboratory, toxicogenomics is predominantly applied for elucidation of mechanisms of action and discovery of novel pathway-supported mechanism-based markers of liver toxicity. In addition, we aim to integrate transcriptome, proteome and metabolome data, supported by bioinformatics to develop a systems biology approach for toxicology. Transcriptomics and proteomics studies on bromobenzene-mediated hepatotoxicity in the rat are discussed. Finally, an example is shown in which gene expression profiling together with conventional biochemistry led to the discovery of novel markers for the hepatic effects of the food additives butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole.

  7. Late Chondritic Additions and Planet and Planetesimal Growth: Evaluation of Physical and Chemical Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Studies of terrestrial peridotite and martian and achondritic meteorites have led to the conclusion that addition of chondritic material to growing planets or planetesimals, after core formation, occurred on Earth, Mars, asteroid 4 Vesta, and the parent body of the angritic meteorites [1-4]. One study even proposed that this was a common process in the final stages of growth [5]. These conclusions are based almost entirely on the highly siderophile elements (HSE; Re, Au, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, Ir, Os). The HSE are a group of eight elements that have been used to argue for late accretion of chondritic material to the Earth after core formation was complete (e.g., [6]). This idea was originally proposed because the D(metal/silicate) values for the HSE are so high, yet their concentration in the mantle is too high to be consistent with such high Ds. The HSE also are present in chondritic relative abundances and hence require similar Ds if this is the result of core-mantle equilibration. Since the work of [6] there has been a realization that core formation at high PT conditions can explain the abundances of many siderophile elements in the mantle (e.g., [7]), but such detailed high PT partitioning data are lacking for many of the HSE to evaluate whether such ideas are viable for all four bodies. Consideration of other chemical parameters reveals larger problems that are difficult to overcome, but must be addressed in any scenario which calls on the addition of chondritic material to a reduced mantle. Yet these problems are rarely discussed or emphasized, making the late chondritic (or late veneer) addition hypothesis suspect.

  8. LIFE Chamber Chemical Equilibrium Simulations with Additive Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, J A; Simon, A J

    2009-09-03

    In order to enable continuous operation of a Laser Inertial confinement Fusion Energy (LIFE) engine, the material (fill-gas and debris) in the fusion chamber must be carefully managed. The chamber chemical equilibrium compositions for post-shot mixtures are evaluated to determine what compounds will be formed at temperatures 300-5000K. It is desired to know if carbon and or lead will deposit on the walls of the chamber, and if so: at what temperature, and what elements can be added to prevent this from happening. The simulation was conducted using the chemical equilibrium solver Cantera with a Matlab front-end. Solutions were obtained by running equilibrations at constant temperature and constant specific volume over the specified range of temperatures. It was found that if nothing is done, carbon will deposit on the walls once it cools to below 2138K, and lead below 838K. Three solutions to capture the carbon were found: adding pure oxygen, hydrogen/nitrogen combo, and adding pure nitrogen. The best of these was the addition of oxygen which would readily form CO at around 4000K. To determine the temperature at which carbon would deposit on the walls, temperature solutions to evaporation rate equations needed to be found. To determine how much carbon or any species was in the chamber at a given time, chamber flushing equations needed to be developed. Major concerns are deposition of carbon and/or oxygen on the tungsten walls forming tungsten oxides or tungsten carbide which could cause embrittlement and cause failure of the first wall. Further research is needed.

  9. Testing for Additivity in Chemical Mixtures Using a Fixed-Ratio Ray Design and Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fixed-ratio ray designs have been used for detecting and characterizing interactions of large numbers of chemicals in combination. Single chemical dose-response data are used to predict an “additivity curve” along an environmentally relevant ray. A “mixture curve” is estimated fr...

  10. Review and evaluation of literature on testing of chemical additives for scale control in geothermal fluids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, C.H.; Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    A selected group of reported tests of chemical additives in actual geothermal fluids are reviewed and evaluated to summarize the status of chemical scale-control testing and identify information and testing needs. The task distinguishes between scale control in the cooling system of a flash plant and elsewhere in the utilization system due to the essentially different operating environments involved. Additives for non-cooling geothermal fluids are discussed by scale type: silica, carbonate, and sulfide.

  11. Chemical and Sensory Quality Preservation in Coated Almonds with the Addition of Antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Larrauri, Mariana; Demaría, María Gimena; Ryan, Liliana C; Asensio, Claudia M; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Almonds provide many benefits such as preventing heart disease due to their high content of oleic fatty acid-rich oil and other important nutrients. However, they are susceptible to oxidation reactions causing rancidity during storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical and sensory quality preservation of almonds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose and with the addition of natural and synthetic antioxidants during storage. Four samples were prepared: almonds without coating (C), almonds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), almonds coated with CMC supplemented with peanut skins extract (E), and almonds coated with CMC and supplemented with butylhydroxytoluene (BHT). Proximate composition and fatty acid profile were determined on raw almonds. Almond samples (C, CMC, E and BHT) were stored at 40 °C for 126 d. Lipid oxidation indicators: peroxide value (PV), conjugated dienes (CD), volatile compounds (hexanal and nonanal), and sensory attributes were determined for the stored samples. Samples showed small but significant increases in PV, CD, hexanal and nonanal contents, and intensity ratings of negative sensory attributes (oxidized and cardboard). C had the highest tendency to deterioration during storage. At the end of storage (126 d), C had the highest PV (3.90 meqO2 /kg), and BHT had the lowest PV (2.00 meqO2 /kg). CMC and E samples had similar intermediate PV values (2.69 and 2.57 meqO2 /kg, respectively). CMC coating and the addition of natural (peanut skin extract) and synthetic (BHT) antioxidants provide protection to the roasted almond product.

  12. Chemical and Sensory Quality Preservation in Coated Almonds with the Addition of Antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Larrauri, Mariana; Demaría, María Gimena; Ryan, Liliana C; Asensio, Claudia M; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Almonds provide many benefits such as preventing heart disease due to their high content of oleic fatty acid-rich oil and other important nutrients. However, they are susceptible to oxidation reactions causing rancidity during storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical and sensory quality preservation of almonds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose and with the addition of natural and synthetic antioxidants during storage. Four samples were prepared: almonds without coating (C), almonds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), almonds coated with CMC supplemented with peanut skins extract (E), and almonds coated with CMC and supplemented with butylhydroxytoluene (BHT). Proximate composition and fatty acid profile were determined on raw almonds. Almond samples (C, CMC, E and BHT) were stored at 40 °C for 126 d. Lipid oxidation indicators: peroxide value (PV), conjugated dienes (CD), volatile compounds (hexanal and nonanal), and sensory attributes were determined for the stored samples. Samples showed small but significant increases in PV, CD, hexanal and nonanal contents, and intensity ratings of negative sensory attributes (oxidized and cardboard). C had the highest tendency to deterioration during storage. At the end of storage (126 d), C had the highest PV (3.90 meqO2 /kg), and BHT had the lowest PV (2.00 meqO2 /kg). CMC and E samples had similar intermediate PV values (2.69 and 2.57 meqO2 /kg, respectively). CMC coating and the addition of natural (peanut skin extract) and synthetic (BHT) antioxidants provide protection to the roasted almond product. PMID:26595771

  13. Streamflow transport of radionuclides and other chemical constituents in the Puerco and the Little Colorado river basins, Arizona and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graf, Julia B.; Wirt, Laurie; Swanson, E.K.; Fisk, G.G.; Gray, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Samples collected at streamflow-gaging stations in the Puerco and Little Colorado rivers show that radioactivity of suspended sediment at gaging stations downstream from inactive uranium mines was not significantly higher than at gaging stations where no mining has occurred upstream. Drinking-water standards for many constituents, however, commonly are exceeded during runoff because concentration of these constituents on sediment from natural processes is high and suspended-sediment loads are high during runoff.

  14. A Four-Step and Four-Criteria Approach for Evaluating Evidence of Dose Addition in Chemical Mixture Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose addition is the most frequently-used component-based approach for predicting dose response for a mixture of toxicologically-similar chemicals and for statistical evaluation of whether the mixture response is consistent with dose additivity and therefore predictable from the ...

  15. Chemical and Physical Reactions of Wellbore Cement under CO2 Storage Conditions: Effects of Cement Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutchko, B. G.; Strazisar, B. R.; Huerta, N.; Lowry, G. V.; Dzombak, D. A.; Thaulow, N.

    2008-12-01

    Sequestration of CO2 into geologic formations requires long-term storage and low leakage rates to be effective. Active and abandoned wells in candidate storage formations must be evaluated as potential leakage points. Wellbore integrity is an important part of an overall integrated assessment program being developed at NETL to assess potential risks at CO2 storage sites. Such a program is needed for ongoing policy and regulatory decisions for geologic carbon sequestration. The permeability and integrity of the cement in the well is a primary factor affecting its ability to prevent leakage. Cement must be able to maintain low permeability over lengthy exposure to reservoir conditions in a CO2 injection and storage scenario. Although it is known that cement may be altered by exposure to CO2, the results of ongoing research indicate that cement curing conditions, fluid properties, and cement additives play a significant role in the rate of alteration and reaction. The objective of this study is to improve understanding of the factors affecting wellbore cement integrity for large-scale geologic carbon sequestration projects. Due to the high frequency use of additives (pozzolan) in wellbore cement, it is also essential to understand the reaction of these cement-pozzolan systems upon exposure to CO2 under sequestration conditions (15.5 MPa and 50°C). Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the physical and chemical changes, as well as the rate of alteration of commonly used pozzolan-cement systems under simulated sequestration reservoir conditions, including both supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine. The rate of alteration of the cement-pozzolan systems is considerably faster than with neat cement. However, the alteration of physical properties is much less significant with the pozzolanic blends. Permeability of a carbonated pozzolanic cement paste remains sufficiently small to block significant vertical migration of CO2 in a wellbore. All of the

  16. Meta-code for systematic analysis of chemical addition (SACHA): application to fluorination of C70 and carbon nanostructure growth.

    PubMed

    Ewels, Christopher P; Lier, Gregory Van; Geerlings, Paul; Charlier, Jean-Christophe

    2007-01-01

    We present a new computer program able to systematically study chemical addition to and growth or evolution of carbon nanostructures. SACHA is a meta-code able to exploit a wide variety of pre-existing molecular structure codes, automating the otherwise onerous task of constructing, running, and analyzing the large number of input files that are required when exploring structural isomers and addition paths. By way of examples we consider fluorination of the fullerene cage C70 and carbon nanostructure growth through C2 addition. We discuss the possibilities for extension of this technique to rapidly and efficiently explore structural energy landscapes and application to other areas of chemical and materials research.

  17. Students' Predictions about the Sensory Properties of Chemical Compounds: Additive versus Emergent Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    We investigated general chemistry students' intuitive ideas about the expected properties of the products of a chemical reaction. In particular, we analyzed college chemistry students' predictions about the color, smell, and taste of the products of chemical reactions represented at the molecular level. The study was designed to explore the extent…

  18. 75 FR 17333 - Addition of National Toxicology Program Carcinogens; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... affected by this action if you manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the chemicals ] included in... 372 subpart B of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations. If you have questions regarding the.... EPCRA section 313(d)(2) states that EPA may add a chemical to the list if any of the listing......

  19. Teachers' Misconceptions about the Effects of Addition of More Reactants or Products on Chemical Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Derek; Ma, Hong-jia; Yang, Jie

    2009-01-01

    The importance of research on misconceptions about chemical equilibrium is well recognized by educators, but in the past, researchers' interest has centered on student misconceptions and has neglected teacher misconceptions. Focusing on the effects of adding more reactants or products on chemical equilibrium, this article discusses the various…

  20. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives. PMID:25473499

  1. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives. PMID:25473499

  2. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives.

  3. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.; Click, D.

    2010-01-06

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass - 14 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  4. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D

    2009-02-26

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass-1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma--mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  5. Effects of xanthan, guar, carrageenan and locust bean gum addition on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Zeynep Ozben; Yılmaz, Ismail; Demirci, Ahmet Şukru

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of xanthan gum, guar gum, carrageenan and locust bean gum on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs. Meatball samples were produced with three different formulations including of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% each gum addition and gum added samples were compared with the control meatballs. Physical and chemical analyses were carried out on raw and cooked samples separately. Moisture contents of raw samples decreased by addition of gums. There were significant decreases (p < 0.05) in moisture and fat contents of raw and cooked meatball samples formulated with gum when compared with control. Ash contents and texture values increased with gum addition to meatballs. Meatball redness decreased with more gum addition in raw and cooked meatball samples, which means that addition of gums resulted in a lighter-coloured product. According to sensory analysis results, locust bean gum added (1%) samples were much preferred by the panelists.

  6. Effects of xanthan, guar, carrageenan and locust bean gum addition on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Zeynep Ozben; Yılmaz, Ismail; Demirci, Ahmet Şukru

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of xanthan gum, guar gum, carrageenan and locust bean gum on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs. Meatball samples were produced with three different formulations including of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% each gum addition and gum added samples were compared with the control meatballs. Physical and chemical analyses were carried out on raw and cooked samples separately. Moisture contents of raw samples decreased by addition of gums. There were significant decreases (p < 0.05) in moisture and fat contents of raw and cooked meatball samples formulated with gum when compared with control. Ash contents and texture values increased with gum addition to meatballs. Meatball redness decreased with more gum addition in raw and cooked meatball samples, which means that addition of gums resulted in a lighter-coloured product. According to sensory analysis results, locust bean gum added (1%) samples were much preferred by the panelists. PMID:24803701

  7. Effect of Operating Parameters and Chemical Additives on Crystal Habit and Specific Cake Resistance of Zinc Hydroxide Precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise

    1999-08-01

    The effect of process parameters and chemical additives on the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates was investigated. The ability of a slurry to be filtered is dependent upon the particle habit of the solid and the particle habit is influenced by certain process variables. The process variables studied include neutralization temperature, agitation type, and alkalinity source used for neutralization. Several commercially available chemical additives advertised to aid in solid/liquid separation were also examined in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation. A statistical analysis revealed that the neutralization temperature and the source of alkalinity were statistically significant in influencing the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates in this study. The type of agitation did not significantly effect the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates. The use of chemical additives in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation had a favorable effect on the filterability. The morphology of the hydroxide precipitates was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy.

  8. An update of the distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in perched ground water, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, Emphasis 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Linda C.

    2006-01-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastes generated at facilities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) were discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds at the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC) (known as the Test Reactor Area [TRA] until 2005), and the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) and buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Disposal of wastewater to infiltration ponds and infiltration of surface water at waste burial sites resulted in formation of perched ground water in basalts and in sedimentary interbeds above the Snake River Plain aquifer. Perched ground water is an integral part of the pathway for waste-constituent migration to the aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains ground-water monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends, and to monitor the movement of radiochemical and chemical constituents in wastewater discharged from facilities to both perched ground water and the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-quality and water-level data collected from wells completed in perched ground water at the INL during 1999-2001, and summarizes historical disposal data and water-level-and water-quality trends. At the RTC, tritium, strontium-90, cesium-137, dissolved chromium, chloride, sodium, and sulfate were monitored in shallow and deep perched ground water. In shallow perched ground water, no tritium was detected above the reporting level. In deep perched ground water, tritium concentrations generally decreased or varied randomly during 1999-2001. During October 2001, tritium concentrations ranged from less than the reporting level to 39.4?1.4 picocuries per milliliter (pCi/mL). Reportable concentrations of tritium during July-October 2001 were smaller than the reported concentrations measured during July-December 1998. Tritium concentrations in water from wells at the RTC were likely affected by: well's distance from the

  9. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with synapt high-definition mass spectrometry and a pattern recognition approach to characterize chemical constituents and rat metabolites after the oral administration of Phellinus igniarius.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu; Wang, Huiyu; Zhang, Yang; An, Na; Zhang, Yue; Shou, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Phellinus igniarius has antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, and antimutagenic effects. In this study, an integrative pattern recognition approach using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis was successfully applied for the rapid analysis of natural compounds in traditional Chinese medicine. An ultra high performance liquid chromatography with synapt high-definition mass spectrometry method and MassLynx software was used. This method employed gradient elution to rapidly analyze and characterize chemical constituents and metabolites after the oral administration of a P. igniarius ethanol extract. There were 24 peaks within 10 min of the analysis time and 20 of these were identified or tentatively characterized on the basis of their fragmentation behaviors. In the S-plot of the orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, 27 ions were extracted to make the serum. Among them, nine absorbed the prototype components and 18 metabolites were identified in vivo. Glucuronidation, oxidation, and methylation were the major metabolic reactions. This study is the first systematic analysis and characterization of the chemical constituents and metabolites in an ethanol extract of P. igniarius. This method can be applied to the rapid analysis and characterization of constituents in rat serum after the oral administration of other compounds used in traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:25604580

  10. Chemical Constituents in Groundwater from Multiple Zones in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Twining, Brian V.

    2010-01-01

    From 2005 to 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey's Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected water-quality samples from multiple water-bearing zones in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Water samples were collected from six monitoring wells completed in about 350-700 feet of the upper part of the aquifer, and the samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, nutrients, selected radiochemical constituents, and selected stable isotopes. Each well was equipped with a multilevel monitoring system containing four to seven sampling ports that were each isolated by permanent packer systems. The sampling ports were installed in aquifer zones that were highly transmissive and that represented the water chemistry of the top four to five model layers of a steady-state and transient groundwater-flow model. The model's water chemistry and particle-tracking simulations are being used to better define movement of wastewater constituents in the aquifer. The results of the water chemistry analyses indicated that, in each of four separate wells, one zone of water differed markedly from the other zones in the well. In four wells, one zone to as many as five zones contained radiochemical constituents that originated from wastewater disposal at selected laboratory facilities. The multilevel sampling systems are defining the vertical distribution of wastewater constituents in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and the concentrations of wastewater constituents in deeper zones in wells Middle 2051, USGS 132, and USGS 103 support the concept of groundwater flow deepening in the southwestern part of the INL.

  11. USING DOSE ADDITION TO ESTIMATE CUMULATIVE RISKS FROM EXPOSURES TO MULTIPLE CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 requires the EPA to consider the cumulative risk from exposure to multiple chemicals that have a common mechanism of toxicity. Three methods, hazard index (HI), point-of-departure index (PODI), and toxicity equivalence factor (TEF), ...

  12. 75 FR 72727 - Addition of National Toxicology Program Carcinogens; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... emissions from vegetation, particularly from deciduous forests. The commenter cited sources that state that... criterion.'' EPA has published in the Federal Register of November 30, 1994 (59 FR 61432) a statement... EPCRA section 313 list of toxic chemicals? As discussed in the proposed rule (75 FR 17333, April 6,...

  13. Sediment deposition and occurrence of selected nutrients and other chemical constituents in bottom sediment, Tuttle Creek Lake, Northeast Kansas, 1962-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.; Mau, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    -effects levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Sediment concentrations of metals and trace elements were relatively uniform over time. Organochlorine compounds either were not detected or were detected at concentrations generally less than the threshold-effects levels. Following an initial positive trend, a statistically significant negative depositional trend was indicated for DDE (degradation product of DDT), which was consistent with the history of DDT use. Other organochlorine compounds detected included aldrin, DDD, and dieldrin. Notable changes in human activity within the basin included a substantial increase in the production of grain corn and soybeans from the 1960s to the 1990s. This increase in production was accompanied by a pronounced increase in the number of irrigated acres. Also, during the same time period, there was an overall increase in hog production. These changes in human activity have not had a discernible effect on the deposition of chemical constituents in the bottom sediment of Tuttle Creek Lake.

  14. The Effects of Chemical Wash Additives on the Corrosion of Aerospace Alloys in Marine Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowell, Louis; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Joseph; Hodge, Tim; Barile, Ronald; Heidersbach, Robert; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology for comparing the relative effectiveness of four chemical products used for rinsing airplanes and helicopters. The products were applied on a weekly basis to a series of flat alloy panels exposed to an oceanfront marine environment for one year. The results are presented along with comparisons of exposures of the same alloys that were not washed, were washed with seawater, or washed with de-ionized water.

  15. Chemical and biological consequences of using carbon dioxide versus acid additions in ocean acidification experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Kimberly K.; DuFore, Christopher M.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Use of different approaches for manipulating seawater chemistry during ocean acidification experiments has confounded comparison of results from various experimental studies. Some of these discrepancies have been attributed to whether addition of acid (such as hydrochloric acid, HCl) or carbon dioxide (CO2) gas has been used to adjust carbonate system parameters. Experimental simulations of carbonate system parameter scenarios for the years 1766, 2007, and 2100 were performed using the carbonate speciation program CO2SYS to demonstrate the variation in seawater chemistry that can result from use of these approaches. Results showed that carbonate system parameters were 3 percent and 8 percent lower than target values in closed-system acid additions, and 1 percent and 5 percent higher in closed-system CO2 additions for the 2007 and 2100 simulations, respectively. Open-system simulations showed that carbonate system parameters can deviate by up to 52 percent to 70 percent from target values in both acid addition and CO2 addition experiments. Results from simulations for the year 2100 were applied to empirically derived equations that relate biogenic calcification to carbonate system parameters for calcifying marine organisms including coccolithophores, corals, and foraminifera. Calculated calcification rates for coccolithophores, corals, and foraminifera differed from rates at target conditions by 0.5 percent to 2.5 percent in closed-system CO2 gas additions, from 0.8 percent to 15 percent in the closed-system acid additions, from 4.8 percent to 94 percent in open-system acid additions, and from 7 percent to 142 percent in open-system CO2 additions.

  16. Chemical constituents in groundwater from multiple zones in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2009-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hopkins, Candice B.; Maimer, Neil V.

    2015-01-01

    Tritium concentrations in relation to basaltic flow units indicate the presence of wastewater influence in multiple basalt flow groups; however, tritium is most abundant in the South Late Matuyama flow group in the southern boundary wells. The concentrations of wastewater constituents in deep zones in wells Middle 2051, USGS 132, USGS 105, and USGS 103 support the concept of groundwater flow deepening in the southwestern corner of the INL, as indicated by the INL groundwater-flow model.

  17. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Technical progress report 5, September 16, 1988--December 15, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1989-02-04

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of studies including temperature programmed desorption, infrared study of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation over Rh catalysts. Ethylene hydroformylation has often served as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of Rh catalysts. The mechanism of CO insertion in ethylene hydroformylation over Rh/SiO{sub 2} was investigated.

  18. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage.

