Science.gov

Sample records for addition haplotype analysis

  1. An algorithm for haplotype analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shili; Speed, T.P.

    1997-12-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm for haplotype analysis based on a Monte Carlo method. Haplotype configurations are generated according to the distribution of joint haplotypes of individuals in a pedigree given their phenotype data, via a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. The haplotype configuration which maximizes this conditional probability distribution can thus be estimated. In addition, the set of haplotype configurations with relatively high probabilities can also be estimated as possible alternatives to the most probable one. This flexibility enables geneticists to choose the haplotype configurations which are most reasonable to them, allowing them to include their knowledge of the data under analysis. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. iHAP – integrated haplotype analysis pipeline for characterizing the haplotype structure of genes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chun Meng; Yeo, Boon Huat; Tantoso, Erwin; Yang, Yuchen; Lim, Yun Ping; Li, Kuo-Bin; Rajagopal, Gunaretnam

    2006-01-01

    Background The advent of genotype data from large-scale efforts that catalog the genetic variants of different populations have given rise to new avenues for multifactorial disease association studies. Recent work shows that genotype data from the International HapMap Project have a high degree of transferability to the wider population. This implies that the design of genotyping studies on local populations may be facilitated through inferences drawn from information contained in HapMap populations. Results To facilitate analysis of HapMap data for characterizing the haplotype structure of genes or any chromosomal regions, we have developed an integrated web-based resource, iHAP. In addition to incorporating genotype and haplotype data from the International HapMap Project and gene information from the UCSC Genome Browser Database, iHAP also provides capabilities for inferring haplotype blocks and selecting tag SNPs that are representative of haplotype patterns. These include block partitioning algorithms, block definitions, tag SNP definitions, as well as SNPs to be "force included" as tags. Based on the parameters defined at the input stage, iHAP performs on-the-fly analysis and displays the result graphically as a webpage. To facilitate analysis, intermediate and final result files can be downloaded. Conclusion The iHAP resource, available at , provides a convenient yet flexible approach for the user community to analyze HapMap data and identify candidate targets for genotyping studies. PMID:17137522

  3. Analysis of DR4 haplotypes in insulin dependent diabetes (IDD)

    SciTech Connect

    Monos, D.S.; Radka, S.F.; Zmijewski, C.M.; Kamoun, M.

    1986-03-05

    Population studies indicate that HLA-DR4 is implicated in the susceptibility of IDD. However, biochemical characterization of the serologically defined DR4 haplotype from normal individuals revealed five DR4 and three DQW3 molecular forms. Hence, in this study, they investigated the heterogeneity of the DR4 haplotype, using B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCL) generated from patients with IDD and seropositive for DR4. Class II molecules, metabolically labeled with /sup 35/S-methionine, were immunoprecipitated with monoclonal antibodies specific for DR(L243), DQ(N297), DQW3(IVD12) or DR and DQ(SG465) and analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). The isoelectrofocusing (IEF) conditions employed in this study allow representation only of the DR4 haplotype from either DR3/4 or DR4/4 cell lines. The analysis of six different DR4 haplotypes from seven IDD patients, revealed the presence of two DR4 ..beta.. and two DQW3 ..beta.. chains. Three of the six DR4 ..beta.. haplotypes analyzed shared the same DR4 ..beta.. chain and three others shared a different one. Additionally five of the six haplotypes shared a different one. Additionally five of the six haplotypes shared the same DQW3 ..beta.. chain and only one was carrying a different one. Different combinations of the two DR4 and two DQW3 ..beta.. chains constitute three distinct patterns of DR4 haplotypes. These results suggest the prevalence of a DQW3 ..beta.. chain in the small sample of IDD patients studied. Studies of a large number of patients should clarify whether IDD is associated with unique variants of DR4 or DQW3 ..beta.. chains.

  4. Variation analysis and gene annotation of eight MHC haplotypes: the MHC Haplotype Project.

    PubMed

    Horton, Roger; Gibson, Richard; Coggill, Penny; Miretti, Marcos; Allcock, Richard J; Almeida, Jeff; Forbes, Simon; Gilbert, James G R; Halls, Karen; Harrow, Jennifer L; Hart, Elizabeth; Howe, Kevin; Jackson, David K; Palmer, Sophie; Roberts, Anne N; Sims, Sarah; Stewart, C Andrew; Traherne, James A; Trevanion, Steve; Wilming, Laurens; Rogers, Jane; de Jong, Pieter J; Elliott, John F; Sawcer, Stephen; Todd, John A; Trowsdale, John; Beck, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is contained within about 4 Mb on the short arm of chromosome 6 and is recognised as the most variable region in the human genome. The primary aim of the MHC Haplotype Project was to provide a comprehensively annotated reference sequence of a single, human leukocyte antigen-homozygous MHC haplotype and to use it as a basis against which variations could be assessed from seven other similarly homozygous cell lines, representative of the most common MHC haplotypes in the European population. Comparison of the haplotype sequences, including four haplotypes not previously analysed, resulted in the identification of >44,000 variations, both substitutions and indels (insertions and deletions), which have been submitted to the dbSNP database. The gene annotation uncovered haplotype-specific differences and confirmed the presence of more than 300 loci, including over 160 protein-coding genes. Combined analysis of the variation and annotation datasets revealed 122 gene loci with coding substitutions of which 97 were non-synonymous. The haplotype (A3-B7-DR15; PGF cell line) designated as the new MHC reference sequence, has been incorporated into the human genome assembly (NCBI35 and subsequent builds), and constitutes the largest single-haplotype sequence of the human genome to date. The extensive variation and annotation data derived from the analysis of seven further haplotypes have been made publicly available and provide a framework and resource for future association studies of all MHC-associated diseases and transplant medicine.

  5. Analysis of MHC class I genes across horse MHC haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Tallmadge, Rebecca L.; Campbell, Julie A.; Miller, Donald C.; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    The genomic sequences of 15 horse Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I genes and a collection of MHC class I homozygous horses of five different haplotypes were used to investigate the genomic structure and polymorphism of the equine MHC. A combination of conserved and locus-specific primers was used to amplify horse MHC class I genes with classical and non-classical characteristics. Multiple clones from each haplotype identified three to five classical sequences per homozygous animal, and two to three non-classical sequences. Phylogenetic analysis was applied to these sequences and groups were identified which appear to be allelic series, but some sequences were left ungrouped. Sequences determined from MHC class I heterozygous horses and previously described MHC class I sequences were then added, representing a total of ten horse MHC haplotypes. These results were consistent with those obtained from the MHC homozygous horses alone, and 30 classical sequences were assigned to four previously confirmed loci and three new provisional loci. The non-classical genes had few alleles and the classical genes had higher levels of allelic polymorphism. Alleles for two classical loci with the expected pattern of polymorphism were found in the majority of haplotypes tested, but alleles at two other commonly detected loci had more variation outside of the hypervariable region than within. Our data indicate that the equine Major Histocompatibility Complex is characterized by variation in the complement of class I genes expressed in different haplotypes in addition to the expected allelic polymorphism within loci. PMID:20099063

  6. Y-chromosome haplotype analysis in Antioquia (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Gaviria, A A; Ibarra, A A; Palacio, O D; Posada, Y C; Triana, O; Ochoa, L M; Acosta, M A; Brión, M; Lareu, M V; Carracedo, A

    2005-06-30

    Allele frequencies and haplotype analysis have been performed for eight Y-chromosome STRs (DYS19, DYS385 I and II, DYS389 I and II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393). Population data was obtained from a sample of 400 unrelated individuals living in Antioquia (Colombia). A total of 270 different haplotypes were found, and the haplotype diversity was 0.989. The first and second most frequent haplotypes where shared by 8 and 6% of the individuals, respectively.

  7. [Analysis and application of haplotype in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Ye, Yi; Luo, Hai-Bo; Hou, Yi-Ping

    2009-04-01

    Haplotype is a lineable combination of alleles at multiple loci that are transmitted together on chromosome or mitochondrion. In October 2002, the international HapMap project started and aimed at mapping the haplotype blocks of human being and discovering the Tag SNPs by determining the DNA sequence variation patterns, variation frequency and their relationship. This review summarizes the formation and distribution of the haplotype and the current three haplotype-analysis methods including the methodology of experiment, the deduction from pedigrees and the statistic method. When an allele linkage disequilibrium occurs, the genetic probability would be evaluated by haplotype. The importance of haplotype has been recognized and its application has been gradually increased in forensic sciences. The current focus on haplotype study in forensic science involves Chromosome Y, Mitochondrial DNA and Chromosome X, which are useful supplements of genetic marks.

  8. General Framework for Meta-Analysis of Haplotype Association Tests.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Jing Hua; An, Ping; Guo, Xiuqing; Jensen, Richard A; Marten, Jonathan; Huffman, Jennifer E; Meidtner, Karina; Boeing, Heiner; Campbell, Archie; Rice, Kenneth M; Scott, Robert A; Yao, Jie; Schulze, Matthias B; Wareham, Nicholas J; Borecki, Ingrid B; Province, Michael A; Rotter, Jerome I; Hayward, Caroline; Goodarzi, Mark O; Meigs, James B; Dupuis, Josée

    2016-04-01

    For complex traits, most associated single nucleotide variants (SNV) discovered to date have a small effect, and detection of association is only possible with large sample sizes. Because of patient confidentiality concerns, it is often not possible to pool genetic data from multiple cohorts, and meta-analysis has emerged as the method of choice to combine results from multiple studies. Many meta-analysis methods are available for single SNV analyses. As new approaches allow the capture of low frequency and rare genetic variation, it is of interest to jointly consider multiple variants to improve power. However, for the analysis of haplotypes formed by multiple SNVs, meta-analysis remains a challenge, because different haplotypes may be observed across studies. We propose a two-stage meta-analysis approach to combine haplotype analysis results. In the first stage, each cohort estimate haplotype effect sizes in a regression framework, accounting for relatedness among observations if appropriate. For the second stage, we use a multivariate generalized least square meta-analysis approach to combine haplotype effect estimates from multiple cohorts. Haplotype-specific association tests and a global test of independence between haplotypes and traits are obtained within our framework. We demonstrate through simulation studies that we control the type-I error rate, and our approach is more powerful than inverse variance weighted meta-analysis of single SNV analysis when haplotype effects are present. We replicate a published haplotype association between fasting glucose-associated locus (G6PC2) and fasting glucose in seven studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium and we provide more precise haplotype effect estimates.

  9. General Framework for Meta‐Analysis of Haplotype Association Tests

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Jing Hua; An, Ping; Guo, Xiuqing; Jensen, Richard A.; Marten, Jonathan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Meidtner, Karina; Boeing, Heiner; Campbell, Archie; Rice, Kenneth M.; Scott, Robert A.; Yao, Jie; Schulze, Matthias B.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Province, Michael A.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Hayward, Caroline; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Meigs, James B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT For complex traits, most associated single nucleotide variants (SNV) discovered to date have a small effect, and detection of association is only possible with large sample sizes. Because of patient confidentiality concerns, it is often not possible to pool genetic data from multiple cohorts, and meta‐analysis has emerged as the method of choice to combine results from multiple studies. Many meta‐analysis methods are available for single SNV analyses. As new approaches allow the capture of low frequency and rare genetic variation, it is of interest to jointly consider multiple variants to improve power. However, for the analysis of haplotypes formed by multiple SNVs, meta‐analysis remains a challenge, because different haplotypes may be observed across studies. We propose a two‐stage meta‐analysis approach to combine haplotype analysis results. In the first stage, each cohort estimate haplotype effect sizes in a regression framework, accounting for relatedness among observations if appropriate. For the second stage, we use a multivariate generalized least square meta‐analysis approach to combine haplotype effect estimates from multiple cohorts. Haplotype‐specific association tests and a global test of independence between haplotypes and traits are obtained within our framework. We demonstrate through simulation studies that we control the type‐I error rate, and our approach is more powerful than inverse variance weighted meta‐analysis of single SNV analysis when haplotype effects are present. We replicate a published haplotype association between fasting glucose‐associated locus (G6PC2) and fasting glucose in seven studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium and we provide more precise haplotype effect estimates. PMID:27027517

  10. Haplotyping using a combination of polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis and haplotype-specific PCR amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huitong; Li, Shaobin; Liu, Xiu; Wang, Jiqing; Luo, Yuzhu; Hickford, Jon G H

    2014-12-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may have an impact on phenotype, but it may also be influenced by multiple SNPs within a gene; hence, the haplotype or phase of multiple SNPs needs to be known. Various methods for haplotyping SNPs have been proposed, but a simple and cost-effective method is currently unavailable. Here we describe a haplotyping approach using two simple techniques: polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and haplotype-specific PCR. In this approach, individual regions of a gene are analyzed by PCR-SSCP to identify variation that defines sub-haplotypes, and then extended haplotypes are assembled from the sub-haplotypes either directly or with the additional use of haplotype-specific PCR amplification. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by haplotyping ovine FABP4 across two variable regions that contain seven SNPs and one indel. The simplicity of this approach makes it suitable for large-scale studies and/or diagnostic screening.

  11. Sequence-Level Analysis of the Major European Huntington Disease Haplotype

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Shin, Aram; Chao, Michael J.; Abu Elneel, Kawther; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi Srinidhi; Kaye, Julia A.; Zahed, Hengameh; Kratter, Ian H.; Daub, Aaron C.; Finkbeiner, Steven; Li, Hong; Roach, Jared C.; Goodman, Nathan; Hood, Leroy; Myers, Richard H.; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Gusella, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) reflects the dominant consequences of a CAG-repeat expansion in HTT. Analysis of common SNP-based haplotypes has revealed that most European HD subjects have distinguishable HTT haplotypes on their normal and disease chromosomes and that ∼50% of the latter share the same major HD haplotype. We reasoned that sequence-level investigation of this founder haplotype could provide significant insights into the history of HD and valuable information for gene-targeting approaches. Consequently, we performed whole-genome sequencing of HD and control subjects from four independent families in whom the major European HD haplotype segregates with the disease. Analysis of the full-sequence-based HTT haplotype indicated that these four families share a common ancestor sufficiently distant to have permitted the accumulation of family-specific variants. Confirmation of new CAG-expansion mutations on this haplotype suggests that unlike most founders of human disease, the common ancestor of HD-affected families with the major haplotype most likely did not have HD. Further, availability of the full sequence data validated the use of SNP imputation to predict the optimal variants for capturing heterozygosity in personalized allele-specific gene-silencing approaches. As few as ten SNPs are capable of revealing heterozygosity in more than 97% of European HD subjects. Extension of allele-specific silencing strategies to the few remaining homozygous individuals is likely to be achievable through additional known SNPs and discovery of private variants by complete sequencing of HTT. These data suggest that the current development of gene-based targeting for HD could be extended to personalized allele-specific approaches in essentially all HD individuals of European ancestry. PMID:26320893

  12. Incorporating Single-Locus Tests into Haplotype Cladistic Analysis in Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianfeng; Papasian, Chris; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2007-01-01

    In case-control studies, genetic associations for complex diseases may be probed either with single-locus tests or with haplotype-based tests. Although there are different views on the relative merits and preferences of the two test strategies, haplotype-based analyses are generally believed to be more powerful to detect genes with modest effects. However, a main drawback of haplotype-based association tests is the large number of distinct haplotypes, which increases the degrees of freedom for corresponding test statistics and thus reduces the statistical power. To decrease the degrees of freedom and enhance the efficiency and power of haplotype analysis, we propose an improved haplotype clustering method that is based on the haplotype cladistic analysis developed by Durrant et al. In our method, we attempt to combine the strengths of single-locus analysis and haplotype-based analysis into one single test framework. Novel in our method is that we develop a more informative haplotype similarity measurement by using p-values obtained from single-locus association tests to construct a measure of weight, which to some extent incorporates the information of disease outcomes. The weights are then used in computation of similarity measures to construct distance metrics between haplotype pairs in haplotype cladistic analysis. To assess our proposed new method, we performed simulation analyses to compare the relative performances of (1) conventional haplotype-based analysis using original haplotype, (2) single-locus allele-based analysis, (3) original haplotype cladistic analysis (CLADHC) by Durrant et al., and (4) our weighted haplotype cladistic analysis method, under different scenarios. Our weighted cladistic analysis method shows an increased statistical power and robustness, compared with the methods of haplotype cladistic analysis, single-locus test, and the traditional haplotype-based analyses. The real data analyses also show that our proposed method has practical

  13. Founder haplotype analysis of Fanconi anemia in the Korean population finds common ancestral haplotypes for a FANCG variant.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonhong; Kim, Myungshin; Jang, Woori; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Yonggoo; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Lee, Jae-Wook; Cho, Bin; Jeong, Dae-Chul; Park, In Yang; Park, Mi Sun

    2015-05-01

    A common ancestral haplotype is strongly suggested in the Korean and Japanese patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), because common mutations have been frequently found: c.2546delC and c.3720_3724delAAACA of FANCA; c.307+1G>C, c.1066C>T, and c.1589_1591delATA of FANCG. Our aim in this study was to investigate the origin of these common mutations of FANCA and FANCG. We genotyped 13 FA patients consisting of five FA-A patients and eight FA-G patients from the Korean FA population. Microsatellite markers used for haplotype analysis included four CA repeat markers which are closely linked with FANCA and eight CA repeat markers which are contiguous with FANCG. As a result, Korean FA-A patients carrying c.2546delC or c.3720_3724delAAACA did not share the same haplotypes. However, three unique haplotypes carrying c.307+1G>C, c.1066C > T, or c.1589_1591delATA, that consisted of eight polymorphic loci covering a flanking region were strongly associated with Korean FA-G, consistent with founder haplotypes reported previously in the Japanese FA-G population. Our finding confirmed the common ancestral haplotypes on the origins of the East Asian FA-G patients, which will improve our understanding of the molecular population genetics of FA-G. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association between disease-linked mutations and common ancestral haplotypes in the Korean FA population.

  14. Linkage disequilibrium, haplotype analysis and Werner`s syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wijsman, E.M.; Goddard, K.A.B.; Martin, G.M.

    1994-09-01

    Werner`s syndrome (WS) is a rare, autosomal, recessive disorder of premature aging. Although the underlying defect is unknown, the gene for the disorder, WRN, has been mapped to the 8p11.1-21.1 region. We have assembled a sample of 30 Japanese and 24 non-Japanese (primary Caucasian) WS patients, as well as a control sample from each population. 25 of the Japanese patients and 10 of the Caucasian patients are from consanguineous marriages. We recently presented evidence from these families which places WRN in the 10.2 cM interval between D8S87 and D8S137. However, because WS is so rare and because many patients are from consanguineous marriages, fine localization of the gene by traditional meiotic mapping methods is unlikely to succeed. The existence of linkage disequilibrium is now recognized as a key piece of evidence in defining a small region (typically under 1-2 cM) containing a gene of interest. Thus an alternative approach for refining the location of WRN may be to identify linked markers which are in linkage disequilibrium with the disease. We recently suggested that WRN may be close to D8S339 and GSR in the above interval because of the presence of statistically significant evidence of linkage disequilibrium in the Japanese sample. In addition, there was evidence in both populations that a limited number of haplotypes was associated with the disease. Here we report an extension of this study to include a number of additional markers. We present additional evidence that there is linkage disequilibrium between many of these markers and WRN in both the Japanese and Caucasian samples. In addition, the additional markers do not markedly subdivide the disease haplotypes defined by D8S339 and GSR, while at the same time they introduce substantial numbers of new haplotypes into the control populations. These results suggest that the haplotypes associated with WS may be used to further define the limits of WRN.

  15. Haplotype sharing analysis with SNPs in candidate genes: the Genetic Analysis Workshop 12 example.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Christine; Beckmann, Lars; Majoram, Paul; te Meerman, Gerard; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2003-01-01

    Haplotype sharing analysis was used to investigate the association of affection status with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotypes within candidate gene 1 in one sample each from the isolated and the general population of Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 12 simulated data. Gene 1 has direct influence on affection and harbors more than 70 SNPs. Haplotype sharing analysis depends heavily on previous haplotype estimation. Using GENEHUNTER haplotypes, strong evidence was found for most SNPs in the isolated population sample, thus providing evidence for an involvement of this gene, but the maximum -log(10)(p) values for the haplotype sharing statistics (HSS) test statistic did not correspond to the location of the true variant in either population. In comparison, transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) analysis showed the strongest results at the disease-causing variant in both populations, and these were outstanding in the general population. In this example, TDT analysis appears to perform better than HSS in identifying the disease-causing variant, using SNPs within a candidate gene in an outbred population. Simulations showed that the performance of HSS is hampered by closely spaced SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium with the functional variant and by ambiguous haplotypes.

  16. Haplotype analysis of the 4p16.3 region in Portuguese families with Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Eliana Marisa; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi S.; Lee, Jong‐Min; Gögele, Martin; D'Elia, Yuri; Pichler, Irene; Sequeiros, Jorge; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Gusella, James F.; MacDonald, Marcy E.

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by involuntary choreic movements, cognitive impairment, and behavioral changes, caused by the expansion of an unstable CAG repeat in HTT. We characterized the genetic diversity of the HD mutation by performing an extensive haplotype analysis of ∼1Mb region flanking HTT in over 300 HD families of Portuguese origin. We observed that haplotype A, marked by HTT delta2642, was enriched in HD chromosomes and carried the two largest expansions reported in the Portuguese population. However, the most frequent HD haplotype B carried one of the largest (+12 CAGs) expansions, which resulted in an allele class change to full penetrance. Despite having a normal CAG distribution skewed to the higher end of the range, these two core haplotypes had similar expanded CAG repeat sizes compared to the other major core haplotypes (C and D) and there was no statistical difference in transmitted repeat instability across haplotypes. We observed a diversity of HTT region haplotypes in both normal and expanded chromosomes, representative of more than one ancestral chromosome underlying HD in Portugal, where multiple independent events on distinct chromosome 4 haplotypes have given rise to expansion into the pathogenic range. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25656686

  17. CFTR mutation analysis and haplotype associations in CF patients.

    PubMed

    Cordovado, S K; Hendrix, M; Greene, C N; Mochal, S; Earley, M C; Farrell, P M; Kharrazi, M; Hannon, W H; Mueller, P W

    2012-02-01

    Most newborn screening (NBS) laboratories use second-tier molecular tests for cystic fibrosis (CF) using dried blood spots (DBS). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's NBS Quality Assurance Program offers proficiency testing (PT) in DBS for CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection. Extensive molecular characterization on 76 CF patients, family members or screen positive newborns was performed for quality assurance. The coding, regulatory regions and portions of all introns were sequenced and large insertions/deletions were characterized as well as two intronic di-nucleotide microsatellites. For CF patient samples, at least two mutations were identified/verified and four specimens contained three likely CF-associated mutations. Thirty-four sequence variations in 152 chromosomes were identified, five of which were not previously reported. Twenty-seven of these variants were used to predict haplotypes from the major haplotype block defined by HapMap data that spans the promoter through intron 19. Chromosomes containing the F508del (p.Phe508del), G542X (p.Gly542X) and N1303K (p.Asn1303Lys) mutations shared a common haplotype subgroup, consistent with a common ancient European founder. Understanding the haplotype background of CF-associated mutations in the U.S. population provides a framework for future phenotype/genotype studies and will assist in determining a likely cis/trans phase of the mutations without need for parent studies.

  18. An Extensive Analysis of Y-Chromosomal Microsatellite Haplotypes in Globally Dispersed Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Manfred; Krawczak, Michael; Excoffier, Laurent; Dieltjes, Patrick; Corach, Daniel; Pascali, Vincente; Gehrig, Christian; Bernini, Luigi F.; Jespersen, Jørgen; Bakker, Egbert; Roewer, Lutz; de Knijff, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The genetic variance at seven Y-chromosomal microsatellite loci (or short tandem repeats [STRs]) was studied among 986 male individuals from 20 globally dispersed human populations. A total of 598 different haplotypes were observed, of which 437 (73.1%) were each found in a single male only. Population-specific haplotype-diversity values were .86–.99. Analyses of haplotype diversity and population-specific haplotypes revealed marked population-structure differences between more-isolated indigenous populations (e.g., Central African Pygmies or Greenland Inuit) and more-admixed populations (e.g., Europeans or Surinamese). Furthermore, male individuals from isolated indigenous populations shared haplotypes mainly with male individuals from their own population. By analysis of molecular variance, we found that 76.8% of the total genetic variance present among these male individuals could be attributed to genetic differences between male individuals who were members of the same population. Haplotype sharing between populations, ΦST statistics, and phylogenetic analysis identified close genetic affinities among European populations and among New Guinean populations. Our data illustrate that Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes are an ideal tool for the study of the genetic affinities between groups of male subjects and for detection of population structure. PMID:11254455

  19. Performance of single nucleotide polymorphisms versus haplotypes for genome-wide association analysis in barley.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Aaron J; Hamblin, Martha T; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2010-11-22

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may benefit from utilizing haplotype information for making marker-phenotype associations. Several rationales for grouping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) into haplotype blocks exist, but any advantage may depend on such factors as genetic architecture of traits, patterns of linkage disequilibrium in the study population, and marker density. The objective of this study was to explore the utility of haplotypes for GWAS in barley (Hordeum vulgare) to offer a first detailed look at this approach for identifying agronomically important genes in crops. To accomplish this, we used genotype and phenotype data from the Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project and constructed haplotypes using three different methods. Marker-trait associations were tested by the efficient mixed-model association algorithm (EMMA). When QTL were simulated using single SNPs dropped from the marker dataset, a simple sliding window performed as well or better than single SNPs or the more sophisticated methods of blocking SNPs into haplotypes. Moreover, the haplotype analyses performed better 1) when QTL were simulated as polymorphisms that arose subsequent to marker variants, and 2) in analysis of empirical heading date data. These results demonstrate that the information content of haplotypes is dependent on the particular mutational and recombinational history of the QTL and nearby markers. Analysis of the empirical data also confirmed our intuition that the distribution of QTL alleles in nature is often unlike the distribution of marker variants, and hence utilizing haplotype information could capture associations that would elude single SNPs. We recommend routine use of both single SNP and haplotype markers for GWAS to take advantage of the full information content of the genotype data.

  20. KIR haplotypes defined by segregation analysis in 59 Centre d'Etude Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) families.

    PubMed

    Martin, M P; Single, R M; Wilson, M J; Trowsdale, J; Carrington, M

    2008-12-01

    The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene cluster exhibits extensive allelic and haplotypic diversity. Variation at the locus is associated with an increasing number of human diseases, reminiscent of the HLA loci. Characterization of diversity at the KIR locus has progressed over the past several years, particularly since the sequence of entire KIR haplotypes have become available. To determine the extent of KIR haplotypic variability among individuals of northern European descent, we genotyped 59 CEPH families for presence/absence of all KIR genes and performed limited allelic subtyping at several KIR loci. A total of 20 unique haplotypes differing in gene content were identified, the most common of which was the previously defined A haplotype (f = 0.52). Several unusual haplotypes that probably arose as a consequence of unequal crossing over events were also identified. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis indicated strong negative and positive LD between several pairs of genes, values that may be useful in determining haplotypic structure when family data are not available. These data provide a resource to aid in the interpretation of disease association data involving individuals of European descent.

  1. Fetal male lineage determination by analysis of Y-chromosome STR haplotype in maternal plasma.

    PubMed

    Barra, Gustavo Barcelos; Santa Rita, Ticiane Henriques; Chianca, Camilla Figueiredo; Velasco, Lara Francielle Ribeiro; de Sousa, Claudia Ferreira; Nery, Lídia Freire Abdalla; Costa, Sandra Santana Soares

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the fetus Y-STR haplotype in maternal plasma during pregnancy and estimate, non-invasively, if the alleged father and fetus belong to the same male lineage. The study enrolled couples with singleton pregnancies and known paternity. All participants signed informed consent and the local ethics committee approved the study. Peripheral blood was collected in EDTA tubes (mother) and in FTA paper (father). Maternal plasma DNA was extracted by using NucliSens EasyMAG. Fetal gender was determined by qPCR targeting DYS-14 in maternal plasma and it was also confirmed after the delivery. From all included volunteers, the first consecutive 20 mothers bearing male fetuses and 10 mothers bearing female fetuses were selected for the Y-STR analysis. The median gestational age was 12 weeks (range 12-36). All DNA samples were subjected to PCR amplification by PowerPlex Y23, ampFLSTR Yfiler, and two in-house multiplexes, which together accounts for 27 different Y-STR. The PCR products were detected with 3500 Genetic Analyzer and they were analyzed using GeneMapper-IDX. Fetuses' haplotypes (Yfiler format) were compared to other 5328 Brazilian haplotypes available on Y-chromosome haplotypes reference database (YHRD). As a result, between 22 and 27 loci were successfully amplified from maternal plasma in all 20 cases of male fetuses. None of the women bearing female fetuses had a falsely amplified Y-STR haplotype. The haplotype detected in maternal plasma completely matched the alleged father haplotype in 16 out of the 20 cases. Four cases showed single mismatches and they did not configure exclusions; 1 case showed a mutation in the DYS 458 locus due to the loss of one repeat unit and 3 cases showed one DYS 385I/II locus dropout. All mismatches were confirmed after the delivery. Seventeen fetuses' haplotypes were not found in YHRD and one of them had a mutation, which corresponded to the paternity probability of 99.9812% and 95.7028%, respectively

  2. Cluster analysis of European Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes using the discrete Laplace method.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mikkel Meyer; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Morling, Niels

    2014-07-01

    The European Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotype distribution has previously been analysed in various ways. Here, we introduce a new way of analysing population substructure using a new method based on clustering within the discrete Laplace exponential family that models the probability distribution of the Y-STR haplotypes. Creating a consistent statistical model of the haplotypes enables us to perform a wide range of analyses. Previously, haplotype frequency estimation using the discrete Laplace method has been validated. In this paper we investigate how the discrete Laplace method can be used for cluster analysis to further validate the discrete Laplace method. A very important practical fact is that the calculations can be performed on a normal computer. We identified two sub-clusters of the Eastern and Western European Y-STR haplotypes similar to results of previous studies. We also compared pairwise distances (between geographically separated samples) with those obtained using the AMOVA method and found good agreement. Further analyses that are impossible with AMOVA were made using the discrete Laplace method: analysis of the homogeneity in two different ways and calculating marginal STR distributions. We found that the Y-STR haplotypes from e.g. Finland were relatively homogeneous as opposed to the relatively heterogeneous Y-STR haplotypes from e.g. Lublin, Eastern Poland and Berlin, Germany. We demonstrated that the observed distributions of alleles at each locus were similar to the expected ones. We also compared pairwise distances between geographically separated samples from Africa with those obtained using the AMOVA method and found good agreement.

  3. Haplotype analysis of the folate-related genes MTHFR, MTRR, and MTR and migraine with aura

    PubMed Central

    Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Scher, Ann I.; Smith, Albert; Harris, Tamara; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Garcia, Melissa; Gudnason, Villi; Launer, Lenore J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The C677T variant in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; EC 1.5.1.20) enzyme, a key player in the folate metabolic pathway, has been associated with increased risk of migraine with aura. Other genes encoding molecular components of this pathway include Methionine synthase (MTR; EC 2.1.1.13), and Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR; EC 2.1.1.135) among others. We performed a haplotype analysis of migraine risk and MTHFR, MTR, and MTRR. Methods Study participants are from a random sub-sample participating in the population-based AGES-Reykjavik Study, including subjects with non-migraine headache (n=367), migraine without aura (n=85), migraine with aura (n=167), and no headache (n=1347). Haplotypes spanning each gene were constructed using Haploview. Association testing was performed on single SNPs and haplotypes using logistic regression, controlling for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors and correcting for multiple testing Results Haplotype analysis suggested an association between MTRR haplotypes and reduced risk of migraine with aura. All other associations were not significant after correcting for multiple testing. Conclusions These results suggest that MTRR variants may protect against migraine with aura in an older population. PMID:23430981

  4. Molecular Pathology and Haplotype Analysis of Wilson Disease in Mediterranean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Figus, Annalena; Angius, Andrea; Loudianos, Georgios; Bertini, Chiara; Dessì, Valeria; Loi, Angela; Deiana, Manila; Lovicu, Mario; Olla, Nazario; Sole, Gabriella; De Virgiliis, Stefano; Lilliu, Franco; Farci, Anna Maria Giulia; Nurchi, Annamaria; Giacchino, Raffaella; Barabino, Arrigo; Marazzi, Maria; Zancan, Lucia; Greggio, Nella A.; Marcellini, Matilde; Solinas, Antonello; Deplano, Angelo; Barbera, Cristiana; Devoto, Marcella; Ozsoylu, Sinasi; Kocak, Nurten; Akar, Nejat; Karayalcin, Selin; Mokini, Vahe; Cullufi, Paskal; Balestrieri, Angelo; Cao, Antonio; Pirastu, Mario

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed mutations and defined the chromosomal haplotype in 127 patients of Mediterranean descent who were affected by Wilson disease (WD), 39 Sardinians, 49 Italians, 33 Turks, and 6 Albanians. Haplotypes were derived by use of the microsatellite markers D13S301, D13S296, D13S297, and D13S298, which are linked to the WD locus. There were five common haplotypes in Sardinians, three in Italians, and two in Turks, which accounted for 85%, 32%, and 30% of the WD chromosomes, respectively. We identified 16 novel mutations: 8 frameshifts, 7 missense mutations, and 1 splicing defect. In addition, we detected the previously described mutations: 2302insC, 3404delC, Argl320ter, Gly944-Ser, and Hisl070Gin. Of the new mutations detected, two, the 1515insT on haplotype I and 2464delC on haplotype XVI, accounted for 6% and 13%, respectively, of the mutations in WD chromosomes in the Sardinian population. Mutations H1070Q, 2302insC, and 2533delA represented 13%, 8%, and 8%, respectively, of the mutations in WD chromosomes in other Mediterranean populations. The remaining mutations were rare and limited to one or two patients from different populations. Thus, WD results from some frequent mutations and many rare defects. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:8533760

  5. Genetic evidence for heterogeneity in the etiology of CBAVD: Haplotype analysis in families

    SciTech Connect

    Kerem, B.; Rave-Harel, N.; Goshen, R.

    1994-09-01

    Male infertility due to congenital aplasia of the vas deference (CBAVD) is present in almost all CF male patients. It is also found in 1-2% of infertile otherwise healthy males. Several studies have found that about 10% of males with CBAVD carry 2 CF mutations, 40% carry one mutation and 50% have no mutations. These results indicate that in some males CBAVD is caused by two mutated CF alleles. However, in cases of males with one or no identified CF mutations, the association between CBAVD and CF is unclear. We therefore performed, in addition to CF mutation analysis, an extended haplotype analysis in 7 families of CBAVD males (2 had 2 brothers with CBAVD). Our results show that in 6 of the families, the infertile males inherited different CF alleles than their fertile brothers. However, in 2 families, in which no CF mutations were as of yet identified, different results were found. In one family, 2 infertile brothers differed in their haplotypes: both inherited from their mother the same CF allele, while from their father they inherited different alleles. Furthermore, their fertile brother inherited the same CF alleles as one of his fertile brothers. In another family, 2 brothers, one with CBAVD and the other fertile, inherited the same 2 CFTR alleles. These results provide genetic evidence for heterogeneity in the etiology of CBAVD. In some families the CBAVD is caused by 2 CF mutations, in others it is caused by other mechanism(s): heterozygosity for a CF mutation influenced by different threshold levels, mutations in other gene(s), or interaction between the two.

  6. Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) in Moroccan Jews: Demonstration of a founder effect by extened haplotype analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Aksentijevich, I.; Pras, E.; Helling, S.; Prosen, L.; Kastner, D.L.; Gruberg, L.; Pras, M. )

    1993-09-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease causing attacks of fever and serositis. The FMF gene (designated MEF') is on 16p, with the gene order 16 cen-D16S80-MEF-D16S94-D16S283-D16S291-16pter. Here the authors report the association of FMF susceptibility with alleles at D16S94, D16S283, and D16S291 among 31 non-Ashkenazi Jewish families 14 Moroccan families. For the non-Moroccans, only the allelic association at D16S94 approached statistical significance. Haplotype analysis showed that 18/25 Moroccan FMF chromosomes, versus 0/21 noncarrier chromosomes, bore a specific haplotype for D16S94-D16S283-D16S291. Among non-Moroccans this haplotype was present in 6/26 FMF chromosomes versus 1/28 controls. Both groups of families are largely descended from Jews who fled the Spanish Inquisition. The strong haplotype association seen among the Moroccans is most likely a founder effect, given the recent origin and genetic isolation of the Moroccan Jewish community. The lowest haplotype frequency among non-Moroccan carriers may reflect differences both in history and in population genetics. 28 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Population genetic structure of the toad Bufo woodhousii: an empirical assessment of the effects of haplotype extinction on nested cladistic analysis.

    PubMed

    Masta, S E; Laurent, N M; Routman, E J

    2003-06-01

    Nested cladistic analysis (NCA) is increasingly being used to infer historical population-level processes, including population fragmentation, range expansion and long-distance colonization. However, the effects on interpretation of NCA inferences of stochastic extinction of haplotypes due to genetic drift (lineage sorting), or of haplotype loss via localized biotic or climatic influences, have not been thoroughly explored. We provide empirical evidence suggesting that NCA may misinterpret population history when haplotypes or haplotype groups from one clade are replaced by those of another clade. We do so by using NCA to analyse mitochondrial sequences from the toad Bufo woodhousii from 45 locations spanning the Great Plains and southwestern USA. Portions of this region were glaciated and/or desertified in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene, and hence uninhabitable for plains-dwelling organisms. Although NCA inferences of isolation-by-distance and gradual range expansion in B. woodhousii are compatible with expectations based on climatic data and toad biology, NCA also detected several instances of long-distance movement. Such movement seems unlikely, given the low vagility of this species. We conclude that inferences of long-distance colonization likely result from extinction of haplotypes in intervening areas. We suggest using additional methods to look for congruent inferences, and amending the NCA inference key, to help avoid misinterpretations resulting from haplotype extinction.

  8. Haplotyping algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, E.; Lange, K.; O`Connell, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Haplotyping is the logical process of inferring gene flow in a pedigree based on phenotyping results at a small number of genetic loci. This paper formalizes the haplotyping problem and suggests four algorithms for haplotype reconstruction. These algorithms range from exhaustive enumeration of all haplotype vectors to combinatorial optimization by simulated annealing. Application of the algorithms to published genetic analyses shows that manual haplotyping is often erroneous. Haplotyping is employed in screening pedigrees for phenotyping errors and in positional cloning of disease genes from conserved haplotypes in population isolates. 26 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. 24 Y-chromosomal STR haplotypic polymorphisms for Chinese Uygur ethnic group and its phylogenic analysis with other Chinese groups.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Juan; Pu, Hong-Wei; Yang, Chun-Hua; Meng, Hao-Tian; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Zhang, Li-Ping; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Ren, Jian-Wen; Sun, Jun-Yi; Liu, Chao; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2015-02-01

    The Uygur ethnic minority is the largest ethnic group in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China, and is a precious resource for the study of ethnogeny and forensic biology. Previous studies have focused on the genetic background of the Uygur group, however, the patrilineal descent of the group is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity of 24 Y-STR loci in the Uygur group and analyzed the population differentiations as well as the genetic relationships between the Uygur group and other previously reported populations using 17 Y-filer loci. According to haplotypic analysis of the 24 Y-STR loci in 109 Uygur individuals, 104 different haplotypes were obtained, 99 of which were unique. The haplotypic diversity and discrimination capacity of these 24 Y-STR loci in Uygur group were 0.9992 and 0.9541, respectively. An additional 7 loci (DYS388, DYS444, DYS447, DYS449, DYS522, and DYS527a,b) showed high genetic diversity and improved the overall discrimination capacity of the 24 Y-STR system. Pairwise Fst and neighbor-joining analysis showed that the Uygur group was genetically close to the Han populations from different regions.

  10. Hypercontrols in Genotype-Phenotype Analysis Reveal Ancestral Haplotypes Associated With Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Balam-Ortiz, Eros; Esquivel-Villarreal, Adolfo; Huerta-Hernandez, David; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Alfaro-Ruiz, Luis; Muñoz-Monroy, Omar; Gutierrez, Ruth; Figueroa-Genis, Enrique; Carrillo, Karol; Elizalde, Adela; Hidalgo, Alfredo; Rodriguez, Mauricio; Urushihara, Maki; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    The angiotensinogen gene locus has been associated with essential hypertension in most populations analyzed to date. Increased plasma angiotensinogen levels have been proposed as an underlying cause of essential hypertension in whites; however, differences in the genetic regulation of plasma angiotensinogen levels have also been reported for other populations. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with plasma angiotensinogen levels and the risk of essential hypertension in the Mexican population. We genotyped 9 angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms in 706 individuals. Four polymorphisms, A-6, C4072, C6309, and G12775, were associated with increased risk, and the strongest association was found for the C6309 allele (χ2 = 23.9; P = 0.0000009), which resulted in an odds ratio of 3.0 (95% CI: 1.8–4.9; P = 0.000006) in the recessive model. Two polymorphisms, A-20C (P = 0.003) and C3389T (P = 0.0001), were associated with increased plasma angiotensinogen levels but did not show association with essential hypertension. The haplotypes H1 (χ2 = 8.1; P = 0.004) and H5 (χ2 = 5.1; P = 0.02) were associated with essential hypertension. Using phylogenetic analysis, we found that haplotypes 1 and 5 are the human ancestral haplotypes. Our results suggest that the positive association between angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with essential hypertension is not simply explained by an increase in plasma angiotensinogen concentration. Complex interactions between risk alleles suggest that these haplotypes act as “superalleles.” PMID:22371359

  11. Hypercontrols in genotype-phenotype analysis reveal ancestral haplotypes associated with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Balam-Ortiz, Eros; Esquivel-Villarreal, Adolfo; Huerta-Hernandez, David; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Alfaro-Ruiz, Luis; Muñoz-Monroy, Omar; Gutierrez, Ruth; Figueroa-Genis, Enrique; Carrillo, Karol; Elizalde, Adela; Hidalgo, Alfredo; Rodriguez, Mauricio; Urushihara, Maki; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo

    2012-04-01

    The angiotensinogen gene locus has been associated with essential hypertension in most populations analyzed to date. Increased plasma angiotensinogen levels have been proposed as an underlying cause of essential hypertension in whites; however, differences in the genetic regulation of plasma angiotensinogen levels have also been reported for other populations. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with plasma angiotensinogen levels and the risk of essential hypertension in the Mexican population. We genotyped 9 angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms in 706 individuals. Four polymorphisms, A-6, C4072, C6309, and G12775, were associated with increased risk, and the strongest association was found for the C6309 allele (χ(2)=23.9; P=0.0000009), which resulted in an odds ratio of 3.0 (95% CI: 1.8-4.9; P=0.000006) in the recessive model. Two polymorphisms, A-20C (P=0.003) and C3389T (P=0.0001), were associated with increased plasma angiotensinogen levels but did not show association with essential hypertension. The haplotypes H1 (χ(2)=8.1; P=0.004) and H5 (χ(2)=5.1; P=0.02) were associated with essential hypertension. Using phylogenetic analysis, we found that haplotypes 1 and 5 are the human ancestral haplotypes. Our results suggest that the positive association between angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with essential hypertension is not simply explained by an increase in plasma angiotensinogen concentration. Complex interactions between risk alleles suggest that these haplotypes act as "superalleles."

  12. A Genome-Wide Association Study for Agronomic Traits in Soybean Using SNP Markers and SNP-Based Haplotype Analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marco Antônio Rott; Higashi, Wilson; Scapim, Carlos Alberto; Schuster, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Mapping quantitative trait loci through the use of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in populations of unrelated individuals provides a valuable approach for dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits in soybean (Glycine max). The haplotype-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) has now been proposed as a complementary approach to intensify benefits from LD, which enable to assess the genetic determinants of agronomic traits. In this study a GWAS was undertaken to identify genomic regions that control 100-seed weight (SW), plant height (PH) and seed yield (SY) in a soybean association mapping panel using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and haplotype information. The soybean cultivars (N = 169) were field-evaluated across four locations of southern Brazil. The genome-wide haplotype association analysis (941 haplotypes) identified eleven, seventeen and fifty-nine SNP-based haplotypes significantly associated with SY, SW and PH, respectively. Although most marker-trait associations were environment and trait specific, stable haplotype associations were identified for SY and SW across environments (i.e., haplotypes Gm12_Hap12). The haplotype block 42 on Chr19 (Gm19_Hap42) was confirmed to be associated with PH in two environments. These findings enable us to refine the breeding strategy for tropical soybean, which confirm that haplotype-based GWAS can provide new insights on the genetic determinants that are not captured by the single-marker approach. PMID:28152092

  13. Haplotype and linkage disequilibrium analysis of the CRMP1 and EVC genes.

    PubMed

    Sivakumaran, Theru A; Lesperance, Marci M

    2004-11-01

    In this report, we present the haplotype and linkage disequilibrium (LD) pattern in the Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 1 (CRMP1) and Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) gene region. We genotyped eight different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRMP1 and EVC genes in 90 control individuals of diverse ethnicity. The minor allele frequencies ranged from 3.3-49.4%, with most having a frequency >25%. A total of 37 haplotypes were derived from these eight polymorphisms, with only one haplotype having a frequency >10%. Pairwise LD analysis showed a weak but significant LD between markers located about 243 kb apart in this region. The LD was significant between markers spaced about 208 kb apart in EVC, whereas no LD was found between a pair of markers located about 5 kb apart in CRMP1. However, in general, LD correlated with the distance between loci. The CRMP1 and EVC genes are located near WFS1, the Wolfram syndrome type 1 gene, in which mutations also cause low frequency sensorineural hearing loss (LFSNHL). The haplotypes obtained from these polymorphisms will be useful to track the segregation of phenotypes in families with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Weyers acrodental dysostosis, LFSNHL and Wolfram syndrome type 1.

  14. Analysis of recombinational hot spots associated with the p haplotype fo the mouse MHC

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, D.; Khambata, S.; Wydner, K.S.; Passmore, H.C.

    1994-09-01

    Most of the recombination events detected within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of the mouse fall into areas of limited physical size that have been designated recombinational hot spots. One of these hot spots, associated with the Ea gene, appears to be active only in the presence of the p haplotype of the MHC. To study the regulation of the Ea recombinational hot spot and its haplotype specificity, a high-resolution comparative map fo the MHC and adjacent regions was completed in four different backcrosses carrying the p haplotype. This mapping study utilized a total of 29 PCR-based molecular markers, including 7 newly developed markers spanning the region between Pim1 and D17Mit11 on Chromosome 17. The analysis of a total of 1093 backcross animals: (1) revealed that the presence of the p haplotype of the MHC is not sufficient to induce recombination at the Ea hot spot in a dominant manner, and (2) resulted in the definition of a new intra-MHC recombinational hot spot between the Tnfb and the H2-D genes.

  15. Haplotype analysis of ESR2 in Japanese patients with spermatogenic failure.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki; Yoshida, Rie; Nagata, Eiko; Fujisawa, Yasuko; Yoshida, Atsumi; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2012-07-01

    The prevalence of spermatogenic failure (SF) has gradually increased during the past few decades at least in several countries. Although multiple factors would be involved in this phenomenon, one important factor would be excessive estrogen effects via estrogen receptors (ERs). Thus, we performed haplotype analysis of ESR2 encoding ERβ in 125 Japanese SF patients and 119 age-matched control males, using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) 1-9 that are widely distributed on the ~120-kb genomic sequence of ESR2. Consequently, a linkage disequilibrium (LD) block was detected in an ~60-kb region encompassing SNPs 2-7 in both groups, and four major estimated haplotypes were identified within the LD block. Furthermore, the most prevalent 'TGTAGA' haplotype was found to be significantly associated with SF, with the P-value obtained by the Cochran-Armitage trend test (0.0029) being lower than that obtained by a 100 000-times permutation test (0.0038) to cope with the problem of multiple comparisons. The results, in conjunction with our previous data indicating lack of a susceptibility factor on ESR1 encoding ERα, imply that the specific 'TGTAGA' haplotype of ESR2 raises the susceptibility to the development of SF.

  16. Haplotype analysis of the polymorphic 40 Y-STR markers in Chinese populations.

    PubMed

    Ou, Xueling; Wang, Ying; Liu, Chao; Yang, Donggui; Zhang, Chuchu; Deng, Shujiao; Sun, Hongyu

    2015-11-01

    Forty Y-STR loci were analyzed in 1128 males from the following six Chinese ethnic populations: Han (n=300), Hui (n=244), Korean (n=100), Mongolian (n=100), Uighur (n=284) and Tibetan (n=100), utilizing two new generation multiplex Y-STR systems, AGCU Y24 STR and GFS Y24 STR genotyping kits, which allow for the genotyping of 24 loci from a single amplification reaction in each system. The lowest estimates of genetic diversity (below 0.5) correspond to markers DYS391 (0.441658) and DYS437 (0.496977), and the greatest diversity corresponds to markers DYS385a/b (0.969919) and DYS527a/b (0.94676). A considerable number of duplicate and off-ladder alleles were also revealed. Additionally, there were 1111 different haplotypes identified from the total 1128 samples, of which 1095 were unique. Notably, no shared haplotypes between populations were observed. The estimated overall haplotype diversity (HD) was 0.999085, and its discrimination capacity (DC) was 0.970745. An MDS plot based on the genetic distances between populations showed the genetic similarity of the southern Han population to the Northern populations of Hui, Korean, Mongolian and Uighur and a clear genetic departure of the Tibetan population from other populations. For the Y STR markers, population substructure correction was considered when calculating the rarity of the Y STR profile. However, because the haplotype based Fst values are extremely small within the present data (0.000153 with 40 Y-STRs), no substructure correction is required to estimate the rarity of a haplotype comprising 40 markers. In summary, the results of our study indicate that the 40 Y-STRs have a high level of polymorphism in Chinese ethnic groups and could therefore be a powerful tool for forensic applications and population genetic studies.

  17. SNP discovery and haplotype analysis in the segmentally duplicated DRD5 coding region

    PubMed Central

    HOUSLEY, D. J. E.; NIKOLAS, M.; VENTA, P. J.; JERNIGAN, K. A.; WALDMAN, I. D.; NIGG, J. T.; FRIDERICI, K. H.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The dopamine receptor 5 gene (DRD5) holds much promise as a candidate locus for contributing to neuropsychiatric disorders and other diseases influenced by the dopaminergic system, as well as having potential to affect normal behavioral variation. However, detailed analyses of this gene have been complicated by its location within a segmentally duplicated chromosomal region. Microsatellites and SNPs upstream from the coding region have been used for association studies, but we find, using bioinformatics resources, that these markers all lie within a previously unrecognized second segmental duplication (SD). In order to accurately analyze the DRD5 locus for polymorphisms in the absence of contaminating pseudogene sequences, we developed a fast and reliable method for sequence analysis and genotyping within the DRD5 coding region. We employed restriction enzyme digestion of genomic DNA to eliminate the pseudogenes prior to PCR amplification of the functional gene. This approach allowed us to determine the DRD5 haplotype structure using 31 trios and to reveal additional rare variants in 171 unrelated individuals. We clarify the inconsistencies and errors of the recorded SNPs in dbSNP and HapMap and illustrate the importance of using caution when choosing SNPs in regions of suspected duplications. The simple and relatively inexpensive method presented herein allows for convenient analysis of sequence variation in DRD5 and can be easily adapted to other duplicated genomic regions in order to obtain good quality sequence data. PMID:19397556

  18. Genetic diversity and geographical structure of the pitcher plant Nepenthes vieillardii in New Caledonia: A chloroplast DNA haplotype analysis.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Kaoruko; Jaffré, Tanguy; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2008-12-01

    Among the many species that grow in New Caledonia, the pitcher plant Nepenthes vieillardii (Nepenthaceae) has a high degree of morphological variation. In this study, we present the patterns of genetic differentiation of pitcher plant populations based on chloroplast DNA haplotype analysis using the sequences of five spacers. We analyzed 294 samples from 16 populations covering the entire range of the species, using 4660 bp of sequence. Our analysis identified 17 haplotypes, including one that is widely distributed across the islands, as well as regional and private haplotypes. The greatest haplotype diversity was detected on the eastern coast of the largest island and included several private haplotypes, while haplotype diversity was low in the southern plains region. The parsimony network analysis of the 17 haplotypes suggested that the genetic divergence is the result of long-term isolation of individual populations. Results from a spatial analysis of molecular variance and a cluster analysis suggest that the plants once covered the entire serpentine area of New Caledonia and that subsequent regional fragmentation resulted in the isolation of each population and significantly restricted seed flow. This isolation may have been an important factor in the development of the morphological and genetic variation among pitcher plants in New Caledonia.

  19. Haplotype and mutation analysis for newly suggested Y-STRs in Korean father-son pairs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yu Na; Lee, Hwan Young; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Eun Hye; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 363 Korean father-son haplotype transfers in 351 families were analyzed using an in-house multiplex PCR system for 14 Y-STRs (DYS385a/b, DYF387S1, DYS391, DYS449, DYS460, DYS481, DYS518, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, DYS627 and DYS643), that included 11 loci newly added to the PowerPlex Y23 system or the Yfiler Plus system. The Y-STRs showed gene diversity values ranging from 0.2499 to 0.9612; the multicopy Y-STR loci DYS385 and DYF387S1 had high gene diversity of 0.9612 and 0.9457, respectively. In addition, DYF387S1, which has two copies, showed three alleles in seven individuals, and micro-variant alleles were observed in 14 individuals at four loci (DYS448, DYS518, DYS570 and DYS627). Among 351 haplotypes for the 11 newly added Y-STRs, 350 different haplotypes were observed, with an overall haplotype diversity of 0.9999 and discrimination capacity of 99.72%. In 363 haplotype transfers from 351 pedigrees, 29 single-step mutations were observed at 11 Y-STRs. Locus-specific mutation rate estimates varied from 0.0 to 1.93×10(-2), with an average estimated mutation rate of 6.66×10(-3). Two father-son pairs had mutations at two different loci in 11 Y-STRs. The number of pairs with mutations at multiple loci increased to five when the mutation event was investigated for haplotype transfer at 28 Y-STRs including 17 Yfiler loci and 11 Y-STRs examined in this study: four father-son pairs had mutations at two loci, and one pair had mutations at three loci. Overall, mutations were frequently observed at DYS449, DYS576 and DYS627 loci, which are known to be rapidly mutating Y-STRs. Mutation rate estimates at most loci were not significantly different from rates in other populations, but estimates for DYF387S1, DYS518 and DYS570 were considerably lower in the Korean population than in other populations.

  20. Haplotype-Based Analysis of Genes Associated With Risk of Adverse Skin Reactions After Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Suga, Tomo; Ishikawa, Atsuko; Kohda, Masakazu; Otsuka, Yoshimi; Yamada, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Naohito; Shibamoto, Yuta; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Nomura, Kuninori; Sho, Keizen; Omura, Motoko; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Kikuchi, Yuzo; Michikawa, Yuichi; Noda, Shuhei; Sagara, Masashi; Ohashi, Jun; Yoshinaga, Shinji; Mizoe, Junetsu; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To identify haplotypes of single nucleotide polymorphism markers associated with the risk of early adverse skin reactions (EASRs) after radiotherapy in breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: DNA was sampled from 399 Japanese breast cancer patients who qualified for breast-conserving radiotherapy. Using the National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria scoring system, version 2, the patients were grouped according to EASRs, defined as those occurring within 3 months of starting radiotherapy (Grade 1 or less, n = 290; Grade 2 or greater, n = 109). A total of 999 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 137 candidate genes for radiation susceptibility were genotyped, and the haplotype associations between groups were assessed. Results: The global haplotype association analysis (p < 0.05 and false discovery rate < 0.05) indicated that estimated haplotypes in six loci were associated with EASR risk. A comparison of the risk haplotype with the most frequent haplotype in each locus showed haplotype GGTT in CD44 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-4.43) resulted in a significantly greater EASR risk. Five haplotypes, CG in MAD2L2 (OR = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.35-0.87), GTTG in PTTG1 (OR = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.24-0.96), TCC (OR = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.26-0.89) and CCG (OR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.27-0.92) in RAD9A, and GCT in LIG3 (OR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.93) were associated with a reduced EASR risk. No significant risk haplotype was observed in REV3L. Conclusion: Individual radiosensitivity can be partly determined by these haplotypes in multiple loci. Our findings may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the genetic variation in radiation sensitivity and resistance among breast cancer patients.

  1. DNA analysis of ancient dogs of the Americas: identifying possible founding haplotypes and reconstructing population histories.

    PubMed

    Witt, Kelsey E; Judd, Kathleen; Kitchen, Andrew; Grier, Colin; Kohler, Timothy A; Ortman, Scott G; Kemp, Brian M; Malhi, Ripan S

    2015-02-01

    As dogs have traveled with humans to every continent, they can potentially serve as an excellent proxy when studying human migration history. Past genetic studies into the origins of Native American dogs have used portions of the hypervariable region (HVR) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to indicate that prior to European contact the dogs of Native Americans originated in Eurasia. In this study, we summarize past DNA studies of both humans and dogs to discuss their population histories in the Americas. We then sequenced a portion of the mtDNA HVR of 42 pre-Columbian dogs from three sites located in Illinois, coastal British Columbia, and Colorado, and identify four novel dog mtDNA haplotypes. Next, we analyzed a dataset comprised of all available ancient dog sequences from the Americas to infer the pre-Columbian population history of dogs in the Americas. Interestingly, we found low levels of genetic diversity for some populations consistent with the possibility of deliberate breeding practices. Furthermore, we identified multiple putative founding haplotypes in addition to dog haplotypes that closely resemble those of wolves, suggesting admixture with North American wolves or perhaps a second domestication of canids in the Americas. Notably, initial effective population size estimates suggest at least 1000 female dogs likely existed in the Americas at the time of the first known canid burial, and that population size increased gradually over time before stabilizing roughly 1200 years before present.

  2. Haplotype Analysis and Linkage Disequilibrium at Five Loci in Eragrostis tef.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shavannor M; Yuan, Yinan; Doust, Andrew N; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L

    2012-03-01

    Eragrostis tef (Zucc.), a member of the Chloridoideae subfamily of grasses, is one of the most important food crops in Ethiopia. Lodging is the most important production problem in tef. The rht1 and sd1 dwarfing genes have been useful for improving lodging resistance in wheat and rice, respectively, in what has been known as the "Green Revolution." All homologs of rht1 and sd1 were cloned and sequenced from 31 tef accessions collected from across Ethiopia. The allotetraploid tef genome was found to carry two rht1 homologs. From sequence variation between these two putative homologs, an approximate ancestral divergence date of 6.4 million years ago was calculated for the two genomes within tef. Three sd1 homologs were identified in tef, with unknown orthologous/paralogous relationships. The genetic diversity in the 31 studied accessions was organized into a relatively small number of haplotypes (2-4) for four of these genes, whereas one rht1 homeologue exhibited 10 haplotypes. A low level of nucleotide diversity was observed at all loci. Linkage disequilibrium analysis demonstrated strong linkage disequilibrium, extending the length of the five genes investigated (2-4 kb), with no significant decline. There was no significant correlation between haplotypes of any of these genes and their recorded site of origin.

  3. Haplotype association analysis of genes within the WNT signalling pathways in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Renal interstitial fibrosis and glomerular sclerosis are hallmarks of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and several studies have implicated members of the WNT pathways in these pathological processes. This study comprehensively examined common genetic variation within the WNT pathway for association with DN. Methods Genes within the WNT pathways were selected on the basis of nominal significance and consistent direction of effect in the GENIE meta-analysis dataset. Common SNPs and common haplotypes were examined within the selected WNT pathway genes in a white population with type 1 diabetes, discordant for DN (cases: n = 718; controls: n = 749). SNPs were genotyped using Sequenom or Taqman assays. Association analyses were performed using PLINK, to compare allele and haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Correction for multiple testing was performed by either permutation testing or using false discovery rate. Results A logistic regression model including collection centre, duration of diabetes, and average HbA1c as covariates highlighted three SNPs in GSK3B (rs17810235, rs17471, rs334543), two in DAAM1 (rs1253192, rs1252906) and one in NFAT5 (rs17297207) as being significantly (P < 0.05) associated with DN, however these SNPs did not remain significant after correction for multiple testing. Logistic regression of haplotypes, with ESRD as the outcome, and pairwise interaction analyses did not yield any significant results after correction for multiple testing. Conclusions These results indicate that both common SNPs and common haplotypes of WNT pathway genes are not strongly associated with DN. However, this does not completely exclude these or the WNT pathways from association with DN, as unidentified rare genetic or copy number variants could still contribute towards the genetic architecture of DN. PMID:23777469

  4. Spatial and temporal distribution of the neutral polymorphisms in the last ZFX intron: analysis of the haplotype structure and genealogy.

    PubMed

    Jaruzelska, J; Zietkiewicz, E; Batzer, M; Cole, D E; Moisan, J P; Scozzari, R; Tavaré, S; Labuda, D

    1999-07-01

    With 10 segregating sites (simple nucleotide polymorphisms) in the last intron (1089 bp) of the ZFX gene we have observed 11 haplotypes in 336 chromosomes representing a worldwide array of 15 human populations. Two haplotypes representing 77% of all chromosomes were distributed almost evenly among four continents. Five of the remaining haplotypes were detected in Africa and 4 others were restricted to Eurasia and the Americas. Using the information about the ancestral state of the segregating positions (inferred from human-great ape comparisons), we applied coalescent analysis to estimate the age of the polymorphisms and the resulting haplotypes. The oldest haplotype, with the ancestral alleles at all the sites, was observed at low frequency only in two groups of African origin. Its estimated age of 740 to 1100 kyr corresponded to the time to the most recent common ancestor. The two most frequent worldwide distributed haplotypes were estimated at 550 to 840 and 260 to 400 kyr, respectively, while the age of the continentally restricted polymorphisms was 120 to 180 kyr and smaller. Comparison of spatial and temporal distribution of the ZFX haplotypes suggests that modern humans diverged from the common ancestral stock in the Middle Paleolithic era. Subsequent range expansion prevented substantial gene flow among continents, separating African groups from populations that colonized Eurasia and the New World.

  5. Analysis of 27 Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a Han population of Henan province, Central China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Rufeng; Liu, Yaju; Zhang, Juntao; Shi, Meisen; Dong, Hongmei; Ma, Shuhua; Bai, R F; Shi, Ms

    2016-09-01

    A total of 1225 unrelated Han males from Henan province were analyzed with the prototype Yfiler® Plus kit (Life Technologies, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). The calculated gene diversity (GD) values ranged from 0.3855 to 0.9673 for the DYS391 and DYS385a/b loci, respectively. The discriminatory capacity (DC) was 86.94 % with 1065 observed haplotypes using 17 Yfiler loci, by the addition of 10 Y-STRs to the Yfiler® Plus system, the DC was increased to 98.94 % while showing 1212 observed haplotypes. Among the new incorporated Y-STRs, DYS576, DYF387S1, DYS518, DYS627, and DYS449 were major contributors to enhancing discrimination. In the analysis of molecular variance, the Henan Han population clustered with Asian origin populations and showed significant differences from other reference populations. In this study, the improvement of adding additional Y-STR markers with the Yfiler® Plus kit provided substantially stronger discriminatory power in the Henan Han population.

  6. Analysis and exploration of the use of rule-based algorithms and consensus methods for the inferral of haplotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Orzack, Steven Hecht; Gusfield, Daniel; Olson, Jeffrey; Nesbitt, Steven; Subrahmanyan, Lakshman; Stanton, Vincent P

    2003-01-01

    The difficulty of experimental determination of haplotypes from phase-unknown genotypes has stimulated the development of nonexperimental inferral methods. One well-known approach for a group of unrelated individuals involves using the trivially deducible haplotypes (those found in individuals with zero or one heterozygous sites) and a set of rules to infer the haplotypes underlying ambiguous genotypes (those with two or more heterozygous sites). Neither the manner in which this "rule-based" approach should be implemented nor the accuracy of this approach has been adequately assessed. We implemented eight variations of this approach that differed in how a reference list of haplotypes was derived and in the rules for the analysis of ambiguous genotypes. We assessed the accuracy of these variations by comparing predicted and experimentally determined haplotypes involving nine polymorphic sites in the human apolipoprotein E (APOE) locus. The eight variations resulted in substantial differences in the average number of correctly inferred haplotype pairs. More than one set of inferred haplotype pairs was found for each of the variations we analyzed, implying that the rule-based approach is not sufficient by itself for haplotype inferral, despite its appealing simplicity. Accordingly, we explored consensus methods in which multiple inferrals for a given ambiguous genotype are combined to generate a single inferral; we show that the set of these "consensus" inferrals for all ambiguous genotypes is more accurate than the typical single set of inferrals chosen at random. We also use a consensus prediction to divide ambiguous genotypes into those whose algorithmic inferral is certain or almost certain and those whose less certain inferral makes molecular inferral preferable. PMID:14573498

  7. Haplotype analysis of the 185delAG BRCA1 mutation in ethnically diverse populations

    PubMed Central

    Laitman, Yael; Feng, Bing-Jian; Zamir, Itay M; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Duncan, Paul; Port, Danielle; Thirthagiri, Eswary; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Evans, Gareth; Latif, Ayse; Newman, William G; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Zidan, Jamal; Shimon-Paluch, Shani; Goldgar, David; Friedman, Eitan

    2013-01-01

    The 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation is encountered primarily in Jewish Ashkenazi and Iraqi individuals, and sporadically in non-Jews. Previous studies estimated that this is a founder mutation in Jewish mutation carriers that arose before the dispersion of Jews in the Diaspora ∼2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to assess the haplotype in ethnically diverse 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation carriers, and to estimate the age at which the mutation arose. Ethnically diverse Jewish and non-Jewish 185delAG*BRCA1 mutation carriers and their relatives were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers and three SNPs spanning 12.5 MB, encompassing the BRCA1 gene locus. Estimation of mutation age was based on a subset of 11 markers spanning a region of ∼5 MB, using a previously developed algorithm applying the maximum likelihood method. Overall, 188 participants (154 carriers and 34 noncarriers) from 115 families were included: Ashkenazi, Iraq, Kuchin-Indians, Syria, Turkey, Iran, Tunisia, Bulgaria, non-Jewish English, non-Jewish Malaysian, and Hispanics. Haplotype analysis indicated that the 185delAG mutation arose 750–1500 years ago. In Ashkenazim, it is a founder mutation that arose 61 generations ago, and with a small group of founder mutations was introduced into the Hispanic population (conversos) ∼650 years ago, and into the Iraqi–Jewish community ∼450 years ago. The 185delAG mutation in the non-Jewish populations in Malaysia and the UK arose at least twice independently. We conclude that the 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation resides on a common haplotype among Ashkenazi Jews, and arose about 61 generations ago and arose independently at least twice in non-Jews. PMID:22763381

  8. Haplotag: Software for Haplotype-Based Genotyping-by-Sequencing Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tinker, Nicholas A.; Bekele, Wubishet A.; Hattori, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), and related methods, are based on high-throughput short-read sequencing of genomic complexity reductions followed by discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within sequence tags. This provides a powerful and economical approach to whole-genome genotyping, facilitating applications in genomics, diversity analysis, and molecular breeding. However, due to the complexity of analyzing large data sets, applications of GBS may require substantial time, expertise, and computational resources. Haplotag, the novel GBS software described here, is freely available, and operates with minimal user-investment on widely available computer platforms. Haplotag is unique in fulfilling the following set of criteria: (1) operates without a reference genome; (2) can be used in a polyploid species; (3) provides a discovery mode, and a production mode; (4) discovers polymorphisms based on a model of tag-level haplotypes within sequenced tags; (5) reports SNPs as well as haplotype-based genotypes; and (6) provides an intuitive visual “passport” for each inferred locus. Haplotag is optimized for use in a self-pollinating plant species. PMID:26818073

  9. Population genetic analysis of Giardia duodenalis: genetic diversity and haplotype sharing between clinical and environmental sources.

    PubMed

    Durigan, Mauricio; Ciampi-Guillardi, Maisa; Rodrigues, Ricardo C A; Greinert-Goulart, Juliane A; Siqueira-Castro, Isabel C V; Leal, Diego A G; Yamashiro, Sandra; Bonatti, Taís R; Zucchi, Maria I; Franco, Regina M B; de Souza, Anete P

    2017-01-11

    Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated intestinal protozoan responsible for infections in various hosts including humans and several wild and domestic animals. Few studies have correlated environmental contamination and clinical infections in the same region. The aim of this study was to compare groups of Giardia duodenalis from clinical and environmental sources through population genetic analyses to verify haplotype sharing and the degree of genetic similarity among populations from clinical and environmental sources in the metropolitan region of Campinas. The results showed high diversity of haplotypes and substantial genetic similarity between clinical and environmental groups of G. duodenalis. We demonstrated sharing of Giardia genotypes among the different populations studied. The comparison between veterinary and human sequences led us to identify new zoonotic genotypes, including human isolates from genetic assemblage C. The application of a population genetic analysis in epidemiological studies allows quantification of the degree of genetic similarity among populations of Giardia duodenalis from different sources of contamination. The genetic similarity of Giardia isolates among human, veterinary, and environmental groups reinforced the correlation between clinical and environmental isolates in this region, which is of great importance for public health.

  10. Beta-globin haplotype analysis suggests that a major source of Malagasy ancestry is derived from Bantu-speaking Negroids.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, R; Krause, A; Goldman, A; Campbell, G; Jenkins, T

    1996-06-01

    The origins of the inhabitants of Madagascar have not been fully resolved. Anthropological studies and preliminary genetic data point to two main sources of ancestry of the Malagasy, namely, Indonesian and African, with additional contributions from India and Arabia. The sickle-cell (beta s) mutation is found in populations of African and Indian origin. The frequency of the beta s-globin gene, derived from 1,425 Malagasy individuals, varies from 0 in some highland populations to .25 in some coastal populations. The beta s mutation is thought to have arisen at least five times, on the basis of the presence of five distinct beta s-associated haplotypes, each found in a separate geographic area. Twenty-five of the 35 Malagasy beta s haplotypes were of the typical "Bantu" type, 1 "Senegal" haplotype was found, and 2 rare or atypical haplotypes were observed; the remaining 7 haplotypes were consistent with the Bantu haplotype. The Bantu beta s mutation is thought to have been introduced into Madagascar by Bantu-speaking immigrants (colonists or slaves) from central or east Africa. The Senegal beta s mutation may have been introduced to the island via Portuguese naval explorers. This study provides the first definitive biological evidence that a major component of Malagasy ancestry is derived from African populations, in particular, Bantu-speaking Negroids. beta A haplotypes are also consistent with the claim for a significant African contribution to Malagasy ancestry but are also suggestive of Asian/Oceanic and Caucasoid admixture within the Malagasy population.

  11. [Haplotype and linkage analysis of HLA-I classical genes in Chinese Han population].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Sun, Yu-Ying; Luo, Yuan; Liang, Fei; Liu, Nan; Jin, Li; Liu, Jin-Feng; Liu, Shu-Guang; Xi, Yong-Zhi

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the parameters of gene frequencies, haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium of HLA-A, -B, -Cw in HLA classical I loci for Chinese Han population. HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-Cw loci were genotyped in 1014 unrelated China people using low resolution PCR-SSP typing method, and their genetic parameters were analyzed by statistic methods. The results indicated that among all the detected HLA-I genes, A*02 (0.33), A*11 (0.24), B*15 (0.14), B*13 (0.13), Cw*03 (0.25) and Cw*07 (0.18) were the popular gene groups distributing in Chinese Han population, and A*02-B*46 (0.071), A*11-B*15 (0.051), A*02-Cw*01 (0.084), A*11-Cw*03 (0.079), B*46-Cw*01 (0.095) and B*13-Cw*03 (0.071) were the predominant haplotypes in Han population. Additionally, A*02-B*46, A*30-B*13, A*30-Cw*06, A*02-Cw*01, B*46-Cw*01 and B*58-Cw*03 were statistically significant with strong linkage disequilibrium. While A*02-B*15, A*02-B*40, A*24-Cw*03, A*02-Cw*03 and A*31-Cw*03 were in low linkage disequilibrium, among them A*24-Cw*03 appeared frequently in HLA recombination events. In addition, A*02-B*46-Cw*01 (0.075), A*30-B*13-Cw*06 (0.046), A*11-B*13-Cw*03 (0.045), A*33-B*58-Cw*03 (0.044), A*11-B*15-Cw*08 (0.027), A*02-B*38-Cw*07 (0.023) and A*11-B*40-Cw*07 (0.022) were the main extended haplotypes in Han population. In conclusions, this study investigated systematically the genetic polymorphism features of Chinese Han population, which may provide useful genetic parameters for researches in colonial evolution, clinical transplantation and disease susceptibility.

