Science.gov

Sample records for addition high levels

  1. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  2. Enhanced critical currents in (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconducting tapes with high levels of Zr addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Chen, Y.; Shi, T.; Liu, Y.; Khatri, N. D.; Liu, J.; Yao, Y.; Xiong, X.; Lei, C.; Soloveichik, S.; Galstyan, E.; Majkic, G.

    2013-03-01

    The critical current and structural properties of (Gd,Y)BaCuO tapes made by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with Zr addition levels up to 30 at.% have been investigated. The reduction in critical current beyond the previously optimized Zr addition level of 7.5 at.% was found to be due to structural deterioration of the (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox film. By a modified MOCVD process, enhanced critical current densities have been achieved with high levels of Zr addition, including 3.83 MA cm-2 in 15 at.% Zr-added 1.1 μm thick film at 77 K in zero magnetic field. Critical currents as high as 1072 A/12 mm have been reached in (Gd,Y)BaCuO tapes with 15 at.% Zr addition at 30 K in a field of 3 T applied perpendicular to the tape, corresponding to a pinning force value of 268 GN m-3. The enhanced critical currents achievable with a high density of nanoscale defects by employing high levels of second-phase additions enable the performance targets needed for the use of HTS tapes in coil applications involving high magnetic fields at temperatures below 50 K to be met.

  3. Enhanced critical currents in (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconducting tapes with high levels of Zr addition

    SciTech Connect

    Selvamanickam, V; Chen, Y; Shi, T; Liu, Y; Khatri, ND; Liu, J; Yao, Y; Xiong, X; Lei, C; Soloveichik, S; Galstyan, E; Majkic, G

    2013-01-21

    The critical current and structural properties of (Gd,Y)BaCuO tapes made by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with Zr addition levels up to 30 at.% have been investigated. The reduction in critical current beyond the previously optimized Zr addition level of 7.5 at.% was found to be due to structural deterioration of the (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox film. By a modified MOCVD process,enhanced critical current densities have been achieved with high levels of Zr addition,including 3.83 MA cm(-2) in 15 at.% Zr- added 1.1 mu m thick film at 77 K in zero magnetic field. Critical currents as high as 1072 A/ 12 mm have been reached in (Gd,Y) BaCuO tapes with 15 at.% Zr addition at 30 K in a field of 3 T applied perpendicular to the tape,corresponding to a pinning force value of 268 GN m(-3). The enhanced critical currents achievable with a high density of nanoscale defects by employing high levels of second- phase additions enable the performance targets needed for the use of HTS tapes in coil applications involving high magnetic fields at temperatures below 50 K to be met.

  4. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  5. Comprehensive data base of high-level nuclear waste glasses: September 1987 status report: Volume 2, Additional appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Kindle, C.H.; Kreiter, M.R.

    1987-12-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is assembling a comprehensive data base (CDB) of experimental data collected for high-level nuclear waste package components. The status of the CDB is summarized in Volume I of this report. Volume II contains appendices that present data from the data base and an evaluation of glass durability models applied to the data base.

  6. EFFECTS OF QUARTZ PARTICLE SIZE AND SUCROSE ADDITION ON MELTING BEHAVIOR OF A MELTER FEED FOR HIGH-LEVEL GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    MARCIAL J; KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; SCHWEIGER MJ; SWEARINGEN KJ; TEGROTENHUIS WE; HENAGER SH

    2010-07-28

    The behavior of melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming additives) during waste-glass processing has a significant impact on the rate of the vitrification process. We studied the effects of silica particle size and sucrose addition on the volumetric expansion (foaming) of a high-alumina feed and the rate of dissolution of silica particles in feed samples heated at 5 C/min up to 1200 C. The initial size of quartz particles in feed ranged from 5 to 195 {micro}m. The fraction of the sucrose added ranged from 0 to 0.20 g per g glass. Extensive foaming occurred only in feeds with 5-{micro}m quartz particles; particles {ge}150 {micro}m formed clusters. Particles of 5 {micro}m completely dissolved by 900 C whereas particles {ge}150 {micro}m did not fully dissolve even when the temperature reached 1200 C. Sucrose addition had virtually zero impact on both foaming and the dissolution of silica particles. Over 100 sites in the United States are currently tasked with the storage of nuclear waste. The largest is the Hanford Site located in southeastern Washington State with 177 subterranean tanks containing over fifty-million gallons of nuclear waste from plutonium production from 1944 through 1987. This waste will be vitrified at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. In the vitrification process, feed is charged into a melter and converted into glass to be ultimately stored in a permanent repository. The duration of waste-site cleanups by the vitrification process depends on the rate of melting, i.e., on the rate of the feed-to-glass conversion. Foaming associated with the melting process and the rate of dissolution of quartz particles (silica being the major glass-forming additive) are assumed to be important factors that influence the rate of melting. Previous studies on foaming of high-alumina feed demonstrated that varying the makeup of a melter feed has a significant impact on foaming. The volume of feeds that contained 5-{micro

  7. Effect of Feed Melting, Temperature History and Minor Component Addition on Spinel Crystallization in High-Level Waste Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Izak, Pavel; Hrma, Pavel R.; Arey, Bruce W.; Plaisted, Trevor J.

    2001-08-01

    This study was undertaken to help design mathematical models for high-level waste (HLW) glass melter that simulate spinel behavior in molten glass. Spinel, (Fe,Ni,Mn) (Fe,Cr)2O4, is the primary solid phase that precipitates from HLW glasses containing Fe and Ni in sufficient concentrations. Spinel crystallization affects the anticipated cost and risk of HLW vitrification. To study melting reactions, we used simulated HLW feed, prepared with co-precipitated Fe, Ni, Cr, and Mn hydroxides. Feed samples were heated up at a temperature-increase rate (4C/min) close to that which the feed experiences in the HLW glass melter. The decomposition, melting, and dissolution of feed components (such as nitrates, carbonates, and silica) and the formation of intermediate crystalline phases (spinel, sodalite [Na8(AlSiO4)6(NO2)2], and Zr-containing minerals) were characterized using evolved gas analysis, volume-expansion measurement, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction. Nitrates and quartz, the major feed components, converted to a glass-forming melt by 880C. A chromium-free spinel formed in the nitrate melt starting from 520C and Sodalite, a transient product of corundum dissolution, appeared above 600C and eventually dissolved in glass. To investigate the effects of temperature history and minor components (Ru,Ag, and Cu) on the dissolution and growth of spinel crystals, samples were heated up to temperatures above liquidus temperature (TL), then subjected to different temperature histories, and analyzed. The results show that spinel mass fraction, crystals composition, and crystal size depend on the chemical and physical makeup of the feed and temperature history.

  8. 47. MAIN WAREHOUSE SECOND LEVEL ADDITION Second level was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. MAIN WAREHOUSE - SECOND LEVEL ADDITION Second level was added in 1941. Note the variety of building materials used in the wall: cement, bricks and finally cement blocks, with wood topping the entire wall. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  9. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  10. Rapid N2O fluxes at high level of nitrate nitrogen addition during freeze-thaw events in boreal peatlands of Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Qian; Song, Changchun; Wang, Xianwei; Shi, Fuxi; Wang, Lili; Guo, Yuedong

    2016-06-01

    Freeze-thaw (FT) events and increasing nitrogen (N) availability may alter N turnover and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in permafrost peatlands. However, the responses of N2O emissions to different N levels and additions during FT events are far from clear. We conducted an incubation study to investigate the impacts of different N addition levels (LN: 0.07 mg N g-1, HN: 0.14 mg N g-1) and N addition forms (AC: ammonium chloride, NS: sodium nitrate) on the emissions of N2O under FT and non-freeze-thaw (NFT) conditions in boreal peatlands of Northeast China. Results indicated that the FT condition significantly increased N2O emissions compared with the NFT condition and peaks occurred during thawing. Compared with AC treatments, NS treatments significantly elevated the accumulation of N2O emissions under the FT condition, exhibiting significant differences in different NS levels. N2O emissions were also positively dependent on soil NO3- concentrations to supply nitrate for denitrification. Nitrate-N addition was mainly responsible for the burst of N2O with denitrification as the main process during FT events. Therefore, these results suggest that N2O emissions potentially increase during FT events with increasing nitrate-N deposition in permafrost peatlands, which would contribute to global climate warming.

  11. Effects of Quartz Particle Size and Sucrose Addition on Melting Behavior of a Melter Feed for High-Level Waste Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Marcial, Jose; Hrma, Pavel R; Schweiger, Michael J; Swearingen, Kevin J; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E; Henager, Samuel H

    2010-08-11

    The behavior of melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming additives) during waste-glass processing has a significant impact on the rate of the vitrification process. We studied the effects of silica particle size and sucrose addition on the volumetric expansion (foaming) of a high-alumina feed and the rate of dissolution of silica particles in feed samples heated at 5°C/min up to 1200°C. The initial size of quartz particles in feed ranged from 5 to 195 µm. The fraction of the sucrose added ranged from 0 to 0.20 g per g glass. Extensive foaming occurred only in feeds with 5-μm quartz particles; particles >150 µm formed clusters. Particles of 5 µm completely dissolved by 900°C whereas particles >150 µm did not fully dissolve even when the temperature reached 1200°C. Sucrose addition had virtually zero impact on both foaming and the dissolution of silica particles.

  12. High potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    High potassium level is a problem in which the amount of potassium in the blood is higher than normal. The medical ... There are often no symptoms with a high level of potassium. When symptoms do occur, they may ...

  13. High blood cholesterol levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features on this page, ... called "bad" cholesterol For many people, abnormal cholesterol levels are partly due to an unhealthy lifestyle. This ...

  14. Estimation of the limitations for surficial water addition above a potential high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fewell, M.E.; Sobolik, S.R.; Gauthier, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Site characterization includes surface-based and underground testing. Analyses have been performed to design site characterization activities with minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste, and on tests performed as part of the characterization process. One activity of site characterization is the construction of an Exploratory Studies Facility, consisting of underground shafts, drifts, and ramps, and the accompanying surface pad facility and roads. The information in this report addresses the following topics: (1) a discussion of the potential effects of surface construction water on repository-performance, and on surface and underground experiments; (2) one-dimensional numerical calculations predicting the maximum allowable amount of water that may infiltrate the surface of the mountain without affecting repository performance; and (3) two-dimensional numerical calculations of the movement of that amount of surface water and how the water may affect repository performance and experiments. The results contained herein should be used with other site data and scientific/engineering judgement in determining controls on water usage at Yucca Mountain. This document contains information that has been used in preparing Appendix I of the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements document for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

  15. Additional Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of the Student Risk Screening Scale at the High School Level: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy P.; Ennis, Robin Parks; Cox, Meredith Lucille; Schatschneider, Christopher; Lambert, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This study reports findings from a validation study of the Student Risk Screening Scale for use with 9th- through 12th-grade students (N = 1854) attending a rural fringe school. Results indicated high internal consistency, test-retest stability, and inter-rater reliability. Predictive validity was established across two academic years, with Spring…

  16. Tough, High-Performance, Thermoplastic Addition Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Proctor, K. Mason; Gleason, John; Morgan, Cassandra; Partos, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Series of addition-type thermoplastics (ATT's) exhibit useful properties. Because of their addition curing and linear structure, ATT polymers have toughness, like thermoplastics, and easily processed, like thermosets. Work undertaken to develop chemical reaction forming stable aromatic rings in backbone of ATT polymer, combining high-temperature performance and thermo-oxidative stability with toughness and easy processibility, and minimizing or eliminating necessity for tradeoffs among properties often observed in conventional polymer syntheses.

  17. High level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, J L

    1980-01-01

    The DOE Division of Waste Products through a lead office at Savannah River is developing a program to immobilize all US high-level nuclear waste for terminal disposal. DOE high-level wastes include those at the Hanford Plant, the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, and the Savannah River Plant. Commercial high-level wastes, for which DOE is also developing immobilization technology, include those at the Nuclear Fuel Services Plant and any future commercial fuels reprocessing plants. The first immobilization plant is to be the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River, scheduled for 1983 project submission to Congress and 1989 operation. Waste forms are still being selected for this plant. Borosilicate glass is currently the reference form, but alternate candidates include concretes, calcines, other glasses, ceramics, and matrix forms.

  18. Additives for high temperature liquid lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, C.; Yavrouian, A.H.

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this task is to perform research for the Department of Energy (DOE) on the synthesis and characterization of additives for liquid lubricants which will lead to significant improvements in the major tribology task area of friction and wear reductions at high temperature. To this end JPL is surveying candidate precursor compounds which are soluble in liquid lubricants, synthesizing the most promising of these materials, characterizing them, and submitting these additives to NIST for evaluation. Calculations have been made to estimate the Hildebrand solubility parameters for candidate precursor compounds. The initial listing is confined to dinitrites which can form chelates with metals or their compounds. The goal is to find soluble additives that can react in situ with the bearing surface to form adherent lubricating film. Although none of the compounds listed match the solubility parameters of liquid lubricants, the lowest solubility parameters were calculated for dialkyl substituted compounds. In this case, there is probably sufficient solubility to provide adequate amounts of reactants on the metal surfaces. The conclusions are based on previous results where only 1/2 to 1% solubility was sufficient to give excellent lubrication.

  19. 38. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF STREET LEVEL IN SHOWROOM ADDITION (NOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF STREET LEVEL IN SHOWROOM ADDITION (NOW USED AS FINISHING ROOM) WITH FRESHLY PAINTED DORY BOATS ON DISPLAY. 2X4 STUD WALL AND ROOF FRAMING CAN BE SEEN. - Lowell's Boat Shop, 459 Main Street, Amesbury, Essex County, MA

  20. 45. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL CRUSHER ADDITION FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL CRUSHER ADDITION FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR BIN FEED, LOWER CENTER, WITH STEPHENS-ADAMSON 25 TON/HR ELEVATOR SPLIT DISCHARGE (OXIDIZED/UNOXIDIZED) IN CENTER. CRUDE ORE BINS AND MACHINE SHOP BEYOND. NOTE TOP OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN IS BELOW TOP OF CRUDE ORE BINS. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  1. 41. VIEW NORTH OF UPPER LEVEL OF CRUSHER ADDITION. DINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. VIEW NORTH OF UPPER LEVEL OF CRUSHER ADDITION. DINGS MAGNETIC PULLEY AT CENTER. ALSO SHOWS 100-TON CRUSHED UNOXIDIZED ORE BIN (RIGHT), PULLEY FORM 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FEED AND STEPHENSADAMSON 25 TON/HR BUCKET ELEVATOR (UPPER CENTER). THE UPPER PORTION OF THE SAMPLING ELEVATOR IS ABOVE THE MAGNETIC PULLEY (CENTER LEFT) WITH THE ROUTE OF THE 16 INCH BELT CONVEYOR FINES FEED TO CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN TO ITS LEFT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  2. High blood cholesterol levels

    MedlinePlus

    Steps you can take to improve their cholesterol levels, and help prevent heart disease and a heart attack include: Quit smoking. This is the single biggest change you can make to reduce your risk of heart attack and stroke. Eat foods ...

  3. High-level-waste immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, J L

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of risks, environmental effects, process feasibility, and costs for disposal of immobilized high-level wastes in geologic repositories indicates that the disposal system safety has a low sensitivity to the choice of the waste disposal form.

  4. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  5. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bean, Vern E.; Long, Frederick G.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  6. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  7. The CMS high level trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running on the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. Here we will present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simpler single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We will discuss the optimisation of the triggers and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  8. The CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High-Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  9. Resin additive improves performance of high-temperature hydrocarbon lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Loomis, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Paraffinic resins, in high temperature applications, improve strength of thin lubricant film in Hertzian contacts even though they do not increase bulk oil viscosity. Use of resin circumvents corrosivity and high volatility problems inherent with many chemical additives.

  10. Tough, high performance, addition-type thermoplastic polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A tough, high performance polyimide is provided by reacting a triple bond conjugated with an aromatic ring in a bisethynyl compound with the active double bond in a compound containing a double bond activated toward the formation of a Diels-Adler type adduct, especially a bismaleimide, a biscitraconimide, or a benzoquinone, or mixtures thereof. Addition curing of this product produces a high linear polymeric structure and heat treating the highly linear polymeric structure produces a thermally stable aromatic addition-type thermoplastic polyimide, which finds utility in the preparation of molding compounds, adhesive compositions, and polymer matrix composites.

  11. Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing: Route to High Structural Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanivel, S.; Sidhar, H.; Mishra, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    Aerospace and automotive industries provide the next big opportunities for additive manufacturing. Currently, the additive industry is confronted with four major challenges that have been identified in this article. These challenges need to be addressed for the additive technologies to march into new frontiers and create additional markets. Specific potential success in the transportation sectors is dependent on the ability to manufacture complicated structures with high performance. Most of the techniques used for metal-based additive manufacturing are fusion based because of their ability to fulfill the computer-aided design to component vision. Although these techniques aid in fabrication of complex shapes, achieving high structural performance is a key problem due to the liquid-solid phase transformation. In this article, friction stir additive manufacturing (FSAM) is shown as a potential solid-state process for attaining high-performance lightweight alloys for simpler geometrical applications. To illustrate FSAM as a high-performance route, manufactured builds of Mg-4Y-3Nd and AA5083 are shown as examples. In the Mg-based alloy, an average hardness of 120 HV was achieved in the built structure and was significantly higher than that of the base material (97 HV). Similarly for the Al-based alloy, compared with the base hardness of 88 HV, the average built hardness was 104 HV. A potential application of FSAM is illustrated by taking an example of a simple stiffener assembly.

  12. Additives for high temperature liquid lubricants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yavrouian, A.H.; Repar, J.; Moran, C.M.; Lawton, E.A.; Anderson, M.S.

    1994-01-15

    The purpose of this task was to perform research for the Department of Energy (DOE) on the synthesis and characterization of additives for liquid lubricants which could lead to significant improvements in the major tribological task area of friction and wear reduction at high temperature. To this end JPL surveyed candidate precursor compounds which are soluble in liquid lubricants, synthesized the most promising of these materials, characterized them and submitted these additives to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for evaluation.

  13. High level white noise generator

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  14. High School Science Technology Additions, Midland Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Discusses design goals, space requirements, and need for mobile furniture and "imagination stations" at Michigan's Midland Public High School science technology addition. Describes the architectural design, costs, and specifications. Includes floor plans, general description, photos and a list of consultants, manufacturers, and suppliers used for…

  15. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-09-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  16. Additive Manufacturing of High-Entropy Alloys by Laser Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocelík, V.; Janssen, N.; Smith, S. N.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2016-07-01

    This contribution concentrates on the possibilities of additive manufacturing of high-entropy clad layers by laser processing. In particular, the effects of the laser surface processing parameters on the microstructure and hardness of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were examined. AlCoCrFeNi alloys with different amounts of aluminum prepared by arc melting were investigated and compared with the laser beam remelted HEAs with the same composition. Attempts to form HEAs coatings with a direct laser deposition from the mixture of elemental powders were made for AlCoCrFeNi and AlCrFeNiTa composition. A strong influence of solidification rate on the amounts of face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic phase, their chemical composition, and spatial distribution was detected for two-phase AlCoCrFeNi HEAs. It is concluded that a high-power laser is a versatile tool to synthesize interesting HEAs with additive manufacturing processing. Critical issues are related to the rate of (re)solidification, the dilution with the substrate, powder efficiency during cladding, and differences in melting points of clad powders making additive manufacturing processing from a simple mixture of elemental powders a challenging approach.

  17. Additive Manufacturing of High-Entropy Alloys by Laser Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocelík, V.; Janssen, N.; Smith, S. N.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2016-04-01

    This contribution concentrates on the possibilities of additive manufacturing of high-entropy clad layers by laser processing. In particular, the effects of the laser surface processing parameters on the microstructure and hardness of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were examined. AlCoCrFeNi alloys with different amounts of aluminum prepared by arc melting were investigated and compared with the laser beam remelted HEAs with the same composition. Attempts to form HEAs coatings with a direct laser deposition from the mixture of elemental powders were made for AlCoCrFeNi and AlCrFeNiTa composition. A strong influence of solidification rate on the amounts of face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic phase, their chemical composition, and spatial distribution was detected for two-phase AlCoCrFeNi HEAs. It is concluded that a high-power laser is a versatile tool to synthesize interesting HEAs with additive manufacturing processing. Critical issues are related to the rate of (re)solidification, the dilution with the substrate, powder efficiency during cladding, and differences in melting points of clad powders making additive manufacturing processing from a simple mixture of elemental powders a challenging approach.

  18. High temperature liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

  19. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  20. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved tracking and vertexing algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performance as well as on the jet and missing energy reconstruction.

  1. Stereoscopic high-speed imaging using additive colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankin, Georgy N.; Piech, David; Zhong, Pei

    2012-04-01

    An experimental system for digital stereoscopic imaging produced by using a high-speed color camera is described. Two bright-field image projections of a three-dimensional object are captured utilizing additive-color backlighting (blue and red). The two images are simultaneously combined on a two-dimensional image sensor using a set of dichromatic mirrors, and stored for off-line separation of each projection. This method has been demonstrated in analyzing cavitation bubble dynamics near boundaries. This technique may be useful for flow visualization and in machine vision applications.

  2. Highly oriented carbon fiber–polymer composites via additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tekinalp, Halil L.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio M.; Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Naskar, Amit K.; Blue, Craig A.; Ozcan, Soydan

    2014-10-16

    Additive manufacturing, diverging from traditional manufacturing techniques, such as casting and machining materials, can handle complex shapes with great design flexibility without the typical waste. Although this technique has been mainly used for rapid prototyping, interest is growing in using this method to directly manufacture actual parts of complex shape. To use 3D-printing additive manufacturing in wide spread applications, the technique and the feedstock materials require improvements to meet the mechanical requirements of load-bearing components. Thus, we investigated the short fiber (0.2 mm to 0.4 mm) reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites as a feedstock for 3D-printing in terms of their processibility, microstructuremore » and mechanical performance; and also provided comparison with traditional compression molded composites. The tensile strength and modulus of 3D-printed samples increased ~115% and ~700%, respectively. 3D-printer yielded samples with very high fiber orientation in printing direction (up to 91.5 %), whereas, compression molding process yielded samples with significantly less fiber orientation. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships revealed that although the relatively high porosity is observed in the 3D-printed composites as compared to those produced by the conventional compression molding technique, they both exhibited comparable tensile strength and modulus. Furthermore, this phenomena is explained based on the changes in fiber orientation, dispersion and void formation.« less

  3. Highly oriented carbon fiber–polymer composites via additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Tekinalp, Halil L.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio M.; Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Naskar, Amit K.; Blue, Craig A.; Ozcan, Soydan

    2014-10-16

    Additive manufacturing, diverging from traditional manufacturing techniques, such as casting and machining materials, can handle complex shapes with great design flexibility without the typical waste. Although this technique has been mainly used for rapid prototyping, interest is growing in using this method to directly manufacture actual parts of complex shape. To use 3D-printing additive manufacturing in wide spread applications, the technique and the feedstock materials require improvements to meet the mechanical requirements of load-bearing components. Thus, we investigated the short fiber (0.2 mm to 0.4 mm) reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites as a feedstock for 3D-printing in terms of their processibility, microstructure and mechanical performance; and also provided comparison with traditional compression molded composites. The tensile strength and modulus of 3D-printed samples increased ~115% and ~700%, respectively. 3D-printer yielded samples with very high fiber orientation in printing direction (up to 91.5 %), whereas, compression molding process yielded samples with significantly less fiber orientation. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships revealed that although the relatively high porosity is observed in the 3D-printed composites as compared to those produced by the conventional compression molding technique, they both exhibited comparable tensile strength and modulus. Furthermore, this phenomena is explained based on the changes in fiber orientation, dispersion and void formation.

  4. High-Level Data Races

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artho, Cyrille; Havelund, Klaus; Biere, Armin; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Data races are a common problem in concurrent and multi-threaded programming. They are hard to detect without proper tool support. Despite the successful application of these tools, experience shows that the notion of data race is not powerful enough to capture certain types of inconsistencies occurring in practice. In this paper we investigate data races on a higher abstraction layer. This enables us to detect inconsistent uses of shared variables, even if no classical race condition occurs. For example, a data structure representing a coordinate pair may have to be treated atomically. By lifting the meaning of a data race to a higher level, such problems can now be covered. The paper defines the concepts view and view consistency to give a notation for this novel kind of property. It describes what kinds of errors can be detected with this new definition, and where its limitations are. It also gives a formal guideline for using data structures in a multi-threading environment.

  5. High fertility level in Tibet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T

    1997-08-01

    This article presents a profile of fertility patterns in Tibet Autonomous Region for 1989. Data were obtained from the 1982 and 1990 China Censuses and from a 1988 fertility and contraception survey. Findings indicate that the total fertility rate (TFR) was 4.36 children/woman in 1989. TFR in Tibet is higher than in other provinces with a Tibetan population. Tibetan TFR was 4.07 among Tibetan women in Qinghai, 3.30 in Sichuan, 3.0 in Yunnan, and 2.8 in Gansu. TFR was 2.16 in Tibet's towns and 1.82 in Lhasa city, compared to 4.57 in counties. In Tibet, the birth rate rose from 31.05/1000 in 1981, to 31.14 in 1989. Ngari prefecture had an even higher birth rate of 35.67 in 1989. Other Tibetan prefectures had lower birth rates. During 1982-89, the birth rate declined to 26.19 in Lhasa City, to 29.36 in Shannan prefecture, and to 27.09 in Nagqu prefecture. Tibet's TFR fluctuated during 1950-57 between 3.20 and 3.80. It rose after 1958, from 4.0 to over 5.0, and remained high at 4.22 in 1989. TFR increased from older to younger women. The average number of live births also increased from older to younger women. This unusual feature is linked with high infertility and the number of women remaining celibate. Infertility was 17.7% among women aged 60-64 years, 14.8% among women aged 55-59, and 12.2% among women aged 50-54. 45.29% of women had parities of 1-2 children, ranging from 85.21% in the city, 77.92% in towns, and 42.20% in rural areas. The percentage of Tibetan women having 4 or more children was 5.82% in the city, 10.14% in towns, and 42.91% in rural areas. TFR was reversely correlated with educational status. TFR was highest among illiterates and semiliterates (4.59) and lowest for college educated women (1.28). Illiterate and semi-literate women comprised 13% of women with 4 children. PMID:12321529

  6. Process for solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Wayne A.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of a small amount of reducing agent to a mixture of a high-level radioactive waste calcine and glass frit before the mixture is melted will produce a more homogeneous glass which is leach-resistant and suitable for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste products.

  7. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-12-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented.

  8. Umbra's High Level Architecture (HLA) Interface

    SciTech Connect

    GOTTLIEB, ERIC JOSEPH; MCDONALD, MICHAEL J.; OPPEL III, FRED J.

    2002-04-01

    This report describes Umbra's High Level Architecture HLA library. This library serves as an interface to the Defense Simulation and Modeling Office's (DMSO) Run Time Infrastructure Next Generation Version 1.3 (RTI NG1.3) software library and enables Umbra-based models to be federated into HLA environments. The Umbra library was built to enable the modeling of robots for military and security system concept evaluation. A first application provides component technologies that ideally fit the US Army JPSD's Joint Virtual Battlespace (JVB) simulation framework for Objective Force concept analysis. In addition to describing the Umbra HLA library, the report describes general issues of integrating Umbra with RTI code and outlines ways of building models to support particular HLA simulation frameworks like the JVB.

  9. Reusable and Extensible High Level Data Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaconescu, Roxana E.; Chamberlain, Bradford; James, Mark L.; Zima, Hans P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a reusable design of a data distribution framework for data parallel high performance applications. We are implementing the design in the context of the Chapel high productivity programming language. Distributions in Chapel are a means to express locality in systems composed of large numbers of processor and memory components connected by a network. Since distributions have a great effect on,the performance of applications, it is important that the distribution strategy can be chosen by a user. At the same time, high productivity concerns require that the user is shielded from error-prone, tedious details such as communication and synchronization. We propose an approach to distributions that enables the user to refine a language-provided distribution type and adjust it to optimize the performance of the application. Additionally, we conceal from the user low-level communication and synchronization details to increase productivity. To emphasize the generality of our distribution machinery, we present its abstract design in the form of a design pattern, which is independent of a concrete implementation. To illustrate the applicability of our distribution framework design, we outline the implementation of data distributions in terms of the Chapel language.

  10. Learning Achievement and the Efficiency of Learning the Concept of Vector Addition at Three Different Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubrud, Allan R.; Novak, Joseph D.

    1973-01-01

    Empirical data relate to Bruner's and Ausubel's theories of learning concepts at different age levels. The concept of vector addition was taught to eighth, ninth, and tenth grade students. The concept was learned and retained by high ability ninth and all tenth grade students. (PS)

  11. Additional shear resistance from fault roughness and stress levels on geometrically complex faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zijun; Dunham, Eric M.

    2013-07-01

    The majority of crustal faults host earthquakes when the ratio of average background shear stress τb to effective normal stress σeff is τb/σeff≈0.6. In contrast, mature plate-boundary faults like the San Andreas Fault (SAF) operate at τb/σeff≈0.2. Dynamic weakening, the dramatic reduction in frictional resistance at coseismic slip velocities that is commonly observed in laboratory experiments, provides a leading explanation for low stress levels on mature faults. Strongly velocity-weakening friction laws permit rupture propagation on flat faults above a critical stress level τpulse/σeff≈0.25. Provided that dynamic weakening is not restricted to mature faults, the higher stress levels on most faults are puzzling. In this work, we present a self-consistent explanation for the relatively high stress levels on immature faults that is compatible with low coseismic frictional resistance, from dynamic weakening, for all faults. We appeal to differences in structural complexity with the premise that geometric irregularities introduce resistance to slip in addition to frictional resistance. This general idea is quantified for the special case of self-similar fractal roughness of the fault surface. Natural faults have roughness characterized by amplitude-to-wavelength ratios α between 10-3 and 10-2. Through a second-order boundary perturbation analysis of quasi-static frictionless sliding across a band-limited self-similar interface in an ideally elastic solid, we demonstrate that roughness induces an additional shear resistance to slip, or roughness drag, given by τdrag=8π3α2G∗Δ/λmin, for G∗=G/(1-ν) with shear modulus Gand Poisson's ratio ν, slip Δ, and minimum roughness wavelength λmin. The influence of roughness drag on fault mechanics is verified through an extensive set of dynamic rupture simulations of earthquakes on strongly rate-weakening fractal faults with elastic-plastic off-fault response. The simulations suggest that fault rupture, in

  12. The Modern U.S. High School Astronomy Course, Its Status and Makeup II: Additional Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumenaker, Larry

    2009-01-01

    A postal survey of high school astronomy teachers strongly confirms many results of an earlier electronic survey. Additional and new results include a measure of the level of inquiry (more structured inquiry and teacher-led) in the classroom as well as data showing that more emphasis is given to traditional topics than to contemporary astronomy…

  13. The Effectiveness of an Additional Stretching Exercise Program in Improving Flexibility Level among Preschool Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wee Akina Sia Seng; Rengasamy, Shabeshan A/L; Raju, Subramaniam A/L

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a two minutes' additional stretching exercise program in a 30 minutes games teaching lesson in improving the flexibility level of 6 year old preschool boys (M = 5.92, SD = 0.27) in a preschool in Malaysia. Fifty (50) preschool boys were selected for the study based on the intact sampling…

  14. Processable high temperature resistant addition type polyimide laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.

    1973-01-01

    Basic studies that were performed using model compounds to elucidate the polymerization mechanism of the so-called addition-type (A-type) polyimides are reviewed. The fabrication and properties of polyimide/graphite fiber composites using A-type polyimide prepolymers as the matrix are also reviewed. An alternate method for preparing processable A-type polyimides by means of in situ polymerization of monomer reactants (PMR) on the fiber reinforcement is described. The elevated temperature properties of A-type PMR/graphite fiber composites are also presented.

  15. System and method for high power diode based additive manufacturing

    DOEpatents

    El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Bayramian, Andrew; Demuth, James A.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Torres, Sharon G.

    2016-04-12

    A system is disclosed for performing an Additive Manufacturing (AM) fabrication process on a powdered material forming a substrate. The system may make use of a diode array for generating an optical signal sufficient to melt a powdered material of the substrate. A mask may be used for preventing a first predetermined portion of the optical signal from reaching the substrate, while allowing a second predetermined portion to reach the substrate. At least one processor may be used for controlling an output of the diode array.

  16. Parallel Processing at the High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheary, Kathryn Anne

    This study investigated the ability of high school students to cognitively understand and implement parallel processing. Data indicates that most parallel processing is being taught at the university level. Instructional modules on C, Linux, and the parallel processing language, P4, were designed to show that high school students are highly…

  17. High-rate stormwater clarification with polymeric flocculant addition.

    PubMed

    Wood, J; He, C; Rochfort, Q; Marsalek, J; Seto, P; Yang, M; Chessie, P; Kok, S

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of urban stormwater by clarification, with flocculant addition, was studied in Toronto, Canada using a pilot-scale clarifier with removable lamellar plates. Almost 90 stormwater runoff events were characterised at the study site and found fairly polluted. The previous research phase indicated good treatability of this stormwater by lamellar clarification with flocculant addition (total suspended solids, TSS, removal of 84%, at a surface load of 15 m/h), but there were concerns about cleaning plates after storm events. With the aid of numerical modelling, hydraulic improvements to the clarifier inlet zone were retrofitted in 2004 and permitted the removal of the lamellar pack without a loss in treatment efficiency. In the modified clarifier, a cationic polymeric flocculant dosage of 4 mg/L with conventional clarification provided a TSS removal of 77%, at surface loads up to 43 m/h. The use of the polymer did not increase the acute toxicity of the treated effluent. The clarifier sludge was severely polluted by several heavy metals and would require special disposal. The treatment process tested could be well applied in projects requiring intensive stormwater treatment at compact sites. PMID:15790231

  18. High-Level Application Framework for LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

  19. Rising Level of Public Exposure to Mobile Phones: Accumulation through Additivity and Reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hondou, Tsuyoshi

    2002-02-01

    A dramatic development occurring in our daily life is the increasing use of mobile equipment including mobile phones and wireless access to the Internet. They enable us to access several types of information more easily than in the past. Simultaneously, the density of mobile users is rapidly increasing. When hundreds of mobile phones emit radiation, their total power is found to be comparable to that of a microwave oven or a satellite broadcasting station. Thus, the question arises: what is the public exposure level in an area with many sources of electromagnetic wave emission? We show that this level can reach the reference level for general public exposure (ICNIRP Guideline) in daily life. This is caused by the fundamental properties of electromagnetic field, namely, reflection and additivity. The level of exposure is found to be much higher than that estimated by the conventional framework of analysis that assumes that the level rapidly decreases with the inverse square distance between the source and the affected person. A simple formula for the exposure level is derived by applying energetics to the electromagnetic field. The formula reveals a potential risk of intensive exposure.

  20. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennie, Elizabeth; Bonneau, Kara; vanDellen, Michelle; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding…

  1. Fermilab tevatron high level RF accelerating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kerns, Q.; Kerns, C.; Miller, H.; Reid, J.; Tawzer, S.; Webber, R.; Wildman, D.

    1985-10-01

    Eight tuned rf cavities have been installed and operated in the F0 straight section of the Tevatron. Their mechanical placement along the beam line enables them to be operated for colliding beams as two independent groups of four cavities, group 1-4 accelerating antiprotons and group 5-8 accelerating protons. The only difference is that the spacing between cavities 4 and 5 was increased to stay clear of the F0 colliding point. The cavities can easily be rephased by switching cables in a low-level distribution system (fan-out) so that the full accelerating capability of all eight cavities can be used during fixed target operations. Likewise, the cables from capacitive probes on each cavity gap can be switched to proper lengths and summed in a fan-back system to give an rf signal representing the amplitude and phase as ''seen by the beam,'' separately for protons and antiprotons. Such signals have been used to phase lock the Tevatron to the Main Ring for synchronous transfer. A cavity consists of two quarter-wave resonators placed back to back with a coaxial drift tube separating the two accelerating gaps by ..pi.. radians. The cavities are very similar to the prototype which has been previously described/sup 3/ and is operating as Station 8 in the Tevatron. Only additional water cooling around the high current region of the drift tube supports and a double loop used to monitor the unbalance current through the Hipernom mode damping resistor have been added. Each cavity has a Q of about7100, a shunt impedance of 1.2 M..cap omega.., and is capable of running cw with a peak accelerating voltage of 360

  2. Repeated forced swim stress has additive effects in anxiety behavior and in cathecolamine levels of adult rats exposed to deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    Habr, Soraya F; Macrini, Daclé J; Florio, Jorge C; Bernardi, Maria M

    2014-01-01

    Deltamethrin (DTM) is a type II pyrethroid insecticide that elicits autonomic and neuroendocrine responses that indicate high levels of stress, presumably caused by the neurotoxic effect of the insecticide. This study investigated the effect of DTM exposure (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and an additional stress induced in the forced swim test (FST) in behavioral tasks related to anxiety, serum corticosterone levels, and striatal neurotransmitter levels. Open field behavior and social interaction were evaluated after DTM administration (10 mg kg(-1), p.o). DTM per se reduced rearing frequency in the open field, but no alterations in locomotion frequency or immobility duration were detected. Stress increased immobility duration compared with non-stressed animals. DTM reduced social interaction and increased corticosterone levels, and these effects were enhanced in stressed animals. Mainly stress affected dopaminergic and serotoninergic activity. In anxiety behavior and in both neurotransmitters and metabolites levels it was observed an additive effect of stress in DTM treated rat data. These results indicate that DTM enhanced the anxiogenic responses and stress had an additive effect over the DTM stress. The neurochemical data did not indicate an interaction between stress and DTM exposure. The present results maybe important for implementing pyrethroid insecticide safety standards. PMID:25444720

  3. Highly enantioselective conjugate addition of malononitrile to 2-enoylpyridines with bifunctional organocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Molleti, Nagaraju; Rana, Nirmal K; Singh, Vinod K

    2012-09-01

    An efficient enantioselective conjugate addition of malononitrile to a range of β-substituted 2-enoylpyridines catalyzed by cinchona alkaloid-based bifunctional urea catalysts has been developed. Both enantiomers of the products could be achieved with the same level of enantioselectivity by using pseudoenantiomeric catalysts in up to 97% ee and in excellent yields. One of the enantioenriched products has been transformed to a highly functionalized piperidone derivative. PMID:22920458

  4. HEAT: High accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry. III. Additional improvements and overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, M. E.; Vazquez, J.; Ruscic, B.; Wilson, A. K.; Gauss, J.; Stanton, J. F.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Univ. t Mainz; The Univ. of Texas; Univ. of North Texas

    2008-01-01

    Effects of increased basis-set size as well as a correlated treatment of the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer approximation are studied within the context of the high-accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry (HEAT) theoretical model chemistry. It is found that the addition of these ostensible improvements does little to increase the overall accuracy of HEAT for the determination of molecular atomization energies. Fortuitous cancellation of high-level effects is shown to give the overall HEAT strategy an accuracy that is, in fact, higher than most of its individual components. In addition, the issue of core-valence electron correlation separation is explored; it is found that approximate additive treatments of the two effects have limitations that are significant in the realm of <1 kJ mol{sup -1} theoretical thermochemistry.

  5. Future high sea levels in south Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Blomgren, S.H.; Hanson, H.

    1997-12-31

    An estimation of future mean high water levels in Oeresund and the southwest Baltic Sea is presented together with a discussion of probable consequences for Falsterbo Peninsula, a trumpet-shaped sandy formation of some 25 km{sup 2} size situated in the very southwest corner of Sweden. A literature review coupled with sea-level measurements and observations made in the area every four hours since October 1945 are given and comprise the base for the present analysis.

  6. A Software Architecture for High Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shen,G.

    2009-05-04

    A modular software platform for high level applications is under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. This platform is based on client-server architecture, and the components of high level applications on this platform will be modular and distributed, and therefore reusable. An online model server is indispensable for model based control. Different accelerator facilities have different requirements for the online simulation. To supply various accelerator simulators, a set of narrow and general application programming interfaces is developed based on Tracy-3 and Elegant. This paper describes the system architecture for the modular high level applications, the design of narrow and general application programming interface for an online model server, and the prototype of online model server.

  7. High-level waste processing and disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, J. L.; Drause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    The national high level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and the United States are covered. Three conclusions are reached. The first conclusion is that an excellent technology already exists for high level waste disposal. With appropriate packaging, spent fuel seems to be an acceptable waste form. Borosilicate glass reprocessing waste forms are well understood, in production in France, and scheduled for production in the next few years in a number of other countries. For final disposal, a number of candidate geological repository sites have been identified and several demonstration sites opened. The second conclusion is that adequate financing and a legal basis for waste disposal are in place in most countries. Costs of high level waste disposal will probably and about 5 to 10% to the costs of nuclear electric power. Third conclusion is less optimistic.

  8. Effect of Refiner Addition Level on Zirconium-Containing Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaradeh, M. M. R.; Carlberg, T.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that in aluminium alloys containing Zr, grain refiner additions do not function as desired, producing an effect often referred to as nuclei poisoning. This paper investigates the structure of direct chill-cast ingots of commercial AA3003 aluminium alloys, with and without Zr, at various addition levels of Al5Ti1B master alloy. In Bridgman experiments simulating ingot solidification, Zr-containing alloys were studied after the addition of various amounts of Ti. It could be demonstrated, in both ingot casting and simulation experiments, that Zr poisoning can be compensated for by adding more Ti and/or Al5Ti1B. The results confirm better refinement behaviour with the addition of Ti + B than of only Ti. The various combinations of Zr and Ti also influenced the formation of AlFeMn phases, and the precipitation of large Al6(Mn,Fe) particles was revealed. AlZrTiSi intermetallic compounds were also detected.

  9. High-pressure high-temperature synthesis of magnesium diboride with different additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikhna, Tatiana; Gawalek, Wolfgang; Savchuk, Yaroslav; Sergienko, Nina; Moshchil, Viktor; Dub, Sergey; Sverdun, Vladimir; Kovalev, Leo; Penkin, Vladimir; Zeisberger, Matthias; Wendt, Michael; Fuchs, Gunter; Habisreuther, Tobias; Litzkendorf, Doris; Nagorny, Peter; Melnikov, Vladimir

    2007-09-01

    An increase of the critical current density in high-pressure synthesized (at 2 GPa, 800-900 °C) MgB2 was observed when some amount (2-10%) of powdered Ta, Ti or Zr was added to the initial mixture of Mg and B. As a result of high-pressure synthesis, the metallic additives transformed into hydrides, so the absorbed impurity hydrogen coming most likely from the materials of a high-pressure cell surrounded the synthesized samples. Blocks of high-pressure synthesized MgB2 (with Ti additions) were for the first time used in an SC electromotor that demonstrated the efficiency similar to that of MT-YBCO bulk (at the same working temperature 15-20 K).

  10. High-Flow, High-Molecular-Weight, Addition-Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.

    1993-01-01

    In developed series of high-flow PMR-type polyimide resins, 2, 2'-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4, 4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) substituted for 1, 4-pheylenediamine in PMR-II formulation. Polyimides designated either as PMR-12F when nadic ester (NE) end caps used, or as V-CAP-12F when p-aminostyrene end caps used. High-molecular-weight, addition-curing polyimides based on BTBD and HFDE highly processable high-temperature matrix resins used to make composite materials with excellent retention of properties during long-term exposure to air at 650 degrees F or higher temperature. Furthermore, 12F addition-curing polyimides useful for electronic applications; fluorinated rigid-rod polyimides known to exhibit low thermal expansion coefficients as well as low absorption of moisture.