    PubMed

    Jin, S K; Park, J H

    2013-12-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a(*) values at a 0.5% addition (p<0.05). Residual nitrite and TBARS values were found to be significantly reduced as the addition levels of SCP increased (p<0.05). As the addition of SCP increased, the sausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (p<0.05). The addition of SCP to sausage significantly (p<0.05) increased the ammonia content (by 0.5% SCP) and aromatic amino acid concentrations (by 1.0% SCP) (p<0.05). Inclusion of SCP in sausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (p<0.05). As expected, the observed changes in a*, W, pH, shear force, texture property, TBARS, fatty acid, amino acid and sensory score of sausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (p<0.05). These results suggest that SCP addition is not an effective way of improving the sensory evaluation of sausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages.

  19. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a* values at a 0.5% addition (p<0.05). Residual nitrite and TBARS values were found to be significantly reduced as the addition levels of SCP increased (p<0.05). As the addition of SCP increased, the sausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (p<0.05). The addition of SCP to sausage significantly (p<0.05) increased the ammonia content (by 0.5% SCP) and aromatic amino acid concentrations (by 1.0% SCP) (p<0.05). Inclusion of SCP in sausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (p<0.05). As expected, the observed changes in a*, W, pH, shear force, texture property, TBARS, fatty acid, amino acid and sensory score of sausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (p<0.05). These results suggest that SCP addition is not an effective way of improving the sensory evaluation of sausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages. PMID:25049766

  20. Evaluation of the protective effect of chemical additives in the oxidation of phenolic compounds catalysed by peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Torres, Juliana Arriel; Chagas, Pricila Maria Batista; Silva, Maria Cristina; Dos Santos, Custódio Donizete; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte

    2016-01-01

    The use of oxidoredutive enzymes in removing organic pollutants has been the subject of much research. The oxidation of phenolic compounds in the presence of chemical additives has been the focus of this study. In this investigation, the influence of the additives polyethylene glycol and Triton X-100 was evaluated in the phenol oxidation, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and total phenolic compounds present in coffee processing wastewater (CPW) at different pH values, performed by turnip peroxidase and peroxidase extracted from soybean seed hulls. The influence of these additives was observed only in the oxidation of phenol and caffeic acid. In the oxidation of other studied phenolic compounds, the percentage of oxidation remained unchanged in the presence of these chemical additives. In the oxidation of CPW in the presence of additives, no change in the oxidation of phenolic compounds was observed. Although several studies show the importance of evaluating the influence of additives on the behaviour of enzymes, this study found a positive response from the economic point of view for the treatment of real wastewater, since the addition of these substances showed no influence on the oxidation of phenolic compounds, which makes the process less costly.

  1. Evaluation of the protective effect of chemical additives in the oxidation of phenolic compounds catalysed by peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Torres, Juliana Arriel; Chagas, Pricila Maria Batista; Silva, Maria Cristina; Dos Santos, Custódio Donizete; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte

    2016-01-01

    The use of oxidoredutive enzymes in removing organic pollutants has been the subject of much research. The oxidation of phenolic compounds in the presence of chemical additives has been the focus of this study. In this investigation, the influence of the additives polyethylene glycol and Triton X-100 was evaluated in the phenol oxidation, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and total phenolic compounds present in coffee processing wastewater (CPW) at different pH values, performed by turnip peroxidase and peroxidase extracted from soybean seed hulls. The influence of these additives was observed only in the oxidation of phenol and caffeic acid. In the oxidation of other studied phenolic compounds, the percentage of oxidation remained unchanged in the presence of these chemical additives. In the oxidation of CPW in the presence of additives, no change in the oxidation of phenolic compounds was observed. Although several studies show the importance of evaluating the influence of additives on the behaviour of enzymes, this study found a positive response from the economic point of view for the treatment of real wastewater, since the addition of these substances showed no influence on the oxidation of phenolic compounds, which makes the process less costly. PMID:26502790

  2. 75 FR 17939 - EMD Chemicals, Inc.; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... the Federal Register of September 25, 1998 (63 FR 51359), FDA announced that a color additive petition... published an amended filing notice in the Federal Register of June 21, 1999 (64 FR 33097), indicating that... candies, nutritional supplement tablets and gelatin capsules, and chewing gum (71 FR 31927). The...

  3. Chemical additive to maximize antimicrobial effect of chlorine during pilot scale immersion chilling of broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A prior laboratory scale study demonstrated the potential for T-128, a proprietary blend including propylene glycol and phosphoric acid, to enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine during immersion chilling of broiler parts. The objective of the current study was to test the addition of T-128...

  4. Does the Addition of Inert Gases at Constant Volume and Temperature Affect Chemical Equilibrium?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paiva, Joao C. M.; Goncalves, Jorge; Fonseca, Susana

    2008-01-01

    In this article we examine three approaches, leading to different conclusions, for answering the question "Does the addition of inert gases at constant volume and temperature modify the state of equilibrium?" In the first approach, the answer is yes as a result of a common students' alternative conception; the second approach, valid only for ideal…

  5. Anaerobic digestion of high-strength cheese whey utilizing semicontinuous digesters and chemical flocculant addition

    SciTech Connect

    Barford, J.P.; Cail, R.G.; Callander, I.J.; Floyd, E.J.

    1986-11-01

    Semicontinuous digesters were used to anaerobically treat high-strength whey (70 kg/cubic m COD). A maximum loading of 16.1 kg COD/cubic m/day was obtained with soluble COD removal efficiencies greater than 99%. The use of a chemical flocculant resulted in an increased biomass concentration in the digester compared to a control, thus enabling correspondingly higher space loadings to be applied. With the onset of substantial levels of granulation of the biomass, flocculant dosage was able to be discontinued. This article discusses the performance of the digesters in detail and, briefly, the long-term operational difficulties experienced and the control strategies employed on such systems. 24 references.

  6. Factors affecting the microbial and chemical composition of silage. III. Effect of urea additions on maize silage.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, S A; Abd-el-Hafez, A; Zaki, M M; Saleh, E A

    1978-01-01

    The effect of urea additions on the microbiological and chemical properties of silage, produced from young maize plants (Darawa stage), was studied. Urea treatments, i.e., 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00%, stimulated higher densities of the desired microorganisms than the control, while undesired organisms showed lower counts (proteolytic and saccharolytic anaerobes). Addition of 0.25 to 0.50% or urea resulted in the production of high quality silage with pleasant small and high nutritive value, as confirmed by the various microbiological and chemical analyses conducted. Higher levels (0.75 and 1.00%) of urea decreased the quality of the product. PMID:29417

  7. Effects of Microbial Additives on Chemical Composition and Fermentation Characteristics of Barley Silage

    PubMed Central

    Amanullah, S. M.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, H. J.; Joo, Y. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of bacterial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation indices of barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at 24% dry matter (DM) and wilted to 47.9% DM. The wilted barley forage was chopped to 3–5 cm length and applied with no inoculant (CON), L. plantarum (1×1010 cfu/g, LP) or Effective Microorganisms (0.5×109 cfu/g, EM). Then the forages were ensiled in four replications for each treatment in 20 L mini silos and stored for 100 days. The contents of crude protein and ether extract were higher in CON silage ensiled for 100-d, while the contents of DM and crude ash were higher in EM silage (p<0.05). The contents of ADF, NDF and hemicellulose as well as the in vitro DM digestibility were not affected by microbial inoculation (p>0.05). The pH, ammonia-N concentration and lactate to acetate ratio were higher (p<0.05) in CON silage, while lactate concentrations were higher (p<0.05) in CON and LP silage. Acetate concentration and lactic acid bacteria was increased (p<0.05) by both inoculants (LP and EM), but propionate concentration and yeast was increased (p<0.05) by EM and LP, respectively. These results indicated that the fermentation quality of barley silage was improved by the application of bacterial inoculants. PMID:25049981

  8. The Effects of Chemical Additives on the Induction Phase in Solid-State Thermal Decomposition of Ammonia Borane

    SciTech Connect

    Heldebrant, David J.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Hess, Nancy J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Rassat, Scot D.; Zheng, Feng; Rappe, Kenneth G.; Autrey, Thomas

    2008-08-26

    The solid-state decomposition of ammonia borane (AB) alone and in the presence of chemical additives was investigated by a series of experimental methods to develop an approach for reducing the induction period for hydrogen release. Gas chromatography techniques were used to measure the yield of hydrogen as a function of time under isothermal conditions between 70 and 90 °C, and the polyaminoborane (PAB) products produced from hydrogen loss from AB show significant cross linking by 11B NMR spectroscopy. Raman microscopy was used to follow the transformation of crystalline AB to amorphous AB with the subsequent formation of the diammoniate of diborane (DADB). A gas burette was used to monitor the time-dependent release of hydrogen from AB in the presence of chemical additives. The combination of these approaches provides insight into the mechanism of hydrogen release from solid AB. The release of molecular hydrogen is described by a process involving sequential induction (disruption of dihydrogen bonds), nucleation (formation of DADB), and growth (hydrogen release through dehydrocoupling). Addition of DADB or ammonium chloride to neat AB significantly reduces the induction time for hydrogen release. The authors wish to acknowledge support from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This work was performed as part of the Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydrogen Storage and in collaboration with the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Battelle.

  9. Identification and Quantification Analysis on the Chemical Constituents from Traditional Mongolian Medicine Flos Scabiosae Using UHPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS Combined with UHPLC-QqQ-MS.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hui; Li, Tianer; He, Mingzhen; Li, Zhifeng; Tan, Ting; Zhang, Wugang; Li, Yan; Feng, Yulin; Yang, Shilin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a systematic method was established for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in Flos Scabiosae (FS). First, Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was developed for the identification of the multi-constituents in FS. A total of 48 compounds (9 phenolic acids, 24 flavonoids, 8 iridoids and 7 others) were unambiguously or tentatively identified, including 25 compounds (flavonoids, phenolic acids) identified in FS for the first time. Second, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography combined with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) was developed for the quantitative analysis of 10 phenolic compounds. Ten compounds, either with high contents or strong bioactivities, were chosen as markers. This analytical method was validated through intra- and inter-day precision, repeatability and stability, with respective relative standard deviations <4.43, <8.64, <4.60 and <3.65%, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were <1.09 and <16.96 ng/mL, respectively. The overall recoveries ranged from 96.47 to 103.94% .Then the validated method was applied to determine 10 batches of FS. The results indicated that the new method can be applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of FS.

  10. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of the volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl grown in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Tantawy, Mona E; Shams, Manal M; Afifi, Manal S

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata and Nephrolepis cordifolia obtained by hydro-distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. The essential oils exhibited potential antibacterial and antifungal activities against a majority of the selected microorganisms. NEA oil showed promising cytotoxicity in breast, colon and lung carcinoma cells. The results presented indicate that NEA oil could be useful alternative for the treatment of dermatophytosis. Comparative investigation of hydro-distilled volatile constituents from aerial parts (A) of Nephrolepis exaltata (NE) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (NC) (Family Nephrolepidaceae) was carried out. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that oils differ in composition and percentages of components. Oxygenated compounds were dominant in NEA and NCA. 2,4-Hexadien-1-ol (16.1%), nonanal (14.4%), β-Ionone (6.7%) and thymol (2.7%) were predominant in NEA. β-Ionone (8.0%), eugenol (7.2%) and anethol (4.6%) were the main constituents in NCA. Volatile samples were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities using agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using viability assay in breast (MCF-7), colon (HCT-116) and lung carcinoma (A-549) cells by the MTT assay. The results revealed that NEA oil exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against most of the tested organisms and showed promising cytotoxicity. PMID:26211503

  11. Chemical and Radiochemical Constituents in Water from Wells in the Vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1997-98

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bartholomay; L. L. Knobel; B. J. Tucker; B. V. Twining

    2000-06-01

    The US Geological Survey, in response to a request from the U.S Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office, Idaho Branch Office, sampled water from 13 wells during 1997-98 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho. Water samples were analyzed for naturally occurring constituents and man-made contaminants. A total of 91 samples were collected from the 13 monitoring wells. The routine samples contained detectable concentrations of total cations and dissolved anions, and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen. Most of the samples also had detectable concentrations of gross alpha- and gross beta-particle radioactivity and tritium. Fourteen quality-assurance samples were also collected and analyzed; seven were field-blank samples, and seven were replicate samples. Most of the field blank samples contained less than detectable concentrations of target constituents; however some blank samples did contain detectable concentrations of calcium, magnesium, barium, copper, manganese, nickel, zinc, nitrite plus nitrate, total organic halogens, tritium, and selected volatile organic compounds.

  12. Chemical and radiochemical constituents in water from wells in the vicinity of the naval reactors facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Knobel, LeRoy L.; Tucker, Betty J.; Twining, Brian V.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Phtsburgh Naval Reactors Ofilce, Idaho Branch Office, sampled water from 13 wells during 1997?98 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho. Water samples were analyzed for naturally occurring constituents and man-made contaminants. A totalof91 samples were collected from the 13 monitoring wells. The routine samples contained detectable concentrations of total cations and dissolved anions, and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen. Most of the samples also had detectable concentrations of gross alpha- and gross beta-particle radioactivity and tritium. Fourteen qualityassurance samples also were collected and analyze~ seven were field-blank samples, and seven were replicate samples. Most of the field blank samples contained less than detectable concentrations of target constituents; however, some blank samples did contain detectable concentrations of calcium, magnesium, barium, copper, manganese, nickel, zinc, nitrite plus nitrate, total organic halogens, tritium, and selected volatile organic compounds.

  13. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of the volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl grown in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Tantawy, Mona E; Shams, Manal M; Afifi, Manal S

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata and Nephrolepis cordifolia obtained by hydro-distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. The essential oils exhibited potential antibacterial and antifungal activities against a majority of the selected microorganisms. NEA oil showed promising cytotoxicity in breast, colon and lung carcinoma cells. The results presented indicate that NEA oil could be useful alternative for the treatment of dermatophytosis. Comparative investigation of hydro-distilled volatile constituents from aerial parts (A) of Nephrolepis exaltata (NE) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (NC) (Family Nephrolepidaceae) was carried out. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that oils differ in composition and percentages of components. Oxygenated compounds were dominant in NEA and NCA. 2,4-Hexadien-1-ol (16.1%), nonanal (14.4%), β-Ionone (6.7%) and thymol (2.7%) were predominant in NEA. β-Ionone (8.0%), eugenol (7.2%) and anethol (4.6%) were the main constituents in NCA. Volatile samples were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities using agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using viability assay in breast (MCF-7), colon (HCT-116) and lung carcinoma (A-549) cells by the MTT assay. The results revealed that NEA oil exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against most of the tested organisms and showed promising cytotoxicity.

  14. Chemical profiling of bioactive constituents in Sarcandra glabra and its preparations using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiong; Zhang, Yufeng; Zeng, Xing; Yang, Liu; Deng, Yuanhui

    2011-09-15

    In this study, a fast and reliable method based on an ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode-array detection (PDA) and a linear ion trap high-resolution mass spectrometer (LTQ-Orbitrap XL) has been developed for the identification of bioactive constituents in the whole plant of Sarcandra glabra and its related four preparations. By accurate mass measurements within 5 ppm error for each molecular ion and subsequent fragment ions in routine analysis, 50 compounds, including organic acids, caffeoyl derivatives, flavonoids, coumarins and terpenoids, were identified or tentatively characterized. Among them, 6,7,8-trihydroxycoumarin-O-rhamnopyranoside (17), (2R)-naringenin-6-C-B-D-glucopyranosyl-(6→1)-apiose (25) and (2S)-naringenin-6-C-B-D-glucopyranosyl-(6→1)-apiose (27) were tentatively identified as new compounds. Besides, 21 of these compounds were coexisting in four preparations of Sarcandra glabra. Fragmentation behaviors of the four major categories of compounds were also investigated. This established UPLC-PDA/ESI-MS(n) method was reliable and effective for the separation and identification of the major constituents and would be the basis for quality control of Sarcandra glabra and its related preparations.

  15. Rapid identif ication and comparative analysis of chemical constituents in herbal medicine Fufang decoction by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid linear ion trap-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gang; Chen, Xiaocheng; Wu, Xin; Li, Qinglin; Zhang, Hongyan

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to reveal the relation between herbal medicine Fufang decoction and a single drug in terms of material base. Da-Cheng-Qi decoction (DCQD) was used as a model. Ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid linear ion trap-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap) was applied to detect and identify the main chemical compounds. This technique was also employed to determine the different chemical components. Under optimized liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry conditions, 64 components, including iridoids, flavonoids, anthraquinones and coumarins, were separated and tentatively characterized in Da-Cheng-Qi decoction. After decoction, the contents of 18 compounds were markedly changed, and two components were no longer detected in Fufang decoction compared with single-medicine decoction. The established method provided a good example for the rapid identification of complicated polar constituents in herbal medicine prescriptions.

  16. The effect of a chemical additive on the fermentation and aerobic stability of high-moisture corn.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, T C; Smith, M L; Barnard, A M; Kung, L

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of a chemical additive on the fermentation and aerobic stability of high-moisture corn (HMC). Ground HMC (~63% dry matter) was untreated, or treated with an additive containing sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and sodium nitrite as active ingredients, at 0, 2, 3, or 4 L/t of fresh matter. Laboratory silos (7.5 L) were prepared and ensiled for 21 and 90d (4 silos/treatment per d of ensiling). Small bag silos were prepared for untreated HMC and HMC treated with 4 L/t of the additive and analyzed for nitrate-N and nitrite-N after 0, 3, and 7d of ensiling. The concentration of nitrate-N was similar between these 2 treatments and was below levels considered problematic for ruminants. Nitrite-N was greater in HMC treated with the high level of additive but was also very low for both treatments. Numbers of yeasts were similar among treatments in fresh HMC and decreased substantially after ensiling. Numbers of yeasts were similar among treatments after 21d of ensiling but after 90d they were lower in treated versus untreated HMC. Concentrations of organic acids (lactic, acetic, and propionic) and pH were not different among treatments at any time of ensiling. In contrast, treatment with the additive markedly decreased the concentration of ethanol in HMC after 21 and 90d when compared with untreated HMC. Treatment with all levels of the additive markedly improved the aerobic stability and improved the recovery of dry matter compared with untreated HMC. Overall, our findings suggest that the chemical additive used in this study has the potential to improve the fermentation and aerobic stability of HMC after a relatively short period (21d) and after a moderate length (90d) of ensiling. PMID:26454298

  17. Effect of addition of Versagel on microbial, chemical, and physical properties of low-fat yogurt.

    PubMed

    Ramchandran, L; Shah, N P

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of Versagel on the growth and proteolytic activity of Streptococcus thermophilus 1275 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus 1368 and angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of the peptides generated thereby as well as on the physical properties of low-fat yogurt during a storage period of 28 d at 4 degrees C. Three different types of low-fat yogurts, YV0, YV1, and YV2, were prepared using Versagel as a fat replacer. The fermentation time of the low-fat yogurts containing Versagel was less than that of the control yogurt (YV0). The starter cultures maintained their viability (8.68 to 8.81 log CFU/g of S. thermophilus and 8.51 to 8.81 log CFU/g of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus) in all the yogurts throughout the storage period. There was some decrease in the pH of the yogurts during storage and an increase in the concentration of lactic acid. However, the proteolytic and ACE-inhibitory potential of the starter cultures was suppressed in the presence of Versagel. On the other hand, the addition of Versagel had a positive impact on the physical properties of the low-fat yogurt, namely, spontaneous whey separation, firmness, and pseudoplastic properties.

  18. Effects of 8 chemical and bacterial additives on the quality of corn silage.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, O C M; Arriola, K G; Daniel, J L P; Adesogan, A T

    2013-09-01

    This project aimed to evaluate the effects 8 additives on the fermentation, dry matter (DM) losses, nutritive value, and aerobic stability of corn silage. Corn forage harvested at 31% DM was chopped (10mm) and treated with (1) deionized water (control); (2) Buchneri 500 (BUC; 1×10(5) cfu/g of Pediococcus pentosaceus 12455 and 4×10(5) cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788; Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Milwaukee, WI); (3) sodium benzoate (BEN; 0.1% of fresh forage); (4) Silage Savor acid mixture (SAV: 0.1% of fresh forage; Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA); (5) 1×10(6) cfu/g of Acetobacter pasteurianus-ATCC 9323; (6) 1×10(6) cfu/g of Gluconobacter oxydans-ATCC 621; (7) Ecosyl 200T (1×10(5) cfu/g of Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1; Ecosyl Products Inc., Byron, IL); (8) Silo-King WS (1.5×10(5) cfu/g of L. plantarum, P. pentosaceus and Enterococcus faecium; Agri-King, Fulton, IL); and (9) Biomax 5 (BIO; 1×10(5) cfu/g of L. plantarum PA-28 and K-270; Chr. Hansen Animal Health and Nutrition, Milwaukee, WI). Treated forage was ensiled in quadruplicate in mini silos at a density of 172 kg of DM/m(3) for 3 and 120 d. After 3 d of ensiling, the pH of all silages was below 4 but ethanol concentrations were least in BEN silage (2.03 vs. 3.24% DM) and lactic acid was greatest in SAV silage (2.97 vs. 2.51% DM). Among 120-d silages, additives did not affect DM recovery (mean=89.8% ± 2.27) or in vitro DM digestibility (mean=71.5% ± 0.63). The SAV silage had greater ammonia-N (0.85 g/kg of DM) and butyric acid (0.22 vs. 0.0% DM) than other treatments. In contrast, BEN and Silo-King silages had the least ammonia-N concentration and had no butyric acid. The BEN and A. pasteurianus silages had the lowest pH (3.69) and BEN silage had the least ethanol (1.04% DM) and ammonia nitrogen (0.64 g/kg DM) concentrations, suggesting that fermentation was more extensive and protein degradation was less in BEN silages. The BUC and BIO silages had greater acetic acid concentrations than

  19. Evaluation of background concentrations of selected chemical and radiochemical constituents in water from the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; L. Flint Hall

    2016-01-01

    The upper limit of background concentrations for radiochemical constituents for eastern regional water was 5.43 ±0.574 pCi/L for tritium, 0.0002048 ±0.0000054 pCi/L for chlorine-36, 0.000000865 ±0.000000015 pCi/L for iodine-129, <0.0000054 pCi/L for technetium-99, 0 pCi/L for strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, -240 (undivided), and americium-241, 1.32 ±0.77 pCi/L for uranium-234, 0.016 ±0.012 pCi/L for uranium-235, and 0.477 ±0.044 pCi/L for uranium-238.