  12. Friedreich ataxia in Louisiana Acadians: demonstration of a founder effect by analysis of microsatellite-generated extended haplotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Sirugo, G; Keats, B; Fujita, R; Duclos, F; Purohit, K; Koenig, M; Mandel, J L

    1992-01-01

    Eleven Acadian families with Friedreich ataxia (FA) who were from southwest Louisiana were studied with a series of polymorphic markers spanning 310 kb in the D9S5-D9S15 region previously shown to be tightly linked to the disease locus. In particular, three very informative microsatellites were tested. Evidence for a strong founder effect was found, since a specific extended haplotype spanning 230 kb from 26P (D9S5) to MCT112 (D9S15) was present on 70% of independent FA chromosomes and only once (6%) on the normal ones. There was no evident correlation between haplotypes and clinical expression. The typing of an additional microsatellite (GS4) located 80 kb from MCT112 created a divergence of the main FA-linked haplotype, generating four minor and one major haplotype. A similar split was observed with GS4 in a patient homozygous for a rare 26P-to-MCT112 haplotype. These results suggest that GS4 is flanking marker for the disease locus, although other interpretations are possible. Images Figure 2 PMID:1347194

  13. Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Wade, Claire M; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S; Karlsson, Elinor K; Jaffe, David B; Kamal, Michael; Clamp, Michele; Chang, Jean L; Kulbokas, Edward J; Zody, Michael C; Mauceli, Evan; Xie, Xiaohui; Breen, Matthew; Wayne, Robert K; Ostrander, Elaine A; Ponting, Chris P; Galibert, Francis; Smith, Douglas R; DeJong, Pieter J; Kirkness, Ewen; Alvarez, Pablo; Biagi, Tara; Brockman, William; Butler, Jonathan; Chin, Chee-Wye; Cook, April; Cuff, James; Daly, Mark J; DeCaprio, David; Gnerre, Sante; Grabherr, Manfred; Kellis, Manolis; Kleber, Michael; Bardeleben, Carolyne; Goodstadt, Leo; Heger, Andreas; Hitte, Christophe; Kim, Lisa; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Parker, Heidi G; Pollinger, John P; Searle, Stephen M J; Sutter, Nathan B; Thomas, Rachael; Webber, Caleb; Baldwin, Jennifer; Abebe, Adal; Abouelleil, Amr; Aftuck, Lynne; Ait-Zahra, Mostafa; Aldredge, Tyler; Allen, Nicole; An, Peter; Anderson, Scott; Antoine, Claudel; Arachchi, Harindra; Aslam, Ali; Ayotte, Laura; Bachantsang, Pasang; Barry, Andrew; Bayul, Tashi; Benamara, Mostafa; Berlin, Aaron; Bessette, Daniel; Blitshteyn, Berta; Bloom, Toby; Blye, Jason; Boguslavskiy, Leonid; Bonnet, Claude; Boukhgalter, Boris; Brown, Adam; Cahill, Patrick; Calixte, Nadia; Camarata, Jody; Cheshatsang, Yama; Chu, Jeffrey; Citroen, Mieke; Collymore, Alville; Cooke, Patrick; Dawoe, Tenzin; Daza, Riza; Decktor, Karin; DeGray, Stuart; Dhargay, Norbu; Dooley, Kimberly; Dooley, Kathleen; Dorje, Passang; Dorjee, Kunsang; Dorris, Lester; Duffey, Noah; Dupes, Alan; Egbiremolen, Osebhajajeme; Elong, Richard; Falk, Jill; Farina, Abderrahim; Faro, Susan; Ferguson, Diallo; Ferreira, Patricia; Fisher, Sheila; FitzGerald, Mike; Foley, Karen; Foley, Chelsea; Franke, Alicia; Friedrich, Dennis; Gage, Diane; Garber, Manuel; Gearin, Gary; Giannoukos, Georgia; Goode, Tina; Goyette, Audra; Graham, Joseph; Grandbois, Edward; Gyaltsen, Kunsang; Hafez, Nabil; Hagopian, Daniel; Hagos, Birhane; Hall, Jennifer; Healy, Claire; Hegarty, Ryan; Honan, Tracey; Horn, Andrea; Houde, Nathan; Hughes, Leanne; Hunnicutt, Leigh; Husby, M; Jester, Benjamin; Jones, Charlien; Kamat, Asha; Kanga, Ben; Kells, Cristyn; Khazanovich, Dmitry; Kieu, Alix Chinh; Kisner, Peter; Kumar, Mayank; Lance, Krista; Landers, Thomas; Lara, Marcia; Lee, William; Leger, Jean-Pierre; Lennon, Niall; Leuper, Lisa; LeVine, Sarah; Liu, Jinlei; Liu, Xiaohong; Lokyitsang, Yeshi; Lokyitsang, Tashi; Lui, Annie; Macdonald, Jan; Major, John; Marabella, Richard; Maru, Kebede; Matthews, Charles; McDonough, Susan; Mehta, Teena; Meldrim, James; Melnikov, Alexandre; Meneus, Louis; Mihalev, Atanas; Mihova, Tanya; Miller, Karen; Mittelman, Rachel; Mlenga, Valentine; Mulrain, Leonidas; Munson, Glen; Navidi, Adam; Naylor, Jerome; Nguyen, Tuyen; Nguyen, Nga; Nguyen, Cindy; Nguyen, Thu; Nicol, Robert; Norbu, Nyima; Norbu, Choe; Novod, Nathaniel; Nyima, Tenchoe; Olandt, Peter; O'Neill, Barry; O'Neill, Keith; Osman, Sahal; Oyono, Lucien; Patti, Christopher; Perrin, Danielle; Phunkhang, Pema; Pierre, Fritz; Priest, Margaret; Rachupka, Anthony; Raghuraman, Sujaa; Rameau, Rayale; Ray, Verneda; Raymond, Christina; Rege, Filip; Rise, Cecil; Rogers, Julie; Rogov, Peter; Sahalie, Julie; Settipalli, Sampath; Sharpe, Theodore; Shea, Terrance; Sheehan, Mechele; Sherpa, Ngawang; Shi, Jianying; Shih, Diana; Sloan, Jessie; Smith, Cherylyn; Sparrow, Todd; Stalker, John; Stange-Thomann, Nicole; Stavropoulos, Sharon; Stone, Catherine; Stone, Sabrina; Sykes, Sean; Tchuinga, Pierre; Tenzing, Pema; Tesfaye, Senait; Thoulutsang, Dawa; Thoulutsang, Yama; Topham, Kerri; Topping, Ira; Tsamla, Tsamla; Vassiliev, Helen; Venkataraman, Vijay; Vo, Andy; Wangchuk, Tsering; Wangdi, Tsering; Weiand, Michael; Wilkinson, Jane; Wilson, Adam; Yadav, Shailendra; Yang, Shuli; Yang, Xiaoping; Young, Geneva; Yu, Qing; Zainoun, Joanne; Zembek, Lisa; Zimmer, Andrew; Lander, Eric S

    2005-12-08

    Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), together with a dense map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across breeds. The dog is of particular interest because it provides important evolutionary information and because existing breeds show great phenotypic diversity for morphological, physiological and behavioural traits. We use sequence comparison with the primate and rodent lineages to shed light on the structure and evolution of genomes and genes. Notably, the majority of the most highly conserved non-coding sequences in mammalian genomes are clustered near a small subset of genes with important roles in development. Analysis of SNPs reveals long-range haplotypes across the entire dog genome, and defines the nature of genetic diversity within and across breeds. The current SNP map now makes it possible for genome-wide association studies to identify genes responsible for diseases and traits, with important consequences for human and companion animal health.

  14. Haplotype transmission analysis provides evidence of association for DISC1 to schizophrenia and suggests sex-dependent effects.

    PubMed

    Hennah, William; Varilo, Teppo; Kestilä, Marjo; Paunio, Tiina; Arajärvi, Ritva; Haukka, Jari; Parker, Alex; Martin, Rory; Levitzky, Steve; Partonen, Timo; Meyer, Joanne; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Peltonen, Leena; Ekelund, Jesper

    2003-12-01

    We have previously reported a linkage peak on 1q42 in a Finnish schizophrenia sample. In this study we genotyped 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 1q42 covering the three candidate genes TRAX, DISC1 and DISC2, using a study sample of 458 Finnish families ascertained for schizophrenia. Two-point and haplotype association analysis revealed a significant region of interest within the DISC1 gene. A common haplotype (HEP3) was observed to be significantly under-transmitted to affected individuals (P=0.0031). HEP3 represents a two SNP haplotype spanning from intron 1 to exon 2 of DISC1. This haplotype also displayed sex differences in transmission distortion, the under-transmission being significant only to affected females (P=0.00024). Three other regions of interest were observed in the TRAX and DISC genes. However, analysis of only those families with complete genotype information specifically highlights the HEP3 haplotype as a true observation. The finding of a common under-transmitted SNP haplotype might imply that this particular allele offers some protection from the development of schizophrenia. Analysis of component-traits of schizophrenia, derived from the Operational Criteria Checklist of Psychotic Illness (OCCPI), displayed association of HEP3 to features of the general phenotype of schizophrenia, including traits representing delusions, hallucinations and negative symptoms. This study provides further evidence for the hypothesis that the DISC1 gene is involved in the aetiology of schizophrenia, and implies a putative sex difference for the effect of the gene. Our findings would also encourage more detailed analyses of the effect of DISC1 on the component-traits of schizophrenia.

  15. Synergistic effect and VEGF/HSP70-hom haplotype analysis: relationship to prostate cancer risk and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Sfar, Sana; Saad, Hamadi; Mosbah, Faouzi; Chouchane, Lotfi

    2010-04-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a complex disorder resulting from the combined effects of multiple environmental and genetic factors. Our previous single-locus analysis showed that VEGF and HSP70-hom polymorphisms were significantly associated with PCa susceptibility and prognosis. Both genes encoding these proteins were located on chromosome 6p21, and combining the neighboring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) into haplotypes may increase the association with the disease. Three tagging polymorphisms, the HSP70-hom 2437 T/C, the VEGF-1154 G/A, and the VEGF-634 G/C SNPs were genotyped in 101 cases and 80 controls. For the combined analysis of VEGF and HSP70-hom, we found a positive gradient in the odds ratios (ORs) related to the number of high-risk genotypes with a 3.53-fold increase of prostate carcinoma risk (OR = 3.53; p = 0.015). Furthermore, the TAG and CAG haplotypes at positions HSP70-hom, VEGF -1154 and VEGF -634 exhibited a two-fold (OR = 0.46; p = 0.014) and a seven-fold (OR = 0.14; p = 0.00005) reduction in PCa risk, respectively. Regarding PCa prognosis, the TAG haplotype had a negative association with the aggressive phenotype as defined by the histopathological grade (OR = 0.28; p = 0.006). Our findings confirm the role of at-risk haplotype across the HSP70-hom/VEGF gene cluster in determining susceptibility to PCa.

  16. Analysis of 24 Y-STR haplotype data in a Chinese Han population from Guangdong Province.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Chu-chu; Li, Ran; Liu, Hong; Ou, Xue-ling; Li, Hai-xia; Sun, Hong-yu

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the genetic polymorphisms of 24 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci in 885 unrelated Chinese Han male individuals from Guangdong Province, using a domestic AGCU Y24 STR kit. A total of 878 different haplotypes were observed at the 24 Y-STR loci; among them, 871 haplotypes were unique and 7 haplotypes occurred twice. The overall haplotype diversity was 0.99998 and the discrimination capacity was 99.2%. The gene diversity values ranged from 0.4354 at DYS438 to 0.9606 at DYS385a/b. Population relationships between the Guangdong Han population and seven other published Chinese populations were evaluated by Rst values and visualized in a two multi-dimensional scaling plot. The results showed the 24 Y-STR loci are highly polymorphic in Guangdong Han population and of great value in forensic application.

  17. Common SNP-Based Haplotype Analysis of the 4p16.3 Huntington Disease Gene Region

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Min; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi Srinidhi; Ramos, Eliana Marisa; Myers, Richard H.; Hayden, Michael R.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Nance, Martha; Ross, Christopher A.; Margolis, Russell L.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Griguoli, Annamaria; Di Donato, Stefano; Gomez-Tortosa, Estrella; Ayuso, Carmen; Suchowersky, Oksana; Trent, Ronald J.; McCusker, Elizabeth; Novelletto, Andrea; Frontali, Marina; Jones, Randi; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Frank, Samuel; Saint-Hilaire, Marie-Helene; Hersch, Steven M.; Rosas, Herminia D.; Lucente, Diane; Harrison, Madaline B.; Zanko, Andrea; Abramson, Ruth K.; Marder, Karen; Sequeiros, Jorge; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Gusella, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Age at the onset of motor symptoms in Huntington disease (HD) is determined largely by the length of a CAG repeat expansion in HTT but is also influenced by other genetic factors. We tested whether common genetic variation near the mutation site is associated with differences in the distribution of expanded CAG alleles or age at the onset of motor symptoms. To define disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we compared 4p16.3 SNPs in HD subjects with population controls in a case:control strategy, which revealed that the strongest signals occurred at a great distance from the HD mutation as a result of “synthetic association” with SNP alleles that are of low frequency in population controls. Detailed analysis delineated a prominent ancestral haplotype that accounted for ∼50% of HD chromosomes and extended to at least 938 kb on about half of these. Together, the seven most abundant haplotypes accounted for ∼83% of HD chromosomes. Neither the extended shared haplotype nor the individual local HTT haplotypes were associated with altered CAG-repeat length distribution or residual age at the onset of motor symptoms, arguing against modification of these disease features by common cis-regulatory elements. Similarly, the 11 most frequent control haplotypes showed no trans-modifier effect on age at the onset of motor symptoms. Our results argue against common local regulatory variation as a factor influencing HD pathogenesis, suggesting that genetic modifiers be sought elsewhere in the genome. They also indicate that genome-wide association analysis with a small number of cases can be effective for regional localization of genetic defects, even when a founder effect accounts for only a fraction of the disorder. PMID:22387017

  18. Beta-thalassemia genes in French-Canadians: haplotype and mutation analysis of Portneuf chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, F; Kokotsis, G; DeBraekeleer, M; Morgan, K; Scriver, C R

    1990-01-01

    beta-Thalassemia minor occurs at approximately 1% frequency in French-Canadians--in families residing in Portneuf County (population approximately 40,000) of Quebec province. We found eight different RFLP haplotypes at the beta-globin gene cluster in 37 normal persons and in 12 beta-thalassemia heterozygotes from six families. beta-Thalassemia genes in these families associated with two haplotypes only: Mediterranean I and Mediterranean II. There were two different beta-thalassemia mutations segregating in the Portneuf population: an RNA processing mutation (beta(+)IVS-1,nt110) on haplotype I (five families) and a point mutation leading to chain termination (beta(0) nonsense codon 39) on haplotype II (one family). The distribution of 5' haplotypes on normal beta A Portneuf chromosomes compared with other European populations was most similar to that in British subjects (data for French subjects have not yet been reported). Genealogical reconstructions traced the ancestry of carrier couples to settlers emigrating from several different regions of France to New France in the 17th century. These findings indicate genetic diversity of a greater degree among French-Canadians than recognized heretofore. Images Figure 4 PMID:1967205

  19. Beta-thalassemia genes in French-Canadians: haplotype and mutation analysis of Portneuf chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, F; Kokotsis, G; DeBraekeleer, M; Morgan, K; Scriver, C R

    1990-01-01

    beta-Thalassemia minor occurs at approximately 1% frequency in French-Canadians--in families residing in Portneuf County (population approximately 40,000) of Quebec province. We found eight different RFLP haplotypes at the beta-globin gene cluster in 37 normal persons and in 12 beta-thalassemia heterozygotes from six families. beta-Thalassemia genes in these families associated with two haplotypes only: Mediterranean I and Mediterranean II. There were two different beta-thalassemia mutations segregating in the Portneuf population: an RNA processing mutation (beta(+)IVS-1,nt110) on haplotype I (five families) and a point mutation leading to chain termination (beta(0) nonsense codon 39) on haplotype II (one family). The distribution of 5' haplotypes on normal beta A Portneuf chromosomes compared with other European populations was most similar to that in British subjects (data for French subjects have not yet been reported). Genealogical reconstructions traced the ancestry of carrier couples to settlers emigrating from several different regions of France to New France in the 17th century. These findings indicate genetic diversity of a greater degree among French-Canadians than recognized heretofore.

  20. Founder mitochondrial haplotypes in Amerindian populations.

    PubMed Central

    Bailliet, G.; Rothhammer, F.; Carnese, F. R.; Bravi, C. M.; Bianchi, N. O.

    1994-01-01

    It had been proposed that the colonization of the New World took place by three successive migrations from northeastern Asia. The first one gave rise to Amerindians (Paleo-Indians), the second and third ones to Nadene and Aleut-Eskimo, respectively. Variation in mtDNA has been used to infer the demographic structure of the Amerindian ancestors. The study of RFLP all along the mtDNA and the analysis of nucleotide substitutions in the D-loop region of the mitochondrial genome apparently indicate that most or all full-blooded Amerindians cluster in one of four different mitochondrial haplotypes that are considered to represent the founder maternal lineages of Paleo-Indians. We have studied the mtDNA diversity in 109 Amerindians belonging to 3 different tribes, and we have reanalyzed the published data on 482 individuals from 18 other tribes. Our study confirms the existence of four major Amerindian haplotypes. However, we also found evidence supporting the existence of several other potential founder haplotypes or haplotype subsets in addition to the four ancestral lineages reported. Confirmation of a relatively high number of founder haplotypes would indicate that early migration into America was not accompanied by a severe genetic bottleneck. PMID:7517626

  1. Founder mitochondrial haplotypes in Amerindian populations.

    PubMed

    Bailliet, G; Rothhammer, F; Carnese, F R; Bravi, C M; Bianchi, N O

    1994-07-01

    It had been proposed that the colonization of the New World took place by three successive migrations from northeastern Asia. The first one gave rise to Amerindians (Paleo-Indians), the second and third ones to Nadene and Aleut-Eskimo, respectively. Variation in mtDNA has been used to infer the demographic structure of the Amerindian ancestors. The study of RFLP all along the mtDNA and the analysis of nucleotide substitutions in the D-loop region of the mitochondrial genome apparently indicate that most or all full-blooded Amerindians cluster in one of four different mitochondrial haplotypes that are considered to represent the founder maternal lineages of Paleo-Indians. We have studied the mtDNA diversity in 109 Amerindians belonging to 3 different tribes, and we have reanalyzed the published data on 482 individuals from 18 other tribes. Our study confirms the existence of four major Amerindian haplotypes. However, we also found evidence supporting the existence of several other potential founder haplotypes or haplotype subsets in addition to the four ancestral lineages reported. Confirmation of a relatively high number of founder haplotypes would indicate that early migration into America was not accompanied by a severe genetic bottleneck.

  2. Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample.

    PubMed

    Robino, C; Crobu, F; Di Gaetano, C; Bekada, A; Benhamamouch, S; Cerutti, N; Piazza, A; Inturri, S; Torre, C

    2008-05-01

    The distribution of Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplogroups and short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes was determined in a sample of 102 unrelated men of Arab origin from northwestern Algeria (Oran area). A total of nine different haplogroups were identified by a panel of 22 binary markers. The most common haplogroups observed in the Algerian population were E3b2 (45.1%) and J1 (22.5%). Y-STR typing by a 17-loci multiplex system allowed 93 haplotypes to be defined (88 were unique). Striking differences in the allele distribution and gene diversity of Y-STR markers between haplogroups could be found. In particular, intermediate alleles at locus DYS458 specifically characterized the haplotypes of individuals carrying haplogroup J1. All the intermediate alleles shared a common repeat sequence structure, supporting the hypothesis that the variant originated from a single mutational event.

  3. Haplotype analysis of DNA microsatellites tightly linked to the locus of Usher syndrome type I on chromosome 11q

    SciTech Connect

    Korostishevsky, M.; Kalinsky, H.; Seroussi, E.

    1994-09-01

    Usher syndrome type I (USHI), an autosomal recessive disorder associated with congenital sensorineural deafness and progressive visual loss, is closely linked to the D11S533 locus. The availability of 7 other polymorphic markers within few centimorgans spanning the disease locus allowed us to identify a unique and single haplotype among all carriers of USHI gene in the Samaritan kindred. Occurrence of recombination in this small chromosomal interval is rare, hindering the detection of the mitotic recombination events needed for analysis by traditional linkage methods. Attempts to order the eight loci by linkage disequilibrium models proved to be problematic. However, our haplotype analysis implied that recombinations which had arisen in past generations may be utilized in fine mapping of the USHI gene and in resolving the conflicting linkage maps previously obtained for this region. We have developed a simple algorithm for predicting the order of the microsatellites on the basis of haplotype resemblance. The following chromosomal map in which the USHI gene is closest to D11S533 (location score of 31.0 by multipoint analysis) is suggested: D11S916, GARP, D11S527, D11S533, OMP, D11S906, D11S911, D11S937. Physical mapping efforts are currently directed to verify and to detail the map of this chromosomal region.

  4. Functional and genetic analysis of haplotypic sequence variation at the nicastrin genomic locus.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Gillian; Killick, Richard; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Amouyel, Philippe; Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Pankratz, V Shane; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Dickson, Dennis W; Petersen, Ronald C; Younkin, Steven G; Powell, John F; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2012-08-01

    Nicastrin (NCSTN) is a component of the γ-secretase complex and therefore potentially a candidate risk gene for Alzheimer's disease. Here, we have developed a novel functional genomics methodology to express common locus haplotypes to assess functional differences. DNA recombination was used to engineer 5 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) to each express a different haplotype of the NCSTN locus. Each NCSTN-BAC was delivered to knockout nicastrin (Ncstn(-/-)) cells and clonal NCSTN-BAC(+)/Ncstn(-/-) cell lines were created for functional analyses. We showed that all NCSTN-BAC haplotypes expressed nicastrin protein and rescued γ-secretase activity and amyloid beta (Aβ) production in NCSTN-BAC(+)/Ncstn(-/-) lines. We then showed that genetic variation at the NCSTN locus affected alternative splicing in human postmortem brain tissue. However, there was no robust functional difference between clonal cell lines rescued by each of the 5 different haplotypes. Finally, there was no statistically significant association of NCSTN with disease risk in the 4 cohorts. We therefore conclude that it is unlikely that common variation at the NCSTN locus is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Disclosing the Genetic Structure of Brazil through Analysis of Male Lineages with Highly Discriminating Haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Palha, Teresinha; Gusmão, Leonor; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Elzemar; Guerreiro, João Farias; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea; Santos, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    In a large variety of genetic studies, probabilistic inferences are made based on information available in population databases. The accuracy of the estimates based on population samples are highly dependent on the number of chromosomes being analyzed as well as the correct representation of the reference population. For frequency calculations the size of a database is especially critical for haploid markers, and for countries with complex admixture histories it is important to assess possible substructure effects that can influence the coverage of the database. Aiming to establish a representative Brazilian population database for haplotypes based on 23 Y chromosome STRs, more than 2,500 Y chromosomes belonging to Brazilian, European and African populations were analyzed. No matter the differences in the colonization history of the five geopolitical regions that currently exist in Brazil, for the Y chromosome haplotypes of the 23 studied Y-STRs, a lack of genetic heterogeneity was found, together with a predominance of European male lineages in all regions of the country. Therefore, if we do not consider the diverse Native American or Afro-descendent isolates, which are spread through the country, a single Y chromosome haplotype frequency database will adequately represent the urban populations in Brazil. In comparison to the most commonly studied group of 17 Y-STRs, the 23 markers included in this work allowed a high discrimination capacity between haplotypes from non-related individuals within a population and also increased the capacity to discriminate between paternal relatives. Nevertheless, the expected haplotype mutation rate is still not enough to distinguish the Y chromosome profiles of paternally related individuals. Indeed, even for rapidly mutating Y-STRs, a very large number of markers will be necessary to differentiate male lineages from paternal relatives. PMID:22808085

  6. Molecular and immunogenetic analysis of major histocompatibility haplotypes in Northern Bobwhite enable direct identification of corresponding haplotypes in an endangered subspecies, the Masked Bobwhite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, B.M.; Goto, R.M.; Miller, M.M.; Gee, G.F.; Briles, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a group of genetic loci coding for haplotypes that have been associated with fitness traits in mammals and birds. Such associations suggest that MHC diversity may be an indicator of overall genetic fitness of endangered or threatened species. The MHC haplotypes of a captive population of 12 families of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) were identified using a combination of immunogenetic and molecular techniques. Alloantisera were produced within families of northern bobwhites and were then tested for differential agglutination of erythrocytes of all members of each family. The pattern of reactions determined from testing these alloantisera identified a single genetic system of alloantigens in the northern bobwhites, resulting in the assignment of a tentative genotype to each individual within the quail families. Restriction fragment patterns of the DNA of each bird were determined using the chicken MHC B-G cDNA probe bg11. The concordance between the restriction fragment patterns and the alloantisera reactions showed that the alloantisera had identified the MHC of the northern bobwhite and supported the tentative genotype assignments, identifying at least 12 northern bobwhite MHC haplotypes.

  7. Single Marker and Haplotype-Based Association Analysis of Semolina and Pasta Colour in Elite Durum Wheat Breeding Lines Using a High-Density Consensus Map

    PubMed Central

    Haile, Jemanesh K.; Cory, Aron T.; Clarke, Fran R.; Clarke, John M.; Knox, Ron E.; Pozniak, Curtis J.

    2017-01-01

    Association mapping is usually performed by testing the correlation between a single marker and phenotypes. However, because patterns of variation within genomes are inherited as blocks, clustering markers into haplotypes for genome-wide scans could be a worthwhile approach to improve statistical power to detect associations. The availability of high-density molecular data allows the possibility to assess the potential of both approaches to identify marker-trait associations in durum wheat. In the present study, we used single marker- and haplotype-based approaches to identify loci associated with semolina and pasta colour in durum wheat, the main objective being to evaluate the potential benefits of haplotype-based analysis for identifying quantitative trait loci. One hundred sixty-nine durum lines were genotyped using the Illumina 90K Infinium iSelect assay, and 12,234 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were generated and used to assess the population structure and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns. A total of 8,581 SNPs previously localized to a high-density consensus map were clustered into 406 haplotype blocks based on the average LD distance of 5.3 cM. Combining multiple SNPs into haplotype blocks increased the average polymorphism information content (PIC) from 0.27 per SNP to 0.50 per haplotype. The haplotype-based analysis identified 12 loci associated with grain pigment colour traits, including the five loci identified by the single marker-based analysis. Furthermore, the haplotype-based analysis resulted in an increase of the phenotypic variance explained (50.4% on average) and the allelic effect (33.7% on average) when compared to single marker analysis. The presence of multiple allelic combinations within each haplotype locus offers potential for screening the most favorable haplotype series and may facilitate marker-assisted selection of grain pigment colour in durum wheat. These results suggest a benefit of haplotype

  8. Global haplotype analysis of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci cryptic species Asia I in Asia.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian; Chen, Yong-Dui; Jiang, Zhi-Lin; Nardi, Francesco; Yang, Tai-Yuan; Jin, Jie; Zhang, Zhong-Kai

    2015-04-01

    The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidiae), is a cryptic species complex comprising a minimum of 24 cryptic species. Some members of this complex are important agricultural pests, causing considerable damage to vegetable as well as ornamental and horticultural crops. Asia I, one of the cryptic species of B. tabaci, is widely distributed in Asia. One hundred and sixty mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequences from eight countries have been analyzed to investigate the geographic origin and current genetic structure of this cryptic species. Sixty different haplotypes were identified, with levels of genetic distances ranging from 0.001 to 0.021. A sign of possible genetic differentiation emerges from the differential distribution of dominant haplotypes in Indonesia and India compared to China. A possible ancient separation between Asia I in India and Indonesia and secondary contact in China has been hypothesized.

  9. Detecting local haplotype sharing and haplotype association

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel haplotype association method is presented, and its power is demonstrated. Relying on a statistical model for linkage disequilibrium (LD), the method first infers ancestral haplotypes and their loadings at each marker for each individual. The loadings are then used to quantify local haplotype...

  10. Evolutionary analysis identifies an MX2 haplotype associated with natural resistance to HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Manuela; Biasin, Mara; Cagliani, Rachele; Gnudi, Federica; Saulle, Irma; Ibba, Salomè; Filippi, Giulia; Yahyaei, Sarah; Tresoldi, Claudia; Riva, Stefania; Trabattoni, Daria; De Gioia, Luca; Lo Caputo, Sergio; Mazzotta, Francesco; Forni, Diego; Pontremoli, Chiara; Pineda, Juan Antonio; Pozzoli, Uberto; Rivero-Juarez, Antonio; Caruz, Antonio; Clerici, Mario

    2014-09-01

    The protein product of the myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) gene restricts HIV-1 and simian retroviruses. We demonstrate that MX2 evolved adaptively in mammals with distinct sites representing selection targets in distinct branches; selection mainly involved residues in loop 4, previously shown to carry antiviral determinants. Modeling data indicated that positively selected sites form a continuous surface on loop 4, which folds into two antiparallel α-helices protruding from the stalk domain. A population genetics-phylogenetics approach indicated that the coding region of MX2 mainly evolved under negative selection in the human lineage. Nonetheless, population genetic analyses demonstrated that natural selection operated on MX2 during the recent history of human populations: distinct selective events drove the frequency increase of two haplotypes in the populations of Asian and European ancestry. The Asian haplotype carries a susceptibility allele for melanoma; the European haplotype is tagged by rs2074560, an intronic variant. Analyses performed on three independent European cohorts of HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals with different geographic origin and distinct exposure route showed that the ancestral (G) allele of rs2074560 protects from HIV-1 infection with a recessive effect (combined P = 1.55 × 10(-4)). The same allele is associated with lower in vitro HIV-1 replication and increases MX2 expression levels in response to IFN-α. Data herein exploit evolutionary information to identify a novel host determinant of HIV-1 infection susceptibility.

  11. Analysis of Amblyomma sculptum haplotypes in an area endemic for Brazilian spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Bitencourth, K; Voloch, C M; Serra-Freire, N M; Machado-Ferreira, E; Amorim, M; Gazêta, G S

    2016-09-01

    Amblyomma sculptum (Ixodida: Ixodidae) Berlese, 1888, a member of the Amblyomma cajennense complex, is the major vector of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) in southeastern Brazil. In this study, the genetic diversity of A. sculptum populations in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil, was investigated because genetic variability in tick populations may be related to vector competence. Samples of A. sculptum from 19 municipalities in 7 regions of RJ were subjected to DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing of D-loop, cytochrome oxidase II and 12S rDNA mitochondrial genes. These sequences were used to map the genetic diversity of this tick. Amblyomma sculptum populations are genetically diverse in RJ, especially in the South Centre and Highland regions. Few unique haplotypes were observed in all populations, and the majority of genetic variation found was among ticks within each population. Phylogenetic reconstruction reinforced the assumption that all the haplotypes identified in RJ belong to A. sculptum. However, some RJ haplotypes are closer to A. sculptum from Argentina than to A. sculptum from elsewhere in Brazil. In RJ, A. sculptum has high genetic diversity, although little genetic differentiation. Observations also indicated a high level of gene flow among the studied populations and no evidence of population structure according to region in RJ.

  12. Haplotyping Problem, A Clustering Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Eslahchi, Changiz; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Pezeshk, Hamid; Kargar, Mehdi; Poormohammadi, Hadi

    2007-09-06

    Construction of two haplotypes from a set of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) fragments is called haplotype reconstruction problem. One of the most popular computational model for this problem is Minimum Error Correction (MEC). Since MEC is an NP-hard problem, here we propose a novel heuristic algorithm based on clustering analysis in data mining for haplotype reconstruction problem. Based on hamming distance and similarity between two fragments, our iterative algorithm produces two clusters of fragments; then, in each iteration, the algorithm assigns a fragment to one of the clusters. Our results suggest that the algorithm has less reconstruction error rate in comparison with other algorithms.

  13. Haplotyping Problem, A Clustering Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslahchi, Changiz; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Pezeshk, Hamid; Kargar, Mehdi; Poormohammadi, Hadi

    2007-09-01

    Construction of two haplotypes from a set of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) fragments is called haplotype reconstruction problem. One of the most popular computational model for this problem is Minimum Error Correction (MEC). Since MEC is an NP-hard problem, here we propose a novel heuristic algorithm based on clustering analysis in data mining for haplotype reconstruction problem. Based on hamming distance and similarity between two fragments, our iterative algorithm produces two clusters of fragments; then, in each iteration, the algorithm assigns a fragment to one of the clusters. Our results suggest that the algorithm has less reconstruction error rate in comparison with other algorithms.

  14. Native and European haplotypes of Phragmites Australis (common reed) in the central Platte River, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.; Galatowitsch, S.M.; Larson, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Phragmites australis (common reed) is known to have occurred along the Platte River historically, but recent rapid increases in both distribution and density have begun to impact habitat for migrating sandhill cranes and nesting piping plovers and least terns. Invasiveness in Phragmites has been associated with the incursion of a European genotype (haplotype M) in other areas; determining the genotype of Phragmites along the central Platte River has implications for proper management of the river system. In 2008 we sampled Phragmites patches along the central Platte River from Lexington to Chapman, NE, stratified by bridge segments, to determine the current distribution of haplotype E (native) and haplotype M genotypes. In addition, we did a retrospective analysis of historical Phragmites collections from the central Platte watershed (1902-2006) at the Bessey Herbarium. Fresh tissue from the 2008 survey and dried tissue from the herbarium specimens were classified as haplotype M or E using the restriction fragment length polymorphism procedure. The European haplotype was predominant in the 2008 samples: only 14 Phragmites shoots were identified as native haplotype E; 224 were non-native haplotype M. The retrospective analysis revealed primarily native haplotype individuals. Only collections made in Lancaster County, near Lincoln, NE, were haplotype M, and the earliest of these was collected in 1973. ?? 2011 Copyright by the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

  15. Haplotype analysis of the DQA genes in sheep: evidence supporting recombination between the loci.

    PubMed

    Hickford, J G H; Zhou, H; Fang, Q

    2007-03-01

    The ovine class II major histocompatibility complex mediates specific immune responses to exogenous antigens in sheep. A number of ovine class II loci have been identified, and most of them appear to be polymorphic. In this study we investigated the DQA1 locus of 520 sheep and the DQA2 locus of over 40,000 sheep, finding 12 sequences and 22 sequences, respectively, using DQA1- and DQA2-specific PCR primers. Among the DQA2 sequences, 2 groups of sequences can be found: those that share homology with the DQA2 sequences from closely related species and those that cluster with bovine DQA3 and DQA4 sequences and have been called DQA2-like in sheep. The occurrence of these DQA2-like sequences was once again confirmed to correspond with the absence of detectable DQA1 sequences, suggesting that they are found at the same location as DQA1. Within the sheep studied, 37 haplotypes could be detected, 23 being haplotypes of DQA1 and DQA2 sequences and with frequencies ranging from 0.38 to 9.27%, and 14 being haplotypes of DQA2 and DQA2-like sequences and with frequencies ranging from 0.03 to 14.53%. We discovered 12 DQA1-DQA2 combinations that were derived from 5 DQA1 alleles and 4 DQA2 alleles, and 8 DQA2-DQA2-like combinations from 5 DQA2 alleles and 2 DQA2-like sequences. The frequency of occurrence of recombined DQA1-DQA2 sequences and recombined DQA2-DQA2-like sequences is similar, once again suggesting the DQA2-like sequences are found at the DQA1 locus.

  16. An integrative variant analysis pipeline for accurate genotype/haplotype inference in population NGS data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Lu, James; Yu, Jin; Gibbs, Richard A; Yu, Fuli

    2013-05-01

    Next-generation sequencing is a powerful approach for discovering genetic variation. Sensitive variant calling and haplotype inference from population sequencing data remain challenging. We describe methods for high-quality discovery, genotyping, and phasing of SNPs for low-coverage (approximately 5×) sequencing of populations, implemented in a pipeline called SNPTools. Our pipeline contains several innovations that specifically address challenges caused by low-coverage population sequencing: (1) effective base depth (EBD), a nonparametric statistic that enables more accurate statistical modeling of sequencing data; (2) variance ratio scoring, a variance-based statistic that discovers polymorphic loci with high sensitivity and specificity; and (3) BAM-specific binomial mixture modeling (BBMM), a clustering algorithm that generates robust genotype likelihoods from heterogeneous sequencing data. Last, we develop an imputation engine that refines raw genotype likelihoods to produce high-quality phased genotypes/haplotypes. Designed for large population studies, SNPTools' input/output (I/O) and storage aware design leads to improved computing performance on large sequencing data sets. We apply SNPTools to the International 1000 Genomes Project (1000G) Phase 1 low-coverage data set and obtain genotyping accuracy comparable to that of SNP microarray.

  17. Haplotype and AGG interspersion analysis of FMR1 alleles in a Croatian population: no founder effect detected in patients with fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dokić, H; Barisić, I; Culić, V; Lozić, B; Hećimović, S

    2008-10-01

    Several studies have suggested that fragile X syndrome (FRAXA), the most common inherited form of mental retardation, originated from a limited number of founder chromosomes. The aim of this study is to assess the genetic origin of fragile X syndrome in a Croatian population. We performed a haplotype analysis of the polymorphic loci DXS548 and FRAXAC1 in 18 unrelated fragile X and 56 control chromosomes. The AGG interspersion pattern of the FMR1 CGG repeat region was analyzed by sequencing. This is the first report on haplotype and AGG interspersion analysis of the fragile X syndrome gene in a Croatian population-the only eastern European population of Slavic origin analyzed so far. Our findings are intriguing, because they show a distinct distribution of the DXS548 and FRAXAC1 alleles in our fragile X population compared to other European fragile X populations. The DXS548/FRAXAC1 haplotype 194/154 (7-3), which is common among normal populations, was found to be the most frequent haplotype in our fragile X population as well. The AGG interspersion analysis indicated that AGG loss rather than haplotype may determine FMR1 allele instability. Our results suggest that no common ancestral X chromosome is associated with fragile X syndrome in the Croatian population studied. Further analysis of the origin of fragile X syndrome among other Slavic populations will be necessary to better define its eastern European distribution.

  18. An exploratory analysis of mitochondrial haplotypes and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ross, Julie A; Tolar, Jakub; Spector, Logan G; DeFor, Todd; Lund, Troy C; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Langer, Erica; Hooten, Anthony J; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Gleason, Michelle K; Wagner, John E; Robien, Kimberly; Verneris, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Certain mitochondrial haplotypes (mthaps) are associated with disease, possibly through differences in oxidative phosphorylation and/or immunosurveillance. We explored whether mthaps are associated with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes. Recipient (n = 437) and donor (n = 327) DNA were genotyped for common European mthaps (H, J, U, T, Z, K, V, X, I, W, and K2). HCT outcomes for mthap matched siblings (n = 198), all recipients, and all donors were modeled using relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals and compared with mthap H, the most common mitochondrial haplotypes. Siblings with I and V were significantly more likely to die within 5 years (RR = 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 7.9; and RR = 4.6; 95% CI, 1.8 to 12.3, respectively). W siblings experienced higher acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grades II to IV events (RR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.4) with no events for those with K or K2. Similar results were observed for all recipients combined, although J recipients experienced lower GVHD and higher relapse. Patients with I donors had a 2.7-fold (1.2 to 6.2) increased risk of death in 5 years, whereas few patients with K2 or W donors died. No patients with K2 donors and few patients with U donors relapsed. Mthap may be an important consideration in HCT outcomes, although validation and functional studies are needed. If confirmed, it may be feasible to select donors based on mthap to increase positive or decrease negative outcomes.

  19. Terminal branch haplotype analysis: a novel approach to investigate newly arisen variants of mitochondrial DNA in natural populations.

    PubMed

    Chen, J Z; Hebert, P D

    1999-07-30

    The discrimination of recent mutational derivatives from ancestral variation is a critical antecedent to any effort which aims to identify the factors modulating the rates of origin and persistence of new mutants. We propose that newly arisen mtDNA variants, which we designate as terminal branch haplotypes (TBHs), can be recognized by joint sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. This study examined mtDNA diversity in natural populations of the brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) from four heavily contaminated sites and three relatively pristine locations. While sequence analysis of the mtDNA D-loop region revealed that TBHs were prevalent in these populations, contaminant exposure appeared to play a minor role in their generation. Instead, most TBHs likely arose due to spontaneous mutations with variation in their incidence among sites reflecting the impact of demographic factors.

  20. Reconstruction of a historical genealogy by means of STR analysis and Y-haplotyping of ancient DNA.

    PubMed

    Gerstenberger, J; Hummel, S; Schultes, T; Häck, B; Herrmann, B

    1999-01-01

    Archaeological excavations in St Margaretha's church at Reichersdorf, Germany, in 1993 led to the discovery of eight skeletons, so far assumed to be of the Earls of Königsfeld, who used the church as a family sepulchre over a period of seven generations from 1546 to 1749. DNA-based sex testing and analysis of autosomal short tandem repeat systems (STR) was carried out to confirm the assumption of kinship. Since five of the individuals were determined as males, analysis of Y-specific STRs seemed feasible. A comparison of Y-haplotypes revealed that one individual could not be linked to the Königsfeld patrilineage, an observation supported by autosomal STR evidence. Two individuals typed as females posed an identification problem, since supposedly only male members of the family were buried in St Margaretha's. Nevertheless, these individuals could tentatively be identified as members of the House of Königsfeld through genetic fingerprinting.

  1. Haplotype mapping and sequence analysis of the mouse Nramp gene predict susceptibility to infection with intracellular parasites

    SciTech Connect

    Malo, D.; Hu, Jinxin; Schurr, E.

    1994-09-01

    The mouse chromosome 1 locus Bcg (Ity, Lsh) controls the capacity of the tissue macrophage to restrict the replication of antigenically unrelated intracellular parasites and therefore determines the natural resistance (BCG-R, dominant) or susceptibility (BCG-S, recessive) of inbred mouse strains to infection with diverse pathogens. We have used a positional cloning strategy based on genetic and physical mapping, YAC cloning, and exon trapping to isolate a candidate gene for Beg (Nramp) that encodes a predicted macrophage-specific transport protein. We have analyzed a total of 27 inbred mouse strains of BCG-R and BCG-S phenotypes for the presence of nucleotide sequence variations within the coding portion of Nramp and have carried out haplotype typing of the corresponding chromosome 1 region in these mice, using 11 additional polymorphic markers mapping in the immediate vicinity of Nramp. cDNA cloning and nucleotide sequencing identified 5 nucleotide sequence variations within Nramp in the inbred strains.

  2. A Cladistic Analysis of Phenotypic Associations with Haplotypes Inferred from Restriction Endonuclease Mapping. IV. Nested Analyses with Cladogram Uncertainty and Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, A. R.; Sing, C. F.

    1993-01-01

    We previously developed an analytical strategy based on cladistic theory to identify subsets of haplotypes that are associated with significant phenotypic deviations. Our initial approach was limited to segments of DNA in which little recombination occurs. In such cases, a cladogram can be constructed from the restriction site data to estimate the evolutionary steps that interrelate the observed haplotypes to one another. The cladogram is then used to define a nested statistical design for identifying mutational steps associated with significant phenotypic deviations. The central assumption behind this strategy is that a mutation responsible for a particular phenotypic effect is embedded within the evolutionary history that is represented by the cladogram. The power of this approach depends on the accuracy of the cladogram in portraying the evolutionary history of the DNA region. This accuracy can be diminished both by recombination and by uncertainty in the estimated cladogram topology. In a previous paper, we presented an algorithm for estimating the set of likely cladograms and recombination events. In this paper we present an algorithm for defining a nested statistical design under cladogram uncertainty and recombination. Given the nested design, phenotypic associations can be examined using either a nested analysis of variance (for haploids or homozygous strains) or permutation testing (for outcrossed, diploid gene regions). In this paper we also extend this analytical strategy to include categorical phenotypes in addition to quantitative phenotypes. Some worked examples are presented using Drosophila data sets. These examples illustrate that having some recombination may actually enhance the biological inferences that may derived from a cladistic analysis. In particular, recombination can be used to assign a physical localization to a given subregion for mutations responsible for significant phenotypic effects. PMID:8100789

  3. A global analysis of Y-chromosomal haplotype diversity for 23 STR loci.

    PubMed

    Purps, Josephine; Siegert, Sabine; Willuweit, Sascha; Nagy, Marion; Alves, Cíntia; Salazar, Renato; Angustia, Sheila M T; Santos, Lorna H; Anslinger, Katja; Bayer, Birgit; Ayub, Qasim; Wei, Wei; Xue, Yali; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Bafalluy, Miriam Baeta; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; Egyed, Balazs; Balitzki, Beate; Tschumi, Sibylle; Ballard, David; Court, Denise Syndercombe; Barrantes, Xinia; Bäßler, Gerhard; Wiest, Tina; Berger, Burkhard; Niederstätter, Harald; Parson, Walther; Davis, Carey; Budowle, Bruce; Burri, Helen; Borer, Urs; Koller, Christoph; Carvalho, Elizeu F; Domingues, Patricia M; Chamoun, Wafaa Takash; Coble, Michael D; Hill, Carolyn R; Corach, Daniel; Caputo, Mariela; D'Amato, Maria E; Davison, Sean; Decorte, Ronny; Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Ottoni, Claudio; Rickards, Olga; Lu, Di; Jiang, Chengtao; Dobosz, Tadeusz; Jonkisz, Anna; Frank, William E; Furac, Ivana; Gehrig, Christian; Castella, Vincent; Grskovic, Branka; Haas, Cordula; Wobst, Jana; Hadzic, Gavrilo; Drobnic, Katja; Honda, Katsuya; Hou, Yiping; Zhou, Di; Li, Yan; Hu, Shengping; Chen, Shenglan; Immel, Uta-Dorothee; Lessig, Rüdiger; Jakovski, Zlatko; Ilievska, Tanja; Klann, Anja E; García, Cristina Cano; de Knijff, Peter; Kraaijenbrink, Thirsa; Kondili, Aikaterini; Miniati, Penelope; Vouropoulou, Maria; Kovacevic, Lejla; Marjanovic, Damir; Lindner, Iris; Mansour, Issam; Al-Azem, Mouayyad; Andari, Ansar El; Marino, Miguel; Furfuro, Sandra; Locarno, Laura; Martín, Pablo; Luque, Gracia M; Alonso, Antonio; Miranda, Luís Souto; Moreira, Helena; Mizuno, Natsuko; Iwashima, Yasuki; Neto, Rodrigo S Moura; Nogueira, Tatiana L S; Silva, Rosane; Nastainczyk-Wulf, Marina; Edelmann, Jeanett; Kohl, Michael; Nie, Shengjie; Wang, Xianping; Cheng, Baowen; Núñez, Carolina; Pancorbo, Marian Martínez de; Olofsson, Jill K; Morling, Niels; Onofri, Valerio; Tagliabracci, Adriano; Pamjav, Horolma; Volgyi, Antonia; Barany, Gusztav; Pawlowski, Ryszard; Maciejewska, Agnieszka; Pelotti, Susi; Pepinski, Witold; Abreu-Glowacka, Monica; Phillips, Christopher; Cárdenas, Jorge; Rey-Gonzalez, Danel; Salas, Antonio; Brisighelli, Francesca; Capelli, Cristian; Toscanini, Ulises; Piccinini, Andrea; Piglionica, Marilidia; Baldassarra, Stefania L; Ploski, Rafal; Konarzewska, Magdalena; Jastrzebska, Emila; Robino, Carlo; Sajantila, Antti; Palo, Jukka U; Guevara, Evelyn; Salvador, Jazelyn; Ungria, Maria Corazon De; Rodriguez, Jae Joseph Russell; Schmidt, Ulrike; Schlauderer, Nicola; Saukko, Pekka; Schneider, Peter M; Sirker, Miriam; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Oh, Yu Na; Skitsa, Iulia; Ampati, Alexandra; Smith, Tobi-Gail; Calvit, Lina Solis de; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Capal, Thomas; Tillmar, Andreas; Nilsson, Helena; Turrina, Stefania; De Leo, Domenico; Verzeletti, Andrea; Cortellini, Venusia; Wetton, Jon H; Gwynne, Gareth M; Jobling, Mark A; Whittle, Martin R; Sumita, Denilce R; Wolańska-Nowak, Paulina; Yong, Rita Y Y; Krawczak, Michael; Nothnagel, Michael; Roewer, Lutz

    2014-09-01

    In a worldwide collaborative effort, 19,630 Y-chromosomes were sampled from 129 different populations in 51 countries. These chromosomes were typed for 23 short-tandem repeat (STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, GATAH4, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, and DYS643) and using the PowerPlex Y23 System (PPY23, Promega Corporation, Madison, WI). Locus-specific allelic spectra of these markers were determined and a consistently high level of allelic diversity was observed. A considerable number of null, duplicate and off-ladder alleles were revealed. Standard single-locus and haplotype-based parameters were calculated and compared between subsets of Y-STR markers established for forensic casework. The PPY23 marker set provides substantially stronger discriminatory power than other available kits but at the same time reveals the same general patterns of population structure as other marker sets. A strong correlation was observed between the number of Y-STRs included in a marker set and some of the forensic parameters under study. Interestingly a weak but consistent trend toward smaller genetic distances resulting from larger numbers of markers became apparent.

  4. A global analysis of Y-chromosomal haplotype diversity for 23 STR loci

    PubMed Central

    Purps, Josephine; Siegert, Sabine; Willuweit, Sascha; Nagy, Marion; Alves, Cíntia; Salazar, Renato; Angustia, Sheila M.T.; Santos, Lorna H.; Anslinger, Katja; Bayer, Birgit; Ayub, Qasim; Wei, Wei; Xue, Yali; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Bafalluy, Miriam Baeta; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; Egyed, Balazs; Balitzki, Beate; Tschumi, Sibylle; Ballard, David; Court, Denise Syndercombe; Barrantes, Xinia; Bäßler, Gerhard; Wiest, Tina; Berger, Burkhard; Niederstätter, Harald; Parson, Walther; Davis, Carey; Budowle, Bruce; Burri, Helen; Borer, Urs; Koller, Christoph; Carvalho, Elizeu F.; Domingues, Patricia M.; Chamoun, Wafaa Takash; Coble, Michael D.; Hill, Carolyn R.; Corach, Daniel; Caputo, Mariela; D’Amato, Maria E.; Davison, Sean; Decorte, Ronny; Larmuseau, Maarten H.D.; Ottoni, Claudio; Rickards, Olga; Lu, Di; Jiang, Chengtao; Dobosz, Tadeusz; Jonkisz, Anna; Frank, William E.; Furac, Ivana; Gehrig, Christian; Castella, Vincent; Grskovic, Branka; Haas, Cordula; Wobst, Jana; Hadzic, Gavrilo; Drobnic, Katja; Honda, Katsuya; Hou, Yiping; Zhou, Di; Li, Yan; Hu, Shengping; Chen, Shenglan; Immel, Uta-Dorothee; Lessig, Rüdiger; Jakovski, Zlatko; Ilievska, Tanja; Klann, Anja E.; García, Cristina Cano; de Knijff, Peter; Kraaijenbrink, Thirsa; Kondili, Aikaterini; Miniati, Penelope; Vouropoulou, Maria; Kovacevic, Lejla; Marjanovic, Damir; Lindner, Iris; Mansour, Issam; Al-Azem, Mouayyad; Andari, Ansar El; Marino, Miguel; Furfuro, Sandra; Locarno, Laura; Martín, Pablo; Luque, Gracia M.; Alonso, Antonio; Miranda, Luís Souto; Moreira, Helena; Mizuno, Natsuko; Iwashima, Yasuki; Neto, Rodrigo S. Moura; Nogueira, Tatiana L.S.; Silva, Rosane; Nastainczyk-Wulf, Marina; Edelmann, Jeanett; Kohl, Michael; Nie, Shengjie; Wang, Xianping; Cheng, Baowen; Núñez, Carolina; Pancorbo, Marian Martínez de; Olofsson, Jill K.; Morling, Niels; Onofri, Valerio; Tagliabracci, Adriano; Pamjav, Horolma; Volgyi, Antonia; Barany, Gusztav; Pawlowski, Ryszard; Maciejewska, Agnieszka; Pelotti, Susi; Pepinski, Witold; Abreu-Glowacka, Monica; Phillips, Christopher; Cárdenas, Jorge; Rey-Gonzalez, Danel; Salas, Antonio; Brisighelli, Francesca; Capelli, Cristian; Toscanini, Ulises; Piccinini, Andrea; Piglionica, Marilidia; Baldassarra, Stefania L.; Ploski, Rafal; Konarzewska, Magdalena; Jastrzebska, Emila; Robino, Carlo; Sajantila, Antti; Palo, Jukka U.; Guevara, Evelyn; Salvador, Jazelyn; Ungria, Maria Corazon De; Rodriguez, Jae Joseph Russell; Schmidt, Ulrike; Schlauderer, Nicola; Saukko, Pekka; Schneider, Peter M.; Sirker, Miriam; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Oh, Yu Na; Skitsa, Iulia; Ampati, Alexandra; Smith, Tobi-Gail; Calvit, Lina Solis de; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Capal, Thomas; Tillmar, Andreas; Nilsson, Helena; Turrina, Stefania; De Leo, Domenico; Verzeletti, Andrea; Cortellini, Venusia; Wetton, Jon H.; Gwynne, Gareth M.; Jobling, Mark A.; Whittle, Martin R.; Sumita, Denilce R.; Wolańska-Nowak, Paulina; Yong, Rita Y.Y.; Krawczak, Michael; Nothnagel, Michael; Roewer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    In a worldwide collaborative effort, 19,630 Y-chromosomes were sampled from 129 different populations in 51 countries. These chromosomes were typed for 23 short-tandem repeat (STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, GATAH4, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, and DYS643) and using the PowerPlex Y23 System (PPY23, Promega Corporation, Madison, WI). Locus-specific allelic spectra of these markers were determined and a consistently high level of allelic diversity was observed. A considerable number of null, duplicate and off-ladder alleles were revealed. Standard single-locus and haplotype-based parameters were calculated and compared between subsets of Y-STR markers established for forensic casework. The PPY23 marker set provides substantially stronger discriminatory power than other available kits but at the same time reveals the same general patterns of population structure as other marker sets. A strong correlation was observed between the number of Y-STRs included in a marker set and some of the forensic parameters under study. Interestingly a weak but consistent trend toward smaller genetic distances resulting from larger numbers of markers became apparent. PMID:24854874

  5. Cystic fibrosis in Afro-Brazilians: XK haplotypes analysis supports the European origin of p.F508del mutation.

    PubMed

    de Souza, D A S; Faucz, F R; de Alexandre, R B; Santana, M A; de Souza, E L S; Reis, F J C; Pereira-Ferrari, L; Sotomaior, V S; Culpi, L; Phillips, J A; Raskin, S

    2017-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common autosomal recessive disorder, being the p.F508del the most frequent mutation. Also, a nearby restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) named XK (KM19 and XV2C) is non-randomly associated with specific CF alleles. Our aim was to analyze the occurrence of the p.F508del mutation and XK haplotypes in Afro-Brazilians CF patients and controls, since these data is available for the other two main ethnic groups found in Brazil (Euro-Brazilians and Brazilian Amerindians), contributing for the whole comprehension of these haplotypes in the Brazilian population. A total of 103 patients and 54 controls were studied. PCR and PCR-RFLP methodologies were used to identify the presence of the p.F508del and the XK haplotype in the subjects. The combined data show that 84.2% of p.F508del mutation is associated with haplotype B and only 15.8% with haplotype A; no other haplotypes were found to be associated with this mutation. Our data suggest that the occurrence of p.F508del mutation and haplotype B in Afro-Brazilian patients occurs probably due to admixture with Euro-descendants. Therefore this mutation and haplotype could be used as a admixture marker.

  6. Meta-analysis reveals association between most common class II haplotype in full-heritage Native Americans and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Williams, R C; Jacobsson, L T; Knowler, W C; del Puente, A; Kostyu, D; McAuley, J E; Bennett, P H; Pettitt, D J

    1995-01-01

    The association of RA with the alleles at the HLA system was tested among Pima and Tohono O'odham Indians (Pimans) of the Gila River Indian Community of Arizona. Serologic class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) alleles were typed in 51 individuals with RA and in 302 without RA. Serologic class II (HLA-DR, DQ; DR52 DR53) alleles were typed in a subset of 47 with RA and 147 without RA. Molecular subtypes of DR3X6, DRB1*1402, and *1406 were determined in 29 individuals, 16 with RA and 13 without RA. Among the cases with RA, 46 of 47 had the serologic antigen HLA-DR3X6, as did 140 of 147 of those without the disease. However, this association was not statistically significant because of the high prevalence of the antigen in the controls. Data from Pimans were analyzed with similar results from the Tlingit and Yakima Indians. A meta-analysis employing the Mantel-Haenszel procedure, stratified by tribe, revealed a statistically significant association between the most common haplotype, DRB1*1402 DQA1*0501 DQB1*0301 DRB3*0101, and RA (summary odds ratio = 2.63, 95% confidence interval = 1.08, 6.46). There was also a statistically significant difference in the genotype distributions of one class I locus, HLA-C, between those with and without RA (chi 2 = 12.4, 5 df; p = 0.03). It is concluded that the association with the most common class II haplotype in full-heritage Native Americans might help explain their high prevalence of RA.

  7. Analysis of the adequate size of a cord blood bank and comparison of HLA haplotype distributions between four populations.

    PubMed

    Haimila, Katri; Penttilä, Antti; Arvola, Anne; Auvinen, Marja-Kaisa; Korhonen, Matti

    2013-02-01

    The number of units and especially the number of different HLA haplotypes present in a cord blood (CB) bank is a crucial determinant of its usefulness. We generated data relevant to the development of our national CB in Finland. The HLA haplotype distribution was examined between specific populations. We developed graphical ways of data presentation that enable easy visualization of differences. First, we estimated the optimal size of a CB bank for Finland and found that approximately 1700 units are needed to provide a 5/6 HLA-matched donor for 80% of Finnish patients. Secondly, we evaluated HLA haplotype distributions between four locations, Finland, Japan, Sweden and Belgium. Our results showed that the Japanese Tokyo Cord Blood Bank differs in both the frequency and distribution of haplotypes from the European banks. The European banks (Finnish Cord Blood Registry, The Swedish National Cord Blood Bank, and Marrow Donor Program-Belgium) have similar frequencies of common haplotypes, but 26% of the haplotypes in the Finnish CB bank are unique, which justifies the existence of a national bank. The tendency to a homogenous HLA haplotype distribution in banks underlines the need for targeting recruitment at the poorly represented minority populations.

  8. Direct analysis of unphased SNP genotype data in population-based association studies via Bayesian partition modelling of haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Morris, Andrew P

    2005-09-01

    We describe a novel method for assessing the strength of disease association with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a candidate gene or small candidate region, and for estimating the corresponding haplotype relative risks of disease, using unphased genotype data directly. We begin by estimating the relative frequencies of haplotypes consistent with observed SNP genotypes. Under the Bayesian partition model, we specify cluster centres from this set of consistent SNP haplotypes. The remaining haplotypes are then assigned to the cluster with the "nearest" centre, where distance is defined in terms of SNP allele matches. Within a logistic regression modelling framework, each haplotype within a cluster is assigned the same disease risk, reducing the number of parameters required. Uncertainty in phase assignment is addressed by considering all possible haplotype configurations consistent with each unphased genotype, weighted in the logistic regression likelihood by their probabilities, calculated according to the estimated relative haplotype frequencies. We develop a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to sample over the space of haplotype clusters and corresponding disease risks, allowing for covariates that might include environmental risk factors or polygenic effects. Application of the algorithm to SNP genotype data in an 890-kb region flanking the CYP2D6 gene illustrates that we can identify clusters of haplotypes with similar risk of poor drug metaboliser (PDM) phenotype, and can distinguish PDM cases carrying different high-risk variants. Further, the results of a detailed simulation study suggest that we can identify positive evidence of association for moderate relative disease risks with a sample of 1,000 cases and 1,000 controls.

  9. Toward localization of the Werner syndrome gene by linkage disequilibrium and ancestral haplotyping: Lessons learned from analysis of 35 chromosome 8p11.1-21.1 markers

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, K.A.B.; Wijsman, E.M.; Martin, G.M.

    1996-06-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by premature onset of a number of age-related diseases. The gene for WS, WRN, has been mapped to the 8p11.1-21.1 region with further localization through linkage disequilibrium mapping. Here we present the results of linkage disequilibrium and ancestral haplotype analyses of 35 markers to further refine the location of WRN. We identified an interval in this region in which 14 of 18 markers tested show significant evidence of linkage disequilibrium in at least one of the two populations tested. Analysis of extended and partial haplotypes covering 21 of the markers studied supports the existence of both obligate and probable ancestral recombinant events which localize WRN almost certainly to the interval between DSS2196 and D8S2186, and most likely to the narrower interval between D8S2168 and D8S2186. These haplotype analyses also suggest that there are multiple WRN mutations in each of the two populations under study. We also present a comparison of approaches to performing disequilibrium tests with multiallelic markers, and show that some commonly used approximations for such tests perform poorly in comparison to exact probability tests. Finally, we discuss some of the difficulties introduced by the high mutation rate at microsatellite markers which influence our ability to use ancestral haplotype analysis to localize disease genes. 51 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Increased risks between Interleukin-10 gene polymorphisms and haplotype and head and neck cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yu-Ming; Du, Xin-Ya; Cai, Heng-Xing; Zhang, Chao; Yuan, Rui-Xia; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Luo, Jie

    2015-11-27

    Molecular epidemiological research suggests that interleukin-10 (IL-10) polymorphisms may be associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (HNC), but results remain controversial. To derive a more precise evaluation, we performed a meta-analysis focused on genetic polymorphisms of IL-10. PubMed, Embase, CNKI and Wanfang databases were searched for studies that examined the relationship between IL-10 polymorphisms or haplotypes and HNC risk. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to assess the relationship strength. Publication bias, sensitivity and cumulative analyses were conducted to measure the robustness of our findings. Overall, nine related studies involving 2,258 patients and 2,887 control samples were analyzed. Significant associations between the IL-10-1082A > G polymorphism and HNC risk were observed (G vs. A: OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.27-1.92, P < 0.01, I(2) = 69.4%; AG vs. AA: OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.32-2.05, P < 0.01, I(2) = 55.6%; GG vs. AA: OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.69-2.97, P < 0.01, I(2) = 38.5%; AG + GG vs. AA: OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.36-2.14, P = 0.02, I(2) = 61.8%; GG vs. AA + AG: OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.23-2.90, P = 0.01, I(2) = 46.3%) in the total population, as well as in subgroup analysis. Moreover, increased HNC risks were also associated with the IL-10 -819T > C polymorphism and the GCC haplotype. In conclusion, our meta-analyses suggest that IL-10 polymorphisms, specifically the -1082A > G polymorphism, may be associated with increased risk of HNC development.

  11. Comparative sequence analysis of the potato cyst nematode resistance locus H1 reveals a major lack of co-linearity between three haplotypes in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp.).

    PubMed

    Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Bakker, Erin; de Boer, Jan; van der Vossen, Edwin; Achenbach, Ute; Golas, Tomasz; Suryaningrat, Suwardi; Smant, Geert; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska

    2011-02-01

    The H1 locus confers resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis pathotypes 1 and 4. It is positioned at the distal end of chromosome V of the diploid Solanum tuberosum genotype SH83-92-488 (SH) on an introgression segment derived from S. tuberosum ssp. andigena. Markers from a high-resolution genetic map of the H1 locus (Bakker et al. in Theor Appl Genet 109:146-152, 2004) were used to screen a BAC library to construct a physical map covering a 341-kb region of the resistant haplotype coming from SH. For comparison, physical maps were also generated of the two haplotypes from the diploid susceptible genotype RH89-039-16 (S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum/S. phureja), spanning syntenic regions of 700 and 319 kb. Gene predictions on the genomic segments resulted in the identification of a large cluster consisting of variable numbers of the CC-NB-LRR type of R genes for each haplotype. Furthermore, the regions were interspersed with numerous transposable elements and genes coding for an extensin-like protein and an amino acid transporter. Comparative analysis revealed a major lack of gene order conservation in the sequences of the three closely related haplotypes. Our data provide insight in the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the H1 locus and will facilitate the map-based cloning of the H1 resistance gene.

  12. Linkage disequilibrium analysis reveals an albuminuria risk haplotype containing three missense mutations in the cubilin gene with striking differences among European and African ancestry populations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A recent meta-analysis described a variant (p.Ile2984Val) in the cubilin gene (CUBN) that is associated with levels of albuminuria in the general population and in diabetics. Methods We implemented a Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) search with data from the 1000 Genomes Project, on African and European population genomic sequences. Results We found that the p.Ile2984Val variation is part of a larger haplotype in European populations and it is almost absent in west Africans. This haplotype contains 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in very high LD, three of which are missense mutations (p.Leu2153Phe, p.Ile2984Val, p.Glu3002Gly), and two have not been previously reported. Notably, this European haplotype is absent in west African populations, and the frequency of each individual polymorphism differs significantly in Africans. Conclusions Genotyping of these variants in existing African origin sample sets coupled to measurements of urine albumin excretion levels should reveal which is the most likely functional candidate for albuminuria risk. The unique haplotypic structure of CUBN in different populations may leverage the effort to identify the functional variant and to shed light on evolution of the CUBN gene locus. PMID:23114252

  13. Direct determination of single nucleotide polymorphism haplotype of NFKBIL1 promoter polymorphism by DNA conformation analysis and its application to association study of chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Hiroki; Yasunami, Michio; Obuchi, Nobuhisa; Takahashi, Megumi; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Numano, Fujio; Kimura, Akinori

    2006-01-01

    We previously revealed that one of the human leukocyte antigen-linked susceptibility genes for Takayasu's arteritis (TA) was mapped between TNFA and MICB loci and that -63T allele of NFKBIL1, which is between TNFA and MICB loci, was associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the Japanese population. We have developed a novel typing method based on reference strand-mediated conformation analysis for the upstream sequence of the NFKBIL1 gene, where -422 (T)8/(T)9, -325 C/G, -263 A/G, and -63 T/A polymorphisms were found. Upon the analysis of the patients with TA (n = 84), those with RA (n = 120), and healthy control subjects (n = 217), five common haplotypes named IKBLp*01 through IKBLp*05 were found in the Japanese population. The frequency of IKBLp*03 was significantly increased in the patient with TA (57.1% vs 35.0%, giving an odds ratio of 2.47). In addition, the frequency of IKBLp*01, but not that of other -63T-bearing alleles, was increased in the patients with RA (73.3% vs 58.1%, giving an odds ratio of 1.99), suggesting that the susceptibility to RA was conferred not by -63T alone but by combination of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the NFKBIL1 promoter. A higher promoter activity associated with IKBLp*03 and a lower activity associated with IKBLp*01 may contribute to the susceptibility to TA and RA, respectively.

  14. The role of neuromedin U in adiposity regulation. Haplotype analysis in European children from the IDEFICS Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Grippi, Claudio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bailey, Mark E. S.; Börnhorst, Claudia; De Henauw, Stefan; Foraita, Ronja; Koni, Anna C.; Krogh, Vittorio; Mårild, Staffan; Molnár, Dénes; Moreno, Luis; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Russo, Paola; Siani, Alfonso; Tornaritis, Michael; Veidebaum, Toomas; Iacoviello, Licia

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Neuromedin U (NMU) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide with important roles in several metabolic processes, recently suggested as potential therapeutic target for obesity. We analysed the associations between NMU gene variants and haplotypes and body mass index (BMI) in a large sample of European children. Methods and results From a large European multi-center study on childhood obesity, 4,528 children (2.0–9.9 years, mean age 6.0±1.8 SD; boys 52.2%) were randomly selected, stratifying by age, sex and country, and genotyped for tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs6827359, T:C; rs12500837, T:C; rs9999653,C:T) of NMU gene, then haplotypes were inferred. Regression models were applied to estimate the associations between SNPs or haplotypes and BMI as well as other anthropometric measures. BMI was associated with all NMU SNPs (p<0.05). Among five haplotypes inferred, the haplotype carrying the minor alleles (CCT, frequency = 22.3%) was the only associated with lower BMI values (beta = -0.16, 95%CI:-0.28,-0.04, p = 0.006; z-score, beta = -0.08, 95%CI:-0.14,-0.01, p = 0.019) and decreased risk of overweight/obesity (OR = 0.81, 95%CI:0.68,0.97, p = 0.020) when compared to the most prevalent haplotype (codominant model). Similar significant associations were also observed using the same variables collected after two years’ time (BMI, beta = -0.25, 95%CI:-0.41,-0.08, p = 0.004; z-score, beta = -0.10, 95%CI:-0.18,-0.03, p = 0.009; overweight/obesity OR = 0.81, 95%CI:0.66,0.99, p = 0.036). The association was age-dependent in girls (interaction between CCT haplotypes and age, p = 0.008), more evident between 7 and 9 years of age. The CCT haplotype was consistently associated with lower levels of fat mass, skinfold thickness, hip and arm circumferences both at T0 and at T1, after adjustment for multiple testing (FDR-adjusted p<0.05). Conclusions This study shows an association between a NMU haplotype and anthropometric indices, mainly linked to fat

  15. Analysis of the S-locus structure in Prunus armeniaca L. Identification of S-haplotype specific S-RNase and F-box genes.

    PubMed

    Romero, C; Vilanova, S; Burgos, L; Martínez-Calvo, J; Vicente, M; Llácer, G; Badenes, M L

    2004-09-01

    The gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system in Rosaceae has been proposed to be controlled by two genes located in the S -locusan S-RNase and a recently described pollen expressed S -haplotype specific F-box gene (SFB). However, in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) these genes had not been identified yet. We have sequenced 21 kb in total of the S -locus region in 3 different apricot S -haplotypes. These fragments contain genes homologous to the S-RNase and F-box genes found in other Prunus species, preserving their basic gene structure features and defined amino acid domains. The physical distance between the F-box and the S-RNase genes was determined exactly in the S2-haplotype (2.9 kb) and inferred approximately in the S 1-haplotype (< 49 kb) confirming that these genes are linked. Sequence analysis of the 5' flanking regions indicates the presence of a conserved region upstream of the putative TATA box in the S-RNase gene. The three identified S-RNase alleles (S1, S2 and S4) had a high allelic sequence diversity (75.3 amino acid identity), and the apricot F-box allelic variants (SFB1, SFB2 and SFB4) were also highly haplotype-specific (79.4 amino acid identity). Organ specific-expression was also studied, revealing that S1- and S2-RNases are expressed in style tissues, but not in pollen or leaves. In contrast, SFB1 and SFB2 are only expressed in pollen, but not in styles or leaves. Taken together, these results support these genes as candidates for the pistil and pollen S-determinants of GSI in apricot.

  16. Analysis of DNA haplotypes suggests a genetic predisposition to trisomy 21 associated with DNA sequences on chromosome 21.

    PubMed Central

    Antonarakis, S E; Kittur, S D; Metaxotou, C; Watkins, P C; Patel, A S

    1985-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that there is a genetic predisposition to nondisjunction and trisomy 21 associated with DNA sequences on chromosome 21, we used DNA polymorphism haplotypes for chromosomes 21 to examine the distribution of different chromosomes 21 in Down syndrome and control families from the same ethnic group. The chromosomes 21 from 20 Greek families with a Down syndrome child and 27 control Greek families have been examined for DNA polymorphism haplotypes by using four common polymorphic sites adjacent to two closely linked single-copy DNA sequences (namely pW228C and pW236B), which map somewhere near the proximal long arm of chromosome 21. Three haplotypes, +, +---, and - with respective frequencies of 43/108, 24/108, and 23/108, account for the majority of chromosomes 21 in the control families. However, haplotype - was found to be much more commonly associated with chromosomes 21 that underwent nondisjunction in the Down syndrome families (frequency of 21/50; X2 for the two distributions is 9.550; P = 0.023; degrees of freedom, 3). The two populations (control and trisomic families) did not differ in the distribution of haplotypes for two DNA polymorphisms on chromosome 17. The data from this initial study suggest that the chromosome 21, which is marked in Greeks with haplotype - for the four above described polymorphic sites, is found more commonly in chromosomes that participate in nondisjunction than in controls. We propose an increased tendency for nondisjunction due to DNA sequences associated with a subset of chromosomes 21 bearing this haplotype. Images PMID:2987923

  17. Population structure with localized haplotype clusters.

    PubMed

    Browning, Sharon R; Weir, Bruce S

    2010-08-01

    We propose a multilocus version of F(ST) and a measure of haplotype diversity using localized haplotype clusters. Specifically, we use haplotype clusters identified with BEAGLE, which is a program implementing a hidden Markov model for localized haplotype clustering and performing several functions including inference of haplotype phase. We apply this methodology to HapMap phase 3 data. With this haplotype-cluster approach, African populations have highest diversity and lowest divergence from the ancestral population, East Asian populations have lowest diversity and highest divergence, and other populations (European, Indian, and Mexican) have intermediate levels of diversity and divergence. These relationships accord with expectation based on other studies and accepted models of human history. In contrast, the population-specific F(ST) estimates obtained directly from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) do not reflect such expected relationships. We show that ascertainment bias of SNPs has less impact on the proposed haplotype-cluster-based F(ST) than on the SNP-based version, which provides a potential explanation for these results. Thus, these new measures of F(ST) and haplotype-cluster diversity provide an important new tool for population genetic analysis of high-density SNP data.