  11. Developing a High Thermal Conductivity Fuel with Silicon Carbide Additives

    SciTech Connect

    baney, Ronald; Tulenko, James

    2012-11-20

    The objective of this research is to increase the thermal conductivity of uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) without significantly impacting its neutronic properties. The concept is to incorporate another high thermal conductivity material, silicon carbide (SiC), in the form of whiskers or from nanoparticles of SiC and a SiC polymeric precursor into UO{sub 2}. This is expected to form a percolation pathway lattice for conductive heat transfer out of the fuel pellet. The thermal conductivity of SiC would control the overall fuel pellet thermal conductivity. The challenge is to show the effectiveness of a low temperature sintering process, because of a UO{sub 2}-SiC reaction at 1,377°C, a temperature far below the normal sintering temperature. Researchers will study three strategies to overcome the processing difficulties associated with pore clogging and the chemical reaction of SiC and UO{sub 2} at temperatures above 1,300°C:

  12. Statistics of high-level scene context

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    Context is critical for recognizing environments and for searching for objects within them: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed “things” in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by

  13. Very low levels of direct additive genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in a red squirrel population

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, S Eryn; Gorrell, Jamieson C; Coltman, David W; Humphries, Murray M; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    A trait must genetically correlate with fitness in order to evolve in response to natural selection, but theory suggests that strong directional selection should erode additive genetic variance in fitness and limit future evolutionary potential. Balancing selection has been proposed as a mechanism that could maintain genetic variance if fitness components trade off with one another and has been invoked to account for empirical observations of higher levels of additive genetic variance in fitness components than would be expected from mutation–selection balance. Here, we used a long-term study of an individually marked population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) to look for evidence of (1) additive genetic variance in lifetime reproductive success and (2) fitness trade-offs between fitness components, such as male and female fitness or fitness in high- and low-resource environments. “Animal model” analyses of a multigenerational pedigree revealed modest maternal effects on fitness, but very low levels of additive genetic variance in lifetime reproductive success overall as well as fitness measures within each sex and environment. It therefore appears that there are very low levels of direct genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in red squirrels to facilitate contemporary adaptation in this population. PMID:24963372

  14. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  15. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  16. Additional Treatment Services in a Cocaine Treatment Study: Level of Services Obtained and Impact on Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Worley, Matthew; Gallop, Robert; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Ring-Kurtz, Sarah; Present, Julie; Weiss, Roger D.; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the level of additional treatment services obtained by patients enrolled in the NIDA Cocaine Collaborative Study, a multi-center efficacy trial of four treatments for cocaine dependence, and to determine whether these services impact treatment outcome. Cocaine-dependent patients (N = 487) were recruited at five sites and randomly assigned to six months of one of four psychosocial treatments. Assessments were made at baseline, monthly during treatment, and at follow-ups at 9, 12, 15, and 18 months post-randomization. On average, patients received little or no additional treatment services during active treatment (first 6 months), but the rate of obtaining most services increased during the follow-up phase (month 7 to 18). In general, the treatment groups did not differ in the rates of obtaining non-protocol services. For all treatment groups, patients with greater psychiatric severity received more medical and psychiatric services during active treatment and follow-up. Use of treatment services was unrelated to drug use outcomes during active treatment. However, during the follow-up period, increased use of psychiatric medication, 12-step attendance, and 12-step participation was related to less drug use. The results suggest that during uncontrolled follow-up phases, additional non-protocol services may potentially confound the interpretation of treatment group comparisons in drug use outcomes. PMID:18463998

  17. Fabrication of highly dense SiN4 ceramics without additives by high pressure sintering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takatori, K.; Shimade, M.; Koizumi, M.

    1984-01-01

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is one of candidate materials for the engineering ceramics which is used at high temperatures. The mechanical strengths of hot pressed or sintered Si2N4 ceramics containing some amount of additives, however, are deteriorated at elevated temperatures. To improve the high temperature strength of Si3N4 ceramics, an attempt to consolidate Si3N4 without additives was made by high pressure sintering technique. Scanning electron micrographs of fracture surfaces of the sintered bodies showed the bodies had finely grained and fully self-bonded sintered bodies were 310N sq m at room temperature and 174N/sq m at 1200 C.

  18. Rice lines with high leaf mineral nutrient levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K), and sometimes other mineral nutrients are often applied as fertilizer, in addition to Nitrogen, to help achieve high yields in Texas rice production. For some mineral nutrients, total levels in soil would be sufficient to support the desired rice crop growth, but th...

  19. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    GLENNIE, ELIZABETH; BONNEAU, KARA; VANDELLEN, MICHELLE; DODGE, KENNETH A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. Purpose/Objective/Focus This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Research Design Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time—that is, between one year’s achievement and the subsequent year’s dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. Findings/Results This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved

  20. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-12-17

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the 'High-Level Trigger'(HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, {tau} leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  1. Plants tolerant of high boron levels.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Kyoko; Takano, Junpei; Omori, Hiroyuki; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Toru

    2007-11-30

    Reduced crop productivity due to soils containing toxic levels of boron (B) is a worldwide problem in food production. It is estimated that up to 17% of the barley yield losses in southern Australia are caused by B toxicity. We found that the expression of AtBOR4, an Arabidopsis paralog of BOR1, the first identified boron transporter gene, generates plants that are tolerant of high B levels. BOR4 is a polarly localized borate exporter that enhances B efflux from roots. The present study is a foundation for the improvement of crop productivity in soils containing excess B, which are distributed in arid areas of the world. PMID:18048682

  2. Development of high capacity, high rate lithium ion batteries utilizing metal fiber conductive additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Soonho; Kim, Youngduk; Kim, Kyung Joon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyungkeun; Kim, Myung H.

    As lithium ion cells dominate the battery market, the performance improvement is an utmost concern among developers and researchers. Conductive additives are routinely employed to enhance electrode conductivity and capacity. Carbon particulates—graphite or carbon black powders—are conventional and popular choices as conductive fillers. However, percolation requirements of particles demand significant volumetric content of impalpable, and thereby high area conductive fillers. As might be expected, the electrode active surface area escalates unnecessarily, resulting in overall increase in reaction with electrolytes and organic solvents. The increased reactions usually manifest as an irreversible loss of anode capacity, gradual oxidation and consumption of electrolyte on the cathode—which causes capacity decline during cycling—and an increased threat to battery safety by gas evolution and exothermic solvent oxidation. In this work we have utilized high aspect ratio, flexible, micronic metal fibers as low active area and high conductivity additives. The metal fibers appear well dispersed within the electrode and to satisfy percolation requirements very efficiently at very low volumetric content compared to conventional carbon-based conductive additives. Results from 18650-type cells indicate significant enhancements in electrode capacity and high rate capability while the irreversible capacity loss is negligible.

  3. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Perez Jr, Joseph M; Bickford, Dennis F; Day, Delbert E; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L; Marra, Sharon L; Peeler, David K; Strachan, Denis M; Triplett, Mark B; Vienna, John D; Wittman, Richard S

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  4. Ground-Level Ozone Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events: An Additional Biological Hazard?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Brian C; Goracke, Byron D

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in solar UV radiation at Earth's surface and in the upper levels of the ocean. Other work has also considered the potential impact of nitric acid rainout, concluding that no significant threat is likely. Not yet studied to date is the potential impact of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere following an ionizing radiation event. Ozone is a known irritant to organisms on land and in water and therefore may be a significant additional hazard. Using previously completed atmospheric chemistry modeling, we examined the amount of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere for the case of a gamma-ray burst and found that the values are too small to pose a significant additional threat to the biosphere. These results may be extended to other ionizing radiation events, including supernovae and extreme solar proton events. PMID:26745353

  5. High level intelligent control of telerobotics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, James

    1988-01-01

    A high level robot command language is proposed for the autonomous mode of an advanced telerobotics system and a predictive display mechanism for the teleoperational model. It is believed that any such system will involve some mixture of these two modes, since, although artificial intelligence can facilitate significant autonomy, a system that can resort to teleoperation will always have the advantage. The high level command language will allow humans to give the robot instructions in a very natural manner. The robot will then analyze these instructions to infer meaning so that is can translate the task into lower level executable primitives. If, however, the robot is unable to perform the task autonomously, it will switch to the teleoperational mode. The time delay between control movement and actual robot movement has always been a problem in teleoperations. The remote operator may not actually see (via a monitor) the results of high actions for several seconds. A computer generated predictive display system is proposed whereby the operator can see a real-time model of the robot's environment and the delayed video picture on the monitor at the same time.

  6. Sterilization, high-level disinfection, and environmental cleaning.

    PubMed

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2011-03-01

    Failure to perform proper disinfection and sterilization of medical devices may lead to introduction of pathogens, resulting in infection. New techniques have been developed for achieving high-level disinfection and adequate environmental cleanliness. This article examines new technologies for sterilization and high-level disinfection of critical and semicritical items, respectively, and because semicritical items carry the greatest risk of infection, the authors discuss reprocessing semicritical items such as endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors, endocavitary probes, prostate biopsy probes, tonometers, laryngoscopes, and infrared coagulation devices. In addition, current issues and practices associated with environmental cleaning are reviewed. PMID:21315994

  7. Bioremediation of high organic load lagoon sediments: compost addition and priming effects.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, G; Giovannelli, D; Montano, C; Milanovic, V; Ciani, M; Manini, E

    2013-03-01

    Lagoons are often affected by eutrophication phenomena, due to their shallow nature, high productivity, weak hydrodynamism and anthropic exploitation. Bioremediation techniques have been widely used in the treatment of chemical pollution; however, no information is available on the use of bioremediation of organic-rich sediments. In the present study, we investigated the priming effects following compost addition to organic-rich lagoon sediments, and the effects of this compost addition on degradation and cycling of organic detritus, transfer of organic matter to higher trophic levels, and in situ prokaryotic community structure. There was a positive response to treatment, particularly during the first days after compost addition. The compost had a stimulating effect on degradation activity of the prokaryotic community. This occurred despite an increase in available organic matter, as the community was more efficient at removing it. These data are supported by the prokaryotic community structure analysis, which revealed no changes in the in situ community following compost addition. This priming effect enhancement through compost addition represents an efficient method to treat organic-rich sediments. PMID:23273326

  8. Addition of magnesium sulphate to ropivacaine for spinal analgesia in dogs undergoing tibial plateau levelling osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Adami, C; Casoni, D; Noussitou, F; Rytz, U; Spadavecchia, C

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this blinded, randomised, prospective clinical trial was to determine whether the addition of magnesium sulphate to spinally-administered ropivacaine would improve peri-operative analgesia without impairing motor function in dogs undergoing orthopaedic surgery. Twenty client-owned dogs undergoing tibial plateau levelling osteotomy were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: group C (control, receiving hyperbaric ropivacaine by the spinal route) or group M (magnesium, receiving a hyperbaric combination of magnesium sulphate and ropivacaine by the spinal route). During surgery, changes in physiological variables above baseline were used to evaluate nociception. Arterial blood was collected before and after spinal injection, at four time points, to monitor plasma magnesium concentrations. Post-operatively, pain was assessed with a modified Sammarco pain score, a Glasgow pain scale and a visual analogue scale, while motor function was evaluated with a modified Tarlov scale. Assessments were performed at recovery and 1, 2 and 3 h thereafter. Fentanyl and buprenorphine were administered as rescue analgesics in the intra- and post-operative periods, respectively. Plasma magnesium concentrations did not increase after spinal injection compared to baseline. Group M required less intra-operative fentanyl, had lower Glasgow pain scores and experienced analgesia of longer duration than group C (527.0 ± 341.0 min vs. 176.0 ± 109.0 min). However, in group M the motor block was significantly longer, which limits the usefulness of magnesium for spinal analgesia at the investigated dose. Further research is needed to determine a clinically effective dose with shorter duration of motor block for magnesium used as an additive to spinal analgesic agents. PMID:26831174

  9. EAP high-level product architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudlaugsson, T. V.; Mortensen, N. H.; Sarban, R.

    2013-04-01

    EAP technology has the potential to be used in a wide range of applications. This poses the challenge to the EAP component manufacturers to develop components for a wide variety of products. Danfoss Polypower A/S is developing an EAP technology platform, which can form the basis for a variety of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture. This description breaks down the EAP transducer into organs that perform the functions that may be present in an EAP transducer. A physical instance of an EAP transducer contains a combination of the organs needed to fulfill the task of actuator, sensor, and generation. Alternative principles for each organ allow the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach has resulted in the first version of an EAP technology platform, on which multiple EAP products can be based. The contents of the platform have been the result of multi-disciplinary development work at Danfoss PolyPower, as well as collaboration with potential customers and research institutions. Initial results from applying the platform on demonstrator design for potential applications are promising. The scope of the article does not include technical details.

  10. The high-level trigger of ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilsner, H.; Alt, T.; Aurbakken, K.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Nystrand, J.; Roehrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbo, A.; Vik, T.

    One of the main tracking detectors of the forthcoming ALICE Experiment at the LHC is a cylindrical Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with an expected data volume of about 75 MByte per event. This data volume, in combination with the presumed maximum bandwidth of 1.2 GByte/s to the mass storage system, would limit the maximum event rate to 20 Hz. In order to achieve higher event rates, online data processing has to be applied. This implies either the detection and read-out of only those events which contain interesting physical signatures or an efficient compression of the data by modeling techniques. In order to cope with the anticipated data rate, massive parallel computing power is required. It will be provided in form of a clustered farm of SMP-nodes, based on off-the-shelf PCs, which are connected with a high bandwidth low overhead network. This High-Level Trigger (HLT) will be able to process a data rate of 25 GByte/s online. The front-end electronics of the individual sub-detectors is connected to the HLT via an optical link and a custom PCI card which is mounted in the clustered PCs. The PCI card is equipped with an FPGA necessary for the implementation of the PCI-bus protocol. Therefore, this FPGA can also be used to assist the host processor with first-level processing. The first-level processing done on the FPGA includes conventional cluster-finding for low multiplicity events and local track finding based on the Hough Transformation of the raw data for high multiplicity events. PACS: 07.05.-t Computers in experimental physics - 07.05.Hd Data acquisition: hardware and software - 29.85.+c Computer data analysis

  11. Regulation of high density lipoprotein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.

    1982-03-01

    An increasing awareness of the physiologic and pathologic importance of serum high density lipoproteins (HDL) has led to a large number of observations regarding factors which influence their concentrations. HDL consists of a heterogeneous collection of macromolecules with diverse physical properties and chemical constituents. While laboratory techniques have made it possible to measure HDL and their individual components, there are as yet large gaps in our knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms and clinical significance of changes in these laboratory parameters. In this review, current concepts of the structure and metabolism of HDL will be briefly summarized, and the factors influencing their levels in humans will be surveyed. 313 references.

  12. The effects of high level infrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    This paper will attempt to survey the current knowledge on the effects of relative high levels of infrasound on humans. While this conference is concerned mainly about hearing, some discussion of other physiological effects is appropriate. Such discussion also serves to highlight a basic question, 'Is hearing the main concern of infrasound and low frequency exposure, or is there a more sensitive mechanism'. It would be comforting to know that the focal point of this conference is indeed the most important concern. Therefore, besides hearing loss and auditory threshold of infrasonic and low frequency exposure, four other effects will be provided. These are performance, respiration, annoyance, and vibration.

  13. High-level waste qualification: Managing uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, B.A.

    1993-09-01

    A vitrification facility is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the West Valley Demonstration Plant (WVDP) near Buffalo, New York, where approximately 300 canisters of high-level nuclear waste glass will be produced. To assure that the produced waste form is acceptable, uncertainty must be managed. Statistical issues arise due to sampling, waste variations, processing uncertainties, and analytical variations. This paper presents elements of a strategy to characterize and manage the uncertainties associated with demonstrating that an acceptable waste form product is achieved. Specific examples are provided within the context of statistical work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL).

  14. Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Chungming; Chevtsov, Sergei; Wu, Juhao; Shen, Guobao; /Brookhaven

    2012-06-28

    Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

  15. The addition of high magnifying endoscopy improves rates of high confidence optical diagnosis of colorectal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Iwatate, Mineo; Sano, Yasushi; Hattori, Santa; Sano, Wataru; Hasuike, Noriaki; Ikumoto, Taro; Kotaka, Masahito; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Hewett, David G.; Soetikno, Roy; Kaltenbach, Tonya; Fujimori, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: The real-time optical diagnosis of colorectal polyps with high confidence predictions can achieve high levels of accuracy. Increasing the rates of high confidence optical diagnosis can improve the clinical application of real-time optical diagnosis in routine practice. The primary aim of this prospective study was to evaluate whether high magnifying endoscopy improves the rates of high confidence narrow-band imaging (NBI) – based optical diagnosis for differentiating between neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal lesions according to the NBI international colorectal endoscopic (NICE) classification. Patients and methods: Consecutive adult patients undergoing colonoscopy with a high magnifying (maximum, × 80) colonoscope between April and August 2012 were recruited. The optical diagnosis for each polyp was evaluated during colonoscopy in two consecutive stages by the same endoscopist, who first used NBI with non-magnifying endoscopy (NBI-NME), then NBI with magnifying endoscopy (NBI-ME). A level of confidence was assigned to each prediction. Results: The analysis included 124 patients (mean age, 56.4 years; male-to-female ratio, 72:52) with 248 polyps smaller than 10 mm. Of the 248 polyps, 210 were 1 to 5 mm in size and 38 were 6 to 9 mm in size; 77 polyps were hyperplastic, 4 were sessile serrated adenomas/polyps, 160 were low grade adenomas, 5 were high grade adenomas, and 2 were deep submucosal invasive carcinomas. The rate of high confidence optical diagnosis when NBI-ME was used was significantly higher than the rate when NBI-NME was used for diminutive (1 – 5 mm) polyps (92.9 % vs 79.5 %, P < 0.001) and for small (6 – 9 mm) polyps (94.7 % vs 84.2 %, P = 0.048). Conclusion: High magnifying endoscopy significantly improved the rates of high confidence NBI-based optical diagnosis of diminutive and small colorectal polyps. Study registration: UMIN 000007608 PMID:26135657

  16. The High Level Data Reduction Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, P.; Gabasch, A.; Jung, Y.; Modigliani, A.; Taylor, J.; Coccato, L.; Freudling, W.; Neeser, M.; Marchetti, E.

    2015-09-01

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) provides pipelines to reduce data for most of the instruments at its Very Large telescope (VLT). These pipelines are written as part of the development of VLT instruments, and are used both in the ESO's operational environment and by science users who receive VLT data. All the pipelines are highly specific geared toward instruments. However, experience showed that the independently developed pipelines include significant overlap, duplication and slight variations of similar algorithms. In order to reduce the cost of development, verification and maintenance of ESO pipelines, and at the same time improve the scientific quality of pipelines data products, ESO decided to develop a limited set of versatile high-level scientific functions that are to be used in all future pipelines. The routines are provided by the High-level Data Reduction Library (HDRL). To reach this goal, we first compare several candidate algorithms and verify them during a prototype phase using data sets from several instruments. Once the best algorithm and error model have been chosen, we start a design and implementation phase. The coding of HDRL is done in plain C and using the Common Pipeline Library (CPL) functionality. HDRL adopts consistent function naming conventions and a well defined API to minimise future maintenance costs, implements error propagation, uses pixel quality information, employs OpenMP to take advantage of multi-core processors, and is verified with extensive unit and regression tests. This poster describes the status of the project and the lesson learned during the development of reusable code implementing algorithms of high scientific quality.

  17. High accuracy electronic material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: 1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, 2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, 3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or "ghost" reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%.

  18. High accuracy electronic material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-03-11

    The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: (1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, (2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, (3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or ``ghost`` reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%. 4 figs.

  19. Technetium Chemistry in High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Nancy J.

    2006-06-01

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry.

  20. Visual high-level regions respond to high-level stimulus content in the absence of low-level confounds.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Andreas; Bartels, Andreas

    2016-05-15

    High-level regions of the ventral stream exhibit strong category selectivity to stimuli such as faces, houses, or objects. However, recent studies suggest that at least part of this selectivity stems from low-level differences inherent to images of the different categories. For example, visual outdoor and indoor scenes as well as houses differ in spatial frequency, rectilinearity and obliqueness when compared to face or object images. Correspondingly, scene responsive para-hippocampal place area (PPA) showed strong preference to low-level properties of visual scenes also in the absence of high-level scene content. This raises the question whether all high-level responses in PPA, the fusiform face area (FFA), or the object-responsive lateral occipital compex (LOC) may actually be explained by systematic differences in low-level features. In the present study we contrasted two classes of simple stimuli consisting of ten rectangles each. While both were matched in visual low-level features only one class of rectangle arrangements gave rise to a percept compatible with a high-level 3D layout such as a scene or an object. We found that areas PPA, transverse occipital sulcus (TOS, also referred to as occipital place area, OPA), as well as FFA and LOC showed robust responses to the visual scene class compared to the low-level matched control. Our results suggest that visual category responsive regions are not purely driven by low-level visual features but also by the high-level perceptual stimulus interpretation. PMID:26975552

  1. Beam size measurement at high radiation levels

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, F.J.

    1991-05-01

    At the end of the Stanford Linear Accelerator the high energy electron and positron beams are quite small. Beam sizes below 100 {mu}m ({sigma}) as well as the transverse distribution, especially tails, have to be determined. Fluorescent screens observed by TV cameras provide a quick two-dimensional picture, which can be analyzed by digitization. For running the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) with low backgrounds at the interaction point, collimators are installed at the end of the linac. This causes a high radiation level so that the nearby cameras die within two weeks and so-called radiation hard'' cameras within two months. Therefore an optical system has been built, which guides a 5 mm wide picture with a resolution of about 30 {mu}m over a distance of 12 m to an accessible region. The overall resolution is limited by the screen thickness, optical diffraction and the line resolution of the camera. Vibration, chromatic effects or air fluctuations play a much less important role. The pictures are colored to get fast information about the beam current, size and tails. Beside the emittance, more information about the tail size and betatron phase is obtained by using four screens. This will help to develop tail compensation schemes to decrease the emittance growth in the linac at high currents. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Simulation of uphill/downhill running on a level treadmill using additional horizontal force.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Philippe; Arnal, Pierrick J; Samozino, Pierre; Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoit

    2014-07-18

    Tilting treadmills allow a convenient study of biomechanics during uphill/downhill running, but they are not commonly available and there is even fewer tilting force-measuring treadmill. The aim of the present study was to compare uphill/downhill running on a treadmill (inclination of ± 8%) with running on a level treadmill using additional backward or forward pulling forces to simulate the effect of gravity. This comparison specifically focused on the energy cost of running, stride frequency (SF), electromyographic activity (EMG), leg and foot angles at foot strike, and ground impact shock. The main results are that SF, impact shock, and leg and foot angle parameters determined were very similar and significantly correlated between the two methods, the intercept and slope of the linear regression not differing significantly from zero and unity, respectively. The correlation of oxygen uptake (V̇O2) data between both methods was not significant during uphill running (r=0.42; P>0.05). V̇O2 data were correlated during downhill running (r=0.74; P<0.01) but there was a significant difference between the methods (bias=-2.51 ± 1.94 ml min(-1) kg(-1)). Linear regressions for EMG of vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, soleus and tibialis anterior were not different from the identity line but the systematic bias was elevated for this parameter. In conclusion, this method seems appropriate for the study of SF, leg and foot angle, impact shock parameters but is less applicable for physiological variables (EMG and energy cost) during uphill/downhill running when using a tilting force-measuring treadmill is not possible. PMID:24811045

  3. High-level connectionist models. Semiannual report

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, J.B.

    1989-08-01

    The major achievement of this semiannum was the significant revision and extension of the Recursive Auto-Associative Memory (RAAM) work for publication in the journal Artificial Intelligence. Included as an appendix to this report, the article includes several new elements: (1) Background - The work was more clearly set into the area of recursive distributed representations, machine learning, and the adequacy of the connectionist approach for high-level cognitive modeling; (2) New Experiment - RAAM was applied to finding compact representations for sequences of letters; (3) Analysis - The developed representations were analyzed as features which range from categorical to distinctive. Categorical features distinguish between conceptual categories while distinctive features vary within categories and discriminate or label the members. The representations were also analyzed geometrically; and (4) Applications - Feasibility studies were performed and described on inference by association, and on using RAAM-generated patterns along with cascaded networks for natural language parsing. Both of these remain long-term goals of the project.

  4. Airway injury during high-level exercise.

    PubMed

    Kippelen, Pascale; Anderson, Sandra D

    2012-05-01

    Airway epithelial cells act as a physical barrier against environmental toxins and injury, and modulate inflammation and the immune response. As such, maintenance of their integrity is critical. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that exercise can cause injury to the airway epithelium. This seems the case particularly for competitive athletes performing high-level exercise, or when exercise takes place in extreme environmental conditions such as in cold dry air or in polluted air. Dehydration of the small airways and increased forces exerted on to the airway surface during severe hyperpnoea are thought to be key factors in determining the occurrence of injury of the airway epithelium. The injury-repair process of the airway epithelium may contribute to the development of the bronchial hyper-responsiveness that is documented in many elite athletes. PMID:22247295

  5. The effects of genotype and infant weight on adult plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and LDL cholesterol are additive.

    PubMed Central

    Henry, J A; Bolla, M; Osmond, C; Fall, C; Barker, D J; Humphries, S E

    1997-01-01

    High circulating levels of cholesterol, particularly low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and the clotting factors fibrinogen and factor VII, are associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction. Variations in the plasma levels of these factors are determined in part by polymorphisms in the genes concerned and also by weight at 1 year (infant weight). We have looked at the possibility of interactions between these genetic factors and infant weight in a sample of 290 men and 192 women from Hertfordshire using the beta-fibrinogen G/A-455, factor VII R353Q, and ApoE polymorphisms. The rare allele frequencies of the three polymorphisms were 0.19 for beta-fibrinogen, 0.10 for factor VII, and 0.07 and 0.13 for the 2 and 4 alleles of ApoE, and these frequencies were not different in subjects of different infant weight. In this sample, the polymorphisms showed the expected effects on plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and LDL cholesterol. The A-455 allele was associated with higher fibrinogen levels but the effect was only statistically significant in women (p = 0.003). The R353 allele was associated with higher factor VII activity in both men and women (p < 0.0001 for both). The ApoE2 allele was associated with lower levels of LDL cholesterol (p = 0.03 in men, p = 0.006 in women), while the ApoE4 allele was associated with higher levels (p < 0.001 in men, not significant in women). In this sample of men and women the effect of low infant weight was only associated with significant effects on fibrinogen and LDL cholesterol in the group of men (p = 0.005 and p = 0.008 respectively). Compared with the E3E3 subjects, the LDL lowering effect of the E2 allele and the raising effect of the E4 allele was greater in those with low infant weight compared with those with high infant weight (low v high infant weight for E2: 12.7% v 9.4%; for E4 12.7% v 8.5%). Although in this sample the interactive effect did not reach statistical significance, the additive effect

  6. Demonstration of Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation Process Using Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.B.

    2001-09-10

    This report details the experimental effort to demonstrate the continuous precipitation of cesium from Savannah River Site High Level Waste using sodium tetraphenylborate. In addition, the experiments examined the removal of strontium and various actinides through addition of monosodium titanate.

  7. Spinach and mustard greens response to soil type, sulfur addition and lithium level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted near Weslaco, Texas (Lat. 26o 8' N, Long. 97o 57' W) between Dec. 2006 and Feb 2007 to evaluate the effect of soil type, added sulfur and lithium level on the growth and leaf nutrients, particularly biofortified levels of Li and S, in spinach and mustard gree...

  8. Effect of Greens and Soil Type, Sulfur Addition and Lithium Level on Leaf Constituents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted near Weslaco, Texas (Lat. 26o 8' N, Long. 97o 57' W) between Dec. 2006 and Feb 2007 to evaluate the effect of soil type, added sulfur and lithium level on the growth and leaf nutrients, particularly biofortified levels of Li and S, in spinach and mustard gree...

  9. HIGH LEVEL RF FOR THE SNS RING.

    SciTech Connect

    ZALTSMAN,A.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRENNAN,J.; BRODOWSKI,J.; METH,M.; SPITZ,R.; SEVERINO,F.

    2002-06-03

    A high level RF system (HLRF) consisting of power amplifiers (PA's) and ferrite loaded cavities is being designed and built by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project. It is a fixed frequency, two harmonic system whose main function is to maintain a gap for the kicker rise time. Three cavities running at the fundamental harmonic (h=l) will provide 40 kV and one cavity at the second harmonic (h=2) will provide 20 kV. Each cavity has two gaps with a design voltage of 10 kV per gap and will be driven by a power amplifier (PA) directly adjacent to it. The PA uses a 600kW tetrode to provide the necessary drive current. The anode of the tetrode is magnetically coupled to the downstream cell of the cavity. Drive to the PA will be provided by a wide band, solid state amplifier located remotely. A dynamic tuning scheme will be implemented to help compensate for the effect of beam loading.

  10. Decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces.

  11. Additive Manufacturing of Multifunctional Components Using High Density Carbon Nanotube Yarn Filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, John M.; Sauti, Godfrey; Kim, Jae-Woo; Cano, Roberto J.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Stelter, Christopher J.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Working, Dennis C.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for design freedom and part complexity not currently attainable using traditional manufacturing technologies. Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), for example, can yield novel component geometries and functionalities because the method provides a high level of control over material placement and processing conditions. This is achievable by extrusion of a preprocessed filament feedstock material along a predetermined path. However if fabrication of a multifunctional part relies only on conventional filament materials, it will require a different material for each unique functionality printed into the part. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an attractive material for many applications due to their high specific strength as well as good electrical and thermal conductivity. The presence of this set of properties in a single material presents an opportunity to use one material to achieve multifunctionality in an additively manufactured part. This paper describes a recently developed method for processing continuous CNT yarn filaments into three-dimensional articles, and summarizes the mechanical, electrical, and sensing performance of the components fabricated in this way.

  12. [Simultaneous determination of six food additives in meat products by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuqin; Zhang, Qinghe; Yang, Zong

    2010-12-01

    A novel method was proposed for the simultaneous separation and determination of six food additives, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, saccharin sodium, acesulfame potassium, ponceau 4R and allura red AC, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After optimized the separation conditions of HPLC, the separation can be completed within 18 min by using a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate (pH 6.9) and methanol as the mobile phases. The gradient elution was performed by 8% methanol (0-2 min), 8%-50% methanol (2-3 min), 50% methanol (3-9 min), 50%-8% methanol (9-12 min) and 8% methanol (12-18 min). The detection wavelength was set at 235 nm. This method has been successfully applied to the analysis of meat products and the average recoveries ranged from 80.7% to 94.4% at high and low spiked levels. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=3) were between 2.0% and 7.1%. The method is simple, rapid, accurate and suitable for the simultaneous determination of the six food additives in meat products. PMID:21438379

  13. Studies of levels of biogenic amines in meat samples in relation to the content of additives.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Aneta; Kowalska, Sylwia; Szłyk, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The impact of meat additives on the concentration of biogenic amines and the quality of meat was studied. Fresh white and red meat samples were fortified with the following food additives: citric and lactic acids, disodium diphosphate, sodium nitrite, sodium metabisulphite, potassium sorbate, sodium chloride, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (propyl gallate) and butylated hydroxyanisole. The content of spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and 2-phenylethylamine was determined by capillary isotachophoretic methods in meat samples (fresh and fortified) during four days of storage at 4°C. The results were applied to estimate the impact of the tested additives on the formation of biogenic amines in white and red meat. For all tested meats, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride and disodium diphosphate showed the best inhibition. However, cadaverine and putrescine were characterised by the biggest changes in concentration during the storage time of all the additives. Based on the presented data for the content of biogenic amines in meat samples analysed as a function of storage time and additives, we suggest that cadaverine and putrescine have a significant impact on meat quality. PMID:26515667

  14. DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS DEGRADATION

    SciTech Connect

    W. Ebert

    2001-09-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the analyses that were done to develop models for radionuclide release from high-level waste (HLW) glass dissolution that can be integrated into performance assessment (PA) calculations conducted to support site recommendation and license application for the Yucca Mountain site. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a). It specifically addresses the item, ''Defense High Level Waste Glass Degradation'', of the product technical work plan. The AP-3.15Q Attachment 1 screening criteria determines the importance for its intended use of the HLW glass model derived herein to be in the category ''Other Factors for the Postclosure Safety Case-Waste Form Performance'', and thus indicates that this factor does not contribute significantly to the postclosure safety strategy. Because the release of radionuclides from the glass will depend on the prior dissolution of the glass, the dissolution rate of the glass imposes an upper bound on the radionuclide release rate. The approach taken to provide a bound for the radionuclide release is to develop models that can be used to calculate the dissolution rate of waste glass when contacted by water in the disposal site. The release rate of a particular radionuclide can then be calculated by multiplying the glass dissolution rate by the mass fraction of that radionuclide in the glass and by the surface area of glass contacted by water. The scope includes consideration of the three modes by which water may contact waste glass in the disposal system: contact by humid air, dripping water, and immersion. The models for glass dissolution under these contact modes are all based on the rate expression for aqueous dissolution of borosilicate glasses. The mechanism and rate expression for aqueous dissolution are adequately understood; the analyses in this AMR were conducted to

  15. Solving Additive Problems at Pre-Elementary School Level with the Support of Graphical Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selva, Ana Coelho Vieira; Falcao, Jorge Tarcisio da Rocha; Nunes, Terezinha

    2005-01-01

    This research offers empirical evidence of the importance of supplying diverse symbolic representations in order to support concept development in mathematics. Graphical representation can be a helpful symbolic tool for concept development in the conceptual field of additive structures. Nevertheless, this symbolic tool has specific difficulties…

  16. Synthesis and characterization of a high-temperature, low-volatility phosphate additive for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gschwender, L.J.; Snyder, C.E., Jr.; Fultz, G.W.; Chen, L.S. Dayton, University, OH )

    1991-11-01

    Tricresyl phosphate (TCP) is a widely used and effective antiwear additive for a variety of lubricants used in aerospace military applications. However, for a high-temperature gas turbine engine oil (GTO) application, volatility and thermo-oxidative stability limitations preclude the use of TCP. For this GTO application, high molecular weight, and thermally and thermo-oxidatively stable groups were incorporated into a phosphate-based additive. This paper describes the synthesis of this additive and its successful performance. 3 refs.

  17. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effect of Additional Structured Outdoor Playtime on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Lyden, Kate; Goldsby, TaShauna; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The impact of additional structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; physical activity (PA) level is unclear. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the effects of increasing structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; PA levels. Eight full-day classrooms (n = 134 children) from two preschool programmes were randomised into a treatment…

  18. Effects of Acarbose Addition on Ruminal Bacterial Microbiota, Lipopolysaccharide Levels and Fermentation Characteristics In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yu-yang; Liu, Yu-jie; Zhu, Wei-yun; Mao, Sheng-yong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of acarbose addition on changes in ruminal fermentation characteristics and the composition of the ruminal bacterial community in vitro using batch cultures. Rumen fluid was collected from the rumens of three cannulated Holstein cattle fed forage ad libitum that was supplemented with 6 kg of concentrate. The batch cultures consisted of 8 mL of strained rumen fluid in 40 mL of an anaerobic buffer containing 0.49 g of corn grain, 0.21 g of soybean meal, 0.15 g of alfalfa and 0.15g of Leymus chinensis. Acarbose was added to incubation bottles to achieve final concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/mL. After incubation for 24 h, the addition of acarbose linearly decreased (p<0.05) the total gas production and the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, total volatile fatty acids, lactate and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It also linearly increased (p<0.05) the ratio of acetate to propionate, the concentrations of isovalerate, valerate and ammonia-nitrogen and the pH value compared with the control. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the addition of acarbose decreased (p<0.05) the proportion of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and increased (p<0.05) the percentage of Bacteroidetes, Fibrobacteres, and Synergistetes compared with the control. A principal coordinates analysis plot based on unweighted UniFrac values and molecular variance analysis revealed that the structure of the ruminal bacterial communities in the control was different to that of the ruminal microbiota in the acarbose group. In conclusion, acarbose addition can affect the composition of the ruminal microbial community and may be potentially useful for preventing the occurrence of ruminal acidosis and the accumulation of LPS in the rumen. PMID:25358366

  19. Nonlinear responses of coastal salt marshes to nutrient additions and sea level rise

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing nutrients and accelerated sea level rise (SLR) can cause marsh loss in some coastal systems. Responses to nutrients and SLR are complex and vary with soil matrix, marsh elevation, sediment inputs, and hydroperiod. We describe field and greenhouse studies examining sing...

  20. Additive enhancement of wound healing in diabetic mice by low level light and topical CoQ10

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Zhigang; Wu, Jeffrey H.; Dong, Tingting; Wu, Mei X.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes, a highly prevalent disease that affects 9.3% of Americans, often leads to severe complications and slow wound healing. Preclinical studies have suggested that low level light therapy (LLLT) can accelerate wound healing in diabetic subjects, but significant improvements must be made to overcome the absence of persuasive evidence for its clinical use. We demonstrate here that LLLT can be combined with topical Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) to heal wounds in diabetic mice significantly faster than LLLT alone, CoQ10 alone, or controls. LLLT followed by topical CoQ10 enhanced wound healing by 68~103% in diabetic mice in the first week and more than 24% in the second week compared with untreated controls. All wounds were fully healed in two weeks following the dual treatment, in contrast to only 50% wounds or a fewer being fully healed for single or sham treatment. The accelerated healing was corroborated by at least 50% higher hydroxyproline levels, and tripling cell proliferation rates in LLLT and CoQ10 treated wounds over controls. The beneficial effects on wound healing were probably attributed to additive enhancement of ATP production by LLLT and CoQ10 treatment. The combination of LLLT and topical CoQ10 is safe and convenient, and merits further clinical study. PMID:26830658

  1. [Simultaneous determination of various food additives by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Chen, Q C; Yu, W L; Wang, J

    2001-03-01

    A novel method is proposed for the simultaneous separation and determination of eight food additives, acesulfame potassium (AK), aspartame (ASP), benzoic acid (BA), caffeine (CA), saccharin sodium (SA), sorbic acid (SOR), theobromine (TB) and theophylline (TP) by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The separation was achieved within 23 min by using an Alltech Econosphere C18 column with 10 mmol/L NaH2PO4(pH 4.00)-acetonitrile (90:10, V/V) as mobile phase. The qualification and quantitation were accomplished by using a photodiode array detector. The detection limits (S/N = 3) for all analytes were below mg/L level. Under the experimental conditions, other common food additives and organic acids such as cyclamate, citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and ascorbic acid, did not interfere with the determination. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of various foods as well as pharmaceutical preparation, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 78.5% to 107.2%. PMID:12541649

  2. High bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children.

    PubMed

    Franco, Patricia; Junqua, Aurelie; Guignard-Perret, Anne; Raoux, Aude; Perier, Magali; Raverot, Veronique; Claustrat, Bruno; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of plasma bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children. Clinical, electrophysiological data and bicarbonate levels were evaluated retrospectively in children seen in our paediatric national reference centre for hypersomnia. The cohort included 23 control subjects (11.5 ± 4 years, 43% boys) and 51 patients presenting de-novo narcolepsy (N) (12.7 ± 3.7 years, 47% boys). In narcoleptic children, cataplexy was present in 78% and DQB1*0602 was positive in 96%. The control children were less obese (2 versus 47%, P = 0.001). Compared with control subjects, narcoleptic children had higher bicarbonate levels (P = 0.02) as well as higher PCO2 (P < 0.01) and lower venous pH gas (P < 0.01). Bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L(-1) were found in 41.2% of the narcoleptic children and 4.2% of the controls (P = 0.001). Bicarbonate levels were correlated with the Adapted Epworth Sleepiness Scale (P = 0.01). Narcoleptic patients without obesity often had bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L (-1) (55 versus 25%, P = 0.025). No differences were found between children with and without cataplexy. In conclusion, narcoleptic patients had higher bicarbonate plasma levels compared to control children. This result could be a marker of hypoventilation in this pathology, provoking an increase in PCO2 and therefore a respiratory acidosis, compensated by an increase in plasma bicarbonates. This simple screening tool could be useful for prioritizing children for sleep laboratory evaluation in practice. PMID:26574184

  3. Additive relationship between serum fibroblast growth factor 21 level and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Expression and activity of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 hormone-like protein are associated with development of several metabolic disorders. This study was designed to investigate whether serum FGF21 level was also associated with the metabolic syndrome-related cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and its clinical features in a Chinese cohort. Methods Two-hundred-and-fifty-three subjects visiting the Cardiology Department (Sixth People's Hospital affiliated to Shanghai JiaoTong University) were examined by coronary arteriography (to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD)) and hepatic ultrasonography (to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)). Serum FGF21 level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and analyzed for correlation to subject and clinical characteristics. The independent factors of CAD were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Subjects with NAFLD showed significantly higher serum FGF21 than those without NAFLD (388.0 pg/mL (253.0-655.4) vs. 273.3 pg/mL (164.9-383.7), P < 0.01). Subjects with CAD showed significantly higher serum FGF21, regardless of NAFLD diagnosis (P < 0.05). Serum FGF21 level significantly elevated with the increasing number of metabolic disorders (P for trend < 0.01). After adjustment of age, sex, and BMI, FGF21 was positively correlated with total cholesterol (P < 0.05) and triglyceride (P < 0.01). FGF21 was identified as an independent factor of CAD (odds ratio = 2.984, 95% confidence interval: 1.014-8.786, P < 0.05). Conclusions Increased level of serum FGF21 is associated with NAFLD, metabolic disorders and CAD. PMID:23981342

  4. Priming effect in agricultural and forest soils depending on glucose level and N addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splettstoesser, Thomas; Kumar, Amit; Sun, Yue

    2015-04-01

    Growing plants continuously release easily available organic compounds into the rhizosphere. By their interactions with soil microbial biomass (MB) these compounds result in changes of organic matter turnover rates. The understanding of this priming effect (PE) is important for the estimation of climate change impacts on different land use systems. In order to investigate the PE, we conducted a soil incubation experiment under laboratory conditions with two loamy soils: one under cropland and the second under a deciduous forest near Göttingen. 13C and 14C Glucose were added in four levels reaching from 10% to 300% of MB-C. Furthermore two nitrogen levels were established in order to investigate the effects of fertilization on PE. During the whole experiment CO2 release was monitored by trapping in a NaOH solution. Nitrogen mineralization rate, activity of enzymes, and composition of MB were analyzed at the start, after one day, after one week and at the end of the experiment. The results on priming effects induced in agricultural and forest soils depending on N and glucose levels will be presented.