  20. Evaluation of background concentrations of selected chemical and radiochemical constituents in water from the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; L. Flint Hall,

    2016-05-05

    The upper limit of background concentrations for radiochemical constituents for eastern regional water was 5.43 ±0.574 pCi/L for tritium, 0.0002048 ±0.0000054 pCi/L for chlorine-36, 0.000000865 ±0.000000015 pCi/L for iodine-129, <0.0000054 pCi/L for technetium-99, 0 pCi/L for strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, -240 (undivided), and americium-241, 1.32 ±0.77 pCi/L for uranium-234, 0.016 ±0.012 pCi/L for uranium-235, and 0.477 ±0.044 pCi/L for uranium-238.

  1. Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico Basin, North Carolina and Virginia; chemical analyses of organic compounds and inorganic constituents in streambed sediment, 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodside, M.D.; Simerl, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey began full-scale implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. Long-term goals of the NAWQA program are to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources and to describe the primary natural and human factors that affect these resources. One of the first assessment phases of the NAWQA program is to examine the occurrence and distribution of organic and inorganic constituents in streambed sediment. Streambed sediment was collected at 22 stations in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin that drains into the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, the second largest estuarine system in the United States. Streambed-sediment samples were analyzed for 35 organochlorine and 63 semivolatile compounds; 44 major, minor, and trace elements; and forms of organic carbon.

  2. In vitro evaluation of schistosomicidal activity of essential oil of Mentha x villosa and some of its chemical constituents in adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Matos-Rocha, Thiago José; dos Santos Cavalcanti, Marília Gabriela; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Lúcio, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro; Veras, Dyana Leal; Feitosa, Ana Paula Sampaio; de Siqueira Júnior, José Pinto; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; Marques, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Brayner, Fábio André

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the composition of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa and to evaluate its biological effects in vitro on adult worms of S. mansoni. Rotundifolone (70.96 %), limonene (8.75 %), trans-caryophyllene (1.46 %), and β-pinene (0.81 %) were shown to be the major constituents of this oil. Adult worms of S. mansoni were incubated with different concentrations of the essential oil (1, 10, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 µg/mL) and of its constituents rotundifolone (0.7, 3.54, 7.09, 70.96, 177.4, 354.8, and 700.96 µg/mL), limonene (43.75 µg/mL), trans-caryophyllene (7.3 µg/mL), and β-pinene (4.03 µg/mL). No schistosomicidal activity was identified at the trans-caryophyllene and β-pinene concentrations studied. However, use of the essential oil (10 µg/mL), rotundifolone (7.09 µg/mL), and limonene (43.75 µg/mL) resulted in decreased worm motility continuing until 96 hours of observation. At higher concentrations (100 and 70.96 µg/mL, respectively), both the essential oil and rotundifolone caused mortality among adult worms of S. mansoni. The positive control praziquantel caused the death of all parasites after 24 h of evaluation. The results from this study suggest that the essential oil of Mentha x villosa presents schistosomicidal efficacy.

  3. Activation and stabilization of the hydroperoxide lyase enzymatic extract from mint leaves (Mentha spicata) using selected chemical additives.

    PubMed

    Akacha, Najla B; Karboune, Salwa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Kermasha, Selim

    2010-03-01

    The effects of selected lyoprotecting excipients and chemical additives on the specific activity and the thermal stability of the hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) enzymatic extract from mint leaves were investigated. The addition of KCl (5%, w/w) and dextran (2.5%, w/w) to the enzymatic extract, prior to lyophilization, increased the HPL specific activity by 2.0- and 1.2-fold, respectively, compared to the control lyophilized extract. From half-life time (t (1/2)), it can be seen that KCl has enhanced the HPL stability by 1.3- to 2.3-fold, during long-period storage at -20 degrees Celsius and 4 degrees Celsius. Among the selected additives used throughout this study, glycine appeared to be the most effective one. In addition to the activation effect conferred by glycine, it also enhanced the HPL thermal stability. In contrast, polyhydroxyl-containing additives were not effective for stabilizing the HPL enzymatic extract. On the other hand, there was no signification increase in HPL activity and its thermal stability with the presence of Triton X-100. The results also showed that in the presence of glycine (10%), the catalytic efficiency of HPL was increased by 2.45-fold than that without additive.

  4. [Effects of different perlite additions on physical and chemical properties of sewage sludge compost and growth of Tagetes patula].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu-Tong; Shi, Lian-Hui; Liu, Deng-Min; Tong, Shao-Wei; Wei, Mei-Yan; Sun, Jie

    2014-07-01

    In order to resolve the problem of poor permeability of sewage sludge compost (SSC) which was used as the substitution of peat, perlite was used to regulate the permeability of the sewage. The pure SSC was used as control. The proportions of perlite in the mixtures with SSC were 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% (V/V), respectively. The effects of different perlite ratios on the physical and chemical properties and the growth of Tagetes patula were studied. The bulk density, water holding porosity and water holding porosity to aeration porosity decreased, but the total porosity and aeration porosity increased with the increasing addition of perlite to the SSC. For the chemical properties, the pH increased, and the EC and nutrient contents decreased with the increasing addition of perlite to the SSC. The aboveground biomass and flowers of T. patula were the highest in the 60% perlite treatment, and the lowest in the pure SSC treatment. The root morphology and activity were the best in the 40%, 60% and 80% perlite treatments. Aeration was the strongest factor to impact the maximum root length and average root diameter. Perlite promoted the growth of T. patula mainly through impacting the physical properties of the SSC. The addition of 60% perlite to the SSC could significantly improve the poor aeration and decrease the high salinity greatly in the SSC and regulate the growth of the root and aboveground of T. patula. PMID:25345044

  5. Effect of Microbial and Chemical Combo Additives on Nutritive Value and Fermentation Characteristic of Whole Crop Barley Silage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hyeon; Amanullah, Sardar M.; Lee, Hyuk Jun; Joo, Young Ho; Kim, Sam Churl

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of microbial and chemical combo additives on nutritive values, fermentation indices and aerobic stability of whole crop barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at about 30% dry matter (DM) by treatments, chopped to 5 cm length and treated with distilled water only (CON), Lactobacillus plantarum (INO), propionic acid (PRO) or an equal mixture of INO and PRO (MIX). Barley forages were ensiled in 4 replications for 0, 2, 7, and 100 days. On 100 days of ensiling, MIX silage had higher (p<0.05) in vitro DM digestibility than CON silage, but lower (p<0.05) acid detergent fiber concentration. The pH in all treated silages was lower (p<0.05) than CON silage. The MIX silage had higher (p<0.05) lactate concentration and lactate to acetate ratio than in CON, but lower (p<0.05) yeast count. Aerobic stability in CON, PRO, and MIX silages were higher (p<0.05) than in INO silage. It is concluded that microbial and chemical combo additives using L. plantarum and propionic acid could efficiently improve nutritive values of barley silage in terms of increased in vitro DM digestibility compared to other treatments. In addition, all treatments except CON reduced yeast count which is the initiate microorganism of aerobic spoilage. PMID:26323517

  6. [Effects of different perlite additions on physical and chemical properties of sewage sludge compost and growth of Tagetes patula].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu-Tong; Shi, Lian-Hui; Liu, Deng-Min; Tong, Shao-Wei; Wei, Mei-Yan; Sun, Jie

    2014-07-01

    In order to resolve the problem of poor permeability of sewage sludge compost (SSC) which was used as the substitution of peat, perlite was used to regulate the permeability of the sewage. The pure SSC was used as control. The proportions of perlite in the mixtures with SSC were 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% (V/V), respectively. The effects of different perlite ratios on the physical and chemical properties and the growth of Tagetes patula were studied. The bulk density, water holding porosity and water holding porosity to aeration porosity decreased, but the total porosity and aeration porosity increased with the increasing addition of perlite to the SSC. For the chemical properties, the pH increased, and the EC and nutrient contents decreased with the increasing addition of perlite to the SSC. The aboveground biomass and flowers of T. patula were the highest in the 60% perlite treatment, and the lowest in the pure SSC treatment. The root morphology and activity were the best in the 40%, 60% and 80% perlite treatments. Aeration was the strongest factor to impact the maximum root length and average root diameter. Perlite promoted the growth of T. patula mainly through impacting the physical properties of the SSC. The addition of 60% perlite to the SSC could significantly improve the poor aeration and decrease the high salinity greatly in the SSC and regulate the growth of the root and aboveground of T. patula.

  7. Singular vector-based targeted observations of chemical constituents: description and first application of the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goris, N.; Elbern, H.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of the large-dimensional chemical state of the atmosphere provide only sparse snapshots of the state of the system due to their typically insufficient temporal and spatial density. In order to optimize the measurement configurations despite those limitations, the present work describes the identification of sensitive states of the chemical system as optimal target areas for adaptive observations. For this purpose, the technique of singular vector analysis (SVA), which has proven effective for targeted observations in numerical weather prediction, is implemented in the EURAD-IM (EURopean Air pollution and Dispersion - Inverse Model) chemical transport model, yielding the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0. Besides initial values, emissions are investigated as critical simulation controlling targeting variables. For both variants, singular vectors are applied to determine the optimal placement for observations and moreover to quantify which chemical compounds have to be observed with preference. Based on measurements of the airship based ZEPTER-2 campaign, the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0 has been evaluated by conducting a comprehensive set of model runs involving different initial states and simulation lengths. For the sake of brevity, we concentrate our attention on the following chemical compounds, O3, NO, NO2, HCHO, CO, HONO, and OH, and focus on their influence on selected O3 profiles. Our analysis shows that the optimal placement for observations of chemical species is not entirely determined by mere transport and mixing processes. Rather, a combination of initial chemical concentrations, chemical conversions, and meteorological processes determines the influence of chemical compounds and regions. We furthermore demonstrate that the optimal placement of observations of emission strengths is highly dependent on the location of emission sources and that the benefit of including emissions as target variables outperforms the value of initial value optimization with growing

  8. Effect of water treatment additives on lime softening residual trace chemical composition--implications for disposal and reuse.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weizhi; Roessler, Justin; Blaisi, Nawaf I; Townsend, Timothy G

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water treatment residues (WTR) offer potential benefits when recycled through land application. The current guidance in Florida, US allows for unrestricted land application of lime softening WTR; alum and ferric WTR require additional evaluation of total and leachable concentrations of select trace metals prior to land application. In some cases a mixed WTR is produced when lime softening is accompanied by the addition of a coagulant or other treatment chemical; applicability of the current guidance is unclear. The objective of this research was to characterize the total and leachable chemical content of WTR from Florida facilities that utilize multiple treatment chemicals. Lime and mixed lime WTR samples were collected from 18 water treatment facilities in Florida. Total and leachable concentrations of the WTR were measured. To assess the potential for disposal of mixed WTR as clean fill below the water table, leaching tests were conducted at multiple liquid to solid ratios and under reducing conditions. The results were compared to risk-based soil and groundwater contamination thresholds. Total metal concentrations of WTR were found to be below Florida soil contaminant thresholds with Fe found in the highest abundance at a concentration of 3600 mg/kg-dry. Aluminum was the only element that exceeded the Florida groundwater contaminant thresholds using SPLP (95% UCL = 0.23 mg/L; risk threshold = 0.2 mg/L). Tests under reducing conditions showed elevated concentrations of Fe and Mn, ranging from 1 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than SPLP leachates. Mixed lime WTR concentrations (total and leachable) were lower than the ferric and alum WTR concentrations, supporting that mixed WTR are appropriately represented as lime WTR. Testing of WTR under reducing conditions demonstrated the potential for release of certain trace metals (Fe, Al, Mn) above applicable regulatory thresholds; additional evaluation is needed to assess management options where

  9. Effects of chemical mechanical planarization slurry additives on the agglomeration of alumina nanoparticles II: aggregation rate analysis.

    PubMed

    Brahma, Neil; Talbot, Jan B

    2014-04-01

    The aggregation rate and mechanism of 150 nm alumina particles in 1mM KNO3 with various additives used in chemical mechanical planarization of copper were investigated. The pH of each suspension was ∼8 such that the aggregation rate was slow enough to be measured and analyzed over ∼120 min. In general, an initial exponential growth was observed for most suspensions indicating reaction-limited aggregation. After aggregate sizes increase to >500 nm, the rate followed a power law suggesting diffusion-limited aggregation. Stability ratios and fractal dimension numbers were also calculated to further elucidate the aggregation mechanism. PMID:24491325

  10. Comparative study on the chemical constituents of essential oils from different organs of the Sicilian Kundmannia (Kundmannia sicula L.) DC. (Apiaceae) growing spontaneously in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Faidi, Khaled; El Mokni, Ridha; Joshi, R K; Hammami, Saoussen; M'Henni, Mohamed Farouk; Mighri, Zine

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils from odorous and volatile compounds possessing several therapeutic benefits are considered of a paramount importance in everyday human life. This study deals with a comparative study of essential oils from different parts of an aromatic plant Kundmannia sicula (L.) DC. (Apiaceae) growing in Tunisia. The hydro-distilled essential oils of the leaves and inflorescences with mature seeds (IMS) of K. sicula were analysed for the first time by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Fifty leaves and 47 IMS constituents were identified, accounting for 97.9% and 98.2% of the total oil, respectively. The major compounds identified from the leaves and IMS oils were isocurcumenol (9.9-10.1%), hexadecanoic acid (9.5-10.9%), spathulenol (6.9-3.4%), 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (6.3-5.5%), α-cubebene (5.9-6.1%) and trans-dihydro occidentalol (52-6.6%). The essential oil consists mainly of oxygenated monoterpenes (50.7-53.2%).

  11. Sustainable nutrients recovery and recycling by optimizing the chemical addition sequence for struvite precipitation from raw swine slurries.

    PubMed

    Taddeo, Raffaele; Kolppo, Kari; Lepistö, Raghida

    2016-09-15

    Livestock farming contributes heavily to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) flows into the environment, a major cause of eutrophication of coastal and freshwater systems. Furthermore, the growing demand for N-P fertilizers is increasing the emission of anthropogenic reactive N into the atmosphere and the depletion of the current P reserves. Therefore, it is essential to minimize the anthropogenic impact on the environment and recycle the wasted N-P for agricultural reuse. This study focused on enhancing struvite (MgNH4PO4*6H2O) precipitation from raw swine slurries in batch and laboratory-scale reactors. Different chemical addition sequences were evaluated, and the best removal efficiency (E%) was obtained when the chemicals were mixed before the precipitation process. Struvite was detected at a pH as low as 6 (E%N-P∼50%), and high E%N-P was found at pH 7-9.5 (80-95%). Furthermore, air stripping was used in place of NaOH to adjust pH, returning the same efficiency as if only alkali had been used. XRD and FE-SEM analysis of the precipitate showed that the recovered struvite was of high purity with orthorhombic crystalline structure and only trace amounts of impurities from matrix organics, co-precipitation products (CaO and amorphous calcium-phosphates), and residuals of added chemicals (MgO). PMID:27208994

  12. Sustainable nutrients recovery and recycling by optimizing the chemical addition sequence for struvite precipitation from raw swine slurries.

    PubMed

    Taddeo, Raffaele; Kolppo, Kari; Lepistö, Raghida

    2016-09-15

    Livestock farming contributes heavily to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) flows into the environment, a major cause of eutrophication of coastal and freshwater systems. Furthermore, the growing demand for N-P fertilizers is increasing the emission of anthropogenic reactive N into the atmosphere and the depletion of the current P reserves. Therefore, it is essential to minimize the anthropogenic impact on the environment and recycle the wasted N-P for agricultural reuse. This study focused on enhancing struvite (MgNH4PO4*6H2O) precipitation from raw swine slurries in batch and laboratory-scale reactors. Different chemical addition sequences were evaluated, and the best removal efficiency (E%) was obtained when the chemicals were mixed before the precipitation process. Struvite was detected at a pH as low as 6 (E%N-P∼50%), and high E%N-P was found at pH 7-9.5 (80-95%). Furthermore, air stripping was used in place of NaOH to adjust pH, returning the same efficiency as if only alkali had been used. XRD and FE-SEM analysis of the precipitate showed that the recovered struvite was of high purity with orthorhombic crystalline structure and only trace amounts of impurities from matrix organics, co-precipitation products (CaO and amorphous calcium-phosphates), and residuals of added chemicals (MgO).

  13. Chemical Composition, In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oils of Ocimum Gratissimum, O. Sanctum and their Major Constituents.

    PubMed

    Joshi, R K

    2013-07-01

    The essential oils of the flowering aerial parts of two Ocimum species viz., Ocimum gratissimum and O. sanctum were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The principal constituent of O. gratissimum and O. sanctum was eugenol (75.1%) and methyl eugenol (92.4%), comprising 99.3 and 98.9% of the total oils, respectively. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of O. gratissimum, O. sanctum and their major compounds eugenol and methyl eugenol were screened by using tube dilution methods. O. gratissimum oil was found highly active against S. marcescens while O. sanctum oil showed significant activity against A. niger and S. faecalis. Methyl eugenol exhibited significant activity against P. aeruginosa while eugenol was effective only against S. aureus. Antioxidant activity of oils, eugenol, and methyl eugenol was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'- azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assays. Essential oil of O. gratissimum showed comparative antioxidant activity with IC50 values 23.66±0.55 and 23.91±0.49 μg/ml in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'- azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) models, respectively. Eugenol showed slightly weaker antioxidant activity compared to oil of O. gratissimum, while O. sanctum oil demonstrated very feeble antioxidant activity and methyl eugenol did not show any activity. Eugenol and methyl eugenol would be elite source from O. gratissimum and O. sanctum, respectively, of this region could be consider as a source of natural food antioxidant, preservatives, and as an antiseptic. PMID:24302801

  14. Chemical composition, larvicidal, and biting deterrent activity of essential oils of two subspecies of Tanacetum argenteum (Asterales: Asteraceae) and individual constituents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Kurkcuoglu, Mine; Duran, Ahmet; Blythe, Eugene K; Khan, Ikhlas A; Baser, K Husnu Can

    2014-07-01

    Water-distilled essential oils from dried aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. argenteum (Lam.) and T. argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. canum (C. Koch) Grierson were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 27 and 32 components were identified representing 97.2 and 98.7% of essential oils of subsp. argenteum and canum, respectively. Main compounds of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum were alpha-pinene (67.9%) and beta-pinene (4.8%), whereas alpha-pinene (53.6%), 1, 8-cineole (14.8%), and camphor (4.7%) were the major constituents of subsp. canum. Essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. canum at 10 microg/cm2 with Biting Deterrent Index (BDI) value of 0.73 showed activity similar to N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) at 25 mol/cm2, whereas the activity of essential oil of subsp. argenteum was lower (BDI = 0.47) than subsp. canum and DEET. Based on 95% CIs, activity of beta-caryophyllene (BDI value = 0.54) and caryophyllene oxide (BDI = 0.66) were significantly lower than DEET. In larval bioassays, essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum showed LC50 value of 93.34 ppm, whereas T. argenteum subsp. canum killed only 40% of the larvae at the highest dose of 125 ppm. Among the pure compounds, beta-caryophyllene (LC50 = 26 ppm) was the most potent compound followed by caryophyllene oxide (LC50 = 29 ppm), which was also similar to (-)-beta-pinene (LC50 = 35.9 ppm) against 1-d-old Ae. aegypti larvae at 24-h post treatment. Compounds (-)-alpha-pinene and (+)-beta-pinene showed similar larvicidal activity. Activity of (+)-alpha-pinene with LC50 value of was similar to the essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum.

  15. Chemical composition, larvicidal, and biting deterrent activity of essential oils of two subspecies of Tanacetum argenteum (Asterales: Asteraceae) and individual constituents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Kurkcuoglu, Mine; Duran, Ahmet; Blythe, Eugene K; Khan, Ikhlas A; Baser, K Husnu Can

    2014-07-01

    Water-distilled essential oils from dried aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. argenteum (Lam.) and T. argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. canum (C. Koch) Grierson were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 27 and 32 components were identified representing 97.2 and 98.7% of essential oils of subsp. argenteum and canum, respectively. Main compounds of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum were alpha-pinene (67.9%) and beta-pinene (4.8%), whereas alpha-pinene (53.6%), 1, 8-cineole (14.8%), and camphor (4.7%) were the major constituents of subsp. canum. Essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. canum at 10 microg/cm2 with Biting Deterrent Index (BDI) value of 0.73 showed activity similar to N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) at 25 mol/cm2, whereas the activity of essential oil of subsp. argenteum was lower (BDI = 0.47) than subsp. canum and DEET. Based on 95% CIs, activity of beta-caryophyllene (BDI value = 0.54) and caryophyllene oxide (BDI = 0.66) were significantly lower than DEET. In larval bioassays, essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum showed LC50 value of 93.34 ppm, whereas T. argenteum subsp. canum killed only 40% of the larvae at the highest dose of 125 ppm. Among the pure compounds, beta-caryophyllene (LC50 = 26 ppm) was the most potent compound followed by caryophyllene oxide (LC50 = 29 ppm), which was also similar to (-)-beta-pinene (LC50 = 35.9 ppm) against 1-d-old Ae. aegypti larvae at 24-h post treatment. Compounds (-)-alpha-pinene and (+)-beta-pinene showed similar larvicidal activity. Activity of (+)-alpha-pinene with LC50 value of was similar to the essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum. PMID:25118415

  16. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Technical progress report 15, March 15, 1991--June 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.; Pien, S.I.

    1991-06-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativeities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation. Reaction of ethylene with syngas is used as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of metal catalysts. During the sixth quarter of the project, the mechanism of CO insertion on Ni/SiO{sub 2} was investigated by in-situ infrared spectroscopy. Ni/SiO{sub 2}, a methanation catalyst, has been shown to exhibit CO insertion activity. In situ infrared studies of CO/H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reactions show that the carbonylation of Ni/SiO{sub 2} to Ni(CO){sub 4} leads to an inhibition of methanation in CO hydrogenation but an enhancement of formation of propionaldehyde in C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reaction. The results suggest that the sites for propionaldehyde formation is different from those for methanation.