  18. An ancient common origin of aboriginal Australians and New Guinea highlanders is supported by alpha-globin haplotype analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts-Thomson, J. M.; Martinson, J. J.; Norwich, J. T.; Harding, R. M.; Clegg, J. B.; Boettcher, B.

    1996-01-01

    The origins of aboriginal Australians and their relationship with New Guineans and neighboring Southeast Asians remains controversial. We have studied the alpha-globin haplotype composition of an aboriginal tribe from central Australia, to address some of the ambiguities of previous studies. Australians have a haplotype repertoire that is shared with New Guinea highlanders, a fact that strongly supports a common origin of these two populations. Further, Australians and New Guinea highlanders have a different set of alpha haplotypes from Southeast Asians and a lower genetic diversity. This, coupled with the presence of many locally specific central Australian haplotypes, suggests that much of the original diversity was lost in a population bottleneck prior to or during the early colonization of Sahul and that subsequent recovery of diversity has been accompanied by the generation of new haplotypes. These conclusions contrast with some previous genetic studies suggesting links between Australians, coastal New Guineans, and present-day Southeast Asians. Much of this discrepancy appears to be due to more recent Southeast Asian admixture on the north coast of Australia. PMID:8651262

  19. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of the Japanese wolf (Canis lupus hodophilax Temminck, 1839) and comparison with representative wolf and domestic dog haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Naotaka; Inoshima, Yasuo; Shigehara, Nobuo

    2009-11-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop control region sequences ranging In length from 583 to 598 bp were determined for eight Japanese wolf specimens (Canis lupus hodophilax Temminck, 1839) collected from several sites and compared with 105 haplotypes from the domestic dog (C. lupus familiaris) and continental grey wolf (C. lupus lupus). Also, a 197-bp mtDNA sequence was amplified from archaeological wolf specimens and two continental wolf specimens (C. lupus chanco) as reference sequences for analysis. The mtDNA haplotypes from the eight Japanese wolf specimens were closely related to each other and grouped in a single lineage with an 88% bootstrap value in a neighbor-Joining analysis. The results provide valuable Information for understanding the taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of the Japanese wolf, which have long been controversial.

  20. Analysis of BRCA1 and mtDNA haplotypes and mtDNA polymorphism in familial breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Povedano, Cristina; Salgado, Josefa; Gil, Carmen; Robles, Maitane; Patiño-García, Ana; García-Foncillas, Jesús

    2015-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects have been postulated to play an important role in the modulation and/or progression of cancer. In the past decade, a wide spectrum of mtDNA variations have been suggested as potentially sensitive and specific biomarkers for several human cancer types. In this context, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) described as protective or risk variants have been published, in particular in breast cancer, though not without controversy. Moreover, many mtDNA haplogroups have been associated with different phenotypes and diseases. We genotyped 18 SNPs, 15 of them defining European mtDNA haplogroups, including SNPs described as protective or risk variants, 7 SNPs that determine BRCA1 haplotypes and a BRCA1 intron 7 polymorphism. We included in this study 90 Caucasian unrelated women with breast cancer with familial criteria and 96 controls. Our aim was to clarify the importance of any of these SNPs, mitochondrial haplogroups and BRCA1 haplotypes in the modulation of breast cancer. We detected no significant differences in the distribution of BRCA1 haplotypes between patients and controls. Haplogroup U and the 12308G variant of mtDNA were overrepresented within the control group (p = 0.005 and p = 0.036, respectively) compared to breast cancer. Finally, we identified a significant association between the BRCA1 intron 7 polymorphism and BRCA1 haplotypes. Specifically, (TTC)6/6 and (TTC)6/7 genotypes with the seven polymorphic site cassette of "H2-like" haplotypes, and the (TTC)7/7 genotype associated with the "H1-like" haplotypes (p < 0.001).

  1. Sequence Variants and Haplotype Analysis of Cat ERBB2 Gene: A Survey on Spontaneous Cat Mammary Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Sara; Bastos, Estela; Baptista, Cláudia S.; Sá, Daniela; Caloustian, Christophe; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; Gärtner, Fátima; Gut, Ivo G.; Chaves, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The human ERBB2 proto-oncogene is widely considered a key gene involved in human breast cancer onset and progression. Among spontaneous tumors, mammary tumors are the most frequent cause of cancer death in cats and second most frequent in humans. In fact, naturally occurring tumors in domestic animals, more particularly cat mammary tumors, have been proposed as a good model for human breast cancer, but critical genetic and molecular information is still scarce. The aims of this study include the analysis of the cat ERBB2 gene partial sequences (between exon 17 and 20) in order to characterize a normal and a mammary lesion heterogeneous populations. Cat genomic DNA was extracted from normal frozen samples (n = 16) and from frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded mammary lesion samples (n = 41). We amplified and sequenced two cat ERBB2 DNA fragments comprising exons 17 to 20. It was possible to identify five sequence variants and six haplotypes in the total population. Two sequence variants and two haplotypes show to be specific for cat mammary tumor samples. Bioinformatics analysis predicts that four of the sequence variants can produce alternative transcripts or activate cryptic splicing sites. Also, a possible association was identified between clinicopathological traits and the variant haplotypes. As far as we know, this is the first attempt to examine ERBB2 genetic variations in cat mammary genome and its possible association with the onset and progression of cat mammary tumors. The demonstration of a possible association between primary tumor size (one of the two most important prognostic factors) and the number of masses with the cat ERBB2 variant haplotypes reveal the importance of the analysis of this gene in veterinary medicine. PMID:22489125

  2. Sequence variants and haplotype analysis of cat ERBB2 gene: a survey on spontaneous cat mammary neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sara; Bastos, Estela; Baptista, Cláudia S; Sá, Daniela; Caloustian, Christophe; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; Gärtner, Fátima; Gut, Ivo G; Chaves, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The human ERBB2 proto-oncogene is widely considered a key gene involved in human breast cancer onset and progression. Among spontaneous tumors, mammary tumors are the most frequent cause of cancer death in cats and second most frequent in humans. In fact, naturally occurring tumors in domestic animals, more particularly cat mammary tumors, have been proposed as a good model for human breast cancer, but critical genetic and molecular information is still scarce. The aims of this study include the analysis of the cat ERBB2 gene partial sequences (between exon 17 and 20) in order to characterize a normal and a mammary lesion heterogeneous populations. Cat genomic DNA was extracted from normal frozen samples (n = 16) and from frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded mammary lesion samples (n = 41). We amplified and sequenced two cat ERBB2 DNA fragments comprising exons 17 to 20. It was possible to identify five sequence variants and six haplotypes in the total population. Two sequence variants and two haplotypes show to be specific for cat mammary tumor samples. Bioinformatics analysis predicts that four of the sequence variants can produce alternative transcripts or activate cryptic splicing sites. Also, a possible association was identified between clinicopathological traits and the variant haplotypes. As far as we know, this is the first attempt to examine ERBB2 genetic variations in cat mammary genome and its possible association with the onset and progression of cat mammary tumors. The demonstration of a possible association between primary tumor size (one of the two most important prognostic factors) and the number of masses with the cat ERBB2 variant haplotypes reveal the importance of the analysis of this gene in veterinary medicine.

  3. HaplotypeCN: copy number haplotype inference with Hidden Markov Model and localized haplotype clustering.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Jen; Chen, Yu-Tin; Hsu, Shu-Ni; Peng, Chien-Hua; Tang, Chuan-Yi; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Hsieh, Wen-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) has been reported to be associated with disease and various cancers. Hence, identifying the accurate position and the type of CNV is currently a critical issue. There are many tools targeting on detecting CNV regions, constructing haplotype phases on CNV regions, or estimating the numerical copy numbers. However, none of them can do all of the three tasks at the same time. This paper presents a method based on Hidden Markov Model to detect parent specific copy number change on both chromosomes with signals from SNP arrays. A haplotype tree is constructed with dynamic branch merging to model the transition of the copy number status of the two alleles assessed at each SNP locus. The emission models are constructed for the genotypes formed with the two haplotypes. The proposed method can provide the segmentation points of the CNV regions as well as the haplotype phasing for the allelic status on each chromosome. The estimated copy numbers are provided as fractional numbers, which can accommodate the somatic mutation in cancer specimens that usually consist of heterogeneous cell populations. The algorithm is evaluated on simulated data and the previously published regions of CNV of the 270 HapMap individuals. The results were compared with five popular methods: PennCNV, genoCN, COKGEN, QuantiSNP and cnvHap. The application on oral cancer samples demonstrates how the proposed method can facilitate clinical association studies. The proposed algorithm exhibits comparable sensitivity of the CNV regions to the best algorithm in our genome-wide study and demonstrates the highest detection rate in SNP dense regions. In addition, we provide better haplotype phasing accuracy than similar approaches. The clinical association carried out with our fractional estimate of copy numbers in the cancer samples provides better detection power than that with integer copy number states.

  4. An association analysis of Alzheimer disease candidate genes detects an ancestral risk haplotype clade in ACE and putative multilocus association between ACE, A2M, and LRRTM3

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Todd L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Gilbert, Johnny; Haines, Jonathan L.; Martin, Eden; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of progressive dementia in the elderly. It is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the neuropathologic findings of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular amyloid plaques that accumulate in vulnerable brain regions. AD etiology has been studied by many groups, but since the discovery of the APOE ε4 allele, no further genes have been mapped conclusively to the late-onset form of the disease. In this study, we examined genetic association with late-onset Alzheimer’s susceptibility in 738 Caucasian families with 4704 individuals and an independent case-control dataset with 296 unrelated cases and 566 unrelated controls exploring 11 candidate genes with 47 SNPs common to both samples. In addition to tests for main effects and haplotype analyses, the Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction Pedigree Disequilibrium Test (MDR-PDT) was used to search for single-locus effects as well as 2-locus and 3-locus gene-gene interactions associated with AD in the family data. We observed significant haplotype effects in ACE in both family and case-control samples using standard and cladistic haplotype models. ACE was also part of significant 2-locus and 3-locus MDR-PDT joint effects models with Alpha-2-Macroglobulin (A2M), which mediates the clearance of Aβ, and Leucine-Rich Repeat Transmembrane 3 (LRRTM3), a nested gene in Alpha-3 Catenin (CTNNA3) which binds Presenilin 1. This result did not replicate in the case-control sample, and may not be a true positive. These genes are related to amyloid beta clearance; thus this constellation of effects might constitute an axis of susceptibility for late-onset AD. The consistent ACE haplotype result between independent data sets of families and unrelated cases and controls is strong evidence in favor of ACE as a susceptibility locus for AD, and replicates results from several other studies in a very large sample. PMID:19105203

  5. Separating Population Structure from Population History: A Cladistic Analysis of the Geographical Distribution of Mitochondrial DNA Haplotypes in the Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma Tigrinum

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, A. R.; Routman, E.; Phillips, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Nonrandom associations of alleles or haplotypes with geographical location can arise from restricted gene flow, historical events (fragmentation, range expansion, colonization), or any mixture of these factors. In this paper, we show how a nested cladistic analysis of geographical distances can be used to test the null hypothesis of no geographical association of haplotypes, test the hypothesis that significant associations are due to restricted gene flow, and identify patterns of significant association that are due to historical events. In this last case, criteria are given to discriminate among contiguous range expansion, long-distance colonization, and population fragmentation. The ability to make these discriminations depends critically upon an adequate geographical sampling design. These points are illustrated with a worked example: mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in the salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. For this example, prior information exists about restricted gene flow and likely historical events, and the nested cladistic analyses were completely concordant with this prior information. This concordance establishes the plausibility of this nested cladistic approach, but much future work will be necessary to demonstrate robustness and to explore the power and accuracy of this procedure. PMID:7498753

  6. Online reference database of European Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Roewer, L; Krawczak, M; Willuweit, S; Nagy, M; Alves, C; Amorim, A; Anslinger, K; Augustin, C; Betz, A; Bosch, E; Cagliá, A; Carracedo, A; Corach, D; Dekairelle, A F; Dobosz, T; Dupuy, B M; Füredi, S; Gehrig, C; Gusmaõ, L; Henke, J; Henke, L; Hidding, M; Hohoff, C; Hoste, B; Jobling, M A; Kärgel, H J; de Knijff, P; Lessig, R; Liebeherr, E; Lorente, M; Martínez-Jarreta, B; Nievas, P; Nowak, M; Parson, W; Pascali, V L; Penacino, G; Ploski, R; Rolf, B; Sala, A; Schmidt, U; Schmitt, C; Schneider, P M; Szibor, R; Teifel-Greding, J; Kayser, M

    2001-05-15

    The reference database of highly informative Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes (YHRD), available online at http://ystr.charite.de, represents the largest collection of male-specific genetic profiles currently available for European populations. By September 2000, YHRD contained 4688 9-locus (so-called "minimal") haplotypes, 40% of which have been extended further to include two additional loci. Establishment of YHRD has been facilitated by the joint efforts of 31 forensic and anthropological institutions. All contributing laboratories have agreed to standardize their Y-STR haplotyping protocols and to participate in a quality assurance exercise prior to the inclusion of any data. In view of its collaborative character, and in order to put YHRD to its intended use, viz. the support of forensic caseworkers in their routine decision-making process, the database has been made publicly available via the Internet in February 2000. Online searches for complete or partial Y-STR haplotypes from evidentiary or non-probative material can be performed on a non-commercial basis, and yield observed haplotype counts as well as extrapolated population frequency estimates. In addition, the YHRD website provides information about the quality control test, genotyping protocols, haplotype formats and informativity, population genetic analysis, literature references, and a list of contact addresses of the contributing laboratories.

  7. Mitochondrial Haplotype Diversity in Zambian Lions: Bridging a Gap in the Biogeography of an Iconic Species

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Caitlin J.; White, Paula A.; Derr, James N.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of DNA sequence diversity at the 12S to 16S mitochondrial genes of 165 African lions (Panthera leo) from five main areas in Zambia has uncovered haplotypes which link Southern Africa with East Africa. Phylogenetic analysis suggests Zambia may serve as a bridge connecting the lion populations in southern Africa to eastern Africa, supporting earlier hypotheses that eastern-southern Africa may represent the evolutionary cradle for the species. Overall gene diversity throughout the Zambian lion population was 0.7319 +/- 0.0174 with eight haplotypes found; three haplotypes previously described and the remaining five novel. The addition of these five novel haplotypes, so far only found within Zambia, nearly doubles the number of haplotypes previously reported for any given geographic location of wild lions. However, based on an AMOVA analysis of these haplotypes, there is little to no matrilineal gene flow (Fst = 0.47) when the eastern and western regions of Zambia are considered as two regional sub-populations. Crossover haplotypes (H9, H11, and Z1) appear in both populations as rare in one but common in the other. This pattern is a possible result of the lion mating system in which predominately males disperse, as all individuals with crossover haplotypes were male. The determination and characterization of lion sub-populations, such as done in this study for Zambia, represent a higher-resolution of knowledge regarding both the genetic health and connectivity of lion populations, which can serve to inform conservation and management of this iconic species. PMID:26674533

  8. Mitochondrial Haplotype Diversity in Zambian Lions: Bridging a Gap in the Biogeography of an Iconic Species.

    PubMed

    Curry, Caitlin J; White, Paula A; Derr, James N

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of DNA sequence diversity at the 12S to 16S mitochondrial genes of 165 African lions (Panthera leo) from five main areas in Zambia has uncovered haplotypes which link Southern Africa with East Africa. Phylogenetic analysis suggests Zambia may serve as a bridge connecting the lion populations in southern Africa to eastern Africa, supporting earlier hypotheses that eastern-southern Africa may represent the evolutionary cradle for the species. Overall gene diversity throughout the Zambian lion population was 0.7319 +/- 0.0174 with eight haplotypes found; three haplotypes previously described and the remaining five novel. The addition of these five novel haplotypes, so far only found within Zambia, nearly doubles the number of haplotypes previously reported for any given geographic location of wild lions. However, based on an AMOVA analysis of these haplotypes, there is little to no matrilineal gene flow (Fst = 0.47) when the eastern and western regions of Zambia are considered as two regional sub-populations. Crossover haplotypes (H9, H11, and Z1) appear in both populations as rare in one but common in the other. This pattern is a possible result of the lion mating system in which predominately males disperse, as all individuals with crossover haplotypes were male. The determination and characterization of lion sub-populations, such as done in this study for Zambia, represent a higher-resolution of knowledge regarding both the genetic health and connectivity of lion populations, which can serve to inform conservation and management of this iconic species.

  9. Genotype calling and haplotyping in parent-offspring trios

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Li, Bingshan; Zeng, Zhen; Sanna, Serena; Sidore, Carlo; Busonero, Fabio; Kang, Hyun Min; Li, Yun; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging sequencing technologies allow common and rare variants to be systematically assayed across the human genome in many individuals. In order to improve variant detection and genotype calling, raw sequence data are typically examined across many individuals. Here, we describe a method for genotype calling in settings where sequence data are available for unrelated individuals and parent-offspring trios and show that modeling trio information can greatly increase the accuracy of inferred genotypes and haplotypes, especially on low to modest depth sequencing data. Our method considers both linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and the constraints imposed by family structure when assigning individual genotypes and haplotypes. Using simulations, we show that trios provide higher genotype calling accuracy across the frequency spectrum, both overall and at hard-to-call heterozygous sites. In addition, trios provide greatly improved phasing accuracy—improving the accuracy of downstream analyses (such as genotype imputation) that rely on phased haplotypes. To further evaluate our approach, we analyzed data on the first 508 individuals sequenced by the SardiNIA sequencing project. Our results show that our method reduces the genotyping error rate by 50% compared with analysis using existing methods that ignore family structure. We anticipate our method will facilitate genotype calling and haplotype inference for many ongoing sequencing projects. PMID:23064751

  10. Analysis of 5' flanking regions of the gamma globin genes from major African haplotype backgrounds associated with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Month, S R; Wood, R W; Trifillis, P T; Orchowski, P J; Sharon, B; Ballas, S K; Surrey, S; Schwartz, E

    1990-02-01

    There are at least three major African haplotype backgrounds on which the beta s mutation arises. Sequence changes in the immediate 5' flanking area of the gamma-globin genes may account for differences in fetal hemoglobin expression among the three haplotypes. We determined the sequence from -350 to 10 bp 5' of the G gamma and A gamma fetal globin genes from one beta s-containing chromosome on each of the three major haplotype backgrounds. The Senegal chromosome had a T at -158 5' to the G gamma gene; the Benin (BEN) chromosome had an A to G change at -309 5' to the G gamma gene; and the Central African Republic (CAR) chromosome had a C to T change at -271 5' to the A gamma gene. Genomic DNA from patients with sickle cell disease was analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction and radiolabeled allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. The -309 G variant 5' to the G gamma gene is associated with BEN chromosomes, and the -271 T variant 5' to A gamma with CAR. The -309 change was also found on beta A-containing chromosomes, while the -271 change was not. The -309 change may have predated the beta s mutation on the BEN chromosome.

  11. Association of MAPT haplotypes with Alzheimer’s disease risk and MAPT brain gene expression levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction MAPT encodes for tau, the predominant component of neurofibrillary tangles that are neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Genetic association of MAPT variants with late-onset AD (LOAD) risk has been inconsistent, although insufficient power and incomplete assessment of MAPT haplotypes may account for this. Methods We examined the association of MAPT haplotypes with LOAD risk in more than 20,000 subjects (n-cases = 9,814, n-controls = 11,550) from Mayo Clinic (n-cases = 2,052, n-controls = 3,406) and the Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC, n-cases = 7,762, n-controls = 8,144). We also assessed associations with brain MAPT gene expression levels measured in the cerebellum (n = 197) and temporal cortex (n = 202) of LOAD subjects. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which tag MAPT haplotypes with frequencies greater than 1% were evaluated. Results H2-haplotype tagging rs8070723-G allele associated with reduced risk of LOAD (odds ratio, OR = 0.90, 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.85-0.95, p = 5.2E-05) with consistent results in the Mayo (OR = 0.81, p = 7.0E-04) and ADGC (OR = 0.89, p = 1.26E-04) cohorts. rs3785883-A allele was also nominally significantly associated with LOAD risk (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.01-1.13, p = 0.034). Haplotype analysis revealed significant global association with LOAD risk in the combined cohort (p = 0.033), with significant association of the H2 haplotype with reduced risk of LOAD as expected (p = 1.53E-04) and suggestive association with additional haplotypes. MAPT SNPs and haplotypes also associated with brain MAPT levels in the cerebellum and temporal cortex of AD subjects with the strongest associations observed for the H2 haplotype and reduced brain MAPT levels (β = -0.16 to -0.20, p = 1.0E-03 to 3.0E-03). Conclusions These results confirm the previously reported MAPT H2 associations with LOAD risk in two large series, that this haplotype has the strongest

  12. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Gotham, Douglas J.; Luciani, Ralph L.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  13. Autism Associated Haplotype Affects the Regulation of the Homeobox Gene, ENGRAILED 2

    PubMed Central

    Benayed, Rym; Choi, Jiyeon; Matteson, Paul G; Gharani, Neda; Kamdar, Silky; Brzustowicz, Linda M; Millonig, James H

    2009-01-01

    Background Association analysis identified the homeobox transcription factor, ENGRAILED 2 (EN2), as a possible Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) susceptibility gene (ASD [MIM 608636]; EN2 [MIM 131310]). The common alleles (underlined) of two intronic SNPs, rs1861972 (A/G) and rs1861973 (C/T), are over-transmitted to affected individuals both singly and as a haplotype in three separate datasets (518 families total, haplotype P=0.00000035). Methods: Further support that EN2 is a possible ASD susceptibility gene requires the identification of a risk allele, a DNA variant that is consistently associated with ASD but is also functional. To identify possible risk alleles, additional association analysis and LD mapping were performed. Candidate polymorphisms were then tested for functional differences by luciferase (luc) reporter transfections and Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assays (EMSAs). Results: Association analysis of additional EN2 polymorphisms and LD mapping with Hapmap SNPs identified the rs1861972-rs1861973 haplotype as the most appropriate candidate to test for functional differences. Luc reporters for the two common rs1861972-rs1861973 haplotypes (A-C and G-T) were then transfected into human and rat cell lines as well as primary mouse neuronal cultures. In all cases the A-C haplotype resulted in a significant increase in luc levels (P<.005). EMSAs were then performed and nuclear factors bound specifically to the A and C alleles of both SNPs. Conclusions: These data indicate the AC haplotype is functional and together with the association and LD mapping results support EN2 as a likely ASD susceptibility gene and the A-C haplotype as a possible risk allele. PMID:19615670

  14. Haplotype-Based Regression Analysis and Inference of Case–Control Studies with Unphased Genotypes and Measurement Errors in Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Lobach, Iryna; Carroll, Raymond J.; Spinka, Christine; Gail, Mitchell H.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2009-01-01

    Summary. It is widely believed that risks of many complex diseases are determined by genetic susceptibilities, environmental exposures, and their interaction. Chatterjee and Carroll (2005, Biometrika 92, 399–418) developed an efficient retrospective maximum-likelihood method for analysis of case–control studies that exploits an assumption of gene–environment independence and leaves the distribution of the environmental covariates to be completely nonparametric. Spinka, Carroll, and Chatterjee (2005, Genetic Epidemiology 29, 108–127) extended this approach to studies where certain types of genetic information, such as haplotype phases, may be missing on some subjects. We further extend this approach to situations when some of the environmental exposures are measured with error. Using a polychotomous logistic regression model, we allow disease status to have K + 1 levels. We propose use of a pseudolikelihood and a related EM algorithm for parameter estimation. We prove consistency and derive the resulting asymptotic covariance matrix of parameter estimates when the variance of the measurement error is known and when it is estimated using replications. Inferences with measurement error corrections are complicated by the fact that the Wald test often behaves poorly in the presence of large amounts of measurement error. The likelihood-ratio (LR) techniques are known to be a good alternative. However, the LR tests are not technically correct in this setting because the likelihood function is based on an incorrect model, i.e., a prospective model in a retrospective sampling scheme. We corrected standard asymptotic results to account for the fact that the LR test is based on a likelihood-type function. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated using simulation studies emphasizing the case when genetic information is in the form of haplotypes and missing data arises from haplotype-phase ambiguity. An application of our method is illustrated using a

  15. Separation of Y-chromosomal haplotypes from male DNA mixtures via multiplex haplotype-specific extraction.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Jessica; Nagy, Marion

    2015-11-01

    In forensic analysis, the interpretation of DNA mixtures is the subject of ongoing debate and requires expertise knowledge. Haplotype-specific extraction (HSE) is an alternative method that enables the separation of large chromosome fragments or haplotypes by using magnetic beads in conjunction with allele-specific probes. HSE thus allows physical separation of the components of a DNA mixture. Here, we present the first multiplex HSE separation of a Y-chromosomal haplotype consisting of six Yfiler short tandem repeat markers from a mixture of male DNA.

  16. In silico analysis of microRNAS targeting the HLA-G 3' untranslated region alleles and haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Erick C; Moreau, Philippe; Oya e Chiromatzo, Alynne; Mendes-Junior, Celso Teixeira; Veiga-Castelli, Luciana C; Yaghi, Layale; Giuliatti, Silvana; Carosella, Edgardo D; Donadi, Eduardo Antonio

    2009-12-01

    It has been reported that microRNAs (miRNA) may have allele-specific targeting for the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of the HLA-G locus. In a previous study, we reported 11 3'UTR haplotypes encompassing the 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and seven SNPs (+3003 T/C, +3010 C/G, +3027 C/A, +3035 C/T, +3142 C/G, +3187 A/G, and +3196 C/G), of which only the +3142 C/G SNP has been reported to influence the binding of miRNAs. Using bioinformatics analyses, we identified putative miRNA-binding sites considering the haplotypes encompassing these eight polymorphic sites, and we ranked the lowest free energies that could potentially lead to an mRNA degradation or translational repression. When a specific haplotype or a particular SNP was associated with a miRNA-binding site, we defined a free energy difference of 4 kcal/mol between alleles to classify them energetically distant. The best results were obtained for the miR-513a-5p, miR-518c*, miR-1262 and miR-92a-1*, miR-92a-2*, miR-661, miR-1224-5p, and miR-433 miRNAs, all influencing one or more of the +3003, +3010, +3027, and +3035 SNPs. The miR-2110, miR-93, miR-508-5p, miR-331-5p, miR-616, miR-513b, and miR-589* miRNAs targeted the 14-bp fragment region, and miR-148a, miR-19a*, miR-152, mir-148b, and miR-218-2 also influenced the +3142 C/G polymorphism. These results suggest that these miRNAs might play a relevant role on the HLA-G expression pattern.

  17. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: Genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Maíra Carneiro; Lara-Ruiz, Paula; Reisser, Júlia Wiener; da Silva Pinto, Luciano; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2009-07-01

    We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64%) and CM-A5 (22%) were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies (< 5%). Haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were 0.5570 ± 0.0697 and 0.0021 ± 0.0016, respectively. Exact tests of differentiation and AMOVA Φ(ST) pairwise values between the study area and eight other Atlantic foraging grounds revealed significant differences in most areas, except Ubatuba and Rocas/Noronha, in Brazil (p > 0.05). Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively). These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species.

  18. Investigation of extended Y chromosome STR haplotypes in Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Lacerenza, D; Aneli, S; Di Gaetano, C; Critelli, R; Piazza, A; Matullo, G; Culigioni, C; Robledo, R; Robino, C; Calò, C

    2017-03-01

    Y-chromosomal variation of selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 32 short tandem repeat (STR) loci was evaluated in Sardinia in three open population groups (Northern Sardinia, n=40; Central Sardinia, n=56; Southern Sardinia, n=91) and three isolates (Desulo, n=34; Benetutti, n=45, Carloforte, n=42). The tested Y-STRs consisted of Yfiler(®) Plus markers and the seven rapidly mutating (RM) loci not included in the YFiler(®) Plus kit (DYF399S1, DYF403S1ab, DYF404S1, DYS526ab, DYS547, DYS612, and DYS626). As expected, inclusion of additional Y-STR loci increased haplotype diversity (h), though complete differentiation of male lineages was impossible even by means of RM Y-STRs (h=0.99997). Analysis of molecular variance indicated that the three open populations were fairly homogeneous, whereas signs of genetic heterogeneity could be detected when the three isolates were also included in the analysis. Multidimensional scaling analysis showed that, even for extended haplotypes including RM Y-STR markers, Sardinians were clearly differentiated from populations of the Italian peninsula and Sicily. The only exception was represented by the Carloforte sample that, in accordance with its peculiar population history, clustered with Northern/Central Italian populations. The introduction of extended forensic Y-STR panels, including highly variable RM Y-STR markers, is expected to reduce the impact of population structure on haplotype frequency estimations. However, our results show that the availability of geographically detailed reference databases is still important for the assessment of the evidential value of a Y-haplotype match.

  19. [Total analysis of organic rubber additives].

    PubMed

    He, Wen-Xuan; Robert, Shanks; You, Ye-Ming

    2010-03-01

    In the present paper, after middle pressure chromatograph separation using both positive phase and reversed-phase conditions, the organic additives in ethylene-propylene rubber were identified by infrared spectrometer. At the same time, by using solid phase extraction column to maintain the main component-fuel oil in organic additves to avoid its interfering with minor compounds, other organic additves were separated and analysed by GC/Ms. In addition, the remaining active compound such as benzoyl peroxide was identified by CC/Ms, through analyzing acetone extract directly. Using the above mentioned techniques, soften agents (fuel oil, plant oil and phthalte), curing agent (benzoylperoxide), vulcanizing accelerators (2-mercaptobenzothiazole, ethyl thiuram and butyl thiuram), and antiagers (2, 6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol and styrenated phenol) in ethylene-propylene rubber were identified. Although the technique was established in ethylene-propylene rubber system, it can be used in other rubber system.

  20. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  1. Characterization of the S-locus region of almond (Prunus dulcis): analysis of a somaclonal mutant and a cosmid contig for an S haplotype.

    PubMed

    Ushijima, K; Sassa, H; Tamura, M; Kusaba, M; Tao, R; Gradziel, T M; Dandekar, A M; Hirano, H

    2001-05-01

    Almond has a self-incompatibility system that is controlled by an S locus consisting of the S-RNase gene and an unidentified "pollen S gene." An almond cultivar "Jeffries," a somaclonal mutant of "Nonpareil" (S(c)S(d)), has a dysfunctional S(c) haplotype both in pistil and pollen. Immunoblot and genomic Southern blot analyses detected no S(c) haplotype-specific signal in Jeffries. Southern blot showed that Jeffries has an extra copy of the S(d) haplotype. These results indicate that at least two mutations had occurred to generate Jeffries: (1) deletion of the S(c) haplotype and (2) duplication of the S(d) haplotype. To analyze the extent of the deletion in Jeffries and gain insight into the physical limit of the S locus region, approximately 200 kbp of a cosmid contig for the S(c) haplotype was constructed. Genomic Southern blot analyses showed that the deletion in Jeffries extends beyond the region covered by the contig. Most cosmid end probes, except those near the S(c)-RNase gene, cross-hybridized with DNA fragments from different S haplotypes. This suggests that regions away from the S(c)-RNase gene can recombine between different S haplotypes, implying that the cosmid contig extends to the borders of the S locus.

  2. Homozygosity mapping on homozygosity haplotype analysis to detect recessive disease-causing genes from a small number of unrelated, outbred patients.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Koichi; Morino, Hiroyuki; Shiihara, Jun; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Miyazawa, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Tomoko; Kohda, Masakazu; Okazaki, Yasushi; Seyama, Kuniaki; Kawakami, Hideshi

    2011-01-01

    Genes involved in disease that are not common are often difficult to identify; a method that pinpoints them from a small number of unrelated patients will be of great help. In order to establish such a method that detects recessive genes identical-by-descent, we modified homozygosity mapping (HM) so that it is constructed on the basis of homozygosity haplotype (HM on HH) analysis. An analysis using 6 unrelated patients with Siiyama-type α1-antitrypsin deficiency, a disease caused by a founder gene, the correct gene locus was pinpointed from data of any 2 patients (length: 1.2-21.8 centimorgans, median: 1.6 centimorgans). For a test population in which these 6 patients and 54 healthy subjects were scrambled, the approach accurately identified these 6 patients and pinpointed the locus to a 1.4-centimorgan fragment. Analyses using synthetic data revealed that the analysis works well for IBD fragment derived from a most recent common ancestor (MRCA) who existed less than 60 generations ago. The analysis is unsuitable for the genes with a frequency in general population more than 0.1. Thus, HM on HH analysis is a powerful technique, applicable to a small number of patients not known to be related, and will accelerate the identification of disease-causing genes for recessive conditions.

  3. Accuracy of Haplotype Frequency Estimation for Biallelic Loci, via the Expectation-Maximization Algorithm for Unphased Diploid Genotype Data

    PubMed Central

    Fallin, Daniele; Schork, Nicholas J.

    2000-01-01

    Haplotype analyses have become increasingly common in genetic studies of human disease because of their ability to identify unique chromosomal segments likely to harbor disease-predisposing genes. The study of haplotypes is also used to investigate many population processes, such as migration and immigration rates, linkage-disequilibrium strength, and the relatedness of populations. Unfortunately, many haplotype-analysis methods require phase information that can be difficult to obtain from samples of nonhaploid species. There are, however, strategies for estimating haplotype frequencies from unphased diploid genotype data collected on a sample of individuals that make use of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to overcome the missing phase information. The accuracy of such strategies, compared with other phase-determination methods, must be assessed before their use can be advocated. In this study, we consider and explore sources of error between EM-derived haplotype frequency estimates and their population parameters, noting that much of this error is due to sampling error, which is inherent in all studies, even when phase can be determined. In light of this, we focus on the additional error between haplotype frequencies within a sample data set and EM-derived haplotype frequency estimates incurred by the estimation procedure. We assess the accuracy of haplotype frequency estimation as a function of a number of factors, including sample size, number of loci studied, allele frequencies, and locus-specific allelic departures from Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium. We point out the relative impacts of sampling error and estimation error, calling attention to the pronounced accuracy of EM estimates once sampling error has been accounted for. We also suggest that many factors that may influence accuracy can be assessed empirically within a data set—a fact that can be used to create “diagnostics” that a user can turn to for assessing potential

  4. Haplotype map of sickle cell anemia in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Moumni, Imen; Ben Mustapha, Maha; Sassi, Sarra; Zorai, Amine; Ben Mansour, Ikbel; Douzi, Kais; Chouachi, Dorra; Mellouli, Fethi; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Abbes, Salem

    2014-01-01

    β-Globin haplotypes are important to establish the ethnic origin and predict the clinical development of sickle cell disease patients (SCD). To determine the chromosomal background of β (S) Tunisian sickle cell patients, in this first study in Tunisia, we have explored four polymorphic regions of β-globin cluster on chromosome 11. It is the 5' region of β-LCR-HS2 site, the intervening sequence II (IVSII) region of two fetal ((G)γ and (A)γ) genes and the 5' region of β-globin gene. The results reveal a high molecular diversity of a microsatellite configuration describing the sequences haplotypes. The linkage disequilibrium analysis showed various haplotype combinations giving 22 "extended haplotypes". These results confirm the utility of the β-globin haplotypes for population studies and contribute to knowledge of the Tunisian gene pool, as well as establishing the role of genetic markers in physiopathology of SCD.

  5. A new mathematical modeling for pure parsimony haplotyping problem.

    PubMed

    Feizabadi, R; Bagherian, M; Vaziri, H R; Salahi, M

    2016-11-01

    Pure parsimony haplotyping (PPH) problem is important in bioinformatics because rational haplotyping inference plays important roles in analysis of genetic data, mapping complex genetic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, heart disorders and etc. Haplotypes and genotypes are m-length sequences. Although several integer programing models have already been presented for PPH problem, its NP-hardness characteristic resulted in ineffectiveness of those models facing the real instances especially instances with many heterozygous sites. In this paper, we assign a corresponding number to each haplotype and genotype and based on those numbers, we set a mixed integer programing model. Using numbers, instead of sequences, would lead to less complexity of the new model in comparison with previous models in a way that there are neither constraints nor variables corresponding to heterozygous nucleotide sites in it. Experimental results approve the efficiency of the new model in producing better solution in comparison to two state-of-the art haplotyping approaches.

  6. Fine mapping of disease genes via haplotype clustering.

    PubMed

    Waldron, E R B; Whittaker, J C; Balding, D J

    2006-02-01

    We propose an algorithm for analysing SNP-based population association studies, which is a development of that introduced by Molitor et al. [2003: Am J Hum Genet 73:1368-1384]. It uses clustering of haplotypes to overcome the major limitations of many current haplotype-based approaches. We define a between-haplotype score that is simple, yet appears to capture much of the information about evolutionary relatedness of the haplotypes in the vicinity of a (unobserved) putative causal locus. Haplotype clusters can then be defined via a putative ancestral haplotype and a cut-off distance. The number of an individual's two haplotypes that lie within the cluster predicts the individual's genotype at the causal locus. This predicted genotype can then be investigated for association with the phenotype of interest. We implement our approach within a Markov-chain Monte Carlo algorithm that, in effect, searches over locations and ancestral haplotypes to identify large, case-rich clusters. The algorithm successfully fine-maps a causal mutation in a test analysis using real data, and achieves almost 98% accuracy in predicting the genotype at the causal locus. A simulation study indicates that the new algorithm is substantially superior to alternative approaches, and it also allows us to identify situations in which multi-point approaches can substantially improve over single-SNP analyses. Our algorithm runs quickly and there is scope for extension to a wide range of disease models and genomic scales.

  7. Reconstruction of N-acetyltransferase 2 haplotypes using PHASE.

    PubMed

    Golka, Klaus; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Samimi, Mirabutaleb; Bolt, Hermann M; Selinski, Silvia

    2008-04-01

    The genotyping of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) by PCR/RFLP methods yields in a considerable percentage ambiguous results. To resolve this methodical problem a statistical approach was applied. PHASE v2.1.1, a statistical program for haplotype reconstruction was used to estimate haplotype pairs from NAT2 genotyping data, obtained by the analysis of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms relevant for Caucasians. In 1,011 out of 2,921 (35%) subjects the haplotype pairs were clearcut by the PCR/RFLP data only. For the majority of the data the applied method resulted in a multiplicity (2-4) of possible haplotype pairs. Haplotype reconstruction using PHASE v2.1.1 cleared this ambiguity in all cases but one, where an alternative haplotype pair was considered with a probability of 0.029. The estimation of the NAT2 haplotype is important because the assignment of the NAT2 alleles *12A, *12B, *12C or *13 to the rapid or slow NAT2 genotype has been discussed controversially. A clear assignment is indispensable in surveys of human bladder cancer caused by aromatic amine exposures. In conclusion, PHASE v2.1.1 software allowed an unambiguous haplotype reconstruction in 2,920 of 2,921 cases (>99.9%).

  8. An unusual haplotype structure on human chromosome 8p23 derived from the inversion polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Deng, Libin; Zhang, Yuezheng; Kang, Jian; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Hongbin; Gao, Yang; Li, Chaohua; Pan, Hao; Tang, Xiaoli; Wang, Dunmei; Niu, Tianhua; Yang, Huanming; Zeng, Changqing

    2008-10-01

    Chromosomal inversion is an important type of genomic variations involved in both evolution and disease pathogenesis. Here, we describe the refined genetic structure of a 3.8-Mb inversion polymorphism at chromosome 8p23. Using HapMap data of 1,073 SNPs generated from 209 unrelated samples from CEPH-Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western Europe (CEU); Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI); and Asian (ASN) samples, which were comprised of Han Chinese from Beijing, China (CHB) and Japanese from Tokyo, Japan (JPT)-we successfully deduced the inversion orientations of all their 418 haplotypes. In particular, distinct haplotype subgroups were identified based on principal component analysis (PCA). Such genetic substructures were consistent with clustering patterns based on neighbor-joining tree reconstruction, which revealed a total of four haplotype clades across all samples. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in a subset of 10 HapMap samples verified their inversion orientations predicted by PCA or phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Positioning of the outgroup haplotype within one of YRI clades suggested that Human NCBI Build 36-inverted order is most likely the ancestral orientation. Furthermore, the population differentiation test and the relative extended haplotype homozygosity (REHH) analysis in this region discovered multiple selection signals, also in a population-specific manner. A positive selection signal was detected at XKR6 in the ASN population. These results revealed the correlation of inversion polymorphisms to population-specific genetic structures, and various selection patterns as possible mechanisms for the maintenance of a large chromosomal rearrangement at 8p23 region during evolution. In addition, our study also showed that haplotype-based clustering methods, such as PCA, can be applied in scanning for cryptic inversion polymorphisms at a genome-wide scale.

  9. Glucocorticoid receptor gene haplotype structure and steroid therapy outcome in IBD patients

    PubMed Central

    Mwinyi, Jessica; Wenger, Christa; Eloranta, Jyrki J; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study whether the glucocorticoid receptor (GR/NR3C1) gene haplotypes influence the steroid therapy outcome in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: We sequenced all coding exons and flanking intronic sequences of the NR3C1 gene in 181 IBD patients, determined the single nucleotide polymorphisms, and predicted the NR3C1 haplotypes. Furthermore, we investigated whether certain NR3C1 haplotypes are significantly associated with steroid therapy outcomes. RESULTS: We detected 13 NR3C1 variants, which led to the formation of 17 different haplotypes with a certainty of > 95% in 173 individuals. The three most commonly occurring haplotypes were included in the association analysis of the influence of haplotype on steroid therapy outcome or IBD activity. None of the NR3C1 haplotypes showed statistically significant association with glucocorticoid therapy success. CONCLUSION: NR3C1 haplotypes are not related to steroid therapy outcome. PMID:20712049

  10. An analysis of fetal hemoglobin variation in sickle cell disease: the relative contributions of the X-linked factor, beta-globin haplotypes, alpha-globin gene number, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y C; Smith, K D; Moore, R D; Serjeant, G R; Dover, G J

    1995-02-15

    Five factors have been shown to influence the 20-fold variation of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) levels in sickle cell anemia (SS): age, sex, the alpha-globin gene number, beta-globin haplotypes, and an X-linked locus that regulates the production of Hb F-containing erythrocytes (F cells), ie, the F-cell production (FCP) locus. To determine the relative importance of these factors, we studied 257 Jamaican SS subjects from a Cohort group identified by newborn screening and from a Sib Pair study. Linear regression analyses showed that each variable, when analyzed alone, had a significant association with Hb F levels (P < .05). Multiple regression analysis, including all variables, showed that the FCP locus is the strongest predictor, accounting for 40% of Hb F variation. beta-Globin haplotypes, alpha-globin genes, and age accounted for less than 10% of the variation. The association between the beta-globin haplotypes and Hb F levels becomes apparent if the influence of the FCP locus is removed by analyzing only individuals with the same FCP phenotype. Thus, the FCP locus is the most important factor identified to date in determining Hb F levels. The variation within each FCP phenotype is modulated by factors associated with the three common beta-globin haplotypes and other as yet unidentified factor(s).

  11. An analysis of HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 allele and haplotype frequencies of 21,918 residents living in Liaoning, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Kun-Lian; Liu, Xiang-Jun; Li, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 allele frequencies and their haplotype frequencies in 21,918 Chinese residents living in Liaoning Province, who were registered as volunteer donors of China Marrow Donor Registry, were investigated. They are composed of 93.37% Han Chinese, 5.1% Manchus, 0.57% Mongols, 0.46% Hui persons, 0.29% Koreans and 0.14% Xibe ethnic group. In total eighteen different HLA-A alleles, forty-eight different HLA-B alleles and fourteen different HLA-DRB1 alleles have been identified. Their frequencies are in agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. For Han Chinese in Liaoning, 1,534 different HLA-A-B-DRB1 haplotypes were identified, with a frequency of higher than 0.01%. A*30-B*13-DRB1*07, A*02-B*46-DRB1*09 and A*02-B*13-DRB1*12 are the most frequent haplotypes among Liaoning Han. While Liaoning Han, Liaoning Manchu, Liaoning Mongol, Liaoning Hui and Liaoning Korean share the northern Han characteristic haplotypes, all minority ethnic groups with the exception of Liaoning Manchu have developed their own unique HLA profiles. This dataset characterizes the HLA allele and haplotype frequencies in the Liaoning area and suggests that it is different from those in other parts of China and ethnic groups, which implicates transplant donor searching strategies and studies on population genetics.

  12. Maximum-likelihood estimation of haplotype frequencies in nuclear families.

    PubMed

    Becker, Tim; Knapp, Michael

    2004-07-01

    The importance of haplotype analysis in the context of association fine mapping of disease genes has grown steadily over the last years. Since experimental methods to determine haplotypes on a large scale are not available, phase has to be inferred statistically. For individual genotype data, several reconstruction techniques and many implementations of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for haplotype frequency estimation exist. Recent research work has shown that incorporating available genotype information of related individuals largely increases the precision of haplotype frequency estimates. We, therefore, implemented a highly flexible program written in C, called FAMHAP, which calculates maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of haplotype frequencies from general nuclear families with an arbitrary number of children via the EM-algorithm for up to 20 SNPs. For more loci, we have implemented a locus-iterative mode of the EM-algorithm, which gives reliable approximations of the MLEs for up to 63 SNP loci, or less when multi-allelic markers are incorporated into the analysis. Missing genotypes can be handled as well. The program is able to distinguish cases (haplotypes transmitted to the first affected child of a family) from pseudo-controls (non-transmitted haplotypes with respect to the child). We tested the performance of FAMHAP and the accuracy of the obtained haplotype frequencies on a variety of simulated data sets. The implementation proved to work well when many markers were considered and no significant differences between the estimates obtained with the usual EM-algorithm and those obtained in its locus-iterative mode were observed. We conclude from the simulations that the accuracy of haplotype frequency estimation and reconstruction in nuclear families is very reliable in general and robust against missing genotypes.

  13. The S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene, SFB, is defective in self-compatible haplotypes of Prunus avium and P. mume.

    PubMed

    Ushijima, Koichiro; Yamane, Hisayo; Watari, Akiko; Kakehi, Eiko; Ikeda, Kazuo; Hauck, Nathanael R; Iezzoni, Amy F; Tao, Ryutaro

    2004-08-01

    Many Prunus species, including sweet cherry and Japanese apricot, of the Rosaceae, display an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI). The specificity of this outcrossing mechanism is determined by a minimum of two genes that are located in a multigene complex, termed the S locus, which controls the pistil and pollen specificities. SFB, a gene located in the S locus region, encodes an F-box protein that has appropriate S haplotype-specific variation to be the pollen determinant in the self-incompatibility reaction. This study characterizes SFBs of two self-compatible (SC) haplotypes, S(4') and S(f), of Prunus. S(4') of sweet cherry is a pollen-part mutant (PPM) that was produced by X-ray irradiation, while S(f) of Japanese apricot is a naturally occurring SC haplotype that is considered to be a PPM. DNA sequence analysis revealed defects in both SFB(4') and SFB(f). A 4 bp deletion upstream from the HVa coding region of SFB(4') causes a frame-shift that produces transcripts of a defective SFB lacking the two hypervariable regions, HVa and HVb. Similarly, the presence of a 6.8 kbp insertion in the middle of the SFB(f) coding region leads to transcripts for a defective SFB lacking the C-terminal half that contains HVa and HVb. As all reported SFBs of functional S haplotypes encode intact SFB, the fact that the partial loss-of-function mutations in SFB are present in SC mutant haplotypes of Prunus provides additional evidence that SFB is the pollen S gene in GSI in Prunus.

  14. Human dopamine transporter gene: differential regulation of 18-kb haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Xiong, Nian; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Nuomin; Qing, Hong; Lin, Zhicheng

    2013-01-01

    Aim Since previous functional studies of short haplotypes and polymorphic sites of SLC6A3 have shown variant-dependent and drug-sensitive promoter activity, this study aimed to understand whether a large SLC6A3 regulatory region, containing these small haplotypes and polymorphic sites, can display haplotype-dependent promoter activity in a drug-sensitive and pathway-related manner. Materials & methods By creating and using a single copy number luciferase-reporter vector, we examined regulation of two different SLC6A3 haplotypes (A and B) of the 5′ 18-kb promoter and two known downstream regulatory variable number tandem repeats by 17 drugs in four different cellular models. Results The two regulatory haplotypes displayed up to 3.2-fold difference in promoter activity. The regulations were drug selective (37.5% of the drugs showed effects), and both haplotype and cell type dependent. Pathway analysis revealed at least 13 main signaling hubs targeting SLC6A3, including histone deacetylation, AKT, PKC and CK2 α-chains. Conclusion SLC6A3 may be regulated via either its promoter or the variable number tandem repeats independently by specific signaling pathways and in a haplotype-dependent manner. Furthermore, we have developed the first pathway map for SLC6A3 regulation. These findings provide a framework for understanding complex and variant-dependent regulations of SLC6A3. PMID:24024899

  15. Understanding Y haplotype matching probability.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    The Y haplotype population-genetic terrain is better explored from a fresh perspective rather than by analogy with the more familiar autosomal ideas. For haplotype matching probabilities, versus for autosomal matching probabilities, explicit attention to modelling - such as how evolution got us where we are - is much more important while consideration of population frequency is much less so. This paper explores, extends, and explains some of the concepts of "Fundamental problem of forensic mathematics - the evidential strength of a rare haplotype match". That earlier paper presented and validated a "kappa method" formula for the evidential strength when a suspect matches a previously unseen haplotype (such as a Y-haplotype) at the crime scene. Mathematical implications of the kappa method are intuitive and reasonable. Suspicions to the contrary raised in rest on elementary errors. Critical to deriving the kappa method or any sensible evidential calculation is understanding that thinking about haplotype population frequency is a red herring; the pivotal question is one of matching probability. But confusion between the two is unfortunately institutionalized in much of the forensic world. Examples make clear why (matching) probability is not (population) frequency and why uncertainty intervals on matching probabilities are merely confused thinking. Forensic matching calculations should be based on a model, on stipulated premises. The model inevitably only approximates reality, and any error in the results comes only from error in the model, the inexactness of the approximation. Sampling variation does not measure that inexactness and hence is not helpful in explaining evidence and is in fact an impediment. Alternative haplotype matching probability approaches that various authors have considered are reviewed. Some are based on no model and cannot be taken seriously. For the others, some evaluation of the models is discussed. Recent evidence supports the adequacy of

  16. High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews.

    PubMed

    Nebel, A; Filon, D; Weiss, D A; Weale, M; Faerman, M; Oppenheim, A; Thomas, M G

    2000-12-01

    High-resolution Y chromosome haplotype analysis was performed in 143 paternally unrelated Israeli and Palestinian Moslem Arabs (I&P Arabs) by screening for 11 binary polymorphisms and six microsatellite loci. Two frequent haplotypes were found among the 83 detected: the modal haplotype of the I&P Arabs (approximately 14%) was spread throughout the region, while its one-step microsatellite neighbor, the modal haplotype of the Galilee sample (approximately 8%), was mainly restricted to the north. Geographic substructuring within the Arabs was observed in the highlands of Samaria and Judea. Y chromosome variation in the I&P Arabs was compared to that of Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews, and to that of North Welsh individuals. At the haplogroup level, defined by the binary polymorphisms only, the Y chromosome distribution in Arabs and Jews was similar but not identical. At the haplotype level, determined by both binary and microsatellite markers, a more detailed pattern was observed. Single-step microsatellite networks of Arab and Jewish haplotypes revealed a common pool for a large portion of Y chromosomes, suggesting a relatively recent common ancestry. The two modal haplotypes in the I&P Arabs were closely related to the most frequent haplotype of Jews (the Cohen modal haplotype). However, the I&P Arab clade that includes the two Arab modal haplotypes (and makes up 32% of Arab chromosomes) is found at only very low frequency among Jews, reflecting divergence and/or admixture from other populations.

  17. Analysis of HLA genes and haplotypes in Ainu (from Hokkaido, northern Japan) supports the premise that they descent from Upper Paleolithic populations of East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bannai, M; Ohashi, J; Harihara, S; Takahashi, Y; Juji, T; Omoto, K; Tokunaga, K

    2000-02-01

    The Ainu people are assumed to be the descendants of pre-agricultural native populations of northern Japan, while the majority of population of present-day Japan (Hondo-Japanese) is considered to have descended mainly from post-neolithic migrants. Sequence-level polymorphisms of the HLA-class I (HLA-A and HLA-B) genes were investigated in DNA samples of 50 Ainu living in Hidaka district, Hokkaido. HLA-A*2402, A*0201, A*0206, A*2601, A*3101, B*1501, B*5101, B*3901, and B*3501 were observed at frequencies of more than 10% and most of these have previously been found in populations of not only Asians but also North and South American Indians. A*68012, which has not so far been detected in Hondo-Japanese, was found in the Ainu (3%). On the other hand, several alleles common in Hondo-Japanese, including HLA-A*3303, A*1101, B*4403, B*5201, B*5401, B*4601, and B*0702 were infrequent in Ainu (0-1%). Correspondence and neighbor-joining analyses of various populations based on HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 gene frequencies enabled distinction between Asian, Native South American, European, and African populations. The Ainu, as well as Tlingit (Na-Dene), were placed midway between other East Asians, including Hondo Japanese, and Native South Americans (Amerindians) in the correspondence analysis. Furthermore, several HLA-A-B and HLA-B-DR-DQ haplotypes common in the Ainu, are shared with some Native American populations. These observations strongly suggest a unique place for the Ainu as descendants of some Upper Paleolithic populations of East Asia, from whom some Native Americans may have descended.

  18. Haplotype-based quantitative trait mapping using a clustering algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Zhou, Yingyao; Elston, Robert C

    2006-01-01

    Background With the availability of large-scale, high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, substantial effort has been made in identifying disease-causing genes using linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping by haplotype analysis of unrelated individuals. In addition to complex diseases, many continuously distributed quantitative traits are of primary clinical and health significance. However the development of association mapping methods using unrelated individuals for quantitative traits has received relatively less attention. Results We recently developed an association mapping method for complex diseases by mining the sharing of haplotype segments (i.e., phased genotype pairs) in affected individuals that are rarely present in normal individuals. In this paper, we extend our previous work to address the problem of quantitative trait mapping from unrelated individuals. The method is non-parametric in nature, and statistical significance can be obtained by a permutation test. It can also be incorporated into the one-way ANCOVA (analysis of covariance) framework so that other factors and covariates can be easily incorporated. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated by extensive experimental studies using both simulated and real data sets. The results show that our haplotype-based approach is more robust than two statistical methods based on single markers: a single SNP association test (SSA) and the Mann-Whitney U-test (MWU). The algorithm has been incorporated into our existing software package called HapMiner, which is available from our website at . Conclusion For QTL (quantitative trait loci) fine mapping, to identify QTNs (quantitative trait nucleotides) with realistic effects (the contribution of each QTN less than 10% of total variance of the trait), large samples sizes (≥ 500) are needed for all the methods. The overall performance of HapMiner is better than that of the other two methods. Its effectiveness further depends on other

  19. Analysis of FMR1 (CGG)(n) alleles and DXS548-FRAXAC1 haplotypes in three European circumpolar populations: traces of genetic relationship with Asia.

    PubMed

    Larsen, L A; Vuust, J; Nystad, M; Evseeva, I; Van Ghelue, M; Tranebjaerg, L

    2001-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by expansion of a (CGG)(n) repeat located in the FMR1 gene. The molecular factors involved in the mutation process from stable (CGG)(n) alleles towards unstable alleles are largely unknown, although family transmission studies and population studies have suggested that loss of AGG interruptions in the (CGG)(n) repeat is essential. We have analysed the AGG interspersion pattern of the FMR1 (CGG)(n) repeat and the haplotype distribution of closely located microsatellite markers DXS548 and FRAXAC1, in three circumarctic populations: Norwegians, Nenets and Saami. The data confirm the conservation, reported in all human populations studied so far, of an AGG interruption for each 9-10 CGG and support the stabilising effect of AGG interruptions. The data also indicate the existence of chromosomes of Asian origin in the Saami and Nenets population, thereby confirming a genetic relationship between Northern Europe and Asia. DXS548-FRAXAC1 haplotype frequencies were compared between 24 Norwegian fragile X males and 119 normal males. Significant linkage disequilibrium were found between the fragile X mutation and haplotype 6-4 and between normal (CGG)(n) alleles and haplotype 7-3.

  20. De novo assembly of a haplotype-resolved human genome.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongzhi; Wu, Honglong; Luo, Ruibang; Huang, Shujia; Sun, Yuhui; Tong, Xin; Xie, Yinlong; Liu, Binghang; Yang, Hailong; Zheng, Hancheng; Li, Jian; Li, Bo; Wang, Yu; Yang, Fang; Sun, Peng; Liu, Siyang; Gao, Peng; Huang, Haodong; Sun, Jing; Chen, Dan; He, Guangzhu; Huang, Weihua; Huang, Zheng; Li, Yue; Tellier, Laurent C A M; Liu, Xiao; Feng, Qiang; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xiuqing; Bolund, Lars; Krogh, Anders; Kristiansen, Karsten; Drmanac, Radoje; Drmanac, Snezana; Nielsen, Rasmus; Li, Songgang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Li, Yingrui; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun

    2015-06-01

    The human genome is diploid, and knowledge of the variants on each chromosome is important for the interpretation of genomic information. Here we report the assembly of a haplotype-resolved diploid genome without using a reference genome. Our pipeline relies on fosmid pooling together with whole-genome shotgun strategies, based solely on next-generation sequencing and hierarchical assembly methods. We applied our sequencing method to the genome of an Asian individual and generated a 5.15-Gb assembled genome with a haplotype N50 of 484 kb. Our analysis identified previously undetected indels and 7.49 Mb of novel coding sequences that could not be aligned to the human reference genome, which include at least six predicted genes. This haplotype-resolved genome represents the most complete de novo human genome assembly to date. Application of our approach to identify individual haplotype differences should aid in translating genotypes to phenotypes for the development of personalized medicine.

  1. Analysis of HLA class II haplotypes in the Cayapa Indians of Ecuador: a novel DRB1 allele reveals evidence for convergent evolution and balancing selection at position 86.

    PubMed Central

    Titus-Trachtenberg, E. A.; Rickards, O.; De Stefano, G. F.; Erlich, H. A.

    1994-01-01

    PCR amplification, oligonucleotide probe typing, and sequencing were used to analyze the HLA class II loci (DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1) of an isolated South Amerindian tribe. Here we report HLA class II variation, including the identification of a new DRB1 allele, several novel DR/DQ haplotypes, and an unusual distribution of DPB1 alleles, among the Cayapa Indians (N = 100) of Ecuador. A general reduction of HLA class II allelic variation in the Cayapa is consistent with a population bottle-neck during the colonization of the Americas. The new Cayapa DRB1 allele, DRB1*08042, which arose by a G-->T point mutation in the parental DRB1*0802, contains a novel Val codon (GTT) at position 86. The generation of DRB1*08042 (Val-86) from DRB1*0802 (Gly-86) in the Cayapa, by a different mechanism than the (GT-->TG) change in the creation of DRB1*08041 (Val-86) from DRB1*0802 in Africa, implicates selection in the convergent evolution of position 86 DR beta variants. The DRB1*08042 allele has not been found in > 1,800 Amerindian haplotypes and thus presumably arose after the Cayapa separated from other South American Amerindians. Selection pressure for increased haplotype diversity can be inferred in the generation and maintenance of three new DRB1*08042 haplotypes and several novel DR/DQ haplotypes in this population. The DPB1 allelic distribution in the Cayapa is also extraordinary, with two alleles, DPB1*1401, a very rare allele in North American Amerindian populations, and DPB1*0402, the most common Amerindian DPB1 allele, constituting 89% of the Cayapa DPB1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8023844

  2. Haplotype inference from unphased SNP data in heterozygous polyploids based on SAT

    PubMed Central

    Neigenfind, Jost; Gyetvai, Gabor; Basekow, Rico; Diehl, Svenja; Achenbach, Ute; Gebhardt, Christiane; Selbig, Joachim; Kersten, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    Background Haplotype inference based on unphased SNP markers is an important task in population genetics. Although there are different approaches to the inference of haplotypes in diploid species, the existing software is not suitable for inferring haplotypes from unphased SNP data in polyploid species, such as the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum). Potato species are tetraploid and highly heterozygous. Results Here we present the software SATlotyper which is able to handle polyploid and polyallelic data. SATlo-typer uses the Boolean satisfiability problem to formulate Haplotype Inference by Pure Parsimony. The software excludes existing haplotype inferences, thus allowing for calculation of alternative inferences. As it is not known which of the multiple haplotype inferences are best supported by the given unphased data set, we use a bootstrapping procedure that allows for scoring of alternative inferences. Finally, by means of the bootstrapping scores, it is possible to optimise the phased genotypes belonging to a given haplotype inference. The program is evaluated with simulated and experimental SNP data generated for heterozygous tetraploid populations of potato. We show that, instead of taking the first haplotype inference reported by the program, we can significantly improve the quality of the final result by applying additional methods that include scoring of the alternative haplotype inferences and genotype optimisation. For a sub-population of nineteen individuals, the predicted results computed by SATlotyper were directly compared with results obtained by experimental haplotype inference via sequencing of cloned amplicons. Prediction and experiment gave similar results regarding the inferred haplotypes and phased genotypes. Conclusion Our results suggest that Haplotype Inference by Pure Parsimony can be solved efficiently by the SAT approach, even for data sets of unphased SNP from heterozygous polyploids. SATlotyper is freeware and is distributed as

  3. Genetic origin of Behçet's disease population in Denizli, Turkey; population genetics data analysis; historical demography and geographical perspectives based on β-globin gene cluster haplotype variation.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, O; Arikan, S; Bahadir, A; Atalay, A; Atalay, E O

    2017-01-01

    In our study, we aimed to investigate the possible genetic drift, relationships, expansion and historical origin based on haplotype frequencies of the β-globin gene cluster of normal and Behçet's disease (BD) population in Denizli, Turkey. We examined blood DNA samples obtained from our DNA bank. The association of population genetic parameters such as haplotypes, diversity, differentiation, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and demographic analysis for two populations was performed by Arlequin ver. 3.5. Our results show that both populations have high similarity in genetic parameters in terms of development and expansion based on haplotype diversity through the history. We found that historical levels of gene flow were significantly higher between the two populations. According to historical population, growth parameter of τ values for normal and BD populations dated approximately 42 000 to 38 000 ybp, respectively. In conclusion, historically, two populations show similar genetic parameters and unimodal growth distribution. Our results are consistent with the view that the BD may have occurred in area, independent from Silk Road.

  4. Surface analysis and evaluation of progressive addition lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiying; Li, Dan

    2016-10-01

    The Progressive addition lens is used increasingly extensive with its advantages of meeting the requirements of distant and near vision at the same time. Started from the surface equations of progressive addition lens, combined with evaluation method of spherical power and cylinder power, the relationship equations between the surface sag and optical power distribution are derived. According to the requirements on difference of actual and nominal optical power from Chinese National Standard, the tolerance analysis and evaluation of prototype progressive addition surface with addition of 2.5m-1 ( 7.5m-1 10m-1 ) is given in detail. The tolerance analysis method provides theoretical proof for lens processing control accuracy, and the processing feasibility of lens is evaluated much more reasonably.

  5. Combined genotype and haplotype distributions of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shujun; Yang, Boyi; Zhi, Xueyuan; Wang, Yanxun; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are, independently and/or in combination, associated with many disorders. However, data on the combined genotype and haplotype distributions of the 2 polymorphisms in Chinese population were limited. We recruited 13,473 adult women from 9 Chinese provinces, collected buccal cell samples, and determined genotypes, to estimate the combined genotype and haplotype distributions of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms. In the total sample, the 6 common combined genotypes were CT/AA (29.5%), TT/AA (21.9%), CC/AA (15.4%), CC/AC (14.9%), CT/AC (13.7%), and CC/CC (3.4%); the 3 frequent haplotypes were 677T-1298A (43.6%), 677C-1298A (37.9%), and 677C-1298C (17.6%). Importantly, we observed that there were 51 (0.4%) individuals with the CT/CC genotype, 92 (0.7%) with the TT/AC genotype, 17 (0.1%) with the TT/CC genotype, and that the frequency of the 677T-1298C haplotype was 0.9%. In addition, the prevalence of some combined genotypes and haplotypes varied among populations residing in different areas and even showed apparent geographical gradients. Further linkage disequilibrium analysis showed that the D’ and r2 values were 0.883 and 0.143, respectively. In summary, the findings of our study provide further strong evidence that the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are usually in trans and occasionally in cis configurations. The frequencies of mutant genotype combinations were relatively higher in Chinese population than other populations, and showed geographical variations. These baseline data would be useful for future related studies and for developing health management programs. PMID:27902594

  6. Interleukin 8 haplotypes drive divergent responses in uterine endometrial cells and are associated with somatic cell score in Holstein-Friesian cattle.

    PubMed

    Stojkovic, Bojan; Mullen, Michael P; Donofrio, Gaetano; McLoughlin, Rachel M; Meade, Kieran G

    2017-02-01

    Interleukin 8 is a proinflammatory chemokine involved in neutrophil recruitment and activation in response to infection and also in the resolution of inflammation. Our previous studies identified a number of genetic polymorphisms in the bovine IL8 promoter region which segregate into two haplotypes, with balanced frequencies in the Holstein-Friesian (HF). We subsequently showed that these haplotypes confer divergent IL8 activity both in vitro in mammary epithelial cells and in vivo in response to LPS. In this study, we hypothesised that the balanced frequency of IL8 haplotype in HF could be explained by divergent selection pressures acting on this locus. To address this hypothesis, an association study was carried out aiming to identify a putative link between the IL8 haplotype and somatic cell score (SCS) in 5746 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. In addition, the basal and inducible promoter activity of the two IL8 haplotypes was characterised in bovine endometrial epithelial (BEND) cells and in monocyte-derived macrophages. Results showed a significant association between IL8 haplotype 2 (IL8-h2) with increased SCS (P<0.05). Functional analysis showed that the same haplotype was a more potent inducer of IL8 expression in BEND cells in response to LPS and TNFα stimulation. In contrast, co-transfection of the BEND cells with a DNA construct encoding a bovine herpesvirus 4 antigen, induced significantly higher IL8 expression from IL8-h1. The present study sheds light on the molecular mechanisms underlying selection for SCS and provides evidence that the balanced frequencies of the two IL8 haplotypes in HF cattle may occur as a result of opposing directional selection pressures of both bacterial and viral infection.

  7. Computed Tomography Inspection and Analysis for Additive Manufacturing Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beshears, Ronald D.

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) inspection was performed on test articles additively manufactured from metallic materials. Metallic AM and machined wrought alloy test articles with programmed flaws were inspected using a 2MeV linear accelerator based CT system. Performance of CT inspection on identically configured wrought and AM components and programmed flaws was assessed using standard image analysis techniques to determine the impact of additive manufacturing on inspectability of objects with complex geometries.

  8. Phenotypic and genetic effects of recessive haplotypes on yield, longevity, and fertility.

    PubMed

    Cole, J B; Null, D J; VanRaden, P M

    2016-09-01

    Phenotypes from the August 2015 US national genetic evaluation were used to compute phenotypic effects of 18 recessive haplotypes in Ayrshire (n=1), Brown Swiss (n=5), Holstein (n=10), and Jersey (n=2) cattle on milk, fat, and protein yields, somatic cell score (SCS), single-trait productive life (PL), daughter pregnancy rate (DPR), heifer conception rate (HCR), and cow conception rate (CCR). The haplotypes evaluated were Ayrshire haplotype 1, Brown Swiss haplotypes 1 and 2, spinal dysmyelination, spinal muscular atrophy, Weaver Syndrome, brachyspina, Holstein cholesterol deficiency, Holstein haplotypes 1 to 5, bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency, complex vertebral malformation, mulefoot (syndactyly), and Jersey haplotypes 1 and 2. When causal variants are unknown and tests are based only on single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes, it can sometimes be difficult to accurately determine carrier status. For example, 2 Holstein haplotypes for cholesterol deficiency have the same single nucleotide polymorphism genotype, but only one of them carries the causative mutation. Genotyped daughters of carrier bulls included in the analysis ranged from 8 for Weaver Syndrome to 17,869 for Holstein haplotype 3. Lactation records preadjusted for nongenetic factors and direct genomic values (DGV) were used to estimate phenotypic and genetic effects of recessive haplotypes, respectively. We found no phenotypic or genetic differences between carriers and noncarriers of Ayrshire or Brown Swiss defects. Several associations were noted for Holstein haplotypes, including fat and HCR for Holstein haplotype 0 carriers; milk, protein, SCS, PL, and fertility for Holstein haplotype 1; protein, PL, CCR, and HCR for Holstein haplotype 2; milk, protein, and fertility for Holstein haplotype 4; and protein yield and DPR for Holstein haplotype 5. There were no differences among bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency carriers, but complex vertebral malformation affected fat yield and mulefoot

  9. Short communication: casein haplotype variability in sicilian dairy goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Gigli, I; Maizon, D O; Riggio, V; Sardina, M T; Portolano, B

    2008-09-01

    In the Mediterranean region, goat milk production is an important economic activity. In the present study, 4 casein genes were genotyped in 5 Sicilian goat breeds to 1) identify casein haplotypes present in the Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, Messinese, Derivata di Siria, and Maltese goat breeds; and 2) describe the structure of the Sicilian goat breeds based on casein haplotypes and allele frequencies. In a sample of 540 dairy goats, 67 different haplotypes with frequency >or=0.01 and 27 with frequency >or=0.03 were observed. The most common CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3 haplotype for Derivata di Siria and Maltese was FCFB (0.17 and 0.22, respectively), whereas for Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana and Messinese was ACAB (0.06, 0.23, and 0.10, respectively). According to the haplotype reconstruction, Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, and Messinese breeds presented the most favorable haplotype for cheese production, because the casein concentration in milk of these breeds might be greater than that in Derivata di Siria and Maltese breeds. Based on a cluster analysis, the breeds formed 2 main groups: Derivata di Siria, and Maltese in one group, and Argentata dell'Etna and Messinese in the other; the Girgentana breed was between these groups but closer to the latter.

  10. Direct micro-haplotyping by multiple double PCR amplifications of specific alleles (MD-PASA)

    PubMed Central

    Eitan, Yuval; Kashi, Yechezkel

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of haplotypes is an important tool in population genetics, familial heredity and gene mapping. Determination of haplotypes of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or other simple mutations is time consuming and expensive when analyzing large populations, and often requires the help of computational and statistical procedures. Based on double PCR amplification of specific alleles, described previously, we have developed a simple, rapid and low-cost method for direct haplotyping of multiple SNPs and simple mutations found within relatively short specific regions or genes (micro-haplotypes). Using this method, it is possible to directly determine the physical linkage of multiple heterozygous alleles, by conducting a series of double allele-specific PCR amplification sets with simple analysis by gel electrophoresis. Application of the method requires prior information as to the sequence of the segment to be haplotyped, including the polymorphic sites. We applied the method to haplotyping of nine sites in the chicken HSP108 gene. One of the haplotypes in the population apparently arose by recombination between two existing haplotypes, and we were able to locate the point of recombination within a segment of 19 bp. We anticipate rapidly growing needs for SNP haplotyping in human (medical and pharmacogenetics), animal and plant genetics; in this context, the multiple double PCR amplifications of specific alleles (MD-PASA) method offers a useful haplotyping tool. PMID:12060700

  11. COI haplotype groups in Mesocriconema (Nematoda: Criconematidae) and their morphospecies associations.

    PubMed

    Powers, T O; Bernard, E C; Harris, T; Higgins, R; Olson, M; Lodema, M; Mullin, P; Sutton, L; Powers, K S

    2014-07-03

    Discocriconemella inarata is transferred to Mesocriconema inaratum based on its phylogenetic position on the COI tree as well as previous phylogenetic analyses using 18S, ITS1, and cytochrome b nucleotide sequences. This study indicates that some of the species considered cosmopolitan in their distribution are actually multispecies polyphyletic groupings and an accurate assessment of Mesocriconema species distributions will benefit from molecular determination of haplotype relationships. The groups revealed by COI analysis should provide a useful framework for the evaluation of additional Mesocriconema species and will improve the reliability of designating taxonomic units in studies of nematode biodiversity. 