  5. Arginine and proline applied as food additives stimulate high freeze tolerance in larvae of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Koštál, Vladimír; Korbelová, Jaroslava; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Moos, Martin; Šimek, Petr

    2016-08-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an insect of tropical origin. Its larval stage is evolutionarily adapted for rapid growth and development under warm conditions and shows high sensitivity to cold. In this study, we further developed an optimal acclimation and freezing protocol that significantly improves larval freeze tolerance (an ability to survive at -5°C when most of the freezable fraction of water is converted to ice). Using the optimal protocol, freeze survival to adult stage increased from 0.7% to 12.6% in the larvae fed standard diet (agar, sugar, yeast, cornmeal). Next, we fed the larvae diets augmented with 31 different amino compounds, administered in different concentrations, and observed their effects on larval metabolomic composition, viability, rate of development and freeze tolerance. While some diet additives were toxic, others showed positive effects on freeze tolerance. Statistical correlation revealed tight association between high freeze tolerance and high levels of amino compounds involved in arginine and proline metabolism. Proline- and arginine-augmented diets showed the highest potential, improving freeze survival to 42.1% and 50.6%, respectively. Two plausible mechanisms by which high concentrations of proline and arginine might stimulate high freeze tolerance are discussed: (i) proline, probably in combination with trehalose, could reduce partial unfolding of proteins and prevent membrane fusions in the larvae exposed to thermal stress (prior to freezing) or during freeze dehydration; (ii) both arginine and proline are exceptional among amino compounds in their ability to form supramolecular aggregates which probably bind partially unfolded proteins and inhibit their aggregation under increasing freeze dehydration. PMID:27489218

  6. Exceptionally high levels of multiple mating in an army ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, A. Jay; Franks, Nigel R.; Powell, Scott; Edwards, Keith J.

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, although there are notable exceptions. Competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of high levels of multiple mating, but this issue is far from resolved. Here we use microsatellites to investigate mating frequency in the army ant Eciton burchellii and show that queens mate with an exceptionally large number of males, eclipsing all but one other social insect species for which data are available. In addition we present evidence that suggests that mating is serial, continuing throughout the lifetime of the queen. This is the first demonstration of serial mating among social hymenoptera. We propose that high paternity within colonies is most likely to have evolved to increase genetic diversity and to counter high pathogen and parasite loads.

  7. Control strategies against Campylobacter at the poultry production level: biosecurity measures, feed additives and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Meunier, M; Guyard-Nicodème, M; Dory, D; Chemaly, M

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union, and ranks second in the United States only behind salmonellosis. In Europe, there are about nine million cases of campylobacteriosis every year, making the disease a major public health issue. Human cases are mainly caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The main source of contamination is handling or consumption of poultry meat. Poultry constitutes the main reservoir of Campylobacter, substantial quantities of which are found in the intestines following rapid, intense colonization. Reducing Campylobacter levels in the poultry chain would decrease the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. As primary production is a crucial step in Campylobacter poultry contamination, controlling the infection at this level could impact the following links along the food chain (slaughter, retail and consumption). This review describes the control strategies implemented during the past few decades in primary poultry production, including the most recent studies. In fact, the implementation of biosecurity and hygiene measures is described, as well as the immune strategy with passive immunization and vaccination trials and the nutritional strategy with the administration of organic and fatty acids, essential oil and plant-derived compound, probiotics, bacteriocins and bacteriophages. PMID:26541243

  8. Additive Effects of Nicotine and High-Fat Diet on Hepatic Steatosis in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Theodore C.; Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Parveen, Meher; Najjar, Sonia M.; Liu, Yanjun; Mangubat, Michael; Shin, Chang-Sung; Lyzlov, Alexei; Ivey, Rasheed; Shaheen, Magda; French, Samuel W.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease and may contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We hypothesize that in the presence of nicotine, high-fat diet (HFD) causes more severe hepatic steatosis in obese mice. Adult C57BL6 male mice were fed a normal chow diet or HFD and received twice daily injections of nicotine (0.75 mg/kg body weight, ip) or saline for 10 wk. Light microscopic image analysis revealed significantly higher lipid accumulation in livers from mice on HFD plus nicotine (190 ± 19 μm2), compared with mice on HFD alone (28 ± 1.2 μm2). A significant reduction in the percent volume of endoplasmic reticulum (67.8%) and glycogen (49.2%) was also noted in hepatocytes from mice on HFD plus nicotine, compared with mice on HFD alone. The additive effects of nicotine on the severity of HFD-induced hepatic steatosis was associated with significantly greater oxidative stress, increased hepatic triglyceride levels, higher incidence of hepatocellular apoptosis, inactivation (dephosphorylation) of AMP-activated protein kinase, and activation of its downstream target acetyl-coenzyme A-carboxylase. Treatment with acipimox, an inhibitor of lipolysis, significantly reduced nicotine plus HFD-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. We conclude that: 1) greater oxidative stress coupled with inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase mediate the additive effects of nicotine and HFD on hepatic steatosis in obese mice and 2) increased lipolysis is an important contributor to hepatic steatosis. We surmise that nicotine exposure is likely to exacerbate the metabolic abnormalities induced by high-fat intake in obese patients. PMID:23093702

  9. High School Accounting at Two Instructional Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helme, Rebecca E.

    1980-01-01

    Offering two levels of accounting results in a broader base of student enrollment. Reiterating theory, giving practical examples, and stressing "why" as well as "how" enable the instructor to foster the environment the students need. The teacher must also instill self-confidence in the students. (JOW)

  10. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  11. Effects of Zn additions to highly magnetoelastic FeGa alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lograsso, Thomas A.; Jones, Nicholas J.; Wun-Fogle, Marilyn; Restorff, James B.; Schlagel, Deborah L.; Petculescu, Gabriela; Clark, Arthur E.; Hathaway, Kristl B.

    2015-05-07

    Fe{sub 1−x}M{sub x} (M = Ga, Ge, Si, Al, Mo and x ∼ 0.18) alloys offer an extraordinary combination of magnetoelasticity and mechanical properties. They are rare-earth-free, can be processed using conventional deformation techniques, have high magnetic permeability, low hysteresis, and low magnetic saturation fields, making them attractive for device applications such as actuators and energy harvesters. Starting with Fe-Ga as a reference and using a rigid-band-filling argument, Zhang et al. predicted that lowering the Fermi level by reducing the total number of electrons could enhance magnetoelasticity. To provide a direct experimental validation for Zhang's hypothesis, elemental additions with lower-than-Ga valence are needed. Of the possible candidates, only Be and Zn have sufficient solubility. Single crystals of bcc Fe-Ga-Zn have been grown with up to 4.6 at. % Zn in a Bridgman furnace under elevated pressure (15 bars) in order to overcome the high vapor pressure of Zn and obtain homogeneous crystals. Single-crystal measurements of magnetostriction and elastic constants allow for the direct comparison of the magnetoelastic coupling constants of Fe-Ga-Zn with those of other magnetoelastic alloys in its class. The partial substitution of Ga with Zn yields values for the magnetoelastic coupling factor, −b{sub 1}, comparable to those of the binary Fe-Ga alloy.

  12. Addition of a Gastrointestinal Microbiome Modulator to Metformin Improves Metformin Tolerance and Fasting Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Jeffrey H.; Johnson, Matthew; Johnson, Jolene; Hsia, Daniel S.; Greenway, Frank L.; Heiman, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adverse effects of metformin are primarily related to gastrointestinal (GI) intolerance that could limit titration to an efficacious dose or cause discontinuation of the medication. Because some metformin side effects may be attributable to shifts in the GI microbiome, we tested whether a GI microbiome modulator (GIMM) used in combination with metformin would ameliorate the GI symptoms. Methods: A 2-period crossover study design was used with 2 treatment sequences, either placebo in period 1 followed by GIMM in period 2 or vice versa. Study periods lasted for 2 weeks, with a 2-week washout period between. During the first week, type 2 diabetes patients (T2D) who experienced metformin GI intolerance took 500 mg metformin along with their assigned NM504 (GIMM) or placebo treatment with breakfast and with dinner. In the second week, the 10 subjects took 500 mg metformin (t.i.d.), with GIMM or placebo consumed with the first and third daily metformin doses. Subjects were permitted to discontinue metformin dosing if it became intolerable. Results: The combination of metformin and GIMM treatment produced a significantly better tolerance score to metformin than the placebo combination (6.78 ± 0.65 [mean ± SEM] versus 4.45 ± 0.69, P = .0006). Mean fasting glucose levels were significantly (P < .02) lower with the metformin–GIMM combination (121.3 ± 7.8 mg/dl) than with metformin-placebo (151.9 ± 7.8 mg/dl). Conclusion: Combining a GI microbiome modulator with metformin might allow the greater use of metformin in T2D patients and improve treatment of the disease. PMID:25802471

  13. Period analysis at high noise level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, G.

    1980-05-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the variances of three types of periodograms due to normal-distributed noise present in the data: the conventional Fourier spectrum, the method of Warner and Robinson (1972), and Jurkevich's method (1971). The equivalence of the Jurkevich method and that of Warner and Robinson is proved. The optimum phase cell number of the Warner-Robinson method is given; this number depends on the data length, signal form, and noise level. Results are illustrated by the analysis of two typical forms of light curves: an eclipsing type light curve and an RRa curve.

  14. High Power Amplifier Harmonic Output Level Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, R. M.; Hoppe, D. J.; Khan, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented for the measurement of the harmonic output power of high power klystron amplifiers, involving coherent hemispherical radiation pattern measurements of the radiated klystron output. Results are discussed for the operation in saturated and unsaturated conditions, and with a waveguide harmonic filter included.

  15. How High Glucose Levels Affect Tendon Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, Jess G

    2016-01-01

    Among the many factors playing a role in tendon disease, unregulated biochemical reactions between glucose and the collagen extracellular matrix are coming increasingly into focus. We have shown that formation of advanced glycation end-products that cross-link the collagen extracellular matrix can drastically affect cellular level mechanical properties of the matrix, and in turn affect cell-level biomechanical stimuli during physiological loading of the tissue. We suggest that these may adversely affect tendon cell response to matrix damage, as well as the quality of the consequent repair. If such mechanical feedback loops are altered, the ability of tendon cells to maintain tissue in a functional, healthy state may be compromised. Although key foundational elements of biochemical, biomechanical, and biological understanding are now in place, the full extent of how these aspects interact, including the precise mechanisms by which advanced glycation end-products pathologically disrupt connective tissue homeostasis and damage repair, are only beginning to be adequately appreciated. PMID:27535261

  16. Additional Shear Resistance from Fault Roughness and its Role in Determining Stress Levels on Mature and Immature Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Z.; Dunham, E. M.

    2011-12-01

    The majority of crustal faults host earthquakes at τ /(σ - p) ˜ 0.6 (τ is shear stress and (σ - p) is the effective normal stress), while mature plate-boundary faults, like the San Andreas Fault (SAF), host earthquakes at τ /(σ - p) ˜ 0.2. A leading explaination for the weakness of the SAF is the existence of dynamic weakening, which, on planar faults, allows self-sustaining rupture at a critical background stress level τ pulse/(σ - p) ˜ 0.25. Provided that dynamic weakening also occurs on less mature faults, which seems likely given the ubiquity of dynamic weakening in high velocity friction experiments, the stress levels on the less mature faults are puzzling. We offer a self-consistent explanation for the relatively high stress levels on immature faults that is compatible with dynamic weakening and low coseismic strength of all faults. Our explanation is that increased geometrical complexity of less mature faults introduces an additional resistance to slip that must be overcome in order for the fault to host ruptures. Lab and field observations suggest that faults are self-similar surfaces with amplitude-to-wavelength ratio α in the range of 10-3 (mature faults) to 10-2 (immature faults). Slip on such faults induces huge stress perturbations near the fault. Projection of these stress perturbations back onto the rough fault surface results in an additional shear resistance to slip, the 'roughness drag' τ drag, that exists even if the fault is frictionless. A perturbation analysis, accurate to second order in α , shows that τ drag = 8π 3 α 2[G/(1-&nu)][Δ u/λ min], in which G is shear modulus, ν is the Poisson's ratio, Δ u is the amount of slip, and λ min is the minimum wavelength of roughness. Estimates indicate that τ drag is negligible on mature faults (α ˜ 10-3) but can become substantial on immature faults (α ˜ 10-2). We expect that the finite strength of the off-fault material ultimately bounds τ drag to a value determined by the

  17. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  18. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  19. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  20. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  1. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  2. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  3. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  4. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  5. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  6. RESPONSE OF BENTHIC COMMUNITIES IN MERL EXPERIMENTAL ECOSYSTEMS TO LOW LEVEL, CHRONIC ADDITIONS OF NO. 2 FUEL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The macrofauna and meiofauna of three oiled and three control experimental ecosystems at the Marine Ecosystems Research Laboratory were followed for 25 weeks of semi-continuous additions of an oil-water dispersion of No. 2 fuel oil. Water column hydrocarbon levels were maintained...

  7. Interactive effects of nitrogen addition, warming and invasion across organizational levels in an old-field plant community.

    PubMed

    Gornish, Elise S

    2014-01-01

    Response to global change is dependent on the level of biological organization (e.g. the ecologically relevant spatial scale) in which species are embedded. For example, individual responses can affect population-level responses, which, in turn, can affect community-level responses. Although relationships are known to exist among responses to global change across levels of biological organization, formal investigations of these relationships are still uncommon. I conducted an exploratory analysis to identify how nitrogen addition and warming by open top chambers might affect plants across spatial scales by estimating treatment effect size at the leaf level, the plant level and the community level. Moreover, I investigated if the presence of Pityopsis aspera, an experimentally introduced plant species, modified the relationship between spatial scale and effect size across treatments. I found that, overall, the spatial scale significantly contributes to differences in effect size, supporting previous work which suggests that mechanisms driving biotic response to global change are scale dependent. Interestingly, the relationship between spatial scale and effect size in both the absence and presence of experimental invasion is very similar for nitrogen addition and warming treatments. The presence of invasion, however, did not affect the relationship between spatial scale and effect size, suggesting that in this system, invasion may not exacerbate or attenuate climate change effects. This exercise highlights the value of moving beyond integration and scaling to the practice of directly testing for scale effects within single experiments. PMID:25301820

  8. Interactive effects of nitrogen addition, warming and invasion across organizational levels in an old-field plant community

    PubMed Central

    Gornish, Elise S.

    2014-01-01

    Response to global change is dependent on the level of biological organization (e.g. the ecologically relevant spatial scale) in which species are embedded. For example, individual responses can affect population-level responses, which, in turn, can affect community-level responses. Although relationships are known to exist among responses to global change across levels of biological organization, formal investigations of these relationships are still uncommon. I conducted an exploratory analysis to identify how nitrogen addition and warming by open top chambers might affect plants across spatial scales by estimating treatment effect size at the leaf level, the plant level and the community level. Moreover, I investigated if the presence of Pityopsis aspera, an experimentally introduced plant species, modified the relationship between spatial scale and effect size across treatments. I found that, overall, the spatial scale significantly contributes to differences in effect size, supporting previous work which suggests that mechanisms driving biotic response to global change are scale dependent. Interestingly, the relationship between spatial scale and effect size in both the absence and presence of experimental invasion is very similar for nitrogen addition and warming treatments. The presence of invasion, however, did not affect the relationship between spatial scale and effect size, suggesting that in this system, invasion may not exacerbate or attenuate climate change effects. This exercise highlights the value of moving beyond integration and scaling to the practice of directly testing for scale effects within single experiments. PMID:25301820

  9. Response of Functional Structure of Soil Microbial Community to Multi-level Nitrogen Additions on the Central Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Yuan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The use of fossil fuels and fertilizers has increased the amount of biologically reactive nitrogen in the atmosphere over the past century. Tibet is the one of the most threatened regions by nitrogen deposition, thus understanding how its microbial communities function maybe of high importance to predicting microbial responses to nitrogen deposition. Here we describe a short-time nitrogen addition conducted in an alpine steppe ecosystem to investigate the response of functional structure of soil microbial community to multi-level nitrogen addition. Using a GeoChip 4.0, we showed that functional diversities and richness of functional genes were unchanged at low level of nitrogen fertilizer inputs (<20 kg N ha-1 yr-1), but significantly decreased at higher nitrogen fertilizer inputs (>=40 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Detrended correspondence analysis indicated that the functional structure of microbial communities was markedly different across the nitrogen gradients. Most C degradation genes whose abundances significantly increased under elevated N fertilizer were those involved in the degradation of relatively labile C (starch, hemicellulose, cellulose), whereas the abundance of certain genes involved in the degradation of recalcitrant C (i.e. lignin) was largely decreased (such as manganese peroxidase, mnp). The results suggest that the elevated N fertilization rates might significantly accelerate the labile C degradation, but might not spur recalcitrant C degradation. The combined effect of gdh and ureC genes involved in N cycling appeared to shift the balance between ammonia and organic N toward organic N ammonification and hence increased the N mineralization potential. Moreover, Urease directly involved in urea mineralization significantly increased. Lastly, Canonical correspondence analysis showed that soil (TOC+NH4++NO3-+NO2-+pH) and plant (Aboveground plant productivity + Shannon Diversity) variables could explain 38.9% of the variation of soil microbial community

  10. Characterization of Transducers and Resonators under High Drive Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, X.; Sigel, D. A.; Gradziel, M. J.; Askins, S. A.; Dolgin, B. P.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    In many applications, piezoelectric transducers are driven at AC voltage levels well beyond the level for which the material was nominally characterized. In this paper we describe an experimental setup that allows for the determination of the main transducer or resonator properties under large AC drive. A sinusoidal voltage from a waveform generator is amplified and applied across the transducer/resonator in series with a known high power resistor. The amplitude of applied voltage and the amplitude and the relative phase of the current through the resistor are monitored on a digital scope. The frequency of the applied signal is swept through resonance and the voltage/current signals are recorded. After corrections for the series resistance and parasitic elements the technique allows for the determination of the complex impedance spectra of the sample as a function of frequency. In addition, access to the current signal allows for the direct investigation of non-linear effects through the application of Fourier transform techniques on the current signal. Our results indicate that care is required when interpreting impedance data at high drive level due to the frequency dependence of the dissipated power. Although the transducer/resonator at a single frequency and after many cycles may reach thermal equilibrium, the spectra as a whole cannot be considered an isothermal measurement due to the temperature change with frequency. Methods to correct for this effect will be discussed. Results determined from resonators of both soft and hard PZT and a ultrasonic horn transducer are presented.

  11. Continuous Digital Light Processing (cDLP): Highly Accurate Additive Manufacturing of Tissue Engineered Bone Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Dean, David; Jonathan, Wallace; Siblani, Ali; Wang, Martha O; Kim, Kyobum; Mikos, Antonios G; Fisher, John P

    2012-03-01

    Highly accurate rendering of the external and internal geometry of bone tissue engineering scaffolds effects fit at the defect site, loading of internal pore spaces with cells, bioreactor-delivered nutrient and growth factor circulation, and scaffold resorption. It may be necessary to render resorbable polymer scaffolds with 50 μm or less accuracy to achieve these goals. This level of accuracy is available using Continuous Digital Light processing (cDLP) which utilizes a DLP(®) (Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX) chip. One such additive manufacturing device is the envisionTEC (Ferndale, MI) Perfactory(®). To use cDLP we integrate a photo-crosslinkable polymer, a photo-initiator, and a biocompatible dye. The dye attenuates light, thereby limiting the depth of polymerization. In this study we fabricated scaffolds using the well-studied resorbable polymer, poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) as a dye, Irgacure(®) 819 (BASF [Ciba], Florham Park, NJ) as an initiator, and diethyl fumarate as a solvent to control viscosity. PMID:23066427

  12. Continuous Digital Light Processing (cDLP): Highly Accurate Additive Manufacturing of Tissue Engineered Bone Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Dean, David; Wallace, Jonathan; Siblani, Ali; Wang, Martha O.; Kim, Kyobum; Mikos, Antonios G.; Fisher, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Highly accurate rendering of the external and internal geometry of bone tissue engineering scaffolds effects fit at the defect site, loading of internal pore spaces with cells, bioreactor-delivered nutrient and growth factor circulation, and scaffold resorption. It may be necessary to render resorbable polymer scaffolds with 50 μm or less accuracy to achieve these goals. This level of accuracy is available using Continuous Digital Light processing (cDLP) which utilizes a DLP® (Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX) chip. One such additive manufacturing device is the envisionTEC (Ferndale, MI) Perfactory®. To use cDLP we integrate a photo-crosslinkable polymer, a photo-initiator, and a biocompatible dye. The dye attenuates light, thereby limiting the depth of polymerization. In this study we fabricated scaffolds using the well-studied resorbable polymer, poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a dye, Irgacure® 819 (BASF [Ciba], Florham Park, NJ) as an initiator, and diethyl fumarate as a solvent to control viscosity. PMID:23066427

  13. Fermilab Tevatron high level rf accelerating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kerns, Q.; Kerns, C.; Miller, H.; Tawser, S.; Reid, J.; Webber, R.; Wildman, D.

    1985-06-01

    Eight tuned rf cavities have been installed and operated in the F0 straight section of the Tevatron. Their mechanical placement along the beam line enables them to be operated for colliding beams as two independent groups of four cavities, group 1-4 accelerating antiprotons and group 5-8 accelerating protons. The only difference is that the spacing between cavities 4 and 5 was increased to stay clear of the F0 colliding point. The cavities can easily be rephased by switching cables in a low-level distribution system (fan-out) so that the full accelerating capability of all eight cavities can be used during fixed target operations. Likewise, the cables from capacitive probes on each cavity gap can be switched to proper lengths and summed in a fan-back system to give an rf signal representing the amplitude and phase as ''seen by the beam,'' separately for protons and antiprotons. Such signals have been used to phase lock the Tevatron to the Main Ring for synchronous transfer.

  14. High Energy Density Additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these rockets without compromising safety and reliability. Use of these additives could extend the range of applications for which hybrid rockets become an attractive alternative to conventional solid or liquid fuel rockets. The objectives of the study were to confirm and quantify the high enthalpy of these strained molecules and to assess improvement in rocket performance that would be expected if these additives were blended with conventional fuels. We confirmed the chemical properties (including enthalpy) of these additives. However, the predicted improvement in rocket performance was too small to make this a useful strategy for boosting hybrid rocket performance.

  15. Bumblebee Pupae Contain High Levels of Aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer’s disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline. PMID:26042788

  16. Highly Diastereoselective Chelation-controlled Additions to α-Silyloxy Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Gretchen R.; Koz, Gamze

    2011-01-01

    The polar Felkin-Anh, Cornforth, and Cram-chelation models predict that the addition of organometallic reagents to silyl–protected α–hydroxy ketones proceeds via a non-chelation pathway to give anti-diol addition products. This prediction has held true for the vast majority of additions reported in the literature and few methods for chelation-controlled additions of organometallic reagents to silyl–protected α–hydroxy ketones have been introduced. Herein, we present a general and highly diastereoselective method for the addition of dialkylzincs and (E)-di-, (E)-tri- and (Z)-disubstituted vinylzinc reagents to α-silyloxy ketones using alkyl zinc halide Lewis acids, RZnX, to give chelation-controlled products (dr ≥18:1). The compatibility of organozinc reagents with other functional groups makes this method potentially very useful in complex molecule synthesis. PMID:21534530

  17. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from...

  18. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from...

  19. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from...

  20. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from...

  1. Effect of additives on electrochemical performance of lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kyoung Seok; Choi, Suneui; Song, JunHo; Woo, Sang-Gil; Jo, Yong Nam; Choi, Jungkyu; Yim, Taeeun; Yu, Ji-Sang; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Lithium-nickel-cobalt-manganese oxide, Li[NixCoyMnz]O2 (NCM) is a low-cost cathode material with a high capacity and a moderately high rate capability, however, it still suffers from poor electrochemical performance. In this study, several types of additives are attempted to enhance the surface stability of high-Ni-content (Ni ≥ 60%) cathodes and the most effective additive turns out to be PS. The cycle performance in the presence of 2% PS is much improved at a high temperature of 60 °C: (1) 98.9% of its initial capacity is preserved, (2) the increase in thickness is only 17.9%, preventing undesired swellings, and (3) gases are not generated in large amounts with the internal pressure being 56.4 kPa. The FT-IR spectroscopy results suggest that the surface of the cathode in the presence of 2% PS is covered with a film of alkyl sulfone components (RSOSR and RSO2SR), which is possibly formed by the electrochemical oxidation of PS. The current results confirm that the electrochemical performance of Ni-rich cathodes can be improved via the appropriate use of additives. They also indicate that among the tested additive candidates in this study, PS is highly desirable for enhancing the electrochemical performance of Ni-rich cathodes.

  2. Formation Of Transparent Exopolymeric Particles (TEP) In Mesocosms Under Increasing Turbulence Levels With And Without Additional Nutrients.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvais, S.; Pedrotti, Ml.

    Transparent Exopolymeric Particles (TEP) are formed abiotically by spontaneous co- agulation of the colloidal fraction of dissolved organic polysaccharides released via phytoplankton and bacteria exudation. Their importance in the vertical fluxes of or- ganic matter in coastal and pelagic ecosystems is now well recognised. However, their production as a function of the environment features has yet to be investigated. Evolu- tion of TEP formation was followed during a two week mesocosm experiment under 4 several turbulence levels and with or without added nutrients. This study was per- formed in the framework of EC-ELOISE-NATP project. The results showed a rapid formation of TEP 24h after the phytoplankton bloom occurred. This suggests that TEP consist of fresh organic material, derived from biological process, such as phyto- plankton blooms. Their abundance increased with time in mesocosms with additional nutrients indicating that phytoplankton cells were actively exuding the precursors. The C/N ratio of particualte organic matter (POM) in mesocosms enriched with nutrients was highly correlated with TEP abundance, it confirms that TEP can have a strong impact on the biogeochemical fluxes in oceans, in particular on the carbon cycle. TEP were more abundant in the mesocosms with the highest turbulence intensity. It sug- gests that the effect of turbulence could promote encounter rates between particles increasing coagulation processes. Even if biological processes are of primary impor- tance in TEP production, this study also highlights the role of physical processes in their formation dynamics. The role of TEP in the microbial food web will be also discussed.

  3. High-level waste tank farm set point document

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, J.A. III

    1995-01-15

    Setpoints for nuclear safety-related instrumentation are required for actions determined by the design authorization basis. Minimum requirements need to be established for assuring that setpoints are established and held within specified limits. This document establishes the controlling methodology for changing setpoints of all classifications. The instrumentation under consideration involve the transfer, storage, and volume reduction of radioactive liquid waste in the F- and H-Area High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farms. The setpoint document will encompass the PROCESS AREA listed in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (DPSTSA-200-10 Sup 18) which includes the diversion box HDB-8 facility. In addition to the PROCESS AREAS listed in the SAR, Building 299-H and the Effluent Transfer Facility (ETF) are also included in the scope.

  4. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  5. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  6. ATW system impact on high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, E.D.

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept which aims at destruction of key long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste (HLW), both fission products and actinides. This focus makes it different from most other transmutation concepts which concentrate primarily on actinide burning. The ATW system uses an accelerator-driven, sub-critical assembly to create an intense thermal neutron environment for radionuclide transmutation. This feature allows rapid transmutation under low-inventory system conditions, which in turn, has a direct impact on the size of chemical separations and materials handling components of the system. Inventories in ATW are factors of eight to thirty times smaller than reactor systems of equivalent thermal power. Chemical separations systems are relatively small in scale and can be optimized to achieve high decontamination factors and minimized waste streams. The low-inventory feature also directly impacts material amounts remaining in the system at its end of life. In addition to its low-inventory operation, the accelerator-driven neutron source features of ATW are key to providing a sufficient level of neutrons to allow transmutation of long-lived fission products.

  7. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  8. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  9. Multi-Level High School Classes: Astronomy Diagnostic Test Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, R.; Hufnagel, B.

    2001-12-01

    A content survey, the Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) designed for undergraduate non-science astronomy courses, was administered as a post-course survey to five senior high classes in a Maryland high school. In 2001, the five classes chosen included all three levels of physics and an astronomy class. Each class had an even distribution of male and female students, with a total of 115 girls and 104 boys as subjects. Results of the survey include: (1) The Advanced Placement (AP) physics class scored highest and general physics lowest. (2) The AP class, most of whom will major in engineering or computer sciences, had a mean ADT score similar to post-course undergraduate non-science astronomy classes. (3) For all five classes, the girls had lower mean scores than the boys. (4) In two classes the girls' self-reported mean confidence was 40% lower than the boys' confidence; in the other three classes the confidence levels were the same. Additional detailed research was done on the three cosmology and ten physics questions in the ADT; girls outperformed the boys in only two of these thirteen questions.

  10. Effect of Various Food Additives on the Levels of 4(5)-Methylimidazole in a Soy Sauce Model System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sumin; Lee, Jung-Bin; Hwang, Junho; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of food additives such as iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, citric acid, gallic acid, and ascorbic acid on the reduction of 4(5)-methylimidazole (4(5)-MI) was investigated using a soy sauce model system. The concentration of 4(5)-MI in the soy sauce model system with 5% (v/v) caramel colorant III was 1404.13 μg/L. The reduction rate of 4(5)-MI level with the addition of 0.1M additives followed in order: iron sulfate (81%) > zinc sulfate (61%) > citric acid (40%) > gallic acid (38%) > ascorbic acid (24%) > magnesium sulfate (13%). Correlations between 4(5)-MI levels and the physicochemical properties of soy sauce, including the amount of caramel colorant, pH value, and color differences, were determined. The highest correlations were found between 4(5)-MI levels and the amount of caramel colorant and pH values (r(2) = 0.9712, r(2) = 0.9378). The concentration of caramel colorants in 8 commercial soy sauces were estimated, and ranged from 0.01 to 1.34% (v/v). PMID:26661512

  11. Developmental coexposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers has additive effects on circulating thyroxine levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Miller, Veronica M; Sanchez-Morrissey, Susana; Brosch, Karl O; Seegal, Richard F

    2012-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widespread environmental contaminants found in seafood and dairy products. PCBs and PBDEs are structurally similar chemicals and affect thyroid hormone function and behavior in children and laboratory rodents. Although coexposure frequently exists, the in vivo developmental effects of combined exposure to PCBs and PBDEs on thyroxine (T4) levels are unknown. We examined the effects of PCB and PBDE coexposure from gestational day 6 through postnatal day (p) 21, alone and in combination, on T4 levels in rat offspring. In males, exposure to PCBs and PBDEs at 1.7, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 μmol/kg/day induced equivalent and dose-dependent reductions in T4 from p 7 to p 21. Exposure to equimolar mixtures of PCBs and PBDEs at 3.4, 10, 20, 40, and 80 μmol/kg/day additively reduced T4 from p 7 to p 21 in males. In a second series of experiments, we determined sex effects on the mixture exposures and found that coexposure to PCBs and PBDEs had similar additive effects on T4 levels in male and female offspring. This study demonstrates that equimolar exposure to PCBs and PBDEs induces similar reductions in T4 levels and that coexposure to a mixture of PCBs and PBDEs has additive effects on T4 levels. These thyroid hormone effects of coexposure to PCBs and PBDEs are important when considering the cumulative effects of coexposure to multiple environmental thyroid hormone-disrupting agents in risk assessment for developmental disorders. PMID:22345314

  12. Highly Enantioselective Rhodium-Catalyzed Addition of Arylboroxines to Simple Aryl Ketones: Efficient Synthesis of Escitalopram.

    PubMed

    Huang, Linwei; Zhu, Jinbin; Jiao, Guangjun; Wang, Zheng; Yu, Xingxin; Deng, Wei-Ping; Tang, Wenjun

    2016-03-24

    Highly enantioselective additions of arylboroxines to simple aryl ketones have been achieved for the first time with a Rh/(R,R,R,R)-WingPhos catalyst, thus providing a range of chiral diaryl alkyl carbinols with excellent ee values and yields. (R,R,R,R)-WingPhos has been proven to be crucial for the high reactivity and enantioselectivity. The method has enabled a new, concise, and enantioselective synthesis of the antidepressant drug escitalopram. PMID:26933831

  13. Radiative properties of ceramic metal-halide high intensity discharge lamps containing additives in argon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressault, Yann; Teulet, Philippe; Zissis, Georges

    2016-07-01

    The lighting represents a consumption of about 19% of the world electricity production. We are thus searching new effective and environment-friendlier light sources. The ceramic metal-halide high intensity lamps (C-MHL) are one of the options for illuminating very high area. The new C-MHL lamps contain additives species that reduce mercury inside and lead to a richer spectrum in specific spectral intervals, a better colour temperature or colour rendering index. This work is particularly focused on the power radiated by these lamps, estimated using the net emission coefficient, and depending on several additives (calcium, sodium, tungsten, dysprosium, and thallium or strontium iodides). The results show the strong influence of the additives on the power radiated despite of their small quantity in the mixtures and the increase of visible radiation portion in presence of dysprosium.

  14. Production of fired construction brick from high sulfate-containing fly ash with boric acid addition.

    PubMed

    Başpinar, M Serhat; Kahraman, Erhan; Görhan, Gökhan; Demir, Ismail

    2010-01-01

    The increase of power plant capacity has led to the production of an increasing amount of fly ash that causes high environmental impact in Turkey. Some of the fly ash is utilized within the fired brick industry but high sulfate-containing fly ash creates severe problems during sintering of the fired brick. This study attempted to investigate the potential for converting high sulfate-containing fly ash into useful material for the construction industry by the addition of boric acid. The chemical and mineralogical composition of fly ash and clay were investigated. Boric acid (H(3)BO(3)) was added to fly ash-clay mixtures with up to 5 wt.%. Six different series of test samples were produced by uniaxial pressing. The samples were fired at the industrial clay-brick firing temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 degrees C. The microstructures of the fired samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and some physical and mechanical properties were measured. It was concluded that the firing at conventional brick firing temperature of high sulfate fly ash without any addition of boric acid resulted in very weak strength bricks. The addition of boric acid and clay simultaneously to the high sulfate- containing fly ash brick dramatically increased the compressive strength of the samples at a firing temperature of 1000 degrees C by modifying the sintering behaviour of high sulfate fly ash. PMID:19423597

  15. 49 CFR 236.1007 - Additional requirements for high-speed service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements for high-speed service. 236.1007 Section 236.1007 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE,...

  16. 49 CFR 236.1007 - Additional requirements for high-speed service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional requirements for high-speed service. 236.1007 Section 236.1007 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE,...

  17. 49 CFR 236.1007 - Additional requirements for high-speed service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional requirements for high-speed service. 236.1007 Section 236.1007 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE,...

  18. 49 CFR 236.1007 - Additional requirements for high-speed service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional requirements for high-speed service. 236.1007 Section 236.1007 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE,...

  19. 49 CFR 236.1007 - Additional requirements for high-speed service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional requirements for high-speed service. 236.1007 Section 236.1007 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE,...

  20. Brief Report: Additive and Subtractive Counterfactual Reasoning of Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeer, Sander; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Lunenburg, Patty; Stegge, Hedy

    2009-01-01

    The development of additive ("If only I had done...") and subtractive ("If only I had not done....") counterfactual reasoning was examined in children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD) (n = 72) and typically developing controls (n = 71), aged 6-12 years. Children were presented four stories where they could generate…

  1. In vitro indications for favourable non-additive effects on ruminal methane mitigation between high-phenolic and high-quality forages.

    PubMed

    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Marquardt, Svenja; Wina, Elizabeth; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2013-02-28

    Feeding plants containing elevated levels of polyphenols may reduce ruminal CH₄ emissions, but at the expense of nutrient utilisation. There might, however, be non-additive effects when combining high-phenolic plants with well-digestible, high-nutrient feeds. To test whether non-additive effects exist, the leaves of Carica papaya (high in dietary quality, low in polyphenols), Clidemia hirta (high in hydrolysable tannins), Swietenia mahagoni (high in condensed tannins) and Eugenia aquea (high in non-tannin phenolics) were tested alone and in all possible mixtures (n 15 treatments). An amount of 200 mg DM of samples was incubated in vitro (24 h; 39°C) with buffered rumen fluid using the Hohenheim gas test apparatus. After the incubation, total gas production, CH₄ concentration and fermentation profiles were determined. The levels of absolute CH₄, and CH₄:SCFA and CH₄:total gas ratios were lower (P< 0·05) when incubating a combination of C. papaya and any high-phenolic plants (C. hirta, S. mahagoni and E. aquea) than when incubating C. papaya alone. Additionally, mixtures resulted in non-additive effects for all CH₄-related parameters of the order of 2-15 % deviation from the expected value (P< 0·01). This means that, by combining these plants, CH₄ in relation to the fermentative capacity was lower than that predicted when assuming the linearity of the effects. Similar non-additive effects of combining C. papaya with the other plants were found for NH₃ concentrations but not for SCFA concentrations. In conclusion, using mixtures of high-quality plants and high-phenolic plants could be one approach to CH₄ mitigation; however, this awaits in vivo confirmation. PMID:22630827

  2. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by closure

  3. Engineered soils for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Effects of additives on the adsorptive behavior and hydraulic conductivity of natural soils

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, L.E.; Humphrey, D.N.; DeMascio, F.A.

    1996-12-31

    The siting of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities requires locations having suitable soil materials beneath the proposed facility. These soils should be selected or designed to control water infiltration and ponding and enhance adsorption of radionuclides. This paper has investigated the effect of four soil additives on the hydraulic conductivity and adsorption characteristics of two natural soils, a glacial till and marine clay. The additives studied in this paper were andisol, bentonite, clinoptilolite and hematite. The results of the hydraulic conductivity testing indicated that remolding and recompacting the soils produced a more homogeneous soil having lower hydraulic conductivities. Comparison of the hydraulic conductivity and adsorptive behavior of the background soils, the additives, and mixtures of background soils and additives indicated that andisol and clinoptilolite provided the most improvement with respect to increasing adsorption capacity for iodide and strontium, respectively, with little effect on the hydraulic conductivity. The extent of adsorption and the effects of the additives on adsorption were highly pH dependent. The impact of the additives was most significant at acidic pH for both strontium and iodide adsorption because at high pH iodide adsorption was minimal for any of the materials tested and all of the background soils adsorbed a significant amount of strontium at high pH. These results suggest that engineered soils, comprised of a mixture of soil and additives, when used below a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility can enhance the ability of a site to retard off-site migration of radionuclides. 40 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Application of SYNROC to high-level defense wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Tewhey, J.D.; Hoenig, C.L.; Newkirk, H.W.; Rozsa, R.B.; Coles, D.G.; Ryerson, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    The SYNROC method for immobilization of high-level nuclear reactor wastes is currently being applied to US defense wastes in tank storage at Savannah River, South Carolina. The minerals zirconolite, perovskite, and hollandite are used in SYNROC D formulations to immobilize fission products and actinides that comprise up to 10% of defense waste sludges and coexisting solutions. Additional phases in SYNROC D are nepheline, the host phase for sodium; and spinel, the host for excess aluminum and iron. Up to 70 wt % of calcined sludge can be incorporated with 30 wt % of SYNROC additives to produce a waste form consisting of 10% nepheline, 30% spinel, and approximately 20% each of the radioactive waste-bearing phases. Urea coprecipitation and spray drying/calcining methods have been used in the laboratory to produce homogeneous, reactive ceramic powders. Hot pressing and sintering at temperatures from 1000 to 1100/sup 0/C result in waste form products with greater than 97% of theoretical density. Hot isostatic pressing has recently been implemented as a processing alternative. Characterization of waste-form mineralogy has been done by means of XRD, SEM, and electron microprobe. Leaching of SYNROC D samples is currently being carried out. Assessment of radiation damage effects and physical properties of SYNROC D will commence in FY 81.

  5. A Framework for Translating a High Level Security Policy into Low Level Security Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ahmed A.; Bahgat, Waleed M.

    2010-01-01

    Security policies have different components; firewall, active directory, and IDS are some examples of these components. Enforcement of network security policies to low level security mechanisms faces some essential difficulties. Consistency, verification, and maintenance are the major ones of these difficulties. One approach to overcome these difficulties is to automate the process of translation of high level security policy into low level security mechanisms. This paper introduces a framework of an automation process that translates a high level security policy into low level security mechanisms. The framework is described in terms of three phases; in the first phase all network assets are categorized according to their roles in the network security and relations between them are identified to constitute the network security model. This proposed model is based on organization based access control (OrBAC). However, the proposed model extend the OrBAC model to include not only access control policy but also some other administrative security policies like auditing policy. Besides, the proposed model enables matching of each rule of the high level security policy with the corresponding ones of the low level security policy. Through the second phase of the proposed framework, the high level security policy is mapped into the network security model. The second phase could be considered as a translation of the high level security policy into an intermediate model level. Finally, the intermediate model level is translated automatically into low level security mechanism. The paper illustrates the applicability of proposed approach through an application example.

  6. Carbon flux from plants to soil microbes is highly sensitive to nitrogen addition and biochar amendment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, C.; Solaiman, Z. M.; Kilburn, M. R.; Clode, P. L.; Fuchslueger, L.; Koranda, M.; Murphy, D. V.

    2012-04-01

    The release of carbon through plant roots to the soil has been recognized as a governing factor for soil microbial community composition and decomposition processes, constituting an important control for ecosystem biogeochemical cycles. Moreover, there is increasing awareness that the flux of recently assimilated carbon from plants to the soil may regulate ecosystem response to environmental change, as the rate of the plant-soil carbon transfer will likely be affected by increased plant C assimilation caused by increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. What has received less attention so far is how sensitive the plant-soil C transfer would be to possible regulations coming from belowground, such as soil N addition or microbial community changes resulting from anthropogenic inputs such as biochar amendments. In this study we investigated the size, rate and sensitivity of the transfer of recently assimilated plant C through the root-soil-mycorrhiza-microbial continuum. Wheat plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were grown in split-boxes which were filled either with soil or a soil-biochar mixture. Each split-box consisted of two compartments separated by a membrane which was penetrable for mycorrhizal hyphae but not for roots. Wheat plants were only grown in one compartment while the other compartment served as an extended soil volume which was only accessible by mycorrhizal hyphae associated with the plant roots. After plants were grown for four weeks we used a double-labeling approach with 13C and 15N in order to investigate interactions between C and N flows in the plant-soil-microorganism system. Plants were subjected to an enriched 13CO2 atmosphere for 8 hours during which 15NH4 was added to a subset of split-boxes to either the root-containing or the root-free compartment. Both, 13C and 15N fluxes through the plant-soil continuum were monitored over 24 hours by stable isotope methods (13C phospho-lipid fatty acids by GC-IRMS, 15N/13C in bulk plant

  7. Properties and Microstructural Characteristic of Kaolin Geopolymer Ceramics with Addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Romisuhani; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Hussin, Kamarudin; Sandu, Andrei Victor; Binhussain, Mohammed; Ain Jaya, Nur

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the mechanical properties and microstructure of kaolin geopolymer ceramics with addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene were studied. Inorganic polymers based on alumina and silica polysialate units were synthesized at room temperature from kaolin and sodium silicate in a highly alkaline medium, followed by curing and drying at 80 °C. Alkaline activator was formed by mixing the 12 M NaOH solution with sodium silicate at a ratio of 0.24. Addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene to the kaolin geopolymer are fabricated with Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene content of 2, 4, 6 and 8 (wt. %) by using powder metallurgy method. The samples were heated at 1200 °C and the strength and morphological were tested. It was found that the flexural strength for the kaolin geopolymer ceramics with addition of UHMWPE were improved and generally increased with the increasing of UHMWPE loading. The result revealed that the optimum flexural strength was obtained at UHMWPE loading of 4 wt. % (92.1 MPa) and the flexural strength started to decrease. Microstructural analysis showed the samples appeared to have more number of pores and connected of pores increased with the increasing of UHMWPE content.