  17. Association of chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particulate air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis: A panel study among young adults in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Yang, Di; Wei, Hongying; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jing; Li, Hongyu; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2015-09-01

    Ambient particulate air pollution has been associated with increased oxidative stress and atherosclerosis, but the chemical constituents and pollution sources behind the association are unclear. We investigated the associations of various chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particles (PM2.5) with biomarkers of oxidative stress in a panel of 40 healthy university students. Study participants underwent repeated blood collections for 12 times before and after relocating from a suburban campus to an urban campus with high air pollution levels in Beijing, China. Air pollution data were obtained from central air-monitoring stations, and plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and soluble CD36 (sCD36) were determined in the laboratory (n=464). Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the changes in biomarkers in association with exposure variables. PM2.5 iron and nickel were positively associated with Ox-LDL (p<0.05). For each interquartile range increase in iron (1-day, 0.51 μg/m(3)) and nickel (2-day, 2.5 ng/m(3)), there were a 1.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2%, 3.7%] increase and a 1.8% (95% CI: 0.2%, 3.4%) increase in Ox-LDL, respectively. We also found that each interquartile range increase in calcium (1-day, 0.7 μg/m(3)) was associated with a 4.8% (95% CI: 0.7%, 9.1%) increase in sCD36. Among the pollution sources, PM2.5 from traffic emissions and coal combustion were suggestively and positively associated with Ox-LDL. Our findings suggest that a subset of metals in airborne particles may be the major air pollution components that contribute to the increased oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis.

  18. Prioritization of constituents for national- and regional-scale ambient monitoring of water and sediment in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Valder, Joshua F.; Carter, Janet M.; Zogorski, John S.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2,541 constituents were evaluated and prioritized for national- and regional-scale ambient monitoring of water and sediment in the United States. This prioritization was done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in preparation for the upcoming third decade (Cycle 3; 2013–23) of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This report provides the methods used to prioritize the constituents and the results of that prioritization. Constituents were prioritized by the NAWQA National Target Analyte Strategy (NTAS) work group on the basis of available information on physical and chemical properties, observed or predicted environmental occurrence and fate, and observed or anticipated adverse effects on human health or aquatic life. Constituents were evaluated within constituent groups that were determined on the basis of physical or chemical properties or on uses or sources. Some constituents were evaluated within more than one constituent group. Although comparable objectives were used in the prioritization of constituents within the different constituent groups, differences in the availability of information accessed for each constituent group led to the development of separate prioritization approaches adapted to each constituent group to make best use of available resources. Constituents were assigned to one of three prioritization tiers: Tier 1, those having the highest priority for inclusion in ambient monitoring of water or sediment on a national or regional scale (including NAWQA Cycle 3 monitoring) on the basis of their likelihood of environmental occurrence in ambient water or sediment, or likelihood of effects on human health or aquatic life; Tier 2, those having intermediate priority for monitoring on the basis of their lower likelihood of environmental occurrence or lower likelihood of effects on human health or aquatic life; and Tier 3, those having low or no priority for monitoring on the basis of evidence of nonoccurrence or lack of

  19. Properties and chemical constituents in ground water from the lower Wilcox Aquifer, Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettijohn, Robert A.; Busby, John F.; Beckman, Jeffery D.

    1993-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis is a study of regional aquifers composed of sediments of mostly Cenozoic age that underlie about 230,000 sq mi of the Gulf Coastal Plain. These regional aquifers are part of three aquifer systems: (1) the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System, (2) the Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System, and (3) the Coastal Lowlands Aquifer System. The water chemistry of the Lower Wilcox Aquifer, which is part of the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System is presented by a series of maps. These maps show the areal distribution of (1) the concentration of dissolved solids and temperature, (2) the primary water types and pH, (3) the concentration of major ions and silica, and (4) the milliequivalent ratios of selected ions. Dissolved constituents, pH, temperature, and ratios are based on the median values of all samples in each 100-sq-mi area. The concentration of dissolved solids in water from the Lower Wilcox Aquifer ranges from 18 mg/L near the outcrop in western Tennessee to 122,000 mg/L in a down-dip area in southern Mississippi. The primary water type is calcium bicarbonate in the outcrop area and sodium bicarbonate in all other areas of the aquifer within the limits of available data. The concentrations of major ions generally increase from the outcrop area to the down-dip limit of the data in the southern part of the aquifer area east of the Mississippi River. The milliequivalent ratio maps of selected ions in water from the Lower Wilcox Aquifer indicate some trends. The milliequivalent ratio of magnesium plus calcium to bicarbonate ranges from less than 0.1 to 40.4 and generally decreases from outcrop to down-dip limit of the data in the southern part of the aquifer area east of the Mississippi River. The milliequivalent ratio of bicarbonate to chloride ranges from 0.01 in southern Mississippi to 52.3 in northwestern Mississippi. This ratio increases from the outcrop toward the Mississippi River and from north to south in the

  20. Spatial variation of chemical constituents from the burning of commonly used biomass fuels in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saud, T.; Saxena, M.; Singh, D. P.; Saraswati; Dahiya, Manisha; Sharma, S. K.; Datta, A.; Gadi, Ranu; Mandal, T. K.

    2013-06-01

    In the present paper, we have determined emission factor of chemical composition of the emission from the burning of biomass (e.g. Dung cake, Acacia, Neem, Mulberry, Indian Rosewood, Pigeon pea etc.) commonly used as a residential fuel in the rural sector of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) (Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal), India. For comparison, we have selected only those biomass fuels, which are used in at least three of the above mentioned states. Dung cake from all the states reports highest emission of particulate matter (PM) (15.68 g kg-1), Organic Carbon (OC) (4.32 g kg-1) and Elemental Carbon (EC) (0.51 g kg-1). Among all biomass fuels studied, agricultural residue reports substantial amount of emission of Na+ (104 mg kg-1), K+ (331 mg kg-1) and Cl- (447 mg kg-1) particularly in Pigeon pea and Mustard stem. Eucalyptus (fuel wood) emits large amounts of Ca2+ (21.47 mg kg-1) and NO3- (614 mg kg-1). The emission of PM from dung cake is higher in Delhi (19.31 g kg-1) and followed by Uttar Pradesh (17.58 g kg-1) > Haryana (15.46 g kg-1) > Bihar (14.99 g kg-1) > Punjab (12.06 g kg-1) > West Bengal (5.90 g kg-1). Carbonaceous aerosols (OC and EC) and dominant Ionic species (Cl-, K+, SO42-, NO3- and PO43-) are altogether contributing 40-70% of total emissions. Characteristics and ratios of chemical species of emissions may help to develop a methodology of discriminating the sources of ambient particulate matter. Using a laboratory determined emission factor of chemical species, we have determined the emission budget over IGP, India.

  1. Chemical characteristics of beddings for swine: effects of bedding depths and of addition of inoculums in a pilot-scale.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, E K; Corezzolla, J L; Corrêa, M N; Bianchi, I; Gil-Turnes, C; Lucia, T

    2012-11-01

    The effect of depths and of addition of inoculums on the chemical content of swine beddings was evaluated. For beddings 0.25m (25D) and 0.50m (50D) deep, three treatments were tested in two repeats with the same beddings: control (no inoculums); T1 (250g of Bacillus cereus var. toyoii at 8.4×10(7)CFU/g); and T2 (250g of a pool of Bacillus sp. at 8.4×10(7)CFU/g) (250g for 25D and 500g for 50D). For 25D, the C:N ratio was lower, but N, K and C contents were greater than for 50D (P<0.05). The inoculums did not benefit any chemical parameter (P>0.05). In the second repeat, beddings presented lower C:N ratio and greater N, P and K contents than in the first repeat (P<0.05). Thus, the compost produced after using 25D twice had greater fertilizer value than that of 50D.

  2. Characteristics of concentration-inhibition curves of individual chemicals and applicability of the concentration addition model for mixture toxicity prediction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Wang, Xiaochang C; Ma, Xiaoyan

    2015-03-01

    The concentration addition (CA) model has been widely applied to predict mixture toxicity. However, its applicability is difficult to evaluate due to the complexity of interactions among substances. Considering that the concentration-response curve (CRC) of each component of the mixture is closely related to the prediction of mixture toxicity, mathematical treatments were used to derive a characteristic index kECx (k was the slope of the tangent line of a CRC at concentration ECx). The implication is that the CA model would be applicable for predicting the mixture toxicity only when chemical components have similar kECx in the whole or part of the concentration range. For five selected chemicals whose toxicity was detected using luminescent bacteria, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) showed much higher kECx values than the others and its existence in the binary mixtures brought about overestimation of the mixture toxicity with the CA model. The higher the mass ratio of SDBS in a multi-mixture was, the more the toxicity prediction deviated from measurements. By applying the method proposed in this study to analyze some published data, it is confirmed that some components having significantly different kECx values from the other components could explain the large deviation of the mixture toxicity predicted by the CA model. PMID:25499050

  3. Sediment deposition and occurrence of selected nutrients, other chemical constituents, and diatoms in bottom sediment, Perry Lake, northeast Kansas, 1969-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2003-01-01

    A combination of bathymetric surveying and bottom-sediment coring was used to investigate sediment deposition and the occurrence of selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 26 metals and trace elements, 15 organochlorine compounds, 1 radionuclide, and diatoms in bottom sediment of Perry Lake, northeast Kansas. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited from 1969 through 2001 in the original conservation-pool area of the lake was 2,470 million cubic feet (56,700 acre-feet) and 97,200 million pounds (44,100 million kilograms), respectively. The estimated sediment volume occupied about 23 percent of the original conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the lake. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1969 was estimated to be 3,040 million pounds (1,379 million kilograms). Mean annual sediment yield from the Perry Lake Basin was estimated to be 2,740,000 pounds per square mile (4,798 kilograms per hectare). The estimated mean annual net loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of Perry Lake were 7,610,000 pounds per year (3,450,000 kilograms per year) and 3,350,000 pounds per year (1,520,000 kilograms per year), respectively. The estimated mean annual yields of total nitrogen and total phosphorus from the Perry Lake Basin were 6,850 pounds per square mile per year (12.0 kilograms per hectare per year) and 3,020 pounds per square mile per year (5.29 kilograms per hectare per year), respectively. A statistically significant positive trend for total nitrogen deposition in the bottom sediment of Perry Lake was indicated. However, the trend may be due solely to analytical variance. No statistically significant trend for total phosphorus deposition was indicated. Overall, the transport and deposition of these constituents have been relatively uniform throughout the history of Perry Lake. On the basis of nonenforceable sediment-quality guidelines established by the U

  4. Additive effects on the androgen signaling pathway by chemicals with different modes of action-COW2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessments have traditionally been developed on a chemical-by-chemical basis. However, regulatory agencies recently have been considering cumulative effects of chemicals that act via a common mechanism of toxicity. Here we present data on several mixture studies of chemic...

  5. Quality evaluation of commercial Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang based on simultaneous determination of fourteen major chemical constituents using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Ka-Yan; Xu, Jun; Ho, Hing-Man; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Min; Lang, Yan; Han, Quan-Bin

    2013-11-01

    Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT), comprising Coptidis Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Phellodendri Cortex and Gardeniae Fructus, is one of the commonly used Chinese medicine formulas for clearing heat and detoxifying. Quality control of the herbal complex like Chinese medicine formulas still remains a challenge. The successful approval of botanical drug Veregen by FDA indicated the importance of quantitative analysis in quality control of herbal medicines. In this study, an effective quantitative method based on conventional HPLC-DAD was developed for simultaneous determination of fourteen major ingredients (seven alkaloids, four flavonoids, three terpenes) in HLJDT. The established method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability and then successfully applied to quality evaluation of commercial HLJDT samples. The developed method can quantitatively determine up to 70% of the chemicals of commercial HLJDT sample and effectively revealed the significant variation in the quality of the commercial HLJDT samples collected from different locations.

  6. Fermentation quality and chemical composition of shrub silage treated with lactic acid bacteria inoculants and cellulase additives.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qizhong; Gao, Fengqin; Yu, Zhu; Tao, Ya; Zhao, Shufen; Cai, Yimin

    2012-04-01

    Effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants and cellulase additives on fermentation quality and chemical compositions of shrub silages were studied by using a small-scale fermentation system. Two LAB inoculants of Qingbao (Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilacticii, Lactobacillus casei and Clostridium phage) and Caihe (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus acidilactici) and a commercial cellulase made from Trichoderma reesei were used as additives for intermediate pea-shrub, rush bushclover, arborescent ceratoides and shrubby silage preparation. The crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and water-soluble carbohydrate contents of the four shrub materials were 10.1-14.2, 62.6-67.2 and 1.9-3.5% on a dry matter basis, respectively. All shrub silages had pH 3.40-4.43, ammonia-N 0.1-0.2% g/kg and lactic acid 1.3-2.9% on a fresh matter basis. The silage quality of LAB-inoculated silages did not have a greater effect than control silages, except shrubby silage preparation. Silages treated with the cellulase, the pH of rush bushclover and shrubby sweetvetch silage were significantly (P < 0.05) lower and the lactic acid content were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the control silages. The results confirmed that shrub contained a relatively high content of crude protein; its silages can be preserved in good quality, and they are new potential resources for livestock feed. PMID:22515690

  7. Chemical variation of essential oil constituents of Ocimum gratissimum L. from Benin, and impact on antimicrobial properties and toxicity against Artemia salina leach.

    PubMed

    Kpadonou Kpoviessi, Bénédicta G H; Ladekan, Eléonore Yayi; Kpoviessi, D S Salomé; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Yehouenou, Boniface; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Figueredo, Gilles; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Accrombessi, Georges C

    2012-01-01

    To determine the period of harvest that optimizes the antimicrobial activities of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum L. from Benin, aerial plant parts were collected at two vegetative stages (pre- and full-flowering) and three sampling times (7 am, 1 pm, and 7 pm). Extraction by hydrodistillation yielded between 0.65 and 0.78% of essential oils. Characterization of the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of monoterpenes (87.26-93.81%), sesquiterpenes (5.57-11.34%), and aliphatic compounds (0.15-0.18%), with p-cymene (1; 28.08-53.82%), thymol (2; 3.32-29.13%), γ-terpinene (3; 1.11-10.91%), α-thujene (4; 3.37-10.77%), and β-myrcene (5; 4.24-8.28%) as major components. Two chemotypes were observed, i.e., a p-cymene/thymol and a p-cymene chemotype, for plants harvested at 7 am for the former and at 1 pm or 7 pm for the latter, respectively. The oils were fungicidal against Candida albicans, with the sample from full-flowering plants collected at 7 am being the most active (MIC = 0.06±0.00 mg/ml). The chemical variation of the oils also influenced the antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus; the most active oil was obtained from plants at the pre-flowering stage collected at 7 am (MIC=0.24±0.01 mg/ml). Escherichia coli was insensitive to the chemical variation of the oils (MICs of ca. 0.48±0.02 mg/ml for all oils). Moreover, the essential oils showed low toxicity against Artemia salina Leach larvae, with LC(50) values in the range of 43-146 μg/ml. This is the first study of the interaction between the daytime of collection and vegetative stage of the plants and the antimicrobial properties and toxicity of the essential oil of O. gratissimum from Benin. PMID:22253111

  8. Analysis of chemical constituents and antinociceptive potential of essential oil of Teucrium Stocksianum bioss collected from the North West of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants are used for the treatment of different diseases in almost all cultures. Teucrium species grow wildly at different geographical locations around the world. Teucrium stocksianum is used in folk medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, cough, jaundice and abdominal pain. Scientific study on Teucrium stocksianum shows that it possesses anthelmintic, cytotoxic and antispasmodic activity. The aim of our present study is to identify the chemical composition and antinociceptive potential of the essential oil extracted from Teucrium stocksianum bioss. Method Essential oil (EO) from the aerial parts of Teucrium stocksianum were extracted by hydrodistillation process. The qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil was determined with Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometer. Antinociceptive activity was determined by acetic acid induced writhing method. Percent inhibition of writhes of the test concentration was determined by comparing it with that of control. Tween-80 emulsion 2.5% (5 ml/kg b.w) was used as a control while Diclofenic sodium 50 mg/kg (b.w) was used as a standard drug. Results The chromatogram of the essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum shows differences both qualitatively and quantatively from essential oil composition reported in other countries. Hydrodistillation of Teucrium stocksianum yielded 0.4% (v/w), pale yellowish oil on dry basis. A total of 26 chemicals were identified by GC-MS accounting for 90.28% of the oil. The major components of essential oil were δ-cadinene (12.92%), α-pinene (10.3%), myrcene (8.64%), β-caryophyllene (8.23%), germacrene D (5.18%) and limonene (2.36%). Essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum has shown outstanding antinociceptive activity. It has been observed that increase in percent writhe inhibition (PWI) occurred from 20-80 mg/kg (b.w) and maximum writhe inhibition has been noted at a concentration of 80 mg/kg (b.w), but PWI decreased at 160 mg/kg, which may be due to some

  9. Simultaneous Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Chemical Constituents in YiQiFuMai Injection by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhua; Ju, Aichun; Zhou, Dazheng; Li, Dekun; Kou, Junping; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin

    2016-01-01

    YiQiFuMai injection (YQFM) is a modern lyophilized powder preparation derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Sheng-mai san (SMS) used for treating cardiovascular diseases, such as chronic heart failure. However, its chemical composition has not been fully elucidated, particularly for the preparation derived from Ophiopogon japonicus. This study aimed to establish a systematic and reliable method to quickly and simultaneously analyze the chemical constituents in YQFM by ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-IT-TOF/MS). Sixty-five compounds in YQFM were tentatively identified by comparison with reference substances or literature data. Furthermore, twenty-one compounds, including three ophiopogonins, fifteen ginsenosides and three lignans were quantified by UFLC-IT-TOF/MS. Notably, this is the first determination of steroidal saponins from O. japonicus in YQFM. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra- and inter-day precision, reproducibility and stability were <4.9% and all analytes showed good linearity (R² ≥ 0.9952) and acceptable recovery of 91.8%-104.2% (RSD ≤ 5.4%), indicating that the methods were reliable. These methods were successfully applied to quantitative analysis of ten batches of YQFM. The developed approach can provide useful and comprehensive information for quality control, further mechanistic studies in vivo and clinical application of YQFM. PMID:27213307

  10. Characterization and identification of the chemical constituents from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn) by high performance liquid chromatography/photodiode array detector/linear ion trap FTICR hybrid mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qiang; Wu, Caisheng; Ren, Yan; Zhang, Jinlan

    2013-02-15

    In recent years tartary buckwheat has become popular healthful food due to its antioxidant, antidiabetic and antitumor activities. However, its chemical constituents have not yet been fully characterized and identified. In this paper, a novel high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector and linear ion trap FTICR hybrid mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA/LTQ-FTICRMS) method was established to characterize and identify a total of 36 compounds by a single run. The retention time, maximum UV absorption wavelength, accurate mass weight and characteristic fragment ions were collected on line. To confirm the structures, 11 compounds were isolated and identified by MS and NMR experiments. 1, 3, 6, 6'-tetra-feruloyl sucrose named taroside was a new phenlypropanoid glycoside, together with 3, 6-di-p-coumaroyl-1, 6'-di-feruloyl sucrose, 1, 6, 6'-tri-feruloyl-3-p-coumaroyl sucrose, N-trans-feruloyltyramine and quercetin-3-O-[β-D-xyloxyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnoside] were isolated for the first time from the Fagopyrum species. The research enriched the chemical information of tartary buckwheat.

  11. Comparative analysis of chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of ethylacetate extracts of Polygonum cuspidatum and its endophytic actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. A0916.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Qiu, Peng; Long, Xiu-Feng; Zhang, Shuai; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Tian, Yong-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigated the chemical composition of ethylacetate extracts from an endophytic actinomycete Streptomyces sp. A0916 and its host Polygonum cuspidatum. A comparative analysis of the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the extracts was also conducted. 32 compounds of P. cuspidatum and 23 compounds of Streptomyces sp. A0916 were isolated and identified by GC/MS. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts were evaluated using eight microbial strains (3 Gram-positive bacteria, 3 Gram-negative bacteria, and 2 fungi). The Streptomyces sp. A0916 extracts showed a wide range of antimicrobial activities and presented greater antimicrobial effectiveness than the P. cuspidatum extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Streptomyces sp. A0916 extracts against the ampicillin-resistant strain Enterococcus faecium SIIA843 was 32 μg·mL(-1). Furthermore, the extracts had greater antimicrobial effect against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. Finally, the antioxidant activity of the Streptomyces sp. A0916 extracts was equal to that of the P. cuspidatum extracts. In conclusion, our results suggest that the endophytic actinomycetes of the medicinal plants are an important source of bioactive substances. PMID:26968677

  12. Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole (1836) and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    de Assis Lage, Tiago Coelho; Montanari, Ricardo Marques; Fernandes, Sergio Antonio; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; de Oliveira Souza Senra, Tatiane; Zeringota, Viviane; da Silva Matos, Renata; Daemon, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (common name "alecrim-do-campo" in Brazil) is a plant with widespread distribution in South America that is the botanical origin of green propolis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of B. dracunculifolia and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on unengorged larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). The essential oil yield was 0.8% of dry mass and the major constituents were nerolidol (22.3%), germacrene D (7.2%), limonene (6.9%), β-pinene (6.7) and bicyclogermacrene (6.5%). The acaricidal activity of the essential oil and the pure compounds nerolidol and (R)-(+)-limonene were assessed in the laboratory through the modified larval packet test (LPT) and the female immersion test (FIT). In the LPT, the essential oil and nerolidol were both active, causing more than 90% mortality at concentrations from 15.0 and 10.0 mg mL(-1), respectively, whereas (R)-(+)-limonene was not active. In the FIT, the oil and nerolidol caused reduction in the quantity and quality of eggs produced, with control percentages of 96.3% and 90.3% at concentrations of 60.0 and 50.0 mg mL(-1), respectively. It can be concluded that the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of B. dracunculifolia and its major component nerolidol have high activity on R. microplus larvae and engorged females. PMID:25448290

  13. Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole (1836) and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    de Assis Lage, Tiago Coelho; Montanari, Ricardo Marques; Fernandes, Sergio Antonio; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; de Oliveira Souza Senra, Tatiane; Zeringota, Viviane; da Silva Matos, Renata; Daemon, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (common name "alecrim-do-campo" in Brazil) is a plant with widespread distribution in South America that is the botanical origin of green propolis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of B. dracunculifolia and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on unengorged larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). The essential oil yield was 0.8% of dry mass and the major constituents were nerolidol (22.3%), germacrene D (7.2%), limonene (6.9%), β-pinene (6.7) and bicyclogermacrene (6.5%). The acaricidal activity of the essential oil and the pure compounds nerolidol and (R)-(+)-limonene were assessed in the laboratory through the modified larval packet test (LPT) and the female immersion test (FIT). In the LPT, the essential oil and nerolidol were both active, causing more than 90% mortality at concentrations from 15.0 and 10.0 mg mL(-1), respectively, whereas (R)-(+)-limonene was not active. In the FIT, the oil and nerolidol caused reduction in the quantity and quality of eggs produced, with control percentages of 96.3% and 90.3% at concentrations of 60.0 and 50.0 mg mL(-1), respectively. It can be concluded that the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of B. dracunculifolia and its major component nerolidol have high activity on R. microplus larvae and engorged females.