  12. The Complexity of DRw6 DR5 Haplotypes in American Blacks Demonstrated by Serology, Cellular Typing, and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    blong writh other published data identify at least eight DRu-1.3 haplotypesi (DRuwI3A-DRwiv3HI in the human population. Five of these haplotypes exhibit...indicate (he strength of the cytooxi rea tio n -- ’ 8 -I I ()"’ t v04*Ak1IV’ ( -Si ’ -4 = 2’ -50-;. 2 = I V7;-20"i, I = 0. - IO ):O = noi (estcd). when

  13. Functionality and opposite roles of two interleukin 4 haplotypes in immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Anovazzi, G; Medeiros, M C; Pigossi, S C; Finoti, L S; Souza Moreira, T M; Mayer, M P A; Zanelli, C F; Valentini, S R; Rossa-Junior, C; Scarel-Caminaga, R M

    2017-01-01

    Cytokines expression can be influenced by polymorphisms in their respective coding genes. We associated the CTI/TTD haplotype (Hap-1) and TCI/CCI haplotype (Hap-2) in the IL4 gene formed by the −590, +33 and variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms with the severity of chronic periodontitis in humans. The functionality of these IL4 haplotypes in the response of immune cells to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) with Ionomycin and IL-1β (as inflammatory stimuli) was evaluated. Gene expression (quantitative real-time PCR), profile of secreted cytokines (multiplex) and phenotypic polarization of T cells (flow cytometry) were the outcomes assessed. Green fluorescent protein reporter plasmid constructs containing specific IL4 haplotype were transiently transfected into JM cells to assess the influence of the individual haplotypes on promoter activity. In response to inflammatory stimuli the immune cells from Hap-1 haplotype had increased expression of anti-inflammatory IL4; conversely, the Hap-2 haplotype showed higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The haplotype CTI proved to be the most important for the regulation of IL4 promoter, regardless of the nature of the inflammatory stimulation; whereas the polymorphism in the promoter region had the least functional effect. In conclusion, IL4 haplotypes studied are functional and trigger opposite immune responses: anti-inflammatory (Hap-1) and pro-inflammatory (Hap-2). In addition, we identified the CTI haplotype as the main responsible for the regulation of IL4 transcriptional activity. PMID:28053321

  14. Mitochondrial coding genome analysis of tropical root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne) supports haplotype based diagnostics and reveals evidence of recent reticulate evolution.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Toon; Karssen, Gerrit; Verhaeven, Myrtle; Coyne, Danny; Bert, Wim

    2016-03-04

    The polyphagous parthenogenetic root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are considered to be the most significant nematode pest in sub-tropical and tropical agriculture. Despite the crucial need for correct diagnosis, identification of these pathogens remains problematic. The traditionally used diagnostic strategies, including morphometrics, host-range tests, biochemical and molecular techniques, now appear to be unreliable due to the recently-suggested hybrid origin of root-knot nematodes. In order to determine a suitable barcode region for these pathogens nine quickly-evolving mitochondrial coding genes were screened. Resulting haplotype networks revealed closely related lineages indicating a recent speciation, an anthropogenic-aided distribution through agricultural practices, and evidence for reticulate evolution within M. arenaria. Nonetheless, nucleotide polymorphisms harbor enough variation to distinguish these closely-related lineages. Furthermore, completeness of lineage sorting was verified by screening 80 populations from widespread geographical origins and variable hosts. Importantly, our results indicate that mitochondrial haplotypes are strongly linked and consistent with traditional esterase isozyme patterns, suggesting that different parthenogenetic lineages can be reliably identified using mitochondrial haplotypes. The study indicates that the barcode region Nad5 can reliably identify the major lineages of tropical root-knot nematodes.

  15. Mitochondrial coding genome analysis of tropical root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne) supports haplotype based diagnostics and reveals evidence of recent reticulate evolution

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Toon; Karssen, Gerrit; Verhaeven, Myrtle; Coyne, Danny; Bert, Wim

    2016-01-01

    The polyphagous parthenogenetic root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are considered to be the most significant nematode pest in sub-tropical and tropical agriculture. Despite the crucial need for correct diagnosis, identification of these pathogens remains problematic. The traditionally used diagnostic strategies, including morphometrics, host-range tests, biochemical and molecular techniques, now appear to be unreliable due to the recently-suggested hybrid origin of root-knot nematodes. In order to determine a suitable barcode region for these pathogens nine quickly-evolving mitochondrial coding genes were screened. Resulting haplotype networks revealed closely related lineages indicating a recent speciation, an anthropogenic-aided distribution through agricultural practices, and evidence for reticulate evolution within M. arenaria. Nonetheless, nucleotide polymorphisms harbor enough variation to distinguish these closely-related lineages. Furthermore, completeness of lineage sorting was verified by screening 80 populations from widespread geographical origins and variable hosts. Importantly, our results indicate that mitochondrial haplotypes are strongly linked and consistent with traditional esterase isozyme patterns, suggesting that different parthenogenetic lineages can be reliably identified using mitochondrial haplotypes. The study indicates that the barcode region Nad5 can reliably identify the major lineages of tropical root-knot nematodes. PMID:26940543

  16. Genetic analysis of haplotype data for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat loci in the Turkish population recently settled in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Serkan; Primorac, Dragan; Marjanović, Damir

    2014-01-01

    Aim To explore the distribution and polymorphisms of 23 short tandem repeat (STR) loci on the Y chromosome in the Turkish population recently settled in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina and to investigate its genetic relationships with the homeland Turkish population and neighboring populations. Methods This study included 100 healthy unrelated male individuals from the Turkish population living in Sarajevo. Buccal swab samples were collected as a DNA source. Genomic DNA was extracted using the salting out method and amplification was performed using PowerPlex Y 23 amplification kit. The studied population was compared to other populations using pairwise genetic distances, which were represented with a multi-dimensional scaling plot. Results Haplotype and allele frequencies of the sample population were calculated and the results showed that all 100 samples had unique haplotypes. The most polymorphic locus was DYS458, and the least polymorphic DYS391. The observed haplotype diversity was 1.0000 ± 0.0014, with a discrimination capacity of 1.00 and the match probability of 0.01. Rst values showed that our sample population was closely related in both dimensions to the Lebanese and Iraqi populations, while it was more distant from Bosnian, Croatian, and Macedonian populations. Conclusion Turkish population residing in Sarajevo could be observed as a representative Turkish population, since our results were consistent with those previously published for the homeland Turkish population. Also, this study once again proved that geographically close populations were genetically more related to each other. PMID:25358886

  17. Annotated definition of BCL11A and HMIP-2 haplotypes through the analysis of sicilian β-thalassemia patients with high levels of fetal hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Buccheri, Maria A; Spina, Sonia; Ruberto, Concetta; Lombardo, Turi; Labie, Dominique; Ragusa, And Angela

    2013-01-01

    Fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) is the principal ameliorating factor of β-thalassemia (β-thal) and sickle cell disease. Persistent production in adult life is a quantitative trait regulated by loci inside or outside the β-globin gene cluster. From genome-wide association studies, principal quantitative trait loci (QTL) (accounting for 50.0% of Hb F variability in different populations) have been identified in the BCL11A gene, HBS1L-MYB intergenic polymorphism and the β-globin gene cluster itself. In this study, we analyzed quantitative trait haplotypes in two Sicilian families with extremely mild β-thal and unusually high Hb F expression, in order to examine possible genetic background variations in a similar β-thalassemic phenotype. This study redefines the linkage disequilibrium blocks at these loci, but also shows slight differences between probands in haplotype combinations which could reflect different mechanisms of high Hb F production in patients with β-thal. We proposed a haplotype-based approach as a useful tool for the understanding of β-thal phenotype variation in patients with similar β-thalassemic backgrounds in an attempt to answer the recurring question of why patients with the same β-thalassemic genotype show different phenotypes.

  18. Optimal Multicomponent Analysis Using the Generalized Standard Addition Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment on the simultaneous determination of chromium and magnesium by spectophotometry modified to include the Generalized Standard Addition Method computer program, a multivariate calibration method that provides optimal multicomponent analysis in the presence of interference and matrix effects. Provides instructions for…

  19. New Cases of Thelazia callipaeda Haplotype 1 in Dogs Suggest a Wider Distribution in Romania.

    PubMed

    Ioniţă, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Ionică, Angela Monica; Morariu, Sorin; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Thelazia callipaeda is an emerging vector-borne zoonotic helminth parasitizing the conjunctival sac of a broad spectrum of definitive hosts, such as dogs, cats, rabbits, wild carnivores, and humans. Its presence is associated with mild to severe ocular disease. Here, we report two new clinical cases in dogs originating from western and southern Romania, with no travel history. On clinical examination, the nematodes were retrieved from the conjunctival sac and identified using morphological keys and molecular tools. Twenty-two adult nematodes (8 males, 14 females) were collected and were identified as T. callipaeda by morphology. The molecular analysis revealed a 100% identity with haplotype h1 of T. callipaeda. This study describes the occurrence of new autochthonous cases of thelaziosis in Romania, reinforcing the spreading trend of this zoonotic eyeworm and highlighting the need for increased awareness among medical and veterinary practitioners. Moreover, we provide additional molecular evidence for the exclusive distribution of haplotype 1 of T. callipaeda in Europe.

  20. Detecting structure of haplotypes and local ancestry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present a two-layer hidden Markov model to detect the structure of haplotypes for unrelated individuals. This allows us to model two scales of linkage disequilibrium (one within a group of haplotypes and one between groups), thereby taking advantage of rich haplotype information to infer local an...

  1. A global analysis of soil acidification caused by nitrogen addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Dashuan; Niu, Shuli

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition-induced soil acidification has become a global problem. However, the response patterns of soil acidification to N addition and the underlying mechanisms remain far from clear. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of 106 studies to reveal global patterns of soil acidification in responses to N addition. We found that N addition significantly reduced soil pH by 0.26 on average globally. However, the responses of soil pH varied with ecosystem types, N addition rate, N fertilization forms, and experimental durations. Soil pH decreased most in grassland, whereas boreal forest was not observed a decrease to N addition in soil acidification. Soil pH decreased linearly with N addition rates. Addition of urea and NH4NO3 contributed more to soil acidification than NH4-form fertilizer. When experimental duration was longer than 20 years, N addition effects on soil acidification diminished. Environmental factors such as initial soil pH, soil carbon and nitrogen content, precipitation, and temperature all influenced the responses of soil pH. Base cations of Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ were critical important in buffering against N-induced soil acidification at the early stage. However, N addition has shifted global soils into the Al3+ buffering phase. Overall, this study indicates that acidification in global soils is very sensitive to N deposition, which is greatly modified by biotic and abiotic factors. Global soils are now at a buffering transition from base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+) to non-base cations (Mn2+ and Al3+). This calls our attention to care about the limitation of base cations and the toxic impact of non-base cations for terrestrial ecosystems with N deposition.

  2. [Kinetic analysis of additive effect on desulfurization activity].

    PubMed

    Han, Kui-hua; Zhao, Jian-li; Lu, Chun-mei; Wang, Yong-zheng; Zhao, Gai-ju; Cheng, Shi-qing

    2006-02-01

    The additive effects of A12O3, Fe2O3 and MnCO3 on CaO sulfation kinetics were investigated by thermogravimetic analysis method and modified grain model. The activation energy (Ea) and the pre-exponential factor (k0) of surface reaction, the activation energy (Ep) and the pre-exponential factor (D0) of product layer diffusion reaction were calculated according to the model. Additions of MnCO3 can enhance the initial reaction rate, product layer diffusion and the final CaO conversion of sorbents, the effect mechanism of which is similar to that of Fe2O3. The method based isokinetic temperature Ts and activation energy can not estimate the contribution of additive to the sulfation reactivity, the rate constant of the surface reaction (k), and the effective diffusivity of reactant in the product layer (Ds) under certain experimental conditions can reflect the effect of additives on the activation. Unstoichiometric metal oxide may catalyze the surface reaction and promote the diffusivity of reactant in the product layer by the crystal defect and distinct diffusion of cation and anion. According to the mechanism and effect of additive on the sulfation, the effective temperature and the stoichiometric relation of reaction, it is possible to improve the utilization of sorbent by compounding more additives to the calcium-based sorbent.

  3. APC Yin-Yang haplotype associated with colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Garre, P; DE LA Hoya, M; Iniesta, P; Romera, A; Llovet, P; Gonzalez, S; Perez-Segura, P; Capella, G; Diaz-Rubio, E; Caldes, T

    2010-09-01

    The Yin-Yang haplotype is defined as two mismatched haplotypes (Yin and Yang) representing the majority of the existing haplotypes in a particular genomic region. The human adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene shows a Yin-Yang haplotype pattern accounting for 84% of all of the haplotypes existing in the Spanish population. Several association studies have been published regarding APC gene variants (SNPs and haplotypes) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, no studies concerning diplotype structure and CRC risk have been conducted. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the APC Yin-Yang homozygote diplotype is over-represented in patients with sporadic CRC when compared to its distribution in controls, and its association with CRC risk. TaqMan(®) assays were used to genotype three tagSNPs selected across the APC Yin-Yang region. Frequencies of the APC Yin-Yang tagSNP alleles, haplotype and diplotype of 378 CRC cases and 642 controls were compared. Two Spanish CRC group samples were included [Hospital Clínico San Carlos in Madrid (HCSC) and Instituto Catalán de Oncología in Barcelona (ICO)]. Analysis of 157 consecutive CRC patients and 405 control subjects from HCSC showed a significative effect for the risk of CRC (OR=1.93; 95% CI 1.32-2.81; P=0.001). However, this effect was not confirmed in 221 CRC patients and 237 control subjects from ICO (OR=0.89; 95% CI 0.61-1.28; P=0.521). We found a significant association between the APC homozygote Yin-Yang diplotype and the risk of colorectal cancer in the HCSC samples. However, we did not observe this association in the ICO samples. These observations suggest that a study with a larger Spanish cohort is necessary to confirm the effects of the APC Yin-Yang diplotype on the risk of CRC.

  4. Mitochondrial inheritance and the detection of non-parental mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in crosses of Agaricus bisporus homokaryons.

    PubMed

    de la Bastide, Paul Y; Horgen, Paul A

    2003-04-01

    This study evaluates mtDNA transmission in Agaricus bisporus, as well as the occurrence of non-parental haplotypes in heterokaryons produced by controlled crosses. Sixteen crosses were performed with blended liquid cultures, using different combinations of 13 homokaryotic strains. For each cross, different mtDNA haplotypes were present in each homokaryon. Heterokaryons generated from these crosses were subject to genetic analysis with RFLP markers to identify (i). karyotic status, (ii). mtDNA haplotype, and (iii). the occurrence of non-parental mtDNA haplotypes. These analyses generally supported the occurrence of uniparental mitochondrial (mt) inheritance in A. bisporus, with one mtDNA haplotype usually favoured in the new heterokaryon. The preponderance of one mtDNA haplotype in a new heterokaryon did not necessarily show a correlation with a greater mycelial growth rate for the parent homokaryon possessing that haplotype. Mixed mtDNA haplotypes and non-parental haplotypes were also identified in the heterokaryons from some crosses. Evidence for the occurrence of two mtDNA haplotypes in one heterokaryotic mycelium was observed in 8 of 16 crosses, suggesting the maintenance of true heteroplasmons after three successive subculturing steps. Non-parental mtDNA haplotypes were seen in heterokaryons produced from 7 of 16 crosses. The mating protocol described can be utilized to generate novel mtDNA haplotypes for strain improvement and the development of strain-specific markers. Mechanisms of mt selection and inheritance are discussed.

  5. Novel strategies to mine alcoholism-related haplotypes and genes by combining existing knowledge framework.

    PubMed

    Zhang, RuiJie; Li, Xia; Jiang, YongShuai; Liu, GuiYou; Li, ChuanXing; Zhang, Fan; Xiao, Yun; Gong, BinSheng

    2009-02-01

    High-throughout single nucleotide polymorphism detection technology and the existing knowledge provide strong support for mining the disease-related haplotypes and genes. In this study, first, we apply four kinds of haplotype identification methods (Confidence Intervals, Four Gamete Tests, Solid Spine of LD and fusing method of haplotype block) into high-throughout SNP genotype data to identify blocks, then use cluster analysis to verify the effectiveness of the four methods, and select the alcoholism-related SNP haplotypes through risk analysis. Second, we establish a mapping from haplotypes to alcoholism-related genes. Third, we inquire NCBI SNP and gene databases to locate the blocks and identify the candidate genes. In the end, we make gene function annotation by KEGG, Biocarta, and GO database. We find 159 haplotype blocks, which relate to the alcoholism most possibly on chromosome 1 approximately 22, including 227 haplotypes, of which 102 SNP haplotypes may increase the risk of alcoholism. We get 121 alcoholism-related genes and verify their reliability by the functional annotation of biology. In a word, we not only can handle the SNP data easily, but also can locate the disease-related genes precisely by combining our novel strategies of mining alcoholism-related haplotypes and genes with existing knowledge framework.

  6. ANALYSIS OF MPC ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR ADDITION OF FILLER MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    W. Wallin

    1996-09-03

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) in response to a request received via a QAP-3-12 Design Input Data Request (Ref. 5.1) from WAST Design (formerly MRSMPC Design). The request is to provide: Specific MPC access requirements for the addition of filler materials at the MGDS (i.e., location and size of access required). The objective of this analysis is to provide a response to the foregoing request. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a documented record of the basis for the response. The response is stated in Section 8 herein. The response is based upon requirements from an MGDS perspective.

  7. The iSelect 9 K SNP analysis revealed polyploidization induced revolutionary changes and intense human selection causing strong haplotype blocks in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Yuquan; Chao, Shiaoman; Li, Tian; Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Lanfen; Zhang, Xueyong

    2017-01-01

    A Chinese wheat mini core collection was genotyped using the wheat 9 K iSelect SNP array. Total 2420 and 2396 polymorphic SNPs were detected on the A and the B genome chromosomes, which formed 878 haplotype blocks. There were more blocks in the B genome, but the average block size was significantly (P < 0.05) smaller than those in the A genome. Intense selection (domestication and breeding) had a stronger effect on the A than on the B genome chromosomes. Based on the genetic pedigrees, many blocks can be traced back to a well-known Strampelli cross, which was made one century ago. Furthermore, polyploidization of wheat (both tetraploidization and hexaploidization) induced revolutionary changes in both the A and the B genomes, with a greater increase of gene diversity compared to their diploid ancestors. Modern breeding has dramatically increased diversity in the gene coding regions, though obvious blocks were formed on most of the chromosomes in both tetraploid and hexaploid wheats. Tag-SNP markers identified in this study can be used for marker assisted selection using haplotype blocks as a wheat breeding strategy. This strategy can also be employed to facilitate genome selection in other self-pollinating crop species. PMID:28134278

  8. Haplotype Probabilities for Multiple-Strain Recombinant Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Teuscher, Friedrich; Broman, Karl W.

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from multiple inbred strains can serve as a powerful resource for the genetic dissection of complex traits. The use of such multiple-strain RIL requires a detailed knowledge of the haplotype structure in such lines. Broman (2005) derived the two- and three-point haplotype probabilities for 2n-way RIL; the former required hefty computation to infer the symbolic results, and the latter were strictly numerical. We describe a simpler approach for the calculation of these probabilities, which allowed us to derive the symbolic form of the three-point haplotype probabilities. We also extend the two-point results for the case of additional generations of intermating, including the case of 2n-way intermated recombinant inbred populations (IRIP). PMID:17151250

  9. Spectral Envelopes and Additive + Residual Analysis/Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodet, Xavier; Schwarz, Diemo

    The subject of this chapter is the estimation, representation, modification, and use of spectral envelopes in the context of sinusoidal-additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis. A spectral envelope is an amplitude-vs-frequency function, which may be obtained from the envelope of a short-time spectrum (Rodet et al., 1987; Schwarz, 1998). [Precise definitions of such an envelope and short-time spectrum (STS) are given in Section 2.] The additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis method is based on a representation of signals in terms of a sum of time-varying sinusoids and of a non-sinusoidal residual signal [e.g., see Serra (1989), Laroche et al. (1993), McAulay and Quatieri (1995), and Ding and Qian (1997)]. Many musical sound signals may be described as a combination of a nearly periodic waveform and colored noise. The nearly periodic part of the signal can be viewed as a sum of sinusoidal components, called partials, with time-varying frequency and amplitude. Such sinusoidal components are easily observed on a spectral analysis display (Fig. 5.1) as obtained, for instance, from a discrete Fourier transform.

  10. Geographic distribution of haplotype diversity at the bovine casein locus

    PubMed Central

    Jann, Oliver C; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Özbeyaz, Ceyhan; Zaragoza, Pilar; Williams, John L; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Lenstra, Johannes A; Moazami-Goudarzi, Katy; Erhardt, Georg

    2004-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the casein locus in cattle was studied on the basis of haplotype analysis. Consideration of recently described genetic variants of the casein genes which to date have not been the subject of diversity studies, allowed the identification of new haplotypes. Genotyping of 30 cattle breeds from four continents revealed a geographically associated distribution of haplotypes, mainly defined by frequencies of alleles at CSN1S1 and CSN3. The genetic diversity within taurine breeds in Europe was found to decrease significantly from the south to the north and from the east to the west. Such geographic patterns of cattle genetic variation at the casein locus may be a result of the domestication process of modern cattle as well as geographically differentiated natural or artificial selection. The comparison of African Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds allowed the identification of several Bos indicus specific haplotypes (CSN1S1*C-CSN2*A2-CSN3*AI/CSN3*H) that are not found in pure taurine breeds. The occurrence of such haplotypes in southern European breeds also suggests that an introgression of indicine genes into taurine breeds could have contributed to the distribution of the genetic variation observed. PMID:15040901

  11. Haplotype combination of the bovine CFL2 gene sequence variants and association with growth traits in Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujia; Lan, Xianyong; Lei, Chuzhao; Zhang, Chunlei; Chen, Hong

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of cofilin2 (CFL2) gene polymorphisms with growth traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the bovine CFL2 gene using DNA sequencing and (forced) PCR-RFLP methods. These polymorphisms included a missense mutation (NC_007319.5: g. C 2213 G) in exon 4, one synonymous mutation (NC_007319.5: g. T 1694 A) in exon 4, and a mutation (NC_007319.5: g. G 1500 A) in intron 2, respectively. In addition, we evaluated the haplotype frequency and linkage disequilibrium coefficient of three sequence variants in 488 individuals in QC cattle. All the three SNPs in QC cattle belonged to an intermediate level of genetic diversity (0.25Haplotype analysis of three SNPs showed that 8 different haplotypes were identified in all, but only 5 haplotypes were listed except for those with a frequency of <0.03. Hap4 (-GTC-) had the highest haplotype frequencies (34.70%). However in the three SNPs there were no significant associations between the 13 combined genotypes of the CFL2 gene and growth traits. LD analysis showed that the SNP T 1694 A and C 2213 G loci had a strong linkage (r(2)>0.33). Association analysis indicated that SNP G 1500 A, T 1694 A and C 2213 G were significantly associated with growth traits in the QC population. The results of our study suggest that the CFL2 gene may be a strong candidate gene that affects growth traits in the QC cattle breeding program.

  12. Ehapp2: Estimate haplotype frequencies from pooled sequencing data with prior database information.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chang-Chang; Sun, Xiao

    2016-08-01

    To reduce the cost of large-scale re-sequencing, multiple individuals are pooled together and sequenced called pooled sequencing. Pooled sequencing could provide a cost-effective alternative to sequencing individuals separately. To facilitate the application of pooled sequencing in haplotype-based diseases association analysis, the critical procedure is to accurately estimate haplotype frequencies from pooled samples. Here we present Ehapp2 for estimating haplotype frequencies from pooled sequencing data by utilizing a database which provides prior information of known haplotypes. We first translate the problem of estimating frequency for each haplotype into finding a sparse solution for a system of linear equations, where the NNREG algorithm is employed to achieve the solution. Simulation experiments reveal that Ehapp2 is robust to sequencing errors and able to estimate the frequencies of haplotypes with less than 3% average relative difference for pooled sequencing of mixture of real Drosophila haplotypes with 50× total coverage even when the sequencing error rate is as high as 0.05. Owing to the strategy that proportions for local haplotypes spanning multiple SNPs are accurately calculated first, Ehapp2 retains excellent estimation for recombinant haplotypes resulting from chromosomal crossover. Comparisons with present methods reveal that Ehapp2 is state-of-the-art for many sequencing study designs and more suitable for current massive parallel sequencing.

  13. Inference on haplotype/disease association using parent-affected-child data: the projection conditional on parental haplotypes method.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew S; Satten, Glen A

    2007-04-01

    We develop a method that allows inference on parameters in log-linear models of the relative risk of disease given an individual's haplotypes, that can be used to analyze case-parent trio data. Our methods are robust to population stratification and can also be used for inference on the effect of interactions between haplotypes and environmental covariates. We compare our results with the family-based association test (FBAT) of Horvath et al. ([2004] Genet. Epidemiol. 26:61-69), and discuss when marginal tests, such as those available in FBAT, can be misleading. Our approach generalizes previous results of Allen et al. ([2005] Biometrika 92:559-571), allowing for missing genotype data and haplotype x environment interactions. Additional computational simplifications are also discussed.

  14. Estimating KIR Haplotype Frequencies on a Cohort of 10,000 Individuals: A Comprehensive Study on Population Variations, Typing Resolutions, and Reference Haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Jyothi; Trowsdale, John; Traherne, James; Kuang, Rui; Spellman, Stephen; Maiers, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) mediate human natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity via activating or inhibiting signals. Although informative and functional haplotype patterns have been reported, most genotyping has been performed at resolutions that are structurally ambiguous. In order to leverage structural information given low-resolution genotypes, we performed experiments to quantify the effects of population variations, reference haplotypes, and genotyping resolutions on population-level haplotype frequency estimations as well as predictions of individual haplotypes. We genotyped 10,157 unrelated individuals in 5 populations (518 African American[AFA], 258 Asian or Pacific Islander[API], 8,245 European[EUR], 1,073 Hispanic[HIS], and 63 Native American[NAM]) for KIR gene presence/absence (PA), and additionally half of the AFA samples for KIR gene copy number variation (CNV). A custom EM algorithm was used to estimate haplotype frequencies for each population by interpretation in the context of three sets of reference haplotypes. The algorithm also assigns each individual the haplotype pairs of maximum likelihood. Generally, our haplotype frequency estimates agree with similar previous publications to within <5% difference for all haplotypes. The exception is that estimates for NAM from the U.S. showed higher frequency association of cB02 with tA01 (+14%) instead of tB01 (-8.5%) compared to a previous study of NAM from south of the U.S. The higher-resolution CNV genotyping on the AFA samples allowed unambiguous haplotype-pair assignments for the majority of individuals, resulting in a 22% higher median typing resolution score (TRS), which measures likelihood of self-match in the context of population-specific haplo- and geno-types. The use of TRS to quantify reduced ambiguity with CNV data clearly revealed the few individuals with ambiguous genotypes as outliers. It is observed that typing resolution and reference haplotype set influence

  15. Whole-genome molecular haplotyping of single cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, H Christina; Wang, Jianbin; Potanina, Anastasia; Quake, Stephen R

    2011-01-01

    Conventional experimental methods of studying the human genome are limited by the inability to independently study the combination of alleles, or haplotype, on each of the homologous copies of the chromosomes. We developed a microfluidic device capable of separating and amplifying homologous copies of each chromosome from a single human metaphase cell. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis of amplified DNA enabled us to achieve completely deterministic, whole-genome, personal haplotypes of four individuals, including a HapMap trio with European ancestry (CEU) and an unrelated European individual. The phases of alleles were determined at ∼99.8% accuracy for up to ∼96% of all assayed SNPs. We demonstrate several practical applications, including direct observation of recombination events in a family trio, deterministic phasing of deletions in individuals and direct measurement of the human leukocyte antigen haplotypes of an individual. Our approach has potential applications in personal genomics, single-cell genomics and statistical genetics.

  16. Detecting disease-predisposing variants: The haplotype method

    SciTech Connect

    Valdes, A.M.; Thomson, G.

    1997-03-01

    For many HLA-associated diseases, multiple alleles - and, in some cases, multiple loci - have been suggested as the causative agents. The haplotype method for identifying disease-predisposing amino acids in a genetic region is a stratification analysis. We show that, for each haplotype combination containing all the amino acid sites involved in the disease process, the relative frequencies of amino acid variants at sites not involved in disease but in linkage disequilibrium with the disease-predisposing sites are expected to be the same in patients and controls. The haplotype method is robust to mode of inheritance and penetrance of the disease and can be used to determine unequivocally whether all amino acid sites involved in the disease have not been identified. Using a resampling technique, we developed a statistical test that takes account of the nonindependence of the sites sampled. Further, when multiple sites in the genetic region are involved in disease, the test statistic gives a closer fit to the null expectation when some - compared with none - of the true predisposing factors are included in the haplotype analysis. Although the haplotype method cannot distinguish between very highly correlated sites in one population, ethnic comparisons may help identify the true predisposing factors. The haplotype method was applied to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) HLA class II DQA1-DQB1 data from Caucasian, African, and Japanese populations. Our results indicate that the combination DQA1 No. 52 (Arg predisposing) DQB1 No. 57 (Asp protective), which has been proposed as an important IDDM agent, does not include all the predisposing elements. With rheumatoid arthritis HLA class H DRB1 data, the results were consistent with the shared-epitope hypothesis. 35 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Evidence for high-risk haplotypes and (CGG)n expansion in fragile X syndrome in the Hellenic population of Greece and Cyprus

    SciTech Connect

    Syrrou, M.; Georgiou, I.; Pagoulatos, G.

    1996-07-12

    The expansion of the trinucleotide repeat (CGG){sub n} in successive generations through maternal meiosis is the cause of fragile X syndrome. Analysis of CA repeat polymorphisms flanking the FMR-1 gene provides evidence of a limited number of {open_quotes}founder{close_quotes} chromosomes and predisposing high-risk haplotypes related to the mutation. To investigate the origin of mutations in the fragile X syndrome in the Hellenic populations of Greece and Cyprus, we studied the alleles and haplotypes at DXS548 and FRAXAC2 loci of 16 independent fragile X and 70 normal control chromosomes. In addition, we studied 191 unrelated normal X chromosomes for the distribution and frequencies of CGG alleles. At DXS548, 6 alleles were found, 2 (194 and 196) of which were represented on fragile X chromosomes. At FRAXAC2, 6 alleles were found, 4 of which were present on fragile X chromosomes. Sixteen haplotypes were identified, but only 5 were present on fragile X chromosomes. The highest number of CGG repeats ({ge} 33) were associated with haplotypes 194-147, 194-151, 194-153, and 204-155. The data provide evidence for founder chromosomes and high-risk haplotypes in the Hellenic population. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Decreasing Cloudiness Over China: An Updated Analysis Examining Additional Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, D.P.

    2000-01-14

    As preparation of the IPCC's Third Assessment Report takes place, one of the many observed climate variables of key interest is cloud amount. For several nations of the world, there exist records of surface-observed cloud amount dating back to the middle of the 20th Century or earlier, offering valuable information on variations and trends. Studies using such databases include Sun and Groisman (1999) and Kaiser and Razuvaev (1995) for the former Soviet Union, Angel1 et al. (1984) for the United States, Henderson-Sellers (1986) for Europe, Jones and Henderson-Sellers (1992) for Australia, and Kaiser (1998) for China. The findings of Kaiser (1998) differ from the other studies in that much of China appears to have experienced decreased cloudiness over recent decades (1954-1994), whereas the other land regions for the most part show evidence of increasing cloud cover. This paper expands on Kaiser (1998) by analyzing trends in additional meteorological variables for Chi na [station pressure (p), water vapor pressure (e), and relative humidity (rh)] and extending the total cloud amount (N) analysis an additional two years (through 1996).

  19. A population association study of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-E; Chen, Pu; Chen, Shan-Shan; Lu, Jin; Ma, Ting; Shi, Guang; Zhou, Ya; Li, Ji; Sheng, Liang

    2017-03-11

    The aim of the study is to investigate the association of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism, additional gene-gene interaction, and haplotype combination with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis was conducted using SNPstats. The association between four SNPs within VDR gene and SLE risk was investigated by logistic regression. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) was used to analyze the interaction among four SNPs. Four SNPs within VDR gene were selected for genotyping in this study, including rs2228570, rs1544410, rs7975232, and rs731236. The T allele of rs2228570 and the G allele of the rs1544410 were associated with increased MM risk, adjusted ORs (95%CI) were 1.61(1.25-2.11) and 1.78 (1.34-2.23), respectively. GMDR analysis suggested a significant two-locus model (P = 0.0010) involving rs1544410 and rs2228570, and in this model, the cross-validation consistency was 10/10, and the testing accuracy was 62.70%. The haplotype analysis indicated that the most common haplotype was rs1544410-A and rs7975232-G haplotype, the frequencies of which were 0.4701 and 0.5467 in case and control group. Haplotype containing the rs1544410-G and rs7975232-T alleles were associated with increased SLE risk, OR (95%CI) = 2.08 (1.47-2.72), P < 0.001. We found that rs2228570 and rs1544410 within VDR gene, their interaction and haplotype containing the rs1544410-G and rs7975232-T alleles were all associated with increased SLE risk.

  20. Sensitivity analysis of geometric errors in additive manufacturing medical models.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jose Miguel; Arrieta, Cristobal; Andia, Marcelo E; Uribe, Sergio; Ramos-Grez, Jorge; Vargas, Alex; Irarrazaval, Pablo; Tejos, Cristian

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) models are used in medical applications for surgical planning, prosthesis design and teaching. For these applications, the accuracy of the AM models is essential. Unfortunately, this accuracy is compromised due to errors introduced by each of the building steps: image acquisition, segmentation, triangulation, printing and infiltration. However, the contribution of each step to the final error remains unclear. We performed a sensitivity analysis comparing errors obtained from a reference with those obtained modifying parameters of each building step. Our analysis considered global indexes to evaluate the overall error, and local indexes to show how this error is distributed along the surface of the AM models. Our results show that the standard building process tends to overestimate the AM models, i.e. models are larger than the original structures. They also show that the triangulation resolution and the segmentation threshold are critical factors, and that the errors are concentrated at regions with high curvatures. Errors could be reduced choosing better triangulation and printing resolutions, but there is an important need for modifying some of the standard building processes, particularly the segmentation algorithms.

  1. IDP-ASE: haplotyping and quantifying allele-specific expression at the gene and gene isoform level by hybrid sequencing.

    PubMed

    Deonovic, Benjamin; Wang, Yunhao; Weirather, Jason; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Au, Kin Fai

    2016-11-28

    Allele-specific expression (ASE) is a fundamental problem in studying gene regulation and diploid transcriptome profiles, with two key challenges: (i) haplotyping and (ii) estimation of ASE at the gene isoform level. Existing ASE analysis methods are limited by a dependence on haplotyping from laborious experiments or extra genome/family trio data. In addition, there is a lack of methods for gene isoform level ASE analysis. We developed a tool, IDP-ASE, for full ASE analysis. By innovative integration of Third Generation Sequencing (TGS) long reads with Second Generation Sequencing (SGS) short reads, the accuracy of haplotyping and ASE quantification at the gene and gene isoform level was greatly improved as demonstrated by the gold standard data GM12878 data and semi-simulation data. In addition to methodology development, applications of IDP-ASE to human embryonic stem cells and breast cancer cells indicate that the imbalance of ASE and non-uniformity of gene isoform ASE is widespread, including tumorigenesis relevant genes and pluripotency markers. These results show that gene isoform expression and allele-specific expression cooperate to provide high diversity and complexity of gene regulation and expression, highlighting the importance of studying ASE at the gene isoform level. Our study provides a robust bioinformatics solution to understand ASE using RNA sequencing data only.

  2. Chronic inflammatory state in sickle cell anemia patients is associated with HBB(*)S haplotype.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Izabel C J; Rocha, Lillianne B S; Barbosa, Maritza C; Elias, Darcielle B D; Querioz, José A N; Freitas, Max Vitor Carioca; Gonçalves, Romélia P

    2014-02-01

    The chronic inflammatory state in sickle cell anemia (SCA) is associated with several factors such as the following: endothelial damage; increased production of reactive oxygen species; hemolysis; increased expression of adhesion molecules by leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets; and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. Genetic characteristics affecting the clinical severity of SCA include variations in the hemoglobin F (HbF) level, coexistence of alpha-thalassemia, and the haplotype associated with the HbS gene. The different haplotypes of SCA are Bantu, Benin, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian. These haplotypes are associated with ethnic groups and also based on the geographical origin. Studies have shown that the Bantu haplotype is associated with higher incidence of clinical complications than the other haplotypes and is therefore considered to have the worst prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the profile of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-17 in patients with SCA and also to assess the haplotypes associated with beta globin cluster S (HBB(*)S). We analyzed a total of 62 patients who had SCA and had been treated with hydroxyurea; they had received a dose ranging between 15 and 25 (20.0±0.6)mg/kg/day for 6-60 (18±3.4)months; their data were compared with those for 30 normal individuals. The presence of HbS was detected and the haplotypes of the beta S gene cluster were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Our study demonstrated that SCA patients have increased inflammatory profile when compared to the healthy individuals. Further, analysis of the association between the haplotypes and inflammatory profile showed that the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were greater in subjects with the Bantu/Bantu haplotype than in subjects with the Benin/Benin haplotype. The Bantu/Benin haplotype individuals had lower levels of cytokines than those with

  3. A haplotype map of the human genome

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Inherited genetic variation has a critical but as yet largely uncharacterized role in human disease. Here we report a public database of common variation in the human genome: more than one million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for which accurate and complete genotypes have been obtained in 269 DNA samples from four populations, including ten 500-kilobase regions in which essentially all information about common DNA variation has been extracted. These data document the generality of recombination hotspots, a block-like structure of linkage disequilibrium and low haplotype diversity, leading to substantial correlations of SNPs with many of their neighbours. We show how the HapMap resource can guide the design and analysis of genetic association studies, shed light on structural variation and recombination, and identify loci that may have been subject to natural selection during human evolution. PMID:16255080

  4. Organelle DNA haplotypes reflect crop-use characteristics and geographic origins of Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Simon; Peakall, Rod; Robertson, James

    2007-10-25

    Comparative sequencing of cannabis individuals across 12 chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA loci revealed 7 polymorphic sites, including 5 length variable regions and 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Simple PCR assays were developed to assay these polymorphisms, and organelle DNA haplotypes were obtained for 188 cannabis individuals from 76 separate populations, including drug-type, fibre-type and wild populations. The haplotype data were analysed using parsimony, UPGMA and neighbour joining methods. Three haplotype groups were recovered by each analysis method, and these groups are suggestive of the crop-use characteristics and geographical origin of the populations, although not strictly diagnostic. We discuss the relationship between our haplotype data and taxonomic opinions of cannabis, and the implications of organelle DNA haplotyping to forensic investigations of cannabis.

  5. 4G/5G polymorphism and haplotypes of SERPINE1 in atherosclerotic diseases of coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Koch, Werner; Schrempf, Matthias; Erl, Anna; Mueller, Jakob C; Hoppmann, Petra; Schömig, Albert; Kastrati, Adnan

    2010-06-01

    We assessed the association between common variation at the SERPINE1 (PAI1) locus and myocardial infarction (MI). Haplotype-tagging polymorphisms, including the 4G/5G deletion/insertion polymorphism and seven single nucleotide polymorphisms, were analysed in a German sample containing 3,657 cases with MI and 1,211 controls. The association between the 4G/5G polymorphism and MI was examined in a meta-analysis of data extracted from 32 studies (13,267 cases/14,716 controls). In addition, the relation between the 4G/5G polymorphism and coronary diseases, comprising MI, coronary artery disease, coronary heart disease, or the acute coronary syndrome, was assessed in a combined analysis enclosing 43 studies (17,278 cases/18,039 controls). None of the tagging polymorphisms was associated with MI in the present sample (p 1.0%) 8-marker haplotypes was related to the risk of MI. In a meta-analysis specifically addressing the association with MI, no elevated risk was found in the carriers of the 4G allele (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.99-1.16; p = 0.11). A more general combined analysis of coronary diseases showed a marginally increased risk in 4G allele carriers (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00-1.16; p = 0.044). In essence, tagging polymorphisms, including the 4G/5G polymorphism, and common haplotypes of the SERPINE1 gene region were not associated with MI in a German sample, and no compelling evidence was obtained for a relationship of the 4G/5G polymorphism to MI and coronary atherosclerosis in a meta-analysis.

  6. Distribution of beta-globin haplotypes among the tribes of southern Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Aastha; Khurana, Priyanka; Mitra, Siuli; Raicha, Bhavesh; Saraswathy, K N; Italia, Yazdi M; Kshatriya, Gautam K

    2013-06-01

    The present study was carried out in Indo-European speaking tribal population groups of southern Gujarat (India) to elucidate the allelic and haplotypic content of β-globin system in individuals with HbAA genotypes. 6 neutral restriction sites of the β-globin system were analysed and various statistical parameters were estimated to draw meaningful interpretations. All the 6 sites were found to be polymorphic and most were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in the studied group. Haplotypes were constructed using two different combinations of the 6 restriction sites analysed. Analysis of the 5 sites revealed a set of three predominant haplotypes, '+----', '-++-+' and '-+-++'; and haplotypes '+--', '++-' and '+++' were found to be the most frequent when the 3 sites were used to construct the haplotypes. Haplotypic heterozygosity levels (>83%) observed in the present study group were comparable to those observed in African and Afro-American populations and greater than other world populations. All the ancestral haplotypes, +-----, -++-+, -+-++ and ----+ were found in the study group. The distribution pattern of various haplotypes was consistent with the global pattern. The paucity of comparable data from other Indian populations restricted one from making interpretations about the study group's relationships with other Indian populations but the results were indicative of older population histories or experience of gene flow by the study group and their affinities with populations of southern India.

  7. The putative oncogene Pim-1 in the mouse: its linkage and variation among t haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, J H; Phillips, S J

    1987-11-01

    Pim-1, a putative oncogene involved in T-cell lymphomagenesis, was mapped between the pseudo-alpha globin gene Hba-4ps and the alpha-crystallin gene Crya-1 on mouse chromosome 17 and therefore within the t complex. Pim-1 restriction fragment variants were identified among t haplotypes. Analysis of restriction fragment sizes obtained with 12 endonucleases demonstrated that the Pim-1 genes in some t haplotypes were indistinguishable from the sizes for the Pim-1b allele in BALB/c inbred mice. There are now three genes, Pim-1, Crya-1 and H-2 I-E, that vary among independently derived t haplotypes and that have indistinguishable alleles in t haplotypes and inbred strains. These genes are closely linked within the distal inversion of the t complex. Because it is unlikely that these variants arose independently in t haplotypes and their wild-type homologues, we propose that an exchange of chromosomal segments, probably through double crossingover, was responsible for indistinguishable Pim-1 genes shared by certain t haplotypes and their wild-type homologues. There was, however, no apparent association between variant alleles of these three genes among t haplotypes as would be expected if a single exchange introduced these alleles into t haplotypes. If these variant alleles can be shown to be identical to the wild-type allele, then lack of association suggests that multiple exchanges have occurred during the evolution of the t complex.

  8. A substantially lower frequency of uninformative matches between 23 versus 17 Y-STR haplotypes in north Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Van Geystelen, Anneleen; Decorte, Ronny

    2014-07-01

    The analysis of human short tandem repeats of the Y-chromosome (Y-STRs) provides a powerful tool in forensic cases for male sex identification, male lineage identification and identification of the geographical origin of male lineages. As the commonly used 12 and 17 Y-STR multiplexes do not discriminate between some unrelated males, additional Y-STRs were implemented in the PowerPlex(®) Y23 System to supplement the existing commercial Y-STR kits. Until today, the forensic value of a (near) 23 versus 17 Y-STR haplotype match between an unknown DNA donor and a certain biological sample in a database is not yet well studied. This will be of huge interest for cases where an autosomal DNA profile yields no match to a DNA database and the database is used for familial searching (male relative(s) of the offender) or for the estimation of the geographical origin of the offender. In order to value (near) 23 Y-STR haplotype matches in a local sample from Western Europe, we selected the region of Flanders (Belgium) due to the already present knowledge on its Y-chromosomal variants. Many Y-chromosomes of this region were previously genotyped with Y-SNPs at a high resolution of the most recently updated Y-chromosomal tree and the deep-rooted genealogy of each DNA donor was already established. By comparing (near) matches of 23 versus 17 Y-STR haplotypes between patrilineal-unrelated males, a substantial lower number of uninformative (near) 23 Y-STR haplotype matches has been observed compared to 17 Y-STR haplotypes. Furthermore, the use of SNP data was informative to discriminate >60% of unrelated males with an (near) identical 17 Y-STR match while SNP data was only necessary to discriminate about 10% of unrelated males with a 23 Y-STR haplotype that differed at only two Y-STRs. This shows the higher value of the Y23 haplotype within familial DNA searching and the estimation of the geographical origin of a DNA donor. Therefore, the use of the PowerPlex(®) Y23 System instead

  9. GABRB2 Haplotype Association with Heroin Dependence in Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yung Su; Yang, Mei; Mat, Wai-Kin; Tsang, Shui-Ying; Su, Zhonghua; Jiang, Xianfei; Ng, Siu-Kin; Liu, Siyu; Hu, Taobo; Pun, Frank; Liao, Yanhui; Tang, Jinsong; Chen, Xiaogang; Hao, Wei; Xue, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Substance dependence is a frequently observed comorbid disorder in schizophrenia, but little is known about genetic factors possibly shared between the two psychotic disorders. GABRB2, a schizophrenia candidate gene coding for GABAA receptor β2 subunit, is examined for possible association with heroin dependence in Han Chinese population. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GABRB2, namely rs6556547 (S1), rs1816071 (S3), rs18016072 (S5), and rs187269 (S29), previously associated with schizophrenia, were examined for their association with heroin dependence. Two additional SNPs, rs10051667 (S31) and rs967771 (S32), previously associated with alcohol dependence and bipolar disorder respectively, were also analyzed. The six SNPs were genotyped by direct sequencing of PCR amplicons of target regions for 564 heroin dependent individuals and 498 controls of Han Chinese origin. Interestingly, it was found that recombination between the haplotypes of all-derived-allele (H1; OR = 1.00) and all-ancestral-allele (H2; OR = 0.74) at S5-S29 junction generated two recombinants H3 (OR = 8.51) and H4 (OR = 5.58), both conferring high susceptibility to heroin dependence. Additional recombination between H2 and H3 haplotypes at S1-S3 junction resulted in a risk-conferring haplotype H5 (OR = 1.94x109). In contrast, recombination between H1 and H2 haplotypes at S3-S5 junction rescued the risk-conferring effect of recombination at S5-S29 junction, giving rise to the protective haplotype H6 (OR = 0.68). Risk-conferring effects of S1-S3 and S5-S29 crossovers and protective effects of S3-S5 crossover were seen in both pure heroin dependent and multiple substance dependence subgroups. In conclusion, significant association was found with haplotypes of the S1-S29 segment in GABRB2 for heroin dependence in Han Chinese population. Local recombination was an important determining factor for switching haplotypes between risk-conferring and protective statuses. The present study

  10. Effects of IL-10 haplotype and atomic bomb radiation exposure on gastric cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Ito, Reiko; Cologne, John; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Nagamura, Hiroko; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Imai, Kazue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Ohishi, Waka; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Nakachi, Kei

    2013-07-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the cancers that reveal increased risk of mortality and incidence in atomic bomb survivors. The incidence of gastric cancer in the Life Span Study cohort of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) increased with radiation dose (gender-averaged excess relative risk per Gy = 0.28) and remains high more than 65 years after exposure. To assess a possible role of gene-environment interaction, we examined the dose response for gastric cancer incidence based on immunosuppression-related IL-10 genotype, in a cohort study with 200 cancer cases (93 intestinal, 96 diffuse and 11 other types) among 4,690 atomic bomb survivors participating in an immunological substudy. Using a single haplotype block composed of four haplotype-tagging SNPs (comprising the major haplotype allele IL-10-ATTA and the minor haplotype allele IL-10-GGCG, which are categorized by IL-10 polymorphisms at -819A>G and -592T>G, +1177T>C and +1589A>G), multiplicative and additive models for joint effects of radiation and this IL-10 haplotyping were examined. The IL-10 minor haplotype allele(s) was a risk factor for intestinal type gastric cancer but not for diffuse type gastric cancer. Radiation was not associated with intestinal type gastric cancer. In diffuse type gastric cancer, the haplotype-specific excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation was statistically significant only in the major homozygote category of IL-10 (ERR = 0.46/Gy, P = 0.037), whereas estimated ERR for radiation with the minor IL-10 homozygotes was close to 0 and nonsignificant. Thus, the minor IL-10 haplotype might act to reduce the radiation related risk of diffuse-type gastric cancer. The results suggest that this IL-10 haplotyping might be involved in development of radiation-associated gastric cancer of the diffuse type, and that IL-10 haplotypes may explain individual differences in the radiation-related risk of gastric cancer.

  11. Navy Additive Manufacturing: Policy Analysis for Future DLA Material Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    support programs. 14. SUBJECT TERMS additive manufacturing, 3D printing, technology adoption 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 69 16...LEFT BLANK xii LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 3D Three Dimensions or Three Dimensional 3DP 3D Printing AM Additive Manufacturing AMDO...this is about to change. Additive manufacturing (AM) systems (commonly known as “ 3D printing”) could bring the organic parts manufacturing capability

  12. Sequence analysis of the fragile X trinucleotide repeat: Correlations with stability and haplotype and implications for the origin of fragile X alleles

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, K.; Tester, D.J.; Kruckeberg, K.E.; Thibodeau, S.N.

    1994-09-01

    Fragile X (FX) syndrome is associated with amplification of a CGG trinucleotide repeat in the 5{prime} untranslated region of the gene FMR-1. To address mechanism of instability and concern related to overlap between sizes of normal stable alleles and FX unstable alleles, we have sequenced 165 alleles to analyze patterns of AGG interruptions within the CGG repeat, and have typed the (CA)n at DXS548 for 204 chromosomes. Overall, our data is consistent with the idea that the length of uninterrupted CGG repeats determines instability. For 17 stably transmitted alleles with total repeat lengths between 33 and 51, the longest stretch of uninterrupted CGGs was 41. In contrast, for 13 premutation alleles, the shortest stretch of uninterrupted CGGs was 48, suggesting a threshold for expansion between 41 and 48 pure CGGs. For expansion from a premutation to a full mutation, the threshold appears to be {ge}70 uninterrupted repeats. Interestingly, an AGG was detected in some carriers of a full mutation. Comparison of the number of {open_quote}shadow bands{close_quote} in PCR products from similar size alleles with different AGG interruption patterns supports replication slippage as a potential mechanism, i.e. replication slippage occurs more readily as the length of pure repeat increases. Alleles with high total repeat lengths but up to 3 AGGs may be relatively protected against expansion, whereas smaller alleles with pure CGG sequence could be at higher risk for instability. Comparison of sequence data and DXS548 (CA)n data revealed specific sequence trends for each of the DXS548 alleles, explaining the previously reported haplotype association with FX. Incorporating these observations into models for the origin of FX alleles, we consider replication slippage, unequal crossover within the CGG repeat region, recombination between FMR-1 and DXS548, and loss of AGGs by A to C transversion.

  13. A Genome-Wide Scan for Breast Cancer Risk Haplotypes among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chi; Chen, Gary K.; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Ingles, Sue A.; Press, Michael F.; Deming, Sandra L.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Wan, Peggy; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Haiman, Chris A.; Stram, Daniel O.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) simultaneously investigating hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have become a powerful tool in the investigation of new disease susceptibility loci. Haplotypes are sometimes thought to be superior to SNPs and are promising in genetic association analyses. The application of genome-wide haplotype analysis, however, is hindered by the complexity of haplotypes themselves and sophistication in computation. We systematically analyzed the haplotype effects for breast cancer risk among 5,761 African American women (3,016 cases and 2,745 controls) using a sliding window approach on the genome-wide scale. Three regions on chromosomes 1, 4 and 18 exhibited moderate haplotype effects. Furthermore, among 21 breast cancer susceptibility loci previously established in European populations, 10p15 and 14q24 are likely to harbor novel haplotype effects. We also proposed a heuristic of determining the significance level and the effective number of independent tests by the permutation analysis on chromosome 22 data. It suggests that the effective number was approximately half of the total (7,794 out of 15,645), thus the half number could serve as a quick reference to evaluating genome-wide significance if a similar sliding window approach of haplotype analysis is adopted in similar populations using similar genotype density. PMID:23468962

  14. (C)ces haplotype screening in Tunisian blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Hajer; Ghommen, Néjiba; Romdhane, Houda; Abdelkefi, Saadia; Chakroun, Taher; Houissa, Batoul; Jemni, Saloua Yacoub

    2014-01-01

    Background The (C)ces haplotype, mainly found in black individuals, contains two altered genes: a hybrid RHD-CE-Ds gene segregated with a ces allele of RHCE with two single nucleotide polymorphisms, c. 733C>G (p.Leu245Val) in exon 5 and c. 1006G>T (Gly336Cys) in exon 7. This haplotype could be responsible for false positive genotyping results in RhD-negative individuals and at a homozygous level lead to the loss of a high incidence antigen RH34. The aim of this study was to screen for the (C)ces haplotype in Tunisian blood donors, given its clinico-biological importance. Material and methods Blood samples were randomly collected from blood donors in the blood transfusion centre of Sousse (Tunisia). A total of 356 RhD-positive and 44 RhD-negative samples were tested for the (C)ces haplotype using two allele-specific primer polymerase chain reactions that detect c. 733C>G (p.Leu245Val) and c. 1006G>T (p. Gly336Cys) substitutions in exon 5 and 7 of the RHCE gene. In addition, the presence of the D-CE hybrid exon 3 was evaluated using a sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction. Results Among the 400 individuals only five exhibited the (C)ces haplotype in heterozygosity, for a frequency of 0.625%. On the basis of the allele-specific primer polymerase chain reaction results, the difference in (C)ces haplotype frequency was not statistically significant between RhD-positive and RhD-negative blood donors. Discussion These data showed the presence of the (C)ces haplotype at a low frequency (0.625%) compared to that among Africans in whom it is common. Nevertheless, the presence of RHD-CE-Ds in Tunisians, even at a lower frequency, should be considered in the development of a molecular genotyping strategy for Rh genes, to ensure better management of the prevention of alloimmunisation. PMID:24333089

  15. TNF-alpha SNP haplotype frequencies in equidae.

    PubMed

    Brown, J J; Ollier, W E R; Thomson, W; Matthews, J B; Carter, S D; Binns, M; Pinchbeck, G; Clegg, P D

    2006-05-01

    Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a crucial role in the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. In all vertebrate species the genes encoding TNF-alpha are located within the major histocompatability complex. In the horse TNF-alpha has been ascribed a role in a variety of important disease processes. Previously two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported within the 5' un-translated region of the equine TNF-alpha gene. We have examined the equine TNF-alpha promoter region further for additional SNPs by analysing DNA from 131 horses (Equus caballus), 19 donkeys (E. asinus), 2 Grant's zebras (E. burchellii boehmi) and one onager (E. hemionus). Two further SNPs were identified at nucleotide positions 24 (T/G) and 452 (T/C) relative to the first nucleotide of the 522 bp polymerase chain reaction product. A sequence variant at position 51 was observed between equidae. SNaPSHOT genotyping assays for these and the two previously reported SNPs were performed on 457 horses comprising seven different breeds and 23 donkeys to determine the gene frequencies. SNP frequencies varied considerably between different horse breeds and also between the equine species. In total, nine different TNF-alpha promoter SNP haplotypes and their frequencies were established amongst the various equidae examined, with some haplotypes being found only in horses and others only in donkeys or zebras. The haplotype frequencies observed varied greatly between different horse breeds. Such haplotypes may relate to levels of TNF-alpha production and disease susceptibility and further investigation is required to identify associations between particular haplotypes and altered risk of disease.

  16. Genotyping of celiac disease-related-risk haplotypes using a closed-tube polymerase chain reaction analysis of dried blood and saliva disk samples.

    PubMed

    Ollikka, Pia; Raussi, Hanna-Mari; Laitala, Ville; Jaakkola, Lassi; Hovinen, Jari; Hemmilä, Ilkka; Ylikoski, Alice

    2009-03-01

    Expansion of molecular diagnostics more widely into clinical routines requires simplified methods allowing automation. We developed a homogeneous, multilabel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method based on time-resolved fluorometry, and studied the use of dried disk samples in PCR. Celiac disease-related HLA-DQA1*05, HLA-DQB1*02, and HLA-DQB1*0302 genotyping was used to verify the method with blood and saliva samples dried on S&S 903 and IsoCode sample collection papers. Three sample preparation procedures, including manufacturer's manual elution, an automated elution, and direct use of disk samples, were compared using dried disk samples. The three procedures gave successful amplification and correct genotyping results. Owing to the simplicity of the direct use of disk samples in PCR, this method was chosen for the subsequent homogeneous analysis of blood (n=194) and saliva (n=30) disk samples on S&S 903 paper. The results revealed that, in addition to DNA samples (n=29), both blood and saliva disk samples were successfully amplified and genotyped using the homogeneous PCR assays for HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1. The homogeneous PCR assays developed provide a useful tool to genotype celiac disease-related HLA-DQA1*05, HLA-DQB1*02, and HLA-DQB1*0302 alleles. Furthermore, the method provides a direct way to perform a closed-tube PCR analysis of dried blood and saliva disk samples enabling simple automation.

  17. Evidence for the molecular heterogeneity of sickle cell anemia chromosomes bearing the betaS/Benin haplotype.

    PubMed

    Patrinos, George P; Samperi, Piera; Lo Nigro, Luca; Kollia, Panagoula; Schiliro, Gino; Papadakis, Manoussos N

    2005-09-01

    There are at least four distinct African and one Asian chromosomal backgrounds (haplotypes) on which the sickle cell mutation has arisen. Additionally, previous data suggest that the beta(S)/Bantu haplotype is heterogeneous at the molecular level. Here, we report the presence of the (A)gamma -499 T-->A variation in sickle cell anemia chromosomes of Sicilian and North African origin bearing the beta(S)/Benin haplotype. Being absent from North American beta(S)/Benin chromosomes, which were studied previously, this variation is indicative for the molecular heterogeneity of the beta(S)/Benin haplotype.

  18. Characterisation of SNP haplotype structure in chemokine and chemokine receptor genes using CEPH pedigrees and statistical estimation.

    PubMed

    Clark, Vanessa J; Dean, Michael

    2004-03-01

    Chemokine signals and their cell-surface receptors are important modulators of HIV-1 disease and cancer. To aid future case/control association studies, aim to further characterise the haplotype structure of variation in chemokine and chemokine receptor genes. To perform haplotype analysis in a population-based association study, haplotypes must be determined by estimation, in the absence of family information or laboratory methods to establish phase. Here, test the accuracy of estimates of haplotype frequency and linkage disequilibrium by comparing estimated haplotypes generated with the expectation maximisation (EM) algorithm to haplotypes determined from Centre d'Etude Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) pedigree data. To do this, they have characterised haplotypes comprising alleles at 11 biallelic loci in four chemokine receptor genes (CCR3, CCR2, CCR5 and CCRL2), which span 150 kb on chromosome 3p21, and haplotyes of nine biallelic loci in six chemokine genes [MCP-1(CCL2), Eotaxin(CCL11), RANTES(CCL5), MPIF-1(CCL23), PARC(CCL18) and MIP-1alpha(CCL3)] on chromosome 17q11-12. Forty multi-generation CEPH families, totalling 489 individuals, were genotyped by the TaqMan 5'-nuclease assay. Phased haplotypes and haplotypes estimated from unphased genotypes were compared in 103 grandparents who were assumed to have mated at random. For the 3p21 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, haplotypes determined by pedigree analysis and haplotypes generated by the EM algorithm were nearly identical. Linkage disequilibrium, measured by the D' statistic, was nearly maximal across the 150 kb region, with complete disequilibrium maintained at the extremes between CCR3-Y17Y and CCRL2-I243V. D'-values calculated from estimated haplotypes on 3p21 had high concordance with pairwise comparisons between pedigree-phased chromosomes. Conversely, there was less agreement between analyses of haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium using estimated haplotypes when compared with

  19. Polymorphism at expressed DQ and DR loci in five common equine MHC haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Donald; Tallmadge, Rebecca L; Binns, Matthew; Zhu, Baoli; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Ahmed, Ayeda; Brooks, Samantha A; Antczak, Douglas F

    2017-03-01

    The polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQ and DR genes in five common equine leukocyte antigen (ELA) haplotypes was determined through sequencing of mRNA transcripts isolated from lymphocytes of eight ELA homozygous horses. Ten expressed MHC class II genes were detected in horses of the ELA-A3 haplotype carried by the donor horses of the equine bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and the reference genome sequence: four DR genes and six DQ genes. The other four ELA haplotypes contained at least eight expressed polymorphic MHC class II loci. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of genomic DNA of these four MHC haplotypes revealed stop codons in the DQA3 gene in the ELA-A2, ELA-A5, and ELA-A9 haplotypes. Few NGS reads were obtained for the other MHC class II genes that were not amplified in these horses. The amino acid sequences across haplotypes contained locus-specific residues, and the locus clusters produced by phylogenetic analysis were well supported. The MHC class II alleles within the five tested haplotypes were largely non-overlapping between haplotypes. The complement of equine MHC class II DQ and DR genes appears to be well conserved between haplotypes, in contrast to the recently described variation in class I gene loci between equine MHC haplotypes. The identification of allelic series of equine MHC class II loci will aid comparative studies of mammalian MHC conservation and evolution and may also help to interpret associations between the equine MHC class II region and diseases of the horse.

  20. Hybrid Additive Manufacturing Technologies - An Analysis Regarding Potentials and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merklein, Marion; Junker, Daniel; Schaub, Adam; Neubauer, Franziska

    Imposing the trend of mass customization of lightweight construction in industry, conventional manufacturing processes like forming technology and chipping production are pushed to their limits for economical manufacturing. More flexible processes are needed which were developed by the additive manufacturing technology. This toolless production principle offers a high geometrical freedom and an optimized utilization of the used material. Thus load adjusted lightweight components can be produced in small lot sizes in an economical way. To compensate disadvantages like inadequate accuracy and surface roughness hybrid machines combining additive and subtractive manufacturing are developed. Within this paper the principles of mainly used additive manufacturing processes of metals and their possibility to be integrated into a hybrid production machine are summarized. It is pointed out that in particular the integration of deposition processes into a CNC milling center supposes high potential for manufacturing larger parts with high accuracy. Furthermore the combination of additive and subtractive manufacturing allows the production of ready to use products within one single machine. Additionally actual research for the integration of additive manufacturing processes into the production chain will be analyzed. For the long manufacturing time of additive production processes the combination with conventional manufacturing processes like sheet or bulk metal forming seems an effective solution. Especially large volumes can be produced by conventional processes. In an additional production step active elements can be applied by additive manufacturing. This principle is also investigated for tool production to reduce chipping of the high strength material used for forming tools. The aim is the addition of active elements onto a geometrical simple basis by using Laser Metal Deposition. That process allows the utilization of several powder materials during one process what

  1. Phylogeographic study of Chinese seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis Rousi) reveals two distinct haplotype groups and multiple microrefugia on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongfang; Liu, Han; Yang, Mingbo; Bao, Lei; Ge, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Historical climate change can shape the genetic pattern of a species. Studies on this phenomenon provide great advantage in predicting the response of species to current and future global climate change. Chinese seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis) is one of the most important cultivated plants in Northwest China. However, the subspecies history and the potential genetic resources within the subspecies range remain unclear. In this study, we utilized two intergenic chloroplast regions to characterize the spatial genetic distribution of the species. We found 19 haplotypes in total, 12 of which were unique to the Chinese seabuckthorn. The populations observed on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) consisted of most of the haplotypes, while in the northeast of the range of the subspecies, an area not on the QTP, only four haplotypes were detected. Our study also revealed two distinct haplotype groups of the subspecies with a sharp transition region located in the south of the Zoige Basin. 89.96% of the genetic variation located between the regions. Mismatch analysis indicated old expansions of these two haplotype groups, approximately around the early stage of Pleistocene. Additional morphological proofs from existing studies and habitat differentiation supported a long independent colonization history among the two regions. Potential adaptation probably occurred but needs more genome and morphology data in future. Chinese seabuckthorn have an older population expansion compared with subspecies in Europe. The lack of large land ice sheets and the heterogeneous landscape of the QTP could have provided extensive microrefugia for Chinese seabuckthorn during the glaciation period. Multiple localities sustaining high-frequency private haplotypes support this hypothesis. Our study gives clear insight into the distribution of genetic resources and the evolutionary history of Chinese seabuckthorn. PMID:25540697

  2. GISH analysis of disomic Brassica napus-Crambe abyssinica chromosome addition lines produced by microspore culture from monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youping; Sonntag, Karin; Rudloff, Eicke; Wehling, Peter; Snowdon, Rod J

    2006-02-01

    Two Brassica napus-Crambe abyssinica monosomic addition lines (2n=39, AACC plus a single chromosome from C. abyssinca) were obtained from the F(2) progeny of the asymmetric somatic hybrid. The alien chromosome from C. abyssinca in the addition line was clearly distinguished by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Twenty-seven microspore-derived plants from the addition lines were obtained. Fourteen seedlings were determined to be diploid plants (2n=38) arising from spontaneous chromosome doubling, while 13 seedlings were confirmed as haploid plants. Doubled haploid plants produced after treatment with colchicine and two disomic chromosome addition lines (2n=40, AACC plus a single pair of homologous chromosomes from C. abyssinca) could again be identified by GISH analysis. The lines are potentially useful for molecular genetic analysis of novel C. abyssinica genes or alleles contributing to traits relevant for oilseed rape (B. napus) breeding.

  3. The Role of MAPT Haplotype H2 and Isoform 1N/4R in Parkinsonism of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira-Filho, Jamary; White, Charles C.; Yu, Lei; Schneider, Julie A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Shulman, Joshua M.; Bennett, David A.; De Jager, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Recently, we have shown that the Parkinson’s disease (PD) susceptibility locus MAPT (microtubule associated protein tau) is associated with parkinsonism in older adults without a clinical diagnosis of PD. In this study, we investigated the relationship between parkinsonian signs and MAPT transcripts by assessing the effect of MAPT haplotypes on alternative splicing and expression levels of the most common isoforms in two prospective clinicopathologic studies of aging. Materials and Methods using regression analysis, controlling for age, sex, study and neuropathology, we evaluated 976 subjects with clinical, genotyping and brain pathology data for haplotype analysis. For transcript analysis, we obtained MAPT gene and isoform-level expression from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for 505 of these subjects. Results The MAPT H2 haplotype was associated with lower total MAPT expression (p = 1.2x10-14) and global parkinsonism at both study entry (p = 0.001) and proximate to death (p = 0.050). Specifically, haplotype H2 was primarily associated with bradykinesia in both assessments (p<0.001 and p = 0.008). MAPT total expression was associated with age and decreases linearly with advancing age (p<0.001). Analysing MAPT alternative splicing, the expression of 1N/4R isoform was inversely associated with global parkinsonism (p = 0.008) and bradykinesia (p = 0.008). Diminished 1N/4R isoform expression was also associated with H2 (p = 0.001). Conclusions Overall, our results suggest that age and H2 are associated with higher parkinsonism score and decreased total MAPT RNA expression. Additionally, we found that H2 and parkinsonism are associated with altered expression levels of specific isoforms. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the association between MAPT locus and parkinsonism in elderly subjects and in some extent to age-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27458716

  4. Serpin peptidase inhibitor (SERPINB5) haplotypes are associated with susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shun-Fa; Yeh, Chao-Bin; Chou, Ying-Erh; Lee, Hsiang-Lin; Liu, Yu-Fan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The serpin peptidase inhibitor SERPINB5 is a tumour-suppressor gene that promotes the development of various cancers in humans. However, whether SERPINB5 gene variants play a role in HCC susceptibility remains unknown. In this study, we genotyped 6 SNPs of the SERPINB5 gene in an independent cohort from a replicate population comprising 302 cases and 590 controls. Additionally, patients who had at least one rs2289520 C allele in SERPINB5 tended to exhibit better liver function than patients with genotype GG (Child-Pugh grade A vs. B or C; P = 0.047). Next, haplotype blocks were reconstructed according to the linkage disequilibrium structure of the SERPINB5 gene. A haplotype “C-C-C” (rs17071138 + rs3744941 + rs8089204) in SERPINB5-correlated promoter showed a significant association with an increased HCC risk (AOR = 1.450; P = 0.031). Haplotypes “T-C-A” and “C-C-C” (rs2289519 + rs2289520 + rs1455555) located in the SERPINB5 coding region had a decreased (AOR = 0.744; P = 0.031) and increased (AOR = 1.981; P = 0.001) HCC risk, respectively. Finally, an additional integrated in silico analysis confirmed that these SNPs affected SERPINB5 expression and protein stability, which significantly correlated with tumour expression and subsequently with tumour development and aggressiveness. Taken together, our findings regarding these biomarkers provide a prediction model for risk assessment. PMID:27221742

  5. Serpin peptidase inhibitor (SERPINB5) haplotypes are associated with susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shun-Fa; Yeh, Chao-Bin; Chou, Ying-Erh; Lee, Hsiang-Lin; Liu, Yu-Fan

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The serpin peptidase inhibitor SERPINB5 is a tumour-suppressor gene that promotes the development of various cancers in humans. However, whether SERPINB5 gene variants play a role in HCC susceptibility remains unknown. In this study, we genotyped 6 SNPs of the SERPINB5 gene in an independent cohort from a replicate population comprising 302 cases and 590 controls. Additionally, patients who had at least one rs2289520 C allele in SERPINB5 tended to exhibit better liver function than patients with genotype GG (Child-Pugh grade A vs. B or C; P = 0.047). Next, haplotype blocks were reconstructed according to the linkage disequilibrium structure of the SERPINB5 gene. A haplotype “C-C-C” (rs17071138 + rs3744941 + rs8089204) in SERPINB5-correlated promoter showed a significant association with an increased HCC risk (AOR = 1.450 P = 0.031). Haplotypes “T-C-A” and “C-C-C” (rs2289519 + rs2289520 + rs1455555) located in the SERPINB5 coding region had a decreased (AOR = 0.744 P = 0.031) and increased (AOR = 1.981 P = 0.001) HCC risk, respectively. Finally, an additional integrated in silico analysis confirmed that these SNPs affected SERPINB5 expression and protein stability, which significantly correlated with tumour expression and subsequently with tumour development and aggressiveness. Taken together, our findings regarding these biomarkers provide a prediction model for risk assessment.

  6. Direct determination of MUC5B promoter haplotypes based on the method of single-strand conformation polymorphism and their statistical estimation.

    PubMed

    Kamio, Koichiro; Matsushita, Ikumi; Tanaka, Goh; Ohashi, Jun; Hijikata, Minako; Nakata, Koh; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Azuma, Arata; Kudoh, Shoji; Keicho, Naoto

    2004-09-01

    Haplotype-based human genome research is important in identifying disease susceptibility genes efficiently. Although haplotype reconstruction by statistical methods is widely used, direct haplotype determination by molecular techniques has also been developed as a complementary method for statistical estimation. In this study, we demonstrate a molecular haplotyping method making use of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) gels. We identified 10 common SNPs and a dinucleotide insertion/deletion polymorphism within 2-kb region upstream of the transcription initiation site of MUC5B and determined haplotype structure, dividing the region into two DNA fragments. Real haplotypes were determined unambiguously by our SSCP-based analysis with fragments longer than 1 kb. Haplotypes reconstructed from diploid genotypes in the same region by the statistical methods including EM algorithm were also evaluated. Direct comparison between statistical estimation and direct determination of haplotypes revealed that major haplotypes containing multiple marker sites showing strong LD are estimated in great accuracy but that a variety of haplotypes reflecting weak LD are not reconstructed precisely enough. Our data can be helpful in implementing molecular haplotyping or statistical estimation, since usage of these methods may be determined depending on the haplotype structures.