  8. PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    2000-11-20

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide a dose consequence analysis of high-level waste (HLW) consisting of plutonium immobilized in vitrified HLW to be handled at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain for a beyond design basis event (BDBE) under expected conditions using best estimate values for each calculation parameter. In addition to the dose calculation, a plutonium respirable particle size for dose calculation use is derived. The current concept for this waste form is plutonium disks enclosed in cans immobilized in canisters of vitrified HLW (i.e., glass). The plutonium inventory at risk used for this calculation is selected from Plutonium Immobilization Project Input for Yucca Mountain Total Systems Performance Assessment (Shaw 1999). The BDBE examined in this calculation is a nonmechanistic initiating event and the sequence of events that follow to cause a radiological release. This analysis will provide the radiological releases and dose consequences for a postulated BDBE. Results may be considered in other analyses to determine or modify the safety classification and quality assurance level of repository structures, systems, and components. This calculation uses best available technical information because the BDBE frequency is very low (i.e., less than 1.0E-6 events/year) and is not required for License Application for the Monitored Geologic Repository. The results of this calculation will not be used as part of a licensing or design basis.

  9. Stability of High-Level Radioactive Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.

    2001-06-22

    High-level waste (HLW) glass compositions, processing schemes, limits on waste content, and corrosion/dissolution release models are dependent on an accurate knowledge of melting temperatures and thermochemical values. Unfortunately, existing models for predicting these temperatures are empirically-based, depending on extrapolations of experimental information. In addition, present models of leaching behavior of glass waste forms use simplistic assumptions or experimentally measured values obtained under non-realistic conditions. There is thus a critical need for both more accurate and more widely applicable models for HLW glass behavior, which this project addressed. Significant progress was made in this project on modeling HLW glass. Borosilicate glass was accurately represented along with the additional important components that contain iron, lithium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. The formation of crystalline inclusions in the glass, an issue in Hanford HLW formulations, was modeled and shown to be predictive. Thus the results of this work have already demonstrated practical benefits with the ability to map compositional regions where crystalline material forms, and therefore avoid that detrimental effect. With regard to a fundamental understanding, added insights on the behavior of the components of glass have been obtained, including the potential formation of molecular clusters. The EMSP project had very significant effects beyond the confines of Environmental Management. The models developed for glass have been used to solve a very costly problem in the corrosion of refractories for glass production. The effort resulted in another laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories-Livermore, to become conversant in the techniques and to apply those through a DOE Office of Industrial Technologies project joint with PPG Industries. The glass industry as a whole is now cognizant of these capabilities, and there is a Glass Manufacturer's Research Institute proposal

  10. Low-level awareness accompanies "unconscious" high-level processing during continuous flash suppression.

    PubMed

    Gelbard-Sagiv, Hagar; Faivre, Nathan; Mudrik, Liad; Koch, Christof

    2016-01-01

    The scope and limits of unconscious processing are a matter of ongoing debate. Lately, continuous flash suppression (CFS), a technique for suppressing visual stimuli, has been widely used to demonstrate surprisingly high-level processing of invisible stimuli. Yet, recent studies showed that CFS might actually allow low-level features of the stimulus to escape suppression and be consciously perceived. The influence of such low-level awareness on high-level processing might easily go unnoticed, as studies usually only probe the visibility of the feature of interest, and not that of lower-level features. For instance, face identity is held to be processed unconsciously since subjects who fail to judge the identity of suppressed faces still show identity priming effects. Here we challenge these results, showing that such high-level priming effects are indeed induced by faces whose identity is invisible, but critically, only when a lower-level feature, such as color or location, is visible. No evidence for identity processing was found when subjects had no conscious access to any feature of the suppressed face. These results suggest that high-level processing of an image might be enabled by-or co-occur with-conscious access to some of its low-level features, even when these features are not relevant to the processed dimension. Accordingly, they call for further investigation of lower-level awareness during CFS, and reevaluation of other unconscious high-level processing findings. PMID:26756173

  11. 46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.409 High level alarms. When Table...

  12. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  13. Fabrication and characterization of Si3N4 ceramics without additives by high pressure hot pressing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, M.; Tanaka, A.; Yamada, T.; Koizumi, M.

    1984-01-01

    High pressure hot-pressing of Si3N4 without additives was performed using various kinds of Si3N4 powder as starting materials, and the relation between densification and alpha-beta phase transformation was studied. The temperature dependences of Vickers microhardness and fracture toughness were also examined. Densification of Si3N4 was divided into three stages, and it was found that densification and phase transformation of Si3N4 under pressure were closely associated. The results of the temperature dependence of Vickers microhardness indicated that the high-temperature hardness was strongly influenced not only by the density and microstructure of sintered body but also by the purity of starting powder. The fracture toughness values of Si3N4 bodies without additives were 3.29-4.39 MN/m to the 3/2 power and independent of temperature up to 1400 C.

  14. The use of Electrolyte Additives to Improve the High Temperature Resilience of Li-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Lucht, B. L.; Ratnakumar, Bugga V.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of electrolyte additves to improve the resillience of Lithium ion cells. The objective of this work is to identify lithium-ion electrolytes, which will lead to Li-ion cells with a wide operational temperature range (+60 to -60 C), and to develop Li-ion electrolytes which result in cells that display improved high temperature resilience. Significant improvement in the high temperature resilience of Li-ion cells containing these additives was observed, with the most dramatic benefit being displayed by addition of DMAc. When the electrochemical properties of the individual electrodes were analyzed, the degradation of the anode kinetics was slowed most dramatically by the incorporation of DMAc into the electrolytes. Whereas, the greatest retention in the cathode kinetics was observed in the cell containing the electrolyte with VC added.

  15. Predictors of Placement in Lower Level versus Higher Level High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archbald, Doug; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth N.

    2012-01-01

    Educators and researchers have long been interested in determinants of access to honors level and college prep courses in high school. Factors influencing access to upper level mathematics courses are particularly important because of the hierarchical and sequential nature of this subject and because students who finish high school with only lower…

  16. Dopamine as a Novel Electrolyte Additive for High-Voltage Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoogil; Han, Taeyeong; Cho, Kuk Young; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2016-08-24

    Dopamine, which can be electrochemically oxidized to polydopamine on cathode surface, was introduced as an electrolyte additive for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The addition of 0.1 wt % dopamine to the electrolyte led to the formation of a polydopamine-containing layer on the cathode, thereby resulting in suppression of the oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte during high-voltage operation (up to 4.5 V) of a LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/artificial graphite cell. The addition of dopamine to the electrolyte improved the capacity retention of the cell from 136 to 147 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at a rate of 1 C and a cutoff voltage of 4.5 V, while the cycle performance and rate capability with a cutoff voltage of 4.3 V were comparable to those of the cell without dopamine. Further evidence of the positive impact of dopamine on high-voltage LIBs was the lower DC-IRs and AC impedances, as well as the retention of the cathode morphology even after operation at 4.5 V. PMID:27509406

  17. Improving sulfolane-based electrolyte for high voltage Li-ion cells with electrolyte additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    An electrolyte mixture containing 1 M LiPF6 in sulfolane:ethylmethyl carbonate 3:7 with vinylene carbonate and other electrolyte additives exhibited promising cycling and storage performance in high voltage Li(Ni0·4Mn0·4Co0.2)O2/graphite pouch type Li-ion cells tested to 4.5 V. Voltage drop during storage, coulombic efficiency, charge endpoint capacity slippage during ultra high precision cycling, charge-transfer resistance after storage or cycling, gas evolution during storage and cycling as well as capacity retention during long-term cycling were examined. The results for cells with sulfolane-based electrolytes were compared with those for cells with ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes containing state-of-the-art electrolyte additives. This survey showed that the combination of vinylene carbonate and triallyl phosphate as electrolyte additives in sulfolane:ethylmethyl carbonate electrolyte yielded cells capable of better performance during tests to 4.5 V than cells with ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes. These results suggest that sulfolane-based electrolytes may be promising for high voltage Li-ion cells.

  18. High-level waste program integration within the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, J.H.; Davis, N.R.; Malone, K.; Schaus, P.S.

    1998-03-01

    Eleven major Department of Energy (DOE) site contractors were chartered by the Assistant Secretary to use a systems engineering approach to develop and evaluate technically defensible cost savings opportunities across the complex. Known as the complex-wide Environmental Management Integration (EMI), this process evaluated all the major DOE waste streams including high level waste (HLW). Across the DOE complex, this waste stream has the highest life cycle cost and is scheduled to take until at least 2035 before all HLW is processed for disposal. Technical contract experts from the four DOE sites that manage high level waste participated in the integration analysis: Hanford, Savannah River Site (SRS), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). In addition, subject matter experts from the Yucca Mountain Project and the Tanks Focus Area participated in the analysis. Also, departmental representatives from the US Department of Energy Headquarters (DOE-HQ) monitored the analysis and results. Workouts were held throughout the year to develop recommendations to achieve a complex-wide integrated program. From this effort, the HLW Environmental Management (EM) Team identified a set of programmatic and technical opportunities that could result in potential cost savings and avoidance in excess of $18 billion and an accelerated completion of the HLW mission by seven years. The cost savings, schedule improvements, and volume reduction are attributed to a multifaceted HLW treatment disposal strategy which involves waste pretreatment, standardized waste matrices, risk-based retrieval, early development and deployment of a shipping system for glass canisters, and reasonable, low cost tank closure.

  19. Untangling the Effect of Fatty Acid Addition at Species Level Revealed Different Transcriptional Responses of the Biogas Microbial Community Members.

    PubMed

    Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Zhu, Xinyu; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, RNA-sequencing was used to elucidate the change of anaerobic digestion metatranscriptome after long chain fatty acids (oleate) exposure. To explore the general transcriptional behavior of the microbiome, the analysis was first performed on shotgun reads without considering a reference metagenome. As a second step, RNA reads were aligned on the genes encoded by the microbial community, revealing the expression of more than 51 000 different transcripts. The present study is the first research which was able to dissect the transcriptional behavior at a single species level by considering the 106 microbial genomes previously identified. The exploration of the metabolic pathways confirmed the importance of Syntrophomonas species in fatty acids degradation, and also highlighted the presence of protective mechanisms toward the long chain fatty acid effects in bacteria belonging to Clostridiales, Rykenellaceae, and in species of the genera Halothermothrix and Anaerobaculum. Additionally, an interesting transcriptional activation of the chemotaxis genes was evidenced in seven species belonging to Clostridia, Halothermothrix, and Tepidanaerobacter. Surprisingly, methanogens revealed a very versatile behavior different from each other, even among similar species of the Methanoculleus genus, while a strong increase of the expression level in Methanosarcina sp. was evidenced after oleate addition. PMID:27154312

  20. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  1. Stable superconducting magnet. [high current levels below critical temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W. (Inventor)

    1967-01-01

    Operation of a superconducting magnet is considered. A method is described for; (1) obtaining a relatively high current in a superconducting magnet positioned in a bath of a gas refrigerant; (2) operating a superconducting magnet at a relatively high current level without training; and (3) operating a superconducting magnet containing a plurality of turns of a niobium zirconium wire at a relatively high current level without training.

  2. Modeling and optimization of defense high level waste removal sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Pran Krishna

    A novel methodology has been developed which makes possible a very fast running computational tool, capable of performing 30 to 50 years of simulation of the entire Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste complex in less than 2 minutes on a work station. The methodology has been implemented in the Production Planning Model (ProdMod) simulation code which uses Aspen Technology's dynamic simulation software development package SPEEDUP. ProdMod is a pseudo-dynamic simulation code solely based on algebraic equations, using no differential equations. The dynamic nature of the plant process is captured using linear constructs in which the time dependence is implicit. Another innovative approach implemented in ProdMod development is the mapping of event-space on to time-space and vice versa, which accelerates the computation without sacrificing the necessary details in the event-space. ProdMod uses this approach in coupling the time-space continuous simulation with the event-space batch simulation, avoiding the discontinuities inherent in dynamic simulation batch processing. In addition, a general purpose optimization scheme has been devised based on the pseudo-dynamic constructs and the event- and time-space algorithms of ProdMod. The optimization scheme couples a FORTRAN based stand-alone optimization driver with the SPEEDUP based ProdMod simulator to perform dynamic optimization. The scheme is capable of generating single or multiple optimal input conditions for different types of objective functions over single or multiple years of operations depending on the nature of the objective function and operating constraints. The resultant optimal inputs are then interfaced with ProdMod to simulate the dynamic behavior of the waste processing operations. At the conclusion on an optimized advancement step, the simulation parameters are then passed to the optimization driver to generate the next set of optimized parameters. An optimization algorithm using linear programming

  3. Use of pyrocatechol violet as an effective redox additive for highly promoting the supercapacitor performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Nie, Yong Fu; Chen, Xiang Ying; Xiao, Zheng Hui; Zhang, Zhong Jie

    2016-08-01

    In present work, we demonstrate a simple but effective redox additive of pyrocatechol violet (abbr. PCV) to largely promote the capacitive performances especially when carried out in three different kinds of electrolytes (H2SO4, Na2SO4 and KOH), mostly due to its fast electron and proton transfer occurring in the electrode/electrolyte interface. It reveals that the PCV dosage incorporated into electrolyte plays a crucial role in the determination of capacitive performance. When conducted in a two-electrode system, incorporating 0.06 mol L-1 PCV into 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 can achieve large capacitance up to 200 F g-1, which is almost 2.06 times than the one without the addition of PCV; besides, the corresponding energy density is of 28 Wh kg-1 (also increasing 2 times). What's more, PCV has been extended as the redox additive in other electrolytes such as Na2SO4 and KOH, and remarkable promotion in capacitance and energy density also occur, well evincing the high efficiency and universal applicability of PCV for the large promotion of supercapacitors' performances due to its prominent electrochemical reversibility and high solubility.

  4. Effect of PAC addition on sludge properties in an MBR treating high strength wastewater.

    PubMed

    Satyawali, Yamini; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2009-04-01

    This paper examines the sludge characteristics in a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) operated on a high strength wastewater from an alcohol distillery. Two membrane bioreactors, each with a 30 microm mesh filter, were investigated with and without addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC). Experiments were conducted with varying organic loading rates ranging from 3.4 to 6.9 kgCOD m(-3) day(-1) and the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), sludge volume index (SVI), mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), particle size and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were monitored over a 180 day period. Respirometric experiments did not show enhancement in microbial activity with PAC supplementation. Addition of PAC decreased the SVI thereby perceptibly improving sludge dewaterability. The sludge particle size, which increased with time, appeared to be independent of PAC addition but was influenced by the aeration intensity. PAC also did not affect the sludge EPS concentration; however, the EPS composition, in terms of protein/carbohydrate (polysaccharide) ratio was altered resulting in a high P/C ratio. FTIR analysis of the sludge samples indicated that the functional groups associated with the sludge polysaccharides appear to be involved in its interaction with PAC. PMID:19201006

  5. Review of high-level waste form properties. [146 bibliographies

    SciTech Connect

    Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a review of waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. This review covers the status of international research and development on waste forms as of May 1979. Although the emphasis in this report is on waste form properties, process parameters are discussed where they may affect final waste form properties. A summary table is provided listing properties of various nuclear waste form options. It is concluded that proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, the conclusion is that either glass of crystalline materials can be shown to have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort has been applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Several additional waste forms have enough promise to warrant continued research and development to bring their state of development up to that of glass and calcine. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer potential advantages and need further study. Although this report discusses waste form properties, the total waste management system should be considered in the final selection of a waste form option. Canister design, canister materials, overpacks, engineered barriers, and repository characteristics, as well as the waste form, affect the overall performance of a waste management system. These parameters were not considered in this comparison.

  6. Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition.

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.; Partain, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

  7. Communication: Virial coefficients and demixing in highly asymmetric binary additive hard-sphere mixtures.

    PubMed

    López de Haro, Mariano; Tejero, Carlos F; Santos, Andrés

    2013-04-28

    The problem of demixing in a binary fluid mixture of highly asymmetric additive hard spheres is revisited. A comparison is presented between the results derived previously using truncated virial expansions for three finite size ratios with those that one obtains with the same approach in the extreme case in which one of the components consists of point particles. Since this latter system is known not to exhibit fluid-fluid segregation, the similarity observed for the behavior of the critical constants arising in the truncated series in all instances, while not being conclusive, may cast serious doubts as to the actual existence of a demixing fluid-fluid transition in disparate-sized binary additive hard-sphere mixtures. PMID:23635104

  8. Winter-time CO2 addition in high rate algal mesocosms for enhanced microalgal performance.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Donna L; Montemezzani, Valerio; Mehrabadi, Abbas; Craggs, Rupert J

    2016-02-01

    Carbon limitation in domestic wastewater high rate algal ponds is thought to constrain microalgal photo-physiology and productivity and CO2 augmentation is often used to overcome this limitation in summer. However, the implications of carbon limitation during winter are poorly understood. This paper investigates the effects of 0.5%, 2%, 5% and 10% CO2 addition on the winter-time performance of wastewater microalgae in high rate algal mesocosms. Performance was measured in terms of light absorption, photosynthetic efficiency, biomass production and nutrient removal rates, along with community composition. Varying percentage CO2 addition and associated change in culture pH resulted in 3 distinct microalgal communities. Light absorption by the microalgae increased by up to 144% with CO2 addition, while a reduction in the package effect meant that there was less internal self-shading thereby increasing the efficiency of light absorption. Carbon augmentation increased the maximum rate of photosynthesis by up to 172%, which led to increased microalgal biovolume by up to 181% and an increase in total organic biomass for all treatments except 10% CO2. While 10% CO2 improved light absorption and photosynthesis this did not translate to enhanced microalgal productivity. Increased microalgal productivity with CO2 addition did not result in increased dissolved nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) removal. This experiment demonstrated that winter-time carbon augmentation up to 5% CO2 improved microalgal light absorption and utilisation, which ultimately increased microalgal biomass and is likely to enhance total annual microalgal areal productivity in HRAPs. PMID:26707731

  9. Investigations of non-linear polymers as high performance lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Qu, Jun; Bays, J. Timothy; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2015-03-22

    Off-the-shelf available engine oils contain an assortment of additives that increase the performance of base oils and maximize the overall efficiency of the machine. With ever increasing requirements for fuel efficiency, the demand for novel materials that outperform older generations is also on the rise. One approach towards increasing overall efficiency is to reduce internal friction and wear in an engine. From an additive approach, this is typically achieved by altering the bulk oil’s viscosity at high temperatures via polymers. In general, the hydrodynamic volume of polymers increase (expand) at elevated temperatures and decrease (contract/deflate) with declining temperatures and this effect is enhanced be carefully designing specific structures and architectures. The natural thinning tendency of base oil with increasing temperatures is in part mitigated by the expansion of the macromolecules added, and the overall effect is decreasing the viscosity losses at high temperatures. Traditional polymer architectures vary from linear to dendritic, where linear polymers of the same chemical composition and molecular weight to its dendritic counterpart will undergo a more significant free volume change in solution with regards to temperature changes. This advantage has been exploited in the literature towards the production of viscosity modifiers. However, one major disadvantage of linear polymers is degradation due to mechanical shear forces and high temperatures causing a shorter additive lifetime. Dendrimers on the other hand are known to demonstrate superior robustness to shear degradation when compared to their respective linear counterparts. An additional advantage of the dendritic architecture is the ability to tailor the peripheral end-groups towards influencing polymer-solvent and/or polymer-surface interactions. Comb-burst hyperbranched polymers are a hybrid of the aforementioned architectures and provide several compromises between the traditional

  10. Calcium Carbonate Nanoplate Assemblies with Directed High-Energy Facets: Additive-Free Synthesis, High Drug Loading, and Sustainable Releasing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Yu; Xie, Hao; Su, Bao-Lian; Yao, Bin; Yin, Yixia; Li, Shipu; Chen, Fang; Fu, Zhengyi

    2015-07-29

    Developing drug delivery systems (DDSs) with high drug-loading capacity and sustainable releasing is critical for long-term chemotherapeutic efficacy, and it still remains challenging. Herein, vaterite CaCO3 nanoplate assemblies with exposed high-energy {001} facets have been synthesized via a novel, additive-free strategy. The product shows a high doxorubicin-loading capacity (65%); the best of all the CaCO3-based DDSs so far. Also, the product's sustainable releasing performance and its inhibition of the initial burst release, together, endow it with long-term drug efficacy. The work may shed light on exposing directed high-energy facets for rationally designing of a drug delivery system with long-term efficacy. PMID:26161808

  11. [INVITED] Laser-induced forward transfer: A high resolution additive manufacturing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaporte, Philippe; Alloncle, Anne-Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Among the additive manufacturing techniques, laser-induced forward transfer addresses the challenges of printing thin films in solid phase or small volume droplets in liquid phase with very high resolution. This paper reviews the physics of this process and explores the pros and cons of this technology versus other digital printing technologies. The main field of applications are printed electronics, organic electronics and tissue engineering, and the most promising short terms ones concern digital laser printing of sensors and conductive tracks. Future directions and emerging areas of interest are discussed such as printing solid from a liquid phase and 3D digital nanomanufacturing.

  12. High Level Waste Feed Certification in Hanford Double Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Thien, Micheal G.; Wells, Beric E.; Adamson, Duane J.

    2010-03-01

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE’s River Protection Project (RPP) mission modeling and WTP facility modeling assume that individual 3785 cubic meter (1 million gallon) HLW feed tanks are homogenously mixed, representatively sampled, and consistently delivered to the WTP. It has been demonstrated that homogenous mixing of HLW sludge in Hanford DSTs is not likely achievable with the baseline design thereby causing representative sampling and consistent feed delivery to be more difficult. Inconsistent feed to the WTP could cause additional batch to batch operational adjustments that reduces operating efficiency and has the potential to increase the overall mission length. The Hanford mixing and sampling demonstration program will identify DST mixing performance capability, will evaluate representative sampling techniques, and will estimate feed batch consistency. An evaluation of demonstration program results will identify potential mission improvement considerations that will help ensure successful mission completion. This paper will discuss the history, progress, and future activities that will define and mitigate the mission risk.

  13. Neptunium estimation in dissolver and high-level-waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, P.N.; Prabhu, D.R.; Kanekar, A.S.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2008-07-01

    This papers deals with the optimization of the experimental conditions for the estimation of {sup 237}Np in spent-fuel dissolver/high-level waste solutions using thenoyltrifluoroacetone as the extractant. (authors)

  14. HIGH-LEVEL OZONE DISINFECTION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 20 month operating experimental program was conducted at Marlborough, Massachusetts to evaluate the feasibility, engineering, and economic aspects of achieving high levels of effluent disinfection with ozone. The ozone research pilot facility was designed to operate at a consta...

  15. Field Trips as Cognitive Motivators for High Level Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Marlene M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a composite example of field trips from several years of traveling to Yellowstone with high school biology students, the author illustrates how to raise the cognitive level of science instruction and student learning through science field trips. The author examines what teachers can do to raise the level of both teaching and learning in all…

  16. Decision Document for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-07-31

    This document establishes the combination of design and operational configurations that will be used to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. The chosen method--to use the primary and annulus ventilation systems to remove heat from the high-level waste tanks--is documented herein.

  17. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a vessel of at least 7.9 meters (26 feet) in...

  18. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    SciTech Connect

    d'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  19. Determination of plastic additives in packaging by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María-Teresa

    2015-10-01

    A simple and sensitive analytical method for the determination of several plastic additives in multilayer packaging based on solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to variable wavelength (VWD) and time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) detectors is presented. The proposed method allows the simultaneous determination of fourteen additives belonging to different families such as antioxidants, slip agents and light stabilizers, as well as two oxidation products in only 9min. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, matrix effect error, detection and quantification limits, repeatability and intermediate precision. The instrumental method showed satisfactory repeatability and intermediate precision at concentrations closed to LOQ with RSDs less than 7 and 20%, respectively, and LODs until 5000 times more sensitive than other GC-FID and HPLC-VWD methods previously reported. Also, focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) was optimized and evaluated to extract plastic additives from packaging. Extraction results obtained by FUSLE and SLE were compared to those obtained by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). All extraction methods showed excellent extraction efficiency for slip agents, however quantitative recovery of all analytes was achieved only by SLE with just 5ml of hexane for 10h. Finally, the selected method was applied to the analysis of packaging samples where erucamide, Irgafos 168, oxidized Irgafos 168, Irganox 1076 and Irganox 1010 were detected and quantified. PMID:26319625

  20. Method to Determine Oxalate in High-Level Sludge by Ion Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, C.J.

    2002-12-19

    The Sludge Batch 3 macrobatch feed to the DWPF is expected to contain a relatively high concentration of oxalate. A simple acid addition at room temperature has been shown to be in high-level sludge. This sample preparation requires only about five minutes and yields solutions suitable for oxalate determinations by ion chromatography.

  1. Effect of high fluoride and high fat on serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (P<0.05), and there was also a synergistic effect between high fluoride and high fat (P<0.05). High fluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (P<0.01) whereas high fluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (P<0.05). Similarly, high fluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (P<0.05). However, there was no interactive effect between high fat and high fluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals. PMID:25461561

  2. LV wall segmentation using the variational level set method (LSM) with additional shape constraint for oedema quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, K.; Gao, H.; Payne, A.; Soraghan, J.; Berry, C.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper an automatic algorithm for the left ventricle (LV) wall segmentation and oedema quantification from T2-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images is presented. The extent of myocardial oedema delineates the ischaemic area-at-risk (AAR) after myocardial infarction (MI). Since AAR can be used to estimate the amount of salvageable myocardial post-MI, oedema imaging has potential clinical utility in the management of acute MI patients. This paper presents a new scheme based on the variational level set method (LSM) with additional shape constraint for the segmentation of T2-weighted CMR image. In our approach, shape information of the myocardial wall is utilized to introduce a shape feature of the myocardial wall into the variational level set formulation. The performance of the method is tested using real CMR images (12 patients) and the results of the automatic system are compared to manual segmentation. The mean perpendicular distances between the automatic and manual LV wall boundaries are in the range of 1-2 mm. Bland-Altman analysis on LV wall area indicates there is no consistent bias as a function of LV wall area, with a mean bias of -121 mm2 between individual investigator one (IV1) and LSM, and -122 mm2 between individual investigator two (IV2) and LSM when compared to two investigators. Furthermore, the oedema quantification demonstrates good correlation when compared to an expert with an average error of 9.3% for 69 slices of short axis CMR image from 12 patients.

  3. Highly Aligned Carbon Fiber in Polymer Composite Structures via Additive Manufacturing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tekinalp, Halil L; Kunc, Vlastimil; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio M; Duty, Chad E; Love, Lonnie J; Naskar, Amit K; Blue, Craig A; Ozcan, Soydan

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, diverging from traditional manufacturing techniques, such as casting and machining materials, can handle complex shapes with great design flexibility without the typical waste. Although this technique has been mainly used for rapid prototyping, interest is growing in using this method to directly manufacture actual parts of complex shape. To use 3D-printing additive manufacturing in wide spread applications, the technique and the feedstock materials require improvements to meet the mechanical requirements of load-bearing components. Thus, we investigated the short fiber (0.2 mm to 0.4 mm) reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites as a feedstock for 3D-printing in terms of their processibility, microstructuremore » and mechanical performance; and also provided comparison with traditional compression molded composites. The tensile strength and modulus of 3D-printed samples increased ~115% and ~700%, respectively. 3D-printer yielded samples with very high fiber orientation in printing direction (up to 91.5 %), whereas, compression molding process yielded samples with significantly less fiber orientation. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships revealed that although the relatively high porosity is observed in the 3D-printed composites as compared to those produced by the conventional compression molding technique, they both exhibited comparable tensile strength and modulus. This phenomena is explained based on the changes in fiber orientation, dispersion and void formation.« less

  4. Additive Manufacturing of Reactive In Situ Zr Based Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahasrabudhe, Himanshu; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Reactive in situ multi-material additive manufacturing of ZrB2-based ultra-high-temperature ceramics in a Zr metal matrix was demonstrated using LENS™. Sound metallurgical bonding was achieved between the Zr metal and Zr-BN composites with Ti6Al4V substrate. Though the feedstock Zr power had α phase, LENS™ processing of the Zr powder and Zr-BN premix powder mixture led to the formation of some β phase of Zr. Microstructure of the Zr-BN composite showed primary grains of zirconium diboride phase in zirconium metal matrix. The presence of ZrB2 ceramic phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Hardness of pure Zr was measured as 280 ± 12 HV and, by increasing the BN content in the feedstock, the hardness was found to increase. In Zr-5%BN composite, the hardness was 421 ± 10 HV and the same for Zr-10%BN composite was 562 ± 10 HV. It is envisioned that such multi-materials additive manufacturing will enable products in the future that cannot be manufactured using traditional approaches particularly in the areas of high-temperature metal-ceramic composites with compositional and functional gradation.

  5. The effect of high altitude on nasal nitric oxide levels.

    PubMed

    Altundag, Aytug; Salihoglu, Murat; Cayonu, Melih; Cingi, Cemal; Tekeli, Hakan; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether nasal nitric oxide (nNO) levels change in relation to high altitude in a natural setting where the weather conditions were favorable. The present study included 41 healthy volunteers without a history of acute rhinosinusitis within 3 weeks and nasal polyposis. The study group consisted of 31 males (76 %) and 10 females (24 %) and the mean age of the study population was 38 ± 10 years. The volunteers encamped for 2 days in a mountain village at an altitude of 1,500 m above sea level (masl) and proceeded to highlands at an altitude of 2,200 masl throughout the day. The measurements of nNO were done randomly, either first at the mountain village or at sea level. Each participant had nNO values both at sea level and at high altitude at the end of the study. The nNO values of sea level and high altitude were compared to investigate the effect of high altitude on nNO levels. The mean of average nNO measurements at the high altitude was 74.2 ± 41 parts-per-billion (ppb) and the mean of the measurements at sea level was 93.4 ± 45 ppb. The change in nNO depending on the altitude level was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The current investigation showed that nNO levels were decreased at high altitude even if the weather conditions were favorable, such as temperature, humidity, and wind. PMID:24972544

  6. Immobilized high-level waste interim storage alternatives generation and analysis and decision report

    SciTech Connect

    CALMUS, R.B.

    1999-05-18

    This report presents a study of alternative system architectures to provide onsite interim storage for the immobilized high-level waste produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) privatization vendor. It examines the contract and program changes that have occurred and evaluates their impacts on the baseline immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) interim storage strategy. In addition, this report documents the recommended initial interim storage architecture and implementation path forward.

  7. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage. PMID:26656902

  8. An overview of very high level software design methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asdjodi, Maryam; Hooper, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Very High Level design methods emphasize automatic transfer of requirements to formal design specifications, and/or may concentrate on automatic transformation of formal design specifications that include some semantic information of the system into machine executable form. Very high level design methods range from general domain independent methods to approaches implementable for specific applications or domains. Applying AI techniques, abstract programming methods, domain heuristics, software engineering tools, library-based programming and other methods different approaches for higher level software design are being developed. Though one finds that a given approach does not always fall exactly in any specific class, this paper provides a classification for very high level design methods including examples for each class. These methods are analyzed and compared based on their basic approaches, strengths and feasibility for future expansion toward automatic development of software systems.

  9. Student Achievement Levels Raised at Chandler High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Profiles, Programs & Products, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Chandler (Arizona) High School has reported a dramatic increase in student achievement levels since implementing a number of management, curriculum, and discipline policy changes. Among the program changes that contributed to these gains are: (1) creation of a positive school environment, with high expectations for teachers, emphasis on high…

  10. A Testing Instrument for High School Arabic, Level III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolowelsky, Joel B.

    The Arabic language examination was designed for Jewish immigrants from Syria wishing to satisfy New York State language requirements for high school graduation by indicating their proficiency in Arabic. The test is essentially a translation of a state test of Hebrew, and is intended to test Arabic at the third-year high school level. The…

  11. Crystalline plutonium hosts derived from high-level waste formulations.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Holleran, T. P.

    1998-04-24

    The Department of Energy has selected immobilization for disposal in a repository as one approach for disposing of excess plutonium (1). Materials for immobilizing weapons-grade plutonium for repository disposal must meet the ''spent fuel standard'' by providing a radiation field similar to spent fuel (2). Such a radiation field can be provided by incorporating fission products from high-level waste into the waste form. Experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating high-level waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) into plutonium dispositioning materials to meet the spent fuel standard. A variety of materials and preparation techniques were evaluated based on prior experience developing waste forms for immobilizing HLW. These included crystalline ceramic compositions prepared by conventional sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and glass formulations prepared by conventional melting. Because plutonium solubility in silicate melts is limited, glass formulations were intentionally devitrified to partition plutonium into crystalline host phases, thereby allowing increased overall plutonium loading. Samarium, added as a representative rare earth neutron absorber, also tended to partition into the plutonium host phases. Because the crystalline plutonium host phases are chemically more inert, the plutonium is more effectively isolated from the environment, and its attractiveness for proliferation is reduced. In the initial phase of evaluating each material and preparation method, cerium was used as a surrogate for plutonium. For promising materials, additional preparation experiments were performed using plutonium to verify the behavior of cerium as a surrogate. These experiments demonstrated that cerium performed well as a surrogate for plutonium. For the most part, cerium and plutonium partitioned onto the same crystalline phases, and no anomalous changes in oxidation state were observed. The only observed

  12. Cementitious Grout for Closing SRS High Level Waste Tanks - 12315

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Stefanko, D.B.; Burns, H.H.; Waymer, J.; Mhyre, W.B.; Herbert, J.E.; Jolly, J.C. Jr.

    2012-07-01

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. Ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks will also be filled to the extent practical. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and to be chemically reducing with a reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400. Grouts with this chemistry stabilize potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  13. Additive manufacturing of collagen scaffolds by three-dimensional plotting of highly viscous dispersions.

    PubMed

    Lode, Anja; Meyer, Michael; Brüggemeier, Sophie; Paul, Birgit; Baltzer, Hagen; Schröpfer, Michaela; Winkelmann, Claudia; Sonntag, Frank; Gelinsky, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) allows the free form fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) structures with distinct external geometry, fitting into a patient-specific defect, and defined internal pore architecture. However, fabrication of predesigned collagen scaffolds using AM-based technologies is challenging due to the low viscosity of collagen solutions, gels or dispersions commonly used for scaffold preparation. In the present study, we have developed a straightforward method which is based on 3D plotting of a highly viscous, high density collagen dispersion. The swollen state of the collagen fibrils at pH 4 enabled the homogenous extrusion of the material, the deposition of uniform strands and finally the construction of 3D scaffolds. Stabilization of the plotted structures was achieved by freeze-drying and chemical crosslinking with the carbodiimide EDC. The scaffolds exhibited high shape and dimensional fidelity and a hierarchical porosity consisting of macropores generated by strand deposition as well as an interconnected microporosity within the strands as result of the freeze-drying process. Cultivation of human mesenchymal stromal cells on the scaffolds, with and without adipogenic or osteogenic stimulation, revealed their cytocompatibility and potential applicability for adipose and bone tissue engineering. PMID:26924825

  14. Study of triallyl phosphate as an electrolyte additive for high voltage lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, J.; Madec, L.; Ma, L.; Ellis, L. D.; Qiu, W.; Nelson, K. J.; Lu, Z.; Dahn, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    The role of triallyl phosphate as an electrolyte additive in Li(Ni0.42Mn0.42Co0.16)O2/graphite pouch cells was studied using ex-situ gas measurements, ultra high precision coulometry, automated storage experiments, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, long-term cycling and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cells containing triallyl phosphate produced less gas during formation, cycling and storage than control cells. The use of triallyl phosphate led to higher coulombic efficiency and smaller charge endpoint capacity slippage during ultra high precision charger testing. Cells containing triallyl phosphate showed smaller potential drop during 500 h storage at 40 °C and 60 °C and the voltage drop decreased as the triallyl phosphate content in the electrolyte increased. However, large amounts of triallyl phosphate (>3% by weight in the electrolyte) led to large impedance after cycling and storage. Symmetric cell studies showed large amounts of triallyl phosphate (5% or more) led to significant impedance increase at both negative and positive electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies suggested that the high impedance came from the polymerization of triallyl phosphate molecules which formed thick solid electrolyte interphase films at the surfaces of both negative and positive electrodes. An optimal amount of 2%-3% triallyl phosphate led to better capacity retention during long term cycling.

  15. Determination of the nuclear level density at high excitation energy

    SciTech Connect

    Chbihi, A.; Sobotka, L.G.; Nicolis, N.G.; Sarantites, D.G.; Stracener, D.W.; Majka, Z. ); Hensley, D.C.; Beene, J.R.; Halbert, M.L. )

    1991-02-01

    Evaporation simulations are presented to illustrate the problems associated with the determination of the nuclear level density constant at high excitation energy from evaporation spectra. The methods of using either the total (whole chain) spectra or the difference (from two different initial excitation energies) spectra are discussed. Data from the study of the reaction 701 MeV {sup 28}Si+{sup 100}Mo are presented and both methods are used to extract the level density constant. We find that in order to reproduce the slopes of the light particle spectra the level density constant must have a value near 1/10{ital A}-- 1 / 11 {ital A} for excited nuclei with statistical temperatures in the range of 3.5 to 5.5 MeV. This presumes that the only parameter adjustment required to treat the decay of highly exited nuclei is the level density constant. If this is so, the shapes of the evaporation spectra imply a reduction in the level density constant from the value required to explain the decay of less highly excited nuclei, a conclusion reached by others. However, the reduced level density constant leads to an overproduction of deuterons and tritons. This suggests that a more complicated set of parameter adjustments may be required to treat the decay of highly excited nuclei.

  16. Effect of highly dispersed yttria addition on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Parente, P; Savoini, B; Ferrari, B; Monge, M A; Pareja, R; Sanchez-Herencia, A J

    2013-03-01

    The capability of the colloidal method to produce yttria (Y(2)O(3)) dispersed hydroxyapatite (HA) has been investigated as an alternative method to the conventional method of mechanical mixing and sintering for developing HA-based materials that could exhibit controllable and enhanced functional properties. A water based colloidal route to produce HA materials with highly dispersed Y(2)O(3) has been applied, and the effect of 10 wt.% Y(2)O(3) addition to HA investigated by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These measurements evidence a remarkable effect of this Y(2)O(3) addition on decomposition mechanisms of synthetic HA. Results show that incorporation of Y(2)O(3) as dispersed second phase is beneficial because it hinders the decomposition mechanisms of HA into calcium phosphates. This retardation will allow the control of the sintering conditions for developing HA implants with improved properties. Besides, substitution of Ca(2+) with Y(3+) ions appears to promote the formation of OH(-) vacancies, which could improve the conductive properties of HA favorable to osseointegration. PMID:25427499

  17. Properties of high calcium fly ash geopolymer pastes with Portland cement as an additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoo-ngernkham, Tanakorn; Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Sata, Vanchai; Pangdaeng, Saengsuree; Sinsiri, Theerawat

    2013-02-01

    The effect of Portland cement (OPC) addition on the properties of high calcium fly ash geopolymer pastes was investigated in the paper. OPC partially replaced fly ash (FA) at the dosages of 0, 5%, 10%, and 15% by mass of binder. Sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions were used as the liquid portion in the mixture: NaOH 10 mol/L, Na2SiO3/NaOH with a mass ratio of 2.0, and alkaline liquid/binder (L/B) with a mass ratio of 0.6. The curing at 60°C for 24 h was used to accelerate the geopolymerization. The setting time of all fresh pastes, porosity, and compressive strength of the pastes at the stages of 1, 7, 28, and 90 d were tested. The elastic modulus and strain capacity of the pastes at the stage of 7 d were determined. It is revealed that the use of OPC as an additive to replace part of FA results in the decreases in the setting time, porosity, and strain capacity of the paste specimens, while the compressive strength and elastic modulus seem to increase.

  18. Processing of multi-digit additions in high math-anxious individuals: psychophysiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the time course of neural processing of multi-digit additions in high- (HMA) and low-math anxious (LMA) individuals. Seventeen HMA and 17 LMA individuals were presented with two-digit additions and were asked to perform a verification task. Behavioral data showed that HMA individuals were slower and more error prone than their LMA peers, and that incorrect solutions were solved more slowly and less accurately than correct ones. Moreover, HMA individuals tended to need more time and commit more errors when having to verify incorrect solutions than correct ones. ERPs time-locked to the presentation of the addends (calculation phase) and to the presentation of the proposed solution (verification phase) were also analyzed. In both phases, a P2 component of larger amplitude was found for HMA individuals than for their LMA peers. Because the P2 component is considered to be a biomarker of the mobilization of attentional resources toward emotionally negative stimuli, these results suggest that HMA individuals may have invested more attentional resources both when processing the addends (calculation phase) and when they had to report whether the proposed solution was correct or not (verification phase), as compared to their LMA peers. Moreover, in the verification phase, LMA individuals showed a larger late positive component (LPC) for incorrect solutions at parietal electrodes than their HMA counterparts. The smaller LPC shown by HMA individuals when verifying incorrect solutions suggests that these solutions may have been appeared more plausible to them than to their LMA counterparts. PMID:26347705

  19. A review of processable high temperature resistant addition-type laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.

    1973-01-01

    An important finding that resulted from research that was conducted to develop improved ablative resins was the discovery of a novel approach to synthesize processable high temperature resistant polymers. Low molecular weight polyimide prepolymers end-capped with norbornene groups were polymerized into thermo-oxidatively stable modified polyimides without the evolution of void producing volatile materials. This paper reviews basic studies that were performed using model compounds to elucidate the polymerization mechanism of the so-called addition-type polyimides. The fabrication and properties of polyimide/graphite fiber composites using A-type polyimide prepolymer as the matrix are described. An alternate method for preparing processable A-type polyimides by means of in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants on the fiber reinforcement is also described. Polyimide/graphite fiber composite performance at elevated temperatures is presented for A-type polyimides.

  20. Additive Manufacturing and High-Performance Computing: a Disruptive Latent Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    This presentation will discuss the relationship between recent advances in Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology, High-Performance Computing (HPC) simulation and design capabilities, and related advances in Uncertainty Quantification (UQ), and then examines their impacts upon national and international security. The presentation surveys how AM accelerates the fabrication process, while HPC combined with UQ provides a fast track for the engineering design cycle. The combination of AM and HPC/UQ almost eliminates the engineering design and prototype iterative cycle, thereby dramatically reducing cost of production and time-to-market. These methods thereby present significant benefits for US national interests, both civilian and military, in an age of austerity. Finally, considering cyber security issues and the advent of the ``cloud,'' these disruptive, currently latent technologies may well enable proliferation and so challenge both nuclear and non-nuclear aspects of international security.

  1. Bifunctional hairy silica nanoparticles as high-performance additives for lubricant

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Tianyi; Song, Baoyu; Wen, Yu-ho; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bifunctional hairy silica nanoparticles (BHSNs), which are silica nanoparticles covered with alkyl and amino organic chains, were prepared as high-performance additives for lubricants. Compared with hairy silica nanoparticles covered by a single type of organic chain, binary hairy silica nanoparticles exhibit the advantages of both types of organic chains, which exhibit excellent compatibility with lubricants and adsorbability to metal surfaces. Nanoparticles with different ratios of amino and alkyl ligands were investigated. In comparison to an untreated lubricant, BHSNs reduce the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter by 40% and 60%, respectively. The wear mechanism of BHSNs was investigated, and the protective and filling effect of the nanoparticles improved because of collaboration of amino and alkyl ligands. PMID:26936117

  2. Bifunctional hairy silica nanoparticles as high-performance additives for lubricant.

    PubMed

    Sui, Tianyi; Song, Baoyu; Wen, Yu-Ho; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bifunctional hairy silica nanoparticles (BHSNs), which are silica nanoparticles covered with alkyl and amino organic chains, were prepared as high-performance additives for lubricants. Compared with hairy silica nanoparticles covered by a single type of organic chain, binary hairy silica nanoparticles exhibit the advantages of both types of organic chains, which exhibit excellent compatibility with lubricants and adsorbability to metal surfaces. Nanoparticles with different ratios of amino and alkyl ligands were investigated. In comparison to an untreated lubricant, BHSNs reduce the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter by 40% and 60%, respectively. The wear mechanism of BHSNs was investigated, and the protective and filling effect of the nanoparticles improved because of collaboration of amino and alkyl ligands. PMID:26936117

  3. Bifunctional hairy silica nanoparticles as high-performance additives for lubricant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Tianyi; Song, Baoyu; Wen, Yu-Ho; Zhang, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Bifunctional hairy silica nanoparticles (BHSNs), which are silica nanoparticles covered with alkyl and amino organic chains, were prepared as high-performance additives for lubricants. Compared with hairy silica nanoparticles covered by a single type of organic chain, binary hairy silica nanoparticles exhibit the advantages of both types of organic chains, which exhibit excellent compatibility with lubricants and adsorbability to metal surfaces. Nanoparticles with different ratios of amino and alkyl ligands were investigated. In comparison to an untreated lubricant, BHSNs reduce the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter by 40% and 60%, respectively. The wear mechanism of BHSNs was investigated, and the protective and filling effect of the nanoparticles improved because of collaboration of amino and alkyl ligands.