  14. Constituents from Senecio scandens and their antioxidant bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Leu, Yann-Lii; Lin, Chih-Lung; Kuo, Ping-Chung

    2011-03-01

    Forty-one compounds including two new constituents, senecainin A (1) and 3-methoxyisonicotinic acid (2), were characterized from the methanol extracts of the whole plant of Senecio scandens. The structures of the new compounds were comprehensively established with the aid of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The chemical structures of known compounds were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic and physical data with those reported in the literature. In addition, the antioxidant activity of some of the isolates was examined in the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Among the tested compounds, (-)-monoepoxylignanolide, (-)-pinoresinol and (-)-epi-pinoresinol displayed significant antioxidant bioactivity. PMID:21547668

  15. Differential genotoxicity of Roundup(®) formulation and its constituents in blood cells of fish (Anguilla anguilla): considerations on chemical interactions and DNA damaging mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Guilherme, S; Santos, M A; Barroso, C; Gaivão, I; Pacheco, M

    2012-07-01

    It has been widely recognized that pesticides represent a potential threat in aquatic ecosystems. However, the knowledge on the genotoxicity of pesticides to fish is still limited. Moreover, genotoxic studies have been almost exclusively focused on the active ingredients, whereas the effect of adjuvants is frequently ignored. Hence, the present study addressed the herbicide Roundup®, evaluating the relative contribution of the active ingredient (glyphosate) and the surfactant (polyethoxylated amine; POEA) to the genotoxicity of the commercial formulation on Anguilla anguilla. Fish were exposed to equivalent concentrations of Roundup® (58, 116 μg L⁻¹), glyphosate (17.9, 35.7 μg L⁻¹) and POEA (9.3, 18.6 μg L⁻¹), during 1 and 3 days. The comet assay was applied to blood cells, either as the standard procedure, or with an extra step involving DNA lesion-specific repair enzymes in an attempt to clarify DNA damaging mechanisms. The results confirmed the genotoxicity of Roundup®, also demonstrating the genotoxic potential of glyphosate and POEA individually. Though both components contributed to the overall genotoxicity of the pesticide formulation, the sum of their individual effects was never observed, pointing out an antagonistic interaction. Although POEA is far from being considered biologically inert, it did not increase the risk associated to glyphosate when the two were combined. The analysis of oxidatively induced breaks suggested that oxidation of DNA bases was not a dominant mechanism of damage. The present findings highlighted the risk posed to fish populations by the assessed chemicals, jointly or individually, emphasizing the need to define regulatory thresholds for all the formulation components and recommending, in particular, the revision of the hazard classification of POEA.

  16. Syntheses and properties of zinc and calcium complexes of valinate and isovalinate: metal alpha-amino acidates as possible constituents of the early Earth's chemical inventory.

    PubMed

    Strasdeit, H; Büsching, I; Behrends, S; Saak, W; Barklage, W

    2001-03-01

    We have studied the ligand behavior of racemic isovalinate (iva) and valinate (val) towards zinc(II) and calcium(II). The following solid metal amino acidates were obtained from aqueous solutions: Zn3Cl2(iva)4 (1), Zn3Cl2(val)4 (2). Zn(val)2 (3), Zn(iva)2 x 2H2O (4), Zn(iva)2 x 3.25H2O (5), Zn(iva)2 (6), Ca(iva)2x xH2O (7), and Ca(val)2 x H2O (8). Except for complex 3, these were hitherto unknown compounds. The conditions under which they formed, together with current ideas of the conditions on early Earth, support the assumption that alpha-amino acidate complexes of zinc and calcium might have belonged to early Earth's prebiotic chemical inventory. The zinc isovalinates 1, 4, and 5 were characterized by X-ray crystal structure analyses. Complex 1 forms a layer structure containing four- and five-coordinate metal atoms, whereas the zinc atoms in 4 and 5 are five-coordinate. Compound 5 possesses an unprecedented nonpolymeric structure built from cyclic [Zn6(iva)12] complexes, which are separated by water molecules. The thermolyses of solids 1. 3, and 8 at 320 degrees C in an N2 atmosphere yielded numerous organic products, including the cyclic dipeptide of valine from 3 and 8. Condensation, C-C bond breaking and bond formation, aromatization, decarboxylation, and deamination reactions occurred during the thermolyses. Such reactions of metal-bound a-amino acidates that are abiotically formed could already have contributed to an organic-geochemical diversity before life appeared on Earth.

  17. Identification of chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Murraya exotica L. (Rutaceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Shanmugam; Chandrasekaran, Manivachagam; Raj, Gnanaprakasam Adaikala; Jayaraman, Mahalingam; Venkatesalu, Venugopalan

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the phytochemical composition and larvicidal effect of leaf essential oil from Murraya exotica against early fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that the essential oil contained 27 components. The major chemical components identified were β-humulene (40.62%), benzyl benzoate (23.96%), β-caryophyllene (7.05%) and α-terpinene (5.66%). The larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The results revealed that essential oil showed varied levels of larvicidal activity against A. aegypti, A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus. After 12 h of exposure period, the larvicidal activities were LC₅₀ = 74.7 and LC₉₀ = 152.7 ppm (A. aegypti), LC₅₀ = 56.3 and LC₉₀ = 107.8 ppm (A. stephensi ), and LC₅₀ = 74.4 and LC₉₀ = 136.9 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus) and the larvicidal activities after 24 h of exposure period were LC₅₀ = 35.8 and LC₉₀ = 85.4 ppm (A. aegypti), LC₅₀ = 31.3 and LC₉₀ = 75.1 ppm (A. stephensi), and LC₅₀ = 43.2 and LC₉₀ = 103.2 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus). These results suggest that leaf essential oil from M. exotica is a promising and eco-friendly source of natural larvicidal agent against A. aegypti, A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:25697880

  18. Identification of chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Murraya exotica L. (Rutaceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Shanmugam; Chandrasekaran, Manivachagam; Raj, Gnanaprakasam Adaikala; Jayaraman, Mahalingam; Venkatesalu, Venugopalan

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the phytochemical composition and larvicidal effect of leaf essential oil from Murraya exotica against early fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that the essential oil contained 27 components. The major chemical components identified were β-humulene (40.62%), benzyl benzoate (23.96%), β-caryophyllene (7.05%) and α-terpinene (5.66%). The larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The results revealed that essential oil showed varied levels of larvicidal activity against A. aegypti, A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus. After 12 h of exposure period, the larvicidal activities were LC₅₀ = 74.7 and LC₉₀ = 152.7 ppm (A. aegypti), LC₅₀ = 56.3 and LC₉₀ = 107.8 ppm (A. stephensi ), and LC₅₀ = 74.4 and LC₉₀ = 136.9 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus) and the larvicidal activities after 24 h of exposure period were LC₅₀ = 35.8 and LC₉₀ = 85.4 ppm (A. aegypti), LC₅₀ = 31.3 and LC₉₀ = 75.1 ppm (A. stephensi), and LC₅₀ = 43.2 and LC₉₀ = 103.2 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus). These results suggest that leaf essential oil from M. exotica is a promising and eco-friendly source of natural larvicidal agent against A. aegypti, A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus.

  19. Effect of several additives and their admixtures on the physico-chemical properties of a calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Bohner, M; Merkle, H P; Landuyt, P V; Trophardy, G; Lemaitre, J

    2000-02-01

    Combinations of citrate (C6H5O(7)3-), pyrophosphate (P2O(7)4-) and sulfate (SO(4)2-) ions were used to modify the physico-chemical properties of a calcium phosphate cement (CPC) composed of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and phosphoric acid (PA) solution. The results obtained with only one additive at a time are similar to those previously published. New facts are: the positive effect of C6H5O(7)3- ions on cement failure strain and their negative effect on cement pH. The position of the setting time maximum measured at an SO(4)2- concentration of 0.09 M was not displaced by the addition of C6H5O(7)3- and P2O(7)4- ions. However, the effect of SO(4)2- ions on the setting time was depressed by C6H5O(7)3- ions. Moreover, no increase in tensile strength was observed when increasing amounts of SO(4)2- were added into a C6H5O(7)3--containing cement. The latter results suggest a competitive effect of C6H5O(7)3- and SO(4)2- on setting time and tensile strength. Anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (DCP; CaHPO4) appeared in cement samples dried just after setting, but not in cement samples incubated for 24 h in deionized water before the drying step. It is believed that the setting reaction is stopped by the drying step, leaving a low internal pH in the sample, hence providing favorable conditions for the transformation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) into DCP. Interestingly, even though C6H5O(7)3- ions dramatically lowered the equilibrium pH of the cement with 5 ml of deionized water, they still prevented the occurrence of the transformation of DCPD into DCP.

  20. Effect of an iodine-containing additive on the composition, structure, and morphology of chemically deposited lead selenide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Z. I.; Bakanov, V. M.; Maskaeva, L. N.; Markov, V. F.; Voronin, V. I.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of an ammonium iodide additive on the elemental and phase compositions, structural parameters, and surface morphology of lead selenide films synthesized by chemical deposition from aqueous solutions has been studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. It has been established that the obtained PbSe films have a multiphase structure. The iodine content of the films is directly proportional to the NH4I concentration in the reaction mixture and increases linearly with an increase in this concentration to 0.25 mol/L. No individual iodine-containing phases have been detected in the film structure. However, the introduction of iodine leads to an increase in the PbSe phase lattice parameter from ˜6.11 to ˜6.16 Å and to a decrease in the crystal grain size to ˜ 20 nm. It has been found that there is a correlation between the grain size, lattice parameter, and ammonium iodide concentration in the reaction mixture, which can be explained by changes in the film growth mechanism at the initial growth steps.

  1. Evaluation of military field-water quality: Volume 2, Constituents of military concern from natural and anthropogenic sources: Part 1, Organic chemical contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.; Mallon, B.J.; McKone, T.E.; Ricker, Y.E.; Lessard, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    In this part of Volume 2 we focus on the identification and analysis of organic water contaminants that could degrade the performance of military personnel that drink field water. To identify the contaminants of concern, we developed a screening methodology for comparing measured concentrations of organic solutes in US and foreign surface and ground waters against estimated threshold concentrations for toxic and organoleptic effects. If the measured concentration of a substance in water was higher than the concentration used as an effects threshold for toxic or organoleptic responses, we then closely examined the substance's occurrence and toxicity to decide on recommending development of a water standard to protect military personnel from adverse health effects. After comparing the measured concentrations with the threshold concentrations for toxic or organoleptic effects, we concluded that there was only a small probability that troops would experience performance-degrading effects as a result of drinking field water containing organic solutes. However, we identified several organic solutes that could cause taste and odor problems. These compounds include trichloromethane, ethylbenzene, toluene, tetrachloroethene, and chlorinated phenols. Additionally, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, which are two metabolites of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and associated gram-negative filamentous bacteria (actinomycetes), can produce taste and odor problems and are of particular concern, especially when algal blooms are present. Oil and grease could also impair the potability of water supplies, and by fouling reverse-osmosis (RO) membranes, oil and grease could impair the performance of reverse osmosis water purification units (ROWPUs). 30 refs., 5 figs., 17 tabs.

  2. Chemical constituents and anticancer activity of Curcuma zedoaria roscoe essential oil against non-small cell lung carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-chang; Chen, Yuhsin; Hsi, Yi-Ting; Chang, Chih-Sheng; Huang, Li-Fen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der; Kao, Jung-Yie

    2013-11-27

    In this study, we report that the essential oil obtained from Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe, known as zedoary, possesses efficient cytotoxic effects on non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells and causes cell apoptosis. Zedoary essential oil increased the sub-G1 population and the level of annexin-V binding and induced cleavage and activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase. Decreases in the levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio were also observed following zedoary essential oil treatment. Notably, zedoary essential oil led to the release of AIF, endonuclease G, and cytochrome c into the cytosol and increased levels of p53 in H1299 cells. Our results indicate that zedoary essential oil slightly inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and enhanced the phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and p38. Zedoary essential oil also inhibited AKT/NF-κB signaling pathways in H1299 cells. Moreover, intraperitoneal administration of zedoary essential oil significantly suppressed the growth of H1299 cells in vivo. In addition, potential active compounds were detected using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. 8,9-Dehydro-9-formyl-cycloisolongifolene, 6-ethenyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-3,6-dimethyl-5-isopropenyl-trans-benzofuran, eucalyptol, and γ-elemene were found in zedoary essential oil. In summary, our findings provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying zedoary essential oil-induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells that are worthy of further study.

  3. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Technical progress report No. 4, June 16, 1988--September 15, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1988-11-14

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies including temperature programmed desorption, infrared study of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  4. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Technical progress report No. 11, March 16, 1990--June 15, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to sue chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. (VC)

  5. Methylmercury and other chemical constituents in Pacific coastal fog water from seven sites in Central/Northern California (FogNet) during the summer of 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Heim, W. A.; Fernandez, D.; Coale, K. H.; Oliphant, A. J.; Dann, D.; Porter, M.; Hoskins, D.; Dodge, C.

    2014-12-01

    This project investigates the mercury content in summertime Pacific coastal fog in California and whether fog could be an important vector for ocean emissions of mercury to be deposited via fog drip to upland coastal ecosystems. Efforts began in early 2014 with the building of 7 active-strand fog collectors based on the Colorado State University Caltech CASCC design. The new UCSC CASCC includes doors sealing the collector which open under microcomputer control based on environmental sensing (relative humidity). Seven sites spanning from Trinidad in the north to Marina in the south have collected samples June-August 2014 under a project called FogNet. Fog conditions were favorable for collecting large water volumes (> 250 mL) at many sites. Fog samplers were cleaned with soap and deionized water daily and field blanks taken immediately following cleaning. Fog water samples were collected overnight, split into an aliquot for anion and DOC/DIC analysis and the remaining sample was acidified. Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in samples and field blanks for 3 sites in FogNet are shown in the accompanying figure. The range of MMHg concentrations from 10 fog water samples > 100 mL in volume was 0.9-9.3 ng/L (4.5-46.4 pM). Elevated MMHg concentrations (> 5 ng/L, 25 pM) were observed at 2 sites: UC Santa Cruz and Bodega Bay. The field blanks produced MMHg concentrations of 0.08-0.4 ng/L (0.4-2.0 pM), which was on average < 10% of the sample concentration and suggests the artifact due to sampling was small. The observed MMHg concentrations in fog water observed is this study are 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than MMHg concentrations seen previously in rain water samples from the California coast suggesting an additional source of MMHg to fog. Shipboard measurements of dimethyl mercury (DMHg) in coastal California seawater during the time period of FogNet operations (summer 2014) reveal surface waters that were supersaturated in DMHg which represents a potential

  6. Variable Temperature Stress in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas) and Its Implications for Sensitivity to an Additional Chemical Stressor.

    PubMed

    Cedergreen, Nina; Nørhave, Nils Jakob; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies has investigated how chemical sensitivity is affected by temperature, however, almost always under different constant rather than more realistic fluctuating regimes. Here we compared how the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to copper at constant temperatures (8-24°C) and under fluctuation conditions of low (±4°C) and high (±8°C) amplitude (averages of 12, 16, 20°C and 16°C respectively). The DEBkiss model was used to interpret effects on energy budgets. Increasing constant temperature from 12-24°C reduced time to first egg, life-span and population growth rates consistent with temperature driven metabolic rate change. Responses at 8°C did not, however, accord with this pattern (including a deviation from the Temperature Size Rule), identifying a cold stress effect. High amplitude variation and low amplitude variation around a mean temperature of 12°C impacted reproduction and body size compared to nematodes kept at the matching average constant temperatures. Copper exposure affected reproduction, body size and life-span and consequently population growth. Sensitivity to copper (EC50 values), was similar at intermediate temperatures (12, 16, 20°C) and higher at 24°C and especially the innately stressful 8°C condition. Temperature variation did not increase copper sensitivity. Indeed under variable conditions including time at the stressful 8°C condition, sensitivity was reduced. DEBkiss identified increased maintenance costs and increased assimilation as possible mechanisms for cold and higher copper concentration effects. Model analysis of combined variable temperature effects, however, demonstrated no additional joint stressor response. Hence, concerns that exposure to temperature fluctuations may sensitise species to co-stressor effects seem unfounded in this case.

  7. Variable Temperature Stress in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas) and Its Implications for Sensitivity to an Additional Chemical Stressor.

    PubMed

    Cedergreen, Nina; Nørhave, Nils Jakob; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies has investigated how chemical sensitivity is affected by temperature, however, almost always under different constant rather than more realistic fluctuating regimes. Here we compared how the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to copper at constant temperatures (8-24°C) and under fluctuation conditions of low (±4°C) and high (±8°C) amplitude (averages of 12, 16, 20°C and 16°C respectively). The DEBkiss model was used to interpret effects on energy budgets. Increasing constant temperature from 12-24°C reduced time to first egg, life-span and population growth rates consistent with temperature driven metabolic rate change. Responses at 8°C did not, however, accord with this pattern (including a deviation from the Temperature Size Rule), identifying a cold stress effect. High amplitude variation and low amplitude variation around a mean temperature of 12°C impacted reproduction and body size compared to nematodes kept at the matching average constant temperatures. Copper exposure affected reproduction, body size and life-span and consequently population growth. Sensitivity to copper (EC50 values), was similar at intermediate temperatures (12, 16, 20°C) and higher at 24°C and especially the innately stressful 8°C condition. Temperature variation did not increase copper sensitivity. Indeed under variable conditions including time at the stressful 8°C condition, sensitivity was reduced. DEBkiss identified increased maintenance costs and increased assimilation as possible mechanisms for cold and higher copper concentration effects. Model analysis of combined variable temperature effects, however, demonstrated no additional joint stressor response. Hence, concerns that exposure to temperature fluctuations may sensitise species to co-stressor effects seem unfounded in this case. PMID:26784453

  8. Variable Temperature Stress in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas) and Its Implications for Sensitivity to an Additional Chemical Stressor

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J.

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies has investigated how chemical sensitivity is affected by temperature, however, almost always under different constant rather than more realistic fluctuating regimes. Here we compared how the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to copper at constant temperatures (8–24°C) and under fluctuation conditions of low (±4°C) and high (±8°C) amplitude (averages of 12, 16, 20°C and 16°C respectively). The DEBkiss model was used to interpret effects on energy budgets. Increasing constant temperature from 12–24°C reduced time to first egg, life-span and population growth rates consistent with temperature driven metabolic rate change. Responses at 8°C did not, however, accord with this pattern (including a deviation from the Temperature Size Rule), identifying a cold stress effect. High amplitude variation and low amplitude variation around a mean temperature of 12°C impacted reproduction and body size compared to nematodes kept at the matching average constant temperatures. Copper exposure affected reproduction, body size and life-span and consequently population growth. Sensitivity to copper (EC50 values), was similar at intermediate temperatures (12, 16, 20°C) and higher at 24°C and especially the innately stressful 8°C condition. Temperature variation did not increase copper sensitivity. Indeed under variable conditions including time at the stressful 8°C condition, sensitivity was reduced. DEBkiss identified increased maintenance costs and increased assimilation as possible mechanisms for cold and higher copper concentration effects. Model analysis of combined variable temperature effects, however, demonstrated no additional joint stressor response. Hence, concerns that exposure to temperature fluctuations may sensitise species to co-stressor effects seem unfounded in this case. PMID:26784453

  9. Particle size distribution and chemical composition of total mixed rations for dairy cattle: water addition and feed sampling effects.

    PubMed

    Arzola-Alvarez, C; Bocanegra-Viezca, J A; Murphy, M R; Salinas-Chavira, J; Corral-Luna, A; Romanos, A; Ruíz-Barrera, O; Rodríguez-Muela, C

    2010-09-01

    Four dairy farms were used to determine the effects of water addition to diets and sample collection location on the particle size distribution and chemical composition of total mixed rations (TMR). Samples were collected weekly from the mixing wagon and from 3 locations in the feed bunk (top, middle, and bottom) for 5 mo (April, May, July, August, and October). Samples were partially dried to determine the effect of moisture on particle size distribution. Particle size distribution was measured using the Penn State Particle Size Separator. Crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber contents were also analyzed. Particle fractions 19 to 8, 8 to 1.18, and <1.18 mm were judged adequate in all TMR for rumen function and milk yield; however, the percentage of material>19 mm was greater than recommended for TMR, according to the guidelines of Cooperative Extension of Pennsylvania State University. The particle size distribution in April differed from that in October, but intermediate months (May, July, and August) had similar particle size distributions. Samples from the bottom of the feed bunk had the highest percentage of particles retained on the 19-mm sieve. Samples from the top and middle of the feed bunk were similar to that from the mixing wagon. Higher percentages of particles were retained on >19, 19 to 8, and 8 to 1.18 mm sieves for wet than dried samples. The reverse was found for particles passing the 1.18-mm sieve. Mean particle size was higher for wet than dried samples. The crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber contents of TMR varied with month of sampling (18-21, 40-57, and 21-34%, respectively) but were within recommended ranges for high-yielding dairy cows. Analyses of TMR particle size distributions are useful for proper feed bunk management and formulation of diets that maintain rumen function and maximize milk production and quality. Water addition may help reduce dust associated with feeding TMR. PMID

  10. Chemical constituents from branch of Fraxinus sieboldiana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng; Zhang, Yan-ling; Liu, Ming-tao; Zi, Jia-chen; Gan, Mao-luo; Song, Wei-xia; Fan, Xiao-na; Wang, Xiao-na; Yang, Yong-chun; Shi, Jian-gong

    2015-07-01

    Using a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, macroporous adsorbent resin, and reversed-phase HPLC, 115 compounds including diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, treterpenes, coumarins, lignans, fatty acid derivatives, and simple aromatic derivatives were isolated from an ethanol extract of branch of Fraxinus sieboldiana (Oleaceaue), and their structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1 D, 2D NMR and MS techniques. Among them, 41 compounds were new. In previous reports, we have been described the isolation, structure elucidation, and bioactivities of the 41 new compounds and 22 known orii including 8 coumarins, 4 phenolic and 12 phenylethanoidal glycosides. As a consequence, we herein reported the isolation and structure elucidation of the remaining 50 known compounds including 8- hydroxy-12-oxoabieta-9(11),13-dien-20-oic 8, 20-lactone(1), 6beta-hydroxyfcrruginol(2),(+)-pisiferic acid(3), (+)-pisiferal(4),(+)-7-dehydroabiet6none(5), 1-oxomiltirone(6), subdigitatone(7), linarionoside B(8), (9S)-linarionoside B(9), (3R,9R)-3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-beta-ionol 9-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside(10), ursolic acid(11), betulinic acid(12), euscaphic acid(13), (+)-syringaresinol(14), (+)-fraxiresinol(15), (+)-1-hydroxysyringaresinol(16), pinoresinol(17), medioresinol(18), 8-acetoxypinoresinol(19), epipinoresinol(20), (-)-olivil(21), (+)-cyclo-olivil(22), 3,3'-dimethoxy-4,4',9-trihydroxy-7,9'-epoxylignan-7'-one(23),(+)-1-hydroxypinoresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (24), (+)-1-hydroxypinoresinol 4"-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(25),(+)-syringaresinol O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (26), liriodendrin (27), ehletianol D(28), icariside E5(29) (-)-(7R, 8R)-threo-1-C-syringylglycerol(30),(-)-(7R, 8S)-erythro-guaiacylglycerol (31),(-)-(7R, 8R)-threo-guaiacylglycerol(32), 3-(4-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-3-methoxy)-phenyl-2E-propenol(33),2,3-dihydroxy-l-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-propanone(34), 2,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-propanone (35), 3-hydroxy-l-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-propanone(36), omega-hydroxypropioguaiacone(37), sinapyladehyde(38), trans-p-hydroxycinnamaldehyde(39), syringic acid(40), vanilic acid(41), vanillin(42), 4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (43), (24R)-24-ethyl-5alpha-cholestane-3beta,5,6beta-triol(44), beta-sitosterol(45), daucosterol(46), 2,6-dimethoxy-I,4-benzoquinone(47), 2,6-dimethoxy-pyran-4-one(48), 1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)uracil(49), and mannitol(50). Compouds 1-7,12,18,28-37,44 and 48 were obtained from the genus Fraxinus for the first time. PMID:26697686

  11. Chemical constituents from Myristica fragrans fruit.

    PubMed

    Francis, K Sajin; Suresh, Eringathodi; Nair, Mangalam S

    2014-01-01

    A neolignan, erythrosurinamensin and a diaryl phenyl propanoid, virolane were isolated from Myristica fragrans for the first time. Apart from these two, previously known steroids, other lignans and neolignans were isolated from the fruit pericarp of M. fragrans. The structures of the compounds were identified by employing various spectroscopic methods.