  7. Lactase haplotype frequencies in Caucasians: association with the lactase persistence/non-persistence polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Harvey, C B; Hollox, E J; Poulter, M; Wang, Y; Rossi, M; Auricchio, S; Iqbal, T H; Cooper, B T; Barton, R; Sarner, M; Korpela, R; Swallow, D M

    1998-05-01

    A genetic polymorphism is responsible for determining that some humans express lactase at high levels throughout their lives and are thus lactose tolerant, while others lose lactase expression during childhood and are lactose intolerant. We have previously shown that this polymorphism is controlled by an element or elements which act in cis to the lactase gene. We have also reported that 7 polymorphisms in the lactase gene are highly associated and lead to only 3 common haplotypes (A, B and C) in individuals of European extraction. Here we report the frequencies of these polymorphisms in Caucasians from north and south Europe and also from the Indian sub-continent, and show that the alleles differ in frequency, the B and C haplotypes being much more common in southern Europe and India. Allelic association studies with lactase persistence and non-persistence phenotypes show suggestive evidence of association of lactase persistence with certain alleles. This association was rather more clear in the analysis of small families, where haplotypes could be determined. Furthermore haplotype and RNA transcript analysis of 11 unrelated lactase persistent individuals shows that the persistence (highly expressed) allele is almost always on the A haplotype background. Non-persistence is found on a variety of haplotypes including A. Thus it appears that lactase persistence arose more recently than the DNA marker polymorphisms used here to define the main Caucasian haplotypes, possibly as a single mutation on the A haplotype background. The high frequency of the A haplotype in northern Europeans is consistent with the high frequency of lactase persistence.

  8. JAG1 and COL1A1 polymorphisms and haplotypes in relation to bone mineral density variations in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo Women.

    PubMed

    Rojano-Mejía, David; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón M; Espinosa, Leticia Cortes; López-Medina, Guillermo; Aguirre-García, María C; Coronel, Agustín; Canto, Patricia

    2013-04-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD). One of the most important factors that influence BMD is the genetic contribution. The collagen type 1 alpha 1 (COL1A1) and the JAGGED (JAG1) have been investigated in relation to BMD. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of COL1A1, their haplotypes, and one SNP of JAG1 with BMD in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women. Seven hundred and fifty unrelated postmenopausal women were included. Risk factors were recorded and BMD was measured in lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DNA was obtained from blood leukocytes. Two SNPs in COL1A1 (rs1800012 and rs1107946) and one in JAG1 (rs2273061) were studied. Real-time PCR allelic discrimination was used for genotyping. The differences between the means of the BMDs according to genotype were analyzed with covariance. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were tested. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated by direct correlation r (2), and haplotype analysis of COL1A1 was conducted. Under a dominant model, the rs1800012 polymorphism of the COL1A1 showed an association with BMD of the lumbar spine (P = 0.021). In addition, analysis of the haplotype of COL1A1 showed that the G-G haplotype presented a higher BMD in lumbar spine. We did not find an association between the s1107946 and rs2273061 polymorphisms of the COL1A1 and JAG1, respectively. Our results suggest that the rs1800012 polymorphism of the COL1A1, in addition to one haplotype, were significantly associated with BMD variation in Mexican-Mestizo postmenopausal women.

  9. Practical interpretation of CYP2D6 haplotypes: Comparison and integration of automated and expert calling.

    PubMed

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Kocherla, Mohan; Graydon, James S; Holford, Theodore R; Makowski, Gregory S; Goethe, John W

    2016-05-01

    We describe a population genetic approach to compare samples interpreted with expert calling (EC) versus automated calling (AC) for CYP2D6 haplotyping. The analysis represents 4812 haplotype calls based on signal data generated by the Luminex xMap analyzers from 2406 patients referred to a high-complexity molecular diagnostics laboratory for CYP450 testing. DNA was extracted from buccal swabs. We compared the results of expert calls (EC) and automated calls (AC) with regard to haplotype number and frequency. The ratio of EC to AC was 1:3. Haplotype frequencies from EC and AC samples were convergent across haplotypes, and their distribution was not statistically different between the groups. Most duplications required EC, as only expansions with homozygous or hemizygous haplotypes could be automatedly called. High-complexity laboratories can offer equivalent interpretation to automated calling for non-expanded CYP2D6 loci, and superior interpretation for duplications. We have validated scientific expert calling specified by scoring rules as standard operating procedure integrated with an automated calling algorithm. The integration of EC with AC is a practical strategy for CYP2D6 clinical haplotyping.

  10. β-globin gene cluster haplotypes in ethnic minority populations of southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Liu, Hongxian; Huang, Kai; Lin, Keqin; Huang, Xiaoqin; Chu, Jiayou; Ma, Shaohui; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2017-01-01

    The genetic diversity and relationships among ethnic minority populations of southwest China were investigated using seven polymorphic restriction enzyme sites in the β-globin gene cluster. The haplotypes of 1392 chromosomes from ten ethnic populations living in southwest China were determined. Linkage equilibrium and recombination hotspot were found between the 5′ sites and 3′ sites of the β-globin gene cluster. 5′ haplotypes 2 (+−−−), 6 (−++−+), 9 (−++++) and 3′ haplotype FW3 (−+) were the predominant haplotypes. Notably, haplotype 9 frequency was significantly high in the southwest populations, indicating their difference with other Chinese. The interpopulation differentiation of southwest Chinese minority populations is less than those in populations of northern China and other continents. Phylogenetic analysis shows that populations sharing same ethnic origin or language clustered to each other, indicating current β-globin cluster diversity in the Chinese populations reflects their ethnic origin and linguistic affiliations to a great extent. This study characterizes β-globin gene cluster haplotypes in southwest Chinese minorities for the first time, and reveals the genetic variability and affinity of these populations using β-globin cluster haplotype frequencies. The results suggest that ethnic origin plays an important role in shaping variations of the β-globin gene cluster in the southwestern ethnic populations of China. PMID:28205625

  11. Evidence for Non-Neutrality of Mitochondrial DNA Haplotypes in Drosophila Pseudoobscura

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, A. F.; Anderson, W. W.

    1988-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes usually are assumed to be neutral, unselected markers of evolving female lineages. This assumption was tested by monitoring haplotype frequencies in 12 experimental populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura which were polymorphic for mtDNA haplotypes. Populations were maintained for at least 10 generations, and in one case for 32 generations, while tests of mtDNA selective neutrality were conducted. In an initial population, formed from a mixture of two strains with different mitochondrial haplotypes, the frequency of the Bogota haplotype increased 46% in 3 generations, reaching an apparent equilibrium frequency of 82% after 32 generations. Perturbation of this equilibrium by addition of the less common haplotype resulted in a rapid, dramatic increase in frequency of the second haplotype, and a return to essentially the same equilibrium frequency as before perturbation. This behavior is not consistent with mtDNA neutrality, nor is the equilibrium consistent with a simple model of constant selection on the haploid mtDNAs. Replicate cage experiments with mtDNA haplotypes did not always generate the same result as the initial cage. Several lines of evidence, including manipulations of the nuclear genome, support the idea that both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes are involved in the dramatic mtDNA frequency changes. In another experiment, strong female viability selection was implicated via mtDNA frequency changes. Although the causes of the dramatic mtDNA frequency changes in our populations are not obvious, it is clear that Drosophila mitochondrial haplotypes are not always simply neutral markers. Our findings are relevant to the introduction of a novel mtDNA variant from one species or one population into another. Such introductions could be strongly favored by selection, even if it is sporadic. PMID:3197957

  12. Additional analysis of dendrochemical data of Fallon, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Paul R; Helsel, Dennis R; Speakman, Robert J; Ridenour, Gary; Witten, Mark L

    2012-04-05

    Previously reported dendrochemical data showed temporal variability in concentration of tungsten (W) and cobalt (Co) in tree rings of Fallon, Nevada, US. Criticism of this work questioned the use of the Mann-Whitney test for determining change in element concentrations. Here, we demonstrate that Mann-Whitney is appropriate for comparing background element concentrations to possibly elevated concentrations in environmental media. Given that Mann-Whitney tests for differences in shapes of distributions, inter-tree variability (e.g., "coefficient of median variation") was calculated for each measured element across trees within subsites and time periods. For W and Co, the metals of highest interest in Fallon, inter-tree variability was always higher within versus outside of Fallon. For calibration purposes, this entire analysis was repeated at a different town, Sweet Home, Oregon, which has a known tungsten-powder facility, and inter-tree variability of W in tree rings confirmed the establishment date of that facility. Mann-Whitney testing of simulated data also confirmed its appropriateness for analysis of data affected by point-source contamination. This research adds important new dimensions to dendrochemistry of point-source contamination by adding analysis of inter-tree variability to analysis of central tendency. Fallon remains distinctive by a temporal increase in W beginning by the mid 1990s and by elevated Co since at least the early 1990s, as well as by high inter-tree variability for W and Co relative to comparison towns.

  13. Analysis of fluorine addition to the vanguard first stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, William A; Schmidt, Harold W; Tischler, Adelbert O

    1957-01-01

    The effect of adding fluorine to the Vanguard first-stage oxidant was anlyzed. An increase in specific impulse of 5.74 percent may be obtained with 30 percent fluorine. This increase, coupled with increased mass ratio due to greater oxidant density, gave up to 24.6-percent increase in first-stage burnout energy with 30 percent fluorine added. However, a change in tank configuration is required to accommodate the higher oxidant-fuel ratio necessary for peak specific impulse with fluorine addition.

  14. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part’s porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  15. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented.

  16. Analysis of Saccharides by the Addition of Amino Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Abdil; Lin, Jung-Lee; Gillig, Kent J.; Gulfen, Mustafa; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we present the detection sensitivity improvement of electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry of neutral saccharides in a positive ion mode by the addition of various amino acids. Saccharides of a broad molecular weight range were chosen as the model compounds in the present study. Saccharides provide strong noncovalent interactions with amino acids, and the complex formation enhances the signal intensity and simplifies the mass spectra of saccharides. Polysaccharides provide a polymer-like ESI spectrum with a basic subunit difference between multiply charged chains. The protonated spectra of saccharides are not well identified because of different charge state distributions produced by the same molecules. Depending on the solvent used and other ions or molecules present in the solution, noncovalent interactions with saccharides may occur. These interactions are affected by the addition of amino acids. Amino acids with polar side groups show a strong tendency to interact with saccharides. In particular, serine shows a high tendency to interact with saccharides and significantly improves the detection sensitivity of saccharide compounds.

  17. Additional EIPC Study Analysis: Interim Report on High Priority Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W

    2013-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 13 topics was developed for further analysis; this paper discusses the first five.

  18. β-globin haplotypes in normal and hemoglobinopathic individuals from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Five restriction site polymorphisms in the β-globin gene cluster (HincII-5‘ ε, HindIII-G γ, HindIII-A γ, HincII- ψβ1 and HincII-3‘ ψβ1) were analyzed in three populations (n = 114) from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil. The groups included two urban populations from the towns of Cachoeira and Maragojipe and one rural Afro-descendant population, known as the “quilombo community”, from Cachoeira municipality. The number of haplotypes found in the populations ranged from 10 to 13, which indicated higher diversity than in the parental populations. The haplotypes 2 (+ - - - -), 3 (- - - - +), 4 (- + - - +) and 6 (- + + - +) on the βA chromosomes were the most common, and two haplotypes, 9 (- + + + +) and 14 (+ + - - +), were found exclusively in the Maragojipe population. The other haplotypes (1, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 16) had lower frequencies. Restriction site analysis and the derived haplotypes indicated homogeneity among the populations. Thirty-two individuals with hemoglobinopathies (17 sickle cell disease, 12 HbSC disease and 3 HbCC disease) were also analyzed. The haplotype frequencies of these patients differed significantly from those of the general population. In the sickle cell disease subgroup, the predominant haplotypes were BEN (Benin) and CAR (Central African Republic), with frequencies of 52.9% and 32.4%, respectively. The high frequency of the BEN haplotype agreed with the historical origin of the afro-descendant population in the state of Bahia. However, this frequency differed from that of Salvador, the state capital, where the CAR and BEN haplotypes have similar frequencies, probably as a consequence of domestic slave trade and subsequent internal migrations to other regions of Brazil. PMID:21637405

  19. β-globin haplotypes in normal and hemoglobinopathic individuals from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Silva, Wellington; de Nazaré Klautau-Guimarães, Maria; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2010-07-01

    Five restriction site polymorphisms in the β-globin gene cluster (HincII-5' ε, HindIII-(G) γ, HindIII-(A) γ, HincII- ψβ1 and HincII-3' ψβ1) were analyzed in three populations (n = 114) from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil. The groups included two urban populations from the towns of Cachoeira and Maragojipe and one rural Afro-descendant population, known as the "quilombo community", from Cachoeira municipality. The number of haplotypes found in the populations ranged from 10 to 13, which indicated higher diversity than in the parental populations. The haplotypes 2 (+ - - - -), 3 (- - - - +), 4 (- + - - +) and 6 (- + + - +) on the β(A) chromosomes were the most common, and two haplotypes, 9 (- + + + +) and 14 (+ + - - +), were found exclusively in the Maragojipe population. The other haplotypes (1, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 16) had lower frequencies. Restriction site analysis and the derived haplotypes indicated homogeneity among the populations. Thirty-two individuals with hemoglobinopathies (17 sickle cell disease, 12 HbSC disease and 3 HbCC disease) were also analyzed. The haplotype frequencies of these patients differed significantly from those of the general population. In the sickle cell disease subgroup, the predominant haplotypes were BEN (Benin) and CAR (Central African Republic), with frequencies of 52.9% and 32.4%, respectively. The high frequency of the BEN haplotype agreed with the historical origin of the afro-descendant population in the state of Bahia. However, this frequency differed from that of Salvador, the state capital, where the CAR and BEN haplotypes have similar frequencies, probably as a consequence of domestic slave trade and subsequent internal migrations to other regions of Brazil.

  20. Risk analysis of sulfites used as food additives in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian Bo; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Hua Li; Zhang, Ji Yue; Luo, Peng Jie; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Zhu Tian

    2014-02-01

    This study was to analyze the risk of sulfites in food consumed by the Chinese people and assess the health protection capability of maximum-permitted level (MPL) of sulfites in GB 2760-2011. Sulfites as food additives are overused or abused in many food categories. When the MPL in GB 2760-2011 was used as sulfites content in food, the intake of sulfites in most surveyed populations was lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Excess intake of sulfites was found in all the surveyed groups when a high percentile of sulfites in food was in taken. Moreover, children aged 1-6 years are at a high risk to intake excess sulfites. The primary cause for the excess intake of sulfites in Chinese people is the overuse and abuse of sulfites by the food industry. The current MPL of sulfites in GB 2760-2011 protects the health of most populations.

  1. Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.

    PubMed

    Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level.

  2. Complex haplotype structure of the human GNAS gene identifies a recombination hotspot centred on a single nucleotide polymorphism widely used in association studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanling; White, Brook; Spicer, Eleanor K; Weinstein, Benjamin L; Hildebrandt, John D

    2004-11-01

    The alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein Gs (Gsalpha) is involved in numerous physiological processes and is a primary determinant of cellular responses to extracellular signals. Genetic variations in the Gsalpha gene may play an important role in complex diseases and drug responses. To characterize the genetic diversity in this locus, we resequenced exons and flanking introns of the gene in 44 genomic samples and analysed the haplotype structure of the gene in an additional 50 African-Americans and 50 Caucasians. Significant differences in allele frequency for nearly all the genotyped single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were detected between the two ethnic groups. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis of this locus revealed two haplotype blocks characterized by strong LD and reduced haplotype diversity, especially in Caucasians. Between the two blocks is a narrow (approximately 3 kb) recombination hotspot centred on exons 4 and 5, and a widely used genetic marker in association studies in this region (rs7121) was in linkage equilibrium with the rest of the gene. The haplotype structure of the GNAS locus warrants reevaluation of previous association studies that used marker rs7121 and affects choice of SNP markers to be used in future studies of this locus.

  3. Identification of β-globin haplotypes linked to sickle hemoglobin (Hb S) alleles in Mazandaran province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Aghajani, Faeghe; Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Kosaryan, Mehrnoush; Mahdavi, Mehrad; Hamidi, Mohaddese; Jalali, Hossein

    2016-12-21

    Carrier frequency of the β(S) allele has been reported to be 0.19% in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Haplotype analysis of the β(S) allele helps trace the origin of its encoded hemoglobin (Hb) variant, Hb S, in a region. The aim of this study was to investigate the haplotypes associated with β(S) alleles in Mazandaran province. Capillary electrophoresis was carried out to detect individuals suspected to have a βS allele(s). DNA analysis (PCR-RFLP) was used for final confirmation. To identify 5\\' to 3\\' β-globin gene cluster haplotypes associated with β(S) alleles, family linkage analysis was applied. Six polymorphic sites (HincII 5' to ε, XmnI 5' to (G)γ, HindIII in (G)γ, HindIII in (A)γ, HincII 3' to ψβ and AvaII in β) were investigated using the PCR-RFLP method. Five different haplotypes were linked to β(S) alleles, while β(A) alleles were associated with nine haplotypes. Among the β(S) alleles, 53.9% were associated with the Benin (----++) haplotype, and the Arab-Indian (+++-++) haplotype had the second-highest frequency (23%). Unlike southern provinces, where the Arab-Indian haplotype is prominent, the Benin haplotype is the most frequent haplotype in northern Iran, and this may represent a founder effect. Since the Benin haplotype does not carry the XmnI polymorphism 5' to the (G)γ gene, which is responsible for high expression of Hb F, a severe form of sickle cell disease can be anticipated in patients that are homozygous for the β(S) allele in the northern region.

  4. Forensic analysis of polymorphism and regional stratification of Y-chromosomal microsatellites in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Rebała, Krzysztof; Tsybovsky, Iosif S; Bogacheva, Anna V; Kotova, Svetlana A; Mikulich, Alexei I; Szczerkowska, Zofia

    2011-01-01

    Nine loci defining minimal haplotypes and four other Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) DYS437, DYS438, DYS439 and GATA H4.1 were analysed in 414 unrelated males residing in four regions of Belarus. Haplotypes of 328 males were further extended by 7 additional Y-STRs: DYS388, DYS426, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS460 and DYS635. The 13-locus haplotype diversity was 0.9978 and discrimination capacity was 78.7%, indicating presence of identical haplotypes among unrelated males. Seven additional Y-STRs enabled almost complete discrimination of undifferentiated 13-locus haplotypes, increasing haplotype diversity to 0.9998 and discrimination capacity to 97.9%. Analysis of molecular variance of minimal haplotypes excluded the use of a Y-STR database for Belarusians residing in northeastern Poland as representative for the Belarusian population in forensic practice, and revealed regional stratification within the country. However, four additional markers (DYS437, DYS438, DYS439 and GATA H4.1) were shown to eliminate the observed geographical substructure among Belarusian males. The results imply that in case of minimal and PowerPlex Y haplotypes, a separate frequency database should be used for northern Belarus to estimate Y-STR profile frequencies in forensic casework. In case of Yfiler haplotypes, regional stratification within Belarus may be neglected.

  5. Haplotype mapping of the bronchiolitis susceptibility locus near IL8.

    PubMed

    Hull, Jeremy; Rowlands, Kate; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Sharland, Mike; Moore, Catrin; Hanchard, Neil; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2004-02-01

    Susceptibility to viral bronchiolitis, the commonest cause of infant admissions to hospital in the industrialised world, is associated with polymorphism at the IL8 locus. Here we map the genomic boundaries of the disease association by case-control analysis and TDT in 580 affected UK infants. Markers for association mapping were chosen after determining patterns of linkage disequilibrium across the surrounding region of chromosome 4q, a 550-kb segment containing nine genes, extending from AFP to PPBP. The region has three major clusters of high linkage disequilibrium and is notable for its low haplotypic diversity. We exclude adjacent chemokine genes as the cause of the association, and identify a disease-associated haplotype that spans a 250-kb region from AFM to IL8. In between these two genes there is only one structural feature of interest, a novel gene RASSF6, which is predicted to encode a Ras effector protein.

  6. Class I HLA haplotypes form two schools that educate NK cells in different ways.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Amir; Djaoud, Zakia; Nemat-Gorgani, Neda; Blokhuis, Jeroen; Hilton, Hugo G; Béziat, Vivien; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Norman, Paul J; Guethlein, Lisbeth A; Parham, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes having vital functions in innate and adaptive immunity, as well as placental reproduction. Controlling education and functional activity of human NK cells are various receptors that recognize HLA class I on the surface of tissue cells. Epitopes of polymorphic HLA-A,-B and -C are recognized by equally diverse killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). In addition, a peptide cleaved from the leader sequence of HLA-A,-B or -C must bind to HLA-E for it to become a ligand for the conserved CD94:NKG2A receptor. Methionine/threonine dimorphism at position -21 of the leader sequence divides HLA-B allotypes into a majority having -21T that do not supply HLA-E binding peptides and a minority having -21M, that do. Genetic analysis of human populations worldwide shows how haplotypes with -21M HLA-B rarely encode the KIR ligands: Bw4(+)HLA-B and C2(+)HLA-C KIR. Thus there are two fundamental forms of HLA haplotype: one preferentially supplying CD94:NKG2A ligands, the other preferentially supplying KIR ligands. -21 HLA-B dimorphism divides the human population into three groups: M/M, M/T and T/T. Mass cytometry and assays of immune function, shows how M/M and M/T individuals have CD94:NKG2A(+) NK cells which are better educated, phenotypically more diverse and functionally more potent than those in T/T individuals. Fundamental new insights are given to genetic control of NK cell immunity and the evolution that has limited the number of NK cell receptor ligands encoded by an HLA haplotype. These finding suggest new ways to dissect the numerous clinical associations with HLA class I.

  7. Class I HLA haplotypes form two schools that educate NK cells in different ways

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Amir; Djaoud, Zakia; Nemat-Gorgani, Neda; Blokhuis, Jeroen; Hilton, Hugo G.; Béziat, Vivien; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Norman, Paul J.; Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Parham, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Summary Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes having vital functions in innate and adaptive immunity, as well as placental reproduction. Controlling education and functional activity of human NK cells are various receptors that recognize HLA class I on the surface of tissue cells. Epitopes of polymorphic HLA-A,-B and –C are recognized by equally diverse killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). In addition, a peptide cleaved from the leader sequence of HLA-A,-B or –C must bind to HLA-E for it to become a ligand for the conserved CD94:NKG2A receptor. Methionine/threonine dimorphism at position -21 of the leader sequence divides HLA-B allotypes into a majority having -21T that do not supply HLA-E binding peptides and a minority having -21M, that do. Genetic analysis of human populations worldwide shows how haplotypes with -21M HLA-B rarely encode the KIR ligands: Bw4+HLA-B and C2+HLA-C KIR. Thus there are two fundamental forms of HLA haplotype: one preferentially supplying CD94:NKG2A ligands, the other preferentially supplying KIR ligands. -21 HLA-B dimorphism divides the human population into three groups: M/M, M/T and T/T. Mass cytometry and assays of immune function, shows how M/M and M/T individuals have CD94:NKG2A+ NK cells which are better educated, phenotypically more diverse and functionally more potent than those in T/T individuals. Fundamental new insights are given to genetic control of NK cell immunity and the evolution that has limited the number of NK cell receptor ligands encoded by an HLA haplotype. These finding suggest new ways to dissect the numerous clinical associations with HLA class I. PMID:27868107

  8. Additional challenges for uncertainty analysis in river engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berends, Koen; Warmink, Jord; Hulscher, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    the proposed intervention. The implicit assumption underlying such analysis is that both models are commensurable. We hypothesize that they are commensurable only to a certain extent. In an idealised study we have demonstrated that prediction performance loss should be expected with increasingly large engineering works. When accounting for parametric uncertainty of floodplain roughness in model identification, we see uncertainty bounds for predicted effects of interventions increase with increasing intervention scale. Calibration of these types of models therefore seems to have a shelf-life, beyond which calibration does not longer improves prediction. Therefore a qualification scheme for model use is required that can be linked to model validity. In this study, we characterize model use along three dimensions: extrapolation (using the model with different external drivers), extension (using the model for different output or indicators) and modification (using modified models). Such use of models is expected to have implications for the applicability of surrogating modelling for efficient uncertainty analysis as well, which is recommended for future research. Warmink, J. J.; Straatsma, M. W.; Huthoff, F.; Booij, M. J. & Hulscher, S. J. M. H. 2013. Uncertainty of design water levels due to combined bed form and vegetation roughness in the Dutch river Waal. Journal of Flood Risk Management 6, 302-318 . DOI: 10.1111/jfr3.12014

  9. A candidate transacting modulator of fetal hemoglobin gene expression in the Arab-Indian haplotype of sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Vathipadiekal, Vinod; Farrell, John J; Wang, Shuai; Edward, Heather L; Shappell, Heather; Al-Rubaish, A M; Al-Muhanna, Fahad; Naserullah, Z; Alsuliman, A; Qutub, Hatem Othman; Simkin, Irene; Farrer, Lindsay A; Jiang, Zhihua; Luo, Hong-Yuan; Huang, Shengwen; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Murphy, George J; Patra, Pradeep K; Chui, David H K; Alsultan, Abdulrahman; Al-Ali, Amein K; Sebastiani, Paola; Steinberg, Martin H

    2016-11-01

    Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels are higher in the Arab-Indian (AI) β-globin gene haplotype of sickle cell anemia compared with African-origin haplotypes. To study genetic elements that effect HbF expression in the AI haplotype we completed whole genome sequencing in 14 Saudi AI haplotype sickle hemoglobin homozygotes-seven selected for low HbF (8.2% ± 1.3%) and seven selected for high HbF (23.5% ± 2.6%). An intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in ANTXR1, an anthrax toxin receptor (chromosome 2p13), was associated with HbF. These results were replicated in two independent Saudi AI haplotype cohorts of 120 and 139 patients, but not in 76 Saudi Benin haplotype, 894 African origin haplotype and 44 AI haplotype patients of Indian origin, suggesting that this association is effective only in the Saudi AI haplotype background. ANTXR1 variants explained 10% of the HbF variability compared with 8% for BCL11A. These two genes had independent, additive effects on HbF and together explained about 15% of HbF variability in Saudi AI sickle cell anemia patients. ANTXR1 was expressed at mRNA and protein levels in erythroid progenitors derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and CD34(+) cells. As CD34(+) cells matured and their HbF decreased ANTXR1 expression increased; as iPSCs differentiated and their HbF increased, ANTXR1 expression decreased. Along with elements in cis to the HbF genes, ANTXR1 contributes to the variation in HbF in Saudi AI haplotype sickle cell anemia and is the first gene in trans to HBB that is associated with HbF only in carriers of the Saudi AI haplotype. Am. J. Hematol. 91:1118-1122, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Kinetic analysis of microbial respiratory response to substrate addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Yuyukina, Tatayna; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2010-05-01

    Heterotrophic component of CO2 emitted from soil is mainly due to the respiratory activity of soil microorganisms. Field measurements of microbial respiration can be used for estimation of C-budget in soil, while laboratory estimation of respiration kinetics allows the elucidation of mechanisms of soil C sequestration. Physiological approaches based on 1) time-dependent or 2) substrate-dependent respiratory response of soil microorganisms decomposing the organic substrates allow to relate the functional properties of soil microbial community with decomposition rates of soil organic matter. We used a novel methodology combining (i) microbial growth kinetics and (ii) enzymes affinity to the substrate to show the shift in functional properties of the soil microbial community after amendments with substrates of contrasting availability. We combined the application of 14C labeled glucose as easily available C source to soil with natural isotope labeling of old and young soil SOM. The possible contribution of two processes: isotopic fractionation and preferential substrate utilization to the shifts in δ13C during SOM decomposition in soil after C3-C4 vegetation change was evaluated. Specific growth rate (µ) of soil microorganisms was estimated by fitting the parameters of the equation v(t) = A + B * exp(µ*t), to the measured CO2 evolution rate (v(t)) after glucose addition, and where A is the initial rate of non-growth respiration, B - initial rate of the growing fraction of total respiration. Maximal mineralization rate (Vmax), substrate affinity of microbial enzymes (Ks) and substrate availability (Sn) were determined by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. To study the effect of plant originated C on δ13C signature of SOM we compared the changes in isotopic composition of different C pools in C3 soil under grassland with C3-C4 soil where C4 plant Miscanthus giganteus was grown for 12 years on the plot after grassland. The shift in 13δ C caused by planting of M. giganteus

  11. References for Haplotype Imputation in the Big Data Era.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenzhi; Xu, Wei; Li, Qiling; Ma, Li; Song, Qing

    2015-11-01

    Imputation is a powerful in silico approach to fill in those missing values in the big datasets. This process requires a reference panel, which is a collection of big data from which the missing information can be extracted and imputed. Haplotype imputation requires ethnicity-matched references; a mismatched reference panel will significantly reduce the quality of imputation. However, currently existing big datasets cover only a small number of ethnicities, there is a lack of ethnicity-matched references for many ethnic populations in the world, which has hampered the data imputation of haplotypes and its downstream applications. To solve this issue, several approaches have been proposed and explored, including the mixed reference panel, the internal reference panel and genotype-converted reference panel. This review article provides the information and comparison between these approaches. Increasing evidence showed that not just one or two genetic elements dictate the gene activity and functions; instead, cis-interactions of multiple elements dictate gene activity. Cis-interactions require the interacting elements to be on the same chromosome molecule, therefore, haplotype analysis is essential for the investigation of cis-interactions among multiple genetic variants at different loci, and appears to be especially important for studying the common diseases. It will be valuable in a wide spectrum of applications from academic research, to clinical diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and pharmaceutical industry.

  12. Extended HLA-D region haplotype associated with celiac disease

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, M.D.; Smith, J.R.; Austin, R.K.; Kelleher, D.; Nepom, G.T.; Volk, B.; Kagnoff, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    Celiac disease has one of the strongest associations with HLA (human leukocyte antigen) class II markers of the known HLA-linked diseases. This association is primarily with the class II serologic specificities HLA-DR3 and -DQw2. The authors previously described a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) characterized by the presence of a 4.0-kilobase Rsa I fragment derived from an HLA class II ..beta..-chain gene, which distinguishes the class II HLA haplotype of celiac disease patients from those of many serologically matched controls. They now report the isolation of this ..beta..-chain gene from a bacteriophage genomic library constructed from the DNA of a celiac disease patient. Based on restriction mapping and differential hybridization with class II cDNA and oligonucleotide probes, this gene was identified as one encoding an HLA-DP ..beta..-chain. This celiac disease-associated HLA-DP ..beta..-chain gene was flanked by HLA-DP ..cap alpha..-chain genes and, therefore, was probably in its normal chromosomal location. The HLA-DP..cap alpha..-chain genes of celiac disease patients also were studied by RFLP analysis. Celiac disease is associated with a subset of HLA-DR3, -DQw2 haplotypes characterized by HLA-DP ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-chain gene RFLPs. Within the celiac-disease patient population, the joint segregation of these HLA-DP genes with those encoding the serologic specificities HLA-DR3 and -DQw2 indicates: (i) that the class II HLA haplotype associated with celiac disease is extended throughout the entire HLA-D region, and (ii) that celiac-disease susceptibility genes may reside as far centromeric on this haplotype as the HLA-DP subregion.

  13. Phylogeny- and Parsimony-Based Haplotype Inference with Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elberfeld, Michael; Tantau, Till

    Haplotyping, also known as haplotype phase prediction, is the problem of predicting likely haplotypes based on genotype data. One fast computational haplotyping method is based on an evolutionary model where a perfect phylogenetic tree is sought that explains the observed data. In their CPM 2009 paper, Fellows et al. studied an extension of this approach that incorporates prior knowledge in the form of a set of candidate haplotypes from which the right haplotypes must be chosen. While this approach may help to increase the accuracy of haplotyping methods, it was conjectured that the resulting formal problem constrained perfect phylogeny haplotyping might be NP-complete. In the present paper we present a polynomial-time algorithm for it. Our algorithmic ideas also yield new fixed-parameter algorithms for related haplotyping problems based on the maximum parsimony assumption.

  14. Association of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A) haplotypes with listening to music.

    PubMed

    Ukkola-Vuoti, Liisa; Oikkonen, Jaana; Onkamo, Päivi; Karma, Kai; Raijas, Pirre; Järvelä, Irma

    2011-04-01

    Music is listened in all cultures. We hypothesize that willingness to produce and perceive sound and music is social communication that needs musical aptitude. Here, listening to music was surveyed using a web-based questionnaire and musical aptitude using the auditory structuring ability test (Karma Music test) and Carl Seashores tests for pitch and for time. Three highly polymorphic microsatellite markers (RS3, RS1 and AVR) of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A) gene, previously associated with social communication and attachment, were genotyped and analyzed in 31 Finnish families (n=437 members) using family-based association analysis. A positive association between the AVPR1A haplotype (RS1 and AVR) and active current listening to music (permuted P=0.0019) was observed. Other AVPR1A haplotype (RS3 and AVR) showed association with lifelong active listening to music (permuted P=0.0022). In addition to AVPR1A, two polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR and variable number of tandem repeat) of human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), a candidate gene for many neuropsychiatric disorders and previously associated with emotional processing, were analyzed. No association between listening to music and the polymorphisms of SLC6A4 were detected. The results suggest that willingness to listen to music is related to neurobiological pathways affecting social affiliation and communication.

  15. Genome-wide mapping of IBD segments in an Ashkenazi PD cohort identifies associated haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Vacic, Vladimir; Ozelius, Laurie J; Clark, Lorraine N; Bar-Shira, Anat; Gana-Weisz, Mali; Gurevich, Tanya; Gusev, Alexander; Kedmi, Merav; Kenny, Eimear E; Liu, Xinmin; Mejia-Santana, Helen; Mirelman, Anat; Raymond, Deborah; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Desnick, Robert J; Atzmon, Gil; Burns, Edward R; Ostrer, Harry; Hakonarson, Hakon; Bergman, Aviv; Barzilai, Nir; Darvasi, Ariel; Peter, Inga; Guha, Saurav; Lencz, Todd; Giladi, Nir; Marder, Karen; Pe'er, Itsik; Bressman, Susan B; Orr-Urtreger, Avi

    2014-09-01

    The recent series of large genome-wide association studies in European and Japanese cohorts established that Parkinson disease (PD) has a substantial genetic component. To further investigate the genetic landscape of PD, we performed a genome-wide scan in the largest to date Ashkenazi Jewish cohort of 1130 Parkinson patients and 2611 pooled controls. Motivated by the reduced disease allele heterogeneity and a high degree of identical-by-descent (IBD) haplotype sharing in this founder population, we conducted a haplotype association study based on mapping of shared IBD segments. We observed significant haplotype association signals at three previously implicated Parkinson loci: LRRK2 (OR = 12.05, P = 1.23 × 10(-56)), MAPT (OR = 0.62, P = 1.78 × 10(-11)) and GBA (multiple distinct haplotypes, OR > 8.28, P = 1.13 × 10(-11) and OR = 2.50, P = 1.22 × 10(-9)). In addition, we identified a novel association signal on chr2q14.3 coming from a rare haplotype (OR = 22.58, P = 1.21 × 10(-10)) and replicated it in a secondary cohort of 306 Ashkenazi PD cases and 2583 controls. Our results highlight the power of our haplotype association method, particularly useful in studies of founder populations, and reaffirm the benefits of studying complex diseases in Ashkenazi Jewish cohorts.

  16. Y chromosome haplotype reference database (YHRD): update.

    PubMed

    Willuweit, Sascha; Roewer, Lutz

    2007-06-01

    The freely accessible YHRD (Y Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database, www.yhrd.org) is designed to store Y chromosome haplotypes from global populations and had replaced three earlier database versions collecting European, Asian and US American Y chromosomes separately. The focus is to disseminate haplotype frequency data to forensic analysts, researchers, and to everyone who is interested in historical and family genetics. YHRD considers reduction of the available number of polymorphisms on the Y chromosome to a uniform data string of 11 highly variable Y-STR loci as an efficient way to rapidly screen many world populations and to make their Y chromosome profiles comparable. Typing of the YHRD 11-locus core set is facilitated by commercial products, namely diagnostic PCR kits, and endorsed by scientific and forensic analyst's societies as ISFG or SWGDAM. YHRD is structured by the assignment of each submitted population sample to a set of populations sharing a common linguistic, demographic, genetic or geographic background (metapopulations). This principle facilitates the statistical evaluation of haplotype matches due to a significant enlargement of sample sizes. With the rapid growth of the database the definition of homogeneous metapopulations is now also feasible solely on the basis of the genetic data as exemplified for the whole dataset of YHRD, release 19 (August 2006). Large sample numbers within genetically defined metapopulations also allows the development of biostatistical methods to estimate the frequency of unobserved or rare haplotypes ("haplotype frequency surveying method"). Essential for the YHRD project is its collaborative character relying on the engagement of individual laboratories to make their data accessible via YHRD and to share the YHRD standards regarding data quality.

  17. Unique haplotypes of cacao trees as revealed by trnH-psbA chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-López, Nidia; Ovando-Medina, Isidro; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Avendaño-Arrazate, Carlos H; Vázquez-Ovando, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Cacao trees have been cultivated in Mesoamerica for at least 4,000 years. In this study, we analyzed sequence variation in the chloroplast DNA trnH-psbA intergenic spacer from 28 cacao trees from different farms in the Soconusco region in southern Mexico. Genetic relationships were established by two analysis approaches based on geographic origin (five populations) and genetic origin (based on a previous study). We identified six polymorphic sites, including five insertion/deletion (indels) types and one transversion. The overall nucleotide diversity was low for both approaches (geographic = 0.0032 and genetic = 0.0038). Conversely, we obtained moderate to high haplotype diversity (0.66 and 0.80) with 10 and 12 haplotypes, respectively. The common haplotype (H1) for both networks included cacao trees from all geographic locations (geographic approach) and four genetic groups (genetic approach). This common haplotype (ancient) derived a set of intermediate haplotypes and singletons interconnected by one or two mutational steps, which suggested directional selection and event purification from the expansion of narrow populations. Cacao trees from Soconusco region were grouped into one cluster without any evidence of subclustering based on AMOVA (F ST = 0) and SAMOVA (F ST = 0.04393) results. One population (Mazatán) showed a high haplotype frequency; thus, this population could be considered an important reservoir of genetic material. The indels located in the trnH-psbA intergenic spacer of cacao trees could be useful as markers for the development of DNA barcoding.

  18. VNTR alleles associated with the {alpha}-globin locus are haplotype and population related

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, J.J.; Clegg, J.B.; Boyce, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    The human {alpha}-globin complex contains several polymorphic restriction-enzyme sites (i.e., RFLPs) linked to form haplotypes and is flanked by two hypervariable VNTR loci, the 5{prime} hypervariable region (HVR) and the more highly polymorphic 3{prime}HVR. Using a combination of RFLP analysis and PCR, the authors have characterized the 5{prime}HVR and 3{prime}HVR alleles associated with the {alpha}-globin haplotypes of 133 chromosomes, and they here show that specific {alpha}-globin haplotypes are each associated with discrete subsets of the alleles observed at these two VNTR loci. This statistically highly significant association is observed over a region spanning {approximately} 100 kb. With the exception of closely related haplotypes, different haplotypes do not share identically sized 3{prime}HVR alleles. Earlier studies have shown that {alpha}-globin haplotype distributions differ between populations; the current findings also reveal extensive population substructure in the repertoire of {alpha}-globin VNTRs. If similar features are characteristic of other VNTR loci, this will have important implications for forensic and anthropological studies. 42 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Unique haplotypes of cacao trees as revealed by trnH-psbA chloroplast DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-López, Nidia; Ovando-Medina, Isidro; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Avendaño-Arrazate, Carlos H.

    2016-01-01

    Cacao trees have been cultivated in Mesoamerica for at least 4,000 years. In this study, we analyzed sequence variation in the chloroplast DNA trnH-psbA intergenic spacer from 28 cacao trees from different farms in the Soconusco region in southern Mexico. Genetic relationships were established by two analysis approaches based on geographic origin (five populations) and genetic origin (based on a previous study). We identified six polymorphic sites, including five insertion/deletion (indels) types and one transversion. The overall nucleotide diversity was low for both approaches (geographic = 0.0032 and genetic = 0.0038). Conversely, we obtained moderate to high haplotype diversity (0.66 and 0.80) with 10 and 12 haplotypes, respectively. The common haplotype (H1) for both networks included cacao trees from all geographic locations (geographic approach) and four genetic groups (genetic approach). This common haplotype (ancient) derived a set of intermediate haplotypes and singletons interconnected by one or two mutational steps, which suggested directional selection and event purification from the expansion of narrow populations. Cacao trees from Soconusco region were grouped into one cluster without any evidence of subclustering based on AMOVA (FST = 0) and SAMOVA (FST = 0.04393) results. One population (Mazatán) showed a high haplotype frequency; thus, this population could be considered an important reservoir of genetic material. The indels located in the trnH-psbA intergenic spacer of cacao trees could be useful as markers for the development of DNA barcoding. PMID:27076998

  20. Mitochondrial haplotypes reveal a strong genetic structure for three Indian sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Pardeshi, V C; Kadoo, N Y; Sainani, M N; Meadows, J R S; Kijas, J W; Gupta, V S

    2007-10-01

    This survey represents the first characterization of mitochondrial DNA diversity within three breeds of Indian sheep (two strains of the Deccani breed, as well as the Bannur and Garole breeds) from different geographic regions and with divergent phenotypic characteristics. A 1061-bp fragment of the mitochondrial genome spanning the control region, a portion of the 12S rRNA gene and the complete phenyl tRNA gene, was sequenced from 73 animals and compared with the corresponding published sequence from European and Asian breeds and the European Mouflon (Ovis musimon). Analysis of all 156 sequences revealed 73 haplotypes, 52 of which belonged to the Indian breeds. The three Indian breeds had no haplotypes in common, but one Indian haplotype was shared with European and other Asian breeds. The highest nucleotide and haplotype diversity was observed in the Bannur breed (0.00355 and 0.981 respectively), while the minimum was in the Sangamneri strain of the Deccani breed (0.00167 and 0.882 respectively). All 52 Indian haplotypes belonged to mitochondrial lineage A. Therefore, these Indian sheep are distinct from other Asian and European breeds studied so far. The relationships among the haplotypes showed strong breed structure and almost no introgression among these Indian breeds, consistent with Indian sheep husbandry, which discourages genetic exchange between breeds. These results have implications for the conservation of India's ovine biodiversity and suggest a common origin for the breeds investigated.

  1. Atypical beta(s) haplotypes are generated by diverse genetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zago, M A; Silva, W A; Dalle, B; Gualandro, S; Hutz, M H; Lapoumeroulie, C; Tavella, M H; Araujo, A G; Krieger, J E; Elion, J; Krishnamoorthy, R

    2000-02-01

    The majority of the chromosomes with the beta(S) gene have one of the five common haplotypes, designated as Benin, Bantu, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian haplotypes. However, in every large series of sickle cell patients, 5-10% of the chromosomes have less common haplotypes, usually referred to as "atypical" haplotypes. In order to explore the genetic mechanisms that could generate these atypical haplotypes, we extended our analysis to other rarely studied polymorphic markers of the beta(S)-gene cluster, in a total of 40 chromosomes with uncommon haplotypes from Brazil and Cameroon. The following polymorphisms were examined: seven restriction site polymorphisms of the epsilongammadeltabeta-cluster, the pre-(G)gamma framework sequence including the 6-bp deletion/insertion pattern, HS-2 LCR (AT)xR(AT)y and pre-beta (AT)xTy repeat motifs, the GC/TT polymorphism at -1105-1106 of (G)gamma-globin gene, the C/T polymorphism at -551 of the beta-globin gene, and the intragenic beta-globin gene framework. Among the Brazilian subjects, the most common atypical structure (7/16) was a Bantu 3'-subhaplotype associated with different 5'-sequences, while in two chromosomes a Benin 3'-subhaplotype was associated with two different 5'-subhaplotypes. A hybrid Benin/Bantu configuration was also observed. In three chromosomes, the atypical haplotype differed from the typical one by the change of a single restriction site. In 2/134 chromosomes identified as having a typical Bantu RFLP-haplotype, a discrepant LCR repeat sequence was observed, probably owing to a crossover 5' to the epsilon-gene. Among 80 beta(S) chromosomes from Cameroon, 22 were associated with an atypical haplotype. The most common structure was represented by a Benin haplotype (from the LCR to the beta-gene) with a non-Benin segment 3' to the beta-globin gene. In two cases a Bantu LCR was associated with a Benin haplotype and a non-Benin segment 3' to the beta-globin gene. In three other cases, a more complex

  2. Inheritance of hetero-diploid pollen S-haplotype in self-compatible tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl).

    PubMed

    Gu, Chao; Liu, Qing-Zhong; Yang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Khan, Muhammad Awais; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The breakdown of self-incompatibility, which could result from the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes or competitive interaction between two different functional S-haplotypes, has been studied extensively at the molecular level in tetraploid Rosaceae species. In this study, two tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus) cultivars and one diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivar were used to investigate the ploidy of pollen grains and inheritance of pollen-S alleles. Genetic analysis of the S-genotypes of two intercross-pollinated progenies showed that the pollen grains derived from Chinese cherry cultivars were hetero-diploid, and that the two S-haplotypes were made up of every combination of two of the four possible S-haplotypes. Moreover, the distributions of single S-haplotypes expressed in self- and intercross-pollinated progenies were in disequilibrium. The number of individuals of the two different S-haplotypes was unequal in two self-pollinated and two intercross-pollinated progenies. Notably, the number of individuals containing two different S-haplotypes (S1- and S5-, S5- and S8-, S1- and S4-haplotype) was larger than that of other individuals in the two self-pollinated progenies, indicating that some of these hetero-diploid pollen grains may have the capability to inactivate stylar S-RNase inside the pollen tube and grow better into the ovaries.

  3. Interactions “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum”—Bactericera cockerelli: Haplotype Effect on Vector Fitness and Gene Expression Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jianxiu; Saenkham, Panatda; Levy, Julien; Ibanez, Freddy; Noroy, Christophe; Mendoza, Azucena; Huot, Ordom; Meyer, Damien F.; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Lso) has emerged as a serious threat world-wide. Five Lso haplotypes have been identified so far. Haplotypes A and B are present in the Americas and/or New Zealand, where they are vectored to solanaceous plants by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). The fastidious nature of these pathogens has hindered the study of the interactions with their eukaryotic hosts (vector and plant). To understand the strategies used by these pathogens to infect their vector, the effects of each Lso haplotype (A or B) on psyllid fitness was investigated, and genome-wide transcriptomic and RT-qPCR analyses were performed to evaluate Lso gene expression in association with its vector. Results showed that psyllids infected with haplotype B had significantly lower percentage of nymphal survival compared to psyllids infected with haplotype A. Although overall gene expression across Lso genome was similar between the two Lso haplotypes, differences in the expression of key candidate genes were found. Among the 16 putative type IV effector genes tested, four of them were differentially expressed between Lso haplotypes, while no differences in gene expression were measured by qPCR or transcriptomic analysis for the rest of the genes. This study provides new information regarding the pathogenesis of Lso haplotypes in their insect vector. PMID:27376032

  4. Applications of haplotypes in dairy farm management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haplotypes from genomic tests are now available for almost 100,000 dairy cows and heifers in the U.S.. Genomic EBV values are accelerating the rate of genetic improvement in dairy cattle, but genomic information also is useful for making improved decisions on the farm. Mate selection strategies have...

  5. Haplotype assembly from aligned weighted SNP fragments.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Ying; Wu, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Ji-Hong; Wang, Rui-Sheng; Zhang, Xiang-Sun

    2005-08-01

    Given an assembled genome of a diploid organism the haplotype assembly problem can be formulated as retrieval of a pair of haplotypes from a set of aligned weighted SNP fragments. Known computational formulations (models) of this problem are minimum letter flips (MLF) and the weighted minimum letter flips (WMLF; Greenberg et al. (INFORMS J. Comput. 2004, 14, 211-213)). In this paper we show that the general WMLF model is NP-hard even for the gapless case. However the algorithmic solutions for selected variants of WMFL can exist and we propose a heuristic algorithm based on a dynamic clustering technique. We also introduce a new formulation of the haplotype assembly problem that we call COMPLETE WMLF (CWMLF). This model and algorithms for its implementation take into account a simultaneous presence of multiple kinds of data errors. Extensive computational experiments indicate that the algorithmic implementations of the CWMLF model achieve higher accuracy of haplotype reconstruction than the WMLF-based algorithms, which in turn appear to be more accurate than those based on MLF.

  6. Quantitative analysis of soil calcium by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using addition and addition-internal standardizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvani-Mahdavi, Hamidreza; Shafiee, Parisa

    2016-12-01

    Matrix mismatching in the quantitative analysis of materials through calibration-based laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a serious problem. In this paper, to overcome the matrix mismatching, two distinct approaches named addition standardization (AS) and addition-internal combinatorial standardization (A-ICS) are demonstrated for LIBS experiments. Furthermore, in order to examine the efficiency of these methods, the concentration of calcium in ordinary garden soil without any fertilizer is individually measured by each of the two procedures. To achieve this purpose, ten standard samples with different concentrations of calcium (as the analyte) and copper (as the internal standard) are prepared in the form of cylindrical tablets, so that the soil plays the role of the matrix in all of them. The measurements indicate that the relative error of concentration compared to a certified value derived by induced coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy is 3.97% and 2.23% for AS and A-ICS methods, respectively. Furthermore, calculations related to standard deviation indicates that A-ICS method may be more accurate than AS one.

  7. Globally dispersed Y chromosomal haplotypes in wild and domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Meadows, J R S; Hanotte, O; Drögemüller, C; Calvo, J; Godfrey, R; Coltman, D; Maddox, J F; Marzanov, N; Kantanen, J; Kijas, J W

    2006-10-01

    To date, investigations of genetic diversity and the origins of domestication in sheep have utilised autosomal microsatellites and variation in the mitochondrial genome. We present the first analysis of both domestic and wild sheep using genetic markers residing on the ovine Y chromosome. Analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism (oY1) in the SRY promoter region revealed that allele A-oY1 was present in all wild bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), two subspecies of thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli), European Mouflon (Ovis musimon) and the Barbary (Ammontragis lervia). A-oY1 also had the highest frequency (71.4%) within 458 domestic sheep drawn from 65 breeds sampled from Africa, Asia, Australia, the Caribbean, Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia. Sequence analysis of a second locus, microsatellite SRYM18, revealed a compound repeat array displaying fixed differences, which identified bighorn and thinhorn sheep as distinct from the European Mouflon and domestic animals. Combined genotypic data identified 11 male-specific haplotypes that represented at least two separate lineages. Investigation of the geographical distribution of each haplotype revealed that one (H6) was both very common and widespread in the global sample of domestic breeds. The remaining haplotypes each displayed more restricted and informative distributions. For example, H5 was likely founded following the domestication of European breeds and was used to trace the recent transportation of animals to both the Caribbean and Australia. A high rate of Y chromosomal dispersal appears to have taken place during the development of domestic sheep as only 12.9% of the total observed variation was partitioned between major geographical regions.

  8. Haplotype reconstruction and estimation of haplotype frequencies from nuclear families with only one parent available.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiangdong; Zhang, Qin; Flury, Christine; Simianer, Henner

    2006-01-01

    Recent literature has suggested that haplotype inference through close relatives, especially from nuclear families can be an alternative strategy in determining the linkage phase. In this paper, haplotype reconstruction and estimation of haplotype frequencies via expectation maximization (EM) algorithm including nuclear families with only one parent available is proposed. Parent and his (her) child are treated as parent-child pair with one shared haplotype. This reduces the number of potential haplotype pairs for both parent and child separately, resulting in a higher accuracy of the estimation. In a series of simulations, the comparisons of PHASE, GENEHUNTER, EM-based approach for complete nuclear families and our approach are carried out. In all situations, EM-based approach for trio data is comparable but slightly worse error rate than PHASE, our approach is slightly better and much faster than PHASE for incomplete trios, the performance of GENEHUNTER is very bad in simple nuclear family settings and dramatically decreased with the number of markers being increased. On the other hand, the comparison result of different sampling designs demonstrates that sampling trios is the most efficient design to estimate haplotype frequencies in populations under same genotyping cost.

  9. Computer programs for multilocus haplotyping of general pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, D.E.; O`Connell, J.R.; Sobel, E.

    1995-06-01

    We have recently developed and implemented three different computer algorithms for accurate haplotyping with large numbers of codominant markers. Each of these algorithms employs likelihood criteria that correctly incorporate all intermarker recombination fractions. The three programs, HAPLO, SIMCROSS, and SIMWALK, are now available for haplotying general pedigrees. The HAPLO program will be distributed as part of the Programs for Pedigree Analysis package by Kenneth Lange. The SIMCROSS and SIMWALK programs are available by anonymous ftp from watson.hgen.pitt.edu. Each program is written in FORTRAN 77 and is distributed as source code. 15 refs.

  10. A comprehensive literature review of haplotyping software and methods for use with unrelated individuals

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Interest in the assignment and frequency analysis of haplotypes in samples of unrelated individuals has increased immeasurably as a result of the emphasis placed on haplotype analyses by, for example, the International HapMap Project and related initiatives. Although there are many available computer programs for haplotype analysis applicable to samples of unrelated individuals, many of these programs have limitations and/or very specific uses. In this paper, the key features of available haplotype analysis software for use with unrelated individuals, as well as pooled DNA samples from unrelated individuals, are summarised. Programs for haplotype analysis were identified through keyword searches on PUBMED and various internet search engines, a review of citations from retrieved papers and personal communications, up to June 2004. Priority was given to functioning computer programs, rather than theoretical models and methods. The available software was considered in light of a number of factors: the algorithm(s) used, algorithm accuracy, assumptions, the accommodation of genotyping error, implementation of hypothesis testing, handling of missing data, software characteristics and web-based implementations. Review papers comparing specific methods and programs are also summarised. Forty-six haplotyping programs were identified and reviewed. The programs were divided into two groups: those designed for individual genotype data (a total of 43 programs) and those designed for use with pooled DNA samples (a total of three programs). The accuracy of programs using various criteria are assessed and the programs are categorised and discussed in light of: algorithm and method, accuracy, assumptions, genotyping error, hypothesis testing, missing data, software characteristics and web implementation. Many available programs have limitations (eg some cannot accommodate missing data) and/or are designed with specific tasks in mind (eg estimating haplotype frequencies rather than

  11. Expression levels of JNK associated with polymorphic lactotransferrin haplotypes in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gengqiu; Zhou, Yanhong; Yi, Wei; Yi, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Lactotransferrin (LTF), a member of the transferrin family, serves a role in the innate immune response and is involved in anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-tumor activity. Alterations in the LTF gene are associated with an increased incidence of cancer. The LTF gene is polymorphic, and several common alleles may be observed in the general population. Our previous study identified a lower rate of occurrence of the 'A-G-G-T' haplotype (constructed with rs1126477, rs1126478, rs2073495 and rs9110) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients compared with controls. In the present study, in order to elucidate a possible mechanism of LTF-mediated anti-tumor activity in NPC, the protein profiles of NPC and non-tumorous nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues with/without the 'A-G-G-T' haplotype were constructed using LTQ Orbitrap technology. The results revealed that c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) was highly expressed in NPC tissues and non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues without the 'A-G-G-T' haplotype. These results were confirmed by western blot analysis. Furthermore, microRNA (miRNA) microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the differential miRNA profiles of NPC and non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues with/without the 'A-G-G-T' haplotype. It was observed that hsa-miR-1256 and hsa-miR-659, which are potentially targeted to the JNK2 gene, were downregulated in NPC tissues without the 'A-G-G-T' haplotype. Hsa-miR-298, another miRNA potentially targeted to the JNK2 gene, was downregulated in non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues without the 'A-G-G-T' haplotype. In summary, these results suggested that the expression levels of JNK2 may be associated with polymorphic LTF haplotypes in human NPC.

  12. Expression levels of JNK associated with polymorphic lactotransferrin haplotypes in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Gengqiu; Zhou, Yanhong; Yi, Wei; Yi, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Lactotransferrin (LTF), a member of the transferrin family, serves a role in the innate immune response and is involved in anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-tumor activity. Alterations in the LTF gene are associated with an increased incidence of cancer. The LTF gene is polymorphic, and several common alleles may be observed in the general population. Our previous study identified a lower rate of occurrence of the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype (constructed with rs1126477, rs1126478, rs2073495 and rs9110) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients compared with controls. In the present study, in order to elucidate a possible mechanism of LTF-mediated anti-tumor activity in NPC, the protein profiles of NPC and non-tumorous nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues with/without the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype were constructed using LTQ Orbitrap technology. The results revealed that c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) was highly expressed in NPC tissues and non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues without the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype. These results were confirmed by western blot analysis. Furthermore, microRNA (miRNA) microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the differential miRNA profiles of NPC and non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues with/without the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype. It was observed that hsa-miR-1256 and hsa-miR-659, which are potentially targeted to the JNK2 gene, were downregulated in NPC tissues without the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype. Hsa-miR-298, another miRNA potentially targeted to the JNK2 gene, was downregulated in non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues without the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype. In summary, these results suggested that the expression levels of JNK2 may be associated with polymorphic LTF haplotypes in human NPC. PMID:27446399

  13. HapRice, an SNP haplotype database and a web tool for rice.

    PubMed

    Yonemaru, Jun-ichi; Ebana, Kaworu; Yano, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis is a promising tool to examine the genetic diversity of rice populations and genetic traits of scientific and economic importance. Next-generation sequencing technology has accelerated the re-sequencing of diverse rice varieties and the discovery of genome-wide SNPs. Notably, validation of these SNPs by a high-throughput genotyping system, such as an SNP array, could provide a manageable and highly accurate SNP set. To enhance the potential utility of genome-wide SNPs for geneticists and breeders, analysis tools need to be developed. Here, we constructed an SNP haplotype database, which allows visualization of the allele frequency of all SNPs in the genome browser. We calculated the allele frequencies of 3,334 SNPs in 76 accessions from the world rice collection and 3,252 SNPs in 177 Japanese rice accessions; all these SNPs have been validated in our previous studies. The SNP haplotypes were defined by the allele frequency in each cultivar group (aus, indica, tropical japonica and temperate japonica) for the world rice accessions, and in non-irrigated and three irrigated groups (three variety registration periods) for Japanese rice accessions. We also developed web tools for finding polymorphic SNPs between any two rice accessions and for the primer design to develop cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers at any SNP. The 'HapRice' database and the web tools can be accessed at http://qtaro.abr.affrc.go.jp/index.html. In addition, we established a core SNP set consisting of 768 SNPs uniformly distributed in the rice genome; this set is of a practically appropriate size for use in rice genetic analysis.

  14. Identification of MHC Haplotypes Associated with Drug-induced Hypersensitivity Reactions in Cynomolgus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong; Whritenour, Jessica; Sanford, Jonathan C; Houle, Christopher; Adkins, Karissa K

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions can significantly impact drug development and use. Studies to understand risk factors for drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions have identified genetic association with specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. Interestingly, drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions can occur in nonhuman primates; however, association between drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles has not been described. In this study, tissue samples were collected from 62 cynomolgus monkeys from preclinical studies in which 9 animals had evidence of drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions. Microsatellite analysis was used to determine MHC haplotypes for each animal. A total of 7 haplotypes and recombinant MHC haplotypes were observed, with distribution frequency comparable to known MHC I allele frequency in cynomolgus monkeys. Genetic association analysis identified alleles from the M3 haplotype of the MHC I B region (B*011:01, B*075:01, B*079:01, B*070:02, B*098:05, and B*165:01) to be significantly associated (χ(2) test for trend, p < 0.05) with occurrence of drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions. Sequence similarity from alignment of alleles in the M3 haplotype B region and HLA alleles associated with drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions in humans was 86% to 93%. These data demonstrate that MHC alleles in cynomolgus monkeys are associated with drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions, similar to HLA alleles in humans.

  15. Comparison of MHC Class I Risk Haplotypes in Thai and Caucasian Psoriatics Reveals Locus Heterogeneity at PSORS1

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Philip E.; Nair, Rajan P.; Hiremagalore, Ravi; Kullavanijaya, Preya; Kullavanijaya, Prisana; Tejasvi, Trilokraj; Lim, Henry W.; Voorhees, John J.; Elder, James T.

    2010-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that psoriasis in Japan and Thailand is associated with two different MHC haplotypes—those bearing HLA-Cw6 and those bearing HLA-Cw1 and HLA-B46. In an independent case-control sample from Thailand, we confirmed association of psoriasis with both haplotypes. No association was seen in Thai HLA-Cw1 haplotypes lacking HLA-B46, nor was HLA-Cw1 associated with psoriasis in a large Caucasian sample. To assess whether these risk haplotypes share a common origin, we sequenced genomic DNA from a Thai HLA-Cw1-B46 homozygote across the ~300 kb MHC risk interval, and compared it to sequence of a HLA-Cw6-B57 risk haplotype. Three small regions of homology were found, but these regions share equivalent sequence similarity with one or more clearly non-risk haplotypes, and they contain no polymorphism alleles unique to all risk haplotypes. Differences in psoriasis phenotype were also observed, including lower risk of disease, greater nail involvement, and later age at onset in HLA-Cw1-B46 carriers compared to HLA-Cw6 carriers. These findings suggest locus heterogeneity at PSORS1, the major psoriasis susceptibility locus in the MHC, with HLA-Cw6 imparting risk in both Caucasians and Asians, and an allele other than HLA-Cw1 on the HLA-Cw1-B46 haplotype acting as an additional risk variant in East Asians. PMID:20604894

  16. Chromosome 21 BACE2 haplotype associates with Alzheimer's disease: a two-stage study.

    PubMed

    Myllykangas, Liisa; Wavrant-De Vrièze, Fabienne; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Notkola, Irma-Leena; Sulkava, Raimo; Niinistö, Leena; Edland, Steven D; Arepalli, Sampath; Adighibe, Omanma; Compton, Danielle; Hardy, John; Haltia, Matti; Tienari, Pentti J

    2005-09-15

    Genetic linkage studies have provided evidence for a late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) susceptibility locus on chromosome 21q. We have tested, in a two-stage association study, whether allelic or haplotype variation of the beta-amyloid cleaving enzyme-2 (BACE2) locus on chromosome 21q affects the risk of late-onset AD. In stage-1, an unselected population-based sample of Finns aged 85 years or over (n=515) was analysed. Neuropathologic examination including beta-amyloid load quantification was possible in over 50% (n=264) of these subjects. AD patients (n=100) and controls (n=48) were defined by modified neuropathological NIA-RI criteria. Positive associations were taken as a hypothesis, and tested in stage-2 using 483 AD families from the USA. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of BACE2 gene were tested in stage-1. A SNP close to exon-6 was associated with neuropathologically verified AD (p=0.02) and also with beta-amyloid load in non-selected autopsied subjects after conditioning with APOE genotype (p=0.001). In haplotype analysis a specific, relatively common haplotype (H5) was found to associate with AD (p=0.004) and a second haplotype (H7) showed a weaker association with protection against AD (p=0.04). In stage-2, the SNP association was not replicated, whereas the haplotype H5 association was replicated (p=0.004) and a trend to association was found with the putative protective haplotype H7 (two-sided p=0.08). BACE2 haplotype association with AD in two independent datasets provides further evidence for an AD susceptibility locus on chromosome 21q within or close to BACE2.

  17. Role of CYP1A1 haplotypes in modulating susceptibility to coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Sana Venkata Vijaya; Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Saumya, Kankanala; Rao, Damera Seshagiri; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the role of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) haplotypes in modulating susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD), a case-control study was conducted by enrolling 352 CAD cases and 282 healthy controls. PCR-RFLP, multiplex PCR, competitive ELISA techniques were employed for the analysis of CYP1A1 [ml (T-->C), m2 (A-->G) and m4 (C-->A)] haplotypes, glutathione-S-transferase (GST)T1/GSTM1 null variants and plasma 8-oxo-2'deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) respectively. Two CYP1A1 haplotypes, i.e. CAC and TGC showed independent association with CAD risk, while all-wild CYP1A1 haplotype i.e. TAC showed reduced risk for CAD. All the three variants showed mild linkage disequilibrium (D': 0.05 to 0.17). GSTT1 null variant also exerted independent association with CAD risk (OR: 2.53, 95% CI 1.55-4.12). Among the conventional risk factors, smoking showed synergetic interaction with CAC haplotype of CYP1A1 and GSTT1 null genotype in inflating CAD risk. High risk alleles of this pathway showed dose-dependent association with percentage of stenosis and number of vessels affected. Elevated 8-oxodG levels were observed in subjects with CYP1A1 CAC haplotype and GSTT1 null variant. Multiple linear regression model of these xenobiotic variants explained 36% variability in 8-oxodG levels. This study demonstrated the association of CYP1A1 haplotypes and GSTT1 null variant with CAD risk and this association was attributed to increased oxidative DNA damage.

  18. F8 haplotype and inhibitor risk: results from the Hemophilia Inhibitor Genetics Study (HIGS) Combined Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, John; Astermark, Jan; Menius, Erika D.; Carrington, Mary; Donfield, Sharyne M.; Gomperts, Edward D.; Nelson, George W.; Oldenburg, Johannes; Pavlova, Anna; Shapiro, Amy D.; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Berntorp, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background Ancestral background, specifically African descent, confers higher risk for development of inhibitory antibodies to factor VIII (FVIII) in hemophilia A. It has been suggested that differences in the distribution of factor VIII gene (F8) haplotypes, and mismatch between endogenous F8 haplotypes and those comprising products used for treatment could contribute to risk. Design and Methods Data from the HIGS Combined Cohort were used to determine the association between F8 haplotype 3 (H3) vs. haplotypes 1 and 2 (H1+H2) and inhibitor risk among individuals of genetically-determined African descent. Other variables known to affect inhibitor risk including type of F8 mutation and HLA were included in the analysis. A second research question regarding risk related to mismatch in endogenous F8 haplotype and recombinant FVIII products used for treatment was addressed. Results H3 was associated with higher inhibitor risk among those genetically-identified (N=49) as of African ancestry, but the association did not remain significant after adjustment for F8 mutation type and the HLA variables. Among subjects of all racial ancestries enrolled in HIGS who reported early use of recombinant products (N=223), mismatch in endogenous haplotype and the FVIII proteins constituting the products used did not confer greater risk for inhibitor development. Conclusion H3 was not an independent predictor of inhibitor risk. Further, our findings did not support a higher risk of inhibitors in the presence of a haplotype mismatch between the FVIII molecule infused and that of the individual. PMID:22958194

  19. Sickle cell disease in a Brazilian population from Sao Paulo: a study of the beta s haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, M S; Nechtman, J F; Figueiredo, M S; Kerbauy, J; Arruda, V R; Sonati, M F; Saad, S O; Costa, F F; Stoming, T A

    1994-01-01

    In this study we have determined the frequency of beta S haplotypes in a Brazilian sickle cell disease population from Sao Paulo, Brazil, by analyzing sequence variations in the immediate 5' flanking and second intervening sequence (IVSII) regions of the gamma globin genes. This association between sequence differences and beta s haplotype backgrounds was determined by screening genomic DNA samples using dot blot analysis of polymerase chain reaction products. We studied 148 beta s chromosomes, and found that haplotype 20 (CAR or Bantu) significantly predominated in this population. This is in agreement with the findings of the historical Portuguese Atlantic slave trade from Africa to South America.

  20. Recovering frequencies of known haplotype blocks from single-nucleotide polymorphism allele frequencies.

    PubMed Central

    Pe'er, Itsik; Beckmann, Jacques S

    2004-01-01

    Prospects for large-scale association studies rely on economical methods and powerful analysis. Representing available SNPs by small subsets and measuring allele frequencies on pooled DNA samples each improve genotyping cost effectiveness, while haplotype analysis may highlight associations in otherwise underpowered studies. This manuscript provides the mathematical framework to integrate these methodologies. PMID:15126415

  1. Y-chromosome-Specific STR haplotype data on the Rapanui population (Easter Island).

    PubMed

    Ghiani, Maria Elena; Moral, Pedro; Mitchell, Robert John; Hernández, Miguel; García-Moro, Clara; Vona, Giuseppe

    2006-10-01

    Located in the south Pacific Ocean, Rapanui is one of the most isolated inhabited islands in the world. Cultural and biological data suggest that the initial Rapanui population originated from central Polynesia, although the presence of foreign or exotic genes in the contemporary population, as a result of admixture with Europeans and/or South Americans during the last two centuries, also has to be considered. To estimate the genetic affinities of the Rapanui population with neighboring populations, we analyzed seven microsatellite polymorphisms of the Y chromosome that recently have been indicated as useful in the study of local population structure and recent demographic history. Phylogenetic analysis of Rapanui Y-chromosome haplotypes identified two clusters. The largest cluster contained 60% of all haplotypes and is characterized, in particular, by the presence of the DYS19*16, DYS390*20, and DYS393*14 alleles, a combination found frequently in Western Samoa. The second cluster is characterized by the presence of the DYS19*14, DYS390*24, and DYS393*13 alleles, and these have a relatively high frequency in European and European-derived populations but are either infrequent or absent in native Pacific populations. In addition to the two clusters, one male is of haplogroup Q*, which is indicative of native American ancestry. The genetic structure of the current male population of Rapanui is most likely a product of some genetic contribution from European and South American invaders who mated with the indigenous Polynesian women. However, analysis of Rapanui's relationships with other Pacific and Asian populations indicates that, as in Western Samoa and Samoa, the population has experienced extreme drift and founder events.

  2. A haplotype-based algorithm for multilocus linkage disequilibrium mapping of quantitative trait loci with epistasis.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xiang-Yang; Casella, George; Littell, Ramon C; Yang, Mark C K; Johnson, Julie A; Wu, Rongling

    2003-04-01

    For tightly linked loci, cosegregation may lead to nonrandom associations between alleles in a population. Because of its evolutionary relationship with linkage, this phenomenon is called linkage disequilibrium. Today, linkage disequilibrium-based mapping has become a major focus of recent genome research into mapping complex traits. In this article, we present a new statistical method for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) of additive, dominant, and epistatic effects in equilibrium natural populations. Our method is based on haplotype analysis of multilocus linkage disequilibrium and exhibits two significant advantages over current disequilibrium mapping methods. First, we have derived closed-form solutions for estimating the marker-QTL haplotype frequencies within the maximum-likelihood framework implemented by the EM algorithm. The allele frequencies of putative QTL and their linkage disequilibria with the markers are estimated by solving a system of regular equations. This procedure has significantly improved the computational efficiency and the precision of parameter estimation. Second, our method can detect marker-QTL disequilibria of different orders and QTL epistatic interactions of various kinds on the basis of a multilocus analysis. This can not only enhance the precision of parameter estimation, but also make it possible to perform whole-genome association studies. We carried out extensive simulation studies to examine the robustness and statistical performance of our method. The application of the new method was validated using a case study from humans, in which we successfully detected significant QTL affecting human body heights. Finally, we discuss the implications of our method for genome projects and its extension to a broader circumstance. The computer program for the method proposed in this article is available at the webpage http://www.ifasstat.ufl.edu/genome/~LD.

  3. Expression QTL analysis of top loci from GWAS meta-analysis highlights additional schizophrenia candidate genes.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Simone; van Eijk, Kristel R; Zeegers, Dave W L H; Strengman, Eric; Janson, Esther; Veldink, Jan H; van den Berg, Leonard H; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Boks, Marco P M; Ophoff, Roel A

    2012-09-01

    There is genetic evidence that schizophrenia is a polygenic disorder with a large number of loci of small effect on disease susceptibility. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia have had limited success, with the best finding at the MHC locus at chromosome 6p. A recent effort of the Psychiatric GWAS consortium (PGC) yielded five novel loci for schizophrenia. In this study, we aim to highlight additional schizophrenia susceptibility loci from the PGC study by combining the top association findings from the discovery stage (9394 schizophrenia cases and 12 462 controls) with expression QTLs (eQTLs) and differential gene expression in whole blood of schizophrenia patients and controls. We examined the 6192 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with significance threshold at P<0.001. eQTLs were calculated for these SNPs in a sample of healthy controls (n=437). The transcripts significantly regulated by the top SNPs from the GWAS meta-analysis were subsequently tested for differential expression in an independent set of schizophrenia cases and controls (n=202). After correction for multiple testing, the eQTL analysis yielded 40 significant cis-acting effects of the SNPs. Seven of these transcripts show differential expression between cases and controls. Of these, the effect of three genes (RNF5, TRIM26 and HLA-DRB3) coincided with the direction expected from meta-analysis findings and were all located within the MHC region. Our results identify new genes of interest and highlight again the involvement of the MHC region in schizophrenia susceptibility.