  4. Level 1 Tornado PRA for the High Flux Beam Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bozoki, G.E.; Conrad, C.S.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes a risk analysis primarily directed at providing an estimate for the frequency of tornado induced damage to the core of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), and thus it constitutes a Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) covering tornado induced accident sequences. The basic methodology of the risk analysis was to develop a ``tornado specific`` plant logic model that integrates the internal random hardware failures with failures caused externally by the tornado strike and includes operator errors worsened by the tornado modified environment. The tornado hazard frequency, as well as earlier prepared structural and equipment fragility data, were used as input data to the model. To keep modeling/calculational complexity as simple as reasonable a ``bounding`` type, slightly conservative, approach was applied. By a thorough screening process a single dominant initiating event was selected as a representative initiator, defined as: ``Tornado Induced Loss of Offsite Power.`` The frequency of this initiator was determined to be 6.37E-5/year. The safety response of the HFBR facility resulted in a total Conditional Core Damage Probability of .621. Thus, the point estimate of the HFBR`s Tornado Induced Core Damage Frequency (CDF) was found to be: (CDF){sub Tornado} = 3.96E-5/year. This value represents only 7.8% of the internal CDF and thus is considered to be a small contribution to the overall facility risk expressed in terms of total Core Damage Frequency. In addition to providing the estimate of (CDF){sub Tornado}, the report documents, the relative importance of various tornado induced system, component, and operator failures that contribute most to (CDF){sub Tornado}.

  5. High-Level Waste Systems Plan. Revision 7

    SciTech Connect

    Brooke, J.N.; Gregory, M.V.; Paul, P.; Taylor, G.; Wise, F.E.; Davis, N.R.; Wells, M.N.

    1996-10-01

    This revision of the High-Level Waste (HLW) System Plan aligns SRS HLW program planning with the DOE Savannah River (DOE-SR) Ten Year Plan (QC-96-0005, Draft 8/6), which was issued in July 1996. The objective of the Ten Year Plan is to complete cleanup at most nuclear sites within the next ten years. The two key principles of the Ten Year Plan are to accelerate the reduction of the most urgent risks to human health and the environment and to reduce mortgage costs. Accordingly, this System Plan describes the HLW program that will remove HLW from all 24 old-style tanks, and close 20 of those tanks, by 2006 with vitrification of all HLW by 2018. To achieve these goals, the DWPF canister production rate is projected to climb to 300 canisters per year starting in FY06, and remain at that rate through the end of the program in FY18, (Compare that to past System Plans, in which DWPF production peaked at 200 canisters per year, and the program did not complete until 2026.) An additional $247M (FY98 dollars) must be made available as requested over the ten year planning period, including a one-time $10M to enhance Late Wash attainment. If appropriate resources are made available, facility attainment issues are resolved and regulatory support is sufficient, then completion of the HLW program in 2018 would achieve a $3.3 billion cost savings to DOE, versus the cost of completing the program in 2026. Facility status information is current as of October 31, 1996.

  6. Risk Factors and Levels of Risk for High School Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Suh, Jingyo

    2007-01-01

    The study in this article identifies three major risk categories of high school dropouts and evaluates the impact of possible prevention strategies. As students accumulate these risks, they became more likely to drop out and prevention programs become less effective. Additionally, it was found that factors influencing the decision to drop out vary…

  7. An Investigation of Source and Receiver Apprehension at the Junior High, Senior High and College Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Earl E.; McDowell, Carlene E.

    1978-01-01

    The Personal Report of Communication Apprehension and the Receiver Apprehension Test are used to determine the relationship between speech and listening apprehension at each educational level (junior high, senior high, and college); differences among educational levels and between sexes; and the interaction effect of educational level and sex. (JF)

  8. Nonparametric Independence Screening in Sparse Ultra-High Dimensional Additive Models.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianqing; Feng, Yang; Song, Rui

    2011-06-01

    A variable screening procedure via correlation learning was proposed in Fan and Lv (2008) to reduce dimensionality in sparse ultra-high dimensional models. Even when the true model is linear, the marginal regression can be highly nonlinear. To address this issue, we further extend the correlation learning to marginal nonparametric learning. Our nonparametric independence screening is called NIS, a specific member of the sure independence screening. Several closely related variable screening procedures are proposed. Under general nonparametric models, it is shown that under some mild technical conditions, the proposed independence screening methods enjoy a sure screening property. The extent to which the dimensionality can be reduced by independence screening is also explicitly quantified. As a methodological extension, a data-driven thresholding and an iterative nonparametric independence screening (INIS) are also proposed to enhance the finite sample performance for fitting sparse additive models. The simulation results and a real data analysis demonstrate that the proposed procedure works well with moderate sample size and large dimension and performs better than competing methods. PMID:22279246

  9. Oxidative Stress Levels in Aqueous Humor from High Myopic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Bi; Kim, Ha Kyoung; Hyon, Joon Young; Wee, Won Ryang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare oxidative stress status in the aqueous humor of highly myopic eyes and control eyes. Methods Aqueous humor samples were collected from 15 highly myopic eyes (high myopia group) and 23 cataractous eyes (control group) during cataract surgery. Central corneal thickness, corneal endothelial cell density, hexagonality of corneal endothelial cells, and cell area of corneal endothelial cells were measured using specular microscopy. Axial length was measured using ultrasound biometry. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results 8-OHdG level was lower in the aqueous humor of myopic patients than in that of control group (p = 0.014) and was positively correlated with central corneal thickness and negatively correlated with axial length (r = 0.511, p = 0.02; r = -0.382, p < 0.001). There was no correlation between 8-OHdG level and corneal endothelial cell density, hexagonality, or cell area. Malondialdehyde level did not show any correlation with any parameters evaluated. Conclusions 8-OHdG might be a sensitive biomarker for evaluating oxidative stress status in the eye. Oxidative stress level was lower in the aqueous humor of highly myopic eyes compared to that in control eyes, which indicates lower metabolic activity in these eyes. PMID:27247516

  10. Anaerobic digestion of high-strength cheese whey utilizing semicontinuous digesters and chemical flocculant addition

    SciTech Connect

    Barford, J.P.; Cail, R.G.; Callander, I.J.; Floyd, E.J.

    1986-11-01

    Semicontinuous digesters were used to anaerobically treat high-strength whey (70 kg/cubic m COD). A maximum loading of 16.1 kg COD/cubic m/day was obtained with soluble COD removal efficiencies greater than 99%. The use of a chemical flocculant resulted in an increased biomass concentration in the digester compared to a control, thus enabling correspondingly higher space loadings to be applied. With the onset of substantial levels of granulation of the biomass, flocculant dosage was able to be discontinued. This article discusses the performance of the digesters in detail and, briefly, the long-term operational difficulties experienced and the control strategies employed on such systems. 24 references.

  11. High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  12. Photovoltaic (PV) Impact Assessment for Very High Penetration Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Danling; Mather, Barry A.; Seguin, Richard; Hambrick, Joshua; Broadwater, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a granular approach for investigating the impacts of very high photovoltaic (PV) generation penetration. Studies on two real-world distribution feeders connected to PV plants are presented. The studies include both steady-state and time-series power flow analyses, which include the effects of solar variability. The goal of the study is to predict the effects of increasing levels of PV generation as it reaches very high penetration levels. The loss and return of generation with and without regulation is simulated to capture short-term problems such as voltage fluctuations. Impact results from the analyses are described along with potential mitigations.

  13. Disposal of high-level nuclear waste in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    1992-08-01

    A solution of launching high-level nuclear waste into space is suggested. Disposal in space includes solidifying the wastes, embedding them in an explosion-proof vehicle, and launching it into earth orbit, and then into a solar orbit. The benefits of such a system include not only the safe disposal of high-level waste but also the establishment of an infrastructure for large-scale space exploration and development. Particular attention is given to the wide range of technical choices along with the societal, economic, and political factors needed for success.

  14. High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikh, N.A.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1993-10-01

    This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform the high level waste into a more stable, manageable substance. This paper discuss the structural design requirements for this unique one of a kind facility. A special emphasis will be concentrated on the design criteria pertaining to earthquake, wind and tornado, and flooding.

  15. The Use of ARTEMIS with High-Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    B. A. Bowling; H. Shoaee; S. Witherspoon

    1995-10-01

    ARTEMIS is an online accelerator modeling server developed at CEBAF. One of the design goals of ARTEMIS was to provide an integrated modeling environment for high- level accelerator diagnostic and control applications such as automated beam steering, Linac Energy management (LEM) and the fast feedback system. This report illustrates the use of ARTEMIS in these applications as well as the application interface using the EPICS cdev device support API. Concentration is placed on the design and implementation aspects of high- level applications which utilize the ARTEMIS server for information on beam dynamics. Performance benchmarks for various model operations provided by ARTEMIS are also discussed.

  16. Final report on cermet high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Aaron, W.S.

    1981-08-01

    Cermets are being developed as an alternate method for the fixation of defense and commercial high level radioactive waste in a terminal disposal form. Following initial feasibility assessments of this waste form, consisting of ceramic particles dispersed in an iron-nickel base alloy, significantly improved processing methods were developed. The characterization of cermets has continued through property determinations on samples prepared by various methods from a variety of simulated and actual high-level wastes. This report describes the status of development of the cermet waste form as it has evolved since 1977. 6 tables, 18 figures.

  17. Low voltage to high voltage level shifter and related methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mentze, Erik J. (Inventor); Hess, Herbert L. (Inventor); Buck, Kevin M. (Inventor); Cox, David F. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A shifter circuit comprises a high and low voltage buffer stages and an output buffer stage. The high voltage buffer stage comprises multiple transistors arranged in a transistor stack having a plurality of intermediate nodes connecting individual transistors along the stack. The transistor stack is connected between a voltage level being shifted to and an input voltage. An inverter of this stage comprises multiple inputs and an output. Inverter inputs are connected to a respective intermediate node of the transistor stack. The low voltage buffer stage has an input connected to the input voltage and an output, and is operably connected to the high voltage buffer stage. The low voltage buffer stage is connected between a voltage level being shifted away from and a lower voltage. The output buffer stage is driven by the outputs of the high voltage buffer stage inverter and the low voltage buffer stage.

  18. Modeling future high-resolution dynamic sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunnabend, Sandra-Esther; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Kliphuis, Michael A.; van Werkhoven, Ben; Bal, Henri E.; van Meersbergen, Maarten; Seinstra, Frank; Maassen, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Different studies have shown that resolving ocean eddies and representing boundary currents are of major importance when simulating changes in dynamic sea level on regional scale. Therefore, we use the strongly eddying global model version of the Parallel Ocean Program to simulate high-resolution future (up to the year 2100) sea surface height variations (SSH) under the SRES-A1B atmospheric forcing scenario. Results show dynamic sea level changes in the Southern Ocean that are caused by the southward shift in the westerly winds. The warming ocean (global mean sea surface temperature rises by about 2°C over the period 2000-2100) leads to a strong reduction of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The magnitude of this reduction is affected by a feedback involving the heat transport to the sub-polar gyre region and evaporation over the North Atlantic region. The ocean circulation changes cause regional deviations from global mean sea level change in the North Atlantic. At coastal regions of eastern North America, dynamic sea level change leads to a positive deviation from global mean sea level change in the order of several decimeters. In the sub-polar gyre region a negative deviation from global mean sea level occurs. In the western North Atlantic, not only mean regional sea level is changed but also its variability, caused by shifted eddy pathways. This leads to a change in the frequency distribution of SSH anomalies, which has important consequences for regional sea level extremes.

  19. The tracking of high level waste shipments-TRANSCOM system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Pope, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    The TRANSCOM (transportation tracking and communication) system is the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) real-time system for tracking shipments of spent fuel, high-level wastes, and other high-visibility shipments of radioactive material. The TRANSCOM system has been operational since 1988. The system was used during FY1993 to track almost 100 shipments within the US.DOE complex, and it is accessed weekly by 10 to 20 users.

  20. Satellites to Delta n = 1 transitions between high-lying levels of multiply ionized atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, R.; Kolk, K.-H.; Koshelev, K. N.; Kunze, H.-J.

    1989-04-01

    In a theta pinch discharge satellites to Delta n = 1 transitions between high-lying levels are observed for the ions Si IX, Si X, and Si XI, but not for Si XII. They are identified as Delta n = 1 transitions between the corresponding levels of doubly excited systems. At high densities, the series of Rydberg levels above their respective thermal limit are collisionally coupled to their ionization limit. The intensity ratio of a transition to that of its satellite thus offers the unique possibility of measuring the ratio of the population density in the ground energy level of the next ionization stage to that in the lowest excited levels of this ion.

  1. The ATLAS Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The ATLAS TDAQ Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the data acquisition and high level trigger system of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, as deployed during Run 1. Data flow as well as control, configuration and monitoring aspects are addressed. An overview of the functionality of the system and of its performance is presented and design choices are discussed.

  2. Student Achievement Levels Climb at Ribault Senior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Profiles, Programs & Products, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Ribault (Florida) Senior High School has reported a dramatic increase in student achievement levels since implementing a comprehensive college preparation curriculum. Among the program changes that contributed to those gains are: (1) the establishment and consistent enforcement of a strong discipline program, including rules for student conduct, a…

  3. A comparison of high-level waste form characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, R.; Notz, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    There are currently about 1055 million curies of high-level waste with a thermal output of about 2950 kilowatts (KW) at four sites in the United States: West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), Savannah River Site (SRS), Hanford Site (HANF), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These quantities are expected to increase to about 1200 million curies and 3570 kw by the end of year 2020. Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, this high-level waste must ultimately be disposed of in a geologic repository. Accordingly, canisters of high-level waste immobilized in borosilicate glass or glass-ceramic mixtures are to be produced at the four sites and stored there until a repository becomes available. Data on the estimated production schedules and on the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of the canisters of immobilized high-level waste have been collected in OCRWM's Waste Characteristics Data Base, including recent updates an revisions. Comparisons of some of these data for the four sites are presented in this report. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.30...

  5. A Preview of High School Level Economic Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincade, Jeannine H.

    The purpose of this study was to locate and evaluate high-school-level economic software compatible with an Apple II or IIe computer. To identify software, computer searches were run, bibliographies were scanned, and reviews were collected. Only software that was recommended by some outside source was included in the evaluation. The following…

  6. High level cognitive information processing in neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnden, John A.; Fields, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Two related research efforts were addressed: (1) high-level connectionist cognitive modeling; and (2) local neural circuit modeling. The goals of the first effort were to develop connectionist models of high-level cognitive processes such as problem solving or natural language understanding, and to understand the computational requirements of such models. The goals of the second effort were to develop biologically-realistic model of local neural circuits, and to understand the computational behavior of such models. In keeping with the nature of NASA's Innovative Research Program, all the work conducted under the grant was highly innovative. For instance, the following ideas, all summarized, are contributions to the study of connectionist/neural networks: (1) the temporal-winner-take-all, relative-position encoding, and pattern-similarity association techniques; (2) the importation of logical combinators into connection; (3) the use of analogy-based reasoning as a bridge across the gap between the traditional symbolic paradigm and the connectionist paradigm; and (4) the application of connectionism to the domain of belief representation/reasoning. The work on local neural circuit modeling also departs significantly from the work of related researchers. In particular, its concentration on low-level neural phenomena that could support high-level cognitive processing is unusual within the area of biological local circuit modeling, and also serves to expand the horizons of the artificial neural net field.

  7. MIXING PROCESSES IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flammable gases can be generated in DOE high-level waste tanks, including radiolytic hydrogen, and during cesium precipitation from salt solutions, benzene. Under normal operating conditions the potential for deflagration or detonation from these gases is precluded by purging and...

  8. THE XAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR HIGH LEVEL CONTROL ROOM APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shishlo, Andrei P; Allen, Christopher K; Chu, Paul; Galambos, John D; Pelaia II, Tom

    2009-01-01

    XAL is a Java programming framework for building high-level control applications related to accelerator physics. The structure, details of implementation, and interaction between components, auxiliary XAL packages, and the latest modifications are discussed. A general overview of XAL applications created for the SNS project is presented.

  9. High-Level waste process and product data annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, G.E.

    1996-02-13

    The objective of this document is to provide information on available issued documents that will assist interested parties in finding available data on high-level waste and transuranic waste feed compositions, properties, behavior in candidate processing operations, and behavior on candidate product glasses made from those wastes. This initial compilation is only a partial list of available references.

  10. Typewriter Modifications for Persons Who Are High-Level Quadriplegics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reagan, James R.; And Others

    Standard, common electric typewriters are not completely suited to the needs of a high-level quadriplegic typing with a mouthstick. Experiences show that for complete control of a typewriter a mouthstick user needs the combined features of one-button correction, electric forward and reverse indexing, and easy character viewing. To modify a…

  11. The Estuary Guide. Level 3: High School. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Glen; And Others

    Estuaries are marine systems that serve as nurseries for animals, links in the migratory pathways, and habitat for a complex community of organisms. This curriculum guide intended for use at the high school level seeks to teach what estuaries are; provide opportunities to practice decision-making that affects estuaries; and encourage students to…

  12. The Politics of High-Level Manpower Supply in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke-Smith, Robin

    1978-01-01

    In its policies related to high-level manpower, the Tanzanian Government attaches great importance to the university, viewing it as a key institution in its policies for national development. Describes the difficulties the administration of President Nyerere has had in using the university as a political tool and analyzes various instances of…

  13. An investigation of functionalized electrolyte using succinonitrile additive for high voltage lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Renjie; Liu, Fan; Chen, Yan; Ye, Yusheng; Huang, Yongxin; Wu, Feng; Li, Li

    2016-02-01

    Succinonitrile (SN) has been used as functional additive to improve the thermal stability and broaden the oxidation electrochemical window of commercial electrolyte 1 M LiPF6/EC/DEC (1:1, by volume) for high-voltage LIBs (cathode: Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2, anode: Li). 1 wt % SN-based electrolyte showed a wide electrochemical oxidation window of 5.4 V vs Li+/Li and excellent thermal stability demonstrated by thermogravimetry (TG) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), as well as theoretical analysis according to molecular orbital theory. The LNMO (Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2) battery with 1 wt % SN-based electrolyte showed better cyclability and capacity retention when charged to higher cut-off voltage. The improved battery performance is mainly attributed to the formation of uniform cathode electrolyte interface (CEI) formed by interfacial reactions between the LNMO cathode and electrolyte. The outcome of this work and the continuous research on this subject can generate critical knowledge for designing thermal stability electrolytes for large format lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Additions and Improvements to the FLASH Code for Simulating High Energy Density Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Daley, C.; Dubey, A.; Fatenejad, M.; Flocke, N.; Graziani, C.; Lee, D.; Tzeferacos, P.; Weide, K.

    2015-11-01

    FLASH is an open source, finite-volume Eulerian, spatially adaptive radiation hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code that incorporates capabilities for a broad range of physical processes, performs well on a wide range of computer architectures, and has a broad user base. Extensive capabilities have been added to FLASH to make it an open toolset for the academic high energy density physics (HEDP) community. We summarize these capabilities, with particular emphasis on recent additions and improvements. These include advancements in the optical ray tracing laser package, with methods such as bi-cubic 2D and tri-cubic 3D interpolation of electron number density, adaptive stepping and 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-order Runge-Kutta integration methods. Moreover, we showcase the simulated magnetic field diagnostic capabilities of the code, including induction coils, Faraday rotation, and proton radiography. We also describe several collaborations with the National Laboratories and the academic community in which FLASH has been used to simulate HEDP experiments. This work was supported in part at the University of Chicago by the DOE NNSA ASC through the Argonne Institute for Computing in Science under field work proposal 57789; and the NSF under grant PHY-0903997.

  15. High Temperature Tribological Properties of Modified Nano-diamond Additive in Lubricating Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X. F.; Qiao, Y. L.; Song, W.; Ma, S. N.; Hu, C. H.

    The high temperature tribological properties of surface-modified nano-diamond in colza oil were tested with SRV machine, and wear surface morphology was observed by using three dimension profiler. The results show that the modified nano-diamond by dimer ester possesses excellent anti-wear and friction reducing properties as lubricating oil additive. The friction coefficients of the modified nano-diamond by dimer ester are lower than those of nano-daimond and the modified nano-diamond by oleic ester when the temperature is lower than 200 °C, and its friction coefficients are very similar to nano-diamond's when the temperature is higher than 200 °C, but are better than that of the modified nano-diamond by oleic ester. The wear volume of the modified nano-diamond by dimer ester is far-forth lower than that of nano-daimond and the modified nano-diamond by oleic ester after the continuously heating test, and the wear volume decrease 60% than nano-diamond's.

  16. Effective Communication: High-Level Management Receptive to Low-Level Management Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chressanthis, June D.; Janousek, Kelly

    Based on the premise that senior staff or high-level managers have the knowledge and experience required to make daily decisions and also have a degree of power and respect, this document proposes that these managers are in a position to be effective leaders who can and should foster an atmosphere of receptiveness for innovation and positive…

  17. The perceptions of teachers and principals toward providing additional compensation to teachers in high-need subject areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longing, Jeffrey Lucian

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in the perceptions of teachers teaching in high-need areas (i.e., math, science, special education, etc.) and teachers not teaching in high-need areas, (i.e., business education, physical education, etc.) as defined by the states of Arkansas and Louisiana, regarding higher compensation for high-need teachers. In addition, possible perception differences among principals and teachers were determined. The independent variables consisted of gender, position held, years of certified experience, and certification areas. The dependent variable was the perceptions of the participants on providing higher compensation for high-need teachers in order to attract and retain them. The data for all variables were collected using the Teacher Compensation Survey. The sample for this study was limited to teachers, grades 9 through 12, and principals of public high schools in south Arkansas and north Louisiana. Forty-four school districts in south Arkansas (Arkansas Department of Education, 2008a) and north Louisiana (Louisiana Department of Education, 2008a) met the criteria for this study. Twenty-two superintendents gave permission for their districts to participate in the research. A sample of 849 teachers and 38 principals were identified in these districts. Surveys were returned from 350 teachers, creating a 41% response rate. When the 31 principals that returned surveys were added to the total population, the response rate increased to 43% with 381 of the 887 surveyed responding. However, 42 of the teachers and two of the principals skipped some of the questions on the survey and were not included in the study. The researcher used a One-Way ANOVA and independent t-tests to determine the presence of statistical differences at the .05 level. The data showed that most math and science teachers agreed that high-need teachers should be compensated at a higher rate than teachers not teaching in high-need areas. The data

  18. High level waste interim storge architecture selection - decision report

    SciTech Connect

    Calmus, R.B.

    1996-09-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has embarked upon a course to acquire Hanford Site tank waste treatment and immobilization services using privatized facilities (RL 1996a). This plan contains a two-phased approach. Phase I is a proof-of-principle/connnercial demonstration- scale effort and Phase II is a fiill-scale production effort. In accordance with the planned approach, interim storage and disposal of various products from privatized facilities are to be DOE fumished. The high-level waste (BLW) interim storage options, or alternative architectures, were identified and evaluated to provide the framework from which to select the most viable method of Phase I BLW interim storage (Calmus 1996). This evaluation, hereafter referred to as the Alternative Architecture Evaluation, was performed to established performance and risk criteria (technical merit, cost, schedule, etc.). Based on evaluation results, preliminary architectures and path forward reconunendations were provided for consideration in the architecture decision- maldng process. The decision-making process used for selection of a Phase I solidified BLW interim storage architecture was conducted in accordance with an approved Decision Plan (see the attachment). This decision process was based on TSEP-07,Decision Management Procedure (WHC 1995). The established decision process entailed a Decision Board, consisting of Westinghouse Hanford Company (VY`HC) management staff, and included appointment of a VTHC Decision Maker. The Alternative Architecture Evaluation results and preliminary recommendations were presented to the Decision Board members for their consideration in the decision-making process. The Alternative Architecture Evaluation was prepared and issued before issuance of @C-IP- 123 1, Alternatives Generation and Analysis Procedure (WI-IC 1996a), but was deemed by the Board to fully meet the intent of WHC-IP-1231. The Decision Board members concurred with the bulk of the Alternative Architecture

  19. High levels of plasma protein C in nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pabinger-Fasching, I; Lechner, K; Niessner, H; Schmidt, P; Balzar, E; Mannhalter, C

    1985-02-18

    In patients with severe nephrotic syndrome determinations of plasma protein C: Ag levels (8 patients: 5 adults, 3 children) and protein C activity (3 out of 8 patients) revealed significantly elevated plasma protein C concentrations. Furthermore we observed a significant inverse correlation of protein C: Ag to AT III: Ag levels. No protein C: Ag could be detected in the urine of two patients studied. We conclude from our data, that changes of plasma protein C do not contribute to the high thrombotic tendency in nephrotic syndrome. PMID:3838827

  20. Overview of high-level waste management accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Lawroski, H; Berreth, J R; Freeby, W A

    1980-01-01

    Storage of power reactor spent fuel is necessary at present because of the lack of reprocessing operations particularly in the U.S. By considering the above solidification and storage scenario, there is more than reasonable assurance that acceptable, stable, low heat generation rate, solidified waste can be produced, and safely disposed. The public perception of no waste disposal solutions is being exploited by detractors of nuclear power application. The inability to even point to one overall system demonstration lends credibility to the negative assertions. By delaying the gathering of on-line information to qualify repository sites, and to implement a demonstration, the actions of the nuclear power detractors are self serving in that they can continue to point out there is no demonstration of satisfactory high-level waste disposal. By maintaining the liquid and solidified high-level waste in secure above ground storage until acceptable decay heat generation rates are achieved, by producing a compatible, high integrity, solid waste form, by providing a second or even third barrier as a compound container and by inserting the enclosed waste form in a qualified repository with spacing to assure moderately low temperature disposal conditions, there appears to be no technical reason for not progressing further with the disposal of high-level wastes and needed implementation of the complete nuclear power fuel cycle.

  1. High levels of molecular chlorine in the Arctic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jin; Huey, L. Gregory; Liu, Zhen; Tanner, David J.; Cantrell, Chris A.; Orlando, John J.; Flocke, Frank M.; Shepson, Paul B.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Hall, Samuel R.; Ullmann, Kirk; Beine, Harry J.; Wang, Yuhang; Ingall, Ellery D.; Stephens, Chelsea R.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Apel, Eric C.; Riemer, Daniel; Fried, Alan; Mauldin, Roy L.; Smith, James N.; Staebler, Ralf M.; Neuman, J. Andrew; Nowak, John B.

    2014-02-01

    Chlorine radicals can function as a strong atmospheric oxidant, particularly in polar regions, where levels of hydroxyl radicals are low. In the atmosphere, chlorine radicals expedite the degradation of methane and tropospheric ozone, and the oxidation of mercury to more toxic forms. Here we present direct measurements of molecular chlorine levels in the Arctic marine boundary layer in Barrow, Alaska, collected in the spring of 2009 over a six-week period using chemical ionization mass spectrometry. We report high levels of molecular chlorine, of up to 400 pptv. Concentrations peaked in the early morning and late afternoon, and fell to near-zero levels at night. Average daytime molecular chlorine levels were correlated with ozone concentrations, suggesting that sunlight and ozone are required for molecular chlorine formation. Using a time-dependent box model, we estimate that the chlorine radicals produced from the photolysis of molecular chlorine oxidized more methane than hydroxyl radicals, on average, and enhanced the abundance of short-lived peroxy radicals. Elevated hydroperoxyl radical levels, in turn, promoted the formation of hypobromous acid, which catalyses mercury oxidation and the breakdown of tropospheric ozone. We therefore suggest that molecular chlorine exerts a significant effect on the atmospheric chemistry of the Arctic.

  2. Numerical Simulation of High Drag Reduction in a Turbulent Channel Flow with Polymer Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubief, Yves

    2003-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of long chain polymer molecules to wall-bounded flows can lead to dramatic drag reduction. Although this phenomenon has been known for about fifty years, the action of the polymers and its effect on turbulent structures are still unclear. Detailed experiments have characterized two distinct regimes (Warholic et al. 1999), which are referred to as low drag reduction (LDR) and high drag reduction (HDR). The first regime exhibits similar statistical trends as Newtonian flow: the log-law region of the mean velocity profile remains parallel to that of the Newtonian ow but its lower bound moves away from the wall and the upward shift of the log-region is a function of drag reduction, DR. Although streamwise fluctuations are increased and transverse ones are reduced, the shape of the rms velocity profiles is not qualitatively modified. At higher drag reductions, of the order of 40-50%, the ow enters the HDR regime for which the slope of the log-law is dramatically augmented and the Reynolds shear stress is small (Warholic et al. 1999; Ptasinski et al. 2001). The drag reduction is eventually bounded by a maximum drag reduction (MDR) (Virk & Mickley 1970) which is a function of the Reynolds number. While several experiments report mean velocity profiles very close to the empirical profile of Virk & Mickley (1970) for MDR conditions, the observations regarding the structure of turbulence can differ significantly. For instance, Warholic et al. (1999) measured a near-zero Reynolds shear stress, whereas a recent experiment (Ptasinski et al. 2001) shows evidence of non-negligible Reynolds stress in their MDR flow. To the knowledge of the authors, only the LDR regime has been documented in numerical simulations (Sureshkumar et al. 1997; Dimitropoulos et al. 1998; Min et al. 2001; Dubief & Lele 2001; Sibilla & Baron 2002). This paper discusses the simulation of polymer drag reduced channel ow at HDR using the FENE-P (Finite Elastic non

  3. Lateralization of High-Frequency Clicks Based on Interaural Time: Additivity of Information across Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth Marie

    Lateralization performance based on interaural differences of time (IDTs) was measured for trains of Gaussian clicks which varied in spectral content. In the first experiment, thresholds ((DELTA)IDTs) were measured as a function of the number of clicks in the train (n = 1 to 32), the interclick interval (ICI = 2.5 or 5 ms), and the spectral content (1 vs. 2 or 4 carriers). Subjects' performance was compared to perfect statistical summation which predicts slopes of -.50 when log-(DELTA)IDT vs. long -n is plotted. The results showed that increasing the spectral content of the clicks decreased the intercepts of the log -log functions (decreased thresholds) while having little effect on their slopes. Shortening the ICIs caused the slopes of the functions to decrease in absolute value. To estimate the bandwidth of frequency-interaction in lateralization, d's were measured for clicks with constant IDTs (n = 1) with a fixed carrier (FF = 4000, 5200, 6000 or 7200 Hz), both alone and combined with a second click whose carrier (F) varied from 3500 to 8500 Hz. Performance in combined conditions was compared to independent summation of the information carried by the two frequency-bands. Performance improved as the separation between F and FF increased until the level predicted by independence was reached. The final experiment investigated the interaction of frequency content with IDT. d's were measured as a function of the IDT in clicks with carriers of 5200, 6000 or 7200 Hz, both alone and combined with a 4000-Hz click with a fixed IDT. Performance in combined conditions was again compared to independent additivity. The improvement with frequency was explained by an increase in the number of samples of the IDT reaching the binaural centers due to spread of excitation along the basilar membrane. Less than independent summation was explained by correlation between overlapping bands which reduced the amount of information exciting independent channels. The data also suggest that

  4. Measuring the effects of high CO₂ levels in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zuela, Noam; Friedman, Nurit; Zaslaver, Alon; Gruenbaum, Yosef

    2014-08-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important molecule in cell metabolism. It is also a byproduct of many physiological processes. In humans, impaired lung function and lung diseases disrupt the body's ability to dispose of CO2 and elevate its levels in the body (hypercapnia). Animal models allow further understanding of how CO2 is sensed in the body and what are the physiological responses to high CO2 levels. This information can provide new strategies in the battle against the detrimental effects of CO2 accumulation in lung diseases. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans provides us with such a model animal due to its natural ability to sense and navigate through varying concentrations of CO2, as well as the fact that it can be genetically manipulated with ease. Here we describe the different methods used to measure the effects elevated levels of CO2 have on the molecular sensing mechanism and physiology of C. elegans. PMID:24650565

  5. A high resolution water level forecast for the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehüser, Sebastian; Dangendorf, Sönke; Arns, Arne; Jensen, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Many coastal regions worldwide are potentially endangered by storm surges which can cause disastrous damages and loss of life. Due to climate change induced sea level rise, an accumulation of such events is expected by the end of the 21th century. Therefore, advanced storm surge warnings are needed to be prepared when another storm surge hits the coast. In the shallow southeastern North Sea these storm surge warnings are nowadays routinely provided for selected tide gauge locations along a coastline through state-of-the-art forecast systems, which are based on a coupled system of empirical tidal predictions and numerical storm surge forecasts. Along the German North Sea coastline, the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency in cooperation with the German Weather Service is responsible for the storm surge warnings. They provide accurate, high frequency and real-time water level forecasts for up to six days ahead at selected tide gauge sites via internet, telephone and broadcast. Since water levels along the German North Sea coastline are dominated by shallow water effects and a very complex bathymetric structure of the seabed, the pointwise forecast is not necessarily transferable to un-gauged areas between the tide gauges. Here we aim to close this existing gap and develop water level forecasts with a high spatial (continuously with a resolution of at least 1 kilometer) as well as a high temporal (at least 15-minute values) resolution along the entire German North Sea coastline. We introduce a new methodology for water level forecasts which combines empirical or statistical and numerical models. While the tidal forecast is performed by non-parametric interpolation techniques between un-gauged and gauged sites, storm surges are estimated on the basis of statistical/empirical storm surge formulas taken from a numerical model hindcast. The procedure will be implemented in the operational mode forced with numerical weather forecasts.

  6. High-level waste management technology program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Management of data quality of high level waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    Over the past 10 years, the Hanford Site has been transitioning from nuclear materials production to Site cleanup operations. High-level waste characterization at the Hanford Site provides data to support present waste processing operations, tank safety programs, and future waste disposal programs. Quality elements in the high-level waste characterization program will be presented by following a sample through the data quality objective, sampling, laboratory analysis and data review process. Transition from production to cleanup has resulted in changes in quality systems and program; the changes, as well as other issues in these quality programs, will be described. Laboratory assessment through quality control and performance evaluation programs will be described, and data assessments in the laboratory and final reporting in the tank characterization reports will be discussed.

  8. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Bernadzikowski, T. A.; Allender, J. S.; Butler, J. L.; Gordon, D. E.; Gould, Jr., T. H.; Stone, J. A.

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms.

  9. Multipurpose optimization models for high level waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hoza, M.

    1994-08-01

    Optimal Waste Loading (OWL) models have been developed as multipurpose tools for high-level waste studies for the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. Using nonlinear programming techniques, these models maximize the waste loading of the vitrified waste and optimize the glass formers composition such that the glass produced has the appropriate properties within the melter, and the resultant vitrified waste form meets the requirements for disposal. The OWL model can be used for a single waste stream or for blended streams. The models can determine optimal continuous blends or optimal discrete blends of a number of different wastes. The OWL models have been used to identify the most restrictive constraints, to evaluate prospective waste pretreatment methods, to formulate and evaluate blending strategies, and to determine the impacts of variability in the wastes. The OWL models will be used to aid in the design of frits and the maximize the waste in the glass for High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification.

  10. Radioactive high level waste insight modelling for geological disposal facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Alexander; Kelly, Martin; Bailey, Lucy

    Within this paper we present a simplified analytical model to provide insight into the key performance measures of a generic disposal system for high level waste within a geological disposal facility. The model assumes a low solubility waste matrix within a corrosion resistant disposal container surrounded by a low permeability buffer. Radionuclides migrate from the disposal area through a porous geosphere to the biosphere and give a radiological dose to a receptor. The system of equations describing the migration is transformed into Laplace space and an approximation used to determine peak values for the radionuclide mass transfer rate entering the biosphere. Results from the model are compared with those from more detailed numerical models for key radionuclides in the UK high level waste inventory. Such an insight model can provide a valuable second line of argument to assist in confirming the results of more detailed models and build confidence in the safety case for a geological disposal facility.

  11. Review of High Level Waste Tanks Ultrasonic Inspection Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B

    2006-03-09

    A review of the data collected during ultrasonic inspection of the Type I high level waste tanks has been completed. The data was analyzed for relevance to the possibility of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion. The review of the Type I tank UT inspection data has confirmed that the vapor space general corrosion is not an unusually aggressive phenomena and correlates well with predicted corrosion rates for steel exposed to bulk solution. The corrosion rates are seen to decrease with time as expected. The review of the temperature data did not reveal any obvious correlations between high temperatures and the occurrences of leaks. The complex nature of temperature-humidity interaction, particularly with respect to vapor corrosion requires further understanding to infer any correlation. The review of the waste level data also did not reveal any obvious correlations.

  12. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  13. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  14. Ionization chamber for measurements of high-level tritium gas

    SciTech Connect

    Carstens, D.H.W.; David, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The construction and calibration of a simple ionization-chamber apparatus for measurement of high level tritium gas is described. The apparatus uses an easily constructed but rugged chamber containing the unknown gas and an inexpensive digital multimeter for measuring the ion current. The equipment after calibration is suitable for measuring 0.01 to 100% tritium gas in hydrogen-helium mixes with an accuracy of a few percent. At both the high and low limits of measurements deviations from the predicted theoretical current are observed. These are briefly discussed.

  15. SETTLING OF SPINEL IN A HIGH-LEVEL WASTE GLASS MELTER

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Hrma; Pert Schill; Lubomir Nemec

    2002-01-07

    High-level nuclear waste is being vitrified, i.e., converted to a durable glass that can be stored in a safe repository for hundreds of thousands of years. Waste vitrification is accomplished in reactors called melters to which the waste is charged together with glass-forming additives. The mixture is electrically heated to a temperature as high as 1150 decrees C to create a melt that becomes glass on cooling.

  16. Automatic rule generation for high-level vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, Frank Chung-Hoon; Krishnapuram, Raghu

    1992-01-01

    Many high-level vision systems use rule-based approaches to solving problems such as autonomous navigation and image understanding. The rules are usually elaborated by experts. However, this procedure may be rather tedious. In this paper, we propose a method to generate such rules automatically from training data. The proposed method is also capable of filtering out irrelevant features and criteria from the rules.

  17. Case for retrievable high-level nuclear waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseboom, Eugene H., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Plans for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository have called for permanently closing and sealing the repository soon after it is filled. However, the hydrologic environment of the proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, should allow the repository to be kept open and the waste retrievable indefinitely. This would allow direct monitoring of the repository and maintain the options for future generations to improve upon the disposal methods or use the uranium in the spent fuel as an energy resource.

  18. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-05-24

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments.

  19. [Corrosion testing of high level radioactive waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Alloys under consideration as candidates for the high level nuclear waste containers at Yucca Mountain were exposed to a range of corrosion conditions and their performance measured. The alloys tested were Incoloy 825, 70/30 Copper-Nickel, Monel 400, Hastelloy C- 22, and low carbon steel. The test conditions varied were: temperature, concentration, agitation, and crevice simulation. Only in the case of carbon steel was significant attack noted. This attack appeared to be transport limited.

  20. Executive functions in kindergarteners with high levels of disruptive behaviours.

    PubMed

    Monette, Sébastien; Bigras, Marc; Guay, Marie-Claude

    2015-11-01

    Executive function (EF) deficits have yet to be demonstrated convincingly in children with disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD), as only a few studies have reported these. The presence of EF weaknesses in children with DBD has often been contested on account of the high comorbidity between DBD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and of methodological shortcomings regarding EF measures. Against this background, the link between EF and disruptive behaviours in kindergarteners was investigated using a carefully selected battery of EF measures. Three groups of kindergarteners were compared: (1) a group combining high levels of disruptive behaviours and ADHD symptoms (COMB); (2) a group presenting high levels of disruptive/aggressive behaviours and low levels of ADHD symptoms (AGG); and (3) a normative group (NOR). Children in the COMB and AGG groups presented weaker inhibition capacities compared with normative peers. Also, only the COMB group showed weaker working memory capacities compared with the NOR group. Results support the idea that preschool children with DBD have weaker inhibition capacities and that this weakness could be common to both ADHD and DBD. PMID:26198079

  1. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

  2. Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

    2009-01-09

    With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams.

  3. High Levels of Molecular Chlorine found in the Arctic Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, J.; Huey, L. G.; Liu, Z.; Tanner, D.; Cantrell, C. A.; Orlando, J. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Shepson, P. B.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Hall, S. R.; Beine, H.; Wang, Y.; Ingall, E. D.; Thompson, C. R.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Fried, A.; Mauldin, L.; Smith, J. N.; Staebler, R. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Chlorine radicals are a strong atmospheric oxidant, particularly in polar regions where levels of hydroxyl radicals can be quite low. In the atmosphere, chlorine radicals expedite the degradation of methane and tropospheric ozone and the oxidation of mercury to more toxic forms. Here, we present direct measurements of molecular chlorine levels in the Arctic marine boundary layer in Barrow, Alaska, collected in the spring of 2009 over a six-week period using chemical ionization mass spectrometry. We detected high levels of molecular chlorine of up to 400 pptv. Concentrations peaked in the early morning and late afternoon and fell to near-zero levels at night. Average daytime molecular chlorine levels were correlated with ozone concentrations, suggesting that sunlight and ozone are required for molecular chlorine formation. Using a time-dependent box model, we estimated that the chlorine radicals produced from the photolysis of molecular chlorine on average oxidized more methane than hydroxyl radicals and enhanced the abundance of short-lived peroxy radicals. Elevated hydroperoxyl radical levels, in turn, promoted the formation of hypobromous acid, which catalyzed mercury oxidation and the breakdown of tropospheric ozone. Therefore, we propose that molecular chlorine exerts a significant effect on the atmospheric chemistry in the Arctic. While the formation mechanisms of molecular chlorine are not yet understood, the main potential sources of chlorine include snowpack, sea salt, and sea ice. There is recent evidence of molecular halogen (Br2 and Cl2) formation in the Arctic snowpack. The coverage and composition of the snow may control halogen chemistry in the Arctic. Changes of sea ice and snow cover in the changing climate may affect air-snow-ice interaction and have a significant impact on the levels of radicals, ozone, mercury and methane in the Arctic troposphere.