  12. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of Glinus oppositifolius

    PubMed Central

    Ragasa, Consolacion Y.; Cabrera, Esperanza C.; Torres, Oscar B.; Buluran, Adiel Inah; Espineli, Dinah L.; Raga, Dennis D.; Shen, Chien-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To isolate the secondary metabolites from the dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of Glinus oppositifolius; to test for the cytotoxicity of a new triterpene, oppositifolone (1); and to test for the hypoglycemic, analgesic, and antimicrobial potentials of 1, DCM and aqueous leaf extracts of G. oppositifolius. Methods: The compounds were isolated by silica gel chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity potential of 1 was tested using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Triterpene 1, DCM, and aqueous leaf extracts were tested for hypoglycemic potential using the oral glucose tolerance test; analgesic potential using the tail-flick assay, and antimicrobial potential using the disc diffusion method. Results: The DCM extracts of G. oppositifolius afforded 1, squalene, spinasterol, oleanolic acid, phytol, and lutein from the leaves; squalene and spergulagenin A from the stems; and spinasterol from the roots. Triterpene 1 was cytotoxic against human colon carcinoma 116 with an IC50 value of 28.7 but did not exhibit cytotoxicity against A549. The aqueous leaf extract at 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) exhibited hypoglycemic activity with a pronounced % blood glucose reduction of 70.76% ±17.4% within 0.5 h after introduction. The DCM leaf extract showed a lower % blood glucose reduction of 18.52% ±13.5% at 200 mg/kg BW within 1.5 h after introduction, while 1 did not exhibit hypoglycemic activity. The samples did not exhibit analgesic property and were inactive against multiple drug resistant bacterial pathogens. Conclusion: The compounds responsible for the hypoglycemic activity of G. oppositifolius which are fast acting (0.5 h) are found in the aqueous leaf extract. PMID:25829787

  13. Chemical constituents of Croton oligandrum (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Abega, Destaing F; Kapche, Deccaux W F G; Ango, Patrick Y; Mapitse, Renameditswe; Yeboah, Samuel O; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T

    2014-01-01

    A new clerodane diterpene derivative named crotonoligaketone was obtained from the stem bark of Croton oligandrum along with eight known compounds including crotonadiol, imbricatadiol, crotonzambefuran B, 7-acetoxytrachiloban-18-oic acid, 3-O-acetylaleuritolic acid, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. The structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of their spectral data and by comparison with those reported in the literature.

  14. Chemical Constituents of Trichilia hirta (Meliaceae).

    PubMed

    Vieira, Milena G Curcino; dos Santos, Frances R; Braz Filho, Raimundo; Vieira, Ivo J Curcino

    2016-05-01

    A novel oleanane-type triterpene, 15-chloro-β-amyrone (1), was isolated from Trichilia hirta, together with the known compounds taraxer-3-one (2) and β-taraxerol (3), along with two novel esters, 3-(isobutyryloxy)-2,2,4-trimethylpenty palmitate (4) and 3-(isobutyryloxy)-2,2,3-trimethylpenty stearate (5), and the known 3-hydroxy-2,2,4-trimethylpentyl isobutyrate (6). These compounds were characterized on the basis of their spectroscopic and HRSEIMS data and by comparison with literature data. PMID:27319125

  15. [Studies on chemical constituents of Lysimachia pentapetala].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Zhan, Q

    1999-01-01

    From the ethanol extract of Lysimachia pentapetala, six compounds have been isolated. These compounds were identified as triacontanol, beta-sitosterol, glycerol monopalmitate, succinic acid, flavonol glycosides and hitrite upon the date of mp, IR, MS and 1HNMR tests.

  16. Chemical constituents from Clematis delavayi var. spinescens.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wang, Si-Feng; Zhao, Yan-Li; Liu, Ke-Chun; Wang, Xi-Min; Yang, Yong-Ping; Li, Xiao-Li

    2009-01-01

    A new coumarin, 7-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-5-methylcoumarin (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Clematis delavayi var. spinescens together with 17 known compounds. Their structures were identified by extensive spectral analysis, especially 2D NMR techniques. Antiangiogenic effects of all compounds were evaluated using a zebrafish model. PMID:19924077

  17. Chemical constituents from Myristica fragrans fruit.

    PubMed

    Francis, K Sajin; Suresh, Eringathodi; Nair, Mangalam S

    2014-01-01

    A neolignan, erythrosurinamensin and a diaryl phenyl propanoid, virolane were isolated from Myristica fragrans for the first time. Apart from these two, previously known steroids, other lignans and neolignans were isolated from the fruit pericarp of M. fragrans. The structures of the compounds were identified by employing various spectroscopic methods. PMID:25011059

  18. Analysis on Soil Seed Bank Diversity Characteristics and Its Relation with Soil Physical and Chemical Properties after Substrate Addition

    PubMed Central

    He, Mengxuan; Lv, Lingyue; Li, Hongyuan; Meng, Weiqing; Zhao, Na

    2016-01-01

    Aims Considered as an essential measure in the application of soil seed bank (SSB) projects, the mixing of substrate and surface soil can effectively improve soil condition. This research is aimed at exploring the diversity characteristics of SSBs and the relationships between SSBs and soil properties. Methods Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was adopted to describe the ordination of SSBs on soil properties’ gradients; multiple linear regressions were adopted to analyze the relationship between average growth height and soil properties, density and soil properties. Results Experimental groups of mixed substrate (the mixture of organic and inorganic substrates) had high diversity indexes, especially the Shannon-Wiener Index compared with those of single substrate. Meanwhile, a higher number of species and increased density were also noted in those of mixed substrate. The best test group, No.16, had the highest diversity indexes with a Shannon-Wiener of 1.898, Simpson of 0.633 and Pielou of 0.717, and also showed the highest density of 14000 germinants /m2 and 21 species. In addition, an improvement of the soil’s chemical and physical properties was noted when the substrates were mixed. The mixed substrate of turfy soil and perlite could effectively enhance the soil moisture content, whilst a mixed substrate of rice husk carbon and vermiculite could improve the content of available potassium (AK) and phosphorus (AP) and strengthen soil fertility. The germinated plants also reflected obvious regularities of ordination on soil factor gradients. Three distinct cluster groups were presented, of which the first cluster was distributed in an area with a relatively higher content of AK and AP; the second cluster was distributed at places with relatively higher soil moisture content; and the third cluster of plants didn’t show any obvious relationship with soil physical and chemical properties. Through CCA analysis, AK and AP were considered the most important

  19. The Use of Additives to Control the Morphology of Thin Films Synthesized Using Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, Karl; Turner, David; McKenna, David; Cackett, Adam; Hyett, Geoffrey

    This paper identifies and discusses the use of additives to control the morphology of nanoscale crystalline zinc oxide films, grown using AACVD, principally from a solution of zinc acetate in methanol. We will discuss the use of both positively charged additives such as tetramethylammonium bromide and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as well as negatively charged additives like sodium dodecylsulphate. Additives such as these, combined with other experimental parameters such as deposition time, have allowed us to control the size of the particles (from 100 to 400 nm in diameter), their orientation, and the regularity of their shape, from rough edged plates to well defined hexagons. We will show that the additives can be used to control morphology consistently over a temperature range of 250-400 °C, and that this technique can be applied generally to a number of additives and solvents.

  20. Successes and failures of the constituent quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Our approach considers the model as a possible bridge between QCD and the experimental data and examines its predictions to see where these succeed and where they fail. We also attempt to improve the model by looking for additional simple assumptions which give better fits to the experimental data. But we avoid complicated models with too many ad hoc assumptions and too many free parameters; these can fit everything but teach us nothing. We define our constituent quark model by analogy with the constituent electron model of the atom and the constituent nucleon model of the nucleus. In the same way that an atom is assumed to consist only of constituent electrons and a central Coulomb field and a nucleus is assumed to consist only of constituent nucleons hadrons are assumed to consist only of their constituent valence quarks with no bag, no glue, no ocean, nor other constituents. Although these constituent models are oversimplified and neglect other constituents we push them as far as we can. Atomic physics has photons and vacuum polarization as well as constituent electrons, but the constituent model is adequate for calculating most features of the spectrum when finer details like the Lamb shift are neglected. 54 references.

  1. Functional constituents of the active site of human neutrophil collagenase.

    PubMed

    Mookhtiar, K A; Wang, F; Van Wart, H E

    1986-05-01

    A series of chemical modification reactions has been carried out to identify functional constituents of the active site of human neutrophil collagenase. The enzyme is reversibly inhibited by the transition metal chelating agent 1,10-phenanthroline, and inhibition is fully reversed by zinc. Removal of weakly bound metal ions by gel filtration inactivates collagenase, and activity is fully restored on immediate readdition of calcium. The enzyme is unaffected by reagents that modify serine, cysteine, and arginine residues. However, reaction with the carboxyl reagents cyclohexylmorpholinocarbodiimide and Woodward's Reagent K lowers the activity of the enzyme substantially. Acetylimidazole inactivates the enzyme, but activity is completely restored on addition of hydroxylamine. The enzyme is also inactivated by tetranitromethane, indicating that it contains an essential tyrosine residue. Acylation of collagenase with diethyl pyrocarbonate, diketene, acetic anhydride, or trinitrobenzenesulfonate inactivates the enzyme, and activity is not restored on addition of hydroxylamine, indicating the presence of an essential lysine residue.

  2. Method for verification of constituents of a process stream

    DOEpatents

    Baylor, L.C.; Buchanan, B.R.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a method for validating a process stream for the presence or absence of a substance of interest such as a chemical warfare agent; that is, for verifying that a chemical warfare agent is present in an input line for feeding the agent into a reaction vessel for destruction, or, in a facility for producing commercial chemical products, that a constituent of the chemical warfare agent has not been substituted for the proper chemical compound. The method includes the steps of transmitting light through a sensor positioned in the feed line just before the chemical constituent in the input line enters the reaction vessel, measuring an optical spectrum of the chemical constituent from the light beam transmitted through it, and comparing the measured spectrum to a reference spectrum of the chemical agent and preferable also reference spectra of surrogates. A signal is given if the chemical agent is not entering a reaction vessel for destruction, or if a constituent of a chemical agent is added to a feed line in substitution of the proper chemical compound.

  3. Biochemical analyses of the antioxidative activity and chemical ingredients in eight different Allium alien monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; Matsumoto, Misato; Date, Rie; Harada, Kazuki; Maeda, Toshimichi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    We measured the antioxidant contents and antioxidative activities in eight Allium fistulosum-shallot monosomic addition lines (MAL; FF+1A-FF+8A). The high antioxidative activity lines (FF+2A and FF+6A) showed high polyphenol accumulation. These additional chromosomes (2A and 6A) would therefore have anonymous genes related to the upregulation of polyphenol production, the antioxidative activities consequently being increased in these MALs. PMID:24317054

  4. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  5. Effects of N{sub 2} addition on chemical dry etching of silicon oxide layers in F{sub 2}/N{sub 2}/Ar remote plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, J.Y.; Kim, D.J.; Lee, N.-E.; Jang, Y.C.; Bae, G.H.

    2006-07-15

    In this study, chemical dry etching characteristics of silicon oxide layers were investigated in the F{sub 2}/N{sub 2}/Ar remote plasmas. A toroidal-type remote plasma source was used for the generation of remote plasmas. The effects of additive N{sub 2} gas on the etch rates of various silicon oxide layers deposited using different deposition techniques and precursors were investigated by varying the various process parameters, such as the F{sub 2} flow rate, the additive N{sub 2} flow rate, and the substrate temperature. The etch rates of the various silicon oxide layers at room temperature were initially increased and then decreased with the N{sub 2} flow increased, which indicates an existence of the maximum etch rates. Increase in the oxide etch rates under the decreased optical emission intensity of the F radicals with the N{sub 2} flow increased implies that the chemical etching reaction is in the chemical reaction-limited regime, where the etch rate is governed by the surface chemical reaction rather than the F radical density. The etch rates of the silicon oxide layers were also significantly increased with the substrate temperature increased. In the present experiments, the F{sub 2} gas flow, the additive N{sub 2} flow rate, and the substrate temperature were found to be the critical parameters in determining the etch rate of the silicon oxide layers.

  6. Application of multivariate analysis to the effects of additives on chemical and sensory quality of stored coffee brew.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, Mónica; Sopelana, Patricia; de Peña, M Paz; Cid, Concepción

    2008-12-24

    The aim of this work was to obtain a black coffee brew to be consumed hot by extension of its shelf life, by addition of additives. Four pH-regulator agents (sodium and potassium carbonates and bicarbonates), one pH regulator and antioxidant (sodium citrate), three antioxidants [sodium ascorbate, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA), and sodium sulfite], and lactoserum were tested by sensory analysis. Sodium carbonate and bicarbonate were selected for a study of the physicochemical (soluble and volatile compounds related to the sensory properties) and sensorial quality of coffee brew stored for 90 days at 4 degrees C. Although both additives extended the shelf life of the coffee brew up to 60 days, sodium carbonate was the chosen additive because it was the most useful in limiting the pH decrease and perception of sourness, which are some of the main factors involved in the rejection of stored coffee brews, and it better maintained the aroma and taste/flavor. Moreover, the application of multivariate analysis facilitated first the description of the global changes of the coffee brews with or without additives throughout the storage using principal component analysis and second the obtainment of a simple equation only with pH and caffeic acid parameters to discriminate the three types of coffee brews and simplify the analytical process, by means of the stepwise discriminant analysis.

  7. A quantum chemical study of the mechanisms of olefin addition to group 9 transition metal dioxo compounds.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Issahaku; Tia, Richard; Adei, Evans

    2016-01-01

    The mechanistic aspects of ethylene addition to MO2(CH2)(CH3) (M=Co, Rh, Ir) have been investigated with a Hartree-Fock/DFT hybrid functional at the MO6/LACVP* and B3LYP/LACVP* levels of theory to elucidate the reaction pathways on the singlet, doublet and triplet potential energy surfaces (PES). In the reaction of the IrO2CH2CH3 complex with ethylene, [3 + 2]C,O addition is the most plausible pathway on the singlet PES, the [3 + 2]O,O addition is the most favoured pathway on the doublet surface whiles the stepwise [1 + 1] addition involving the oxygen atom of the complex in the first step and the carbon atom of the complex in the second step is the most plausible pathway on the triplet PES. For the reaction of the RhO2(CH2)(CH3) complex, the [2 + 2]Rh,O addition pathway is the most favoured on the singlet surface, the [2 + 2]Rh,C is the most plausible pathway on the triplet PES and [3 + 2]C,O is the most plausible on the doublet surface. For the reactions of the CoO2(CH2)(CH3) complex, the [1 + 2]O addition is the most plausible on the singlet PES, [3 + 2]C=Co=O cycloaddition to form the five-membered intermediate is the most preferred pathway on the doublet PES, whiles on the triplet PES the preferred pathway is the [3 + 2] addition across the O=Co=O bond of the metal complex. The reactions of olefins with the Co dioxo complex have lower activation barriers for the preferred [3 + 2] and [2 + 2] addition pathways as well as fewer side reactions than those of the rhodium and iridium systems. This could imply that the cobalt dioxo complexes can efficiently and selectively catalyze specific reactions in oxidation of olefins than Rh and Ir oxo complexes will do and therefore Co oxo complexes may be better catalysts for specific oxidation reactions of olefins than Rh and Ir complexes are. The activation barriers for the formation of the four-or five-membered metallacycle intermediates through [2 + 2] or [3 + 2] cyclo-addition are lower on the

  8. Chemical and particle-size evidence for addition of fine dust to soils of the midwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Joseph A.; Jacobs, Peter M.

    1998-12-01

    Significant long-term atmospheric dust additions to soils are well documented in many parts of the world, but not in the midwestern United States. We investigated elemental mass fluxes associated with soil development in late Wisconsinan loess in Illinois and Minnesota, using Zr as a stable index element. Positive mass fluxes of Al, Fe, and Ti can most plausibly be explained by additions to these soils of fine far-traveled dust, with higher Al/Zr, Fe/Zr, and Ti/Zr ratios than the coarser locally derived loess. High-resolution particle-size analyses support this explanation. The proposed dust influx will complicate efforts to quantify weathering processes in these soils. Far-traveled dust influx could have occurred simultaneously with the final phase of local loess deposition, and/or later, in the Holocene. Depending on the timing of dust influx, many other soils of the region may have been affected by it.

  9. The effects of additives in napier grass silages on chemical composition, feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass.

  10. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Final technical report, September 15, 1987--March 15, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1992-03-06

    The objective of this research was to investigate the reaction mechanism of higher alcohol and aldehyde synthesis from syngas and the role of additives in the synthesis. An in situ IR reaction system and probe molecule technique were developed to study adsorbed species, active sites, and reaction pathway during reaction. The catalysts used for this study included silica-supported Rh, Ru, and Ni. (VC)

  11. Influence of dried Hokkaido pumpkin and ascorbic acid addition on chemical properties and colour of corn extrudates.

    PubMed

    Obradović, Valentina; Babić, Jurislav; Šubarić, Drago; Jozinović, Antun; Ačkar, Đurđica; Klarić, Ilija

    2015-09-15

    The influence of Hokkaido pumpkin powder (PP) addition to corn grits at levels 4%, 6%, and 8% and ascorbic acid (AA) addition at levels 0.5% and 1% was evaluated. Extrusion was done using a single-screw extruder at two temperature regimes: 135/170/170°C (E1) and 100/150/150°C (E2). Mathematical models that describe the influence of additives on the colour of extrudates were determined. Raw extrusion mixtures as well as obtained extrudates were tested for ascorbic acid, polyphenol, proteins, fat, crude fibre, ash and carotenoids content, and antioxidant activity. E1 extrusion regime acted favourably on polyphenols, crude fibre content, and antioxidant activity. It also caused higher fat degradation than E2 extrusion. Xanthophylls (lutein and zeaxanthin) were less sensitive to extrusion than carotenes (α-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene and 13-cis-β-carotene). Ascorbic acid was more sensitive to higher extrusion temperatures (49-76% degradation). It provided protection to carotenoids and consequently the colour of the extrudates.

  12. Detection of the hydroperoxyl radical HO2 toward ρ Ophiuchi A. Additional constraints on the water chemical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, B.; Bergman, P.; Du, F.

    2012-05-01

    Context. Hydrogen peroxide (HOOH) was recently detected toward ρ Oph A. Subsequent astrochemical modeling that included reactions in the gas phase and on the surface of dust grains was able to explain the observed abundance, and highlighted the importance of grain chemistry in the formation of HOOH as an intermediate product in water formation. This study also predicted that the hydroperoxyl radical HO2, the precursor of HOOH, should be detectable. Aims: We aim at detecting the hydroperoxyl radical HO2 in ρ Oph A. Methods: We used the IRAM 30 m and the APEX telescopes to target the brightest HO2 lines at about 130 and 260 GHz. Results: We detect five lines of HO2 (comprising seven individual molecular transitions). The fractional abundance of HO2 is found to be about 10-10, a value similar to the abundance of HOOH. This observational result is consistent with the prediction of the above mentioned astrochemical model, and thereby validates our current understanding of the water formation on dust grains. Conclusions: This detection, anticipated by a sophisticated gas-grain chemical model, demonstrates that models of grain chemistry have improved tremendously and that grain surface reactions now form a crucial part of the overall astrochemical network. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m and the APEX telescopes. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain). APEX is a collaboration between the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, the Onsala Space Observatory, and the European Southern Observatory.

  13. Effects of drying control chemical additive on properties of Li 4Ti 5O 12 negative powders prepared by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Seo Hee; Kang, Yun Chan

    High-density Li 4Ti 5O 12 powders comprising spherical particles are prepared by spray pyrolysis from a solution containing dimethylacetamide (drying control chemical additive) and citric acid and ethylene glycol (organic additives). The prepared powders have high discharge capacities and good cycle properties. The optimum concentration of dimethylacetamide is 0.5 M. The addition of dimethylacetamide to the polymeric spray solutions containing citric acid and ethylene glycol helps in the effective control of the morphology of the Li 4Ti 5O 12 powders. At a constant current density of 0.17 mA g -1, the initial discharge capacities of the powders obtained from the spray solution with and without the organic additives are 171 and 167 mAh g -1, respectively.