  4. Mitochondrial Haplotypes Associated with Biomarkers for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, Perry G.; Koop, Andre; Maxwell, Taylor J.; Bailey, Matthew H.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Kauwe, John S. K.; Honea, Robyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Various studies have suggested that the mitochondrial genome plays a role in late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, although results are mixed. We used an endophenotype-based approach to further characterize mitochondrial genetic variation and its relationship to risk markers for Alzheimer’s disease. We analyzed longitudinal data from non-demented, mild cognitive impairment, and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease participants in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative with genetic, brain imaging, and behavioral data. We assessed the relationship of structural MRI and cognitive biomarkers with mitochondrial genome variation using TreeScanning, a haplotype-based approach that concentrates statistical power by analyzing evolutionarily meaningful groups (or clades) of haplotypes together for association with a phenotype. Four clades were associated with three different endophenotypes: whole brain volume, percent change in temporal pole thickness, and left hippocampal atrophy over two years. This is the first study of its kind to identify mitochondrial variation associated with brain imaging endophenotypes of Alzheimer’s disease. Our results provide additional evidence that the mitochondrial genome plays a role in risk for Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24040196

  5. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800).

    PubMed

    Artico, L O; Bianchini, A; Grubel, K S; Monteiro, D S; Estima, S C; Oliveira, L R de; Bonatto, S L; Marins, L F

    2010-09-01

    The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande), both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7), with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%). Nucleotide diversity was moderate (π = 0.62%) and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%). Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

  6. Extended major histocompatibility complex haplotypes in patients with gluten-sensitive enteropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Alper, C A; Fleischnick, E; Awdeh, Z; Katz, A J; Yunis, E J

    1987-01-01

    We have studied major histocompatibility complex markers in randomly ascertained Caucasian patients with gluten-sensitive enteropathy and their families. The frequencies of extended haplotypes, defined as haplotypes of specific HLA-B, DR, BF, C2, C4A, and C4B allelic combinations, occurring more frequently than expected, were compared on patient chromosomes, on normal chromosomes from the study families, and on chromosomes from normal families. Over half of patient chromosomes consisted almost entirely of two extended haplotypes [HLA-B8, DR3, SC01] and [HLA-B44, DR7, FC31] which, with nonextended HLA-DR7, accounted for the previously observed HLA markers of this disease: HLA-B8, DR3, and DR7. There was no increase in HLA-DR3 on nonextended haplotypes or in other extended haplotypes with HLA-DR3 or DR7. The distribution of homozygotes and heterozygotes for HLA-DR3 and DR7 was consistent with recessive inheritance of the major histocompatibility complex-linked susceptibility gene for gluten-sensitive enteropathy. On the other hand, by odds ratio analysis and from the sum of DR3 and DR7 homozygotes compared with DR3/DR7 heterozygotes, there was an increase in heterozygotes and a decrease in homozygotes suggesting the presence of modifying phenomena. PMID:3793924

  7. Interleukin13 haplotypes and susceptibility of Iranian women to breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Zahra; Erfani, Nasrollah; Razmkhah, Mahboobeh; Sameni, Safoura; Talei, Abdolrasoul; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2009-09-01

    Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is a TH2 cytokine with direct and indirect immunoregulatory functions on cancer cells. The cytokine has been reported to have some polymorphic variations at the gene level associated with some immune related diseases including asthma and allergy. In the present study, association of three IL13 gene polymorphisms at positions -1512 A/C and -1055 C/T in the promoter and +2044 G/A in exon-4 was investigated in Iranian women with breast cancer and healthy controls. Genotyping of IL13 gene polymorphisms were performed by PCR-RFLP methods. Serum level of IL-13 was assessed by ELISA. Haplotypes were constructed from genotypic data using Arlequin 3.1 software package. Haplotype analysis revealed higher frequency of a three-locus haplotype, ACA (-1512A/-1055C/+2044A), in normal women than breast cancer patients (P < 0.025). Haplotype CCA, from the other hand, was observed with more frequency among patients than controls (P < 0.03). No statistically significant differences were found in the frequency of genotypes and alleles between patients and control group. No association was observed between investigated genotypes and other prognostic factors including tumor type, lymph node involvement and tumor size. IL-13 serum level was undetectable in both patients and control subjects. Despite observing no association between breast cancer and the single SNPs, results of this investigation suggest that the presence of CCA haplotype of IL13 gene may be associated with susceptibility of Iranian women to breast cancer.

  8. Haplotype structure and selection of the MDM2 oncogene in humans.

    PubMed

    Atwal, Gurinder Singh; Bond, Gareth L; Metsuyanim, Sally; Papa, Moshe; Friedman, Eitan; Distelman-Menachem, Tal; Ben Asher, Edna; Lancet, Doron; Ross, David A; Sninsky, John; White, Tomas J; Levine, Arnold J; Yarden, Ronit

    2007-03-13

    The MDM2 protein is an ubiquitin ligase that plays a critical role in regulating the levels and activity of the p53 protein, which is a central tumor suppressor. A SNP in the human MDM2 gene (SNP309 T/G) occurs at frequencies dependent on demographic history and has been shown to have important differential effects on the activity of the MDM2 and p53 proteins and to associate with altered risk for the development of several cancers. In this report, the haplotype structure of the MDM2 gene is determined by using 14 different SNPs across the gene from three different population samples: Caucasians, African Americans, and the Ashkenazi Jewish ethnic group. The results presented in this report indicate that there is a substantially reduced variability of the deleterious SNP309 G allele haplotype in all three populations studied, whereas multiple common T allele haplotypes were found in all three populations. This observation, coupled with the relatively high frequency of the G allele haplotype in both and Caucasian and Ashkenazi Jewish population data sets, suggests that this haplotype could have undergone a recent positive selection sweep. An entropy-based selection test is presented that explicitly takes into account the correlations between different SNPs, and the analysis of MDM2 reveals a significant departure from the standard assumptions of selective neutrality.

  9. Differential enzymatic activity of common haplotypic versions of the human acidic Mammalian chitinase protein.

    PubMed

    Seibold, Max A; Reese, Tiffany A; Choudhry, Shweta; Salam, Muhammad T; Beckman, Kenny; Eng, Celeste; Atakilit, Amha; Meade, Kelley; Lenoir, Michael; Watson, H Geoffrey; Thyne, Shannon; Kumar, Rajesh; Weiss, Kevin B; Grammer, Leslie C; Avila, Pedro; Schleimer, Robert P; Fahy, John V; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Boot, Rolf G; Sheppard, Dean; Gilliland, Frank D; Locksley, Richard M; Burchard, Esteban G

    2009-07-17

    Mouse models have shown the importance of acidic mammalian chitinase activity in settings of chitin exposure and allergic inflammation. However, little is known regarding genetic regulation of AMCase enzymatic activity in human allergic diseases. Resequencing the AMCase gene exons we identified 8 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms including three novel variants (A290G, G296A, G339T) near the gene area coding for the enzyme active site, all in linkage disequilibrium. AMCase protein isoforms, encoded by two gene-wide haplotypes, and differentiated by these three single nucleotide polymorphisms, were recombinantly expressed and purified. Biochemical analysis revealed the isoform encoded by the variant haplotype displayed a distinct pH profile exhibiting greater retention of chitinase activity at acidic and basic pH values. Determination of absolute kinetic activity found the variant isoform encoded by the variant haplotype was 4-, 2.5-, and 10-fold more active than the wild type AMCase isoform at pH 2.2, 4.6, and 7.0, respectively. Modeling of the AMCase isoforms revealed positional changes in amino acids critical for both pH specificity and substrate binding. Genetic association analyses of AMCase haplotypes for asthma revealed significant protective associations between the variant haplotype in several asthma cohorts. The structural, kinetic, and genetic data regarding the AMCase isoforms are consistent with the Th2-priming effects of environmental chitin and a role for AMCase in negatively regulating this stimulus.

  10. Phylogeography of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) in the Japanese Archipelago based on chloroplast DNA haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Kanako; Kaneko, Yuko; Ito, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Sakio, Hitoshi; Hoshizaki, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Wajiro; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata: Hippocastanaceae) is one of the typical woody plants that grow in temperate riparian forests in the Japanese Archipelago. To analyze the phylogeography of this plant in the Japanese Archipelago, we determined cpDNA haplotypes for 337 samples from 55 populations covering the entire distribution range. Based on 1,313 bp of two spacers, we determined ten haplotypes that are distinguished from adjacent haplotypes by one or two steps. Most of the populations had a single haplotype, suggesting low diversity. Spatial analysis of molecular variance suggested three obvious phylogeographic structures in western Japan, where Japanese horse chestnut is scattered and isolated in mountainous areas. Conversely, no clear phylogeographic structure was observed from the northern to the southern limit of this species, including eastern Japan, where this plant is more common. Rare and private haplotypes were also found in southwestern Japan, where Japanese horse chestnuts are distributed sparsely. These findings imply that western Japan might have maintained a relatively large habitat for A. turbinata during the Quaternary climatic oscillations, while northerly regions could not.

  11. Haplotypes linked to three rare beta-thalassemia mutations, originally reported in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Amina; Messaoud, Taieb; Fattoum, Slaheddine

    2006-01-01

    The polymorphism of the beta-globin gene haplotypes and frameworks are useful in the determination of the unicentric and multicentric origin of a mutational event. In order to improve our knowledge of the chromosomal background of the beta-globin gene in three beta-thalassemia (thal) mutations originally reported in Tunisia, namely codons 25/26 (+T), codon 30 (G-->C) and IVS-I-2 (T-->G), we have investigated 13 unrelated individuals. There were five non transfusion-dependent patients homozygous for the IVS-I-2 (T-->G) mutation, five others were homozygous for the codon 30 (G-->C) mutation, one was a homozygote for the codons 25/26 (+T) insertion mutation and one patient was a compound heterozygote for the codon 39 (C-->T) and codon 25/26 (+T) mutations; the last patient had a betaS/codon 25/26 (+T) compound heterozygous genotype. Haplotype analysis was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based methods. The framework polymorphism was established by direct sequencing. beta-Globin gene analyses demonstrated that all IVS-I-2 (T-->G) cases were associated with haplotype IX; the codon 30 (G-->C) mutation was supported by haplotype I, while the codons 25/26 (+T) mutation was linked to haplotypes I and IX.

  12. Elite Haplotypes of a Protein Kinase Gene TaSnRK2.3 Associated with Important Agronomic Traits in Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Lili; Mao, Xinguo; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Zicheng; Zhang, Bin; Li, Weiyu; Chang, Xiaoping; Reynolds, Matthew; Wang, Zhenhua; Jing, Ruilian

    2017-01-01

    Plant-specific protein kinase SnRK2s play crucial roles in response to various environmental stimuli. TaSnRK2.3, a SnRK2 member, was involved in the response to multiple abiotic stresses in wheat. To facilitate the use of TaSnRK2.3 in wheat breeding, the three genomic sequences of TaSnRK2.3, originating from the A, B, and D genomes of hexaploid wheat, were obtained. Sequence polymorphism assays showing 4 and 10 variations were detected at TaSnRK2.3-1A and at TaSnRK2.3-1B, respectively, yet no variation was identified at TaSnRK2.3-1D. Three haplotypes for A genome, and two main haplotypes for B genome of TaSnRK2.3 were identified in 32 genotypes. Functional markers (2.3AM1, 2.3AM2, 2.3BM1, 2.3BM2) were successfully developed to distinguish different haplotypes. Association analysis was performed with the general linear model in TASSEL 2.1. The results showed that both TaSnRK2.3-1A and TaSnRK2.3-1B were significantly associated with plant height (PH), length of peduncle and penultimate node, as well as 1,000-grain weight (TGW) under different environments. Additionally, TaSnRK2.3-1B was significantly associated with stem water-soluble carbohydrates at flowering and mid-grain filling stages. Hap-1A-1 had higher TGW and lower PH; Hap-1B-1 had higher TGW and stem water-soluble carbohydrates, as well as lower PH, thus the two haplotypes were considered as elite haplotypes. Geographic distribution and allelic frequencies indicated that the two preferred haplotypes Hap-1A-1 and Hap-1B-1 were positively selected in the process of Chinese wheat breeding. These results could be valuable for genetic improvement and germplasm enhancement using molecular marker assisted selection in wheat breeding.

  13. TNFA Haplotype Genetic Testing Improves HLA in Estimating the Risk of Celiac Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Zambon, Carlo-Federico; Navaglia, Filippo; Greco, Eliana; Pelloso, Michela; Artuso, Serena; Padoan, Andrea; Pescarin, Matilde; Aita, Ada; Bozzato, Dania; Moz, Stefania; Cananzi, Mara; Guariso, Graziella; Plebani, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Background TNF-α and IFN-γ play a role in the development of mucosal damage in celiac disease (CD). Polymorphisms of TNFA and IFNG genes, as well as of the TNFRSF1A gene, encoding the TNF-α receptor 1, might underlie different inter-individual disease susceptibility over a common HLA risk background. The aims of this study were to ascertain whether five SNPs in the TNFA promoter (-1031T>C,-857C>T,-376G>A,-308G>A,-238G>A), sequence variants of the TNFRSF1A gene and IFNG +874A>T polymorphism are associated with CD in a HLA independent manner. Methods 511 children (244 CD, 267 controls) were genotyped for HLA, TNFA and INFG (Real Time PCR). TNFRSF1A variants were studied (DHPLC and sequence). Results Only the rare TNFA-1031C (OR=0.65, 95% CI:0.44-0.95), -857T (OR=0.42, 95% CI:0.27-0.65), -376A (OR=2.25, 95% CI:1.12-4.51) and -308A (OR=4.76, 95% CI:3.12-7.26) alleles were significantly associated with CD. One TNFRSF1A variant was identified (c.625+10A>G, rs1800693), but not associated with CD. The CD-correlated TNFA SNPs resulted in six haplotypes. Two haplotypes were control-associated (CCGG and TTGG) and three were CD-associated (CCAG, TCGA and CCGA). The seventeen inferred haplotype combinations were grouped (A to E) based on their frequencies among CD. Binary logistic regression analysis documented a strong association between CD and HLA (OR for intermediate risk haplotypes=178; 95% CI:24-1317; OR for high risk haplotypes=2752; 95% CI:287-26387), but also an HLA-independent correlation between CD and TNFA haplotype combination groups. The CD risk for patients carrying an intermediate risk HLA haplotype could be sub-stratified by TNFA haplotype combinations. Conclusion TNFA promoter haplotypes associate with CD independently from HLA. We suggest that their evaluation might enhance the accuracy in estimating the CD genetic risk. PMID:25915602

  14. Haplotypes at LBX1 have distinct inheritance patterns with opposite effects in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Chettier, Rakesh; Nelson, Lesa; Ogilvie, James W; Albertsen, Hans M; Ward, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a clinically significant disorder with high heritability that affects 2-4% of the population. Genome-wide association studies have identified LBX1 as a strong susceptibility locus for AIS in Asian and Caucasian populations. Here we further dissect the genetic association with AIS in a Caucasian population. To identify genetic markers associated with AIS we employed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) design comparing 620 female Caucasian patients who developed idiopathic scoliosis during adolescence with 1,287 ethnically matched females who had normal spinal curves by skeletal maturity. The genomic region around LBX1 was imputed and haplotypes investigated for genetic signals under different inheritance models. The strongest signal was identified upstream of LBX1 (rs11190878, P(trend) = 4.18 × 10(-9), OR = 0.63[0.54-0.74]). None of the remaining SNPs pass the genome-wide significance threshold. We found rs11190870, downstream of LBX1 and previously associated with AIS in Asian populations, to be in modest linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs11190878 (r(2) = 0.40, D' = 0.81). Haplotype analysis shows that rs11190870 and rs11190878 track a single risk factor that resides on the ancestral haplotype and is shared across ethnic groups. We identify six haplotypes at the LBX1 locus including two strongly associated haplotypes; a recessive risk haplotype (TTA, Control(freq) = 0.52, P = 1.25 × 10(-9), OR = 1.56), and a co-dominant protective haplotype (CCG, Control(freq) = 0.28, P = 2.75 × 10(-7), OR = 0.65). Together the association signals from LBX1 explain 1.4% of phenotypic variance. Our results identify two clinically relevant haplotypes in the LBX1-region with opposite effects on AIS risk. The study demonstrates the utility of haplotypes over un-phased SNPs for individualized risk assessment by more strongly delineating individuals at risk for AIS without compromising the effect size.

  15. Analysis methods for the determination of anthropogenic additions of P to agricultural soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus additions and measurement in soil is of concern on lands where biosolids have been applied. Colorimetric analysis for plant-available P may be inadequate for the accurate assessment of soil P. Phosphate additions in a regulatory environment need to be accurately assessed as the reported...

  16. MAPT H1 Haplotype is Associated with Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Risk in APOEɛ4 Noncarriers: Results from the Dementia Genetics Spanish Consortium.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Pau; Moreno, Fermín; Clarimón, Jordi; Ruiz, Agustín; Combarros, Onofre; Calero, Miguel; López de Munain, Adolfo; Bullido, Maria J; de Pancorbo, Marian M; Carro, Eva; Antonell, Anna; Coto, Eliecer; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Hernandez, Isabel; Tárraga, Lluís; Boada, Mercè; Lleó, Alberto; Dols-Icardo, Oriol; Kulisevsky, Jaime; Vázquez-Higuera, José Luis; Infante, Jon; Rábano, Alberto; Fernández-Blázquez, Miguel Ángel; Valentí, Meritxell; Indakoetxea, Begoña; Barandiarán, Myriam; Gorostidi, Ana; Frank-García, Ana; Sastre, Isabel; Lorenzo, Elena; Pastor, María A; Elcoroaristizabal, Xabier; Lennarz, Martina; Maier, Wolfang; Rámirez, Alfredo; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel; Lee, Suzee E; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    The MAPT H1 haplotype has been linked to several disorders, but its relationship with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains controversial. A rare variant in MAPT (p.A152T) has been linked with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and AD. We genotyped H1/H2 and p.A152T MAPT in 11,572 subjects from Spain (4,327 AD, 563 FTD, 648 Parkinson's disease (PD), 84 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and 5,950 healthy controls). Additionally, we included 101 individuals from 21 families with genetic FTD. MAPT p.A152T was borderline significantly associated with FTD [odds ratio (OR) = 2.03; p = 0.063], but not with AD. MAPT H1 haplotype was associated with AD risk (OR = 1.12; p = 0.0005). Stratification analysis showed that this association was mainly driven by APOE ɛ4 noncarriers (OR = 1.14; p = 0.0025). MAPT H1 was also associated with risk for PD (OR = 1.30; p = 0.0003) and PSP (OR = 3.18; p = 8.59 × 10-8) but not FTD. Our results suggest that the MAPT H1 haplotype increases the risk of PD, PSP, and non-APOE ɛ4 AD.

  17. Genomic sequence of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' haplotype C and its comparison with haplotype A and B genomes

    PubMed Central

    Haapalainen, Minna; Schott, Thomas; Thompson, Sarah M.; Smith, Grant R.; Nissinen, Anne I.; Pirhonen, Minna

    2017-01-01

    Haplotypes A and B of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (CLso) are associated with diseases of solanaceous plants, especially Zebra chip disease of potato, and haplotypes C, D and E are associated with symptoms on apiaceous plants. To date, one complete genome of haplotype B and two high quality draft genomes of haplotype A have been obtained for these unculturable bacteria using metagenomics from the psyllid vector Bactericera cockerelli. Here, we present the first genomic sequences obtained for the carrot-associated CLso. These two genomic sequences of haplotype C, FIN114 (1.24 Mbp) and FIN111 (1.20 Mbp), were obtained from carrot psyllids (Trioza apicalis) harboring CLso. Genomic comparisons between the haplotypes A, B and C revealed that the genome organization differs between these haplotypes, due to large inversions and other recombinations. Comparison of protein-coding genes indicated that the core genome of CLso consists of 885 ortholog groups, with the pan-genome consisting of 1327 ortholog groups. Twenty-seven ortholog groups are unique to CLso haplotype C, whilst 11 ortholog groups shared by the haplotypes A and B, are not found in the haplotype C. Some of these ortholog groups that are not part of the core genome may encode functions related to interactions with the different host plant and psyllid species. PMID:28158295

  18. An Efficient Trio-Based Mini-Haplotyping Method for Genetic Diagnosis of Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Saeed; Entezam, Mona; Mohajer, Neda; Kazemi-sefat, Golnaz-Ensieh; Razipour, Masoumeh; Ahmadloo, Somayeh; Setoodeh, Aria; Keramatipour, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective The phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) locus has high linkage disequilibrium. Haplotypes related to this locus may thus be considered sufficiently informative for genetic diagnosis and carrier screening using multi-allelic markers. In this study, we present an efficient method for haplotype analysis of PAH locus using multiplexing dyes. In addition, we explain how to resolve the dye shift challenge in multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping. Materials and Methods One hundred family trios were included in this descriptive study. The forward primer of a tetra-nucleotide STR and the reverse primer of a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) were labeled with three different non-overlapping dyes 5-carboxyfluorescein (FAM), 6-carboxy-N,N,N’,N’-tetramethylrhodamine (HEX) and 6-carboxy-N,N,N’,N’-tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA). The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from each family trio were multiplexed for capillary electrophoresis and results were analyzed using Peak Scanner software. Results Multiplexing trio products decreased the cost significantly. The TAMRA labeled products had a significant predictable shift (migrated at a slower electrophoretic rate) relative to the HEX and FAM labeled products. Through our methodology we achieve, the less inter-dye shift than intra-dye shift variance. Correcting the dye shift in the labeled products, according to the reference allele size, significantly decreased the inter-dye variability (P<0.001). Conclusion Multiplexing trio products helps to detect and resolve the dye shift accurately in each family, which otherwise would result in diagnostic error. The dye system of FAM, HEX and TAMRA is more feasible and cheaper than other dye systems. PMID:27540528

  19. Vitamin D Binding Protein Haplotype is Associated with Hospitalization for RSV Bronchiolitis

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Adrienne G.; Yip, Wai-Ki; Falkenstein-Hagander, Kathy; Weiss, Scott T.; Janssen, Riny; Keisling, Shannon; Bont, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Background Between 75,000–125,000 U.S. infants are hospitalized for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis each year. Up to half will be diagnosed with asthma in later childhood. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with susceptibility to asthma and respiratory infections. Measured vitamin D is largely bound to vitamin D binding protein (VDBP); VDBP levels are influenced by its gene (GC) haplotype. Objective We assessed the relationship between polymorphisms rs7041 and rs4588, which define haplotypes GC1s, GC1f, and GC2, and RSV bronchiolitis susceptibility and subsequent asthma. Methods We retrospectively recruited 198 otherwise healthy children (93% White) hospitalized for severe RSV bronchiolitis in Boston and 333 parents into a follow up study to assess asthma diagnosis. Data were analyzed using family-based genetic association tests. We independently validated our results in 465 White children hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis and 930 White population controls from the Netherlands. Results The rs7041_C allele (denoting haplotype GC1s) was overtransmitted (P=0.02, additive model) in the entire Boston cohort, and in Whites (P=0.03), and in those subsequently diagnosed with asthma (P=0.006). The GC1f haplotype was undertransmitted in the White and asthma subgroups (both P=0.05). The rs7041_C allele was also more frequent in the RSV bronchiolitis group compared to controls (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02, 1.4, P=0.03) in the Netherlands; especially in mechanically ventilated patients (P=0.009). Conclusion and Clinical Relevance GC1s haplotype carriage may increase the risk of RSV bronchiolitis in infancy and subsequent asthma development. The GC1s haplotype is associated with higher VDBP levels, resulting in less freely-available vitamin D. PMID:24447085

  20. On the Minimum Error Correction Problem for Haplotype Assembly in Diploid and Polyploid Genomes.

    PubMed

    Bonizzoni, Paola; Dondi, Riccardo; Klau, Gunnar W; Pirola, Yuri; Pisanti, Nadia; Zaccaria, Simone

    2016-09-01

    In diploid genomes, haplotype assembly is the computational problem of reconstructing the two parental copies, called haplotypes, of each chromosome starting from sequencing reads, called fragments, possibly affected by sequencing errors. Minimum error correction (MEC) is a prominent computational problem for haplotype assembly and, given a set of fragments, aims at reconstructing the two haplotypes by applying the minimum number of base corrections. MEC is computationally hard to solve, but some approximation-based or fixed-parameter approaches have been proved capable of obtaining accurate results on real data. In this work, we expand the current characterization of the computational complexity of MEC from the approximation and the fixed-parameter tractability point of view. In particular, we show that MEC is not approximable within a constant factor, whereas it is approximable within a logarithmic factor in the size of the input. Furthermore, we answer open questions on the fixed-parameter tractability for parameters of classical or practical interest: the total number of corrections and the fragment length. In addition, we present a direct 2-approximation algorithm for a variant of the problem that has also been applied in the framework of clustering data. Finally, since polyploid genomes, such as those of plants and fishes, are composed of more than two copies of the chromosomes, we introduce a novel formulation of MEC, namely the k-ploid MEC problem, that extends the traditional problem to deal with polyploid genomes. We show that the novel formulation is still both computationally hard and hard to approximate. Nonetheless, from the parameterized point of view, we prove that the problem is tractable for parameters of practical interest such as the number of haplotypes and the coverage, or the number of haplotypes and the fragment length.

  1. HLA-DRB1-DQB1 Haplotypes Confer Susceptibility and Resistance to Multiple Sclerosis in Sardinia

    PubMed Central

    Cocco, Eleonora; Sardu, Claudia; Pieroni, Enrico; Valentini, Maria; Murru, Raffaele; Costa, Gianna; Tranquilli, Stefania; Frau, Jessica; Coghe, Giancarlo; Carboni, Nicola; Floris, Matteo; Contu, Paolo; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Genetic predisposition to multiple sclerosis (MS) in Sardinia (Italy) has been associated with five DRB1*-DQB1* haplotypes of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA). Given the complexity of these associations, an in-depth re-analysis was performed with the specific aims of confirming the haplotype associations; establishing the independence of the associated haplotypes; and assessing patients' genotypic risk of developing MS. Methods and Results A transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) of the DRB1*-DQB1* haplotypes in 943 trio families, confirmed a higher than expected transmission rate (over-transmission) of the *13:03-*03:01 (OR = 2.9, P = 7.6×10−3), *04:05-*03:01 (OR = 2.4, P = 4.4×10−6) and *03:01-*02:01 (OR = 2.1, P = 1.0×10−15) haplotype. In contrast, the *16:01-*05:02 (OR = 0.5, P = 5.4×10−11) and the *15:02-*06:01 (OR = 0.3, P = 1.5×10−3) haplotypes exhibited a lower than expected transmission rate (under-transmission). The independence of the transmission of each positively and negatively associated haplotype was confirmed relative to all positively associated haplotypes, and to the negatively associated *16:01-*05:02 haplotype. In patients, carriage of two predisposing haplotypes, or of protective haplotypes, respectively increased or decreased the patient's risk of developing MS. The risk of MS followed a multiplicative model of genotypes, which was, in order of decreasing ORs: *04:05-*0301/*03:01-*02:01 (OR = 4.5); *03:01-*02:01/*03:01-*02:01 (OR = 4.1); and the *16:01-*05:02/*16:01-*0502 (OR = 0.2) genotypes. Analysis of DRB1 and DQB1 protein chain residues showed that the Val/Gly residue at position 86 of the DRB1 chain was the only difference between the protective *16:01- *15:02 alleles and the predisposing *15:01 one. Similarly, the Ala/Val residue at position 38 of the DQB1 chain differentiated the positively associated *06:02 allele and the negatively associated *05

  2. Genomic evolution in domestic cattle: ancestral haplotypes and healthy beef.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Joseph F; Steele, Edward J; Lester, Susan; Kalai, Oscar; Millman, John A; Wolrige, Lindsay; Bayard, Dominic; McLure, Craig; Dawkins, Roger L

    2011-05-01

    We have identified numerous Ancestral Haplotypes encoding a 14-Mb region of Bota C19. Three are frequent in Simmental, Angus and Wagyu and have been conserved since common progenitor populations. Others are more relevant to the differences between these 3 breeds including fat content and distribution in muscle. SREBF1 and Growth Hormone, which have been implicated in the production of healthy beef, are included within these haplotypes. However, we conclude that alleles at these 2 loci are less important than other sequences within the haplotypes. Identification of breeds and hybrids is improved by using haplotypes rather than individual alleles.

  3. Bayesian Modeling of Haplotype Effects in Multiparent Populations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaojun; Wang, Wei; Valdar, William

    2014-01-01

    A general Bayesian model, Diploffect, is described for estimating the effects of founder haplotypes at quantitative trait loci (QTL) detected in multiparental genetic populations; such populations include the Collaborative Cross (CC), Heterogeneous Socks (HS), and many others for which local genetic variation is well described by an underlying, usually probabilistically inferred, haplotype mosaic. Our aim is to provide a framework for coherent estimation of haplotype and diplotype (haplotype pair) effects that takes into account the following: uncertainty in haplotype composition for each individual; uncertainty arising from small sample sizes and infrequently observed haplotype combinations; possible effects of dominance (for noninbred subjects); genetic background; and that provides a means to incorporate data that may be incomplete or has a hierarchical structure. Using the results of a probabilistic haplotype reconstruction as prior information, we obtain posterior distributions at the QTL for both haplotype effects and haplotype composition. Two alternative computational approaches are supplied: a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler and a procedure based on importance sampling of integrated nested Laplace approximations. Using simulations of QTL in the incipient CC (pre-CC) and Northport HS populations, we compare the accuracy of Diploffect, approximations to it, and more commonly used approaches based on Haley–Knott regression, describing trade-offs between these methods. We also estimate effects for three QTL previously identified in those populations, obtaining posterior intervals that describe how the phenotype might be affected by diplotype substitutions at the modeled locus. PMID:25236455

  4. Intra- and extragenic marker haplotypes of CFTR mutations in cystic fibrosis families.

    PubMed

    Dörk, T; Neumann, T; Wulbrand, U; Wulf, B; Kälin, N; Maass, G; Krawczak, M; Guillermit, H; Ferec, C; Horn, G

    1992-02-01

    In order to facilitate the screening for the less common mutations in the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene viz., the CF transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR), marker haplotypes were determined for German non-CF (N) and CF chromosomes by polymerase chain reaction analysis of four polymorphisms upstream of the CF gene (XV-2c, KM.19, MP6-D9, J44) and six intragenic polymorphisms (GATT, TUB9, M470V, T854T, TUB18, TUB20) that span the CFTR gene from exon 6 through exon 21. Novel informative sequence variants of CFTR were detected in front of exons 10 (1525-61 A or G), 19 (3601-65 C or A), and 21 (4006-200 A or G). The CF locus exhibits strong long-range marker-marker linkage disequilibrium with breakpoints of recombination between XV-2c and KM.19, and between exons 10 and 19 of CFTR. Marker alleles of GATT-TUB9 and TUB18-TUB20 were found to be in absolute linkage disequilibrium. Four major haplotypes encompass more than 90% of German N and CF chromosomes. Fifteen CFTR mutations detected on 421 out of 500 CF chromosomes were each identified on one of these four predominant 7-marker haplotypes. Whereas all analysed delta F508 chromosomes carried the same KM.19-D9-J44-GATT-TUB9-M470V-T854T haplotype, another frequent mutation in Germany, R553X, was identified on two different major haplotypes. Hence, a priori haplotyping cannot exclude a particular CF mutation, but in combination with population genetic data, enables mutations to be ranked by decreasing probability.

  5. Variants and Haplotypes in Angiotensinogen Gene Are Associated With Plasmatic Angiotensinogen Level in Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    Balam-Ortiz, Eros; Esquivel-Villarreal, Adolfo; Alfaro-Ruiz, Luis; Carrillo, Karol; Elizalde, Adela; Gil, Trinidad; Urushihara, Maki; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The plasmatic angiotensinogen (AGT) level has been associated with essential hypertension. Linkage analysis has found a relationship between the AGT gene locus and hypertension in the Mexican-American population, but studies have failed to identify genetic variants associated with hypertension or plasma AGT levels. This study analyzes the relationship between polymorphisms in the AGT gene and plasmatic AGT levels in Mexican population. Methods Nine polymorphisms in AGT gene were genotyped, and plasma AGT level was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Differences in AGT plasma levels were associated with 2 polymorphisms: T-20G, TT = 25.3 ± 8.3 versus TG + GG = 21.6 ± 8.8 μg/mL; P = 0.008 and C3389T (T174M), CC = 25.8 ± 9.9 versus TC + TT = 20.5 ± 5.4 μg/mL; P = 0.0002. Haplotype 2 was associated with low plasma AGT (−5.1 μg/mL [95% confidence interval: −8.6 to −1.6], P = 0.004) and Haplotype 8 was associated with high plasma AGT (6.5 μg/mL [95% confidence interval: 2.5 to 10.6], P = 0.001). This association remained after adjustment for covariates. A Likelihood Ratio Test for haplotype-phenotype association adjusted for covariates resulted in χ2 = 38.9, P = 0.0005. The total effect of the haplotypes on plasma AGT level variance was 19.5%. No association was identified between haplotypes and quantitative traits of blood pressure. Conclusions Two polymorphisms (T-20G and C3389T) and 2 haplotypes (H2 and H8) showed an association with plasma AGT levels in Mexican population. PMID:21629041

  6. HapStar: automated haplotype network layout and visualization.

    PubMed

    Teacher, A G F; Griffiths, D J

    2011-01-01

    Haplotype networks are commonly used for representing associations between sequences, yet there is currently no straightforward way to create optimal layouts. Automated optimal layouts are particularly useful not only because of the time-saving element but also because they avoid both human error and human-induced biases in the presentation of figures. HapStar directly uses the network connection output data generated from Arlequin (or a simple user-generated input file) and uses a force-directed algorithm to automatically lay out the network for easy visualization. In addition, this program is able to use the alternative connections generated by Arlequin to create a minimum spanning tree. HapStar provides a straightforward user-friendly interface, and publication-ready figures can be exported simply. HapStar is freely available (under a GPLv3 licence) for download for MacOSX, UNIX and Windows, at http://fo.am/hapstar.

  7. High-density SNP genotyping to define beta-globin locus haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Muralidhar, Shalini; Singh, Manisha; Sylvan, Caprice; Kalra, Inderdeep S; Quinn, Charles T; Onyekwere, Onyinye C; Pace, Betty S

    2009-01-01

    Five major beta-globin locus haplotypes have been established in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) from the Benin, Bantu, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian populations. Historically, beta-haplotypes were established using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis across the beta-locus, which consists of five functional beta-like globin genes located on chromosome 11. Previous attempts to correlate these haplotypes as robust predictors of clinical phenotypes observed in SCD have not been successful. We speculate that the coverage and distribution of the RFLP sites located proximal to or within the globin genes are not sufficiently dense to accurately reflect the complexity of this region. To test our hypothesis, we performed RFLP analysis and high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping across the beta-locus using DNA samples from healthy African Americans with either normal hemoglobin A (HbAA) or individuals with homozygous SS (HbSS) disease. Using the genotyping data from 88 SNPs and Haploview analysis, we generated a greater number of haplotypes than that observed with RFLP analysis alone. Furthermore, a unique pattern of long-range linkage disequilibrium between the locus control region and the beta-like globin genes was observed in the HbSS group. Interestingly, we observed multiple SNPs within the HindIII restriction site located in the Ggamma-globin intervening sequence II which produced the same RFLP pattern. These findings illustrated the inability of RFLP analysis to decipher the complexity of sequence variations that impacts genomic structure in this region. Our data suggest that high-density SNP mapping may be required to accurately define beta-haplotypes that correlate with the different clinical phenotypes observed in SCD.

  8. Allele frequencies for 15 autosomal STR loci and haplotype data for 17 Y-STR loci in a population from Belize.

    PubMed

    Flores, Shahida; Sun, Jie; King, Jonathan; Eisenberg, Arthur; Budowle, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    Allele frequencies for 15 autosomal STR loci (N = 290) and haplotype data for 17 Y-STR loci (N = 157) were determined for an admixed population from Belize. There were no detectable departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations at any autosomal STR loci except for the D8S1179 locus (p = 0.002). The combined power of discrimination (PD) and combined power of exclusion (PE) were greater than 0.99999999 and 0.99999951, respectively. In addition, a total of 144 distinct Y-STR haplotypes were observed with 133 Y-STR haplotypes observed only once. The most common Y-STR haplotype was observed three times for two separate haplotypes. The various analyses of these forensically relevant STR loci showed that these markers are informative in the Belize population for forensic and parentage testing applications.

  9. Decreased calcium pump expression in human erythrocytes is connected to a minor haplotype in the ATP2B4 gene.

    PubMed

    Zámbó, Boglárka; Várady, György; Padányi, Rita; Szabó, Edit; Németh, Adrienn; Langó, Tamás; Enyedi, Ágnes; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2017-02-03

    Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPases are key calcium exporter proteins in most tissues, and PMCA4b is the main calcium transporter in the human red blood cells (RBCs). In order to assess the expression level of PMCA4b, we have developed a flow cytometry and specific antibody binding method to quantitatively detect this protein in the erythrocyte membrane. Interestingly, we found several healthy volunteers showing significantly reduced expression of RBC-PMCA4b. Western blot analysis of isolated RBC membranes confirmed this observation, and indicated that there are no compensatory alterations in other PMCA isoforms. In addition, reduced PMCA4b levels correlated with a lower calcium extrusion capacity in these erythrocytes. When exploring the potential genetic background of the reduced PMCA4b levels, we found no missense mutations in the ATP2B4 coding regions, while a formerly unrecognized minor haplotype in the predicted second promoter region closely correlated with lower erythrocyte PMCA4b protein levels. In recent GWA studies, SNPs in this ATP2B4 haplotype have been linked to reduced mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (MCHC), and to protection against malaria infection. Our data suggest that an altered regulation of gene expression is responsible for the reduced RBC-PMCA4b levels that is probably linked to the development of human disease-related phenotypes.

  10. Microsatellites haplotyping of CF chromosomes shows linkage disequilibrium and several founder effects in Brittany (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Raguenes, O.; Ferec, C.; Mercier, B.

    1994-09-01

    A large study on cystic fibrosis (CF) is underway in Brittany (France). It is based on 902 CF patients distributed in 795 families who were or are still followed at the {open_quotes}Centre Helio-Marin{close_quotes} in Roscoff and/or were subjected to a molecular analysis at the {open_quotes}Centre de Biogenetique{close_quotes} in Brest. At present, the CF mutations have been identified in 309 patients born in Brittany, most of them of Celtic origin. A microsatellite (MS) study using IVS 17b TA, IVS 17b CA and IVS 8 CA was also completed in 63 CF patients and their parents (carriers of the {Delta}F508 mutation or the G551D mutation or the 1078delT mutation or the W846X mutation). All the 21 chromosomes carrying the 1078delT mutation had the same MS haplotype (16-21-13), which was also found on 9 of the 83 non-CF chromosomes analyzed. All the 16 chromosomes with the G551D mutation carried another MS haplotype (16-7-17), which was also found on 13.3% of the non-CF chromosomes. All the 6 chromosomes with the W846X mutation carried the 16-32-13 haplotype, also found on 6.0% of the non-CF chromosomes. Sixteen different MS haplotypes were found among the 74 chromosomes carrying the{Delta}F508 mutation, three of them representing 74.3% (55/74) of the chromosomes. These were the 23-31-13 haplotype (31/74 - 41.9%), the 17-31-13 haplotype (11/74 - 14.9%), and the 17-32-13 haplotype (13/74 - 17.6%). These results show that the CF mutations observed in Brittany are in linkage disequilibrium with the MS haplotypes. They also suggest that their presence in Brittany is the consequence of several founder effects.

  11. Interaction between HLA-DRB1-DQB1 Haplotypes in Sardinian Multiple Sclerosis Population

    PubMed Central

    Cocco, Eleonora; Murru, Raffaele; Costa, Gianna; Kumar, Amit; Pieroni, Enrico; Melis, Cristina; Barberini, Luigi; Sardu, Claudia; Lorefice, Lorena; Fenu, Giuseppe; Frau, Jessica; Coghe, Giancarlo; Carboni, Nicola; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    We performed a case-control study in 2,555 multiple sclerosis (MS) Sardinian patients and 1,365 healthy ethnically matched controls, analyzing the interactions between HLA-DRB1-DQB1 haplotypes and defining a rank of genotypes conferring a variable degree of risk to the disease. Four haplotypes were found to confer susceptibility (*13∶03-*03∶01 OR = 3.3, Pc 5.1×10−5, *04∶05-*03∶01 OR = 2.1, Pc 9.7×10−8, *15∶01-*06∶02 OR = 2.0, Pc = 9.1×10−3, *03∶01-*02∶01 OR = 1.7 Pc = 7.9×10−22) and protection (*11, OR = 0.8, Pc = 2.7×10−2, *16∶01-*05∶02 OR = 0.6, Pc = 4.8×10−16, *14∶01-4-*05∶031 = OR = 0.5, Pc = 9.8×10−4 and *15∶02-*06∶01 OR = 0.4, Pc = 5.1×10−4). The relative predispositional effect method confirms all the positively associated haplotypes and showed that also *08 and *04 haplotypes confers susceptibility, while the *11 was excluded as protective haplotype. Genotypic ORs highlighted two typologies of interaction between haplotypes: i) a neutral interaction, in which the global risk is coherent with the sum of the single haplotype risks; ii) a negative interaction, in which the genotypic OR observed is lower than the sum of the OR of the two haplotypes. The phylogenic tree of the MS-associated DRB1 alleles found in Sardinian patients revealed a cluster represented by *14∶01, *04∶05, *13∶03, *08∶01 and *03∶01 alleles. Sequence alignment analysis showed that amino acids near pocket P4 and pocket P9 differentiated protective from predisposing alleles under investigation. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulation performed on alleles revealed that position 70 is crucial in binding of MBP 85–99 peptide. All together, these data suggest that propensity to MS observed in Sardinian population carried by the various HLA-DRB1-DQB1 molecules can be due to functional peculiarity in the antigen presentation mechanisms. PMID:23593151

  12. Functional Haplotypes in Interleukin 4 Gene Associated with Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves; Rossa, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis (CP) is an infectious inflammatory disease that affects tooth-supporting structures and in which dental plaque bacteria, immune mechanisms and genetic predisposition play important roles. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a key anti-inflammatory cytokine with relevant action in imbalances in inflamed periodontal tissue. Individuals carrying the TCI/CCI genotype (S-haplotype) of the IL-4 gene are 5 times more susceptible to CP, whereas the CTI/TTD genotype (P-haplotype) confers protection against CP. Compared with the S-haplotype, subjects with the P-haplotype produce higher levels of the IL-4 protein after non-surgical periodontal therapy. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the functionality of IL-4 haplotypes in immune cells to obtain insight into the influence of these genetic variations in regulating immune responses to CP-associated bacteria. Peripheral blood was collected from 6 subjects carrying each haplotype, and their immune cells were challenged with periodontopathogens to compare responses of the different haplotypes with regard to gene expression, protein secretion and the immunophenotype of T helper responses. We found higher IL-4 mRNA and protein levels in the P-haplotype, which also presented higher levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, cells from S-haplotype subjects responded with higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. S-haplotype individuals exhibited significantly greater polarization toward the Th1 phenotype, whereas the P-haplotype was associated with an attenuated response to periodontopathogens, with suggestive skewing toward Th2/M2 phenotypes. In conclusion, IL-4 genetic variations associated with susceptibility to or protection against chronic periodontitis are directly associated with influencing the response of immune cells to periodontopathogens. PMID:28114408

  13. The association of XRCC1 haplotypes and chromosomal damage levels in peripheral blood lymphocyte among coke-oven workers

    SciTech Connect

    Shuguang Leng; Juan Cheng; Linyuan Zhang; Yong Niu; Yufei Dai; Zufei Pan; Bin Li; Fengsheng He; Yuxin Zheng

    2005-05-15

    Theoretically, a haplotype has a higher level of heterozygosity than individual single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the association study based on the haplotype may have an increased power for detecting disease associations compared with SNP-based analysis. In this study, we investigated the effects of four haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNP) and the inferred haplotype pairs of the X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene on chromosome damage detected by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The study included 141 coke-oven workers with exposure to a high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 66 nonexposed controls. The frequencies of total MN and MNed cells were borderline associated with the Arg{sup 194}Trp polymorphism (P = 0.053 and P = 0.050, respectively) but not associated with the Arg{sup 280}His, Arg{sup 399}Gln and Gln{sup 632}Gln polymorphisms among coke-oven workers. Five haplotypes, including CGGG, TGGG, CAGG, CGAG, and CGGA, were inferred based on the four htSNPs of XRCC1 gene. The haplotype CGGG was associated with the decreased frequencies of total MN and MNed cells, and the haplotypes TGGG and CGAG were associated with the increased frequencies of total MN and MNed cells with adjustment for covariates among coke-oven workers. This study showed that the haplotypes derived from htSNPs in the XRCC1 gene were more likely than single SNPs to correlate with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced chromosome damage among coke-oven workers.

  14. Haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in the GSTP1 gene promoter and susceptibility to lung cancer☆

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiang-Lin; Moslehi, Roxana; Han, WeiGuo; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Glutathione S-transferase (GST) P1 is a major phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme in the human lung. Our laboratory had previously identified nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GSTP1 gene promoter, which were then grouped into three main haplotypes (Hap1, Hap2, and Hap3) based on statistical inference. Hap3 was found to display a high expression phenotype. The main objective of the current study was to test the association between GSTP1 promoter haplotypes with the risk of lung cancer after determining the promoter haplotypes experimentally through cloning and sequencing. Methods We conducted a case–control analysis of 150 subjects with lung cancer and 329 controls with no personal history of the disease. The three statistically inferred GSTP1 promoter haplotypes were confirmed experimentally through cloning and sequencing. Haplotype-tagging SNPs were selected and GSTP1 haplotypes were tested for genetic association to lung cancer using unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for confounders. Statistical interaction between GSTP1 promoter haplotypes with either cigarette smoking or dietary fruit and vegetable intake were tested using the likelihood ratio test. Results We did not find protective effects of Hap3 against lung cancer, despite an adequately powered design for this main effect. Homozygous variants of tagSNPs –1738 T >A and –354 G > T, which tag Hap2, showed an increased (but statistically non-significant) risk of lung cancer among all subjects as well as among individuals with low fruit and vegetable intake, compared to homozygous wildtypes for these SNPs. We did not find significant interactions between Hap2 and dietary intake of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions Our results do not support significant main and modifying effects for GSTP1 promoter haplotypes on susceptibility to lung cancer in this population, but reinforce the protective effects of dietary intake of fruits and vegetables. PMID:19282111

  15. FMR1 CGG repeat distribution and linked microsatellite-SNP haplotypes in normal Mexican Mestizo and indigenous populations.

    PubMed

    Felix-López, Xóchitl Adriana; Argüello-García, Raúl; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Peñaloza-Espinoza, Rosenda I; Buentello-Malo, Leonor; Estrada-Mena, Francisco Javier; Ramos-Kuri, Manuel; Gómez, Fabio Salamanca; Arenas-Aranda, Diego Julio

    2006-10-01

    The (CGG)n repeat size distribution in the FMR1 gene was studied in healthy individuals: 80 X chromosomes of Mexican Mestizos from Mexico City and 33 X chromosomes of Mexican Amerindians from three indigenous communities (Purepechas, Nahuas, and Tzeltales), along with alleles and haplotypes defined by two microsatellite polymorphic markers (DXS548 and FRAXAC1) and two single nucleotide polymorphisms (FMRA and FMRB). Genetic frequencies of Mestizo and Amerindian subpopulations were statistically similar in almost all cases and thus were considered one population for comparisons with other populations. Sixteen (CGG)n alleles in the 17-38 size range were observed, and the most common were the 25 (38.0%), 26 (28.3%), and 24 (12.3%) repeat alleles. This pattern differs from most other populations reported, but a closer relation to Amerindian, European, and African populations was found, as expected from the historical admixture that gave rise to Mexican Mestizos. The results of the CA repeats analysis at DXS548-FRAXAC1 were restricted to nine haplotypes, of which haplotypes 7-4 (52.2%), 8-4 (23.8%), and 7-3 (11.5%) were predominant. The modal haplotype 7-4, instead of the nearly universal haplotype 7-3, had been reported exclusively in Eastern Asian populations. Likewise, only seven different FRAXAC1-FMRA-FMRB haplotypes were observed, including five novel haplotypes (3TA, 4TA, 3 - A, 4 - A, and 5 - A), compared with Caucasians. Of these, haplotypes - A (78.7%) and 3 - A (13.2%) were the most common in the Mexican population. These data suggest a singular but relatively low genetic diversity at FMR1 in the studied Mexican populations that may be related to the recent origin of Mestizos and the low admixture rate of Amerindians.

  16. PLCz functional haplotypes modulating promoter transcriptional activity are associated with semen quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qing; Ju, Zhihua; Huang, Jinming; Zhang, Yan; Qi, Chao; Gao, Qin; Zhou, Lei; Li, Qiuling; Wang, Lingling; Zhong, Jifeng; Liu, Mei; Wang, Changfa

    2013-01-01

    The sperm-specific phospholipase C zeta (PLCz) is a candidate sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor that triggers a characteristic series of physiological stimuli via cytoplasmic Ca(2+) oscillations during fertilization. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PLCz gene expression remain largely unknown. To explore the genetic variations in the 5'-flanking region of the PLCz gene and their common haplotypes in Chinese Holstein bulls, as well as to determine whether these variations affect bovine semen quality traits and transcriptional activity, DNA samples were collected from Chinese Holstein bulls and sequenced for the identification of genetic variants in the 5'-flanking region of PLCz. Two genetic variants were identified, and their haplotypic profiles were constructed. The two novel genetic variations (g. -456 G>A and g. +65 T>C) were genotyped in 424 normal Chinese Holstein bulls. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that both loci are in transcription factor binding sites of the core promoter region. The association studies revealed that the two genetic variations and their haplotype combinations significantly affected semen quality traits. Using serially truncated constructs of the bovine PLCz promoters and the luciferase reporter, we found that a 726 bp (-641 nt to +112 nt) fragment constitutes the core promoter region. Furthermore, four haplotypes, H1H1 (GTGT), H2H2 (GCGC), H3H3 (ATAT), and H4H4 (ACAC), were significantly associated with semen quality traits and successfully transfected into MLTC-1 cell lines. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the different haplotypes exhibited distinct promoter activities. Maximal promoter activity was demonstrated by the H2H2 haplotypes, as compared with the other haplotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on genetic variants and their respective haplotypes in the 5'-flanking region of PLCz gene that can influence the semen quality of Chinese Holstein bulls as well as

  17. Molecular characterization and evolution of self-incompatibility genes in Arabidopsis thaliana: the case of the Sc haplotype.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Kathleen G; Berger, Martin T; Ahmed, Rimsha; Hritzo, Molly K; McCulloch, Amanda A; Price, Michael J; Serniak, Nicholas J; Walsh, Leonard T; Nasrallah, June B; Nasrallah, Mikhail E

    2013-03-01

    The switch from an outcrossing mode of mating enforced by self-incompatibility to self-fertility in the Arabidopsis thaliana lineage was associated with mutations that inactivated one or both of the two genes that comprise the self-incompatibility (SI) specificity-determining S-locus haplotype, the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) and the S-locus cysteine-rich (SCR) genes, as well as unlinked modifier loci required for SI. All analyzed A. thaliana S-locus haplotypes belong to the SA, SB, or SC haplotypic groups. Of these three, the SC haplotype is the least well characterized. Its SRKC gene can encode a complete open-reading frame, although no functional data are available, while its SCRC sequences have not been isolated. As a result, it is not known what mutations were associated with inactivation of this haplotype. Here, we report on our analysis of the Lz-0 accession and the characterization of its highly rearranged SC haplotype. We describe the isolation of its SCRC gene as well as the subsequent isolation of SCRC sequences from other SC-containing accessions and from the A. lyrata S36 haplotype, which is the functional equivalent of the A. thaliana SC haplotype. By performing transformation experiments using chimeric SRK and SCR genes constructed with SC- and S36-derived sequences, we show that the SRKC and SCRC genes of Lz-0 and at least a few other SC-containing accessions are nonfunctional, despite SCRC encoding a functional full-length protein. We identify the probable mutations that caused the inactivation of these genes and discuss our results in the context of mechanisms of S-locus inactivation in A. thaliana.

  18. Association between a common CYP17A1 haplotype and anxiety in female anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Czerniak, Efrat; Korostishevsky, Michael; Frisch, Amos; Cohen, Yoram; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Michaelovsky, Elena; Stein, Daniel; Danziger, Yardena; Fennig, Silvana; Apter, Alan; Weizman, Abraham; Gak, Eva

    2013-10-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the main brain neurosteroid, has been implicated in various psychiatric disorders especially those including gender differences. We studied genetic variability in the DHEA-producing enzyme CYP17A1 in relation to anorexia nervosa (AN) susceptibility and AN-related co-morbidities. We performed analysis of 100 Israeli AN family trios accounting for CYP17A1 haplotypes characteristic of populations of European origin and studied genotype-phenotype relationships using correlation analyses and transmission disequilibrium test. Although our analysis revealed no evidence of association between CYP17A1 and AN per se, it revealed an association between specific CYP17A1 haplotypes and AN co-morbidity, specifically anxiety. We found that a common CYP17A1 haplotype (H1) was associated with higher anxiety in AN patients (Clinical Global Impression; CGI-anxiety ≥4). Moreover, H1 homozygotes were at higher risk for expressing high CGI-anxiety levels (OR = 3.7), and H1 was preferentially transmitted to AN patients with high CGI-anxiety levels (P = 0. 037). We suggest that CYP17A1 H1 haplotype may contribute to genetic predisposition to higher CGI-anxiety levels in AN patients and that this predisposition may be mediated by reduced CYP17A1 enzymatic activity and corresponding lower DHEA production.

  19. Patterns of haplotypes for 92 cystic fibrosis mutations: Variability, association and recurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Morral, N.; Llevadot, R.; Estivill, X.

    1994-09-01

    Most CFTR mutations are very uncommon among the cystic fibrosis population, with frequencies of less than 1%, and many are found only in specific areas. We have analyzed 92 CF mutations for several markers (4 microsatellites and 3 other polymorphisms) scattered in the CFTR gene. Haplotypes associated with these mutations can be used as a framework in the screening of chromosomes carrying unknown mutations. The association between mutation and haplotype reduces the number of mutations it is necessary to search for to a maximum of 16 for the same haplotype. Only mutations {triangle}F508, G542X and N1303K are associated with more than one haplotype as a result of slippage at more than one microsatellite loci, suggesting that these three are the most ancient CF mutations. Recurrence has been found for at least 7 mutations: H199Y, R347P, L558S, R553X, 2184insA, 3272-26A{r_arrow}G, 3849+10kbC{r_arrow}T and R1162X. Also microsatellite analysis of chromosomes of several ethnic origins (Czech, Italian, Russian, Slovac and Spanish) suggested that possibility of three or more independent origins for mutations R334W, R347P, R1162X, and 3849+10kbC{r_arrow}T, which was confirmed by analysis of markers flanking these mutations.

  20. Molecular analysis of HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, DQ promoter polymorphism and extended class I/class II haplotypes in the Seri Indians from Northwest Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alaez, C; Infante, E; Pujol, J; Duran, C; Navarro, J L; Gorodezky, C

    2002-05-01

    The study of the genetics of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) in Amerindians is of great value in understanding the origins and migrations of these native groups, as well as the impact of immunogenetics on the epidemiology of diseases affecting these populations. We analyzed, using Polymerase Chain Reaction and Sequence Specific Oligonucleotide Probes (PCR-SSOP), DRB1, DQA1, DQB1 alleles and the promoter regions of DQA1 and DQB1 genes in 31 unrelated and 24 related Seri, a Mexican Indian group, from the state of Sonora (Northwest Mexico). The class II genotypes of this population were found to be in genetic equilibrium. The allele frequency (AF) of the prevalent DRB1 alleles were DRB1*0407 (48.4%), DRB1*0802 (33.9%) and DRB1*1402 (16.1%). The most frequent DQA1 and DQB1 alleles were DQA1*03011 (AF = 50.00%), DQA1*0401 (AF = 33.87%) and DQA1*0501 (AF = 16.13%); DQB1*0302 (AF = 50.00%), DQB1*0402 (33.87%) and DQB1*0301 (16.13%); which were in combination with DRB1*0407, DRB1*0802 and DRB1*1402, respectively. Three QAP and three QBP alleles were present (QAP 3.1, 4.1, 4.2; QBP 3.1, 3.21, 4.1) associated with the typical published DQA1 and DQB1 alleles. Four class II haplotypes were present in family members: DRB1*0407-QAP-3.1-DQA1*03011-QBP-3.21-DQB1*0302; DRB1*0802-QAP-4.2-DQA1*0401-QBP-4.1-DQB1*0402; DRB1*1402-QAP-4.1-DQA1*0501-QBP-3.1-DQB1*0301 and DRB1*0701-QAP-2.1-DQA1*0201-QBP-2.1-DQB1*0201. The family data were used to confirm extended haplotypes. A total of 21 haplotypes were found when A* and B* loci were also considered. The three most frequent combinations included A*0201-B*3501-DRB1*0407, A*3101-B*5101-DRB1*0802, and A*0201-B*40-DRB1*1402.

  1. HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1 allele and haplotype frequencies in 6384 umbilical cord blood units and transplantation matching and engraftment statistics in the Zhejiang cord blood bank of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; He, J; Chen, S; Qin, F; Dai, B; Zhang, W; Zhu, F M; Lv, H J

    2014-02-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a widely accepted source of progenitor cells, and now, many cord blood banks were established. Here, we analysed the HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 allele and haplotype frequencies, HLA matching possibilities for searching potential donors and outcome of UCB transplantations in Zhejiang cord blood bank of China. A total of 6384 UCB units were characterized for 17 HLA-A, 30 HLA-B and 13 HLA-DRB1 alleles at the first field resolution level. Additionally, B*14, B*15 and B*40 were typed to the second field level. A total of 1372 distinct A-B-DRB1 haplotypes were identified. The frequencies of 7 haplotypes were more than 1%, and 439 haplotypes were <0.01%. A*02-B*46-DRB1*09, A*33-B*58-DRB1*03 and A*30-B*13-DRB1*07 were the most common haplotypes, with frequencies of 4.4%, 3.3%, and 2.9%, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium(LD) analysis showed that there were 83 A-B, 106 B-DRB1, 54 A-DRB1 haplotypes with positive LD, in which 51 A-B, 60 B-DRB1, 32 A-DRB1 haplotypes exhibited a significant LD (P < 0.05). In 682 search requests, 12.9%, 40.0% and 42.7% of patients were found to have 6 of 6, 5 of 6 and 4 of 6 HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 matching donors, respectively. A total of 30 UCB units were transplanted to 24 patients (3 patients not evaluated due to early death); 14 of 21 patients (66.7%) engrafted. This study reveals the HLA distribution and its transplantation application in the cord blood bank of Zhejiang province. These data can help to select potential UCB donors for transplantation and used to assess the scale of new cord blood banking endeavours.

  2. iXora1: exact haplotype inferencing and trait association

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: We address the task of extracting accurate haplotypes from genotype data of individuals of large F1 populations for mapping studies. While methods for inferring parental haplotype assignments on large F1 populations exist in theory, these approaches do not work in practice at high levels...

  3. Development of an Italian RM Y-STR haplotype database: Results of the 2013 GEFI collaborative exercise.

    PubMed

    Robino, C; Ralf, A; Pasino, S; De Marchi, M R; Ballantyne, K N; Barbaro, A; Bini, C; Carnevali, E; Casarino, L; Di Gaetano, C; Fabbri, M; Ferri, G; Giardina, E; Gonzalez, A; Matullo, G; Nutini, A L; Onofri, V; Piccinini, A; Piglionica, M; Ponzano, E; Previderè, C; Resta, N; Scarnicci, F; Seidita, G; Sorçaburu-Cigliero, S; Turrina, S; Verzeletti, A; Kayser, M

    2015-03-01

    Recently introduced rapidly mutating Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (RM Y-STR) loci, displaying a multiple-fold higher mutation rate relative to any other Y-STRs, including those conventionally used in forensic casework, have been demonstrated to improve the resolution of male lineage differentiation and to allow male relative separation usually impossible with standard Y-STRs. However, large and geographically-detailed frequency haplotype databases are required to estimate the statistical weight of RM Y-STR haplotype matches if observed in forensic casework. With this in mind, the Italian Working Group (GEFI) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics launched a collaborative exercise aimed at generating an Italian quality controlled forensic RM Y-STR haplotype database. Overall 1509 male individuals from 13 regional populations covering northern, central and southern areas of the Italian peninsula plus Sicily were collected, including both "rural" and "urban" samples classified according to population density in the sampling area. A subset of individuals was additionally genotyped for Y-STR loci included in the Yfiler and PowerPlex Y23 (PPY23) systems (75% and 62%, respectively), allowing the comparison of RM and conventional Y-STRs. Considering the whole set of 13 RM Y-STRs, 1501 unique haplotypes were observed among the 1509 sampled Italian men with a haplotype diversity of 0.999996, largely superior to Yfiler and PPY23 with 0.999914 and 0.999950, respectively. AMOVA indicated that 99.996% of the haplotype variation was within populations, confirming that genetic-geographic structure is almost undetected by RM Y-STRs. Haplotype sharing among regional Italian populations was not observed at all with the complete set of 13 RM Y-STRs. Haplotype sharing within Italian populations was very rare (0.27% non-unique haplotypes), and lower in urban (0.22%) than rural (0.29%) areas. Additionally, 422 father-son pairs were investigated, and 20.1% of them could

  4. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  5. 7 CFR 91.38 - Additional fees for appeal of analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional fees for appeal of analysis. 91.38 Section 91.38 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  6. 7 CFR 91.38 - Additional fees for appeal of analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional fees for appeal of analysis. 91.38 Section 91.38 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  7. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  8. Stimulation of terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage by nitrogen addition: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Kai; Peng, Yan; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Xin; Wu, Fuzhong

    2016-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition alters the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, which is likely to feed back to further climate change. However, how the overall terrestrial ecosystem C pools and fluxes respond to N addition remains unclear. By synthesizing data from multiple terrestrial ecosystems, we quantified the response of C pools and fluxes to experimental N addition using a comprehensive meta-analysis method. Our results showed that N addition significantly stimulated soil total C storage by 5.82% ([2.47%, 9.27%], 95% CI, the same below) and increased the C contents of the above- and below-ground parts of plants by 25.65% [11.07%, 42.12%] and 15.93% [6.80%, 25.85%], respectively. Furthermore, N addition significantly increased aboveground net primary production by 52.38% [40.58%, 65.19%] and litterfall by 14.67% [9.24%, 20.38%] at a global scale. However, the C influx from the plant litter to the soil through litter decomposition and the efflux from the soil due to microbial respiration and soil respiration showed insignificant responses to N addition. Overall, our meta-analysis suggested that N addition will increase soil C storage and plant C in both above- and below-ground parts, indicating that terrestrial ecosystems might act to strengthen as a C sink under increasing N deposition. PMID:26813078

  9. Stimulation of terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage by nitrogen addition: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Kai; Peng, Yan; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Xin; Wu, Fuzhong

    2016-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition alters the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, which is likely to feed back to further climate change. However, how the overall terrestrial ecosystem C pools and fluxes respond to N addition remains unclear. By synthesizing data from multiple terrestrial ecosystems, we quantified the response of C pools and fluxes to experimental N addition using a comprehensive meta-analysis method. Our results showed that N addition significantly stimulated soil total C storage by 5.82% ([2.47%, 9.27%], 95% CI, the same below) and increased the C contents of the above- and below-ground parts of plants by 25.65% [11.07%, 42.12%] and 15.93% [6.80%, 25.85%], respectively. Furthermore, N addition significantly increased aboveground net primary production by 52.38% [40.58%, 65.19%] and litterfall by 14.67% [9.24%, 20.38%] at a global scale. However, the C influx from the plant litter to the soil through litter decomposition and the efflux from the soil due to microbial respiration and soil respiration showed insignificant responses to N addition. Overall, our meta-analysis suggested that N addition will increase soil C storage and plant C in both above- and below-ground parts, indicating that terrestrial ecosystems might act to strengthen as a C sink under increasing N deposition.

  10. Elucidation of the ‘Honeycrisp’ pedigree through haplotype analysis with a multi-family integrated SNP linkage map and a large apple (Malus×domestica) pedigree-connected SNP data set

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Nicholas P; van de Weg, Eric; Bedford, David S; Peace, Cameron P; Vanderzande, Stijn; Clark, Matthew D; Teh, Soon Li; Cai, Lichun; Luby, James J

    2017-01-01

    The apple (Malus×domestica) cultivar Honeycrisp has become important economically and as a breeding parent. An earlier study with SSR markers indicated the original recorded pedigree of ‘Honeycrisp’ was incorrect and ‘Keepsake’ was identified as one putative parent, the other being unknown. The objective of this study was to verify ‘Keepsake’ as a parent and identify and genetically describe the unknown parent and its grandparents. A multi-family based dense and high-quality integrated SNP map was created using the apple 8 K Illumina Infinium SNP array. This map was used alongside a large pedigree-connected data set from the RosBREED project to build extended SNP haplotypes and to identify pedigree relationships. ‘Keepsake’ was verified as one parent of ‘Honeycrisp’ and ‘Duchess of Oldenburg’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ were identified as grandparents through the unknown parent. Following this finding, siblings of ‘Honeycrisp’ were identified using the SNP data. Breeding records from several of these siblings suggested that the previously unreported parent is a University of Minnesota selection, MN1627. This selection is no longer available, but now is genetically described through imputed SNP haplotypes. We also present the mosaic grandparental composition of ‘Honeycrisp’ for each of its 17 chromosome pairs. This new pedigree and genetic information will be useful in future pedigree-based genetic studies to connect ‘Honeycrisp’ with other cultivars used widely in apple breeding programs. The created SNP linkage map will benefit future research using the data from the Illumina apple 8 and 20 K and Affymetrix 480 K SNP arrays. PMID:28243452

  11. Reducing the matrix effects in chemical analysis: fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliano, Enea; Meija, Juris

    2016-04-01

    The combination of isotope dilution and mass spectrometry has become an ubiquitous tool of chemical analysis. Often perceived as one of the most accurate methods of chemical analysis, it is not without shortcomings. Current isotope dilution equations are not capable of fully addressing one of the key problems encountered in chemical analysis: the possible effect of sample matrix on measured isotope ratios. The method of standard addition does compensate for the effect of sample matrix by making sure that all measured solutions have identical composition. While it is impossible to attain such condition in traditional isotope dilution, we present equations which allow for matrix-matching between all measured solutions by fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods.

  12. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery

    PubMed Central

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005–2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  13. A shared haplotype indicates a founder event in Unverricht-Lundborg disease patients from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Kecmanović, Miljana; Ristić, Aleksandar J; Ercegovac, Marko; Keckarević-Marković, Milica; Keckarević, Dušan; Sokić, Dragoslav; Romac, Stanka

    2014-02-01

    Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by dodecamer repeat expansion in the promoter region of the cystatin B (CSTB) gene in approximately 90% of the disease alleles worldwide. This study presents results of genetic findings in four Serbian unrelated patients with clinical and molecular diagnosis of ULD. Using newly established PCR protocol with betaine, we detected a homozygous expansion of dodecamer repeats in the CSTB gene in four patients with clinical diagnosis of ULD. Our results are in agreement with previous studies showing that dodecamer repeats expansion is the most common mutation associated with ULD. Haplotype analysis of eight unrelated ULD chromosomes was performed using seven markers flanking CSTB gene and one intragenic variant. We demonstrated the existence of a founder effect, strongly supported by LD calculations. Size of the minimal common haplotype implies that the most recent common ancestor of the Serbian ULD patients lived about 110 generations ago. We showed that Serbian ULD patients share the same common ancestor with patients from Baltic countries and North Africa. In the light of our data, we proposed extended minimal common haplotype, which could be considered as initial haplotype of the founder event common for Serbian, Baltic, and North African ULD patients.

  14. Origins of Wohlfahrtia magnifica in Italy based on the identification of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Marangi, Marianna; Hall, Martin J R; Aitken, Alex; Ready, Paul D; Giangaspero, Annunziata

    2016-02-01

    To identify the geographical origins of larvae of Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) causing myiasis of sheep in Italy, comparative DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was performed, based on gene fragments amplified by PCR from genomic DNA isolated from individual specimens. DNA extractions of 19 larvae from Lazio, Molise, Puglia, and Sicilia generated 17 readable sequences homologous to 2 haplotypes, either CB_magn01 or CB_magn02; DNA extracts from 4 adult flies from Calabria (reared from larvae) produced 4 readable sequences belonging to the haplotype CB_magn01. The two haplotypes found represent both the East and West phylogenetic lineages of W. magnifica, which is consistent with the species' arrival from central/southeast Europe (East lineage) and/or from southwest Europe/northwest Africa (West lineage). This is the first report of the sympatric occurrence of the two lineages, which could have resulted from natural or human-assisted dispersal. Polymorphic nuclear loci will have to be characterized in order to explain the origins and lack of mitochondrial haplotype diversity of this pest in Italy, where it poses increasing veterinary problems.

  15. Concurrent Whole-Genome Haplotyping and Copy-Number Profiling of Single Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zamani Esteki, Masoud; Dimitriadou, Eftychia; Mateiu, Ligia; Melotte, Cindy; Van der Aa, Niels; Kumar, Parveen; Das, Rakhi; Theunis, Koen; Cheng, Jiqiu; Legius, Eric; Moreau, Yves; Debrock, Sophie; D’Hooghe, Thomas; Verdyck, Pieter; De Rycke, Martine; Sermon, Karen; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Voet, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Methods for haplotyping and DNA copy-number typing of single cells are paramount for studying genomic heterogeneity and enabling genetic diagnosis. Before analyzing the DNA of a single cell by microarray or next-generation sequencing, a whole-genome amplification (WGA) process is required, but it substantially distorts the frequency and composition of the cell’s alleles. As a consequence, haplotyping methods suffer from error-prone discrete SNP genotypes (AA, AB, BB) and DNA copy-number profiling remains difficult because true DNA copy-number aberrations have to be discriminated from WGA artifacts. Here, we developed a single-cell genome analysis method that reconstructs genome-wide haplotype architectures as well as the copy-number and segregational origin of those haplotypes by employing phased parental genotypes and deciphering WGA-distorted SNP B-allele fractions via a process we coin haplarithmisis. We demonstrate that the method can be applied as a generic method for preimplantation genetic diagnosis on single cells biopsied from human embryos, enabling diagnosis of disease alleles genome wide as well as numerical and structural chromosomal anomalies. Moreover, meiotic segregation errors can be distinguished from mitotic ones. PMID:25983246

  16. CD36 haplotypes are associated with lipid profile in normal-weight subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemia is a common metabolic disorder that may result from abnormalities in the synthesis, processing and catabolism of lipoprotein particles. Disorders of lipoprotein concentrations and elevated concentration of oxidized lipoproteins (oxLDL) are risk factors in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CD36 plays an important role in lipid metabolism and polymorphisms in the CD36 gene are related to cardiovascular risk factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there is an association between genotypes and haplotypes of five polymorphisms in the CD36 gene with lipid levels in young normal-weight subjects. Methods A total of 232 unrelated subjects with normal-weight of 18 to 25 years old (157 women and 75 men) were randomly selected. The lipid profile and glucose levels were measured by enzymatic colorimetric assays. Genotyping of the polymorphisms -33137A/G (rs1984112), -31118G/A (rs1761667), -22674 T/C (rs2151916), 27645 Ins/Del (rs3840546) and 30294G/C (rs1049673) in the CD36 receptor gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism, linkage disequilibrium analysis among the five polymorphisms and an analysis of haplotype were estimated. Results HDL-C levels was lower in men than in women (P = 0.03). However, the median oxLDL levels in men was higher than in women (P = 0.05). There was no significant difference in the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C and glucose (P > 0.05). HDL-C levels were lower in the subjects with TC genotype of polymorphism -22674 T/C (P = 0.04), but the carriers of TT genotype had lower oxLDL levels (P = 0.01). LDL-C levels were higher in young carriers of CC genotype for 30294G/C polymorphism than non-carriers (P = 0.03). The subjects carrying the AATDC haplotype had 3.2 times presumably higher risk of LDL-C > 100 mg/dL than the carrying the AGTIG haplotype (P = 0.02), whereas the subjects carrying the AATIC haplotype had 2.0 times presumably

  17. Identification of the ancestral haplotype for apolipoprotein B suggests an African origin of Homo sapiens sapiens and traces their subsequent migration to Europe and the Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Rapacz, J.; Hasler-Rapacz, J.O. ); Chen, L.; Wu, Mingjiuan; Schumaker, V.N. ); Butler-Brunner, E.; Butler, R. )

    1991-02-15

    The probable ancestral haplotype for human apolipoprotein B (apoB) has been identified through immunological analysis of chimpanzee and gorilla serum and sequence analysis of their DNA. Moreover, the frequency of this ancestral apoB haplotype among different human populations provides strong support for the African origin of Homo sapiens sapiens and their subsequent migration from Africa to Europe and to the Pacific. The approach used here for the identification of the ancestral human apoB haplotype is likely to be applicable to many other genes.