  4. Acetate Salts as Nonhalogen Additives To Improve Perovskite Film Morphology for High-Efficiency Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiliang; Zhou, Pengcheng; Zhou, Weiran; Wei, Xiangfeng; Chen, Tao; Yang, Shangfeng

    2016-06-22

    A two-step method has been popularly adopted to fabricate a perovskite film of planar heterojunction organo-lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, this method often generates uncontrollable film morphology with poor coverage. Herein, we report a facile method to improve perovskite film morphology by incorporating a small amount of acetate (CH3COO(-), Ac(-)) salts (NH4Ac, NaAc) as nonhalogen additives in CH3NH3I solution used for immersing PbI2 film, resulting in improved CH3NH3PbI3 film morphology. Under the optimized NH4Ac additive concentration of 10 wt %, the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) reaches 17.02%, which is enhanced by ∼23.2% relative to that of the pristine device without additive, whereas the NaAc additive does not lead to an efficiency enhancement despite the improvement of the CH3NH3PbI3 film morphology. SEM study reveals that NH4Ac and NaAc additives can both effectively improve perovskite film morphology by increasing the surface coverage via diminishing pinholes. The improvement on CH3NH3PbI3 film morphology is beneficial for increasing the optical absorption of perovskite film and improving the interfacial contact at the perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD interface, leading to the increase of short-circuit current and consequently efficiency enhancement of the PSC device for NH4Ac additive only. PMID:27253082

  5. Radiative Lifetimes for High Levels of Neutral Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, E.; Guzman, A.

    2013-01-01

    New radiative lifetime measurements for ~ 50 high lying levels of Fe I are reported. Laboratory astrophysics faces a challenge to provide basic spectroscopic data, especially reliable atomic transition probabilities, in the IR region for abundance studies. The availability of HgCdTe (HAWAII) detector arrays has opened IR spectral regions for extensive new spectroscopic studies. The SDSS III APOGEE project in the H-Band is an important example which will penetrate the dust obscuring the Galactic bulge. APOGEE will survey elemental abundances of 100,000 red giant stars in the bulge, bar, disk, and halo of the Milky Way. Many stellar spectra in the H-Band are, as expected, dominated by transitions of Fe I. Most of these IR transitions connect high levels of Fe. Our program has started an effort to meet this challenge with new radiative lifetime measurements on high lying levels of Fe I using time resolved laser induced fluorescence (TRLIF). The TRLIF method is typically accurate to 5% and is efficient. Our goal is to combine these accurate, absolute radiative lifetimes with emission branching fractions [1] to determine log(gf) values of the highest quality for Fe I lines in the UV, visible, and IR. This method was used very successfully by O’Brian et al. [2] on lower levels of Fe I. This method is still the best available for all but very simple spectra for which ab-initio theory is more accurate. Supported by NSF grant AST-0907732. [1] Branching fractions are being measured by M. Ruffoni and J. C. Pickering at Imperial College London. [2] O'Brian, T. R., Wickliffe, M. E., Lawler, J. E., Whaling, W., & Brault, J. W. 1991, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1185

  6. ALICE: Project Overview and High Level Science Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soummer, Remi; Choquet, Elodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Brendan Hagan, J.; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Perrin, Marshall D.; Chen, Christine; Debes, John H.; Golimowski, David A.; Hines, Dean C.; Schneider, Glenn; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mawet, Dimitri; Marois, Christian; Barman, Travis

    2015-01-01

    We report on the status of the ALICE project (Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments), which consists in a consistent reanalysis of the entire HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive. Over the last two years, we have developed a sophisticated pipeline able to handle the data of the 400 stars of the archive. This pipeline builds on the Karhunen-Loeve Image Projection (KLIP) algorithm, and was completed in the fall of 2014. We discuss the first processing and analysis results of the overall reduction campaign. As we will deliver high-level science products to the STScI MAST archive, we are defining a new standard format for high-contrast science products, which will be compatible with every new high-contrast imaging instrument (GPI, SPHERE, P1640, CHARIS, etc.) and used by the JWST coronagraphs. We present here the specifications of this standard.

  7. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Student Achievement in Addition and Subtraction at First Grade Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivey, Patsy M.

    This study was conducted to determine whether the traditional classroom approach to instruction involving the addition and subtraction of number facts (digits 0-6) is more or less effective than the traditional classroom approach plus a commercially-prepared computer game. A pretest-posttest control group design was used with two groups of first…

  8. Effects of a phytogenic feed additive on susceptibility of channel catfish to Edwardsiella ictaluri and levels of mannose binding lectin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of a phytogenic feed additive (Digestarom® P.E.P. MGE) on growth performance and disease susceptibility to Edwardsiella ictaluri. Two hundred and fifty juvenile channel catfish (7.2 ± 0.1 g) were allotted into the following treatments: Control (float...

  9. Reducing Four-Level Two-Mode Hamiltonian to AN Effective Two-Level Hamiltonian with the Addition of Kerr-Like Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Deberky, M. A. A.; Ali, M. F. M.

    We consider a two-mode quantized field described in a coherent state interacting with a four-level atom. An effective Hamiltonian is obtained by adiabatically eliminating the intermediate two levels in a cascade process. The influence of the Stark shifts and the Kerr-like medium on the atomic inversion are examined, as well as on the field entropy, atomic purity and Mandel's Q-parameter. The results of the calculations are illustrated numerically.

  10. High-level power analysis and optimization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, Anand

    1997-12-01

    This thesis combines two ubiquitous trends in the VLSI design world--the move towards designing at higher levels of design abstraction, and the increasing importance of power consumption as a design metric. Power estimation and optimization tools are becoming an increasingly important part of design flows, driven by a variety of requirements such as prolonging battery life in portable computing and communication devices, thermal considerations and system cooling and packaging costs, reliability issues (e.g. electromigration, ground bounce, and I-R drops in the power network), and environmental concerns. This thesis presents a suite of techniques to automatically perform power analysis and optimization for designs at the architecture or register-transfer, and behavior or algorithm levels of the design hierarchy. High-level synthesis refers to the process of synthesizing, from an abstract behavioral description, a register-transfer implementation that satisfies the desired constraints. High-level synthesis tools typically perform one or more of the following tasks: transformations, module selection, clock selection, scheduling, and resource allocation and assignment (also called resource sharing or hardware sharing). High-level synthesis techniques for minimizing the area, maximizing the performance, and enhancing the testability of the synthesized designs have been investigated. This thesis presents high-level synthesis techniques that minimize power consumption in the synthesized data paths. This thesis investigates the effects of resource sharing on the power consumption in the data path, provides techniques to efficiently estimate power consumption during resource sharing, and resource sharing algorithms to minimize power consumption. The RTL circuit that is obtained from the high-level synthesis process can be further optimized for power by applying power-reducing RTL transformations. This thesis presents macro-modeling and estimation techniques for switching

  11. Talc-silicon glass-ceramic waste forms for immobilization of high- level calcined waste

    SciTech Connect

    Vinjamuri, K.

    1993-06-01

    Talc-silicon glass-ceramic waste forms are being evaluated as candidates for immobilization of the high level calcined waste stored onsite at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These glass-ceramic waste forms were prepared by hot isostatically pressing a mixture of simulated nonradioactive high level calcined waste, talc, silicon and aluminum metal additives. The waste forms were characterized for density, chemical durability, and glass and crystalline phase compositions. The results indicate improved density and chemical durability as the silicon content is increased.

  12. Reactive nanophase oxide additions to melt-processed high-{Tc} superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Goretta, K.C.; Brandel, B.P.; Lanagan, M.T.; Hu, J.; Miller, D.J.; Sengupta, S.; Parker, J.C.; Ali, M.N.; Chen, Nan

    1994-10-01

    Nanophase TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were synthesized by a vapor-phase process and mechanically mixed with stoichiometric YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} and TlBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} powders in 20 mole % concentrations. Pellets produced from powders with and without nanophase oxides were heated in air or O{sub 2} above the peritectic melt temperature and slow-cooled. At 4.2 K, the intragranular critical current density (J{sub c}) increased dramatically with the oxide additions. At 35--50 K, effects of the oxide additions were positive, but less pronounced. At 77 K, the additions decreased J{sub c}, probably because of inducing a depresion of the transition temperature.

  13. Reactive nanophase oxide additions to melt-processed high-T(sub c) superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goretta, K. C.; Brandel, B. P.; Lanagan, M. T.; Hu, J.; Miller, D. J.; Sengupta, S.; Parker, J. C.; Ali, M. N.; Chen, Nan

    1994-10-01

    Nanophase TiO2 and Al2O3 powders were synthesized by a vapor-phase process and mechanically mixed with stoichiometric YBa2Cu3O(x) and TlBa2Ca2Cu3O(x) powders in 20 mole % concentrations. Pellets produced from powders with and without nanophase oxides were heated in air or O2 above the peritectic melt temperature and slow-cooled. At 4.2 K, the intragranular critical current density J(sub c)) increased dramatically with the oxide additions. At 35-50 K, effects of the oxide additions were positive, but less pronounced. At 77 K, the additions decreased J(sub c), probably because of inducing a depression of the transition temperature.

  14. Exploiting Aura OMI Level 2 Data with High Resolution Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J. C.; Yang, W.; Johnson, J. E.; Zhao, P.; Gerasimov, I. V.; Pham, L.; Vicente, G. A.; Shen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite data products are important for a wide variety of applications that can bring far-reaching benefits to the science community and the broader society. These benefits can best be achieved if the satellite data are well utilized and interpreted, such as model inputs from satellite, or extreme event (such as volcano eruption, dust storm, …etc) interpretation from satellite. Unfortunately, this is not always the case, despite the abundance and relative maturity of numerous satellite data products provided by NASA and other organizations. One way to help users better understand the satellite data is to provide data along with 'Images', including accurate pixel-level (Level 2) information, pixel coverage area delineation, and science team recommended quality screening for individual geophysical parameters. Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) always strives to best support (i.e., Software-as-a-service, SaaS) the user-community for NASA Earth Science Data. In this case, we will present a new visualization tool that helps users exploiting Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Level 2 data. This new visualization service utilizes Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard-compliant Web Mapping Service (WMS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS) calls in the backend infrastructure. The functionality of the service allows users to select data sources (e.g., multiple parameters under the same measurement, like NO2 and SO2 from OMI Level 2 or same parameter with different methods of aggregation, like NO2 in OMNO2G and OMNO2D products), defining area-of-interest and temporal extents, zooming, panning, overlaying, sliding, and data subsetting and reformatting. The interface will also be able to connect to other OGC WMS and WCS servers, which will greatly enhance its expandability to integrate additional outside data/map sources (such as Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS)).

  15. Ultrasonic level sensors for liquids under high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Mazel, D. S.; Hodges, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic level sensor of novel design continuously measures the level of a liquid subjected to a high pressure (up to about 40 MPa), as is sometimes required for the effective transfer of the liquid. The sensor operates as a composite resonator fabricated from a standard high-pressure plug. A flat-bottom hole is machined into the plug along its center line. An ultrasonic transducer is bonded rigidly to the interior surface of the bottom wall, while the exterior surface is in contact with the liquid. Although the bottom wall is designed to satisfy the pressure code, it is still sufficiently thin to permit ready excitation of the axisymmetric plate modes of vibration. The liquid level is measured by a conventional pulse-echo technique. A prototype sensor was tested successfully in a 2300-l water vessel at pressures up to about 37 MPa. A spectral analysis of the transmitted pulse reveals that the flexural, extensional, thickness-shear, and radial plate modes are excited into vibration, but none of these appears to be significantly affected by the pressurization of the liquid.

  16. Space augmentation of military high-level waste disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T.; Lees, L.; Divita, E.

    1979-01-01

    Space disposal of selected components of military high-level waste (HLW) is considered. This disposal option offers the promise of eliminating the long-lived radionuclides in military HLW from the earth. A space mission which meets the dual requirements of long-term orbital stability and a maximum of one space shuttle launch per week over a period of 20-40 years, is a heliocentric orbit about halfway between the orbits of earth and Venus. Space disposal of high-level radioactive waste is characterized by long-term predictability and short-term uncertainties which must be reduced to acceptably low levels. For example, failure of either the Orbit Transfer Vehicle after leaving low earth orbit, or the storable propellant stage failure at perihelion would leave the nuclear waste package in an unplanned and potentially unstable orbit. Since potential earth reencounter and subsequent burn-up in the earth's atmosphere is unacceptable, a deep space rendezvous, docking, and retrieval capability must be developed.

  17. Ultrasonic level sensors for liquids under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Mazel, D. S.; Hodges, D. Y.

    1986-09-01

    An ultrasonic level sensor of novel design continuously measures the level of a liquid subjected to a high pressure (up to about 40 MPa), as is sometimes required for the effective transfer of the liquid. The sensor operates as a composite resonator fabricated from a standard high-pressure plug. A flat-bottom hole is machined into the plug along its center line. An ultrasonic transducer is bonded rigidly to the interior surface of the bottom wall, while the exterior surface is in contact with the liquid. Although the bottom wall is designed to satisfy the pressure code, it is still sufficiently thin to permit ready excitation of the axisymmetric plate modes of vibration. The liquid level is measured by a conventional pulse-echo technique. A prototype sensor was tested successfully in a 2300-l water vessel at pressures up to about 37 MPa. A spectral analysis of the transmitted pulse reveals that the flexural, extensional, thickness-shear, and radial plate modes are excited into vibration, but none of these appears to be significantly affected by the pressurization of the liquid.

  18. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kruetz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  19. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kreutz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  20. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    SciTech Connect

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-04-23

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist.

  1. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Fox, Kevin M.

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  2. Development of Crystal-Tolerant High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Schaible, Micah J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Arrigoni, Alyssa L.; Tate, Rachel M.

    2010-12-17

    Twenty five glasses were formulated. They were batched from HLW AZ-101 simulant or raw chemicals and melted and tested with a series of tests to elucidate the effect of spinel-forming components (Ni, Fe, Cr, Mn, and Zn), Al, and noble metals (Rh2O3 and RuO2) on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the high-level waste (HLW) melter. In addition, the processing properties of glasses, such as the viscosity and TL, were measured as a function of temperature and composition. Furthermore, the settling of spinel crystals in transparent low-viscosity fluids was studied at room temperature to access the shape factor and hindered settling coefficient of spinel crystals in the Stokes equation. The experimental results suggest that Ni is the most troublesome component of all the studied spinel-forming components producing settling layers of up to 10.5 mm in just 20 days in Ni-rich glasses if noble metals or a higher concentration of Fe was not introduced in the glass. The layer of this thickness can potentially plug the bottom of the riser, preventing glass from being discharged from the melter. The noble metals, Fe, and Al were the components that significantly slowed down or stopped the accumulation of spinel at the bottom. Particles of Rh2O3 and RuO2, hematite and nepheline, acted as nucleation sites significantly increasing the number of crystals and therefore decreasing the average crystal size. The settling rate of ≤10-μm crystal size around the settling velocity of crystals was too low to produce thick layers. The experimental data for the thickness of settled layers in the glasses prepared from AZ-101 simulant were used to build a linear empirical model that can predict crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass. The developed model predicts the thicknesses of accumulated layers quite well, R2 = 0.985, and can be become an efficient tool for the formulation

  3. High-Challenge Teaching for Senior English as an Additional Language Learners in Times of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Jennifer; Jetnikoff, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This paper will present a brief overview of the recent shifts within English and EAL/D (English as an additional language/dialect) curriculum documents and their focus on critical literacy, using the Queensland context as a case in point. The English syllabus landscape in Queensland has continued to morph in recent years. From 2002 to 2009,…

  4. Elevated glucose levels in early puerperium, and association with high cortisol levels during parturition.

    PubMed

    Risberg, Anitha; Sjöquist, Mats; Wedenberg, Kaj; Larsson, Anders

    2016-07-01

    Background Gestational diabetes is one of the commonest metabolic problems associated with pregnancy and an accurate diagnosis is critical for the care. Research has shown that pregnant women have high levels of cortisol during the last stage of parturition. As cortisol is a diabetogenic hormone causing increased glucose levels, we wanted to study the association between cortisol and glucose levels during parturition. Materials and methods Glucose and cortisol were analyzed during parturition in 50 females divided according to slow (n = 11) and normal labors (n = 39). Blood samples were analyzed three times during the parturition and four times in the first day after delivery. Glucose levels were also measured once in each trimester. Results In the normal group, the glucose concentration increased from 6.2 (IQR 5.6-8.0) mmol/L in the latency phase to 11.6 (10.0-13.3) mmol/L at aftercare (p < 0.05). After parturition the glucose concentrations decreased gradually. There were significant Spearman rank correlations between glucose and cortisol values. Conclusions The changes associated with birth cause significant elevations of cortisol and glucose around parturition. PMID:26985979

  5. Alternate methods for high level pyrotechnic shock simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Phillip J., Sr.

    Two effective methods to recreate a realistic pyrotechnic shock are presented. The first method employs a resonant beam and is used for SRS levels of 12,000 G or more. The test unit is at one end of the beam and a hammer strikes the opposite end causing a shock to be transmitted to the other end of the fixture. The second method is based on a standard shaker system with a resonant beam to amplify the input signal. The engineer defines the duration of the shock signal induced to the vibration amplifier using the GenRad 2514 controller. The shock signal is then input via the shaker to the resonant beam, which amplifies the signal to produce the desired response at the end of the fixture. The shock response spectrum stays within a +/-6 dB tolerance with levels as high as 3000 G peak. These methods are repeatable, reliable, cost-effective, and consistent with a real pyroevent.

  6. University-Level Research Projects for High School Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McConnell, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project was to provide an opportunity for high school students to participate in university-level research projects. In this case, students from Pinkerton Academy (Derry, New Hampshire) were invited to participate in efforts to catalog data from the COMPTEL experiment on NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). These activities were part of a senior level honors course at Pinkerton. Although the success of this particular program was rather limited, we feel that the general concept is a sound one. In principle, the concept of partnerships between local schools and university researchers is one that could be especially attractive to soft money researchers. Programs can be carefully designed to benefit both the students and the research program.

  7. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved.

  8. Engineering Escherichia coli for high-level production of propionate.

    PubMed

    Akawi, Lamees; Srirangan, Kajan; Liu, Xuejia; Moo-Young, Murray; Perry Chou, C

    2015-07-01

    Mounting environmental concerns associated with the use of petroleum-based chemical manufacturing practices has generated significant interest in the development of biological alternatives for the production of propionate. However, biological platforms for propionate production have been limited to strict anaerobes, such as Propionibacteria and select Clostridia. In this work, we demonstrated high-level heterologous production of propionate under microaerobic conditions in engineered Escherichia coli. Activation of the native Sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon not only transformed E. coli to be propionogenic (i.e., propionate-producing) but also introduced an intracellular "flux competition" between the traditional C2-fermentative pathway and the novel C3-fermentative pathway. Dissimilation of the major carbon source of glycerol was identified to critically affect such "flux competition" and, therefore, propionate synthesis. As a result, the propionogenic E. coli was further engineered by inactivation or overexpression of various genes involved in the glycerol dissimilation pathways and their individual genetic effects on propionate production were investigated. Generally, knocking out genes involved in glycerol dissimilation (except glpA) can minimize levels of solventogenesis and shift more dissimilated carbon flux toward the C3-fermentative pathway. For optimal propionate production with high C3:C2-fermentative product ratios, glycerol dissimilation should be channeled through the respiratory pathway and, upon suppressed solventogenesis with minimal production of highly reduced alcohols, the alternative NADH-consuming route associated with propionate synthesis can be critical for more flexible redox balancing. With the implementation of various biochemical and genetic strategies, high propionate titers of more than 11 g/L with high yields up to 0.4 g-propionate/g-glycerol (accounting for ~50 % of dissimilated glycerol) were achieved, demonstrating the

  9. The Effects of Providing Additional Reading Opportunities for Struggling Readers at Their Independent Reading Levels within Content Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasinko, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    A mixed-methods study was conducted to determine if extra reading practice incorporated into fifth-and sixth-grade social studies and science content classes would have a positive impact on reading assessments for readers at risk. At-risk readers' independent reading levels were assessed using Dynamic Indicator of Basic Early Literacy Skills or…

  10. Development of a High Level Waste Tank Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, D.K.; Loibl, M.W.; Meese, D.C.

    1995-03-21

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center was requested by it`s sister site, West Valley Nuclear Service (WVNS), to develop a remote inspection system to gather wall thickness readings of their High Level Waste Tanks. WVNS management chose to take a proactive approach to gain current information on two tanks t hat had been in service since the early 70`s. The tanks contain high level waste, are buried underground, and have only two access ports to an annular space between the tank and the secondary concrete vault. A specialized remote system was proposed to provide both a visual surveillance and ultrasonic thickness measurements of the tank walls. A magnetic wheeled crawler was the basis for the remote delivery system integrated with an off-the-shelf Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. A development program was initiated for Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to design, fabricate, and test a remote system based on the Crawler. The system was completed and involved three crawlers to perform the needed tasks, an Ultrasonic Crawler, a Camera Crawler, and a Surface Prep Crawler. The crawlers were computer controlled so that their operation could be done remotely and their position on the wall could be tracked. The Ultrasonic Crawler controls were interfaced with ABB Amdata`s I-PC, Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System so that thickness mapping of the wall could be obtained. A second system was requested by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), to perform just ultrasonic mapping on their similar Waste Storage Tanks; however, the system needed to be interfaced with the P-scan Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. Both remote inspection systems were completed 9/94. Qualifications tests were conducted by WVNS prior to implementation on the actual tank and tank development was achieved 10/94. The second inspection system was deployed at WSRC 11/94 with success, and the system is now in continuous service inspecting the remaining high level waste tanks at WSRC.

  11. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  12. Stagnation Region Heat Transfer Augmentation at Very High Turbulence Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, Forrest; Kingery, Joseph E.

    2015-06-17

    A database for stagnation region heat transfer has been extended to include heat transfer measurements acquired downstream from a new high intensity turbulence generator. This work was motivated by gas turbine industry heat transfer designers who deal with heat transfer environments with increasing Reynolds numbers and very high turbulence levels. The new mock aero-combustor turbulence generator produces turbulence levels which average 17.4%, which is 37% higher than the older turbulence generator. The increased level of turbulence is caused by the reduced contraction ratio from the liner to the exit. Heat transfer measurements were acquired on two large cylindrical leading edge test surfaces having a four to one range in leading edge diameter (40.64 cm and 10.16 cm). Gandvarapu and Ames [1] previously acquired heat transfer measurements for six turbulence conditions including three grid conditions, two lower turbulence aero-combustor conditions, and a low turbulence condition. The data are documented and tabulated for an eight to one range in Reynolds numbers for each test surface with Reynolds numbers ranging from 62,500 to 500,000 for the large leading edge and 15,625 to 125,000 for the smaller leading edge. The data show augmentation levels of up to 136% in the stagnation region for the large leading edge. This heat transfer rate is an increase over the previous aero-combustor turbulence generator which had augmentation levels up to 110%. Note, the rate of increase in heat transfer augmentation decreases for the large cylindrical leading edge inferring only a limited level of turbulence intensification in the stagnation region. The smaller cylindrical leading edge shows more consistency with earlier stagnation region heat transfer results correlated on the TRL (Turbulence, Reynolds number, Length scale) parameter. The downstream regions of both test surfaces continue to accelerate the flow but at a much lower rate than the leading edge. Bypass transition occurs

  13. HIGH LEVELS OF URANIUM IN GROUNDWATER OF ULAANBAATAR, MONGOLIA

    PubMed Central

    Nriagu, Jerome; Nam, Dong-Ha; Ayanwola, Titilayo A.; Dinh, Hau; Erdenechimeg, Erdenebayar; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Bolormaa, Tsend-Ayush

    2011-01-01

    Water samples collected from 129 wells in seven of the nine sub-divisions of Ulaanbaatar were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using Clean Lab methods. The levels of many trace elements were found to be very low with the average concentrations (ranges in brackets) being 0.9 (<0.1-7.9) μg/L for As; 7.7 (0.12-177) μg/L for Mn; 0.2 (<0.05-1.9) μg/L for Co; 16 (<0.1-686) μg/L for Zn; 0.7 (<0.1-1.8) μg/L for Se; <0.1 (<0.02-0.69) μg/L for Cd; and 1.3 (<0.02-32) μg/L for Pb. The levels of uranium were surprisingly elevated (mean, 4.6 μg/L; range <0.01-57 μg/L, with the values for many samples exceeding the World Health Organization's guideline of 15 μg/L for uranium in drinking water. Local rocks and soils appear to be the natural source of the uranium. The levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar's groundwater are in the range that has been associated with nephrotoxicity, high blood pressure, bone dysfunction and likely reproductive impairment in human populations. We consider the risk associated with drinking the groundwater with elevated levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar to be a matter for some public health concern and conclude that the paucity of data on chronic effects of low level exposure is a risk factor for continuing the injury to many people in this city. PMID:22142646

  14. Modern Alchemy: Solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, C.C.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is putting a modern version of alchemy to work to produce an answer to a decades-old problem. It is taking place at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) near Buffalo, New York. At both locations, contractor Westinghouse Electric Corporation is applying technology that is turning liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stabilized, durable glass for safer and easier management. The process is called vitrification. SRS and WVDP are now operating the nation`s first full-scale HLW vitrification plants.

  15. Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mahidhara, R.K.; Elleman, T.S.; Murty, K.L.

    1992-11-01

    A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted.

  16. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTIANER

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) defense high-level waste disposal container system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  17. THE AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION RATE: TRENDS AND LEVELS*

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, James J.; LaFontaine, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a unified methodology to multiple data sets to estimate both the levels and trends in U.S. high school graduation rates. We establish that (a) the true rate is substantially lower than widely used measures; (b) it peaked in the early 1970s; (c) majority/minority differentials are substantial and have not converged for 35 years; (d) lower post-1970 rates are not solely due to increasing immigrant and minority populations; (e) our findings explain part of the slowdown in college attendance and rising college wage premiums; and (f) widening graduation differentials by gender help explain increasing male-female college attendance gaps. PMID:20625528

  18. Solidification of Savannah River Plant high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, R; Shafranek, L F; Stevens, III, W R

    1983-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in accord with recommendations from the Du Pont Company, has started construction of a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The facility should be completed by the end of 1988, and full-scale operation should begin in 1990. This facility will immobilize in borosilicate glass the large quantity of high-level radioactive waste now stored at the plant plus the waste to be generated from continued chemical reprocessing operations. The existing wastes at the Savannah River Plant will be completely converted by about 2010. 21 figures.

  19. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included.

  20. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  1. Catalytic, asymmetric, aldol/O-conjugate addition sequence for the construction of highly substituted furanoids.

    PubMed

    Calter, Michael A; Korotkov, Alexander

    2015-03-20

    A new method for the enantioselective synthesis of highly functionalized dihydrofurans has been developed. This process, related to the interrupted Feist-Bénary reaction, involves the reaction of 2-ene 1,4-diketones with dimedone in the presence of bis(cinchona alkaloid)pyrimidine catalysts to afford dihydrofuran products in excellent yields and high diastereo- and enantioselectivities. PMID:25739895

  2. Linearization of the Fermilab recycler high level RF

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph E Dey; Tom Kubicki; John Reid

    2003-05-28

    In studying the Recycler high level RF, it was found that at 89 kHz, the lowest frequency required by the system, some nonlinearities in magnitude and phase were discovered. The visible evidence of this was that beam injected in a barrier bucket had a definite slope at the top. Using a network analyzer, the S-parameter S{sub 21} was realized for the overall system and from mathematical modeling a second order numerator and denominator transfer function was found. The inverse of this transfer function gives their linearization transfer function. The linearization transfer function was realized in hardware by summing a high pass, band pass and low pass filter together. The resulting magnitude and phase plots, along with actual beam response will be shown.

  3. Highly enantioselective phenylacetylene addition to aromatic ketones catalyzed by cinchona alkaloid-aluminum complexes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Rui; Kang, Yong-Feng; Chen, Chao; Xu, Zhao-Qing; Zhou, Yi-Feng; Ni, Ming; Cai, Hua-Qing; Gong, Mao-Zhen

    2005-02-01

    The catalytic asymmetric addition of phenylacetylene to aromatic ketones is reported. The catalyst, generated from commercially available Cinchona alkaloids and industrially available triethylaluminum, gives the expected tertiary alcohols with good enantiomeric excess (70-89%) and yields (60-83%). No previous case has been reported successfully using triethylaluminum as a Lewis acid in the asymmetric alkynylation of carbonylic derivatives, and thus we provide a new method to obtain optically active tertiary propargyl alcohols. PMID:15675878

  4. Structure of a Microbial Community in Soil after Prolonged Addition of Low Levels of Simulated Acid Rain

    PubMed Central

    Pennanen, Taina; Fritze, Hannu; Vanhala, Pekka; Kiikkilä, Oili; Neuvonen, Seppo; Bååth, Erland

    1998-01-01

    Humus samples were collected 12 growing seasons after the start of a simulated acid rain experiment situated in the subarctic environment. The acid rain was simulated with H2SO4, a combination of H2SO4 and HNO3, and HNO3 at two levels of moderate acidic loads close to the natural anthropogenic pollution levels of southern Scandinavia. The higher levels of acid applications resulted in acidification, as defined by humus chemistry. The concentrations of base cations decreased, while the concentrations of exchangeable H+, Al, and Fe increased. Humus pH decreased from 3.83 to 3.65. Basal respiration decreased with decreasing humus pH, and total microbial biomass, measured by substrate-induced respiration and total amount of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), decreased slightly. An altered PLFA pattern indicated a change in the microbial community structure at the higher levels of acid applications. In general, branched fatty acids, typical of gram-positive bacteria, increased in the acid plots. PLFA analysis performed on the bacterial community growing on agar plates also showed that the relative amount of PLFA specific for gram-positive bacteria increased due to the acidification. The changed bacterial community was adapted to the more acidic environment in the acid-treated plots, even though bacterial growth rates, estimated by thymidine and leucine incorporation, decreased with pH. Fungal activity (measured as acetate incorporation into ergosterol) was not affected. This result indicates that bacteria were more affected than fungi by the acidification. The capacity of the bacterial community to utilize 95 different carbon sources was variable and only showed weak correlations to pH. Differences in the toxicities of H2SO4 and HNO3 for the microbial community were not found. PMID:9603831

  5. Optimal choice: assessing the probability of additional damage to buildings caused by water level changes of larger areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijnagte, J. L.; Luger, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the Northern parts of the Netherlands exploration of natural gas reservoirs causes subsidence over large areas. As a consequence, the water levels in canals and polders have to be adjusted over time in order to keep the groundwater levels at a constant depth relative to the surface level. In the middle of the subsidence area it is relatively easy to follow the settlements by a uniform lowering of the water level. This would however result in a relative lowering of the groundwater table at the edges of the subsidence area. Given the presence of soft compressible soils, this would result in induced settlements. For buildings in these areas this will increase the chance of damage. A major design challenge lies therefore in the optimisation of the use of compartments. The more compartments the higher the cost therefore the aim is to make compartments in the water management system that are as large as possible without causing inadmissible damage to buildings. In order to asses expected damage from different use of compartments three tools are needed. The first is a generally accepted method of damage determination, the second a method to determine the contribution to damage of a new influence, e.g. a groundwater table change. Third, and perhaps most importantly, a method is needed to evaluate effects not for single buildings but for larger areas. The first need is covered by established damage criteria like those of Burland & Wroth or Boscardin & Cording. Up until now the second and the third have been problematic. This paper presents a method which enables to assign a contribution to the probability of damage of various recognised mechanisms such as soil and foundation inhomogeneity, uneven loading, ground water level changes. Shallow subsidence due to peat oxidation and deep subsidence due to reservoir depletion can be combined. In order to address the third issue: evaluation of effects for larger areas, the method uses a probabilistic approach. Apart from a

  6. High glucose levels reduce fatty acid oxidation and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Visiedo, Francisco; Bugatto, Fernando; Sánchez, Viviana; Cózar-Castellano, Irene; Bartha, Jose L; Perdomo, Germán

    2013-07-15

    Placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exhibit an altered lipid metabolism. The mechanism by which GDM is linked to alterations in placental lipid metabolism remains obscure. We hypothesized that high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta. To test this hypothesis, we measured FAO, fatty acid esterification, de novo fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride levels, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities (CPT) in placental explants of women with GDM or no pregnancy complication. In women with GDM, FAO was reduced by ~30% without change in mitochondrial content, and triglyceride content was threefold higher than in the control group. Likewise, in placental explants of women with no complications, high glucose levels reduced FAO by ~20%, and esterification increased linearly with increasing fatty acid concentrations. However, de novo fatty acid synthesis remained unchanged between high and low glucose levels. In addition, high glucose levels increased triglyceride content approximately twofold compared with low glucose levels. Furthermore, etomoxir-mediated inhibition of FAO enhanced esterification capacity by ~40% and elevated triglyceride content 1.5-fold in placental explants of women, with no complications. Finally, high glucose levels reduced CPT I activity by ~70% and phosphorylation levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by ~25% in placental explants of women, with no complications. We reveal an unrecognized regulatory mechanism on placental fatty acid metabolism by which high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial FAO through inhibition of CPT I, shifting flux of fatty acids away from oxidation toward the esterification pathway, leading to accumulation of placental triglycerides. PMID:23673156

  7. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a givenmore » level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.« less

  8. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a given level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.

  9. Attenuation of high-level impulses by earmuffs.

    PubMed

    Zera, Jan; Mlynski, Rafal

    2007-10-01

    Attenuation of high-level acoustic impulses (noise reduction) by various types of earmuffs was measured using a laboratory source of type A impulses and an artificial test fixture compatible with the ISO 4869-3 standard. The measurements were made for impulses of peak sound-pressure levels (SPLs) from 150 to 170 dB. The rise time and A duration of the impulses depended on their SPL and were within a range of 12-400 mus (rise time) and 0.4-1.1 ms (A duration). The results showed that earmuff peak level attenuation increases by about 10 dB when the impulse's rise time and the A duration are reduced. The results also demonstrated that the signals under the earmuff cup have a longer rise and A duration than the original impulses recorded outside the earmuff. Results of the measurements were used to check the validity of various hearing damage risk criteria that specify the maximum permissible exposure to impulse noise. The present data lead to the conclusion that procedures in which hearing damage risk is assessed only from signal attenuation, without taking into consideration changes in the signal waveform under the earmuff, tend to underestimate the risk of hearing damage. PMID:17902846

  10. The CMS High Level Trigger System: Experience and Future Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, G.; Behrens, U.; Bowen, M.; Branson, J.; Bukowiec, S.; Cittolin, S.; Coarasa, J. A.; Deldicque, C.; Dobson, M.; Dupont, A.; Erhan, S.; Flossdorf, A.; Gigi, D.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino, R.; Hartl, C.; Hegeman, J.; Holzner, A.; Hwong, Y. L.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Meschi, E.; Mommsen, R. K.; O'Dell, V.; Orsini, L.; Paus, C.; Petrucci, A.; Pieri, M.; Polese, G.; Racz, A.; Raginel, O.; Sakulin, H.; Sani, M.; Schwick, C.; Shpakov, D.; Simon, S.; Spataru, A. C.; Sumorok, K.

    2012-12-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC features a two-level trigger system. Events accepted by the first level trigger, at a maximum rate of 100 kHz, are read out by the Data Acquisition system (DAQ), and subsequently assembled in memory in a farm of computers running a software high-level trigger (HLT), which selects interesting events for offline storage and analysis at a rate of order few hundred Hz. The HLT algorithms consist of sequences of offline-style reconstruction and filtering modules, executed on a farm of 0(10000) CPU cores built from commodity hardware. Experience from the operation of the HLT system in the collider run 2010/2011 is reported. The current architecture of the CMS HLT, its integration with the CMS reconstruction framework and the CMS DAQ, are discussed in the light of future development. The possible short- and medium-term evolution of the HLT software infrastructure to support extensions of the HLT computing power, and to address remaining performance and maintenance issues, are discussed.

  11. Development of low read noise high conversion gain CMOS image sensor for photon counting level imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Min-Woong; Kawahito, Shoji; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Yasutomi, Keita

    2016-05-01

    A CMOS image sensor with deep sub-electron read noise and high pixel conversion gain has been developed. Its performance is recognized through image outputs from an area image sensor, confirming the capability of photoelectroncounting- level imaging. To achieve high conversion gain, the proposed pixel has special structures to reduce the parasitic capacitances around FD node. As a result, the pixel conversion gain is increased due to the optimized FD node capacitance, and the noise performance is also improved by removing two noise sources from power supply. For the first time, high contrast images from the reset-gate-less CMOS image sensor, with less than 0.3e- rms noise level, have been generated at an extremely low light level of a few electrons per pixel. In addition, the photon-counting capability of the developed CMOS imager is demonstrated by a measurement, photoelectron-counting histogram (PCH).

  12. Historical high-resolution dynamic sea level variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunnabend, Sandra-Esther; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Kliphuis, Michael; van Werkhoven, Ben; Bal, Henri E.; Maassen, Jason; van Meersbergen, Maarten; Seinstra, Frank

    2014-05-01

    To investigate future changes in the dynamics of the ocean and therefore in dynamic sea level, ocean models need to be able to adequately represent oceanic dynamical processes. Therefore, resolving ocean eddies and representing boundary currents is of major importance. In this study, we investigate historical variations in dynamical sea surface height using the strongly eddying global version of the Parallel Ocean Program (POP). First, differences in high and low-resolution ocean model results (0.1 vs. 1.0 degree) were analyzed using a climatological atmospheric forcing dataset. Second, we forced the high-resolution model by atmospheric conditions over the period from 1950 to 2000 that are derived from a simulation using the ECHAM5-OM1 model (within the ESSENCE project, see www.knmi.nl/~sterl/Essence/). In general, the large-scale ocean fields of the POP model simulation agree well with those of the low-resolution ocean model (MPI-OM) results. Variations occur due to the different models used and, especially, due to the capability of the high-resolution POP model to resolve eddies. A comparison of high-resolution ocean model results with in-situ measurements, such as dynamic topography provided by altimetry, and salinity and temperature provided by the WOA2013, also show good agreement.

  13. High level radioactive waste glass production and product description

    SciTech Connect

    Sproull, J.F.; Marra, S.L.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report examines borosilicate glass as a means of immobilizing high-level radioactive wastes. Borosilicate glass will encapsulate most of the defense and some of the commercial HLW in the US. The resulting waste forms must meet the requirements of the WA-SRD and the WAPS, which include a short term PCT durability test. The waste form producer must report the composition(s) of the borosilicate waste glass(es) produced but can choose the composition(s) to meet site-specific requirements. Although the waste form composition is the primary determinant of durability, the redox state of the glass; the existence, content, and composition of crystals; and the presence of glass-in-glass phase separation can affect durability. The waste glass should be formulated to avoid phase separation regions. The ultimate result of this effort will be a waste form which is much more stable and potentially less mobile than the liquid high level radioactive waste is currently.

  14. Unexpectedly high mercury level in pelleted commercial fish feed

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, M.H.; Cech, J.J. Jr.

    1998-10-01

    An unexpectedly high mercury (Hg) level was found in a pelleted commercial fish feed used to feed fish in laboratory and fish farm settings. Mean total Hg (T-Hg) concentration in the commercial fish pellets was 66 ppb. Mean total selenium (T-Se) concentration in the pellets was 1,120 ppb (ranging from 790 to 1,360 ppb). Total Hg and Se in the whole blood of Sacramento blackfish and in the fish feed were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). During a 10-week sampling period T-Hg in blood fluctuated between 35 and 56 ppb. A highly significant, positive correlation was found between T-Hg in the fish blood and in the fish feed through the sampling period. On the other hand, no correlation was found between T-Se in the fish feed and T-Hg or T-Se blood level. Researchers working with fish in Hg studies need to know that fish pellets may contain Hg and to consider the influence of these pellets in their results.

  15. How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been used in a large number of fields, such as chemical, agricultural and biopharmaceutical industries. The enzyme production rate and yield are the main factors to consider when choosing the appropriate expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant enzymes have been expressed in bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria), filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and yeasts (e.g., Pichia pastoris). The favorable and very advantageous characteristics of these species have resulted in an increasing number of biotechnological applications. Bacterial hosts (e.g., E. coli) can be used to quickly and easily overexpress recombinant enzymes; however, bacterial systems cannot express very large proteins and proteins that require post-translational modifications. The main bacterial expression hosts, with the exception of lactic acid bacteria and filamentous fungi, can produce several toxins which are not compatible with the expression of recombinant enzymes in food and drugs. However, due to the multiplicity of the physiological impacts arising from high-level expression of genes encoding the enzymes and expression hosts, the goal of overproduction can hardly be achieved, and therefore, the yield of recombinant enzymes is limited. In this review, the recent strategies used for the high-level expression of microbial enzymes in the hosts mentioned above are summarized and the prospects are also discussed. We hope this review will contribute to the development of the enzyme-related research field. PMID:23686280

  16. VITRIFICATION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-17

    The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the properties and performance of a series of glasses with compositions that could represent high level waste Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) as vitrified at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility. These data were used to guide frit optimization efforts as the SB5 composition was finalized. Glass compositions for this study were developed by combining a series of SB5 composition projections with a group of candidate frits. The study glasses were fabricated using depleted uranium and their chemical compositions, crystalline contents and chemical durabilities were characterized. Trevorite was the only crystalline phase that was identified in a few of the study glasses after slow cooling, and is not of concern as spinels have been shown to have little impact on the durability of high level waste glasses. Chemical durability was quantified using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). All of the glasses had very acceptable durability performance. The results of this study indicate that a frit composition can be identified that will provide a processable and durable glass when combined with SB5.

  17. The addition of accessory enzymes enhances the hydrolytic performance of cellulase enzymes at high solid loadings.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinguang; Chandra, Richard; Arantes, Valdeir; Gourlay, Keith; van Dyk, J Susan; Saddler, Jack N

    2015-06-01

    The pretreatment process used and the nature of the biomass feedstock will influence the role that accessory enzymes can play in synergistically interacting with cellulases to effectively deconstruct the substrate. The work reported here assessed the possible boosting effects of the xylanase and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (AA9, formerly known as GH61) on the hydrolytic potential of cellulase enzyme mixtures during hydrolysis of steam pretreated poplar and corn stover at high (10-20% w/v) substrate concentrations. A higher proportion of xylanase was required when the substrate had a relatively high xylan content and at high substrate concentrations. In contrast, a relatively small amount of AA9 (about 2 mg/g cellulose) was enough, regardless of the nature or concentration of the substrate. The overall protein loading required to achieve effective hydrolysis of high concentrations of pretreated biomass substrates could be substantially reduced by optimizing the ratio of enzymes in the "cellulase" mixture. PMID:25812819

  18. Stagnation region heat transfer augmentation at very high turbulence levels

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kingery, Joseph E.; Ames, Forrest E.