  14. [Antitussive constituents of Disporum cantoniense].

    PubMed

    Gan, Xiu-Hai; Zhao, Chao; Liang, Zhi-Yuan; Gong, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Hua-Guo; Zhou, Xin

    2013-12-01

    The antitussive activity assay for the root extraction of Disporum cantoniense was carried out with coughing mice induced by ammonia liquor. The results showed that the ethanol and water extractions of D. cantoniense possess strong antitussive activity, and the high dose of the former was better than positive control, and then the constituents of the ethanol extraction were separated and purified by various modern chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified by physico-chemical properties and spectroscopic data. As a result, eight compounds were isolated and identified as stigmast-4-en-3-one(1), (22E, 24R)-ergosta-5, 7, 22-trien-3beta-ol(2), obtucarbamate A(3), obtucarbamate B(4), neotigogenin(5), azo-2, 2'-bis[Z-(2,3-dihydroxy-4-methyl-5-methoxy) phenyl ethylene] (6),dimethyl {[carbonylbis (azanediyl)] bis( 2-methyl-5, 1-phenylene) j dicarbamate (7) , and quercetin-3-O-pB-D-glucopyranoside(8). All compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time, and the result of bioactivity-directed isolation showed that compounds 3, 4, and 6 had obvious effect on antitussive activity, and compound 6 had the same level as positive control.

  15. Constituents of response rates

    PubMed Central

    Pear, Joseph J.; Rector, Brian L.

    1979-01-01

    Response rate and the proportion of time pigeons allocated to a key-pecking activity were measured on several basic types of reinforcement schedules. Reinforcement frequency was varied within each type of basic schedule, and the effects on two constituents of response rate were noted. Propensity, the proportion of time the birds spent on a platform in front of the key, showed very consistent effects as reinforcement frequency varied: in general, it decreased when reinforcement frequency markedly decreased and it increased when reinforcement frequency increased. Speed, key pecks per unit of time spent on the platform, showed inconsistent effects when reinforcement frequency varied. Consequently, response rate showed less consistent effects than did propensity. Cumulative response records demonstrated the existence of several different types of transitions or boundary states between the key-pecking activity and other activities. The types of transitions that occurred between activities depended on both the type of reinforcement schedule and the frequency of reinforcement. The propensity data support the position that general laws of behavior can be based on temporal measures of behavior. The speed data suggest that, if a complete assessment of the dynamic properties of behavior is to be achieved, measures of behavior must incorporate the structural variations in the operant unit. PMID:16812155

  16. Chemical additive to enhance antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine and control cross-contamination during immersion chill of broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Schambach, B T; Berrang, M E; Harrison, M A; Meinersmann, R J

    2014-09-01

    Immersion chilling of broiler carcasses can be a site for cross-contamination between the occasional highly contaminated carcass and those that are co-chilled. Chlorine is often used as an antimicrobial but can be overcome by organic material. A proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128) based on phosphoric acid-propylene glycol was tested as a chill tank additive in experiments simulating commercial broiler chilling. In bench-scale experiments, 0.5% T-128 was compared with plain water (control), 50 ppm of chlorine, and the combination of 0.5% T-128 with 50 ppm of chlorine to control transfer of Salmonella and Campylobacter from inoculated wing drummettes to co-chilled uninoculated drummettes. Both chlorine and T-128 lessened cross-contamination with Salmonella (P < 0.05); T-128 and T-128 with chlorine were significantly more effective (P < 0.05) than the control or plain chlorine for control of Campylobacter. T-128 treatments were noted to have a pH of less than 4.0; an additional experiment demonstrated that the antimicrobial effect of T-128 was not due merely to a lower pH. In commercial broiler chilling, a pH close to 6.0 is preferred to maximize chlorine effectiveness, while maintaining water-holding capacity of the meat. In a set of pilot-scale experiments with T-128, a near-ideal pH of 6.3 was achieved by using tap water instead of the distilled water used in bench-scale experiments. Pilot-scale chill tanks were used to compare the combination of 0.5% T-128 and 50 ppm of chlorine with 50 ppm of plain chlorine for control of cross-contamination between whole carcasses inoculated with Salmonella and Campylobacter and co-chilled uninoculated carcasses. The T-128 treatment resulted in significantly less crosscontamination by either direct contact or water transfer with both organisms compared with plain chlorine treatment. T-128 may have use in commercial broiler processing to enhance the effectiveness of chlorine in processing water. PMID:25198851

  17. Chemical additive to enhance antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine and control cross-contamination during immersion chill of broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Schambach, B T; Berrang, M E; Harrison, M A; Meinersmann, R J

    2014-09-01

    Immersion chilling of broiler carcasses can be a site for cross-contamination between the occasional highly contaminated carcass and those that are co-chilled. Chlorine is often used as an antimicrobial but can be overcome by organic material. A proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128) based on phosphoric acid-propylene glycol was tested as a chill tank additive in experiments simulating commercial broiler chilling. In bench-scale experiments, 0.5% T-128 was compared with plain water (control), 50 ppm of chlorine, and the combination of 0.5% T-128 with 50 ppm of chlorine to control transfer of Salmonella and Campylobacter from inoculated wing drummettes to co-chilled uninoculated drummettes. Both chlorine and T-128 lessened cross-contamination with Salmonella (P < 0.05); T-128 and T-128 with chlorine were significantly more effective (P < 0.05) than the control or plain chlorine for control of Campylobacter. T-128 treatments were noted to have a pH of less than 4.0; an additional experiment demonstrated that the antimicrobial effect of T-128 was not due merely to a lower pH. In commercial broiler chilling, a pH close to 6.0 is preferred to maximize chlorine effectiveness, while maintaining water-holding capacity of the meat. In a set of pilot-scale experiments with T-128, a near-ideal pH of 6.3 was achieved by using tap water instead of the distilled water used in bench-scale experiments. Pilot-scale chill tanks were used to compare the combination of 0.5% T-128 and 50 ppm of chlorine with 50 ppm of plain chlorine for control of cross-contamination between whole carcasses inoculated with Salmonella and Campylobacter and co-chilled uninoculated carcasses. The T-128 treatment resulted in significantly less crosscontamination by either direct contact or water transfer with both organisms compared with plain chlorine treatment. T-128 may have use in commercial broiler processing to enhance the effectiveness of chlorine in processing water.

  18. Responses of secondary chemicals in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings to UV-B, springtime warming and nitrogen additions.

    PubMed

    Sager, E P S; Hutchinson, T C

    2006-10-01

    Anticipated effects of climate change involve complex interactions in the field. To assess the effects of springtime warming, ambient ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) and nitrogen fertilization on the foliar chemistry and herbivore activity of native sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings, we carried out a field experiment for 2 years at two sugar maple forests growing on soils of contrasting acidity. At the Oliver site, soils are derived from a strongly calcareous till, whereas the naturally acidic soils and base-poor soils of the Haliburton site are derived from the largely granitic Precambrian Shield. At both sites, removal of ambient UV-B led to increases in chlorogenic acid and some flavonoids and reduced herbivore activity. At Haliburton, ammonium nitrate fertilization led to further increases in foliar manganese (Mn), whereas at Oliver there were no such changes. Nitrogen additions led to decreases in the concentrations of some flavonoids at both sites, but seedlings at Oliver had significantly higher concentrations of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid than seedlings at Haliburton. We suggest that this could be associated with increased mobilization of Mn due to increased soil acidity, which interferes with the role of calcium (Ca) in the phenolic biosynthetic pathway. It appears that the composition of the forest soil governs the response of seedlings when they are exposed to abiotic stressors.

  19. The chemistry and biotransformation of tea constituents.

    PubMed

    Sang, Shengmin; Lambert, Joshua D; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yang, Chung S

    2011-08-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. The three major types of tea, green tea, oolong tea, and black tea, differ in terms of the manufacture and chemical composition. There are numerous studies in humans, animal models, and cell lines to suggest potential health benefits from the consumption of tea, including prevention of cancer and heart diseases. Many of the health benefits have been attributed to the polyphenolic constituents in tea. Catechins and their dimers (theaflavins) and polymers (thearubigins) have been identified as the major components in tea. Methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation, and ring-fission metabolism represent the major metabolic pathways for tea catechins. The present review summarizes the data concerning the chemistry and biotransformation of tea constituents. PMID:21371557

  20. Relation of Mercury to Other Chemical Constituents in Ground Water in the Kirkwood-Cohansey Aquifer System, New Jersey Coastal Plain, and Mechanisms for Mobilization of Mercury from Sediments to Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, Julia L.; MacLeod, Cecilia L.

    2001-01-01

    Water from 265 domestic wells that tap the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey contained concentrations of mercury that are equal to or exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2 ug/L (micrograms per liter). The wells range in depth from 50 to 200 feet, and are located in 32 discrete, mostly residential, areas that were developed primarily on former agricultural land during the 1950?s through the 1970?s. Concentrations in two other areas exceeded 1 ug/L. Naturally occurring mercury concentrations in ground water from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system typically are less than 0.01 ug/L, but concentrations in water from some wells were as much as 42 ug/L. No evidence currently exists that conclusively links known point sources such as landfills, industrial operations, or commercial enterprises to most of the elevated concentrations of mercury in ground water in the residential areas. Possible sources of the mercury include pesticides and atmospheric deposition. Analysis of water from wells in 6 of the 34 areas for other constituents indicates that nitrate concentrations also commonly are elevated above background levels (which typically are undetectable at 0.01 milligrams per liter), and exceed the MCL of 10 milligrams per liter in some samples. Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including chloroform, also have been measured in water from wells at many of the 34 sites. Analytical results for water samples collected at several depths from boreholes at 2 of the 34 sites indicate elevated concentrations of calcium, magnesium, barium, strontium, nitrate, and chloride, which may be related to both agricultural chemical applications and septic-system effluent. Determinations of tritium and helium concentrations indicate that water containing elevated concentrations of mercury recharged the aquifer between 9.4 and 79 years ago, which includes the period during which many of the 34

  1. Effect of addition of nano-hydroxyapatite on physico-chemical and antibiofilm properties of calcium silicate cements

    PubMed Central

    GUERREIRO-TANOMARU, Juliane Maria; VÁZQUEZ-GARCÍA, Fernando Antonio; BOSSO-MARTELO, Roberta; BERNARDI, Maria Inês Basso; FARIA, Gisele; TANOMARU, Mario

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) is a calcium silicate cement composed of Portland cement (PC) and bismuth oxide. Hydroxyapatite has been incorporated to enhance mechanical and biological properties of dental materials. This study evaluated physicochemical and mechanical properties and antibiofilm activity of MTA and PC associated with zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAn). Material and Methods White MTA (Angelus, Brazil); PC (70%)+ZrO2 (30%); PC (60%)+ZrO2 (30%)+HAn (10%); PC (50%)+ZrO2 (30%)+HAn (20%) were evaluated. The pH was assessed by a digital pH-meter and solubility by mass loss. Setting time was evaluated by using Gilmore needles. Compressive strength was analyzed by mechanical test. Samples were radiographed alongside an aluminum step wedge to evaluate radiopacity. For the antibiofilm evaluation, materials were placed in direct contact with E. faecalis biofilm induced on dentine blocks. The number of colony-forming units (CFU mL-1) in the remaining biolfilm was evaluated. The results were submitted to ANOVA and the Tukey test, with 5% significance. Results There was no difference in pH levels of PC+ZrO2, PC+ZrO2+HAn (10%) and PC+ZrO2+HAn (20%) (p>0.05) and these cements presented higher pH levels than MTA (p<0.05). The highest solubility was observed in PC+ZrO2+HAn (10%) and PC+ZrO2+HAn (20%) (p<0.05). MTA had the shortest initial setting time (p<0.05). All the materials showed radiopacity higher than 3 mmAl. PC+ZrO2 and MTA had the highest compressive strength (p<0.05). Materials did not completely neutralize the bacterial biofilm, but the association with HAn provided greater bacterial reduction than MTA and PC+ZrO2 (p<0.05) after the post-manipulation period of 2 days. Conclusions The addition of HAn to PC associated with ZrO2 harmed the compressive strength and solubility. On the other hand, HAn did not change the pH and the initial setting time, but improved the radiopacity (HAn 10%), the final setting time

  2. C4F8O/O2/N-based Additive Gases for Silicon Nitride Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Chamber Cleaning with Low Global Warming Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Hwang; Bae, Jeong Woon; Oh, Chang Hyun; Kim, Ki Joon; Lee, Nae Eung; Yeom, Geun Young

    2002-11-01

    In this study, N2O and NO were added as additive gases to C4F8O/O2 for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride chamber cleaning and their effects on the emission properties of perfluorocarbon compounds (PFCs) were investigated. The cleaning rate, destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs), and million metric tons of carbon equivalent (MMTCE) were studied as a function of flow rates of PFCs and additive gases. The use of C4F8O/O2 alone showed the highest cleaning rate and the lowest emission properties at the cleaning condition of 20%C4F8O/80%O2, working pressure of 500 mTorr, and 13.56 MHz rf power of 350 W. By the addition of about 20% NO or 20% N2O to the optimized C4F8O/O2, the additional reduction of MMTCE higher than 50% could be obtained. The addition of NO resulted in lower MMTCE compared to that in the case of the addition of N2O mostly due to the higher silicon nitride cleaning rate in the latter case.

  3. Detection and characterisation of frauds in bovine meat in natura by non-meat ingredient additions using data fusion of chemical parameters and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Karen M; Andrade, Marcus Vinícius O; Santos Filho, Antônio M P; Lasmar, Marcelo C; Sena, Marcelo M

    2016-08-15

    Concerns about meat authenticity are increasing recently, due to great fraud scandals. This paper analysed real samples (43 adulterated and 12 controls) originated from criminal networks dismantled by the Brazilian Police. This fraud consisted of injecting solutions of non-meat ingredients (NaCl, phosphates, carrageenan, maltodextrin) in bovine meat, aiming to increase its water holding capacity. Five physico-chemical variables were determined, protein, ash, chloride, sodium, phosphate. Additionally, infrared spectra were recorded. Supervised classification PLS-DA models were built with each data set individually, but the best model was obtained with data fusion, correctly detecting 91% of the adulterated samples. From this model, a variable selection based on the highest VIPscores was performed and a new data fusion model was built with only one chemical variable, providing slightly lower predictions, but a good cost/performance ratio. Finally, some of the selected infrared bands were specifically associated to the presence of adulterants NaCl, tripolyphosphate and carrageenan.

  4. Effect of additive gases and injection methods on chemical dry etching of silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and silicon oxide layers in F{sub 2} remote plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Y. B.; Park, S. M.; Kim, D. J.; Lee, N.-E.; Kim, K. S.; Bae, G. H.

    2007-07-15

    The authors investigated the effects of various additive gases and different injection methods on the chemical dry etching of silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and silicon oxide layers in F{sub 2} remote plasmas. N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}+O{sub 2} gases in the F{sub 2}/Ar/N{sub 2} and F{sub 2}/Ar/N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} remote plasmas effectively increased the etch rate of the layers. The addition of direct-injected NO gas increased the etch rates most significantly. NO radicals generated by the addition of N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}+O{sub 2} or direct-injected NO molecules contributed to the effective removal of nitrogen and oxygen in the silicon nitride and oxide layers, by forming N{sub 2}O and NO{sub 2} by-products, respectively, and thereby enhancing SiF{sub 4} formation. As a result of the effective removal of the oxygen, nitrogen, and silicon atoms in the layers, the chemical dry etch rates were enhanced significantly. The process regime for the etch rate enhancement of the layers was extended at elevated temperature.

  5. Superhydrophobic powder additives to enhance chemical agent resistant coating systems for military equipment for the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPAC) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, Steven J.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Haynes, James A.

    2015-07-01

    The primary goal of the CPAC program at ORNL was to explore the feasibility of introducing various silica-based superhydrophobic (SH) powder additives as a way to improve the corrosion resistance of US Department of Defense (DOD) military-grade chemical agent resistant coating (CARC) systems. ORNL had previously developed and patented several SH technologies of interest to the USMC, and one of the objectives of this program was to identify methods to incorporate these technologies into the USMC’s corrosion-resistance strategy. This report discusses findings of the CPAC and their application.

  6. Effects of N{sub 2}O gas addition on the properties of ZnO films grown by catalytic reaction-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, Kanji Morioka, Makoto; Kanauchi, Shingo; Ohashi, Yuki; Kato, Takahiro; Tamayama, Yasuhiro

    2015-11-15

    The influence of N{sub 2}O gas addition on the properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown on a-plane (11–20) sapphire (a-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates was investigated, using a chemical vapor deposition method based on the reaction between dimethylzinc and high-temperature H{sub 2}O produced by a catalytic H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} reaction on platinum (Pt) nanoparticles. The addition of N{sub 2}O was found to increase the size of the crystalline facets and to improve the crystal orientation along the c-axis. The electron mobility at 290 K was also increased to 234 cm{sup 2}/Vs following the addition of N{sub 2}O gas at a pressure of 3.2 × 10{sup −3 }Pa. In addition, the minimum full width at half maximum of the most intense photoluminescence peak derived from neutral donor bound excitons at 10 K decreased to 0.6 meV by the addition of N{sub 2}O gas at a pressure of 3.1 × 10{sup −2 }Pa.

  7. [Effects of understory removal and nitrogen addition on the soil chemical and biological properties of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation in Keerqin Sandy Land].

    PubMed

    Lin, Gui-Gang; Zhao, Qiong; Zhao, Lei; Li, Hui-Chao; Zeng, De-Hui

    2012-05-01

    A full factorial experiment was conducted to study the effects of understory removal and nitrogen addition (8 g x m(-2)) on the soil NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N concentrations, potential net nitrogen mineralization rate (PNM) and nitrification rate (PNN), microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), MBC/MBN, urease and acid phosphomonoesterase activities, and Olsen-P concentration in a Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation in Keerqin Sandy Land during a growth season. Understory removal decreased the soil NH(4+)-N concentration, PNM, MBC, and MBN/MBN significantly, increased the soil Olsen-P concentration, but had little effects on the soil NO(3-)-N concentration, PNN, and urease and acid phosphomonoesterase activities. Nitrogen addition increased the soil NO(3-)-N concentration, PNM and PNN significantly, but had little effects on the other test properties. The interaction between understory removal and nitrogen addition had significant effects on the soil NH(4+)-N concentration, but little effects on the soil NO(3-)-N concentration. However, the soil NO(3-)-N concentration in the plots of understory removal with nitrogen addition was increased by 27%, compared with the plots of nitrogen addition alone, which might lead to the leaching of NO3-. It was suggested that understory vegetation could play an important role in affecting the soil chemical and biological properties in Mongolian pine plantations, and hence, the importance of understory vegetation should not be neglected when the forest management and restoration were implemented. PMID:22919826

  8. Studies on nano-additive for the substitution of hazardous chemical substances in antifouling coatings for the protection of ship hulls.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaodong; Fan, Weijie; Duan, Jizhou; Hou, Baorong

    2014-07-01

    Adhesion and growth of biofouling organisms have severe influence on the reliability, service life and environmental adaptability of marine ships. Based on the bactericidal capacity of cuprous oxide and photochemical effect of nano-additive, environment-friendly and efficient marine antifouling paints were prepared in this study. The evaluation of the antifouling paints was carried out by the laboratory method using bacteria and phytoplanktonic microorganisms as target organisms, as well as measurements with panels in shallow submergence in natural seawater. Results showed good agreement of all the tests, indicating the remarkable antifouling performance of the paints. To our knowledge, this was one of the first systematic studies on effects of nano-additive for the substitution of hazardous chemical substances in antifouling coatings for the protection of ship hulls by measurements on bacterial inhibition, algal adhesion and growth of large organisms. PMID:25016277

  9. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists.

  10. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists. PMID:26604374

  11. Studies on nano-additive for the substitution of hazardous chemical substances in antifouling coatings for the protection of ship hulls.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaodong; Fan, Weijie; Duan, Jizhou; Hou, Baorong

    2014-07-01

    Adhesion and growth of biofouling organisms have severe influence on the reliability, service life and environmental adaptability of marine ships. Based on the bactericidal capacity of cuprous oxide and photochemical effect of nano-additive, environment-friendly and efficient marine antifouling paints were prepared in this study. The evaluation of the antifouling paints was carried out by the laboratory method using bacteria and phytoplanktonic microorganisms as target organisms, as well as measurements with panels in shallow submergence in natural seawater. Results showed good agreement of all the tests, indicating the remarkable antifouling performance of the paints. To our knowledge, this was one of the first systematic studies on effects of nano-additive for the substitution of hazardous chemical substances in antifouling coatings for the protection of ship hulls by measurements on bacterial inhibition, algal adhesion and growth of large organisms.

  12. Constituent Particle Clustering and Pitting Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, D. Gary

    2012-08-01

    Corrosion is a primary degradation mechanism that affects the durability and integrity of structures made of aluminum alloys, and it is a concern for commercial transport and military aircraft. In aluminum alloys, corrosion results from local galvanic coupling between constituent particles and the metal matrix. Due to variability in particle sizes, spatial location, and chemical composition, to name a few critical variables, corrosion is a complex stochastic process. Severe pitting is caused by particle clusters that are located near the material surface, which, in turn, serve as nucleation sites for subsequent corrosion fatigue crack growth. These evolution processes are highly dependent on the spatial statistics of particles. The localized corrosion growth rate is primarily dependent on the galvanic process perpetuated by particle-to-particle interactions and electrochemical potentials. Frequently, severe pits are millimeters in length, and these pits have a dominant impact on the structural prognosis. To accommodate large sizes, a model for three-dimensional (3-D) constituent particle microstructure is proposed. To describe the constituent particle microstructure in three dimensions, the model employs a fusion of classic stereological techniques, spatial point pattern analyses, and qualitative observations. The methodology can be carried out using standard optical microscopy and image analysis techniques.

  13. Constituents of Andromeda polifolia.

    PubMed

    Pachaly, P; Klein, M

    1987-10-01

    A reinvestigation of the aerial parts of ANDROMEDA POLIFOLIA afforded in addition to the known compounds gardenoside ( 1), guaijaverine ( 2) and avicularine ( 3), a new flavonol-dipentoside named polifolioside ( 4). the compounds were isolated employing DCCC and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  14. Indicator bacteria and associated water quality constituents in stormwater and snowmelt from four urban catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galfi, H.; Österlund, H.; Marsalek, J.; Viklander, M.