  18. Conserved 33-kb haplotype in the MHC class III region regulates chronic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Anthony C. Y.; Tuncel, Jonatan; Norin, Ulrika; Houtman, Miranda; Padyukov, Leonid; Holmdahl, Rikard

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed many genetic loci associated with complex autoimmune diseases. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the MHC gene HLA-DRB1 is the strongest candidate predicting disease development. It has been suggested that other immune-regulating genes in the MHC contribute to the disease risk, but this contribution has been difficult to show because of the strong linkage disequilibrium within the MHC. We isolated genomic regions in the form of congenic fragments in rats to test whether there are additional susceptibility loci in the MHC. By both congenic mapping in inbred strains and SNP typing in wild rats, we identified a conserved, 33-kb large haplotype Ltab-Ncr3 in the MHC-III region, which regulates the onset, severity, and chronicity of arthritis. The Ltab-Ncr3 haplotype consists of five polymorphic immunoregulatory genes: Lta (lymphotoxin-α), Tnf, Ltb (lymphotoxin-β), Lst1 (leukocyte-specific transcript 1), and Ncr3 (natural cytotoxicity-triggering receptor 3). Significant correlation in the expression of the Ltab-Ncr3 genes suggests that interaction of these genes may be important in keeping these genes clustered together as a conserved haplotype. We studied the arthritis association and the spliceo-transcriptome of four different Ltab-Ncr3 haplotypes and showed that higher Ltb and Ncr3 expression, lower Lst1 expression, and the expression of a shorter splice variant of Lst1 correlate with reduced arthritis severity in rats. Interestingly, patients with mild RA also showed higher NCR3 expression and lower LST1 expression than patients with severe RA. These data demonstrate the importance of a conserved haplotype in the regulation of complex diseases such as arthritis. PMID:27303036

  19. Chicken major histocompatibility complex class II molecules of the B haplotype present self and foreign peptides.

    PubMed

    Cumberbatch, J A; Brewer, D; Vidavsky, I; Sharif, S

    2006-08-01

    The chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC), or B-complex, mediates genetic resistance and susceptibility to infectious disease. For example, the B19 haplotype is associated with susceptibility to Marek's disease. Here, we describe the sequencing and analysis of peptides presented by B19 MHC class II molecules. A B19/B19 B-cell line was used for the immunoaffinity purification of MHC class II molecules, which was followed by acid elution of the bound peptides. The eluted peptides were then analysed using tandem mass spectrometry. Thirty peptide sequences were obtained, ranging from 11 to 25 amino acids in length. Source protein cellular localization included the plasma membrane, cytosol and endosomal pathway. In addition, five peptides from the envelope glycoprotein of chicken syncytial virus (CSV) were identified. Chicken syncytial virus had been used as a helper virus along with reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T for transformation of B19/B19B cells. Alignment and analysis of the peptide sequence pool provided a putative peptide-binding motif for the B19 MHC class II.

  20. Rapid growth of a Eurasian haplotype of Phragmites australis in a restored brackish marsh in Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, R.J.; Travis, S.E.; Sikes, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    While numerous studies have documented patterns of invasion by non-indigenous plant species, few have considered the invasive properties of non-native genotypes of native species. Characteristics associated with specific genotypes, such as tolerance to disturbance, may mistakenly be applied to an entire species in the absence of genetic information, which consequently may affect management decisions. We report here on the incidence and growth of an introduced lineage of Phragmites australis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal zone of Louisiana. P. australis was collected from nine separate locations for inclusion in a series of growth experiments. Chloroplast DNA analysis indicated that specimens collected from four locations in the Mississippi River Delta represented the introduced Eurasian haplotype; the remainder represented the gulf coast haplotype. Three distinct genotypes, or clones, were identified within each haplotype via analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which also revealed reduced genetic diversity of the gulf coast clones compared to the Eurasian clones. Clones of each haplotype were planted along with three other native macrophytes at similar densities in a restored brackish marsh and monitored for growth. After 14 months, the Eurasian haplotype had spread vegetatively to cover about 82% of the experimental plots, more than four times the coverage (18%) of the gulf coast haplotype. Thus, the use of P. australis plantings for wetland restoration should consider the genetic lineage of plants used since our results indicate the potential of the Eurasian haplotype to grow rapidly at newly restored sites. This rapid growth may limit the establishment of more slowly growing native species. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. Accounting for haplotype phase uncertainty in linkage disequilibrium estimation.

    PubMed

    Kulle, B; Frigessi, A; Edvardsen, H; Kristensen, V; Wojnowski, L

    2008-02-01

    The characterization of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is applied in a variety of studies including the identification of molecular determinants of the local recombination rate, the migration and population history of populations, and the role of positive selection in adaptation. LD suffers from the phase uncertainty of the haplotypes used in its calculation, which reflects limitations of the algorithms used for haplotype estimation. We introduce a LD calculation method, which deals with phase uncertainty by weighting all possible haplotype pairs according to their estimated probabilities as evaluated by PHASE. In contrast to the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm as implemented in the HAPLOVIEW and GENETICS packages, our method considers haplotypes based on the entire genetic information available for the candidate region. We tested the method using simulated and real genotyping data. The results show that, for all practical purposes, the new method is advantageous in comparison with algorithms that calculate LD using only the most probable haplotype or bilocus haplotypes based on the EM algorithm. The new method deals especially well with low LD regions, which contribute strongly to phase uncertainty. Altogether, the method is an attractive alternative to standard LD calculation procedures, including those based on the EM algorithm. We implemented the method in the software suite R, together with an interface to the popular haplotype calculation package PHASE.

  2. Falcon: Visual analysis of large, irregularly sampled, and multivariate time series data in additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Steed, Chad A.; Halsey, William; Dehoff, Ryan; ...

    2017-02-16

    Flexible visual analysis of long, high-resolution, and irregularly sampled time series data from multiple sensor streams is a challenge in several domains. In the field of additive manufacturing, this capability is critical for realizing the full potential of large-scale 3D printers. Here, we propose a visual analytics approach that helps additive manufacturing researchers acquire a deep understanding of patterns in log and imagery data collected by 3D printers. Our specific goals include discovering patterns related to defects and system performance issues, optimizing build configurations to avoid defects, and increasing production efficiency. We introduce Falcon, a new visual analytics system thatmore » allows users to interactively explore large, time-oriented data sets from multiple linked perspectives. Falcon provides overviews, detailed views, and unique segmented time series visualizations, all with adjustable scale options. To illustrate the effectiveness of Falcon at providing thorough and efficient knowledge discovery, we present a practical case study involving experts in additive manufacturing and data from a large-scale 3D printer. The techniques described are applicable to the analysis of any quantitative time series, though the focus of this paper is on additive manufacturing.« less

  3. Dental indications for the instrumental functional analysis in additional consideration of health-economic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Tinnemann, Peter; Stöber, Yvonne; Roll, Stephanie; Vauth, Christoph; Willich, Stefan N.; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Background Besides clinical and radiological examination instrumental functional analyses are performed as diagnostic procedures for craniomandibular dysfunctions. Instrumental functional analyses cause substantial costs and shows a considerable variability between individual dentist practices. Objectives On the basis of published scientific evidence the validity of the instrumental functional analysis for the diagnosis of craniomandibular dysfunctions compared to clinical diagnostic procedures; the difference of the various forms of the instrumental functional analysis; the existence of a dependency on additional other factors and the need for further research are determined in this report. In addition, the cost effectiveness of the instrumental functional analysis is analysed in a health-policy context, and social, legal and ethical aspects are considered. Methods A literature search is performed in over 27 databases and by hand. Relevant companies and institutions are contacted concerning unpublished studies. The inclusion criteria for publications are (i) diagnostic studies with the indication “craniomandibular malfunction”, (ii) a comparison between clinical and instrumental functional analysis, (iii) publications since 1990, (iv) publications in English or German. The identified literature is evaluated by two scientists regarding the relevance of content and methodical quality. Results The systematic database search resulted in 962 hits. 187 medical and economic complete publications are evaluated. Since the evaluated studies are not relevant enough to answer the medical or health economic questions no study is included. Discussion The inconsistent terminology concerning craniomandibular dysfunctions and instrumental functional analyses results in a broad literature search in databases and an extensive search by hand. Since no relevant results concerning the validity of the instrumental functional analysis in comparison to the clinical functional analysis

  4. Extended major histocompatibility complex haplotypes in type I diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Raum, D; Awdeh, Z; Yunis, E J; Alper, C A; Gabbay, K H

    1984-01-01

    We have studied major histocompatibility complex markers in Caucasian patients with type I diabetes mellitus and their families. The frequencies of extended haplotypes that were composed of specific HLA-B, HLA-DR, BF, C2, C4A, and C4B allelic combinations, which occurred more commonly than expected, were compared on random diabetic and normal chromosomes in the study families. We demonstrated that all of the previously recognized increases in HLA-B8, B18, B15, DR3, and perhaps DR4 could be ascribed to the increase among diabetic haplotypes of a few extended haplotypes: [HLA B8, DR3, SC01, GLO2]; [HLA-B18, DR3, F1C30]; [HLA-B15, DR4, SC33]; and [HLA-BW38, DR4, SC21]. In fact, HLA-DR3 on nonextended haplotypes was "protective", with a relative risk considerably less than 1.0. There was a paucity or absence among diabetic patients of several extended haplotypes of normal chromosomes, notably [HLA-B7, DR2, SC31] and [HLA-BW44, DR4, SC30]. The extended haplotype [HLA-BW38, DR4, SC21] is found only in Ashkenazi Jewish patients, which suggests that extended haplotypes mark specific mutations that arise in defined ethnic groups. The data show that no known MHC allele, including HLA-DR3 and possibly HLA-DR4, is per se a marker for or itself a susceptibility gene for type I diabetes. Rather, extended haplotypes, with relatively fixed alleles, are either carriers or noncarriers of susceptibility genes for this disease. Thus, the increased frequency (association) or the decreased frequency (protection) of individual MHC alleles is largely explainable by these extended haplotypes. PMID:6746903

  5. A specific haplotype at the INS/TH loci confers high susceptibility to IDDM

    SciTech Connect

    Doria, A.; Lee, J.; Warram, J.H.; Krolewski, A.S.

    1994-09-01

    Polymorphism at the insulin locus (INS) have consistently been found to be associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We investigated whether a combined analysis of the INS locus with the 5{prime} flanking tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) locus increases the specificity of this association. A group of 308 Caucasians (201 IDDM CASES and 107 non-diabetic CONTROLS) were genotyped for the two-allele markers, INS/1127PstI and TH/Rsal, by PCR-DGGE. INS/1127PstI allele 2 was more common in CASES than CONTROLS (0.84 vs. 0.68, p<0.0001). The relative risk of IDDM for homozygotes for this allele (2/2) was 3.3 in comparison with the other genotypes (95% CI 2.0-5.3). Similarly, homozygotes for allele 2 of TH/RsaI, which is in moderate linkage disequilibrium with INS/1127PstI ({Delta} = 0.45), had a relative risk of IDDM of 2.5 (1.6-4.2). By haplotyping individuals for the two markers, INS/1127PstI 2/2 genotypes were subdivided on the basis of their INS-TH haplotypes. The excess of INS/1127PstI 2/2 homozygotes in IDDM cases was mainly contributed by homozygotes for the INS-TH haplotype 22. Thus, among hapotypes carrying INS/1127 PstI allele 2, the INS-TH 22 haplotype is a more specific marker of IDDM risk than the INS-TH 21 haplotype. The association of the INS-TH 22/22 genotype with IDDM was independent of HLA, being similar among carriers and non-carriers of IDDM-predisposing DQ{beta} alleles 0302 and 0201-DR3.

  6. Ancient haplotypes of the HLA Class II region.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Christopher K; Kas, Arnold; Paddock, Marcia; Qiu, Ruolan; Zhou, Yang; Subramanian, Sandhya; Chang, Jean; Palmieri, Anthony; Haugen, Eric; Kaul, Rajinder; Olson, Maynard V

    2005-09-01

    Allelic variation in codons that specify amino acids that line the peptide-binding pockets of HLA's Class II antigen-presenting proteins is superimposed on strikingly few deeply diverged haplotypes. These haplotypes appear to have been evolving almost independently for tens of millions of years. By complete resequencing of 20 haplotypes across the approximately 100-kbp region that spans the HLA-DQA1, -DQB1, and -DRB1 genes, we provide a detailed view of the way in which the genome structure at this locus has been shaped by the interplay of selection, gene-gene interaction, and recombination.

  7. DNA damage in leukocytes of sickle cell anemia patients is associated with hydroxyurea therapy and with HBB*S haplotype.

    PubMed

    da Silva Rocha, Lilianne Brito; Dias Elias, Darcielle Bruna; Barbosa, Maritza Cavalcante; Bandeira, Izabel Cristina Justino; Gonçalves, Romélia Pinheiro

    2012-12-12

    Hydroxyurea (HU) is the primary pharmacologic agent for preventing the complications and improving the quality of life of sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients. Although HU has been associated with an increased risk of leukemia in some patients with myeloproliferative disorders, the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of HU has not been established. This study used the alkaline comet assay to investigate DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes from 41 individuals with SCA treated with HU (SCAHU) and from 26 normal individuals. The presence of HbS and the analysis of the haplotypes of the beta S gene cluster were done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The damage index (DI) in the SCAHU group was significantly higher than in controls (p<0.001). Neither gender nor age was associated with DNA damage in controls or SCAHU individuals. Among the SCAHU individuals, DI was significantly influenced by length of HU treatment (p=0.0039) and BMI (p=0.001). Individuals with length of HU treatment≥20 months and BMI≤20kg/m(2) had a significantly greater DI than those with length of HU treatment<20 months and BMI>20kg/m(2). No significant influence of mean HU dose was observed on DI (p=0.950). However, individuals who received a mean HU dose≥20mg/kg showed a higher DI than those who received less. Furthermore, an association was observed between DI damage and HBB*S gene haplotypes. DI values for the Bantu/Bantu haplotype was greater when compared to the Benin/Benin haplotype; and the Bantu/Benin haplotype had a DI lower than the Bantu/Bantu haplotype and greater than the Benin/Benin haplotype. Our results show that DNA damage in sickle cell anemia is associated not only with treatment with HU but also with genotype.

  8. SNPs and Haplotypes in Native American Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Judith R.; Friedlaender, Françoise; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Furtado, Manohar; Fang, Rixun; Wang, Xudong; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal DNA polymorphisms can provide new information and understanding of both the origins of and relationships among modern Native American populations. At the same time that autosomal markers can be highly informative, they are also susceptible to ascertainment biases in the selection of the markers to use. Identifying markers that can be used for ancestry inference among Native American populations can be considered separate from identifying markers to further the quest for history. In the current study we are using data on nine Native American populations to compare the results based on a large haplotype-based dataset with relatively small independent sets of SNPs. We are interested in what types of limited datasets an individual laboratory might be able to collect are best for addressing two different questions of interest. First, how well can we differentiate the Native American populations and/or infer ancestry by assigning an individual to her population(s) of origin? Second, how well can we infer the historical/evolutionary relationships among Native American populations and their Eurasian origins. We conclude that only a large comprehensive dataset involving multiple autosomal markers on multiple populations will be able to answer both questions; different small sets of markers are able to answer only one or the other of these questions. Using our largest dataset we see a general increasing distance from Old World populations from North to South in the New World except for an unexplained close relationship between our Maya and Quechua samples. PMID:21913176

  9. Parallel antibody germline gene and haplotype analyses support the validity of immunoglobulin germline gene inference and discovery.

    PubMed

    Kirik, Ufuk; Greiff, Lennart; Levander, Fredrik; Ohlin, Mats

    2017-04-04

    Analysis of antibody repertoire development and specific antibody responses important for e.g. autoimmune conditions, allergy, and protection against disease is supported by high throughput sequencing and associated bioinformatics pipelines that describe the diversity of the encoded antibody variable domains. Proper assignment of sequences to germline genes are important for many such processes, for instance in the analysis of somatic hypermutation. Germline gene inference from antibody-encoding transcriptomes, by using tools such as TIgGER or IgDiscover, has a potential to enhance the quality of such analyses. These tools may also be used to identify germline genes not previously known. In this study, we exploited such software for germline gene inference and define aspects of analysis settings and pre-existing knowledge of germline genes that affect the outcome of gene inference. Furthermore, we demonstrate the capacity of IGHJ and IGHD haplotype inference, whenever subjects are heterozygous with respect to such genes, to lend support to IGHV gene inference in general, and to the identification of novel alleles presently not recognized by germline gene reference directories. We propose that such haplotype analysis shall, whenever possible, be used in future best practice to support the outcome of germline gene inference. IGHJ-directed haplotype inference was also used to identify haplotypes not expressing some IGHV germline genes. In particular, we identified a haplotype that did not express several major germline genes such as IGHV1-8, IGHV3-9, IGHV3-15, IGHV1-18, IGHV3-21, and IGHV3-23. We envisage that haplotype analysis will provide an efficient approach to identify subjects for further studies of the link between the available immunoglobulin repertoire and outcomes of immune responses.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in Phytophthora infestans: new haplotypes are identified and re-defined by PCR.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Hui; Qi, Ming-Xing; Qin, Yu-Xuan; Zhu, Jie-Hua; Gui, Xiu-Mei; Tao, Bu; Xu, Xiao-Hu; Zhang, Fu-Guang

    2013-11-01

    Polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) are particularly useful for monitoring specific pathogen populations like Phytophthora infestans. Basically type I and II of P. infestans mt-DNA were categorized by means of polymorphism lengths caused by an ~2 kb insertion, which can be detected via restriction enzyme digestion. In addition genome sequencing of haplotype Ib has been used as a simple Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method to indirectly identify type I and II alterations through EcoR I restriction enzyme DNA fragment patterns of the genomic P4 area. However, with the common method, wrong mt-DNA typing occurs due to an EcoR I recognition site mutation in the P4 genomic area. Genome sequencing of the four haplotypes (Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb) allowed us to thoroughly examine mt-DNA polymorphisms and we indentified two hypervariable regions (HVRs) named HVRi and HVRii. The HVRi length polymorphism caused by a 2 kb insertion/deletion was utilized to identify mt-DNA types I and II, while another length polymorphism in the HVRii region is caused by a variable number of tandem repeats (n = 1, 2, or 3) of a 36 bp sized DNA stretch and was further used to determine mt-DNA sub-types, which were described as R(n = 1, 2, or 3). Finally, the P. infestans mt-DNA haplotypes were re-defined as IR(1) or IIR(2) according to PCR derived HVRi and HVRii length polymorphisms. Twenty-three isolates were chosen to verify the feasibility of our new approach for identifying mt-DNA haplotypes and a total of five haplotypes (IR(1), IR(2), IR(3), IIR(2) and IIR(3)) were identified. Additionally, we found that six isolates determined as type I by our method were mistakenly identified as type II by the PCR-RFLP technique. In conclusion, we propose a simple and rapid PCR method for identification of mt-DNA haplotypes based on sequence analyses of the mitochondrial P. infestans genome.

  11. Association of rs7719175, located in the IL13 gene promoter, with Schistosoma haematobium infection levels and identification of a susceptibility haplotype.

    PubMed

    Isnard, A; Kouriba, B; Doumbo, O; Chevillard, C

    2011-01-01

    Urinary schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma haematobium helminths. S. haematobium eggs may remain trapped within the bladder or the ureter walls, causing major pathological disorders in the urogenital system. The polymorphism rs1800925(C/T) of the IL13 gene promoter, which is functional, has previously been associated with susceptibility to S. haematobium infection. The aim of this study was to further our understanding and to determine whether, in the 5q31-q33 region, rs1800925 affects infection levels alone or in synergy with other polymorphisms. After sequencing the IL13 promoter and increasing the single-nucleotide polymorphism density, we performed a linkage disequilibrium analysis between rs1800925 and the other markers in a Malian population. Multivariate linear regression analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) were performed to characterized markers in linkage disequilibrium with rs1800925. An additional polymorphism, rs7719175, in the IL13 promoter was associated with controlling infection levels in multivariate analysis. The haplotype rs7719175T-rs1800925C was associated with high infection levels. EMSA indicated that rs7719175 affects the binding of transcriptional factors to the promoter region. Polymorphisms rs7719175 and rs1800925 have a synergistic role in the control of infection levels caused by S. haematobium and using them as a haplotype allows a better discrimination between infected subjects.

  12. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  13. Analysis of redox additive-based overcharge protection for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A. I.; Bankston, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    The overcharge condition in secondary lithium batteries employing redox additives for overcharge protection, has been theoretically analyzed in terms of a finite linear diffusion model. The analysis leads to expressions relating the steady-state overcharge current density and cell voltage to the concentration, diffusion coefficient, standard reduction potential of the redox couple, and interelectrode distance. The model permits the estimation of the maximum permissible overcharge rate for any chosen set of system conditions. Digital simulation of the overcharge experiment leads to numerical representation of the potential transients, and estimate of the influence of diffusion coefficient and interelectrode distance on the transient attainment of the steady state during overcharge. The model has been experimentally verified using 1,1-prime-dimethyl ferrocene as a redox additive. The analysis of the experimental results in terms of the theory allows the calculation of the diffusion coefficient and the formal potential of the redox couple. The model and the theoretical results may be exploited in the design and optimization of overcharge protection by the redox additive approach.

  14. Singapore Genome Variation Project: A haplotype map of three Southeast Asian populations

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Yik-Ying; Sim, Xueling; Ong, Rick T.H.; Tan, Adrian K.S.; Chen, Jieming; Tantoso, Erwin; Small, Kerrin S.; Ku, Chee-Seng; Lee, Edmund J.D.; Seielstad, Mark; Chia, Kee-Seng

    2009-01-01

    The Singapore Genome Variation Project (SGVP) provides a publicly available resource of 1.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 268 individuals from the Chinese, Malay, and Indian population groups in Southeast Asia. This online database catalogs information and summaries on genotype and phased haplotype data, including allele frequencies, assessment of linkage disequilibrium (LD), and recombination rates in a format similar to the International HapMap Project. Here, we introduce this resource and describe the analysis of human genomic variation upon agglomerating data from the HapMap and the Human Genome Diversity Project, providing useful insights into the population structure of the three major population groups in Asia. In addition, this resource also surveyed across the genome for variation in regional patterns of LD between the HapMap and SGVP populations, and for signatures of positive natural selection using two well-established metrics: iHS and XP-EHH. The raw and processed genetic data, together with all population genetic summaries, are publicly available for download and browsing through a web browser modeled with the Generic Genome Browser. PMID:19700652

  15. Singapore Genome Variation Project: a haplotype map of three Southeast Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Teo, Yik-Ying; Sim, Xueling; Ong, Rick T H; Tan, Adrian K S; Chen, Jieming; Tantoso, Erwin; Small, Kerrin S; Ku, Chee-Seng; Lee, Edmund J D; Seielstad, Mark; Chia, Kee-Seng

    2009-11-01

    The Singapore Genome Variation Project (SGVP) provides a publicly available resource of 1.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 268 individuals from the Chinese, Malay, and Indian population groups in Southeast Asia. This online database catalogs information and summaries on genotype and phased haplotype data, including allele frequencies, assessment of linkage disequilibrium (LD), and recombination rates in a format similar to the International HapMap Project. Here, we introduce this resource and describe the analysis of human genomic variation upon agglomerating data from the HapMap and the Human Genome Diversity Project, providing useful insights into the population structure of the three major population groups in Asia. In addition, this resource also surveyed across the genome for variation in regional patterns of LD between the HapMap and SGVP populations, and for signatures of positive natural selection using two well-established metrics: iHS and XP-EHH. The raw and processed genetic data, together with all population genetic summaries, are publicly available for download and browsing through a web browser modeled with the Generic Genome Browser.

  16. Analysis of error-prone survival data under additive hazards models: measurement error effects and adjustments.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying; Yi, Grace Y

    2016-07-01

    Covariate measurement error occurs commonly in survival analysis. Under the proportional hazards model, measurement error effects have been well studied, and various inference methods have been developed to correct for error effects under such a model. In contrast, error-contaminated survival data under the additive hazards model have received relatively less attention. In this paper, we investigate this problem by exploring measurement error effects on parameter estimation and the change of the hazard function. New insights of measurement error effects are revealed, as opposed to well-documented results for the Cox proportional hazards model. We propose a class of bias correction estimators that embraces certain existing estimators as special cases. In addition, we exploit the regression calibration method to reduce measurement error effects. Theoretical results for the developed methods are established, and numerical assessments are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our methods.

  17. Application of liquid chromatography in polymer non-ionic antistatic additives analysis.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, M Victoria; Dopico-García, M Sonia; Noguerol-Cal, Rosalía; Carballeira-Amarelo, Tania; López-Vilariño, José M; Fernández-Martínez, Gerado

    2010-11-01

    This article investigates the applicability of HPLC-UV, ultra performance LC-evaporative light-scattering detection (UPLC-ELSD), HPLC-ESI(+)-MS and HPLC-hybrid linear ion trap (LTQ) Orbitrap MS for the analysis of different non-ionic antistatic additives, Span 20, Span 60, Span 65, Span 80, Span 85 (sorbitan fatty acid esters), Atmer 129 (glycerol fatty acid ester) and Atmer 163 (ethoxylated alkylamine). Several alkyl chain length or different degrees of esterification of polyol derivatives can be present in commercial mixtures of these polymer additives. Therefore, their identification and quantification is complicated. Qualitative composition of the studied compounds was analysed by MS. HPLC-UV, UPLC-ELSD and HPLC-LTQ Orbitrap MS methods were applied to the quantitative determination of the different Spans, Atmer 129 and Atmer 163, respectively. Quality parameters of these methods were established and no derivatization was necessary.

  18. Hematological observations on Arabian SS patients with a homozygosity or heterozygosity for a beta S chromosome with haplotype #31.

    PubMed

    Kutlar, A; Hattori, Y; Bakioglu, I; Kutlar, F; Kamel, K; Huisman, T H

    1985-01-01

    Hematological and hemoglobin composition data are presented for seven Arabian SS patients with mild disease and with high Hb F levels varying between 21 and 34%. Four patients were homozygous for a beta S chromosome with a specific haplotype (#31). The data for these four patients were similar to those for three other SS patients (and for five patients reported earlier, Ref. 2) who were heterozygous for the same beta S chromosome (#31) and for a beta S chromosome with another haplotype (mainly #19). These data offer additional evidence indicating that the increased gamma chain production is specific for the beta S chromosome with haplotype #31. The similarities in hematological data and Hb F levels between these two groups of SS patients and the normal Hb F value in Hb S heterozygotes with beta S chromosome (#31) support the suggestion that the increased Hb F production mainly occurs in response to the anemia of the sickle cell disease.

  19. Polymorphism in the upstream regulatory region of DQA1 genes and DRB1, QAP, DQA1, and DQB1 haplotypes in the German population.

    PubMed

    Haas, J P; Kimura, A; Andreas, A; Hochberger, M; Keller, E; Brünnler, G; Bettinotti, M P; Nevinny-Stickel, C; Hildebrandt, B; Sierp, G

    1994-01-01

    Polymorphism in the URR of the MHC class II DQA1 gene defines ten different alleles named QAP. Oligotyping for the alleles of DRB1, QAP, DQA1, and DQB1 have been performed in 210 unrelated healthy controls from Germany. Moreover, 83 HTCs from the Tenth IHWS have been tested. Four point loci haplotypes (DRB1, QAP, DQA1, and DQB1) have been analyzed in the unrelated healthy population sample. Computer analysis of the linkage disequilibria leads to the conclusion that QAP alleles are in strong linkage disequilibrium with alleles either the DQA1 or the DRB1 locus. One typical ("common") haplotype was found to be associated with each DRB1 allele in the majority (86%) of the tested persons. Apart from that, 25 other less frequent ("unusual") haplotypes, with an overall frequency of 14% have been defined. Some of these "unusual" MHC class II haplotypes were found to differ only in the regulatory alleles of DQA1 (QAP alleles) while they are identical for the alleles coding for structural elements (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1). Most of the "unusual" haplotypes were found to carry HLA-DQ6. Assuming that "unusual" (= rare) haplotypes have arisen from "common" (= frequent) haplotypes by point mutation and recombination, we propose the existence of three recombination sites in the MHC DR-DQ region: one between DRB1 and QAP, the second between QAP and DQA1, and the third between DQA1 and DQB1.

  20. Addition of three-dimensional isoparametric elements to NASA structural analysis program (NASTRAN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, E. I.; Johnson, S. E.

    1973-01-01

    Implementation is made of the three-dimensional family of linear, quadratic and cubic isoparametric solid elements into the NASA Structural Analysis program, NASTRAN. This work included program development, installation, testing, and documentation. The addition of these elements to NASTRAN provides a significant increase in modeling capability particularly for structures requiring specification of temperatures, material properties, displacements, and stresses which vary throughout each individual element. Complete program documentation is presented in the form of new sections and updates for direct insertion to the three NASTRAN manuals. The results of demonstration test problems are summarized. Excellent results are obtained with the isoparametric elements for static, normal mode, and buckling analyses.

  1. Results of investigations of Ethernet network fault-tolerance parameters by using additional analysis subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultanov, Albert H.; Gayfulin, Renat R.; Vinogradova, Irina L.

    2008-04-01

    Fiber optic telecommunication systems with duplex data transmitting over single fiber require reflection minimization. Moreover reflections may be so high that causes system deactivating by misoperation of conventional alarm, and system can not automatically adjudge the collision, so operator manual control is required. In this paper we proposed technical solution of mentioned problem based on additional analysis subsystem, realized on the installed Ufa-city fiber optic CTV system "Crystal". Experience of it's maintenance and results of investigations of the fault tolerance parameters are represented

  2. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes.

    PubMed

    Yunis, Juan J; Yunis, Edmond J; Yunis, Emilio

    2013-07-01

    We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family), Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family), Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families), Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family), Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family), Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family) and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family). for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1). Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America.

  3. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes

    PubMed Central

    Yunis, Juan J.; Yunis, Edmond J.; Yunis, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family), Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family), Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families), Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family), Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family), Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family) and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family). for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1). Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America. PMID:23885196

  4. A Coalescence-Guided Hierarchical Bayesian Method for Haplotype Inference

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Niu, Tianhua; Liu, Jun S.

    2006-01-01

    Haplotype inference from phase-ambiguous multilocus genotype data is an important task for both disease-gene mapping and studies of human evolution. We report a novel haplotype-inference method based on a coalescence-guided hierarchical Bayes model. In this model, a hierarchical structure is imposed on the prior haplotype frequency distributions to capture the similarities among modern-day haplotypes attributable to their common ancestry. As a consequence, the model both allows distinct haplotypes to have different a priori probabilities according to the inferred hierarchical ancestral structure and results in a proper joint posterior distribution for all the parameters of interest. A Markov chain–Monte Carlo scheme is designed to draw from this posterior distribution. By using coalescence-based simulation and empirically generated data sets (Whitehead Institute’s inflammatory bowel disease data sets and HapMap data sets), we demonstrate the merits of the new method in comparison with HAPLOTYPER and PHASE, with or without the presence of recombination hotspots and missing genotypes. PMID:16826521

  5. "HOOF-Print" Genotyping and Haplotype Inference Discriminates among Brucella spp Isolates From a Small Spatial Scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We demonstrate that the “HOOF-Print” assay provides high power to discriminate among Brucella isolates collected on a small spatial scale (within Portugal). Additionally, we illustrate how haplotype identification using non-random association among markers allows resolution of B. melitensis biovars ...

  6. Measurement of haplotypic variation in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae within a single field by rep-PCR and RFLP analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Vera Cruz, C.M.; Leach, J.E.; Ardales, E.Y.; Talag, J.

    1996-12-01

    The haplotypic variation of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in a farmer;s field that had endemic bacterial blight in the Philippines was evaluated at a single time. The genomic structure of the field population was analyzed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction with oligonucleotide primers corresponding to interspersed repeated sequences in prokaryotic genomes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with the insertion sequence IS1113. The techniques and specific probes and primers were selected because they grouped consistently into the same lineages a set of 30 selected X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that represented the four distinct RFLP lineages found in the Philippines did. Strains (155) were systematically collected from a field planted to rice cv. Sinandomeng, which is susceptible to the indigenous pathogen population. Two of the four Philippine lineages, B and C, which included race 2 and races 3 and 9, respectively, were detected in the field. Lineage C was the predominant population (74.8%). The haplotypic diversities of 10 of the 25 blocks were significantly greater than the total haplotypic diversity of the collection in the entire field; however, between individual blocks the haplotypic diversities were not significantly different. Haplo-types from both lineages were distributed randomly across the field. Analysis of genetic diversity at the microgeographic scale provided insights into the finer scale of variation of X. oryzae pv. oryzae, which are useful in designing experiments to study effects of host resistance on the population structure of the bacterial blight pathogen. 46 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Genomic dissection of a 'Fuji' apple cultivar: re-sequencing, SNP marker development, definition of haplotypes, and QTL detection.

    PubMed

    Kunihisa, Miyuki; Moriya, Shigeki; Abe, Kazuyuki; Okada, Kazuma; Haji, Takashi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Ryutaro; Itoh, Takeshi; Katayose, Yuichi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Toshimi; Mori, Satomi; Sasaki, Harumi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Nishitani, Chikako; Terakami, Shingo; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-09-01

    'Fuji' is one of the most popular and highly-produced apple cultivars worldwide, and has been frequently used in breeding programs. The development of genotypic markers for the preferable phenotypes of 'Fuji' is required. Here, we aimed to define the haplotypes of 'Fuji' and find associations between haplotypes and phenotypes of five traits (harvest day, fruit weight, acidity, degree of watercore, and flesh mealiness) by using 115 accessions related to 'Fuji'. Through the re-sequencing of 'Fuji' genome, total of 2,820,759 variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions or deletions (indels) were detected between 'Fuji' and 'Golden Delicious' reference genome. We selected mapping-validated 1,014 SNPs, most of which were heterozygous in 'Fuji' and capable of distinguishing alleles inherited from the parents of 'Fuji' (i.e., 'Ralls Janet' and 'Delicious'). We used these SNPs to define the haplotypes of 'Fuji' and trace their inheritance in relatives, which were shown to have an average of 27% of 'Fuji' genome. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) based on 'Fuji' haplotypes identified one quantitative trait loci (QTL) each for harvest time, acidity, degree of watercore, and mealiness. A haplotype from 'Delicious' chr14 was considered to dominantly cause watercore, and one from 'Ralls Janet' chr1 was related to low-mealiness.

  8. IL1B-CGTC haplotype is associated with colorectal cancer in admixed individuals with increased African ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Sanabria-Salas, María Carolina; Hernández-Suárez, Gustavo; Umaña-Pérez, Adriana; Rawlik, Konrad; Tenesa, Albert; Serrano-López, Martha Lucía; Sánchez de Gómez, Myriam; Rojas, Martha Patricia; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Albis, Rosario; Plata, José Luis; Green, Heather; Borgovan, Theodor; Li, Li; Majumdar, Sumana; Garai, Jone; Lee, Edward; Ashktorab, Hassan; Brim, Hassan; Li, Li; Margolin, David; Fejerman, Laura; Zabaleta, Jovanny

    2017-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytokine genes can affect gene expression and thereby modulate inflammation and carcinogenesis. However, the data on the association between SNPs in the interleukin 1 beta gene (IL1B) and colorectal cancer (CRC) are conflicting. We found an association between a 4-SNP haplotype block of the IL1B (-3737C/-1464G/-511T/-31C) and CRC risk, and this association was exclusively observed in individuals with a higher proportion of African ancestry, such as individuals from the Coastal Colombian region (odds ratio, OR 2.06; 95% CI 1.31–3.25; p < 0.01). Moreover, a significant interaction between this CRC risk haplotype and local African ancestry dosage was identified in locus 2q14 (p = 0.03). We conclude that Colombian individuals with high African ancestry proportions at locus 2q14 harbour more IL1B-CGTC copies and are consequently at an increased risk of CRC. This haplotype has been previously found to increase the IL1B promoter activity and is the most frequent haplotype in African Americans. Despite of limitations in the number of samples and the lack of functional analysis to examine the effect of these haplotypes on CRC cell lines, our results suggest that inflammation and ethnicity play a major role in the modulation of CRC risk. PMID:28157220

  9. Four Additional Cases of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Infection Confirmed by Analysis of COX1 Gene in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hyun; Jeon, Hyeong Kyu; Kim, Jin Bong

    2015-01-01

    Most of the diphyllobothriid tapeworms isolated from human samples in the Republic of Korea (= Korea) have been identified as Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense by genetic analysis. This paper reports confirmation of D. nihonkaiense infections in 4 additional human samples obtained between 1995 and 2014, which were analyzed at the Department of Parasitology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Korea. Analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1) gene revealed a 98.5-99.5% similarity with a reference D. nihonkaiense sequence in GenBank. The present report adds 4 cases of D. nihonkaiense infections to the literature, indicating that the dominant diphyllobothriid tapeworm species in Korea is D. nihonkaiense but not D. latum. PMID:25748716

  10. A multiple additive regression tree analysis of three exposure measures during Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Andrew; Li, Bin; Marx, Brian D; Mills, Jacqueline W; Pine, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses structural and personal exposure to Hurricane Katrina. Structural exposure is measured by flood height and building damage; personal exposure is measured by the locations of 911 calls made during the response. Using these variables, this paper characterises the geography of exposure and also demonstrates the utility of a robust analytical approach in understanding health-related challenges to disadvantaged populations during recovery. Analysis is conducted using a contemporary statistical approach, a multiple additive regression tree (MART), which displays considerable improvement over traditional regression analysis. By using MART, the percentage of improvement in R-squares over standard multiple linear regression ranges from about 62 to more than 100 per cent. The most revealing finding is the modelled verification that African Americans experienced disproportionate exposure in both structural and personal contexts. Given the impact of exposure to health outcomes, this finding has implications for understanding the long-term health challenges facing this population.

  11. Analysis of the relationship between ribosomal DNA ITS sequences and active components in Rhodiola plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D J; Yuan, W T; Li, M T; Zhang, Y H

    2016-12-23

    Rhodiola plants are a valuable resource in traditional Chinese medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and the three active components in Rhodiola plants. For this, we determined ITS sequence polymorphisms and the concentrations of active components salidroside, tyrosol, and gallic acid in different Rhodiola species from the Tibetan Plateau. In a total of 23 Rhodiola samples, 16 different haplotypes were defined based on their ITS sequences. Analysis of the active components in these same samples revealed that salidroside was not detected in species with haplotypes H4, H5, or H10, tyrosol was not detected with haplotypes H3, H5, H7, H10, H14, or H15, and gallic acid was detected in with all haplotypes except H14 and H15. In addition, the concentrations of salidroside, tyrosol and gallic acid varied between samples with different haplotypes as well as those with the same haplotype, implying that no significant correlation exists between haplotype and salidroside, tyrosol or gallic acid concentrations. However, a statistically significant positive correlation was observed for among these three active components.

  12. Homozygosity for the V37I GJB2 mutation in fifteen probands with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing impairment: further confirmation of pathogenicity and haplotype analysis in Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Emily; Francey, Lauren; Tsai, Ellen A; Berman, Micah; Zhao, Yaru; Fetting, Heather; Kaur, Maninder; Deardorff, Matthew A; Wilkens, Alisha; Clark, Dinah; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rehm, Heidi L; Krantz, Ian D

    2013-09-01

    Hearing impairment affects 1 in 650 newborns, making it the most common congenital sensory impairment. Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing impairment (ARNSHI) comprises 80% of familial hearing impairment cases. Mutations in GJB2 account for a significant number of ARNSHI (and up to 50% of documented recessive (e.g., more than 1 affected sibling) hearing impairment in some populations). Mutations in the GJB2 gene are amongst the most common causes of hearing impairment in populations of various ethnic backgrounds. Two mutations of this gene, 35delG and 167delT, account for the majority of reported mutations in Caucasian populations, especially those of Mediterranean and Ashkenazi Jewish background. The 235delC mutation is most prevalent in East Asian populations. Some mutations are of less well-characterized significance. The V37I missense mutation, common in Asian populations, was initially described as a polymorphism and later as a potentially pathogenic mutation. We report here on 15 unrelated individuals with ARNSHI and homozygosity for the V37I GJB2 missense mutation. Nine individuals are of Chinese ancestry, two are of unspecified Asian descent, one is of Japanese descent, one individual is of Vietnamese ancestry, one of Philippine background and one of Italian and Cuban/Caucasian background. Homozygosity for the V37I GJB2 mutation may be a more common pathogenic missense mutation in Asian populations, resulting in mild to moderate sensorineural hearing impairment. We report a presumed haplotype block specific to East Asian individuals with the V37I mutation encompassing the GJB2 gene that may account for the high prevalence in East Asian populations.

  13. Statins Have No Additional Benefit for Pulmonary Hypertension: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Qu, Moying; Chen, Yao; Zhou, Yaxiong; Wan, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We performed a meta-analysis to explore the effects of adding statins to standard treatment on adult patients of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Methods A systematic search up to December, 2015 of Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed to identify randomized controlled trials with PH patients treated with statins. Results Five studies involving 425 patients were included into this meta-analysis. The results of our analysis showed that the statins can’t significantly increase 6-minute walking distance (6MWD, mean difference [MD] = -0.33 [CI: -18.25 to 17.59]), decrease the BORG dyspnea score (MD = -0.72 [CI: -2.28 to 0.85]), the clinical worsening risk (11% in statins vs. 10.1% in controls, Risk ratio = 1.06 [CI: 0.61, 1.83]), or the systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP) (MD = -0.72 [CI: -2.28 to 0.85]). Subgroup analysis for PH due to COPD or non-COPD also showed no significance. Conclusions Statins have no additional beneficial effect on standard therapy for PH, but the results from subgroup of PH due to COPD seem intriguing and further study with larger sample size and longer follow-up is suggested. PMID:27992469

  14. Regression analysis of mixed recurrent-event and panel-count data with additive rate models.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Zhao, Hui; Sun, Jianguo; Leisenring, Wendy; Robison, Leslie L

    2015-03-01

    Event-history studies of recurrent events are often conducted in fields such as demography, epidemiology, medicine, and social sciences (Cook and Lawless, 2007, The Statistical Analysis of Recurrent Events. New York: Springer-Verlag; Zhao et al., 2011, Test 20, 1-42). For such analysis, two types of data have been extensively investigated: recurrent-event data and panel-count data. However, in practice, one may face a third type of data, mixed recurrent-event and panel-count data or mixed event-history data. Such data occur if some study subjects are monitored or observed continuously and thus provide recurrent-event data, while the others are observed only at discrete times and hence give only panel-count data. A more general situation is that each subject is observed continuously over certain time periods but only at discrete times over other time periods. There exists little literature on the analysis of such mixed data except that published by Zhu et al. (2013, Statistics in Medicine 32, 1954-1963). In this article, we consider the regression analysis of mixed data using the additive rate model and develop some estimating equation-based approaches to estimate the regression parameters of interest. Both finite sample and asymptotic properties of the resulting estimators are established, and the numerical studies suggest that the proposed methodology works well for practical situations. The approach is applied to a Childhood Cancer Survivor Study that motivated this study.

  15. Molecular evolution and functional characterisation of haplotypes of an important rubber biosynthesis gene in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Uthup, T K; Rajamani, A; Ravindran, M; Saha, T

    2016-07-01

    Hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A synthase (HMGS) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the cytoplasmic isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway leading to natural rubber production in Hevea brasiliensis (rubber). Analysis of the structural variants of this gene is imperative to understand their functional significance in rubber biosynthesis so that they can be properly utilised for ongoing crop improvement programmes in Hevea. We report here allele richness and diversity of the HMGS gene in selected popular rubber clones. Haplotypes consisting of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the coding and non-coding regions with a high degree of heterozygosity were identified. Segregation and linkage disequilibrium analysis confirmed that recombination is the major contributor to the generation of allelic diversity, rather than point mutations. The evolutionarily conserved nature of some SNPs was identified by comparative DNA sequence analysis of HMGS orthologues from diverse taxa, demonstrating the molecular evolution of rubber biosynthesis genes in general. In silico three-dimensional structural studies highlighting the structural positioning of non-synonymous SNPs from different HMGS haplotypes revealed that the ligand-binding site on the enzyme remains impervious to the reported sequence variations. In contrast, gene expression results indicated the possibility of association between specific haplotypes and HMGS expression in Hevea clones, which may have a downstream impact up to the level of rubber production. Moreover, haplotype diversity of the HMGS gene and its putative association with gene expression can be the basis for further genetic association studies in rubber. Furthermore, the data also show the role of SNPs in the evolution of candidate genes coding for functional traits in plants.

  16. Genetic link between Asians and native Americans: evidence from HLA genes and haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, K; Ohashi, J; Bannai, M; Juji, T

    2001-09-01

    We have been studying polymorphisms of HLA class I and II genes in East Asians including Buryat in Siberia, Mongolian, Han Chinese, Man Chinese, Korean Chinese, South Korean, and Taiwan indigenous populations in collaboration with many Asian scientists. Regional populations in Japan, Hondo-Japanese, Ryukyuan, and Ainu, were also studied. HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 gene frequencies were subjected to the correspondence analysis and calculation of DA distances. The correspondence analysis demonstrated several major clusters of human populations in the world. "Mongoloid" populations were highly diversified, in which several clusters such as Northeast Asians, Southeast Asians, Oceanians, and Native Americans were observed. Interestingly, an indigenous population in North Japan, Ainu, was placed relatively close to Native Americans in the correspondence analysis. Distribution of particular HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 alleles and haplotypes was also analyzed in relation to migration and dispersal routes of ancestral populations. A number of alleles and haplotypes showed characteristic patterns of regional distribution. For example, B39-HR5-DQ7 (B*3901-DRB1*1406-DQB1*0301) was shared by Ainu and Native Americans. A24-Cw8-B48 was commonly observed in Taiwan indigenous populations, Maori in New Zealand, Orochon in Northeast China, Inuit, and Tlingit. These findings further support the genetic link between East Asians and Native Americans. We have proposed that various ancestral populations in East Asia, marked by different HLA haplotypes, had migrated and dispersed through multiple routes. Moreover, relatively small genetic distances and the sharing of several HLA haplotypes between Ainu and Native Americans suggest that these populations are descendants of some Upper Paleolithic populations of East Asia.

  17. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing Part I: System Analysis, Component Identification, Additive Manufacturing, and Testing of Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Haller, William J.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Schnulo, Sydney L.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Weir, Don; Wali, Natalie; Vinup, Michael; Jones, Michael G.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom; Mehl, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The research and development activities reported in this publication were carried out under NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) funded project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing." The objective of the project was to conduct evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. The results of the activities are described in three part report. The first part of the report contains the data and analysis of engine system trade studies, which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. The technical scope of activities included an assessment of the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composites, which were accomplished by fabricating prototype engine components and testing them in simulated engine operating conditions. The manufacturing process parameters were developed and optimized for polymer and ceramic composites (described in detail in the second and third part of the report). A number of prototype components (inlet guide vane (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included turbine nozzle components. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  18. Rapid DNA haplotyping using a multiplex heteroduplex approach: application to Duchenne muscular dystrophy carrier testing.

    PubMed

    Prior, T W; Wenger, G D; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Sedra, M S; Bartolo, C; Moore, J W; Highsmith, W E

    1995-01-01

    A new strategy has been developed for rapid haplotype analysis based on an initial multiplex amplification of several polymorphic sites, followed by heteroduplex detection. Heteroduplexes formed between two different alleles are detected because they migrate differently than the corresponding homoduplexes in Hydrolink-MDE gel. This simple, rapid method does not depend on specific sequences such as restriction enzyme sites or CA boxes and does not require the use of isotope. This approach has been tested using commonly occurring polymorphisms spanning the dystrophin gene as a model. We describe the use of the method to assign the carrier status of females in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) pedigrees. The method may be used for other genetic diseases when mutations are unknown or there are few dinucleotide markers in the gene proximity, and for the identification of haplotype backgrounds of mutant alleles.

  19. ICOS gene haplotypes correlate with IL10 secretion and multiple sclerosis evolution.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Luca; Comi, Cristoforo; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Nicola, Stefania; Mesturini, Riccardo; Giordano, Mara; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Cerutti, Elisa; Galimberti, Daniela; Fenoglio, Chiara; Tesser, Fabiana; Yagi, Junji; Rojo, José Maria; Perla, Franco; Leone, Maurizio; Scarpini, Elio; Monaco, Francesco; Dianzani, Umberto

    2007-05-01

    Human ICOS is a T cell costimulatory molecule supporting IL10 secretion. A pilot study investigating variations of the ICOS gene 3'UTR detected 8 polymorphisms forming three haplotypes (A, B, C). Haplotype-A and -C displayed the highest difference. Activated T cells from healthy AA homozygotes expressed significantly less ICOS and secreted more IL10 than AC heterozygotes, whereas AB heterozygotes displayed intermediate levels. Analysis of 441 multiple sclerosis patients and 793 controls showed that frequency of AA homozygosity was significantly lower in MS patients with relapsing-remitting onset (N=416) than in controls (OR=0.70). Moreover, AA patients with relapsing-remitting onset had lower relapse rate and multiple sclerosis severity score than non-AA patients.

  20. Accumulating mutations in series of haplotypes at the KIT and MITF loci are major determinants of white markings in Franches-Montagnes horses.

    PubMed

    Haase, Bianca; Signer-Hasler, Heidi; Binns, Matthew M; Obexer-Ruff, Gabriela; Hauswirth, Regula; Bellone, Rebecca R; Burger, Dominik; Rieder, Stefan; Wade, Claire M; Leeb, Tosso

    2013-01-01

    Coat color and pattern variations in domestic animals are frequently inherited as simple monogenic traits, but a number are known to have a complex genetic basis. While the analysis of complex trait data remains a challenge in all species, we can use the reduced haplotypic diversity in domestic animal populations to gain insight into the genomic interactions underlying complex phenotypes. White face and leg markings are examples of complex traits in horses where little is known of the underlying genetics. In this study, Franches-Montagnes (FM) horses were scored for the occurrence of white facial and leg markings using a standardized scoring system. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed for several white patterning traits in 1,077 FM horses. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the white marking score with p-values p≤10(-4) were identified. Three loci, MC1R and the known white spotting genes, KIT and MITF, were identified as the major loci underlying the extent of white patterning in this breed. Together, the seven loci explain 54% of the genetic variance in total white marking score, while MITF and KIT alone account for 26%. Although MITF and KIT are the major loci controlling white patterning, their influence varies according to the basic coat color of the horse and the specific body location of the white patterning. Fine mapping across the MITF and KIT loci was used to characterize haplotypes present. Phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes were calculated to assess their selective and evolutionary influences on the extent of white patterning. This novel approach shows that KIT and MITF act in an additive manner and that accumulating mutations at these loci progressively increase the extent of white markings.

  1. Y-STR haplotype diversity in distinct linguistic groups from East Timor.

    PubMed

    Souto, Luís; Gusmão, Leonor; Amorim, António; Côrte-Real, Francisco; Vieira, Duarte N

    2006-01-01

    East Timor is a country which harbors multiple ethnolinguistic groups generally assigned to an Austronesian or Papuan ancestry. The present study aimed to characterize Y-chromosome haplotype diversity in East Timor, and to test possible population structures based on linguistic and/or geographical information. Using a set of 12 Y-chromosome-specific STRs (DYS19, DYS389I and II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385, DYS437, DYS438, and DYS439), haplotypes were established in 342 individuals from 12 linguistic groups (Tetum, Kwaimina, Galoli, Wetarese, Dawan, Mambai, Kemak, Tokodede, Bunak, Makasai, Makalero, and Fataluku) belonging to the three major ethnolinguistic groups in East Timor: two from the Timorese-Austronesian branch (Fabronic and Ramelaic), and a third including languages related to a Trans-New Guinea phylum (Papuan). High values of haplotype diversity, average gene diversity, and mean number of pairwise differences per locus were found in all 12 linguistic groups, except for the Wetarese from the island of Ataúro. Analysis of genetic variance (AMOVA) and pairwise genetic distance analysis showed that the East Timor population is genetically structured, and if the Bunak and Wetarese are excluded, samples group well with respect to their language affinities, and furthermore, the most genetically homogeneous groups are those following the broad ethnolinguistic classifications. Bunak and Wetarese behave as outsider groups, and are genetically more closely related to populations classified in a different linguistic group.

  2. Approximating identity-by-descent matrices using multiple haplotype configurations on pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guimin; Hoeschele, Ina

    2005-09-01

    Identity-by-descent (IBD) matrix calculation is an important step in quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis using variance component models. To calculate IBD matrices efficiently for large pedigrees with large numbers of loci, an approximation method based on the reconstruction of haplotype configurations for the pedigrees is proposed. The method uses a subset of haplotype configurations with high likelihoods identified by a haplotyping method. The new method is compared with a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method (Loki) in terms of QTL mapping performance on simulated pedigrees. Both methods yield almost identical results for the estimation of QTL positions and variance parameters, while the new method is much more computationally efficient than the MCMC approach for large pedigrees and large numbers of loci. The proposed method is also compared with an exact method (Merlin) in small simulated pedigrees, where both methods produce nearly identical estimates of position-specific kinship coefficients. The new method can be used for fine mapping with joint linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis, which improves the power and accuracy of QTL mapping.

  3. Y chromosomal haplotype characteristics of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yutao; Xu, Lei; Yan, Wei; Li, Shaobin; Wang, Jiqing; Liu, Xiu; Hu, Jiang; Luo, Yuzhu

    2015-07-10

    Investigations on the variation present at the male-specific Y chromosome region provide strong information to understand the origin and evolution of domestic sheep. One SNP OY1 (g.88A>G) in the upstream region of SRY gene, and the microsatellite SRYM18 locus within ovine Y chromosome were analyzed in one hundred and forty five samples collected from eleven breeds in China. SNP OY1 was analyzed using PCR-SSCP method and sequencing. Two different PCR-SSCP patterns represented two specific sequences with sequence analysis revealing SNP-OY1 (g.88A>G) were observed, while SNP A-OY1 showed the most common frequency (82.8%). Sequencing of the SRYM18 region revealed one novel size fragment (A2) with different repetitive units. Seven haplotypes (H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9 and H12) and two novel haplotypes (Ha and Hb) were established using combined genotype analysis. H6 showed the highest frequency (43.4%) across all breeds, and H8 showed the second frequency (24.1%). Ha was only found in one breed (Tan), while Hb was present in three breeds (Gansu alpine, White Suffolk and Duolang). Our findings reveal one novel allele in SRYM18 region and two novel male haplotypes of domestic sheep in China.

  4. Wide variation in microsatellite sequences within each Pfcrt mutant haplotype.

    PubMed

    Vinayak, Sumiti; Mittra, Pooja; Sharma, Yagya D

    2006-05-01

    Flanking microsatellites for each of the Pfcrt mutant haplotype of Plasmodium falciparum remain conserved among geographical isolates. We describe here heterogeneity in the intragenic microsatellites among each of the Pfcrt haplotype. There were fourteen different alleles of AT repeats of intron 2 and eight alleles of TA repeats of intron 4 of the pfcrt gene among Indian isolates. This resulted in 33 different two-locus (intron 2 plus intron 4) microsatellite genotypes among 224 isolates. There were 15 different two-locus microsatellite genotypes within the South American Pfcrt haplotype (S72V73M74N75T76S220) and 11 genotypes in the southeast Asian haplotype (C72V73I74E75T76S220) in these isolates. Indian isolates with Pfcrt haplotype C72V73I74E75T76S220 shared one of its two-locus microsatellite genotype with southeast Asian P. falciparum parasite lines from Thailand (K1) and Indochina (Dd2 and W2). Conversely, Indian isolates containing S72V73M74N75T76S220 Pfcrt haplotype did not share any of their two-locus microsatellite genotype with South American parasite line 7G8 from Brazil. Significantly, large number of newer two-locus microsatellite genotypes were detected in a 2-year time period (P<0.05). Microsatellite variation was more prominent in the areas of high malaria transmission. It is concluded that the genetic recombination in the intragenic microsatellites continues in the parasite population even after microsatellites flanking the pfcrt gene had already been fixed. Presence of various Pfcrt haplotypes and a variety of intragenic microsatellites indicates that there is a wide spectrum of chloroquine resistant parasite population in India. This information should be useful for malaria control programs of the country.

  5. Grouping of Y-STR haplotypes discloses European geographic clines.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Leonor; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Alves, Cíntia; Beleza, Sandra; Lopes, Alexandra; Carracedo, Angel; Amorim, António

    2003-07-08

    Y-STR haplotypes are widely studied in Europe and an extensive databasing effort has been conducted (http://www.ystr.org). The distribution of these haplotypes has been considered to present no evidence for substructure at central and southern European level. This picture contrasts with the one that results from Y haplogroups defined by binary markers. This paradox has been solved by admitting that the high STR mutation rate and corresponding recurrence has erased geographic structuration. This explanation prompted us to reanalyse Y-STR haplotypes distribution bearing in mind the commonly admitted model for the generation of diversity in these markers, namely the stepwise mutation model (SMM) and, thus, taking the molecular distance between haplotypes into consideration. Accordingly, we have studied the European distribution of the two most frequent haplotypes in the Iberian Peninsula and their one step neighbours using the European samples deposited in the Y STR database (http://www.ystr.org). For the first group we found a clear-cut decreasing W-E gradient, while for the second the highest frequencies were found in the Iberian Peninsula (3.98% in Portugal and 3.85% in Spain), dropping to 2.88% in France and showing a less well defined SW-NW gradient. Furthermore, we have tested the agreement between haplotype groups and binary markers haplogroups in a random sample of 292 individuals from Northern Portugal. Our results demonstrate that (a) Y-STR haplotype data can be used for wide-scale anthropological approaches disclosing information that has been considered only available through binary markers and (b) forensic use of continental databases needs careful refinement, due to the macro-geographic pattern now evidenced.

  6. Autosomal Dominant Retinal Dystrophies Caused by a Founder Splice Site Mutation, c.828+3A>T, in PRPH2 and Protein Haplotypes in trans as Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Suma P.; Hughbanks-Wheaton, Dianna K.; Birch, David G.; Sullivan, Lori S.; Conneely, Karen N.; Bowne, Sara J.; Stone, Edwin M.; Daiger, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We determined the phenotypic variation, disease progression, and potential modifiers of autosomal dominant retinal dystrophies caused by a splice site founder mutation, c.828+3A>T, in the PRPH2 gene. Methods A total of 62 individuals (19 families) harboring the PRPH2 c.828+3A>T mutation, had phenotype analysis by fundus appearance, electrophysiology, and visual fields. The PRPH2 haplotypes in trans were sequenced for potential modifying variants and generalized estimating equations (GEE) used for statistical analysis. Results Several distinct phenotypes caused by the PRPH2 c.828+3A>T mutation were observed and fell into two clinical categories: Group I (N = 44) with mild pattern dystrophies (PD) and Group II (N = 18) with more severe cone-rod dystrophy (CRD), retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and central areolar chorioretinal dystrophy (CACD). The PRPH2 Gln304-Lys310-Asp338 protein haplotype in trans was found in Group I only (29.6% vs. 0%), whereas the Glu304-Lys310-Gly338 haplotype was predominant in Group II (94.4% vs. 70.4%). Generalized estimating equations analysis for PD versus the CRD/CACD/RP phenotypes in individuals over 43 years alone with the PRPH2 haplotypes in trans and age as predictors, adjusted for correlation within families, confirmed a significant effect of haplotype on severity (P = 0.03) with an estimated odds ratio of 7.16 (95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.8, 18.4]). Conclusions The PRPH2 c.828+3A>T mutation results in multiple distinct phenotypes likely modified by protein haplotypes in trans; the odds of having the CACD/RP-like phenotype (versus the PD phenotype) are 7.16 times greater with a Glu304-Lys310-Gly338 haplotype in trans. Further functional studies of the modifying haplotypes in trans and PRPH2 splice variants may offer therapeutic targets. PMID:26842753

  7. Haplotyping RAD loci: an efficient method to filter paralogs and account for physical linkage.

    PubMed

    Willis, Stuart C; Hollenbeck, Christopher M; Puritz, Jonathan B; Gold, John R; Portnoy, David S

    2017-01-02

    Next-generation sequencing of reduced-representation genomic libraries provides a powerful methodology for genotyping thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among individuals of nonmodel species. Utilizing genotype data in the absence of a reference genome, however, presents a number of challenges. One major challenge is the trade-off between splitting alleles at a single locus into separate clusters (loci), creating inflated homozygosity, and lumping multiple loci into a single contig (locus), creating artefacts and inflated heterozygosity. This issue has been addressed primarily through the use of similarity cut-offs in sequence clustering. Here, two commonly employed, postclustering filtering methods (read depth and excess heterozygosity) used to identify incorrectly assembled loci are compared with haplotyping, another postclustering filtering approach. Simulated and empirical data sets were used to demonstrate that each of the three methods separately identified incorrectly assembled loci; more optimal results were achieved when the three methods were applied in combination. The results confirmed that including incorrectly assembled loci in population-genetic data sets inflates estimates of heterozygosity and deflates estimates of population divergence. Additionally, at low levels of population divergence, physical linkage between SNPs within a locus created artificial clustering in analyses that assume markers are independent. Haplotyping SNPs within a locus effectively neutralized the physical linkage issue without having to thin data to a single SNP per locus. We introduce a Perl script that haplotypes polymorphisms, using data from single or paired-end reads, and identifies potentially problematic loci.

  8. Genotype variability and haplotype profile of ABCB1 (MDR1) gene polymorphisms in Macedonian population.

    PubMed

    Naumovska, Zorica; Nestorovska, Aleksandra K; Sterjev, Zoran; Filipce, Ana; Dimovski, Aleksandar; Suturkova, Ljubica

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the most common ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein) polymorphisms in the population of R. Macedonia and compare the allele and haplotype frequencies with the global geographic data reported from different ethnic populations. The total of 107 healthy Macedonian individuals from the general population was included. Genotypes for the ABCB1 for three polymorphisms C1236T [rs1128503], G2677A/T [rs2032582] and C3435T [rs1045642] were analyzed by Real-Time PCR. Obtained allele frequencies for these three SNPs were similar to those observed in other European Caucasians. The detected genotype frequencies were 33.6% for 1236CC, 44.9% for 1236CT and 21.5% for 1236TT in exon 12; 32.7%, 44.9% and 22.4% for 2677GG, 2677GT and 2677GT consecutively in exon 21; and 25.2% for 3435CC, 52.3% for 3435CT and 22.5% for 3435TT in exon 26.Strong LD was observed in our study among all three SNPs with the highest association confirmed for C1236T and G2677T ((D'=0.859, r2=0.711). Eight different haplotypes were identified and the most prominent was the CGC haplotype (45.3%). Our study was the first to have documented the distribution of ABCB1 alleles, genotypes and haplotypes in the population of R. Macedonia. The obtained results can help in the prediction of different response to the drugs that are P-glycoprotein substrates. Additionally, in the era of individualized medicine the determination of the P-glycoprotein genotype might be a good predictive marker for determination of the subpopulations with higher risk to certain diseases.

  9. A founder haplotype of APOE-Sendai mutation associated with lipoprotein glomerulopathy.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Kentaro; Hashimoto, Taeko; Ogino, Daisuke; Matsunaga, Akira; Ito, Minoru; Masakane, Ikuto; Degawa, Noriyuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Shirai, Sayuri; Umetsu, Kazuo; Tamiya, Gen; Saito, Takao; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG) is a hereditary disease characterized by lipoprotein thrombi in the glomerulus, hyperlipoproteinemia, and a marked increase in serum apolipoprotein E (APOE). More than 12 APOE mutations have been identified as causes of LPG, and APOE-Sendai (Arg145Pro) mutation was frequently detected in patients from the eastern part of Japan including Yamagata prefecture. Recently, effective therapy with intensive lipid-lowering agents was established, and epidemiologic data are required for early diagnosis. We determined the haplotype structure of APOE-Sendai in 13 patients from 9 unrelated families with LPG, and found that the haplotype of all APOE-Sendai mutations was identical, suggesting that APOE-Sendai mutation is common in Japanese patients probably through a founder effect. We also studied the gene frequency of APOE-Sendai in 2023 control subjects and 418 patients receiving hemodialysis in Yamagata prefecture using the TaqMan method, but did not identify any subjects carrying the mutation, indicating that it is very rare in the general population even in the eastern part of Japan. In addition to APOE mutation, other genetic and/or epigenetic factors are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of LPG because of its low penetrance. The patients did not have a common haplotype of the counterpart APOE allele, and some patients had the same haplotype of the counterpart APOE allele as the asymptomatic carriers. These results suggest that the counterpart APOE allele is not likely associated with the onset of LPG. Further study is required to clarify the pathogenesis of LPG.

  10. Very long haplotype tracts characterized at high resolution from HLA homozygous cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Paul J.; Norberg, Steve; Nemat-Gorgani, Neda; Royce, Thomas; Hollenbach, Jill A.; Won, Melissa Shults; Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Gunderson, Kevin L.; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Parham, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The HLA region of chromosome 6 contains the most polymorphic genes in humans. Spanning ~5Mbp the densely packed region encompasses approximately 175 expressed genes including the highly polymorphic HLA class I and II loci. Most of the other genes and functional elements are also polymorphic, and many of them are directly implicated in immune function or immune-related disease. For these reasons this complex genomic region is subject to intense scrutiny by researchers with the common goal of aiding further understanding and diagnoses of multiple immune-related diseases and syndromes. To aid assay development and characterization of the classical loci, a panel of cell lines partially or fully homozygous for HLA class I and II was assembled over time by the International Histocompatibility Working Group (IHWG). Containing a minimum of 88 unique HLA haplotypes, we show this panel represents a significant proportion of European HLA allelic and haplotype diversity (60–95%). Using a high-density whole genome array that includes 13,331 HLA region SNPs, we analyzed 99 IHWG cells to map the coordinates of the homozygous tracts at a fine scale. The mean homozygous tract length within chromosome 6 from these individuals is 21Mbp. Within HLA the mean haplotype length is 4.3Mbp, and 65% of the cell lines were shown to be homozygous throughout the entire region. In addition, four cell lines are homozygous throughout the complex KIR region of chromosome 19 (~250kbp). The data we describe will provide a valuable resource for characterizing haplotypes, designing and refining imputation algorithms and developing assay controls. PMID:26198775

  11. Very long haplotype tracts characterized at high resolution from HLA homozygous cell lines.

    PubMed

    Norman, Paul J; Norberg, Steve J; Nemat-Gorgani, Neda; Royce, Thomas; Hollenbach, Jill A; Shults Won, Melissa; Guethlein, Lisbeth A; Gunderson, Kevin L; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Parham, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The HLA region of chromosome 6 contains the most polymorphic genes in humans. Spanning ~5 Mbp the densely packed region encompasses approximately 175 expressed genes including the highly polymorphic HLA class I and II loci. Most of the other genes and functional elements are also polymorphic, and many of them are directly implicated in immune function or immune-related disease. For these reasons, this complex genomic region is subject to intense scrutiny by researchers with the common goal of aiding further understanding and diagnoses of multiple immune-related diseases and syndromes. To aid assay development and characterization of the classical loci, a panel of cell lines partially or fully homozygous for HLA class I and II was assembled over time by the International Histocompatibility Working Group (IHWG). Containing a minimum of 88 unique HLA haplotypes, we show that this panel represents a significant proportion of European HLA allelic and haplotype diversity (60-95 %). Using a high-density whole genome array that includes 13,331 HLA region SNPs, we analyzed 99 IHWG cells to map the coordinates of the homozygous tracts at a fine scale. The mean homozygous tract length within chromosome 6 from these individuals is 21 Mbp. Within HLA, the mean haplotype length is 4.3 Mbp, and 65 % of the cell lines were shown to be homozygous throughout the entire region. In addition, four cell lines are homozygous throughout the complex KIR region of chromosome 19 (~250 kbp). The data we describe will provide a valuable resource for characterizing haplotypes, designing and refining imputation algorithms and developing assay controls.

  12. Remarkable variation in maize genome structure inferred from haplotype diversity at the bz locus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qinghua; Dooner, Hugo K.

    2006-01-01

    Maize is probably the most diverse of all crop species. Unexpectedly large differences among haplotypes were first revealed in a comparison of the bz genomic regions of two different inbred lines, McC and B73. Retrotransposon clusters, which comprise most of the repetitive DNA in maize, varied markedly in makeup, and location relative to the genes in the region and genic sequences, later shown to be carried by two helitron transposons, also differed between the inbreds. Thus, the allelic bz regions of these Corn Belt inbreds shared only a minority of the total sequence. To investigate further the variation caused by retrotransposons, helitrons, and other insertions, we have analyzed the organization of the bz genomic region in five additional cultivars selected because of their geographic and genetic diversity: the inbreds A188, CML258, and I137TN, and the land races Coroico and NalTel. This vertical comparison has revealed the existence of several new helitrons, new retrotransposons, members of every superfamily of DNA transposons, numerous miniature elements, and novel insertions flanked at either end by TA repeats, which we call TAFTs (TA-flanked transposons). The extent of variation in the region is remarkable. In pairwise comparisons of eight bz haplotypes, the percentage of shared sequences ranges from 25% to 84%. Chimeric haplotypes were identified that combine retrotransposon clusters found in different haplotypes. We propose that recombination in the common gene space greatly amplifies the variability produced by the retrotransposition explosion in the maize ancestry, creating the heterogeneity in genome organization found in modern maize. PMID:17101975

  13. Remarkable variation in maize genome structure inferred from haplotype diversity at the bz locus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghua; Dooner, Hugo K

    2006-11-21

    Maize is probably the most diverse of all crop species. Unexpectedly large differences among haplotypes were first revealed in a comparison of the bz genomic regions of two different inbred lines, McC and B73. Retrotransposon clusters, which comprise most of the repetitive DNA in maize, varied markedly in makeup, and location relative to the genes in the region and genic sequences, later shown to be carried by two helitron transposons, also differed between the inbreds. Thus, the allelic bz regions of these Corn Belt inbreds shared only a minority of the total sequence. To investigate further the variation caused by retrotransposons, helitrons, and other insertions, we have analyzed the organization of the bz genomic region in five additional cultivars selected because of their geographic and genetic diversity: the inbreds A188, CML258, and I137TN, and the land races Coroico and NalTel. This vertical comparison has revealed the existence of several new helitrons, new retrotransposons, members of every superfamily of DNA transposons, numerous miniature elements, and novel insertions flanked at either end by TA repeats, which we call TAFTs (TA-flanked transposons). The extent of variation in the region is remarkable. In pairwise comparisons of eight bz haplotypes, the percentage of shared sequences ranges from 25% to 84%. Chimeric haplotypes were identified that combine retrotransposon clusters found in different haplotypes. We propose that recombination in the common gene space greatly amplifies the variability produced by the retrotransposition explosion in the maize ancestry, creating the heterogeneity in genome organization found in modern maize.