    2016-08-01

    Current land-based gas turbines are growing in size producing higher approach flow Reynolds numbers at the leading edge of turbine nozzles. These vanes are subjected to high intensity large scale turbulence. This present paper reports on the research which significantly expands the parameter range for stagnation region heat transfer augmenta-tion due to high intensity turbulence. Heat transfer measurements were acquired over two constant heat flux test surfaces with large diameter leading edges (10.16 cm and 40.64 cm). The test surfaces were placed downstream from a new high intensity (17.4%) mock combustor and tested over an eight to one range inmore » approach flow Reynolds number for each test surface. Stagnation region heat transfer augmentation for the smaller (ReD = 15,625–125,000) and larger (ReD = 62,500–500,000) leading edge regions ranged from 45% to 81% and 80% to 136%, respectively. Furthermore, these data also include heat transfer distributions over the full test surface compared with the earlier data acquired at six additional inlet turbulence conditions. These surfaces exhibit continued but more moderate acceleration downstream from the stagnation regions and these data are expected to be useful in testing bypass transition predictive approaches. This database will be useful to gas turbine heat transfer design engineers. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4032677]« less

  19. High-level hepatitis B virus replication in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Guidotti, L G; Matzke, B; Schaller, H; Chisari, F V

    1995-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mice whose hepatocytes replicate the virus at levels comparable to that in the infected livers of patients with chronic hepatitis have been produced, without any evidence of cytopathology. High-level viral gene expression was obtained in the liver and kidney tissues in three independent lineages. These animals were produced with a terminally redundant viral DNA construct (HBV 1.3) that starts just upstream of HBV enhancer I, extends completely around the circular viral genome, and ends just downstream of the unique polyadenylation site in HBV. In these animals, the viral mRNA is more abundant in centrilobular hepatocytes than elsewhere in the hepatic lobule. High-level viral DNA replication occurs inside viral nucleocapsid particles that preferentially form in the cytoplasm of these centrilobular hepatocytes, suggesting that an expression threshold must be reached for nucleocapsid assembly and viral replication to occur. Despite the restricted distribution of the viral replication machinery in centrilobular cytoplasmic nucleocapsids, nucleocapsid particles are detectable in the vast majority of hepatocyte nuclei throughout the hepatic lobule. The intranuclear nucleocapsid particles are empty, however, suggesting that viral nucleocapsid particle assembly occurs independently in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the hepatocyte and implying that cytoplasmic nucleocapsid particles do not transport the viral genome across the nuclear membrane into the nucleus during the viral life cycle. This model creates the opportunity to examine the influence of viral and host factors on HBV pathogenesis and replication and to assess the antiviral potential of pharmacological agents and physiological processes, including the immune response. PMID:7666518

  20. Synergistic catalysis: highly diastereoselective benzoxazole addition to Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates.

    PubMed

    Ceban, Victor; Putaj, Piotr; Meazza, Marta; Pitak, Mateusz B; Coles, Simon J; Vesely, Jan; Rios, Ramon

    2014-07-18

    An expedited method has been developed for the diastereoselective synthesis of highly functionalized alkyl-azaarene systems with good yields and high diastereoselectivities (>15 : 1 dr). The methodology includes a synergistic catalysis event involving organometallic (10 mol% AgOAc) activation of an alkyl azaarene and Lewis base (10 mol% DABCO) activation of a Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonate. The structure and relative configuration of a representative product were confirmed by X-ray analysis. PMID:24875953

  1. Acceleration of the rate of ethanol fermentation by addition of nitrogen in high tannin grain sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, J.T.; NeSmith, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    In this communication, the authors show that accelerated rates of ethanol production, comparable to sorghum varieties containing low levels of tannins and to corn, can occur without the removal of the tannins. The basis of the inhibition appears to be a lack of sufficient nitrogen in the mash for protein synthesis required to support an accelerated fermentative metabolism in Saccharomyces. No inhibition of the enzymes used for starch hydrolysis was found.

  2. Department of Energy pretreatment of high-level and low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, C.P.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    The remediation of the 1 {times} 10{sup 8} gal of highly radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks (USTs) at five US Department of Energy (DOE) sites is one of DOE`s greatest challenges. Therefore, the DOE Office of Environmental Management has created the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage an integrated technology development program that results in the safe and efficient remediation of UST waste. The TFA has divided its efforts into five areas, which are safety, characterization, retrieval/closure, pretreatment, and immobilization. All DOE pretreatment activities are integrated by the Pretreatment Technical Integration Manager of the TFA. For FY 1996, the 14 pretreatment tasks are divided into 3 systems: supernate separations, sludge treatment, and solid/liquid separation. The plans and recent results of these TFA tasks, which include two 25,000-gal demonstrations and two former TFA tasks on Cs removal, are presented. The pretreatment goals are to minimize the volume of high-level waste and the radioactivity in low-level waste.

  3. Michael Additions of Highly Basic Enolates to ortho-Quinone Methides

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Robert S.; Garza, Christopher J.; Dang, Ann T.; Pedro, Te Kie A.; Chain, William J.

    2015-01-01

    A protocol by which ketone or ester enolates and ortho-quinone methides (o-QMs) are generated in situ in a single reaction flask from silylated precursors under the action of anhydrous fluoride is reported. The reaction partners are joined to give a variety of β-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-carbonyl compounds in 32–94% yield in a single laboratory operation. The intermediacy of o-QMs is supported by control experiments utilizing enolate precursors and conventional alkyl halides as competitive alkylating agents and the isolation of 1,5-dicarbonyl products resulting from conjugate additions that do not restore the aromatic system. PMID:25906358

  4. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C

    2007-11-07

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analysis have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follows a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fix separation from the point spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and non-coronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level. In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding confidence level as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckles noise, a detection threshold up to three times higher is required to obtain a confidence level equivalent to that at 5{sigma} for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested using TRIDENT CFHT and angular differential imaging NIRI Gemini adaptive optics data. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. A power-law is finally derived to predict the 1-3 x 10{sup -7} confidence level detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise.

  5. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C; LaFreniere, D; Macintosh, B; Doyon, R

    2008-06-02

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analysis have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follows a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fix separation from the point spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and non-coronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level. In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding confidence level as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckles noise, a detection threshold up to three times higher is required to obtain a confidence level equivalent to that at 5{sigma} for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested using TRIDENT CFHT and angular differential imaging NIRI Gemini adaptive optics data. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. A power-law is finally derived to predict the 1-3 x 10{sup -7} confidence level detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise.

  6. Engineering neural systems for high-level problem solving.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Jared; Reggia, James

    2016-07-01

    There is a long-standing, sometimes contentious debate in AI concerning the relative merits of a symbolic, top-down approach vs. a neural, bottom-up approach to engineering intelligent machine behaviors. While neurocomputational methods excel at lower-level cognitive tasks (incremental learning for pattern classification, low-level sensorimotor control, fault tolerance and processing of noisy data, etc.), they are largely non-competitive with top-down symbolic methods for tasks involving high-level cognitive problem solving (goal-directed reasoning, metacognition, planning, etc.). Here we take a step towards addressing this limitation by developing a purely neural framework named galis. Our goal in this work is to integrate top-down (non-symbolic) control of a neural network system with more traditional bottom-up neural computations. galis is based on attractor networks that can be "programmed" with temporal sequences of hand-crafted instructions that control problem solving by gating the activity retention of, communication between, and learning done by other neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that it can be applied successfully to solve sequential card matching problems, using both human performance and a top-down symbolic algorithm as experimental controls. Solving this kind of problem makes use of top-down attention control and the binding together of visual features in ways that are easy for symbolic AI systems but not for neural networks to achieve. Our model can not only be instructed on how to solve card matching problems successfully, but its performance also qualitatively (and sometimes quantitatively) matches the performance of both human subjects that we had perform the same task and the top-down symbolic algorithm that we used as an experimental control. We conclude that the core principles underlying the galis framework provide a promising approach to engineering purely neurocomputational systems for problem

  7. Low-level and high-level modulations of fixational saccades and high frequency oscillatory brain activity in a visual object classification task

    PubMed Central

    Kosilo, Maciej; Wuerger, Sophie M.; Craddock, Matt; Jennings, Ben J.; Hunt, Amelia R.; Martinovic, Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Until recently induced gamma-band activity (GBA) was considered a neural marker of cortical object representation. However, induced GBA in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is susceptible to artifacts caused by miniature fixational saccades. Recent studies have demonstrated that fixational saccades also reflect high-level representational processes. Do high-level as opposed to low-level factors influence fixational saccades? What is the effect of these factors on artifact-free GBA? To investigate this, we conducted separate eye tracking and EEG experiments using identical designs. Participants classified line drawings as objects or non-objects. To introduce low-level differences, contours were defined along different directions in cardinal color space: S-cone-isolating, intermediate isoluminant, or a full-color stimulus, the latter containing an additional achromatic component. Prior to the classification task, object discrimination thresholds were measured and stimuli were scaled to matching suprathreshold levels for each participant. In both experiments, behavioral performance was best for full-color stimuli and worst for S-cone isolating stimuli. Saccade rates 200–700 ms after stimulus onset were modulated independently by low and high-level factors, being higher for full-color stimuli than for S-cone isolating stimuli and higher for objects. Low-amplitude evoked GBA and total GBA were observed in very few conditions, showing that paradigms with isoluminant stimuli may not be ideal for eliciting such responses. We conclude that cortical loops involved in the processing of objects are preferentially excited by stimuli that contain achromatic information. Their activation can lead to relatively early exploratory eye movements even for foveally-presented stimuli. PMID:24391611

  8. Low-level and high-level modulations of fixational saccades and high frequency oscillatory brain activity in a visual object classification task.

    PubMed

    Kosilo, Maciej; Wuerger, Sophie M; Craddock, Matt; Jennings, Ben J; Hunt, Amelia R; Martinovic, Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Until recently induced gamma-band activity (GBA) was considered a neural marker of cortical object representation. However, induced GBA in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is susceptible to artifacts caused by miniature fixational saccades. Recent studies have demonstrated that fixational saccades also reflect high-level representational processes. Do high-level as opposed to low-level factors influence fixational saccades? What is the effect of these factors on artifact-free GBA? To investigate this, we conducted separate eye tracking and EEG experiments using identical designs. Participants classified line drawings as objects or non-objects. To introduce low-level differences, contours were defined along different directions in cardinal color space: S-cone-isolating, intermediate isoluminant, or a full-color stimulus, the latter containing an additional achromatic component. Prior to the classification task, object discrimination thresholds were measured and stimuli were scaled to matching suprathreshold levels for each participant. In both experiments, behavioral performance was best for full-color stimuli and worst for S-cone isolating stimuli. Saccade rates 200-700 ms after stimulus onset were modulated independently by low and high-level factors, being higher for full-color stimuli than for S-cone isolating stimuli and higher for objects. Low-amplitude evoked GBA and total GBA were observed in very few conditions, showing that paradigms with isoluminant stimuli may not be ideal for eliciting such responses. We conclude that cortical loops involved in the processing of objects are preferentially excited by stimuli that contain achromatic information. Their activation can lead to relatively early exploratory eye movements even for foveally-presented stimuli. PMID:24391611

  9. Extremely Accessible Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) as the Highly Efficient Electrolyte Additive in Lithium Battery.

    PubMed

    Jia, Weishang; Fan, Cong; Wang, Liping; Wang, Qingji; Zhao, Mingjuan; Zhou, Aijun; Li, Jingze

    2016-06-22

    The systematic investigation of RNO3 salts (R = Li, Na, K, and Cs) as electrolyte additives was carried out for lithium-battery systems. For the first time, the abundant and extremely available KNO3 was proved to be an excellent alternative of LiNO3 for suppression of the lithium dendrites. The reason was ascribed to the possible synergetic effect of K(+) and NO3(-) ions: The positively charged K(+) ion could surround the lithium dendrites by electrostatic attraction and then delay their further growth, while simultaneously the oxidative NO3(-) ion could be reduced and subsequently profitable to the reinforcement of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). By adding KNO3 into the practical Li-S battery, the discharging capacity was enhanced to average 687 mAh g(-1) from the case without KNO3 (528 mAh g(-1)) during 100 cycles, which was comparable to the one with the well-known LiNO3 additive (637 mAh g(-1)) under the same conditions. PMID:27237827

  10. High temperature properties of equiatomic FeAl with ternary additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, R. H.; Vedula, K. M.; Anderson, G. G.

    1984-01-01

    The aluminide intermetallic compounds are considered potential structural materials for aerospace applications. The B2 binary aluminide FeAl has a melting point in excess of 1500 K, is of simple cubic structure, exits over a wide range of composition with solubility for third elements and is potentially self-protecting in extreme environments. The B2 FeAl compound has been alloyed with 1 to 5 at % ternary additions of Si, Ti, Zr, Hf, Cr, Ni, Co, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, and Re. The alloys were prepared by blending a third elemental powder with prealloyed binary FeAl powder. Consolidation was by hot extrusion at 1250 K. Annealing studies on the extruded rods showed that the third element addition can be classified into three categories based upon the amount of homogenization and the extent of solid solutioning. Constant strain rate compression tests were performed to determine the flow stress as a function of temperature and composition. The mechanical strength behavior was dependent upon the third element homogenization classification.

  11. Viscoelastic properties of addition-cured polyimides used in high temperature polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D; Malarik, Diane C.; Robaidek, Jerrold O.

    1991-01-01

    Viscoelastic properties of the addition cured polyimide, PMR-15, were studied using dynamic mechanical and stress relaxation tests. For temperatures below the glass transition temperature, T sub g, the dynamic mechanical properties measured using a temperature scan rate of 10 C/min were strongly affected by the presence of absorbed moisture in the resin. Dynamic mechanical properties measured as a function of time during an isothermal hold provided an indication of chemical changes occurring in the resin. For temperatures above (T sub g + 20 C), the storage modulus increased continuously as a function of time indicating that additional crosslinking is occurring in the resin. Because of these changes in chemical structures, the stress relaxation modulus could not be measured over any useful time interval for temperatures above T sub g. For temperatures below T sub g, dynamic mechanical properties appeared to be unaffected by chemical changes for times exceeding 1 hr. Since the duration of the stress relaxation tests was less than 1 hr, the stress relaxation modulus could be measured. As long as the moisture content of the resin was less than 2 pct, stress relaxation curves measured at different temperatures could be superimposed using horizontal shifts along the log(time) axis with only small shifts along the vertical axis.

  12. High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated carbon - I. Effects of gas composition and metal addition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cal, M.P.; Strickler, B.W.; Lizzio, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Various types of activated carbon sorbents were evaluated for their ability to remove H2S from a simulated coal gas stream at a temperature of 550 ??C. The ability of activated carbon to remove H2S at elevated temperature was examined as a function of carbon surface chemistry (oxidation, thermal desorption, and metal addition), and gas composition. A sorbent prepared by steam activation, HNO3 oxidation and impregnated with Zn, and tested in a gas stream containing 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5% N2, had the greatest H2S adsorption capacity. Addition of H2, CO, and H2O to the inlet gas stream reduced H2S breakthrough time and H2S adsorption capacity. A Zn impregnated activated carbon, when tested using a simulated coal gas containing 0.5% H2S, 49.5% N2, 13% H2, 8.5% H2O, 21% CO, and 7.5% CO2, had a breakthrough time of 75 min, which was less than 25 percent of the length of breakthrough for screening experiments performed with a simplified gas mixture of 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2, and 49.5% N2.

  13. High temperature properties of equiatomic FeAl with ternary additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, R. H.; Vedula, K. M.; Anderson, G. G.

    1985-01-01

    The aluminide intermetallic compounds are considered potential structural materials for aerospace applications. The B2 binary aluminide FeAl has a melting point in excess of 1500 K, is of simple cubic structure, exists over a wide range of composition with solubility for third elements and is potentially self-protecting in extreme environments. The B2 FeAl compound has been alloyed with 1 to 5 at. pct ternary additions of Si, Ti, Zr, Hf, Cr, Ni, Co, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, and Re. The alloys were prepared by blending a third elemental powder with pre-alloyed binary FeAl powder. Consolidation was by hot extrusion at 1250 K. Annealing studies on the extruded rods showed that the third element addition can be classified into three categories based upon the amount of homogenization and the extent of solid solutioning. Constant strain rate compression tests were performed to determine the flow stress as a function of temperature and composition. The mechanical strength behavior was dependent upon the third element homogenization classification.

  14. Interleukin-10 neutralizing antibody for detection of intestinal luminal levels and as a dietary additive in Eimeria challenged broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Maria K; Sand, Jordan M; Marcone, Taylor M; Cook, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA levels are increased within intestinal mucosa after Eimeria infection. IL-10 apical receptor presence on enterocytes suggests IL-10 is secreted into the intestinal lumen. Increased IL-10 has been shown to be central to the pathogenesis of numerous intracellular pathogens; we hypothesize luminal secretion of IL-10 enables Eimeria spp. infection in chickens. This study examines intestine luminal IL-10 levels and performance in broilers challenged with Eimeria when fed an anti-IL-10 antibody. Chicks were fed a diet (1 to 21 d) with control or anti-IL-10 antibody (0.34 g egg yolk antibody powder/Kg diet) with a saline or 10× dose of Advent coccidiosis vaccine on d 3. One chick per pen was euthanized on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19 post-challenge, bled, and intestines were collected for luminal fluid IL-10 concentrations. Body weight and feed intake were measured on d 21, and oocyst shedding was assessed on d 7 post-challenge. A significant Eimeria × antibody interaction on d 21 body weight (P < 0.05) showed chicks fed control antibody, but not anti-IL-10, had significant reductions in body weight when challenged with Eimeria spp. Oocyst shedding was increased with Eimeria challenge, but dietary antibody had no effect. Plasma carotenoid levels were reduced in Eimeria challenged chicks 4, 7, 10, and 16 days post-challenge compared to unchallenged chicks. Lack of an Eimeria × antibody interaction showed anti-IL-10 was not protective against Eimeria-induced decreases in plasma carotenoids. Eimeria challenge increased intestine luminal IL-10 on days 4 and 7 post-challenge in the cecum and jejunum, respectively, compared to unchallenged. Dietary anti-IL-10 decreased luminal IL-10 in the ileum on day 2 post-challenge when compared to control antibody fed chicks. No interaction between Eimeria challenge and antibody was observed on intestine luminal contents of IL-10, suggesting anti-IL-10 was ineffective at preventing increased Eimeria

  15. Volume stabilization of high MgO cement: Effect of curing conditions and fly ash addition

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, M.M.; Mullick, A.K.

    1998-11-01

    Hydration of high MgO cement paste under autoclave condition causes the rapid formation and crystallization of magnesium hydroxide and leads to the creation of larger pore sizes. This results in the loss of mechanical strength and higher expansion values. Under ambient water curing, precipitation and distribution of gelatinous calcium silicate hydrates into the finer network causes a homogeneous morphology and the development of smaller pores. The resultant higher mechanical strength associated with partial hydration of MgO yields reduced expansion. High MgO cement paste containing fly ash also showed considerable pore refinement and improved hydrate morphology favoring volume stability under both autoclave and ambient water curing.

  16. High-Voltage-Input Level Translator Using Standard CMOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Jeremy A.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Vo, Tuan A.; Blalock, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    proposed integrated circuit would translate (1) a pair of input signals having a low differential potential and a possibly high common-mode potential into (2) a pair of output signals having the same low differential potential and a low common-mode potential. As used here, "low" and "high" refer to potentials that are, respectively, below or above the nominal supply potential (3.3 V) at which standard complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits are designed to operate. The input common-mode potential could lie between 0 and 10 V; the output common-mode potential would be 2 V. This translation would make it possible to process the pair of signals by use of standard 3.3-V CMOS analog and/or mixed-signal (analog and digital) circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. A schematic of the circuit is shown in the figure. Standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry cannot withstand input potentials greater than about 4 V. However, there are many applications that involve low-differential-potential, high-common-mode-potential input signal pairs and in which standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry, which is relatively inexpensive, would be the most appropriate circuitry for performing other functions on the integrated-circuit chip that handles the high-potential input signals. Thus, there is a need to combine high-voltage input circuitry with standard low-voltage CMOS circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. The proposed circuit would satisfy this need. In the proposed circuit, the input signals would be coupled into both a level-shifting pair and a common-mode-sensing pair of CMOS transistors. The output of the level-shifting pair would be fed as input to a differential pair of transistors. The resulting differential current output would pass through six standoff transistors to be mirrored into an output branch by four heterojunction bipolar transistors. The mirrored differential current would be converted back to potential by a pair of diode-connected transistors

  17. LIQUIDUS TEMPERATURE AND PRIMARY CRYSTALLIZATION PHASES IN HIGH-ZIRCONIA HIGH-LEVEL WASTE BOROSILICATE GLASSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Liquidus temperature (TL) studies of high-Zr high-level waste (HLW) borosilicate glasseshave identified three primary phases: baddelyite (ZrO2), zircon (ZrSiO4), and alkali-zirconiumsilicates, such as parakeldyshite (Na2ZrSi2O7). Using published TL data for HLW glasses withthe...

  18. Do Highly Effective Principals Also Have High Levels of Cultural Intelligence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naughton, Whitney Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if elementary school principals who exhibit characteristics of highly effective principals also possess high levels of cultural intelligence. Methodology: Three instruments were used in this study, combining both qualitative and quantitative approaches to the collection of data. The first…

  19. High-fidelity interface tracking in compressible flows: Unlimited anchored adaptive level set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourgaliev, R. R.; Theofanous, T. G.

    2007-06-01

    The interface-capturing-fidelity issue of the level set method is addressed wholly within the Eulerian framework. Our aim is for a practical and efficient way to realize the expected benefits of grid resolution and high order schemes. Based on a combination of structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR), rather than quad/octrees, and on high-order spatial discretization, rather than the use of Lagrangian particles, our method is tailored to compressible flows, while it provides a potentially useful alternative to the particle level set (PLS) for incompressible flows. Interesting salient features of our method include (a) avoidance of limiting (in treating the Hamiltonian of the level set equation), (b) anchoring the level set in a manner that ensures no drift and no spurious oscillations of the zero level during PDE-reinitialization, and (c) a non-linear tagging procedure for defining the neighborhood of the interface subject to mesh refinement. Numerous computational results on a set of benchmark problems (strongly deforming, stretching and tearing interfaces) demonstrate that with this approach, implemented up to 11th order accuracy, the level set method becomes essentially free of mass conservation errors and also free of parasitic interfacial oscillations, while it is still highly efficient, and convenient for 3D parallel implementation. In addition, demonstration of performance in fully-coupled simulations is presented for multimode Rayleigh-Taylor instability (low-Mach number regime) and shock-induced, bubble-collapse (highly compressible regime).

  20. High-Level Fluorescence Labeling of Gram-Positive Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Aymanns, Simone; Mauerer, Stefanie; van Zandbergen, Ger; Wolz, Christiane; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb) promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10–50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration. PMID:21731607

  1. Thermal analysis of Yucca Mountain commercial high-level waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Altenhofen, M.K.; Eslinger, P.W.

    1992-10-01

    The thermal performance of commercial high-level waste packages was evaluated on a preliminary basis for the candidate Yucca Mountain repository site. The purpose of this study is to provide an estimate for waste package component temperatures as a function of isolation time in tuff. Several recommendations are made concerning the additional information and modeling needed to evaluate the thermal performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system.

  2. EVALUATION OF FGD DRY INJECTION SORBENTS AND ADDITIVES - VOLUME 1 - DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH REACTIVITY SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses recent work addressing lime enhancement by slurrying with siliceous materials and testing in a laboratory packed-bed reactor, as part of EPA's efforts to develop low cost, retrofit flue gas cleaning technology, including the development of highly reactive sor...

  3. EVALUATION OF FGD DRY INJECTION SORBENTS AND ADDITIVES: VOLUME 1. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH REACTIVITY SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses recent work addressing lime enhancement by slurrying with siliceous materials and testing in a laboratory packed-bed reactor, as part of EPA's efforts to develop low cost, retrofit flue gas cleaning technology, including the development of highly reactive sor...

  4. Additional Development and Systems Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.; Willie, F. Scott; Lee, Warren J.

    1999-01-01

    In the Task I portion of this NASA research grant, configuration development and experimental investigations have been conducted on a series of pneumatic high-lift and control surface devices applied to a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) model configuration to determine their potential for improved aerodynamic performance, plus stability and control of higher performance aircraft. These investigations were intended to optimize pneumatic lift and drag performance; provide adequate control and longitudinal stability; reduce separation flowfields at high angle of attack; increase takeoff/climbout lift-to-drag ratios; and reduce system complexity and weight. Experimental aerodynamic evaluations were performed on a semi-span HSCT generic model with improved fuselage fineness ratio and with interchangeable plain flaps, blown flaps, pneumatic Circulation Control Wing (CCW) high-lift configurations, plain and blown canards, a novel Circulation Control (CC) cylinder blown canard, and a clean cruise wing for reference. Conventional tail power was also investigated for longitudinal trim capability. Also evaluated was unsteady pulsed blowing of the wing high-lift system to determine if reduced pulsed mass flow rates and blowing requirements could be made to yield the same lift as that resulting from steady-state blowing. Depending on the pulsing frequency applied, reduced mass flow rates were indeed found able to provide lift augmentation at lesser blowing values than for the steady conditions. Significant improvements in the aerodynamic characteristics leading to improved performance and stability/control were identified, and the various components were compared to evaluate the pneumatic potential of each. Aerodynamic results were provided to the Georgia Tech Aerospace System Design Lab. to conduct the companion system analyses and feasibility study (Task 2) of theses concepts applied to an operational advanced HSCT aircraft. Results and conclusions from these

  5. Using the CMS High Level Trigger as a Cloud Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colling, David; Huffman, Adam; McCrae, Alison; Lahiff, Andrew; Grandi, Claudio; Cinquilli, Mattia; Gowdy, Stephen; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Tiradani, Anthony; Ozga, Wojciech; Chaze, Olivier; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Bauer, Daniela

    2014-06-01

    The CMS High Level Trigger is a compute farm of more than 10,000 cores. During data taking this resource is heavily used and is an integral part of the experiment's triggering system. However, outside of data taking periods this resource is largely unused. We describe why CMS wants to use the HLT as a cloud resource (outside of data taking periods) and how this has been achieved. In doing this we have turned a single-use cluster into an agile resource for CMS production computing. While we are able to use the HLT as a production cloud resource, there is still considerable further work that CMS needs to carry out before this resource can be used with the desired agility. This report, therefore, represents a snapshot of this activity at the time of CHEP 2013.

  6. Socioeconomic studies of high-level nuclear waste disposal.

    PubMed

    White, G F; Bronzini, M S; Colglazier, E W; Dohrenwend, B; Erikson, K; Hansen, R; Kneese, A V; Moore, R; Page, E B; Rappaport, R A

    1994-11-01

    The socioeconomic investigations of possible impacts of the proposed repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been unprecedented in several respects. They bear on the public decision that sooner or later will be made as to where and how to dispose permanently of the waste presently at military weapons installations and that continues to accumulate at nuclear power stations. No final decision has yet been made. There is no clear precedent from other countries. The organization of state and federal studies is unique. The state studies involve more disciplines than any previous efforts. They have been carried out in parallel to federal studies and have pioneered in defining some problems and appropriate research methods. A recent annotated bibliography provides interested scientists with a compact guide to the 178 published reports, as well as to relevant journal articles and related documents. PMID:7971963

  7. Socioeconomic studies of high-level nuclear waste disposal.

    PubMed Central

    White, G F; Bronzini, M S; Colglazier, E W; Dohrenwend, B; Erikson, K; Hansen, R; Kneese, A V; Moore, R; Page, E B; Rappaport, R A

    1994-01-01

    The socioeconomic investigations of possible impacts of the proposed repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been unprecedented in several respects. They bear on the public decision that sooner or later will be made as to where and how to dispose permanently of the waste presently at military weapons installations and that continues to accumulate at nuclear power stations. No final decision has yet been made. There is no clear precedent from other countries. The organization of state and federal studies is unique. The state studies involve more disciplines than any previous efforts. They have been carried out in parallel to federal studies and have pioneered in defining some problems and appropriate research methods. A recent annotated bibliography provides interested scientists with a compact guide to the 178 published reports, as well as to relevant journal articles and related documents. PMID:7971963

  8. A High-Level Language for Rule-Based Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages. PMID:26043208

  9. SIMULANT DEVELOPMENT FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M; Russell Eibling, R; David Koopman, D; Dan Lambert, D; Paul Burket, P

    2007-09-04

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste (HLW) for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, and sulfate). The HLW is processed in large batches through DWPF; DWPF has recently completed processing Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and is currently processing Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The composition of metal species in SB4 is shown in Table 1 as a function of the ratio of a metal to iron. Simulants remove radioactive species and renormalize the remaining species. Supernate composition is shown in Table 2.

  10. High-spin level scheme of {sup 183}Au

    SciTech Connect

    Song, L.T.; Zhou, X.H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Guo, Y. X.; Lei, X.G.; Zheng, Y.; Liu, M.L.; De Angelis, G.; Marginean, N.; Gadea, A.; Napoli, D.R.; Axiotis, M.; Rusu, C.; Martinez, T.

    2005-01-01

    High-spin states in {sup 183}Au have been studied experimentally using the {sup 159}Tb({sup 29}Si,5n){sup 183}Au reaction at a beam energy of 140 MeV. Three- or higherfold {gamma}-ray coincidences have been measured using the detector array of GASP. The level scheme of {sup 183}Au was revised and extended. A rotational band proposed as the unfavored signature branch of the {pi}i{sub 13/2} band has been observed for {sup 183}Au. Interaction properties between the two negative-signature bands of the {pi}h{sub 9/2}-{pi}f{sub 7/2} system have been discussed for the light odd-A Au nuclei.

  11. Blending resources to teach high school level astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudiger, Lance

    This presentation will assist educators in incorporating various resources into a High School Level Astronomy course. I will use information and materials (slides, videos and handouts). I will share information I have gained as a mentor teacher in programs for NASA (JPL Solar System Ambassador), NRAO (National Radio Astronomy Observatory), AAS (American Astronomical Society Teacher Resource Agent and Leader workshop) and NYSUT State Science Comm. I will also present materials and information from workshops I have given at the SUNY@Potsdam Planetarium for educators, community members and students. I will also share a space science summer program I developed for Upward Bound at St. Lawrence University. This was mostly for Native Americans or economically disadvantaged.

  12. High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing

    SciTech Connect

    Siemens, D.H.; Heath, W.O.; Larson, D.E.; Craig, S.N.; Berger, D.N.; Goles, R.W.

    1985-04-01

    Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessed under shielded-cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high-level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conducted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system.

  13. High-Level Language Production in Parkinson's Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Lori J. P.; Troche, Michelle S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses impairments of high-level, complex language production in Parkinson's disease (PD), defined as sentence and discourse production, and situates these impairments within the framework of current psycholinguistic theories of language production. The paper comprises three major sections, an overview of the effects of PD on the brain and cognition, a review of the literature on language production in PD, and a discussion of the stages of the language production process that are impaired in PD. Overall, the literature converges on a few common characteristics of language production in PD: reduced information content, impaired grammaticality, disrupted fluency, and reduced syntactic complexity. Many studies also document the strong impact of differences in cognitive ability on language production. Based on the data, PD affects all stages of language production including conceptualization and functional and positional processing. Furthermore, impairments at all stages appear to be exacerbated by impairments in cognitive abilities. PMID:21860777

  14. 4.5 Meter high level waste canister study

    SciTech Connect

    Calmus, R. B.

    1997-10-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Storage and Disposal Project has established the Immobilized High-Level Waste (IBLW) Storage Sub-Project to provide the capability to store Phase I and II BLW products generated by private vendors. A design/construction project, Project W-464, was established under the Sub-Project to provide the Phase I capability. Project W-464 will retrofit the Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB) to accommodate the Phase I I-ILW products. Project W-464 conceptual design is currently being performed to interim store 3.0 m-long BLW stainless steel canisters with a 0.61 in diameter, DOE is considering using a 4.5 in canister of the same diameter to reduce permanent disposal costs. This study was performed to assess the impact of replacing the 3.0 in canister with the 4.5 in canister. The summary cost and schedule impacts are described.

  15. Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dantoin, T.S.

    1990-12-01

    For more than half a century, the Council of State Governments has served as a common ground for the states of the nation. The Council is a nonprofit, state-supported and -directed service organization that provides research and resources, identifies trends, supplies answers and creates a network for legislative, executive and judicial branch representatives. This List of Available Resources was prepared with the support of the US Department of Energy, Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC02-89CH10402. However, any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of DOE. The purpose of the agreement, and reports issued pursuant to it, is to identify and analyze regional issues pertaining to the transportation of high-level radioactive waste and to inform Midwestern state officials with respect to technical issues and regulatory concerns related to waste transportation.

  16. Calculates Neutron Production in Canisters of High-level Waste

    1993-01-15

    ALPHN calculates the (alpha,n) neutron production rate of a canister of vitrified high-level waste. The user supplies the chemical composition of the glass or glass-ceramic and the curies of the alpha-emitting actinides present. The output of the program gives the (alpha,n) neutron production of each actinide in neutrons per second and the total for the canister. The (alpha,n) neutron production rates are source terms only; that is, they are production rates within the glass andmore » do not take into account the shielding effect of the glass. For a given glass composition, the user can calculate up to eight cases simultaneously; these cases are based on the same glass composition but contain different quantities of actinides per canister.« less

  17. A high-level language for rule-based modelling.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages. PMID:26043208

  18. Snow survey and vegetation growth in high mountains (Swiss Alps) and additional ERTS investigations in Switzerland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefner, H. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two different methods, an analog and a digital one, have been developed for rapid and accurate mapping of the areal extent and changes in snow cover in high mountains. The quick-look method is based on individual visual control of each image using a photo quantizer which provides exact references for density slicing with high resolution lith-film. The digital snow classification system is based on discriminant analysis with the data of the four multispectral bands as variables and contains all preprocessing, feature extraction, and mapping steps for an operational application. Two different sets of sampling groups were established which apply to different conditions of snow cover. The first one serves for the normal situation with a uniform dry and new cover. The second one serves for situations with partly thawing and/or frozen snow.

  19. Clinoenstatite in alpe arami peridotite: additional evidence of very high pressure

    PubMed

    Bozhilov; Green; Dobrzhinetskaya

    1999-04-01

    Observations by transmission electron microscopy show that lamellae of clinoenstatite are present in diopside grains of the Alpe Arami garnet lherzolite of the Swiss Alps. The simplest interpretation of the orientation, crystallography, and microstructures of the lamellae and the phase relationships in this system is that the lamellae originally exsolved as the high-pressure C-centered form of clinoenstatite. These results imply that the rocks were exhumed from a minimum depth of 250 kilometers before or during continental collision. PMID:10102809

  20. Investigation of effect of particle size and rumen fluid addition on specific methane yields of high lignocellulose grass silage.

    PubMed

    Wall, D M; Straccialini, B; Allen, E; Nolan, P; Herrmann, C; O'Kiely, P; Murphy, J D

    2015-09-01

    This work examines the digestion of advanced growth stage grass silage. Two variables were investigated: particle size (greater than 3 cm and less than 1cm) and rumen fluid addition. Batch studies indicated particle size and rumen fluid addition had little effect on specific methane yields (SMYs). In continuous digestion of 3 cm silage the SMY was 342 and 343 L CH4 kg(-1)VS, respectively, with and without rumen fluid addition. However, digester operation was significantly affected through silage floating on the liquor surface and its entanglement in the mixing system. Digestion of 1cm silage with no rumen fluid addition struggled; volatile fatty acid concentrations rose and SMYs dropped. The best case was 1cm silage with rumen fluid addition, offering higher SMYs of 371 L CH4 kg(-1)VS and stable operation throughout. Thus, physical and biological treatments benefited continuous digestion of high fibre grass silage. PMID:26038332

  1. Experimental oscillator strengths of highly excited levels of Mo II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragón, C.; Aguilera, J. A.; Ortiz, M.; Mayo-García, R.

    2016-05-01

    Measurements of 161 oscillator strengths arising from highly excited levels of Mo II are presented, 148 of which are obtained for the first time. These results extend the previous ones already published on lower excited levels of Mo II. A laser-induced plasma generated from a fused glass sample prepared from molybdenum oxide with a Mo atomic concentration of 0.1% was used to obtain the presented radiative parameters via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Measurements were carried out with an electron density of (2.5 ± 0.1) · 1017 cm‑3 and an electron temperature of 14 400 ± 200 K as the plasma evolved in air at atmospheric pressure. As a consequence, an optically thin plasma and a local thermodynamic equilibrium environment were then present in the measurements. In order to put on an absolute scale the relative intensities, both the combination of branching fractions with measured lifetimes and the comparison of well-known lines using the plasma temperature were carried out. Also, the new results are compared with previously theoretical and obtained experimental values wherever possible.

  2. A High School Project Seminar on Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, M.; Bosch, W.

    2012-04-01

    In Bavaria the curriculum of the upper grade of high school includes a so called project seminar, running over one and a half year. The aims of the seminar are to let the pupils learn to work on a specific topic, to organize themselves in a team, to improve their soft skills and become familiar with the working life. The topic of the project seminar, jointly organized by the Bertold-Brecht-Gymnasium in Munich and the Deutsche Geodätische Forschungsinstitut (DGFI) was on the "Global sea level rise". A team of 13 pupils computed the mean sea level rise by using on the one hand altimetry data of TOPEX, Jason-1 and Jason2 and on the other hand data of globally distributed tide gauges, corrected for vertical crustal movements derived from GPS products. The results of the two independent approaches were compared with each other and discussed considering also statements and discussions found in press, TV, and the web. Finally, a presentation was prepared and presented at school.

  3. The LHCb Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger Processing Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Gaspar, C.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.

    2015-12-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN collects collisions of particle bunches at 40 MHz. After a first level of hardware trigger with an output rate of 1 MHz, the physically interesting collisions are selected by running dedicated trigger algorithms in the High Level Trigger (HLT) computing farm. This farm consists of up to roughly 25000 CPU cores in roughly 1750 physical nodes each equipped with up to 4 TB local storage space. This work describes the LHCb online system with an emphasis on the developments implemented during the current long shutdown (LS1). We will elaborate the architecture to treble the available CPU power of the HLT farm and the technicalities to determine and verify precise calibration and alignment constants which are fed to the HLT event selection procedure. We will describe how the constants are fed into a two stage HLT event selection facility using extensively the local disk buffering capabilities on the worker nodes. With the installed disk buffers, the CPU resources can be used during periods of up to ten days without beams. These periods in the past accounted to more than 70% of the total time.

  4. Hemipelvectomy: high-level amputation surgery and prosthetic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Matthew T; Kralovec, Michael E; Andrews, Karen L

    2014-07-01

    The hemipelvectomy, most commonly performed for pelvic tumor resection, is one of the most technically demanding and invasive surgical procedures performed today. Adequate soft tissue coverage and wound complications after hemipelvectomy are important considerations. Rehabilitation after hemipelvectomy is optimally managed by a multidisciplinary integrated team. Understanding the functional outcomes for this population assists the rehabilitation team to counsel patients, plan goals, and determine discharge needs. The most important rehabilitation goal is the optimal restoration of the patient's functional independence. Factors such as age, sex, etiology, level of amputation, and general health play important roles in determining prosthetic use. The three main criteria for successful prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with high-level amputation are comfort, function, and cosmesis. Recent advances in hip and knee joints have contributed to increased function. Prosthetic use after hemipelvectomy improves balance and decreases the need for a gait aid. Using a prosthesis helps maintain muscle strength and tone, cardiovascular health, and functional mobility. With new advances in prosthetic components, patients are choosing to use their prostheses for primary mobility. PMID:24508940

  5. Adaptation, high-level vision, and the phenomenology of perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Michael A.

    2002-06-01

    To what extent do we have shared or unique visual experiences? This paper examines how the answer to this question is constrained by known processes of visual adaptation. Adaptation constantly recalibrates visual sensitivity so that our vision is matched to the stimuli that we are currently exposed to. These processes normalize perception not only to low-level features in the image, but to high-level, biologically relevant properties of the visual world. They can therefore strongly impact many natural perceptual judgments. To the extent that observers are exposed to and thus adapted by a different environment, their vision will be normalized in different ways and their subjective visual experience will differ. These differences are illustrated by considering how adaptation can influence human face perception. To the extent that observers are exposed and adapted to common properties in the environment, their vision will be adjusted toward common states, and in this respect they will have a common visual experience. This is illustrated by reviewing the effects of adaptation on the perception of image blur. In either case, it is the similarities or differences in the stimuli - and not the intrinsic similarities or differences in the observers - which determine the relative states of adaptation. Thus at least some aspects of our private internal experience are controlled by external factors that are accessible to objective measurement.

  6. THE HIGH-ENERGY IMPULSIVE GROUND-LEVEL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    McCracken, K. G.; Moraal, H.; Shea, M. A.

    2012-12-20

    We have studied short-lived (21 minute average duration), highly anisotropic pulses of cosmic rays that constitute the first phase of 10 large ground-level enhancements (GLEs), and which extend to rigidities in the range 5-20 GV. We provide a set of constraints that must be met by any putative acceleration mechanism for this type of solar-energetic-particle (SEP) event. The pulses usually have very short rise-times (three to five minutes) at all rigidities, and exhibit the remarkable feature that the intensity drops precipitously by 50% to 70% from the maximum within another three to five minutes. Both the rising and falling phases exhibit velocity dispersion, which indicates that there are particles with rigidities in the range 1 < P (GV) < 3 in the beam, and the evidence is that there is little scattering en route from the Sun. We name these events the high-energy impulsive ground-level enhancement (HEI GLE). We argue that the time-dependence observed at Earth at {approx}5 GV is a close approximation to that of the SEP pulse injected into the open heliospheric magnetic field in the vicinity of the Sun. We conclude that the temporal characteristics of the HEI GLE impose nine constraints on any putative acceleration process. Two of the HEI GLEs are preceded by short-lived, fast-rising neutron and >90 MeV gamma-ray bursts, indicating that freshly accelerated SEPs had impinged on higher-density matter in the chromosphere prior to the departure of the SEP pulse for Earth. This study was based on an updated archive of the 71 GLEs in the historic record, which is now available for public use.

  7. High level waste characterization in support of low level waste certification. I. HLW supernate radionuclide characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, M.E.; d`Entremont, P.D.; Clemmons, J.S.; Bess, C.E.; Brown, D.F.

    1994-07-08

    High Level Waste Programs has radioactive waste storage, treatment and processing facilities that are located in the F and H Areas at the Savannah River Site. These facilities include the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), F and H Area Tank Farms, Extended Sludge Processing (ESP), and In-Tank Precipitation (ITP). Job wastes are generated from operation, maintenance, and construction activities inside radiological areas. These items may have been contaminated with radioactive supernate, salt, and sludge material. Most of these wastes will be disposed of in the E-area Vaults. Therefore, an isotopic and hazardous characterization must be performed. The characterization of HLW supernate radionuclides is discussed in Chapter I. The characterization for salt and sludge phases, which can also contaminate LLW, will be included in other Chapters.

  8. Catalytic addition methods for the synthesis of functionalized diazoacetoacetates and application to the construction of highly substituted cyclobutanones.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Michael P; Kundu, Kousik; Russell, Albert E

    2005-11-10

    [reaction: see text] Methyl 3-(trialkylsilanyloxy)-2-diazo-3-butenoate undergoes Lewis acid-catalyzed Mukaiyama aldol addition with aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes in the presence of low catalytic amounts of Lewis acids in nearly quantitative yields. Scandium(III) triflate is the preferred catalyst and, notably, addition proceeds without decomposition of the diazo moiety. Diazoacetoacetate products from reactions with aromatic aldehydes undergo rhodium(II)-catalyzed ring closure to cyclobutanones with high diastereocontrol. Examples of complimentary Mannich-type addition reactions with imines are reported. PMID:16268530

  9. Development of a Real-Time, High-Speed Distribution Level Data Acquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, J.; Kroposki, B.

    2012-01-01

    With the development of smart grids and the deployment of their enabling technologies, improved data acquisition will be needed at the distribution level to understand the full impact of these changes. With this in mind, NREL has developed a high-speed measurement and data collection network targeted specifically at the distribution level. This network is based around adaptable, rugged measurement devices designed for deployment at a variety of low and medium voltage locations below the sub-station. Each of these devices is capable of real-time data transmission via an Internet connection. Additionally, several analysis and visualization applications have been developed around the incoming data streams.