    2016-08-01

    Four indicator bacteria were measured in association with physico-chemical constituents and selected inorganics during rainfall, baseflow and snowmelt periods in storm sewers of four urban catchments in a northern Swedish city. The variation patterns of coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens concentrations were assessed in manually collected grab samples together with those of phosphorus, nitrogen, solids, and readings of pH, turbidity, water conductivity, temperature and flow rates to examine whether these constituents could serve as potential indicators of bacteria sources. A similar analysis was applied to variation patterns of eight selected inorganics typical for baseflow and stormwater runoff to test the feasibility of using these inorganics to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of inflow into storm sewers. The monitored catchments varied in size, the degree of development, and land use. Catchment and season (i.e., rainy or snowmelt periods) specific variations were investigated for sets of individual stormwater samples by the principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the constituents with variation patterns similar to those of indicator bacteria, and to exclude the constituents with less similarity. In the reduced data set, the similarities were quantified by the clustering correlation analysis. Finally, the positive/negative relationships found between indicator bacteria and the identified associated constituent groups were described by multilinear regressions. In the order of decreasing concentrations, coliforms, E. coli and enterococci were found in the highest mean concentrations during both rainfall and snowmelt generated runoff. Compared to dry weather baseflow, concentrations of these three indicators in stormwater were 10 (snowmelt runoff) to 102 (rain runoff) times higher. C. perfringens mean concentrations were practically constant regardless of the season and catchment. The type and number of

  15. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  16. Detection and characterisation of frauds in bovine meat in natura by non-meat ingredient additions using data fusion of chemical parameters and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Karen M; Andrade, Marcus Vinícius O; Santos Filho, Antônio M P; Lasmar, Marcelo C; Sena, Marcelo M

    2016-08-15

    Concerns about meat authenticity are increasing recently, due to great fraud scandals. This paper analysed real samples (43 adulterated and 12 controls) originated from criminal networks dismantled by the Brazilian Police. This fraud consisted of injecting solutions of non-meat ingredients (NaCl, phosphates, carrageenan, maltodextrin) in bovine meat, aiming to increase its water holding capacity. Five physico-chemical variables were determined, protein, ash, chloride, sodium, phosphate. Additionally, infrared spectra were recorded. Supervised classification PLS-DA models were built with each data set individually, but the best model was obtained with data fusion, correctly detecting 91% of the adulterated samples. From this model, a variable selection based on the highest VIPscores was performed and a new data fusion model was built with only one chemical variable, providing slightly lower predictions, but a good cost/performance ratio. Finally, some of the selected infrared bands were specifically associated to the presence of adulterants NaCl, tripolyphosphate and carrageenan. PMID:27006208

  17. Increased pattern transfer fidelity of ZEP 520A during reactive ion etching through chemical modifications by additional dosing of the electron beam resist

    SciTech Connect

    Czaplewski, D. A.; Ocola, L. E.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a postdevelopment, additional electron exposure to enhance the etch selectivity and improve pattern transfer fidelity of an electron beam resist, ZEP 520A, through chemical changes of the resist. After the critical features were patterned and developed, the resist was exposed at 5 kV accelerating voltage to a second dose of electrons ranging from 300 to 300,000 {micro}C/cm{sup 2}. The etch rate of the resist decreased by approximately 25% in a CHF{sub 3} and O{sub 2} plasma. More critically, the fidelity of the pattern transfer was improved. Infrared and Raman spectroscopies were used to characterize the resist before and after electron beam exposure for doses up to 3000 {micro}C/cm{sup 2}. The carbonyl bonding in the polymer showed significant changes after electron beam exposure that can be associated with improvement in the etch performance of this resist.

  18. Increased pattern transfer fidelity ZEP 520A during reactive ion etching through chemical modifications by additional dosing of the electron beam resist.

    SciTech Connect

    Czaplewski, D. A.; Ocola, L. E.

    2011-03-01

    This article describes a postdevelopment, additional electron exposure to enhance the etch selectivity and improve pattern transfer fidelity of an electron beam resist, ZEP 520A, through chemical changes of the resist. After the critical features were patterned and developed, the resist was exposed at 5 kV accelerating voltage to a second dose of electrons ranging from 300 to 300,000 {micro}C/cm{sup 2}. The etch rate of the resist decreased by approximately 25% in a CHF{sub 3} and O{sub 2} plasma. More critically, the fidelity of the pattern transfer was improved. Infrared and Raman spectroscopies were used to characterize the resist before and after electron beam exposure for doses up to 3000 {micro}C/cm{sup 2}. The carbonyl bonding in the polymer showed significant changes after electron beam exposure that can be associated with improvement in the etch performance of this resist.

  19. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  20. Antibacterial activity and mode of action of the Artemisia capillaris essential oil and its constituents against respiratory tract infection-causing pathogens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang; Hu, Dong-Hui; Feng, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Inhalation therapy using essential oils has been used to treat acute and chronic sinusitis and bronchitis. The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia capillaris, and evaluate the antibacterial effects of the essential oil and its main components, against common clinically relevant respiratory bacterial pathogens. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography‑mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 25 chemical constituents, the main constituents being: α‑pinene, β‑pinene, limonene, 1,8‑cineole, piperitone, β‑caryophyllene and capillin. The antibacterial activities of the essential oil, and its major constituents, were evaluated against Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin‑resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), MRSA (clinical strain), methicillin‑gentamicin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MGRSA), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli. The essential oil and its constituents exhibited a broad spectrum and variable degree of antibacterial activity against the various strains. The essential oil was observed to be much more potent, as compared with any of its major chemical constituents, exhibiting low minimum inhibitory and bacteriocidal concentration values against all of the bacterial strains. The essential oil was most active against S. pyogenes, MRSA (clinical strain), S. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and E. coli. Piperitone and capillin were the most potent growth inhibitors, among the major chemical constituents. Furthermore, the essential oil of A. capillaris induced significant and dose‑dependent morphological changes in the S. aureus bacterial strain, killing >90% of the bacteria when administered at a higher dose; as determined by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the essential oil induced a significant leakage of potassium and phosphate ions from the S. aureus bacterial cultures. These results indicate that

  1. Antibacterial activity and mode of action of the Artemisia capillaris essential oil and its constituents against respiratory tract infection-causing pathogens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang; Hu, Dong-Hui; Feng, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Inhalation therapy using essential oils has been used to treat acute and chronic sinusitis and bronchitis. The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia capillaris, and evaluate the antibacterial effects of the essential oil and its main components, against common clinically relevant respiratory bacterial pathogens. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography‑mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 25 chemical constituents, the main constituents being: α‑pinene, β‑pinene, limonene, 1,8‑cineole, piperitone, β‑caryophyllene and capillin. The antibacterial activities of the essential oil, and its major constituents, were evaluated against Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin‑resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), MRSA (clinical strain), methicillin‑gentamicin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MGRSA), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli. The essential oil and its constituents exhibited a broad spectrum and variable degree of antibacterial activity against the various strains. The essential oil was observed to be much more potent, as compared with any of its major chemical constituents, exhibiting low minimum inhibitory and bacteriocidal concentration values against all of the bacterial strains. The essential oil was most active against S. pyogenes, MRSA (clinical strain), S. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and E. coli. Piperitone and capillin were the most potent growth inhibitors, among the major chemical constituents. Furthermore, the essential oil of A. capillaris induced significant and dose‑dependent morphological changes in the S. aureus bacterial strain, killing >90% of the bacteria when administered at a higher dose; as determined by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the essential oil induced a significant leakage of potassium and phosphate ions from the S. aureus bacterial cultures. These results indicate that

  2. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sales constituency. 930.16 Section 930.16 Agriculture... Definitions § 930.16 Sales constituency. Sales constituency means a common marketing organization or brokerage... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  3. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sales constituency. 930.16 Section 930.16 Agriculture... Definitions § 930.16 Sales constituency. Sales constituency means a common marketing organization or brokerage... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  4. Understanding Physical Developer (PD): Part II--Is PD targeting eccrine constituents?

    PubMed

    de la Hunty, Mackenzie; Moret, Sébastien; Chadwick, Scott; Lennard, Chris; Spindler, Xanthe; Roux, Claude

    2015-12-01

    Physical developer (PD) is a fingermark development technique that deposits silver onto fingermark ridges. It is the only technique currently in routine operational use that gives results on porous substrates that have been wet. There is a reasonable understanding of the working solution chemistry, but the chemical constituent(s) contained in fingermark residue that are specifically targeted by PD are largely unknown. A better understanding of the PD technique will permit a more informed selection of alternative or complementary detection methods, and greater usage in operational laboratories. Recent research by our group has shown that PD does not selectively target the lipids present in the residue. This research investigated the hypothesis that PD targets the eccrine constituents in fingermark residue. This was tested by comparison of PD and indanedione-zinc (Ind-Zn) treated natural fingermarks that had been deposited successively, and marks that had been deposited with a ten second interval in between depositions. Such an interval allows for the regeneration of secretions from the pores located on the ridges of the fingers. On fingermark depletions with no time interval between depositions, PD and Ind-Zn treated depletions successively (and comparatively) decreased in development intensity as the amount of residue diminished. Short time intervals in between successive depletions resulted in additional secretions from the pores intermittently occurring, the increased development of which was visualised by treatment with both PD and Ind-Zn. The changes in development intensity were seen with both techniques on the same split depletions in a series, comparably and proportionately. These results indicate that the components targeted by PD are contained in the material excreted by the friction ridge pores through its mirrored development with Ind-Zn. Repetition of the experiments on marks that only contained eccrine material showed good Ind-Zn development but poor

  5. Multicultural Leadership for Restructured Constituencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strodl, Peter; Johnson, Burke

    A conceptual model is developed that presents leadership as process and participation by followers in urban schools in which decentralization efforts are underway. The model advances the work of urban school administrators as they deal with constituencies from diverse perspectives and predilections. Applications of the model involve behaviors that…

  6. Effects of water additions, chemical amendments, and plants on in situ measures of nutrient bioavailability in calcareous soils of southeastern Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.E.; Belnap, J.; Beatty, S.W.; Webb, B.L.

    2006-01-01

    We used ion-exchange resin bags to investigate effects of water additions, chemical amendments, and plant presence on in situ measures of nutrient bioavailability in conjunction with a study examining soil controls of ecosystem invasion by the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. At five dryland sites in southeastern Utah, USA, resin bags were buried in experimental plots randomly assigned to combinations of two watering treatments (wet and dry), four chemical-amendment treatments (KCl, MgO, CaO, and no amendment), and four plant treatments (B. tectorum alone, the perennial bunchgrass Stipa hymenoides R. & S. alone, B. tectorum and S. hymenoides together, and no plants). Resin bags were initially buried in September 1997; replaced in January, April, and June 1998; and removed at the end of the study in October 1998. When averaged across watering treatments, plots receiving KCl applications had lower resin-bag NO 3- than plots receiving no chemical amendments during three of four measurement periods-probably due to NO 3- displacement from resin bags by Cl- ions. During the January-April period, KCl application in wet plots (but not dry plots) decreased resin-bag NH 4+ and increased resin-bag NO 3- . This interaction effect likely resulted from displacement of NH 4+ from resins by K+ ions, followed by nitrification and enhanced NO 3- capture by resin bags. In plots not receiving KCl applications, resin-bag NH 4+ was higher in wet plots than in dry plots during the same period. During the January-April period, resin-bag measures for carbonate-related ions HPO 42- , Ca2+, and Mn2+ tended to be greater in the presence of B. tectorum than in the absence of B. tectorum. This trend was evident only in wet plots where B. tectorum densities were much higher than in dry plots. We attribute this pattern to the mobilization of carbonate-associated ions by root exudates of B. tectorum. These findings indicate the importance of considering potential indirect effects of soil

  7. From detrimental to beneficial constituents in foods: tracking the publication trends in JAFC.

    PubMed

    Seiber, James N; Kleinschmidt, Loreen

    2012-07-11

    A large part of the research focus on food constituents in the 20th century was toward health-detrimental contaminants-pathogens, toxins, chemical residues, and some food additives. This is reflected in the publications in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry and other journals. This era witnessed the formation of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the rise and fall of DDT and other synthetic chemicals, as well as a number of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, and coloring/flavoring agents that attracted consumer and government attention. During the past 25 years or so, the emphasis in food chemistry and biochemistry has trended more toward health-beneficial chemicals in foods, as their examination yields information on naturally occurring components-polyphenolic antioxidants, unsaturated fatty acids, soluble fibers, and many other classes of constituents that may ward off chronic diseases. This perspective addresses the changes in emphases in published research to the present and trends that indicate the directions that food chemistry/biochemistry and related sciences might follow in the future. PMID:22449169

  8. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical abstracts...

  12. Possibility of controlling the chemical pattern of He and Ar “guided streamers” by means of N{sub 2} or O{sub 2} additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gazeli, K.; Svarnas, P. E-mail: franck.clement@univ-pau.fr; Held, B.; Clément, F. E-mail: franck.clement@univ-pau.fr; Marlin, L.

    2015-03-07

    Plasma chemistry at atmospheric pressure and low temperature has met an increased interest due to the effective production of reactive species (mainly reactive nitrogen species and reactive oxygen species) which are demanded in many applications like in biomedicine. Τhe generation of such emissive reactive species is herein studied. A single parameter, i.e., the gas composition, is tuned and abundant chemical species are obtained in a quite controllable manner. The system refers to a small dielectric barrier discharge based reactor fed with He–N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} or Ar–N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} gases, which provides plasma in the form of “guided streamers.” The plasma is sustained by positive high voltage pulses, and the emissive transitions versus the gas composition is determined by UV-VIS optical emission spectroscopy. The relative intensities of emissive species are recorded in the ambient air where the streamers propagate. The evolution of dominant species as a function of the gas composition is mapped, and optimal conditions in terms of species production are clearly revealed. The results show that additives do not necessarily enhance the density of all species, implying the need for plasma chemistry optimization in respect to every application. The study is extended inside the reactor, supporting the above statements. Finally, the rotational and vibrational distributions of critical probe molecules are recorded, testing the dependence of the gas temperature and energy transfer, respectively, on the gas composition.

  13. Chemical xenobiotics and mitochondrial autoantigens in primary biliary cirrhosis: identification of antibodies against a common environmental, cosmetic, and food additive, 2-octynoic acid.

    PubMed

    Amano, Katsushi; Leung, Patrick S C; Rieger, Roman; Quan, Chao; Wang, Xiaobing; Marik, Jan; Suen, Yat Fan; Kurth, Mark J; Nantz, Michael H; Ansari, Aftab A; Lam, Kit S; Zeniya, Mikio; Matsuura, Eiji; Coppel, Ross L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2005-05-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested environmental factors as causative agents in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). We have hypothesized that in PBC the lipoyl domain of the immunodominant E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDC-E2) is replaced by a chemical xenobiotic mimic, which is sufficient to break self-tolerance. To address this hypothesis, based upon our quantitative structure-activity relationship data, a total of 107 potential xenobiotic mimics were coupled to the lysine residue of the immunodominant 15 amino acid peptide of the PDC-E2 inner lipoyl domain and spotted on microarray slides. Sera from patients with PBC (n = 47), primary sclerosing cholangitis (n = 15), and healthy volunteers (n = 20) were assayed for Ig reactivity. PBC sera were subsequently absorbed with native lipoylated PDC-E2 peptide or a xenobiotically modified PDC-E2 peptide, and the remaining reactivity analyzed. Of the 107 xenobiotics, 33 had a significantly higher IgG reactivity against PBC sera compared with control sera. In addition, 9 of those 33 compounds were more reactive than the native lipoylated peptide. Following absorption, 8 of the 9 compounds demonstrated cross-reactivity with lipoic acid. One compound, 2-octynoic acid, was unique in both its quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis and reactivity. PBC patient sera demonstrated high Ig reactivity against 2-octynoic acid-PDC-E2 peptide. Not only does 2-octynoic acid have the potential to modify PDC-E2 in vivo but importantly it was/is widely used in the environment including perfumes, lipstick, and many common food flavorings. PMID:15845458

  14. Chemical constituent and antimicrobial effect of essential oil from Myrtus communis leaves on microorganisms involved in persistent endodontic infection compared to two common endodontic irrigants: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Nabavizadeh, Mohammadreza; Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Gholami, Ahmad; Sheikhiani, Reza; Shokouhi, Mehdi; Shams, Mahdi Sedigh; Ghasemi, Younes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Persistent infections of human root canals play a fundamental role in the failure of endodontic treatment. The purpose of this study is to determine the chemical composition of Myrtus communis (M. communis) essential oil and to assess its antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans compared to that of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX). Materials and Methods: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the chemical composition of essential oil from M. communis leaves. A micro-dilution susceptibility assay and disk diffusion methods were utilized to evaluate the antimicrobial activity [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal dose concentration] of the tested solutions against selected microorganisms. Results: GC-MS analyses revealed that M. communis contained 1, 8-Cineole (28.62%), α-Pinene (17.8%), Linalool (17.55%), and Geranylacetate (6.3%) as the major compounds and Geraniol (1.6%), α-Humulene (1.5%), eugenol (1.3%), isobutyl-isobutyrate (0.8%), and methyl chavicol (0.5%) as minor components. Chlorhexidine had the lowest MIC value among all medicaments tested. M. communis oil had less MIC values than NaOCl against both bacteria, but it had more MIC value against C. albicans. Conclusion: M. communis essential oil with the minimum inhibitory concentration in the range of 0.032-32 μg/mL was an effective antimicrobial agent against persistent endodontic microorganisms. PMID:25298646

  15. The Potential of Mycelium and Culture Broth of Lignosus rhinocerotis as Substitutes for the Naturally Occurring Sclerotium with Regard to Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxic Effect, and Low-Molecular-Weight Chemical Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Beng Fye; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Lee, Hong Boon; Yap, Ken Choy; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of Lignosus rhinocerotis focused mainly on the sclerotium; however, the supply of wild sclerotium is limited. In this investigation, the antioxidant capacity and cytotoxic effect of L. rhinocerotis cultured under different conditions of liquid fermentation (shaken and static) were compared to the sclerotium produced by solid-substrate fermentation. Aqueous methanol extracts of the mycelium (LR-MH, LR-MT) and culture broth (LR-BH, LR-BT) demonstrated either higher or comparable antioxidant capacities to the sclerotium extract (LR-SC) based on their radical scavenging abilities, reducing properties, metal chelating activities, and inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. All extracts exerted low cytotoxicity (IC50>200 µg/ml, 72 h) against selected mammalian cell lines. Several low-molecular-weight compounds, including sugars, fatty acids, methyl esters, sterols, amides, amino acids, phenolics, and triterpenoids, were identified using GC-MS and UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The presence of proteins (<40 kDa) in the extracts was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and SELDI-TOF-MS. Principal component analysis revealed that the chemical profiles of the mycelial extracts under shaken and static conditions were distinct from those of the sclerotium. Results from bioactivity evaluation and chemical profiling showed that L. rhinocerotis from liquid fermentation merits consideration as an alternative source of functional ingredients and potential substitute for the sclerotium. PMID:25054862

  16. The inorganic constituents of echinoderms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, F.W.; Wheeler, W.C.

    1915-01-01

    In a recent paper on the composition of crinoid skeletons we showed that crinoids contain large quantities of magnesia, and that its proportion varies with the temperature of the water in which the creatures live. This result was so novel and surprising that it seemed desirable to examine other echinoderms and to ascertain whether they showed the same characteristics and regularity. A number of sea urchins and starfishes were therefore studied, their inorganic constituents being analyzed in the same manner as those of the crinoids

  17. Active mineral additives of sapropel ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, V. A.; Danilina, E. V.; Krivonos, O. I.; Plaksin, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the presented research is to establish a scientific rational for the possibility of sapropel ashes usage as an active mineral additive. The research included the study of producing active mineral additives from sapropels by their thermal treatment at 850900 °C and afterpowdering, the investigation of the properties of paste matrix with an ash additive, and the study of the ash influence on the cement bonding agent. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray investigations allowed us to establish that while burning, organic substances are removed, clay minerals are dehydrated and their structure is broken. Sapropel ashes chemical composition was determined. An amorphous ash constituent is mainly formed from silica of the mineral sapropel part and alumosilicagels resulted from clay minerals decomposition. Properties of PC 400 and PC 500A0 sparopel ash additives were studied. Adding ashes containing Glenium plasticizer to the cement increases paste matrix strength and considerably reduces its water absorption. X-ray phase analysis data shows changes in the phase composition of the paste matrix with an ash additive. Ash additives produce a pozzolanic effect on the cement bonding agent. Besides, an ash additive due to the alumosilicagels content causes transformation from unstable calcium aluminate forms to the stable ones.

  18. Bioactive saponins and glycosides. XXVII. Structures of new cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides and antiallergic constituents from Citrullus colocynthis.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Morikawa, Toshio; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Nakamura, Akihiko; Matsuhira, Koudai; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2007-03-01

    The methanolic extract from the fruit of Citrullus colocynthis showed an inhibitory effect on ear passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reactions as a type I allergic model in mice. From the methanolic extract, two new cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides, colocynthosides A and B, were isolated together with 17 known constituents. The structures of colocynthosides A and B were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. In addition, the principal cucurbitane-type triterpene glycoside, cucurbitacin E 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and its aglycon, cucurbitacin E, exhibited the antiallergic activity at a dose of 100 and 1.25 mg/kg, p.o., respectively.

  19. Experimental study of the constituents of space wash water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    Data are presented that quantify some of the various constituents of human origin that may be expected in space wash water. The experiments were conducted under controlled conditions with a simulated crew of two male and two female subjects. The data show that the expected wash water constituents originating from human secretions are substantially lower than theoretical projections have indicated. Average daily quantities as well as individual extremes are given for both shower and laundry water. In addition, concentrations are presented for a projected model of wash water usage in a space station.

  20. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Phillip M.; Wiedemann, Rachel; Matty, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer based system that measures the major atmospheric constituents on the International Space Station. A number of limited-life components require periodic change-out, including the ORU 02 analyzer and the ORU 08 Verification Gas Assembly. The most recent ORU 02 and ORU 08 assemblies are operating nominally. For ORU 02, the ion source filaments and ion pump lifetime continue to be key determinants of MCA performance. Additionally, testing is underway to evaluate the capacity of the MCA to analyze ammonia. Finally, plans are being made to bring the second MCA on ISS to an operational configuration.