  14. Additional Keplerian Signals in the HARPS data for Gliese 667C: Further Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Philip C.; Lawler, Samantha M.; Gladman, Brett

    2014-01-01

    A re-analysis of Gliese 667C HARPS precision radial velocity data was carried out with a Bayesian multi-planet Kepler periodogram (from 0 to 7 planets) based on a fusion Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. The most probable number of signals detected is six with a Bayesian false alarm probability of 0.012. The residuals were shown to be consistent with white noise. The six signals detected include two previously reported with periods of 7.198 (b) and 28.14 (c) days, plus additional periods of 30.82, 38.82, 53.22, and 91.3 days. The existence of these Keplerian-like signals suggest the possibility of additional planets in the habitable zone of Gl 667C although some of the signals could be artifacts arising from the sampling or stellar surface activity. N-body orbital integrations are being undertaken to determine which of these signals are consistent with a stable planetary system. Preliminary results demonstrate that four of the signals, with periods of 7.2, 28.1, 38.8, & 91 d, are consistent with a stable 4 planet system on time scales of 107 yr. The M sin i values are ~5.5, 4.4, 1.9, and 4.7 M⊕, respectively.

  15. An analysis of candidates for addition to the Clean Air Act list of hazardous air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Lunder, Sonya; Woodruff, Tracey J; Axelrad, Daniel A

    2004-02-01

    There are 188 air toxics listed as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the Clean Air Act (CAA), based on their potential to adversely impact public health. This paper presents several analyses performed to screen potential candidates for addition to the HAPs list. We analyzed 1086 HAPs and potential HAPs, including chemicals regulated by the state of California or with emissions reported to the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI). HAPs and potential HAPs were ranked by their emissions to air, and by toxicity-weighted (tox-wtd) emissions for cancer and noncancer, using emissions information from the TRI and toxicity information from state and federal agencies. Separate consideration was given for persistent, bioaccumulative toxins (PBTs), reproductive or developmental toxins, and chemicals under evaluation for regulation as toxic air contaminants in California. Forty-four pollutants were identified as candidate HAPs based on three ranking analyses and whether they were a PBT or a reproductive or developmental toxin. Of these, nine qualified in two or three different rankings (ammonia [NH3], copper [Cu], Cu compounds, nitric acid [HNO3], N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, sulfuric acid [H2SO4], vanadium [V] compounds, zinc [Zn], and Zn compounds). This analysis suggests further evaluation of several pollutants for possible addition to the CAA list of HAPs.

  16. Polymorphism of the DQA1 promoter region (QAP) and DRB1, QAP, DQA1, DQB1 haplotypes in systemic lupus erythematosus. SLE Study Group members.

    PubMed

    Yao, Z; Kimura, A; Hartung, K; Haas, P J; Volgger, A; Brünnler, G; Bönisch, J; Albert, E D

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the DNA polymorphism for the DQA1 promoter region (QAP) and HLA-class II DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1 genes in 178 central European patients with Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using polymerase chain reaction and Dig-ddUTP labeled oligonucleotides. Increased frequencies of DRB1*02 and *03 are confirmed by DNA typing. In addition, the frequencies of DQA1*0501, *0102 and DQB1*0201, *0602 alleles are increased in the patients as compared to controls. The strongest association to SLE is found with DRB1*03 and DOB1*0201 alleles (p < 10(-7), p corr. < 10(-5) and p < 10(-6), p corr. < 10(-4), respectively). By investigating the DQA1 promoter region in the SLE patients we have detected nine different QAP variants. Increased frequencies of QAP1.2 and QAP4.1 are observed in patients as compared to controls (p < 0.05, p corr. = n.s.). Analysis of linkage disequilibria demonstrates a very strong association between QAP variants and DQA1, DRB1 alleles. Certain QAP variants are completely associated with DQA1 and DRB1 alleles, whereas others can combine with different DQA1 and DRB1 alleles. All DRB1*02-positive patients and controls carry QAP1.2, and all DRB1*03-positive patients and controls carry QAP4.1. Conversely, the QAP1.2 variant appears only in DRB1*02 haplotypes, while the QAP4.1 variant can be observed in DRB1*03, *11, and *1303 haplotypes. Based on the strong linkage disequilibria between DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 genes and between DRB1-QAP-DQA1, we have deduced the four-point haplotypes for DRB1-QAP-DQA1-DQB1 in patients and controls. Two haplotypes DRB1*02-QAP1.2-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602 and DRB1*03-QAP4.1-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201 are significantly increased in patients as compared to controls (p < 0.01, p corr. = n.s., RR = 1.8 and p < 10(-7), p corr. < 10(-5), RR = 3.1, respectively). The analysis of relative risks attributed to the various alleles of QAP, DQA1, and DQB1 as well as the investigation of the deduced DRB1-QAP-DQA1-DQB1 haplotypes leads to the conclusion

  17. Mitochondrial Haplotype Influences Mycelial Growth of Agaricus bisporus Heterokaryons

    PubMed Central

    De La Bastide, P. Y.; Sonnenberg, A.; Van Griensven, L.; Anderson, J. B.; Horgen, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of mitochondrial haplotype on growth of the common button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Ten pairs of heterokaryon strains, each pair having the same nuclear genome but different mitochondrial genomes, were produced by controlled crosses among a group of homokaryons of both wild and commercial origins. Seven genetically distinct mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes were evaluated in different nuclear backgrounds. The growth of heterokaryon pairs differing only in their mtDNA haplotypes was compared by measuring mycelial radial growth rate on solid complete yeast medium (CYM) and compost extract medium and by measuring mycelial dry weight accumulation in liquid CYM. All A. bisporus strains were incubated at temperatures similar to those utilized in commercial production facilities (18, 22, and 26(deg)C). Statistically significant differences were detected in 8 of the 10 heterokaryon pairs evaluated for one or two of the three growth parameters measured. Some heterokaryon pairs showed differences in a single growth parameter at all three temperatures of incubation, suggesting a temperature-independent difference. Others showed differences at only a single temperature, suggesting a temperature-dependent difference. The influence of some mtDNA haplotypes on growth was dependent on the nuclear genetic background. Our results show that mtDNA haplotype can influence growth of A. bisporus heterokaryons in some nuclear backgrounds. These observations demonstrate the importance of including a number of mitochondrial genotypes and evaluating different nuclear-mitochondrial combinations of A. bisporus in strain improvement programs. PMID:16535683

  18. Maximum parsimony xor haplotyping by sparse dictionary selection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xor-genotype is a cost-effective alternative to the genotype sequence of an individual. Recent methods developed for haplotype inference have aimed at finding the solution based on xor-genotype data. Given the xor-genotypes of a group of unrelated individuals, it is possible to infer the haplotype pairs for each individual with the aid of a small number of regular genotypes. Results We propose a framework of maximum parsimony inference of haplotypes based on the search of a sparse dictionary, and we present a greedy method that can effectively infer the haplotype pairs given a set of xor-genotypes augmented by a small number of regular genotypes. We test the performance of the proposed approach on synthetic data sets with different number of individuals and SNPs, and compare the performances with the state-of-the-art xor-haplotyping methods PPXH and XOR-HAPLOGEN. Conclusions Experimental results show good inference qualities for the proposed method under all circumstances, especially on large data sets. Results on a real database, CFTR, also demonstrate significantly better performance. The proposed algorithm is also capable of finding accurate solutions with missing data and/or typing errors. PMID:24059285

  19. [Hemoglobin beta S haplotype in the Kebili region (southern Tunisia)].

    PubMed

    Frikha, M; Fakhfakh, F; Mseddi, S; Gargouri, J; Ghali, L; Labiadh, Z; Harrabi, M; Souissi, T; Ayadi, H

    1998-04-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a monogenic hereditary disease characterized by a mutation in the beta globin gene. Five major haplotypes associated with the beta S mutation have been defined: Benin, Bantu, Senegalian, Camerounian, and Arabo-Indian. Previous studies in northern Tunisia showed that sickle cell anemia was of Benin origin in this region. Patients from the south of Tunisia, mainly from the Kebili region, were not previously concerned. In this study, we have determined the beta S haplotype and evaluated phenotypical expression of the disease in 14 patients from this latter region. The use of four restriction endonucleases having polymorphic sites in the beta globin gene showed that all patients had the Benin haplotype, confirming the Benin origin of sickle cell anemia in Tunisia. This haplotype is associated with an heterogeneous expression of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) with extremes varying from 2.4 to 16.3% and a mean expression rate of 8.16%, which is in accordance with literature data. In spite of the haplotype homogeneity in our patients, clinical heterogeneity was noted. A unique case of alpha-thalassemia could not explain this heterogeneity. In contrast, we found a certain correlation between fetal hemoglobin expression and clinical severity.

  20. In Vivo Characterization of Human APOA5 Haplotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Ahituv, Nadav; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chapman-Helleboid, Audrey; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-10-01

    Increased plasma triglycerides concentrations are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies support a reproducible genetic association between two minor haplotypes in the human apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) and increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. We thus sought to investigate the effect of these minor haplotypes (APOA5*2 and APOA5*3) on ApoAV plasma levels through the precise insertion of single-copy intact APOA5 haplotypes at a targeted location in the mouse genome. While we found no difference in the amount of human plasma ApoAV in mice containing the common APOA5*1 and minor APOA5*2 haplotype, the introduction of the single APOA5*3 defining allele (19W) resulted in 3-fold lower ApoAV plasma levels consistent with existing genetic association studies. These results indicate that S19W polymorphism is likely to be functional and explain the strong association of this variant with plasma triglycerides supporting the value of sensitive in vivo assays to define the functional nature of human haplotypes.

  1. The prognostic impact of germline 46/1 haplotype of Janus kinase 2 in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Nahajevszky, Sarolta; Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Batai, Arpad; Adam, Emma; Bors, Andras; Csomor, Judit; Gopcsa, Laszlo; Koszarska, Magdalena; Kozma, Andras; Lovas, Nora; Lueff, Sandor; Matrai, Zoltan; Meggyesi, Nora; Sinko, Janos; Sipos, Andrea; Varkonyi, Andrea; Fekete, Sandor; Tordai, Attila; Masszi, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    Background Prognostic risk stratification according to acquired or inherited genetic alterations has received increasing attention in acute myeloid leukemia in recent years. A germline Janus kinase 2 haplotype designated as the 46/1 haplotype has been reported to be associated with an inherited predisposition to myeloproliferative neoplasms, and also to acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic impact of the 46/1 haplotype on disease characteristics and treatment outcome in acute myeloid leukemia. Design and Methods Janus kinase 2 rs12343867 single nucleotide polymorphism tagging the 46/1 haplotype was genotyped by LightCycler technology applying melting curve analysis with the hybridization probe detection format in 176 patients with acute myeloid leukemia under 60 years diagnosed consecutively and treated with curative intent. Results The morphological subtype of acute myeloid leukemia with maturation was less frequent among 46/1 carriers than among non-carriers (5.6% versus 17.2%, P=0.018, cytogenetically normal subgroup: 4.3% versus 20.6%, P=0.031), while the morphological distribution shifted towards the myelomonocytoid form in 46/1 haplotype carriers (28.1% versus 14.9%, P=0.044, cytogenetically normal subgroup: 34.0% versus 11.8%, P=0.035). In cytogenetically normal cases of acute myeloid leukemia, the 46/1 carriers had a considerably lower remission rate (78.7% versus 94.1%, P=0.064) and more deaths in remission or in aplasia caused by infections (46.8% versus 23.5%, P=0.038), resulting in the 46/1 carriers having shorter disease-free survival and overall survival compared to the 46/1 non-carriers. In multivariate analysis, the 46/1 haplotype was an independent adverse prognostic factor for disease-free survival (P=0.024) and overall survival (P=0.024) in patients with a normal karyotype. Janus kinase 2 46/1 haplotype had no impact on prognosis in the subgroup with abnormal karyotype. Conclusions Janus

  2. Multiple haplotype-resolved genomes reveal population patterns of gene and protein diplotypes.

    PubMed

    Hoehe, Margret R; Church, George M; Lehrach, Hans; Kroslak, Thomas; Palczewski, Stefanie; Nowick, Katja; Schulz, Sabrina; Suk, Eun-Kyung; Huebsch, Thomas

    2014-11-26

    To fully understand human biology and link genotype to phenotype, the phase of DNA variants must be known. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of haplotype-resolved genomes to assess the nature and variation of haplotypes and their pairs, diplotypes, in European population samples. We use a set of 14 haplotype-resolved genomes generated by fosmid clone-based sequencing, complemented and expanded by up to 372 statistically resolved genomes from the 1000 Genomes Project. We find immense diversity of both haploid and diploid gene forms, up to 4.1 and 3.9 million corresponding to 249 and 235 per gene on average. Less than 15% of autosomal genes have a predominant form. We describe a 'common diplotypic proteome', a set of 4,269 genes encoding two different proteins in over 30% of genomes. We show moreover an abundance of cis configurations of mutations in the 386 genomes with an average cis/trans ratio of 60:40, and distinguishable classes of cis- versus trans-abundant genes. This work identifies key features characterizing the diplotypic nature of human genomes and provides a conceptual and analytical framework, rich resources and novel hypotheses on the functional importance of diploidy.

  3. Y chromosome haplotyping in Scandinavian wolves (Canis lupus) based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Sundqvist, A K; Ellegren, H; Olivier, M; Vilà, C

    2001-08-01

    The analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences has for a long time been the most extensively used genetic tool for phylogenetic, phylogeographic and population genetic studies. Since this approach only considers female lineages, it tends to give a biased picture of the population history. The use of protein polymorphisms and microsatellites has helped to obtain a more unbiased view, but complementing population genetic studies with Y chromosome markers could clarify the role of each sex in natural processes. In this study we analysed genetic variability at four microsatellite loci on the canid Y chromosome. With these four microsatellites we constructed haplotypes and used them to study the genetic status of the Scandinavian wolf population, a population that now contains 60-70 animals but was thought to have been extinct in the 1970s. In a sample of 100 male wolves from northern Europe we found 17 different Y chromosome haplotypes. Only two of these were found in the current Scandinavian population. This indicates that there should have been at least two males involved in the founding of the Scandinavian wolf population after the bottleneck in the 1970s. The two Scandinavian Y chromosome haplotypes were not found elsewhere in northern Europe, which indicates low male gene flow between Scandinavia and the neighbouring countries.

  4. Widespread occurrence of a domestic dog mitochondrial DNA haplotype in southeastern US coyotes.

    PubMed

    Adams, J R; Leonard, J A; Waits, L P

    2003-02-01

    Sequence analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region from 112 southeastern US coyotes (Canis latrans) revealed 12 individuals with a haplotype closely related to those in domestic dogs. Phylogenetic analyses grouped this new haplotype in the dog/grey wolf (Canis familiaris/Canis lupus) clade with 98% bootstrap support. These results demonstrate that a male coyote hybridized with a female dog, and female hybrid offspring successfully integrated into the coyote population. The widespread distribution of this haplotype from Florida to West Virginia suggests that the hybridization event occurred long ago before the southeastern USA was colonized by coyotes. However, it could have occurred in the southeastern USA before the main front of coyotes arrived in the area between male coyotes released for sport and a local domestic dog. The introgression of domestic dog genes into the southeastern coyote population does not appear to have substantially affected the coyote's genetic, morphological, or behavioural integrity. However, our results suggest that, contrary to previous reports, hybridization can occur between domestic and wild canids, even when the latter is relatively abundant. Therefore, hybridization may be a greater threat to the persistence of wild canid populations than previously thought.

  5. Maori origins, Y-chromosome haplotypes and implications for human history in the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Underhill, P A; Passarino, G; Lin, A A; Marzuki, S; Oefner, P J; Cavalli-Sforza, L L; Chambers, G K

    2001-04-01

    An assessment of 28 pertinent binary genetic markers on the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) in New Zealand Maori and other relevant populations has revealed a diverse genetic paternal heritage of extant Maori. A maximum parsimony phylogeny was constructed in which nine of the 25 possible binary haplotypes were observed. Although approximately 40% of the samples have haplotypes of unequivocal European origin, an equivalent number of samples have a single binary haplotype that is also observed in Indonesia and New Guinea, indicative of common indigenous Melanesian ancestry. The balance of the lineages has either typical East Asian signatures or alternative compositions consistent with their affinity to Melanesia or New Guinea. Molecular analysis of mtDNA variation confirms the presence of a single predominant characteristic Southeast Asian (9-bp deletion in the Region V) lineage. The Y-chromosome results support a pattern of complex interrelationships between Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and Polynesia, in contrast to mtDNA and linguistic data, which uphold a rapid and homogeneous Austronesian expansion. The Y-chromosome data highlight a distinctive gender-modulated pattern of differential gene flow in the history of Polynesia.

  6. Possible Positive Selection for an Arsenic-Protective Haplotype in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Schlebusch, Carina M.; Lewis, Cecil M.; Vahter, Marie; Engström, Karin; Tito, Raúl Y.; Obregón-Tito, Alexandra J.; Huerta, Doris; Polo, Susan I.; Medina, Ángel C.; Brutsaert, Tom D.; Concha, Gabriela; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    Background: Arsenic in drinking water causes severe health effects. Indigenous people in the South American Andes have likely lived with arsenic-contaminated drinking water for thousands of years. Inhabitants of San Antonio de los Cobres (SAC) in the Argentinean highlands generally carry an AS3MT (the major arsenic-metabolizing gene) haplotype associated with reduced health risks due to rapid arsenic excretion and lower urinary fraction of the monomethylated metabolite. Objectives: We hypothesized an adaptation to high-arsenic living conditions via a possible positive selection for protective AS3MT variants and compared AS3MT haplotype frequencies among different indigenous groups. Methods: Indigenous groups we evaluated were a) inhabitants of SAC and villages near Salta in northern Argentina (n = 346), b) three Native American populations from the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP; n = 25), and c) five Peruvian populations (n = 97). The last two groups have presumably lower historical exposure to arsenic. Results: We found a significantly higher frequency of the protective AS3MT haplotype in the SAC population (68.7%) compared with the HGDP (14.3%, p < 0.001, Fisher exact test) and Peruvian (50.5%, p < 0.001) populations. Genome-wide microsatellite (n = 671) analysis showed no detectable level of population structure between SAC and Peruvian populations (measure of population differentiation FST = 0.006) and low levels of structure between SAC and HGDP populations (FST < 0.055 for all pairs of populations compared). Conclusions: Because population stratification seems unlikely to explain the differences in AS3MT haplotype frequencies, our data raise the possibility that, during a few thousand years, natural selection for tolerance to the environmental stressor arsenic may have increased the frequency of protective variants of AS3MT. Further studies are needed to investigate this hypothesis. PMID:23070617

  7. The JAK2 46/1 haplotype predisposes to MPL-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Amy V.; Campbell, Peter J.; Beer, Philip A.; Schnittger, Susanne; Vannucchi, Alessandro M.; Zoi, Katerina; Percy, Melanie J.; McMullin, Mary Frances; Scott, Linda M.; Tapper, William; Silver, Richard T.; Oscier, David; Harrison, Claire N.; Grallert, Harald; Kisialiou, Aliaksei; Strike, Paul; Chase, Andrew J.; Green, Anthony R.

    2010-01-01

    The 46/1 JAK2 haplotype predisposes to V617F-positive myeloproliferative neoplasms, but the underlying mechanism is obscure. We analyzed essential thrombocythemia patients entered into the PT-1 studies and, as expected, found that 46/1 was overrepresented in V617F-positive cases (n = 404) versus controls (n = 1492, P = 3.9 × 10−11). The 46/1 haplotype was also overrepresented in cases without V617F (n = 347, P = .009), with an excess seen for both MPL exon 10 mutated and V617F, MPL exon 10 nonmutated cases. Analysis of further MPL-positive, V617F-negative cases confirmed an excess of 46/1 (n = 176, P = .002), but no association between MPL mutations and MPL haplotype was seen. An excess of 46/1 was also seen in JAK2 exon 12 mutated cases (n = 69, P = .002), and these mutations preferentially arose on the 46/1 chromosome (P = .029). No association between 46/1 and clinical or laboratory features was seen in the PT-1 cohort either with or without V617F. The excess of 46/1 in JAK2 exon 12 cases is compatible with both the “hypermutability” and “fertile ground” hypotheses, but the excess in MPL-mutated cases argues against the former. No difference in sequence, splicing, or expression of JAK2 was found on 46/1 compared with other haplotypes, suggesting that any functional difference of JAK2 on 46/1, if it exists, must be relatively subtle. PMID:20304805

  8. Fabry disease: polymorphic haplotypes and a novel missense mutation in the GLA gene.

    PubMed

    Ferri, L; Guido, C; la Marca, G; Malvagia, S; Cavicchi, C; Fiumara, A; Barone, R; Parini, R; Antuzzi, D; Feliciani, C; Zampetti, A; Manna, R; Giglio, S; Della Valle, C M; Wu, X; Valenzano, K J; Benjamin, R; Donati, M A; Guerrini, R; Genuardi, M; Morrone, A

    2012-03-01

    Fabry disease: polymorphic haplotypes and a novel missense mutation in the GLA gene. Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder with a heterogeneous spectrum of clinical manifestations that are caused by the deficiency of α-galactosidase A (α-Gal-A) activity. Although useful for diagnosis in males, enzyme activity is not a reliable biochemical marker in heterozygous females due to random X-chromosome inactivation, thus rendering DNA sequencing of the α-Gal-A gene, alpha-galactosidase gene (GLA), the most reliable test for the confirmation of diagnosis in females. The spectrum of GLA mutations is highly heterogeneous. Many polymorphic GLA variants have been described, but it is unclear if haplotypes formed by combinations of such variants correlate with FD, thus complicating molecular diagnosis in females with normal α-Gal-A activity. We tested 67 female probands with clinical manifestations that may be associated with FD and 110 control males with normal α-Gal-A activity. Five different combinations of GLA polymorphic variants were identified in 14 of the 67 females, whereas clearcut pathogenetic alterations, p.Met51Ile and p.Met290Leu, were identified in two cases. The latter has not been reported so far, and both mutant forms were found to be responsive to the pharmacological chaperone deoxygalactonojirimycin (DGJ; migalastat hydrochloride). Analysis of the male control population, as well as male relatives of a suspected FD female proband, permitted the identification of seven different GLA gene haplotypes in strong linkage disequilibrium. The identification of haplotypes in control males provides evidence against their involvement in the development of FD phenotypic manifestations.

  9. Association of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) haplotypes with risk for systemic lupus erythematosus among South Indians.

    PubMed

    Rupasree, Yedluri; Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Rajasekhar, Liza; Uma, Addepally; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disorder involving genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors and has higher incidence in women. In this study, we explored the association of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) rs2234693 (PvuII) and rs9340799 (XbaI) polymorphisms with susceptibility to SLE. PCR-RFLP and ELISA were used for genetic analysis and determination of specific autoantibodies, respectively. The univariate analysis showed no independent association of rs2234693 (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 0.87 - 1.49, p = 0.36) and rs9340799 (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.66-1.14, p = 0.34). The haplotype analysis using SHEsis platform revealed strong linkage disequilibrium between these two polymorphisms (D': 0.81, r2: 0.55). Among the four haplotype groups, the C-A haplotype (rs2234693-rs9340799) was strongly associated with the risk for SLE (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.32 - 3.34, p = 0.001). The homozygous variant genotype of rs2234693 exhibited elevated TNF-α and depleted IFN-α, while the effects of rs9340799 were contradictory. The wild genotype of rs2234693 exhibited lower levels of IL-12 with number of rs9340799 variant alleles pronouncing this effect. From this study, it is concluded that the ESR1 haplotypes may influence the Th2 cytokine profile and susceptibility to SLE among the South Indians.

  10. High diversity of {alpha}-globin haplotypes in a senegalese population, including many previously unreported variants

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, J.J.; Swinburn, C.; Clegg, J.B.

    1995-11-01

    RFLP haplotypes at the {alpha}-globin gene complex have been examined in 190 individuals from the Niokolo Mandenka population of Senegal: haplotypes were assigned unambiguously for 210 chromosomes. The Mandenka share with other African populations a sample size-independent haplotype diversity that is much greater than that in any non-African population: the number of haplotypes observed in the Mandenka is typically twice that seen in the non-African populations sampled to date. Of these haplotypes, 17.3% had not been observed in any previous surveys, and a further 19.1% have previously been reported only in African populations. The haplotype distribution shows clear differences between African and non-African peoples, but this is on the basis of population-specific haplotypes combined with haplotypes common to all. The relationship of the newly reported haplotypes to those previously recorded suggests that several mutation processes, particularly recombination as homologous exchange or gene conversion, have been involved in their production. A computer program based on the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm was used to obtain maximum-likelihood estimates of haplotype frequencies for the entire data set: good concordance between the unambiguous and EM-derived sets was seen for the overall haplotype frequencies. Some of the low-frequency haplotypes reported by the estimation algorithm differ greatly, in structure, from those haplotypes known to be present in human populations, and they may not represent haplotypes actually present in the sample. 43 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. High diversity of alpha-globin haplotypes in a Senegalese population, including many previously unreported variants.

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, J J; Excoffier, L; Swinburn, C; Boyce, A J; Harding, R M; Langaney, A; Clegg, J B

    1995-01-01

    RFLP haplotypes at the alpha-globin gene complex have been examined in 190 individuals from the Niokolo Mandenka population of Senegal: haplotypes were assigned unambiguously for 210 chromosomes. The Mandenka share with other African populations a sample size-independent haplotype diversity that is much greater than that in any non-African population: the number of haplotypes observed in the Mandenka is typically twice that seen in the non-African populations sampled to date. Of these haplotypes, 17.3% had not been observed in any previous surveys, and a further 19.1% have previously been reported only in African populations. The haplotype distribution shows clear differences between African and non-African peoples, but this is on the basis of population-specific haplotypes combined with haplotypes common to all. The relationship of the newly reported haplotypes to those previously recorded suggests that several mutation processes, particularly recombination as homologous exchange or gene conversion, have been involved in their production. A computer program based on the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm was used to obtain maximum-likelihood estimates of haplotype frequencies for the entire data set: good concordance between the unambiguous and EM-derived sets was seen for the overall haplotype frequencies. Some of the low-frequency haplotypes reported by the estimation algorithm differ greatly, in structure, from those haplotypes known to be present in human populations, and they may not represent haplotypes actually present in the sample. PMID:7485171

  12. Analysis of additive metals in fuel and emission aerosols of diesel vehicles with and without particle traps.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Andrea; Wichser, Adrian

    2003-09-01

    Fuel additives used in particle traps have to comply with environmental directives and should not support the formation of additional toxic substances. The emission of metal additives from diesel engines with downstream particle traps has been studied. Aspects of the optimisation of sampling procedure, sample preparation and analysis are described. Exemplary results in form of a mass balance calculation are presented. The results demonstrate the high retention rate of the studied filter system but also possible deposition of additive metals in the engine.

  13. Beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes and HbF levels are not the only modulators of sickle cell disease in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Inati, A; Taher, A; Bou Alawi, W; Koussa, S; Kaspar, H; Shbaklo, H; Zalloua, P A

    2003-02-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder of the beta-globin chain. Despite the fact that all subjects with SCD have the same single base pair mutation, the severity of the clinical and hematological manifestations is extremely variable. This study examined for the first time in Lebanon the correlation between the clinical manifestation of SCD and the beta-globin gene haplotypes. The haplotypes of 50 patients diagnosed with SCD were determined using polymerase chain reaction amplification of fragments containing nine polymorphic restriction sites around and within the epsilon-Ggamma-Agamma-psibeta-delta-beta-globin gene complex. Most reported haplotypes were found in our population with the Benin haplotype as the most prevalent one. When the patients were divided according to their HbF levels into three groups (Group A: HbF < 5%, Group B: HbF between 5 and 15%, and Group C: HbF > 15%), surprisingly, the highest levels of HbF were associated with the most severe clinical cases. Our findings suggest that fetal hemoglobin levels are important but not the only parameters that affect the severity of the disease. In addition, the high levels of HbF in patients with CAR haplotypes did not seem to ameliorate the severity of symptoms, suggesting that genetic factors other than haplotypes are the major determinants of increased HbF levels in Lebanon.

  14. Haplotyping a single triploid individual based on genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingli; Chen, Xixi; Li, Xianchen

    2014-01-01

    The minimum error correction model is an important combinatorial model for haplotyping a single individual. In this article, triploid individual haplotype reconstruction problem is studied by using the model. A genetic algorithm based method GTIHR is presented for reconstructing the triploid individual haplotype. A novel coding method and an effectual hill-climbing operator are introduced for the GTIHR algorithm. This relatively short chromosome code can lead to a smaller solution space, which plays a positive role in speeding up the convergence process. The hill-climbing operator ensures algorithm GTIHR converge at a good solution quickly, and prevents premature convergence simultaneously. The experimental results prove that algorithm GTIHR can be implemented efficiently, and can get higher reconstruction rate than previous algorithms.

  15. Haplotyping the human leukocyte antigen system from single chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Nicholas M.; Burton, Matthew; Powell, David R.; Rossello, Fernando J.; Cooper, Don; Chopra, Abha; Hsieh, Ming Je; Sayer, David C.; Gordon, Lavinia; Pertile, Mark D; Tait, Brian D.; Irving, Helen R.; Pouton, Colin W.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a method for determining the parental HLA haplotypes of a single individual without recourse to conventional segregation genetics. Blood samples were cultured to identify and sort chromosome 6 by bivariate flow cytometry. Single chromosome 6 amplification products were confirmed with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and verified by deep sequencing to enable assignment of both alleles at the HLA loci, defining the two haplotypes. This study exemplifies a rapid and efficient method of haplotyping that can be applied to any chromosome pair, or indeed all chromosome pairs, using a single sorting operation. The method represents a cost-effective approach to complete phasing of SNPs, which will facilitate a deeper understanding of the links between SNPs, gene regulation and protein function. PMID:27461731

  16. Grouping preprocess for haplotype inference from SNP and CNV data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindo, Hiroyuki; Chigira, Hiroshi; Nagaoka, Tomoyo; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Inoue, Masato

    2009-12-01

    The method of statistical haplotype inference is an indispensable technique in the field of medical science. The authors previously reported Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium-based haplotype inference that could manage single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. We recently extended the method to cover copy number variation (CNV) data. Haplotype inference from mixed data is important because SNPs and CNVs are occasionally in linkage disequilibrium. The idea underlying the proposed method is simple, but the algorithm for it needs to be quite elaborate to reduce the calculation cost. Consequently, we have focused on the details on the algorithm in this study. Although the main advantage of the method is accuracy, in that it does not use any approximation, its main disadvantage is still the calculation cost, which is sometimes intractable for large data sets with missing values.

  17. JAK2 GGCC haplotype in MPL mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Pietra, Daniela; Casetti, Ilaria; Da Vià, Matteo C; Elena, Chiara; Milanesi, Chiara; Rumi, Elisa

    2012-07-01

    JAK2 (V617F) is associated with a genetic predisposition to its acquisition,as it is preferentially found in subjects with a common constitutional JAK2 haplotype known as 46/1 or GGCC. A recent study suggests that a genetic predisposition to acquisition of MPL mutation may exist in sporadic patients, since an association was found with the JAK2 46/1 haplotype. We genotyped 509 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), 7% of which carrying a somatic mutation of MPL Exon 10. We found that the JAK2 GGCC haplotype was closely associated with JAK2 (V617F) (OR 1.84, P < 0.001) but not with MPL mutations (OR 0.98), suggesting a different genetic background for these molecular lesions.

  18. A comparative analysis of British and Taiwanese students' conceptual and procedural knowledge of fraction addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui-Chuan

    2014-10-01

    This study examines students' procedural and conceptual achievement in fraction addition in England and Taiwan. A total of 1209 participants (561 British students and 648 Taiwanese students) at ages 12 and 13 were recruited from England and Taiwan to take part in the study. A quantitative design by means of a self-designed written test is adopted as central to the methodological considerations. The test has two major parts: the concept part and the skill part. The former is concerned with students' conceptual knowledge of fraction addition and the latter is interested in students' procedural competence when adding fractions. There were statistically significant differences both in concept and skill parts between the British and Taiwanese groups with the latter having a higher score. The analysis of the students' responses to the skill section indicates that the superiority of Taiwanese students' procedural achievements over those of their British peers is because most of the former are able to apply algorithms to adding fractions far more successfully than the latter. Earlier, Hart [1] reported that around 30% of the British students in their study used an erroneous strategy (adding tops and bottoms, for example, 2/3 + 1/7 = 3/10) while adding fractions. This study also finds that nearly the same percentage of the British group remained using this erroneous strategy to add fractions as Hart found in 1981. The study also provides evidence to show that students' understanding of fractions is confused and incomplete, even those who are successfully able to perform operations. More research is needed to be done to help students make sense of the operations and eventually attain computational competence with meaningful grounding in the domain of fractions.

  19. Analysis of Time to Event Outcomes in Randomized Controlled Trials by Generalized Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Argyropoulos, Christos; Unruh, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Randomized Controlled Trials almost invariably utilize the hazard ratio calculated with a Cox proportional hazard model as a treatment efficacy measure. Despite the widespread adoption of HRs, these provide a limited understanding of the treatment effect and may even provide a biased estimate when the assumption of proportional hazards in the Cox model is not verified by the trial data. Additional treatment effect measures on the survival probability or the time scale may be used to supplement HRs but a framework for the simultaneous generation of these measures is lacking. Methods By splitting follow-up time at the nodes of a Gauss Lobatto numerical quadrature rule, techniques for Poisson Generalized Additive Models (PGAM) can be adopted for flexible hazard modeling. Straightforward simulation post-estimation transforms PGAM estimates for the log hazard into estimates of the survival function. These in turn were used to calculate relative and absolute risks or even differences in restricted mean survival time between treatment arms. We illustrate our approach with extensive simulations and in two trials: IPASS (in which the proportionality of hazards was violated) and HEMO a long duration study conducted under evolving standards of care on a heterogeneous patient population. Findings PGAM can generate estimates of the survival function and the hazard ratio that are essentially identical to those obtained by Kaplan Meier curve analysis and the Cox model. PGAMs can simultaneously provide multiple measures of treatment efficacy after a single data pass. Furthermore, supported unadjusted (overall treatment effect) but also subgroup and adjusted analyses, while incorporating multiple time scales and accounting for non-proportional hazards in survival data. Conclusions By augmenting the HR conventionally reported, PGAMs have the potential to support the inferential goals of multiple stakeholders involved in the evaluation and appraisal of clinical trial

  20. Genome-wide transcript analysis of maize hybrids: allelic additive gene expression and yield heterosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mei; Rupe, Mary A; Yang, Xiaofeng; Crasta, Oswald; Zinselmeier, Christopher; Smith, Oscar S; Bowen, Ben

    2006-09-01

    Heterosis, or hybrid vigor, has been widely exploited in plant breeding for many decades, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the phenomenon remain unknown. In this study, we applied genome-wide transcript profiling to gain a global picture of the ways in which a large proportion of genes are expressed in the immature ear tissues of a series of 16 maize hybrids that vary in their degree of heterosis. Key observations include: (1) the proportion of allelic additively expressed genes is positively associated with hybrid yield and heterosis; (2) the proportion of genes that exhibit a bias towards the expression level of the paternal parent is negatively correlated with hybrid yield and heterosis; and (3) there is no correlation between the over- or under-expression of specific genes in maize hybrids with either yield or heterosis. The relationship of the expression patterns with hybrid performance is substantiated by analysis of a genetically improved modern hybrid (Pioneer hybrid 3394) versus a less improved older hybrid (Pioneer hybrid 3306) grown at different levels of plant density stress. The proportion of allelic additively expressed genes is positively associated with the modern high yielding hybrid, heterosis and high yielding environments, whereas the converse is true for the paternally biased gene expression. The dynamic changes of gene expression in hybrids responding to genotype and environment may result from differential regulation of the two parental alleles. Our findings suggest that differential allele regulation may play an important role in hybrid yield or heterosis, and provide a new insight to the molecular understanding of the underlying mechanisms of heterosis.

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis of drug sodium iron chlorophyllin addition to Hep 3B cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Wenhai; Yang, Fengying; Zhou, Xinwen; Jin, Hong; Yang, Peng-yuan

    2012-09-21

    The human hepatoma 3B cell line was chosen as an experimental model for in vitro test of drug screening. The drugs included chlorophyllin and its derivatives such as fluo-chlorophyllin, sodium copper chlorophyllin, and sodium iron chlorophyllin. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method was used in this study to obtain the primary screening results. The results showed that sodium iron chlorophyllin had the best LC(50) value. Proteomic analysis was then performed for further investigation of the effect of sodium iron chlorophyllin addition to the Hep 3B cell line. The proteins identified from a total protein extract of Hep 3B before and after the drug addition were compared by two-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis. Then 32 three-fold differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. There are 29 unique proteins among those identified proteins. These proteins include proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), T-complex protein, heterogeneous nuclear protein, nucleophosmin, heat shock protein A5 (HspA5) and peroxiredoxin. HspA5 is one of the proteins which are involved in protecting cancer cells against stress-induced apoptosis in cultured cells, protecting them against apoptosis through various mechanisms. Peroxiredoxin has anti-oxidant function and is related to cell proliferation, and signal transduction. It can protect the oxidation of other proteins. Peroxiredoxin has a close relationship with cancer and can eventually become a disease biomarker. This might help to develop a novel treatment method for carcinoma cancer.

  2. Statistical performance of cladistic strategies for haplotype grouping in pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Lunceford, Jared K; Liu, Nancy

    2008-12-10

    Haplotypes comprising multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are popular covariates for capturing the key genetic variation present over a region of interest in the DNA sequence. Although haplotypes can provide a clearer assessment of genetic variation in a region than their component SNPs considered individually, the multi-allelic nature of haplotypes increases the complexity of the statistical models intended to discover association with outcomes of interest. Cladistic methods cluster haplotypes according to the estimates of their genealogical closeness and have been proposed recently as strategies for reducing model complexity and increasing power. Two examples are methods based on a haplotype nesting algorithm described by Templeton et al. (Genetics 1987; 117:343-351) and hierarchical clustering of haplotypes as described by Durrant et al. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2004; 75:35-43). In the context of assessing the pharmacogenetic effects of candidate genes, for which high-density SNP data have been gathered, we have conducted a simulation-based case study of the testing and estimation properties of two strategies based on Templeton's algorithm (TA), one being that described by Seltman et al. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2001; 68:1250-1263; Genet. Epidemiol. 2003; 25:48-58), as well as the method of Durrant et al. using data from a diabetes clinical trial. Even after adjusting for multiplicity, improvements in power can be realized using cladistic approaches with treatment group sizes in the range expected for standard trials, although these gains may be sensitive to the cladistic structure used. Differences in the relative performance of the cladistic approaches examined were observed with the clustering approach of Durrant et al. showing statistical properties superior to the methods based on TA.

  3. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and haplotypes (Apa I, Bsm I, Fok I, Taq I) in Turkish psoriasis patients

    PubMed Central

    Acikbas, Ibrahim; Sanlı, Berna; Tepeli, Emre; Ergin, Seniz; Aktan, Sebnem; Bagci, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease characterized by increased squamous cell proliferation and impaired differentiation. Vitamin D, Calcitriol, and its analogues are successfully used for psoriasis therapy. However, it is unknown why some psoriasis patients are resistant to Vitamin D therapy. Vitamin D mediates its activity by a nuclear receptor. It is suggested that polymorphisms and haplotypes in the VDR gene may explain the differences in response to vitamin D therapy. Material/Methods In this study, 102 psoriasis patients and 102 healthy controls were studied for VDR gene polymorphisms. The Fok I, Bsm I, Apa I and Taq I polymorphisms were examined by PCR-RFLP, and 50 subjects received vitamin D therapy to evaluate the association between VDR gene polymorphisms and response to vitamin D therapy. Existence of cutting site is shown by capital letters, and lack was shown by lower case. The haplotypes were analysed by CHAPLIN. Results There was significant difference in allele frequency of T and genotype frequency of Tt between cases and controls (p values 0.038 and 0.04, respectively). The Aa and bb genotypes were significantly higher in early onset than late onset psoriasis (p values 0.008 and 0.04, respectively). The genotypes Ff, ff and TT are significantly different between vitamin D3 therapy responders and non-responders (p values 0.04, 0.0001, 0.009, respectively). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing importance of VDR gene haplotypes in psoriasis, the significance of the Wald and LR (Likelihood Ratio) statistics (p=0,0042) suggest that FfBbAatt is a disease-susceptibility haplotype. Conclusions Haplotype analysis is a recent and commonly used method in genetic association studies. Our results reveal a previously unidentified susceptibility haplotype and indicate that certain haplotypes are important in the resistance to vitamin D3 therapy and the onset of psoriasis. The haplotypes can give valuable data where

  4. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hensen, B.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.

    2016-01-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823

  5. Characterization and analysis of surface notches on Ti-alloy plates fabricated by additive manufacturing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kwai S.

    2015-12-01

    Rectangular plates of Ti-6Al-4V with extra low interstitial (ELI) were fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition techniques that included electron beam melting (EBM) and laser beam melting (LBM). The surface conditions of these plates were characterized using x-ray micro-computed tomography. The depth and radius of surface notch-like features on the LBM and EBM plates were measured from sectional images of individual virtual slices of the rectangular plates. The stress concentration factors of individual surface notches were computed and analyzed statistically to determine the appropriate distributions for the notch depth, notch radius, and stress concentration factor. These results were correlated with the fatigue life of the Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloys from an earlier investigation. A surface notch analysis was performed to assess the debit in the fatigue strength due to the surface notches. The assessment revealed that the fatigue lives of the additively manufactured plates with rough surface topographies and notch-like features are dominated by the fatigue crack growth of large cracks for both the LBM and EBM materials. The fatigue strength reduction due to the surface notches can be as large as 60%-75%. It is concluded that for better fatigue performance, the surface notches on EBM and LBM materials need to be removed by machining and the surface roughness be improved to a surface finish of about 1 μm.

  6. Failure location prediction by finite element analysis for an additive manufactured mandible implant.

    PubMed

    Huo, Jinxing; Dérand, Per; Rännar, Lars-Erik; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél; Gamstedt, E Kristofer

    2015-09-01

    In order to reconstruct a patient with a bone defect in the mandible, a porous scaffold attached to a plate, both in a titanium alloy, was designed and manufactured using additive manufacturing. Regrettably, the implant fractured in vivo several months after surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the failure of the implant and show a way of predicting the mechanical properties of the implant before surgery. All computed tomography data of the patient were preprocessed to remove metallic artefacts with metal deletion technique before mandible geometry reconstruction. The three-dimensional geometry of the patient's mandible was also reconstructed, and the implant was fixed to the bone model with screws in Mimics medical imaging software. A finite element model was established from the assembly of the mandible and the implant to study stresses developed during mastication. The stress distribution in the load-bearing plate was computed, and the location of main stress concentration in the plate was determined. Comparison between the fracture region and the location of the stress concentration shows that finite element analysis could serve as a tool for optimizing the design of mandible implants.

  7. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensen, B.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.

    2016-08-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator.

  8. Performance of the Tariff Method: validation of a simple additive algorithm for analysis of verbal autopsies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsies provide valuable information for studying mortality patterns in populations that lack reliable vital registration data. Methods for transforming verbal autopsy results into meaningful information for health workers and policymakers, however, are often costly or complicated to use. We present a simple additive algorithm, the Tariff Method (termed Tariff), which can be used for assigning individual cause of death and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) from verbal autopsy data. Methods Tariff calculates a score, or "tariff," for each cause, for each sign/symptom, across a pool of validated verbal autopsy data. The tariffs are summed for a given response pattern in a verbal autopsy, and this sum (score) provides the basis for predicting the cause of death in a dataset. We implemented this algorithm and evaluated the method's predictive ability, both in terms of chance-corrected concordance at the individual cause assignment level and in terms of CSMF accuracy at the population level. The analysis was conducted separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies across 500 pairs of train-test validation verbal autopsy data. Results Tariff is capable of outperforming physician-certified verbal autopsy in most cases. In terms of chance-corrected concordance, the method achieves 44.5% in adults, 39% in children, and 23.9% in neonates. CSMF accuracy was 0.745 in adults, 0.709 in children, and 0.679 in neonates. Conclusions Verbal autopsies can be an efficient means of obtaining cause of death data, and Tariff provides an intuitive, reliable method for generating individual cause assignment and CSMFs. The method is transparent and flexible and can be readily implemented by users without training in statistics or computer science. PMID:21816107

  9. The MAPT H1 haplotype is associated with tangle-predominant dementia

    PubMed Central

    Santa-Maria, Ismael; Haggiagi, Aya; Liu, Xinmin; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Nelson, Peter T.; Dewar, Ken; Clark, Lorraine N.

    2013-01-01

    Tangle-predominant dementia (TPD) patients exhibit cognitive decline that is clinically similar to early to moderate-stage Alzheimer disease (AD), yet autopsy reveals neurofibrillary tangles in the medial temporal lobe composed of the microtubule-associated protein tau without significant amyloid-beta (Aβ)-positive plaques. We performed a series of neuropathological, biochemical and genetic studies using autopsy brain tissue drawn from a cohort of 34 TPD, 50 AD and 56 control subjects to identify molecular and genetic signatures of this entity. Biochemical analysis demonstrates a similar tau protein isoform composition in TPD and AD, which is compatible with previous histological and ultrastructural studies. Further, biochemical analysis fails to uncover elevation of soluble Aβ in TPD frontal cortex and hippocampus compared to control subjects, demonstrating that non-plaque-associated Aβ is not a contributing factor. Unexpectedly, we also observed high levels of secretory amyloid precursor protein α (sAPPα) in the frontal cortex of some TPD patients compared to AD and control subjects, suggesting differences in APP processing. Finally, we tested whether TPD is associated with changes in the tau gene (MAPT). Haplotype analysis demonstrates a strong association between TPD and the MAPT H1 haplotype, a genomic inversion associated with some tauopathies and Parkinson disease (PD), when compared to age-matched control subjects with mild degenerative changes, i.e., successful cerebral aging. Next-generation resequencing of MAPT followed by association analysis shows an association between TPD and two polymorphisms in the MAPT 3′ untranslated region (UTR). These results support the hypothesis that haplotype-specific variation in the MAPT 3′ UTR underlies an Aβ-independent mechanism for neurodegeneration in TPD. PMID:22802095

  10. Analysis of synthetic motor oils for additive elements by ICP-AES

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.; Salmon, S.G.

    1995-12-31

    Standard motor oils are made by blending paraffinic or naphthenic mineral oil base stocks with additive packages containing anti-wear agents, dispersants, corrosion inhibitors, and viscosity index improvers. The blender can monitor the correct addition of the additives by determining the additive elements in samples dissolved in a solvent by ICP-AES. Internal standardization is required to control sample transport interferences due to differences in viscosity between samples and standards. Synthetic motor oils, made with poly-alpha-olefins and trimethylol propane esters, instead of mineral oils, pose an additional challenge since these compounds affect the plasma as well as having sample transport interference considerations. The synthetic lubricant base stocks add significant oxygen to the sample matrix, which makes the samples behave differently than standards prepared in mineral oil. Determination of additive elements in synthetic motor oils will be discussed.

  11. Genetics of chloroquine-resistant malaria: a haplotypic view

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Gauri; Das, Aparup

    2013-01-01

    The development and rapid spread of chloroquine resistance (CQR) in Plasmodium falciparum have triggered the identification of several genetic target(s) in the P. falciparum genome. In particular, mutations in the Pfcrt gene, specifically, K76T and mutations in three other amino acids in the region adjoining K76 (residues 72, 74, 75 and 76), are considered to be highly related to CQR. These various mutations form several different haplotypes and Pfcrt gene polymorphisms and the global distribution of the different CQR- Pfcrt haplotypes in endemic and non-endemic regions of P. falciparum malaria have been the subject of extensive study. Despite the fact that the Pfcrt gene is considered to be the primary CQR gene in P. falciparum , several studies have suggested that this may not be the case. Furthermore, there is a poor correlation between the evolutionary implications of the Pfcrt haplotypes and the inferred migration of CQR P. falciparum based on CQR epidemiological surveillance data. The present paper aims to clarify the existing knowledge on the genetic basis of the different CQR- Pfcrt haplotypes that are prevalent in worldwide populations based on the published literature and to analyse the data to generate hypotheses on the genetics and evolution of CQR malaria. PMID:24402147

  12. Nomenclature of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graziano, Sara L.; Brown, K.H.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Congruence of genetic data is critical for comparative and collaborative studies on natural fish populations. A comprehensive list of reported mitochrondrial DNA haplotypes for Oncorhynchus mykiss generated using the S-Phe/P2 primer set is presented as a resource for future investigations of this species.

  13. Asian online Y-STR Haplotype Reference Database.

    PubMed

    Lessig, Ruediger; Willuweit, Sascha; Krawczak, Michael; Wu, Fang-Chin; Pu, Chang-En; Kim, Wook; Henke, Lotte; Henke, Juergen; Miranda, Jasmin; Hidding, Monika; Benecke, Mark; Schmitt, Cornelia; Magno, Michelle; Calacal, Gayvelline; Delfin, Frederick C; de Ungria, Maria Corazon A; Elias, Sahar; Augustin, Christa; Tun, Zaw; Honda, Katsuja; Kayser, Manfred; Gusmao, Leonor; Amorim, António; Alves, Cintia; Hou, Yiping; Keyser, Christine; Ludes, Bertrand; Klintschar, Michael; Immel, Uta D; Reichenpfader, Barbara; Zaharova, Boriana; Roewer, Lutz

    2003-03-01

    For several years Y-chromosomal microsatellites (short tandem repeats, STRs) have been well established in forensic practice. In this context, the genetic characteristics of the Y chromosome (i.e. its paternal inheritance and lack of recombination) render STRs particularly powerful. However, genetic differences between male populations appear to be larger for Y-STRs than for autosomal STRs, a fact that is most likely due to the higher sensitivity of Y-chromosomal lineages to genetic drift (Forensic Sci Int 118 (2001) 153). The assessment of probabilities for matches between haplotyped male persons or traces/persons requires the typing of a large number of haplotypes in the appropriate reference populations. The haplotype data of a large number of European as well as South and North American populations have been collected and are continuously published online (Y-STR Haplotype Reference Database--YHRD; http://www.ystr.org). The most recent multicentric effort has led to the establishment of an Asian YHRD (http://www.ystr.org/asia) which has been available since January 2002. All databases are maintained and curated at the Institute of Legal Medicine, Humboldt-University, Berlin and will soon be fused to a global repository including populations from all continents.

  14. Absence of photoperiod effects on mating and ovarian maturation by three haplotypes of potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effects of photoperiod on reproductive diapause of three haplotypes of potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), collected from three geographic locations: south Texas (Central haplotype), California (Western haplotype), and Washington State (Northwestern haploty...

  15. Y chromosome haplotype distribution of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Northern Europe provides insight into population history and recovery.

    PubMed

    Schregel, Julia; Eiken, Hans Geir; Grøndahl, Finn Audun; Hailer, Frank; Aspi, Jouni; Kojola, Ilpo; Tirronen, Konstantin; Danilov, Piotr; Rykov, Alexander; Poroshin, Eugene; Janke, Axel; Swenson, Jon E; Hagen, Snorre B

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution, male-inherited Y-chromosomal markers are a useful tool for population genetic analyses of wildlife species, but to date have only been applied in this context to relatively few species besides humans. Using nine Y-chromosomal STRs and three Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers (Y-SNPs), we studied whether male gene flow was important for the recent recovery of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in Northern Europe, where the species declined dramatically in numbers and geographical distribution during the last centuries but is expanding now. We found 36 haplotypes in 443 male extant brown bears from Sweden, Norway, Finland and northwestern Russia. In 14 individuals from southern Norway from 1780 to 1920, we found two Y chromosome haplotypes present in the extant population as well as four Y chromosome haplotypes not present among the modern samples. Our results suggested major differences in genetic connectivity, diversity and structure between the eastern and the western populations in Northern Europe. In the west, our results indicated that the recovered population originated from only four male lineages, displaying pronounced spatial structuring suggestive of large-scale population size increase under limited male gene flow within the western subpopulation. In the east, we found a contrasting pattern, with high haplotype diversity and admixture. This first population genetic analysis of male brown bears shows conclusively that male gene flow was not the main force of population recovery.

  16. A haplotype at STAT2 Introgressed from neanderthals and serves as a candidate of positive selection in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Fernando L; Watkins, Joseph C; Hammer, Michael F

    2012-08-10

    Signals of archaic admixture have been identified through comparisons of the draft Neanderthal and Denisova genomes with those of living humans. Studies of individual loci contributing to these genome-wide average signals are required for characterization of the introgression process and investigation of whether archaic variants conferred an adaptive advantage to the ancestors of contemporary human populations. However, no definitive case of adaptive introgression has yet been described. Here we provide a DNA sequence analysis of the innate immune gene STAT2 and show that a haplotype carried by many Eurasians (but not sub-Saharan Africans) has a sequence that closely matches that of the Neanderthal STAT2. This haplotype, referred to as N, was discovered through a resequencing survey of the entire coding region of STAT2 in a global sample of 90 individuals. Analyses of publicly available complete genome sequence data show that haplotype N shares a recent common ancestor with the Neanderthal sequence (~80 thousand years ago) and is found throughout Eurasia at an average frequency of ~5%. Interestingly, N is found in Melanesian populations at ~10-fold higher frequency (~54%) than in Eurasian populations. A neutrality test that controls for demography rejects the hypothesis that a variant of N rose to high frequency in Melanesia by genetic drift alone. Although we are not able to pinpoint the precise target of positive selection, we identify nonsynonymous mutations in ERBB3, ESYT1, and STAT2-all of which are part of the same 250 kb introgressive haplotype-as good candidates.

  17. Responses of ecosystem nitrogen cycle to nitrogen addition: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meng; Yang, Yuanhe; Luo, Yiqi; Fang, Changming; Zhou, Xuhui; Chen, Jiakuan; Yang, Xin; Li, Bo

    2011-03-01

    • Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) addition may substantially alter the terrestrial N cycle. However, a comprehensive understanding of how the ecosystem N cycle responds to external N input remains elusive. • Here, we evaluated the central tendencies of the responses of 15 variables associated with the ecosystem N cycle to N addition, using data extracted from 206 peer-reviewed papers. • Our results showed that the largest changes in the ecosystem N cycle caused by N addition were increases in soil inorganic N leaching (461%), soil NO₃⁻ concentration (429%), nitrification (154%), nitrous oxide emission (134%), and denitrification (84%). N addition also substantially increased soil NH₄+ concentration (47%), and the N content in belowground (53%) and aboveground (44%) plant pools, leaves (24%), litter (24%) and dissolved organic N (21%). Total N content in the organic horizon (6.1%) and mineral soil (6.2%) slightly increased in response to N addition. However, N addition induced a decrease in microbial biomass N by 5.8%. • The increases in N effluxes caused by N addition were much greater than those in plant and soil pools except soil NO₃⁻, suggesting a leaky terrestrial N system.

  18. Additive-subtractive phase-modulated electronic speckle interferometry: analysis of fringe visibility.

    PubMed

    Pouet, B F; Krishnaswamy, S

    1994-10-01

    Fringe-visibility issues of additive-subtractive phase-modulated (ASPM) electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) are explored. ASPM ESPI is a three-step method in which additive-speckle images are acquired rapidly in an analog fashion in every frame of a video sequence, a speckle phase modulation is intentionally introduced between frames, and a digital subtraction of consecutive pairs of additive-speckle images is performed. We show that this scheme has the good high-frequency noise immunity associated with additive-ESPI techniques as well as the good fringe visibility associated with subtractive-ESPI techniques. The method has better fringe visibility than can be obtained with purely additive ESPI and also does not suffer from the fringe distortions that can occur with subtractive ESPI in the presence of high-frequency noise. We show that even if full speckle decorrelation were to occur between the two additive speckle images that are to be subtracted, the visibility of ASPM ESPI fringes can be made to approach unity by suitable adjustment of the reference-to-object beam-intensity ratio.

  19. Association of estrogen receptor {alpha} genotypes/ haplotypes with carotid intima-media thickness in Taiwanese women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meei-Maan; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Chen, Wei-Hung; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Chen, Hsin-Hon; Chung, Wen-Tin; Lee, Yuan-Chii; Hsu, Chung Y; Lin, Hui-Wen; Chiou, Hung-Yi

    2010-04-01

    The estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) is an important mediator of the atheroprotective effect of estrogen on the vasculature system. We examined the potential associations between common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants of ESR1 and intima-media thickness (IMT) in carotid arteries, a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A total of 760 study participants (343 men and 407 women), who had undergone a Duplex ultrasonographic examination of carotid artery, were investigated. Measurement of IMT was performed on a 10-mm segment of the common carotid artery (CCA). Fourteen sequence-validated SNPs of high frequency of Oriental origin were selected and genotyped by the method of Light-Cycler-480-assisted real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by melting curve analysis. Results from multiple linear regression analyses showed significant associations of SNPs rs2228480 (Ex8+229G>A) and rs3798758 (Ex8+1988C>A) with the carotid IMT values in women but not in men. Women with SNP rs2228480 (Ex8+229G>A) A/A genotype had a 0.048 mm (7.1%) increase in IMT values versus the other genotypes combined (P = .030). In women who carried the rs3798758 (Ex8+1988C>A) CA+AA combined genotypes, their carotid IMT measures were 0.020 mm (2.9%) decreased as compared with those in women who carried C/ C genotype (P = .042). In haplotype analysis, women with the T-A haplotype versus C-C haplotype of combined rs3798577 (Ex8+1264T>C) and rs3798758 (Ex8+1988C>A) were also found to be associated with a decreased IMT value at a borderline significance (P = .057). Some common SNPs in the ESR1 could be important in modulating carotid atherosclerosis and thereby CVD susceptibility in Taiwanese women.

  20. Effects of additives on the co-pyrolysis of municipal solid waste and paper sludge by using thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shiwen; Yu, Zhaosheng; Lin, Yan; Lin, Yousheng; Fan, Yunlong; Liao, Yanfen; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2016-06-01

    By using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the effects of different additives (MgO, Al2O3 and ZnO) on the pyrolysis characteristics and activation energy of municipal solid waste (MSW), paper sludge (PS) and their blends in N2 atmosphere had been investigated in this study. The experiments resulted that these additives were effective in reducing the initial temperature and activation energy. However, not all the additives were beneficial to reduce the residue mass and enhance the index D. For the different ratios of MSW and PS, the same additive even had the different influences. The catalytic effects of additives were not obvious and the pyrolysis became difficult with the increase of the proportion of PS. Based on all the contrast of the pyrolysis characteristics, MgO was the best additive and 70M30P was the best ratio, respectively.

  1. An Incomplete-Data Quasi-likelihood Approach to Haplotype-Based Genetic Association Studies on Related Individuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zuoheng; McPeek, Mary Sara

    2009-09-01

    We propose an incomplete-data, quasi-likelihood framework, for estimation and score tests, which accommodates both dependent and partially-observed data. The motivation comes from genetic association studies, where we address the problems of estimating haplotype frequencies and testing association between a disease and haplotypes of multiple tightly-linked genetic markers, using case-control samples containing related individuals. We consider a more general setting in which the complete data are dependent with marginal distributions following a generalized linear model. We form a vector Z whose elements are conditional expectations of the elements of the complete-data vector, given selected functions of the incomplete data. Assuming that the covariance matrix of Z is available, we form an optimal linear estimating function based on Z, which we solve by an iterative method. This approach addresses key difficulties in the haplotype frequency estimation and testing problems in related individuals: (1) dependence that is known but can be complicated; (2) data that are incomplete for structural reasons, as well as possibly missing, with different amounts of information for different observations; (3) the need for computational speed in order to analyze large numbers of markers; (4) a well-established null model, but an alternative model that is unknown and is problematic to fully specify in related individuals. For haplotype analysis, we give sufficient conditions for consistency and asymptotic normality of the estimator and asymptotic χ(2) null distribution of the score test. We apply the method to test for association of haplotypes with alcoholism in the GAW 14 COGA data set.

  2. Product versus additive threshold models for analysis of reproduction outcomes in animal genetics.

    PubMed

    David, I; Bodin, L; Gianola, D; Legarra, A; Manfredi, E; Robert-Granié, C

    2009-08-01

    The phenotypic observation of some reproduction traits (e.g., insemination success, interval from lambing to insemination) is the result of environmental and genetic factors acting on 2 individuals: the male and female involved in a mating couple. In animal genetics, the main approach (called additive model) proposed for studying such traits assumes that the phenotype is linked to a purely additive combination, either on the observed scale for continuous traits or on some underlying scale for discrete traits, of environmental and genetic effects affecting the 2 individuals. Statistical models proposed for studying human fecundability generally consider reproduction outcomes as the product of hypothetical unobservable variables. Taking inspiration from these works, we propose a model (product threshold model) for studying a binary reproduction trait that supposes that the observed phenotype is the product of 2 unobserved phenotypes, 1 for each individual. We developed a Gibbs sampling algorithm for fitting a Bayesian product threshold model including additive genetic effects and showed by simulation that it is feasible and that it provides good estimates of the parameters. We showed that fitting an additive threshold model to data that are simulated under a product threshold model provides biased estimates, especially for individuals with high breeding values. A main advantage of the product threshold model is that, in contrast to the additive model, it provides distinct estimates of fixed effects affecting each of the 2 unobserved phenotypes.

  3. Defense Health Care: Additional Analysis of Costs and Benefits of Potential Governance Structures Is Needed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    options, (2) a business case analysis and strategy for implementing its shared services concept, and (3) more complete analyses of the options’ strengths...and weaknesses. DoD concurred with developing a business case analysis for its shared services concept. DoD did not concur with the other two

  4. Beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes in sickle cell patients from southwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Z; Karimi, M; Haghshenass, M; Merat, A

    2003-11-01

    Sickle cell anemia in Iran is accompanied by a high level of HbF and mild clinical presentation. Here we report haplotypes of the beta gene cluster found in 81 randomly selected sickle cell patients, including 47 sickle cell anemia (SS), 17 sickle cell trait (AS), and 17 sickle/thalassemia (S/thal) from southwest Iran. We found all five common typical haplotypes as well as five atypical haplotypes in our patients. Except for four patients with homozygous Benin haplotype, none of the other African typical haplotypes were found in a homozygous state. Arab-Indian was found to be the most prevalent haplotype in the study population. This haplotype accounted for 51.1% as the homozygous form in SS patients, where 69.1% of chromosomes in these patients had the Arab-Indian haplotype. Bantu A2 was the second most prevalent haplotype among all patients. The mean %HbF in SS patients was 27.83 and in the homozygous Arab-Indian haplotype it was still higher (30.40%), while in AS patients the %HbF was only 1.20. The high %Ggamma chain (71.81) in the Arab-Indian homozygous haplotype was concomitant with the presence of an Xmn I site in both chromosomes. The presence of the Arab-Indian haplotype as the predominant haplotype might be suggestive of a gene flow to/from Saudi Arabia or India. More haplotype investigations of a normal population can clarify the high incidence of Bantu A2 haplotype in our population.

  5. Analysis of Glass-Filled Nylon in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotwinski, John; LaBarre, Erin; Forrest, Ryan; Crane, Emily

    2016-03-01

    At the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), glass bead-filled polyamide (a.k.a. nylon) (GFN) is being used frequently for functional parts and systems, built using a laser-based powder bed fusion (PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) system. Since these parts have performance requirements, it is important to understand the mechanical properties of the additively-made GFN as a function of build orientation and build parameters. In addition, the performance of the AM system used to manufacture these parts must be evaluated in order to understand its capabilities, especially in order to determine the dimensional precision and repeatability of features built with this system. This paper summarizes recent APL efforts to characterize the GFN powder, the mechanical properties of parts made with GFN, and the performance of the laser PBF machine while running GFN using an AM test artifact.

  6. Analysis of economics of a TV broadcasting satellite for additional nationwide TV programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, D.; Mertens, G.; Rappold, A.; Seith, W.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of a TV broadcasting satellite, transmitting four additional TV networks was analyzed. It is assumed that the cost of the satellite systems will be financed by the cable TV system operators. The additional TV programs increase income by attracting additional subscribers. Two economic models were established: (1) each local network is regarded as an independent economic unit with individual fees (cost price model) and (2) all networks are part of one public cable TV company with uniform fees (uniform price model). Assumptions are made for penetration as a function of subscription rates. Main results of the study are: the installation of a TV broadcasting satellite improves the economics of CTV-networks in both models; the overall coverage achievable by the uniform price model is significantly higher than that achievable by the cost price model.

  7. Rare deficiency types of alpha 1-antitrypsin: electrophoretic variation and DNA haplotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, D W; Billingsley, G D

    1989-01-01

    A deficiency of the plasma protease inhibitor alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT), is usually associated with the deficiency allele PI*Z. However, other alleles can also produce a deficiency. Some of these rare deficiency alleles produce a low concentration (3%-15% of normal) of alpha 1AT and include Mmalton, Mduarte, Mheerlen, and Mprocida. Null, or nonproducing, alleles are associated with trace amounts (less than 1%) of plasma alpha 1AT. We have identified, using isoelectric focusing, the deficiency alleles in 222 patients (68 children and 154 adults) with alpha 1AT deficiency. In addition to PI*Z, we found low-producing alleles PI*Mmalton and PI*Mcobalt and four null (PI*QO) alleles. On the basis of a population frequency of .0122 for PI*Z, frequencies for other deficiency alleles are 1.1 x 10(-4) for PI*Mmalton, 2.5 x 10(-5) for PI*Mcobalt (which may be the same as that for PI*Mduarte, and 1.4 x 10(-4) for all null alleles combined. Using 12 polymorphic restriction sites with seven different restriction enzymes, we have obtained DNA haplotypes for each of the rare deficiency types. All of the rare deficiency alleles can be distinguished from PI*Z by their DNA haplotype, and most can be distinguished from each other. DNA haplotypes are useful to indicate the presence of new types of null alleles, to identify genetic compounds for rare deficiency alleles, and to identify the original normal allele from which each deficiency allele is derived. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2786333

  8. HLA-DRB1 and -DRB3 allele frequencies and haplotypic associations in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Song, Eun Young; Park, Hyejin; Roh, Eun Youn; Park, Myoung Hee

    2004-03-01

    We have investigated the frequencies of human leukocyte antigen-DRB1 (HLA-DRB1) and -DRB3 alleles and DRB1-DRB3 haplotypic associations in 800 Koreans. DRB1 genotyping was done using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO) and PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) methods. DRB3 genotyping was done on 447 samples carrying DRB3-associated DRB1 alleles (DRB1*03, *11, *12, *13, and *14) using PCR-SSCP method. The allele frequencies of DRB3*0101, DRB3*0202, and DRB3*0301 were 0.073, 0.136, and 0.120, respectively, and we found one case of a probable new allele (DRB3*01new, 0.001). DRB1-DRB3 haplotypes with frequency (HF) > 0.005 exhibited strong associations between DRB3*0101 and DRB1*1201, *1301, and *1403; between DRB3*0301 and DRB1*1202 and *1302; between DRB3*0202 and DRB1*0301, *1101, *1401, *1405, and *1406 alleles. Most of the DRB1 alleles with frequency > 0.005 were exclusively associated with particular DRB3 alleles with relative linkage disequilibrium values of 1.0, except for DRB1*1201, *1202 and *1301; the rare presence (HF < 0.005) of DRB3*0202 associations were observed for these DRB1 alleles. We also investigated and presented rare DRB1-DRB3 associations in additional 6000 Koreans. Comparison with other ethnic groups revealed that DRB1*0301 and *1301 related DRB1-DRB3 haplotypes vary among different populations, in that Koreans and other Asian populations show less diversity compared with Caucasoids or African Americans.

  9. Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a population from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Palha, Teresinha de Jesus Brabo Ferreira; Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

    2007-03-02

    Haplotype and allele frequencies of the nine Y-STR (DYS19, DYS389 I, DYS389 II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385 I/II) were determined in a population sample of 200 unrelated males from Belém, Brazil. The most common haplotypes are shared by 1.5% of the sample, while 186 haplotypes are unique. The haplotype diversity is 0.9995+/-0.0006. The data obtained were compared to those of other Brazilian populations. AMOVA indicates that 99.91% of all the haplotypical variation is found within geopolitical regions and only 0.09% is found among regions.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of British and Taiwanese Students' Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Fraction Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hui-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines students' procedural and conceptual achievement in fraction addition in England and Taiwan. A total of 1209 participants (561 British students and 648 Taiwanese students) at ages 12 and 13 were recruited from England and Taiwan to take part in the study. A quantitative design by means of a self-designed written test is adopted…

  11. Association analysis of historical bread wheat germplasm using additive genetic covariance of relatives and population structure.

    PubMed

    Crossa, José; Burgueño, Juan; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Vargas, Mateo; Herrera-Foessel, Sybil A; Lillemo, Morten; Singh, Ravi P; Trethowan, Richard; Warburton, Marilyn; Franco, Jorge; Reynolds, Matthew; Crouch, Jonathan H; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2007-11-01

    Linkage disequilibrium can be used for identifying associations between traits of interest and genetic markers. This study used mapped diversity array technology (DArT) markers to find associations with resistance to stem rust, leaf rust, yellow rust, and powdery mildew, plus grain yield in five historical wheat international multienvironment trials from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Two linear mixed models were used to assess marker-trait associations incorporating information on population structure and covariance between relatives. An integrated map containing 813 DArT markers and 831 other markers was constructed. Several linkage disequilibrium clusters bearing multiple host plant resistance genes were found. Most of the associated markers were found in genomic regions where previous reports had found genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing the same traits, providing an independent validation of this approach. In addition, many new chromosome regions for disease resistance and grain yield were identified in the wheat genome. Phenotyping across up to 60 environments and years allowed modeling of genotype x environment interaction, thereby making possible the identification of markers contributing to both additive and additive x additive interaction effects of traits.

  12. Consequence analysis of an unmitigated NaOH solution spray release during addition to waste tank

    SciTech Connect

    Himes, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-21

    Toxicological consequences were calculated for a postulated maximum caustic soda (NaOH) solution spray leak during addition to a waste tank to adjust tank pH. Although onsite risk guidelines were exceeded for the unmitigated release, site boundary consequences were below the level of concern. Means of mitigating the release so as to greatly reduce the onsite consequences were recommended.

  13. Haplotypes in the APOA1-C3-A4-A5 gene cluster affect plasma lipids in both humans and baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qian-fei; Liu, Xin; O'Connell, Jeff; Peng, Ze; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rainwater, David L.; VandeBerg, John L.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-09-15

    Genetic studies in non-human primates serve as a potential strategy for identifying genomic intervals where polymorphisms impact upon human disease-related phenotypes. It remains unclear, however, whether independently arising polymorphisms in orthologous regions of non-human primates leads to similar variation in a quantitative trait found in both species. To explore this paradigm, we studied a baboon apolipoprotein gene cluster (APOA1/C3/A4/A5) for which the human gene orthologs have well established roles in influencing plasma HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Our extensive polymorphism analysis of this 68 kb gene cluster in 96 pedigreed baboons identified several haplotype blocks each with limited diversity, consistent with haplotype findings in humans. To determine whether baboons, like humans, also have particular haplotypes associated with lipid phenotypes, we genotyped 634 well characterized baboons using 16 haplotype tagging SNPs. Genetic analysis of single SNPs, as well as haplotypes, revealed an association of APOA5 and APOC3 variants with HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, respectively. Thus, independent variation in orthologous genomic intervals does associate with similar quantitative lipid traits in both species, supporting the possibility of uncovering human QTL genes in a highly controlled non-human primate model.

  14. Association with Spontaneous Hepatitis C Viral Clearance and Genetic Differentiation of IL28B/IFNL4 Haplotypes in Populations from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Aldaco, Karina; Rebello Pinho, João R.; Roman, Sonia; Gleyzer, Ketti; Fierro, Nora A.; Oyakawa, Leticia; Ramos-Lopez, Omar; Ferraz Santana, Rubia A.; Sitnik, Roberta; Panduro, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Aim To analyze the genetic heterogeneity of the Amerindian and admixed population (Mestizos) based on the IL28B (rs12979860, rs8099917) and IFNL4 (rs368234815) haplotypes, and their association with spontaneous clearance (SC) and liver damage in patients with hepatitis C infection from West Mexico. Methods A total of 711 subjects from West Mexico (181 Amerindians and 530 Mestizos) were studied for the prevalence of IL28B (rs12979860C/T, rs8099917G/T) and IFNL4 (rs368234815∆G/TT) genotypes. A case-control study was performed in 234 treatment-naïve HCV Mestizos (149 chronic hepatitis C and 85 with SC) for the association of haplotypes with SC and liver damage. A real-time PCR assay was used for genotyping,