  10. High-performance lubricant additives based on modified graphene oxide by ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Liping

    2015-08-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a layered material bearing a variety of oxygen-containing functional groups on its basal planes and edges, which allow it as a substrate to conduct a variety of chemical transformations. Here modified graphene oxide (MGO) was prepared using alkyl imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (LB104), 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate (LP104) and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) amide (LF106)) via epoxide ring-opening reaction, cation-π stacking or van der Waals interactions, with LB104 modified graphene (MG) exfoliated from graphite rod by a moderate electrochemical method as a comparison. The stability and tribological properties of MGO and MG as multialkylated cyclopentanes (MACs) additives were investigated in detail. The results show that GO is converted into graphene through the chemical modification using ILs, and MGO with good dispersion and stability in MACs significantly improves the tribological performance (friction and wear were reduced about 27% and 74% with pure MACs as a comparison, respectively). The excellent tribological properties are attributed to the formation of an ILs-containing graphene-rich tribofilm on the sliding surfaces, which as the third body can prevent the sliding surfaces from straight asperity contact and improve friction reducing and anti-wear behaviors. PMID:25935280

  11. Adaptation of the pore diffusion model to describe multi-addition batch uptake high-throughput screening experiments.

    PubMed

    Traylor, Steven J; Xu, Xuankuo; Li, Yi; Jin, Mi; Li, Zheng Jian

    2014-11-14

    Equilibrium isotherm and kinetic mass transfer measurements are critical to mechanistic modeling of binding and elution behavior within a chromatographic column. However, traditional methods of measuring these parameters are impractically time- and labor-intensive. While advances in high-throughput robotic liquid handling systems have created time and labor-saving methods of performing kinetic and equilibrium measurements of proteins on chromatographic resins in a 96-well plate format, these techniques continue to be limited by physical constraints on protein addition, incubation and separation times; the available concentration of protein stocks and process pools; and practical constraints on resin and fluid volumes in the 96-well format. In this study, a novel technique for measuring protein uptake kinetics (multi-addition batch uptake) has been developed to address some of these limitations during high-throughput batch uptake kinetic measurements. This technique uses sequential additions of protein stock to chromatographic resin in a 96-well plate and the subsequent removal of each addition by centrifugation or vacuum separation. The pore diffusion model was adapted here to model multi-addition batch uptake and was tested and compared with traditional batch uptake measurements of uptake of an Fc-fusion protein on an anion exchange resin. Acceptable agreement between the two techniques is achieved for the two solution conditions investigated here. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of the model to the physical inputs is presented and the advantages and limitations of the multi-addition batch uptake technique are explored. PMID:25311484

  12. B2 structure of high-entropy alloys with addition of Al

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.; Zhao, M.; Li, J. C.; Jiang, Q.

    2008-12-01

    A series of AlCrCoNiFe based alloys with equal percentage of principal components (high-entropy alloys or HE alloys) is fabricated. The related crystalline structures of the alloys are measured and calculated. Results show that the formed bcc phase is a compound based B2 structure where there is partial ionic bonding between Al and other transition metals. Thus, the bcc structure of the alloys should be a B2 instead of an A2 due to the large difference in electronegativities among the components consisting of the HE alloys.

  13. Additional measurements of the high-latitude sunspot rotation rate /Research note/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landman, D. A.; Takushi, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    Sunspot rotation rate measurements at high sunspot latitudes are reported for the period 1966-68, based on ten spots at latitudes greater than about 28 deg from H-alpha patrol records for this period. A sidereal rotation rate of 13.70 + or - 0.07 deg/day was found on the average, at 31.05 + or - 0.01 deg. Taken together, the full set of measurements in this latitude regime yield a rotation rate that is in excellent agreement with the result derived by Newton and Nunn (1951) from recurrent spots at lower latitudes throughout the six cycles from 1878 to 1944.

  14. Additional measurements of the high-latitude sunspot rotation rate /Research note/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landman, D. A.; Takushi, J. T.

    1981-10-01

    Sunspot rotation rate measurements at high sunspot latitudes are reported for the period 1966-68, based on ten spots at latitudes greater than about 28 deg from H-alpha patrol records for this period. A sidereal rotation rate of 13.70 + or - 0.07 deg/day was found on the average, at 31.05 + or - 0.01 deg. Taken together, the full set of measurements in this latitude regime yield a rotation rate that is in excellent agreement with the result derived by Newton and Nunn (1951) from recurrent spots at lower latitudes throughout the six cycles from 1878 to 1944.

  15. Effect of Ti Addition on Carbide Modification and the Microscopic Simulation of Impact Toughness in High-Carbon Cr-V Tool Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Ki Sub; Kim, Sang Il; Park, Sung Soo; Choi, Won Suk; Moon, Hee Kwon; Kwon, Hoon

    2016-01-01

    In D7 tool steel, which contains high levels of primary carbides, the influence of carbide modification by Ti addition was quantitatively analyzed. Considering the Griffith-Irwin energy criterion for crack growth, the impact energy was evaluated by substituting a microscopic factor of the normalized number density of carbides cracked during hardness indentation tests for the crack length. The impact energy was enhanced with Ti addition because Ti reduced and refined the primary M7C3 carbide phase of elongated morphology, reducing the probability of crack generation.

  16. Influence of type and level of water-soluble additives on drug release and surface and mechanical properties of Surelease films.

    PubMed

    Rohera, Bhagwan D; Parikh, Nilesh H

    2002-11-01

    Ethylcellulose in combination with water-soluble additives has been used in the development of microporous membrane-coated dosage forms. In the present study, application of three types of water-soluble additives, namely polyethylene glycols (PEG 400, 3350, and 8000), maltodextrins (Maltrin M150, M100, and M040 in the order of lower to higher average polymer size and molecular weight; dextrose equivalence 16.9, 11.1, and 4.8, respectively), and xylitol, as porosity modifiers in the films of a commercially available aqueous ethylcellulose dispersion (Surelease/E-7-7060 plasticized with glyceryl tricaprylate/caprate) was investigated. The effect of type and level of these additives on drug release characteristics and surface and mechanical properties of the polymeric films was studied. Each additive was incorporated at 20 and 30% levels in the polymeric dispersion based on its solids content. Ibuprofen tablets were coated using the polymeric dispersion with and without additive at 3% w/w coat level in a fluid-bed equipment. The coated tablets were evaluated for their drug release rate, coat reflectivity (gloss), Brinell hardness, and elastic modulus. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis of the films was performed to determine the physico-chemical changes in the applied film-coats. The rate of drug release, hence film porosity, was observed to be dependent on the type and level of the additive added. The molecular weight of the additive and its concentration in the polymeric dispersion had significant influence on the rate of drug release, hardness, and elasticity of the film-coats. PMID:12503524

  17. Influence of cerium additions on high-temperature-impact ductility and fracture behavior of iridium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbi, A.N.; Zee, R.H.; George, E.P.; Ohriner, E.K.

    1997-10-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), used for supplying electric power to interplanetary space missions, utilize the energy liberated due to decay of the radioisotope fuel. The material used for cladding the fuel pellets is an iridium-based alloy developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which contains nominally 0.3 wt pct W, 60 wppm Th, and 50 wppm Al, generally known as DOP-26. High-temperature tensile impact testing was carried out on Ir + 0.3 wt pct W alloys doped with cerium and thorium individually, and with cerium and thorium together. Impact ductility was evaluated as a function of grain size and test temperature. Cerium by itself was not as effective as thorium in improving the grain boundary cohesion, even though it segregated more strongly than thorium to the grain boundaries. This lower grain boundary cohesion was responsible for lower impact ductility and higher brittle-to-ductile transition temperature of cerium-doped alloys compared to those of the thorium- or thorium plus cerium-doped alloys. Reduction in thorium content by a factor of 5 (from 50 to 10 appm) in the bulk did not result in any significant reduction in high-temperature impact ductility or an increase in the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature as long as sufficient cerium was added to provide grain refinement. Grain boundary strengths of thorium- and thorium plus cerium-doped alloys were almost identical.

  18. Mobile hard substrata - An additional biodiversity source in a high latitude shallow subtidal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balazy, Piotr; Kuklinski, Piotr

    2013-03-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of a hard mobile substratum (hermit crab shells) for Arctic biodiversity. Based on previous observations from other geographic regions we hypothesized that this niche at high latitudes would support a higher biodiversity of epifauna than might be predicted from similar substrata. We test whether the hermit crab epifauna is specific to that substratum providing unique biodiversity components to the local community. From four study sites in Isfjorden (78°N), West Spitsbergen and two study sites in Northern Norway (69°N) we collected approximately 50 each of hermit crabs, gastropods and pebbles, of visually similar surface area using SCUBA diving. Hermit crab shells were colonized by a larger number of epifaunal species than either gastropods or pebbles, even when they were of a larger size. Among 87 taxa found on all the three substrata, 22 occurred only on hermit crab shells. Except for two study sites hermit crab shells also supported more individuals. This study shows that the contribution of shells carried by hermit crabs to high-latitude, shallow-subtidal diversity is higher than might be predicted by their surface area alone and that hermit crabs modify, maintain and create a unique habitat. This is the result of a number of factors interacting positively on the presence of epifauna including shell surface heterogeneity and the complex influence of the crab host.

  19. Ultrafilter Conditions for High Level Waste Sludge Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2006-08-28

    An evaluation of the optimal filtration conditions was performed based on test data obtained from filtration of a High Level Waste Sludge sample from the Hanford tank farms. This evaluation was performed using the anticipated configuration for the Waste Treatment Plant at the Hanford site. Testing was performed to identify the optimal pressure drop and cross flow velocity for filtration at both high and low solids loading. However, this analysis indicates that the actual filtration rate achieved is relatively insensitive to these conditions under anticipated operating conditions. The maximum filter flux was obtained by adjusting the system control valve pressure from 400 to 650 kPa while the filter feed concentration increased from 5 to 20 wt%. However, operating the system with a constant control valve pressure drop of 500 kPa resulted in a less than 1% reduction in the average filter flux. Also note that allowing the control valve pressure to swing as much as +/- 20% resulted in less than a 5% decrease in filter flux.

  20. Bubble growth by rectified diffusion at high gas supersaturation levels.

    PubMed

    Ilinskii, Yurii A; Wilson, Preston S; Hamilton, Mark F

    2008-10-01

    For high gas supersaturation levels in liquids, on the order of 300% as predicted in capillaries of marine mammals following a series of dives [D. S. Houser, R. Howard, and S. Ridgway, J. Theor. Biol. 213, 183-195 (2001)], standard mathematical models of both static and rectified diffusion are found to underestimate the rate of bubble growth by 10%-20%. The discrepancy is demonstrated by comparing predictions based on existing mathematical models with direct numerical solutions of the differential equations for gas diffusion in the liquid and thermal conditions in the bubble. Underestimation of bubble growth by existing mathematical models is due to the underlying assumption that the gas concentration in the liquid is given by its value for a bubble of constant equilibrium radius. This assumption is violated when high supersaturation causes the bubble to grow too fast in relation to the time scale associated with diffusion. Rapid bubble growth results in an increased gas concentration gradient at the bubble wall and therefore a growth rate in excess of predictions based on constant equilibrium bubble radius. PMID:19062834

  1. High estradiol levels improve false memory rates and meta-memory in highly schizotypal women.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Hausmann, Markus; Weis, Susanne

    2015-10-30

    Overconfidence in false memories is often found in patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants with high levels of schizotypy, indicating an impairment of meta-cognition within the memory domain. In general, cognitive control is suggested to be modulated by natural fluctuations in oestrogen. However, whether oestrogen exerts beneficial effects on meta-memory has not yet been investigated. The present study sought to provide evidence that high levels of schizotypy are associated with increased false memory rates and overconfidence in false memories, and that these processes may be modulated by natural differences in estradiol levels. Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, it was found that highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol produced significantly fewer false memories than those with low estradiol. No such difference was found within the low schizotypy participants. Highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol were also less confident in their false memories than those with low estradiol; low schizotypy participants with high estradiol were more confident. However, these differences only approached significance. These findings suggest that the beneficial effect of estradiol on memory and meta-memory observed in healthy participants is specific to highly schizotypal individuals and might be related to individual differences in baseline dopaminergic activity. PMID:26292620

  2. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-12

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different materials

  3. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition. PMID:25264672

  4. Undergraduate Student Attitudes and Perceptions toward Low- and High-Level Inquiry Exercise Physiology Teaching Laboratory Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henige, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare student attitudes toward two different science laboratory learning experiences, specifically, traditional, cookbook-style, low-inquiry level (LL) activities and a high-inquiry level (HL) investigative project. In addition, we sought to measure and compare students' science-related attitudes and…

  5. [Identification of high-lying odd energy levels of uranium by resonant ionization mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Du, H; Shi, G; Huang, M; Jin, C

    2000-06-01

    Single-colour and two-colour multiphoton resonant ionization spectra of uranium atom were studied extensively with a Nd:YAG laser-pumped dye laser atomic beam apparatus time-of-flight mass spectrometer in our laboratory. The energy locations of high-lying odd-parity levels in the region 33,003-34,264 cm-1, measured by a two-colour three-step ionization technique, were reported here. The angular momentum quantum number J was uniquely assigned for these levels by using angular momentum selection rules. PMID:12958925

  6. Development of High Strength Fly Ash Glass-ceramics by Concrete Sludge Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Kiyohiko; Yoshikawa, Akira; Hiratsuka, Akira; Tsujino, Ryoji; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Ryusuke; Nakayama, Yoshihisa; Iguchi, Manabu

    A large amount of fly ash is exhausted from the thermal powder plant and it is a poisonous substance including the heavy metals and dioxin. The glass solidification is an effective method as one of the waste solidification technologies. Further, producing new materials by mixing together more than two kinds of raw materials is a more useful method. However, a number of trials are required in this method. We selected glass-ceramics with the crystal structure of an Anorthite (CaO·Al2O3·2SiO2), fly ash as inorganic wastes and concrete sludge for construction materials. It is necessary to clarify the optimum production method. Batches were prepared by mixing these raw materials with various weight ratios. Glass samples were produced by melting the batches at 1450°C and quenching. They were reheated in the region of 950-1100°C to make into glass-ceramic. The properties of obtained glass-ceramics were examined by XRD analysis, SEM observation, and some material tests for the strength, hardness, toughness, and so on. The XRD analysis and SEM observation showed that the crystallized phase of the produced glass-ceramics were identified as an Anorthite. The material tests showed that the Vickers hardness was very high, while the chemical resistance was relatively low.

  7. High levels of untreated distress and fatigue in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Carlson, L E; Angen, M; Cullum, J; Goodey, E; Koopmans, J; Lamont, L; MacRae, J H; Martin, M; Pelletier, G; Robinson, J; Simpson, J S A; Speca, M; Tillotson, L; Bultz, B D

    2004-06-14

    The purpose of the study was to assess a large representative sample of cancer patients on distress levels, common psychosocial problems, and awareness and use of psychosocial support services. A total of 3095 patients were assessed over a 4-week period with the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18), a common problems checklist, and on awareness and use of psychosocial resources. Full data was available on 2776 patients. On average, patients were 60 years old, Caucasian (78.3%), and middle class. Approximately, half were attending for follow-up care. Types of cancer varied, with the largest groups being breast (23.5%), prostate (16.9%), colorectal (7.5%), and lung (5.8%) cancer patients. Overall, 37.8% of all patients met criteria for general distress in the clinical range. A higher proportion of men met case criteria for somatisation, and more women for depression. There were no gender differences in anxiety or overall distress severity. Minority patients were more likely to be distressed, as were those with lower income, cancers other than prostate, and those currently on active treatment. Lung, pancreatic, head and neck, Hodgkin's disease, and brain cancer patients were the most distressed. Almost half of all patients who met distress criteria had not sought professional psychosocial support nor did they intend to in the future. In conclusion, distress is very common in cancer patients across diagnoses and across the disease trajectory. Many patients who report high levels of distress are not taking advantage of available supportive resources. Barriers to such use, and factors predicting distress and use of psychosocial care, require further exploration. PMID:15162149

  8. Spent nuclear fuel project high-level information management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Main, G.C.

    1996-09-13

    This document presents the results of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Information Management Planning Project (IMPP), a short-term project that identified information management (IM) issues and opportunities within the SNFP and outlined a high-level plan to address them. This high-level plan for the SNMFP IM focuses on specific examples from within the SNFP. The plan`s recommendations can be characterized in several ways. Some recommendations address specific challenges that the SNFP faces. Others form the basis for making smooth transitions in several important IM areas. Still others identify areas where further study and planning are indicated. The team`s knowledge of developments in the IM industry and at the Hanford Site were crucial in deciding where to recommend that the SNFP act and where they should wait for Site plans to be made. Because of the fast pace of the SNFP and demands on SNFP staff, input and interaction were primarily between the IMPP team and members of the SNFP Information Management Steering Committee (IMSC). Key input to the IMPP came from a workshop where IMSC members and their delegates developed a set of draft IM principles. These principles, described in Section 2, became the foundation for the recommendations found in the transition plan outlined in Section 5. Availability of SNFP staff was limited, so project documents were used as a basis for much of the work. The team, realizing that the status of the project and the environment are continually changing, tried to keep abreast of major developments since those documents were generated. To the extent possible, the information contained in this document is current as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. Programs and organizations on the Hanford Site as a whole are trying to maximize their return on IM investments. They are coordinating IM activities and trying to leverage existing capabilities. However, the SNFP cannot just rely on Sitewide activities to meet its IM requirements

  9. Interventions for Individuals With High Levels of Needle Fear

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Melanie; Taddio, Anna; Antony, Martin M.; Asmundson, Gordon J.G.; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Chambers, Christine T.; Shah, Vibhuti

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of exposure-based psychological and physical interventions for the management of high levels of needle fear and/or phobia and fainting in children and adults. Design/Methods: A systematic review identified relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of children, adults, or both with high levels of needle fear, including phobia (if not available, then populations with other specific phobias were included). Critically important outcomes were self-reported fear specific to the feared situation and stimulus (psychological interventions) or fainting (applied muscle tension). Data were pooled using standardized mean difference (SMD) or relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. Results: The systematic review included 11 trials. In vivo exposure-based therapy for children 7 years and above showed benefit on specific fear (n=234; SMD: −1.71 [95% CI: −2.72, −0.7]). In vivo exposure-based therapy with adults reduced fear of needles posttreatment (n=20; SMD: −1.09 [−2.04, −0.14]) but not at 1-year follow-up (n=20; SMD: −0.28 [−1.16, 0.6]). Compared with single session, a benefit was observed for multiple sessions of exposure-based therapy posttreatment (n=93; SMD: −0.66 [−1.08, −0.24]) but not after 1 year (n=83; SMD: −0.37 [−0.87, 0.13]). Non in vivo e.g., imaginal exposure-based therapy in children reduced specific fear posttreatment (n=41; SMD: −0.88 [−1.7, −0.05]) and at 3 months (n=24; SMD: −0.89 [−1.73, −0.04]). Non in vivo exposure-based therapy for adults showed benefit on specific fear (n=68; SMD: −0.62 [−1.11, −0.14]) but not procedural fear (n=17; SMD: 0.18 [−0.87, 1.23]). Applied tension showed benefit on fainting posttreatment (n=20; SMD: −1.16 [−2.12, −0.19]) and after 1 year (n=20; SMD: −0.97 [−1.91, −0.03]) compared with exposure alone. Conclusions: Exposure-based psychological interventions and applied muscle tension show

  10. Characterization of Steel-Ta Dissimilar Metal Builds Made Using Very High Power Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (VHP-UAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Niyanth; Norfolk, Mark; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing is a solid-state additive manufacturing technique that utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to bond metal tapes into near net-shaped components. The major advantage of this process is the ability to manufacture layered structures with dissimilar materials without any intermetallic formation. Majority of the published literature had focused only on the bond formation mechanism in Aluminum alloys. The current work pertains to explain the microstructure evolution during dissimilar joining of iron and tantalum using very high power ultrasonic additive manufacturing and characterization of the interfaces using electron back-scattered diffraction and Nano-indentation measurement. The results showed extensive grain refinement at the bonded interfaces of these metals. This phenomenon was attributed to continuous dynamic recrystallization process driven by the high strain rate plastic deformation and associated adiabatic heating that is well below 50 pct of melting point of both iron and Ta.

  11. High resolution geodetic techniques for monitoring fluid levels over time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, Jennifer Thompson

    1998-11-01

    In the first study, a novel surveillance technique is developed in which surface gravity observations are used to monitor the progress of a gas cap waterflood in the 8200 ft (2500 m) deep Prudhoe Bay reservoir, Alaska. This cost-effective method requires that high-precision gravity surveys be repeated every 3 to 5 years. Differences in the gravity field with time reflect changes in the reservoir fluid density distribution. A preliminary field test at Prudhoe Bay indicates survey accuracy of 5 to 10 mu Gal can be achieved for gravity data using a modified Lacoste & Romberg "G" type meter or Scintrex CG-3M combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning. Forward gravity modeling of a suite of reservoir simulations of the proposed waterflood predicts variation in surface measurements of 100 mu Gal after 5 years of injection, and 180 to 250 mu Gal after 15 years. A constrained, least-squares method is used to invert synthetic gravity data for subsurface density distributions. The modeling procedure has been formulated to allow testing of the models for sensitivity to gravity sampling patterns, noise characteristics, and various constraints on model parameters such as density range, total mass, and model moment of inertia. Horizontal feature resolution of the waterflood is about 5000 ft (1520 m) for constrained inverse models from synthetic gravity with 5 mu Gal standard deviation noise. Results of the modeling indicate that inversion of time-lapse gravity data is a viable and promising technique for monitoring reservoir gas cap waterfloods. In the second study, the problem of how to estimate ancient lake levels from the geomorphology of remnant shoreline terraces is investigated. High resolution, GPS controlled, topographic data from around the highstand shoreline of Pleistocene Lake Lahontan in western Nevada provide the means for isolating coherent terrace features which are related to the paleoshoreline level. Determination of an unambiguous point or

  12. Additional Reserve Recovery Using New Polymer Treatment on High Water Oil Ratio Wells in Alameda Field, Kingman County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    James Spillane

    2005-10-01

    The Chemical Flooding process, like a polymer treatment, as a tertiary (enhanced) oil recovery process can be a very good solution based on the condition of this field and its low cost compared to the drilling of new wells. It is an improved water flooding method in which high molecular-weight (macro-size molecules) and water-soluble polymers are added to the injection water to improve the mobility ratio by enhancing the viscosity of the water and by reducing permeability in invaded zones during the process. In other words, it can improve the sweep efficiency by reducing the water mobility. This polymer treatment can be performed on the same active oil producer well rather than on an injector well in the existence of strong water drive in the formation. Some parameters must be considered before any polymer job is performed such as: formation temperature, permeability, oil gravity and viscosity, location and formation thickness of the well, amount of remaining recoverable oil, fluid levels, well productivity, water oil ratio (WOR) and existence of water drive. This improved oil recovery technique has been used widely and has significant potential to extend reservoir life by increasing the oil production and decreasing the water cut. This new technology has the greatest potential in reservoirs that are moderately heterogeneous, contain moderately viscous oils, and have adverse water-oil mobility ratios. For example, many wells in Kansas's Arbuckle formation had similar treatments and we have seen very effective results. In addition, there were previous polymer treatments conducted by Texaco in Alameda Field on a number of wells throughout the Viola-Simpson formation in the early 70's. Most of the treatments proved to be very successful.

  13. High-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chiou, Shue-Shian

    2015-01-01

    High level disinfection (HLD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscope is not simply a slogan, but rather is a form of experimental monitoring-based medicine. By definition, GI endoscopy is a semicritical medical device. Hence, such medical devices require major quality assurance for disinfection. And because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods, such as liquid chemical germicide, must be used rather than steam sterilization. In summarizing guidelines for infection prevention and control for GI endoscopy, there are three important steps that must be highlighted: manual washing, HLD with automated endoscope reprocessor, and drying. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because compared to any other medical device, the GI endoscope is associated with more outbreaks linked to inadequate cleaning or disinfecting during HLD. Both experimental evaluation on the surveillance bacterial cultures and in-use clinical results have shown that, the monitoring of the stringent processes to prevent and control infection is an essential component of the broader strategy to ensure the delivery of safe endoscopy services, because endoscope reprocessing is a multistep procedure involving numerous factors that can interfere with its efficacy. Based on our years of experience in the surveillance of culture monitoring of endoscopic reprocessing, we aim in this study to carefully describe what details require attention in the GI endoscopy disinfection and to share our experience so that patients can be provided with high quality and safe medical practices. Quality management encompasses all aspects of pre- and post-procedural care including the efficiency of the endoscopy unit and reprocessing area, as well as the endoscopic procedure itself. PMID:25699232

  14. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  15. High-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing.

    PubMed

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chiou, Shue-Shian

    2015-02-20

    High level disinfection (HLD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscope is not simply a slogan, but rather is a form of experimental monitoring-based medicine. By definition, GI endoscopy is a semicritical medical device. Hence, such medical devices require major quality assurance for disinfection. And because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods, such as liquid chemical germicide, must be used rather than steam sterilization. In summarizing guidelines for infection prevention and control for GI endoscopy, there are three important steps that must be highlighted: manual washing, HLD with automated endoscope reprocessor, and drying. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because compared to any other medical device, the GI endoscope is associated with more outbreaks linked to inadequate cleaning or disinfecting during HLD. Both experimental evaluation on the surveillance bacterial cultures and in-use clinical results have shown that, the monitoring of the stringent processes to prevent and control infection is an essential component of the broader strategy to ensure the delivery of safe endoscopy services, because endoscope reprocessing is a multistep procedure involving numerous factors that can interfere with its efficacy. Based on our years of experience in the surveillance of culture monitoring of endoscopic reprocessing, we aim in this study to carefully describe what details require attention in the GI endoscopy disinfection and to share our experience so that patients can be provided with high quality and safe medical practices. Quality management encompasses all aspects of pre- and post-procedural care including the efficiency of the endoscopy unit and reprocessing area, as well as the endoscopic procedure itself. PMID:25699232

  16. Using cuttlefish ink as an additive to produce -non-iridescent structural colors of high color visibility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yafeng; Dong, Biqin; Chen, Ang; Liu, Xiaohan; Shi, Lei; Zi, Jian

    2015-08-26

    Non-iridescent structural colors of high color visibility are produced by amorphous photonic structures, in which -natural cuttlefish ink is used as an additive to break down the long-range order of the structures. The color hue and its spectral purity can be tuned by adjusting the diameter of the polystyrene (PS) spheres and the proportion of ink particles. PMID:26175211

  17. Nonlinear responses to nitrogen and strong interactions with nitrogen and phosphorus additions drastically alter the structure and function of a high arctic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arens, Seth J. T.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

    2008-09-01

    Significant changes in ecosystem CO2 exchange and vegetation characteristics were observed following multiple additions of nitrogen (N) and factorial additions of N and phosphorus (P) to prostrate dwarf-shrub, herb tundra in Northwest Greenland. Ecosystem CO2 exchange and vegetation cover and composition were very sensitive to low rates of N inputs (0.5 g m-2 y-1), indicating that even low rates of atmospheric N deposition may alter high arctic ecosystem structure and function. Increasing N addition from 1 to 5 g N m-2 y-1 did not alter CO2 exchange or vegetation characteristics, suggesting the ecosystem had become N saturated. Factorial additions of both N and P released the ecosystem from N saturation and dramatically increased gross ecosystem photosynthesis (+500%) and ecosystem respiration (+250%), such that the ecosystem switched from a small source of CO2 to a small sink for CO2 at midday during the 2005 growing season. Changes in the component fluxes of CO2 exchange were largely explained by a doubling of the normalized difference vegetation index, a 100% increase in vascular plant cover and dramatic increases in the abundance of several previously rare grass species. Our results clearly demonstrate that high arctic prostrate dwarf-shrub, herb tundra is highly sensitive to low levels of N addition and that future increases in N deposition or N mineralization will likely lead to change in carbon cycling and vegetation characteristics, but the magnitude of the response will be constrained by P availability.

  18. High-Level Performance Modeling of SAR Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Curtis

    2006-01-01

    SAUSAGE (Still Another Utility for SAR Analysis that s General and Extensible) is a computer program for modeling (see figure) the performance of synthetic- aperture radar (SAR) or interferometric synthetic-aperture radar (InSAR or IFSAR) systems. The user is assumed to be familiar with the basic principles of SAR imaging and interferometry. Given design parameters (e.g., altitude, power, and bandwidth) that characterize a radar system, the software predicts various performance metrics (e.g., signal-to-noise ratio and resolution). SAUSAGE is intended to be a general software tool for quick, high-level evaluation of radar designs; it is not meant to capture all the subtleties, nuances, and particulars of specific systems. SAUSAGE was written to facilitate the exploration of engineering tradeoffs within the multidimensional space of design parameters. Typically, this space is examined through an iterative process of adjusting the values of the design parameters and examining the effects of the adjustments on the overall performance of the system at each iteration. The software is designed to be modular and extensible to enable consideration of a variety of operating modes and antenna beam patterns, including, for example, strip-map and spotlight SAR acquisitions, polarimetry, burst modes, and squinted geometries.

  19. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF GEOLOGIC HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel, S.; Lee, S.

    2010-04-20

    The engineering design of disposal of the high level waste (HLW) packages in a geologic repository requires a thermal analysis to provide the temperature history of the packages. Calculated temperatures are used to demonstrate compliance with criteria for waste acceptance into the geologic disposal gallery system and as input to assess the transient thermal characteristics of the vitrified HLW Package. The objective of the work was to evaluate the thermal performance of the supercontainer containing the vitrified HLW in a non-backfilled and unventilated underground disposal gallery. In order to achieve the objective, transient computational models for a geologic vitrified HLW package were developed by using a computational fluid dynamics method, and calculations for the HLW disposal gallery of the current Belgian geological repository reference design were performed. An initial two-dimensional model was used to conduct some parametric sensitivity studies to better understand the geologic system's thermal response. The effect of heat decay, number of co-disposed supercontainers, domain size, humidity, thermal conductivity and thermal emissivity were studied. Later, a more accurate three-dimensional model was developed by considering the conduction-convection cooling mechanism coupled with radiation, and the effect of the number of supercontainers (3, 4 and 8) was studied in more detail, as well as a bounding case with zero heat flux at both ends. The modeling methodology and results of the sensitivity studies will be presented.

  20. High Level Rule Modeling Language for Airline Crew Pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu, Erdal; Birbil, Ş. Ilker; Bülbül, Kerem; Yenigün, Hüsnü

    2011-09-01

    The crew pairing problem is an airline optimization problem where a set of least costly pairings (consecutive flights to be flown by a single crew) that covers every flight in a given flight network is sought. A pairing is defined by using a very complex set of feasibility rules imposed by international and national regulatory agencies, and also by the airline itself. The cost of a pairing is also defined by using complicated rules. When an optimization engine generates a sequence of flights from a given flight network, it has to check all these feasibility rules to ensure whether the sequence forms a valid pairing. Likewise, the engine needs to calculate the cost of the pairing by using certain rules. However, the rules used for checking the feasibility and calculating the costs are usually not static. Furthermore, the airline companies carry out what-if-type analyses through testing several alternate scenarios in each planning period. Therefore, embedding the implementation of feasibility checking and cost calculation rules into the source code of the optimization engine is not a practical approach. In this work, a high level language called ARUS is introduced for describing the feasibility and cost calculation rules. A compiler for ARUS is also implemented in this work to generate a dynamic link library to be used by crew pairing optimization engines.

  1. The GRAVITY instrument software/high-level software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtscher, Leonard; Wieprecht, Ekkehard; Ott, Thomas; Kok, Yitping; Yazici, Senol; Anugu, Narsireddy; Dembet, Roderick; Fedou, Pierre; Lacour, Sylvestre; Ott, Jürgen; Paumard, Thibaut; Lapeyrere, Vincent; Kervella, Pierre; Abuter, Roberto; Pozna, Eszter; Eisenhauer, Frank; Blind, Nicolas; Genzel, Reinhard; Gillessen, Stefan; Hans, Oliver; Haug, Marcus; Haussmann, Frank; Kellner, Stefan; Lippa, Magdalena; Pfuhl, Oliver; Sturm, Eckhard; Weber, Johannes; Amorim, Antonio; Brandner, Wolfgang; Rousselet-Perraut, Karine; Perrin, Guy S.; Straubmeier, Christian; Schöller, Markus

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY is the four-beam, near-infrared, AO-assisted, fringe tracking, astrometric and imaging instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). It is requiring the development of one of the most complex instrument software systems ever built for an ESO instrument. Apart from its many interfaces and interdependencies, one of the most challenging aspects is the overall performance and stability of this complex system. The three infrared detectors and the fast reflective memory network (RMN) recorder contribute a total data rate of up to 20 MiB/s accumulating to a maximum of 250 GiB of data per night. The detectors, the two instrument Local Control Units (LCUs) as well as the five LCUs running applications under TAC (Tools for Advanced Control) architecture, are interconnected with fast Ethernet, RMN fibers and dedicated fiber connections as well as signals for the time synchronization. Here we give a simplified overview of all subsystems of GRAVITY and their interfaces and discuss two examples of high-level applications during observations: the acquisition procedure and the gathering and merging of data to the final FITS file.

  2. Anthropometric characteristics of high level European junior basketball players.

    PubMed

    Jelicić, M; Sekulić, D; Marinović, M

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of the research was to assess anthropometric status of European high-level junior basketball players and to determine anthropometric differences between the players playing in different game positions (guards, forwards, centers). The sample consisted of 132 young basketball players, participants of the European Junior Basketball Championship, Zadar, 2000. Participants were measured with 31 measures (anthropometric variables), on the basis of which two body composition measures (BMI and relative body fat) and somatotype were calculated. The basic statistical parameters were computed. The analysis of variance and discriminant canonical analysis were employed to determine the differences between positions in play. Results indicate that prominent longitudinal and transversal skeletal dimensions as well as circumference measures characterize players on the position of centers, but they do not have significantly larger skinfold measures in relation to forwards. Centers are also predominantly ectomorphic compared with other players. Guards achieved significantly lower values in all spaces and they are predominantly mesomorphic. Further investigations are necessary in order to assess potential changes in status of these parameters when the participants will reach the age of senior players and afterwards, as well as to determine relations between anthropometric status and skill related variables. PMID:12674837

  3. The ALICE High Level Trigger: status and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Rohr, David; Gorbunov, Sergey; Breitner, Timo; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lindenstruth, Volker; Berzano, Dario

    2015-12-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is an online reconstruction, triggering and data compression system used in the ALICE experiment at CERN. Unique among the LHC experiments, it extensively uses modern coprocessor technologies like general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPU) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) in the data flow. Realtime data compression is performed using a cluster finder algorithm implemented on FPGA boards. These data, instead of raw clusters, are used in the subsequent processing and storage, resulting in a compression factor of around 4. Track finding is performed using a cellular automaton and a Kalman filter algorithm on GPGPU hardware, where both CUDA and OpenCL technologies can be used interchangeably. The ALICE upgrade requires further development of online concepts to include detector calibration and stronger data compression. The current HLT farm will be used as a test bed for online calibration and both synchronous and asynchronous processing frameworks already before the upgrade, during Run 2. For opportunistic use as a Grid computing site during periods of inactivity of the experiment a virtualisation based setup is deployed.

  4. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

  5. Why consider subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G. R.; Hollister, C. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Leinen, M.

    1980-01-01

    Large areas of the deep seabed warrant assessment as potential disposal sites for high-level radioactive waste because: (1) they are far from seismically and tectonically active lithospheric plate boundaries; (2) they are far from active or young volcanos; (3) they contain thick layers of very uniform fine-grained clays; (4) they are devoid of natural resources likely to be exploited in the forseeable future; (5) the geologic and oceanographic processes governing the deposition of sediments in such areas are well understood, and are remarkably insensitive to past oceanographic and climatic changes; and (6) sedmentary records of tens of millions of years of slow, uninterrupted deposition of fine grained clay support predictions of the future stability of such sites. Data accumulated to date on the permeability, ion-retardation properties, and mechanical strength of pelagic clay sediments indicate that they can act as a primary barrier to the escape of buried nuclides. Work in progress should determine within the current decade whether subseabed disposal is environmentally acceptable and technically feasible, as well as address the legal, political and social issues raised by this new concept.

  6. Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst

    2005-06-01

    The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels

  7. Millimeter-Wave Measurements of High Level and Low Level Activity Glass Melts

    SciTech Connect

    Woskov, Paul P.; Sundaram, S.K.; Daniel, William E., Jr.

    2006-06-01

    The primary objectives of the current research is to develop on-line sensors for characterizing molten glass in high-level and low-activity waste glass melters using millimeter-wave (MMW) technology and to use this technology to do novel research of melt dynamics. Existing and planned waste glass melters lack sophisticated diagnostics due to the hot, corrosive, and radioactive melter environments. Without process control diagnostics, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at Hanford operate by a feed forward process control scheme that relies on predictive models with large uncertainties. This scheme severely limits production throughput and waste loading. Also operations at DWPF have shown susceptibility to anomalies such as pouring, foaming, and combustion gas build up, which can seriously disrupt operations. Future waste chemistries will be even more challenging. The scientific goals of this project are to develop new reliable on-line monitoring capability for important glass process parameters such as temperature profiles, emissivity, density, viscosity, and other characteristics using the unique advantages of millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation that can be eventually implemented in the operating melters. Once successfully developed and implemented, significant cost savings would be realized in melter operations by increasing production through put, reduced storage volumes (through higher waste loading), and reduced risks (prevention or mitigation of anomalies).

  8. Meta-analysis on Methane Mitigating Properties of Saponin-rich Sources in the Rumen: Influence of Addition Levels and Plant Sources.

    PubMed

    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Wina, Elizabeth; Takahashi, Junichi

    2014-10-01

    Saponins have been considered as promising natural substances for mitigating methane emissions from ruminants. However, studies reported that addition of saponin-rich sources often arrived at contrasting results, i.e. either it decreased methane or it did not. The aim of the present study was to assess ruminal methane emissions through a meta-analytical approach of integrating related studies from published papers which described various levels of different saponin-rich sources being added to ruminant feed. A database was constructed from published literature reporting the addition of saponin-rich sources at various levels and then monitoring ruminal methane emissions in vitro. Accordingly, levels of saponin-rich source additions as well as different saponin sources were specified in the database. Apart from methane, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in the database, i.e. organic matter digestibility, gas production, pH, ammonia concentration, short-chain fatty acid profiles and protozoal count. A total of 23 studies comprised of 89 data points met the inclusion criteria. The data obtained were subsequently subjected to a statistical meta-analysis based on mixed model methodology. Accordingly, different studies were treated as random effects whereas levels of saponin-rich source additions or different saponin sources were considered as fixed effects. Model statistics used were p-value and root mean square error. Results showed that an addition of increasing levels of a saponin-rich source decreased methane emission per unit of substrate incubated as well as per unit of total gas produced (p<0.05). There was a decrease in acetate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) and an increase in propionate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) with increasing levels of saponin. Log protozoal count decreased (p<0.05) at higher saponin levels. Comparing between different saponin-rich sources, all saponin sources, i.e. quillaja, tea and yucca saponins

  9. Meta-analysis on Methane Mitigating Properties of Saponin-rich Sources in the Rumen: Influence of Addition Levels and Plant Sources

    PubMed Central

    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Wina, Elizabeth; Takahashi, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Saponins have been considered as promising natural substances for mitigating methane emissions from ruminants. However, studies reported that addition of saponin-rich sources often arrived at contrasting results, i.e. either it decreased methane or it did not. The aim of the present study was to assess ruminal methane emissions through a meta-analytical approach of integrating related studies from published papers which described various levels of different saponin-rich sources being added to ruminant feed. A database was constructed from published literature reporting the addition of saponin-rich sources at various levels and then monitoring ruminal methane emissions in vitro. Accordingly, levels of saponin-rich source additions as well as different saponin sources were specified in the database. Apart from methane, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in the database, i.e. organic matter digestibility, gas production, pH, ammonia concentration, short-chain fatty acid profiles and protozoal count. A total of 23 studies comprised of 89 data points met the inclusion criteria. The data obtained were subsequently subjected to a statistical meta-analysis based on mixed model methodology. Accordingly, different studies were treated as random effects whereas levels of saponin-rich source additions or different saponin sources were considered as fixed effects. Model statistics used were p-value and root mean square error. Results showed that an addition of increasing levels of a saponin-rich source decreased methane emission per unit of substrate incubated as well as per unit of total gas produced (p<0.05). There was a decrease in acetate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) and an increase in propionate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) with increasing levels of saponin. Log protozoal count decreased (p<0.05) at higher saponin levels. Comparing between different saponin-rich sources, all saponin sources, i.e. quillaja, tea and yucca saponins

  10. Burning experiments and late Paleozoic high O2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildman, R.; Essenhigh, R.; Berner, R.; Hickey, L.; Wildman, C.

    2003-04-01

    The Paleozoic rise of land plants brought about increased burial of organic matter and a resulting increase in atmospheric oxygen concentrations. Levels as high as 30-35% O2 may have been reached during the Permo-Carboniferous (Berner and Canfield, 1989; Berner, 2001). However, burning experiments based solely on paper (Watson, 1978) have challenged these results, the claim being that if the oxygen made up more than 25% of the atmosphere, the frequency and intensity of forest fires would increase sufficiently to prevent the continued existence of plant life. Thus, since plants have persisted, it is possible that fires served as a negative feedback against excessive oxygen levels. An initial study of Paleozoic wildfire behavior via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was conducted under ambient and enriched oxygen conditions to simulate present and ancient atmospheres. The tests focused on natural fuels, specifically tree leaves and wood, tree fern fibers, and sphagnum peat-moss, simulating Permo-Carboniferous upland and swampland ecosystems, respectively. Three conclusions are: (1) enriched oxygen increases the rate of mass loss during burning; (2) fuel chemistry (cellulose vs. lignin) influences burning patterns; and (3) in geometrically heterogeneous fuels, geometry affects burning rate significantly. Both geometrically and chemically, paper resists fire poorly; thus, we found that it loses its mass at lower temperatures than forest materials and is therefore a poor proxy for Paleozoic ecosystems. Further study of Paleozoic wildfire spread behavior is currently being conducted. Fires are lit using pine dowels, which allow for reproducible fuel density. Steady-state, one-dimensional flame-spread is measured with thermocouples anchored two inches above the fuel bed. Both oxygen concentration of the air supply to the fire and moisture content of the fuels are varied, as we suspect that these are two main controls of wildfire spread. Burning fuels of varying moisture

  11. Upward shift of the vortex solid phase in high-temperature-superconducting wires through high density nanoparticle addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Masashi; Maiorov, Boris; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Kato, Takeharu; Sato, Michio; Takagi, Yuji; Izumi, Teruo; Civale, Leonardo

    2016-02-01

    We show a simple and effective way to improve the vortex irreversibility line up to very high magnetic fields (60T) by increasing the density of second phase BaZrO3 nanoparticles. (Y0.77,Gd0.23)Ba2Cu3Oy films were grown on metal substrates with different concentration of BaZrO3 nanoparticles by the metal organic deposition method. We find that upon increase of the BaZrO3 concentration, the nanoparticle size remains constant but the twin-boundary density increases. Up to the highest nanoparticle concentration (n ~ 1.3 × 1022/m3), the irreversibility field (Hirr) continues to increase with no sign of saturation up to 60 T, although the vortices vastly outnumber pinning centers. We find extremely high Hirr, namely Hirr = 30 T (H||45°) and 24 T (H||c) at 65 K and 58 T (H||45°) and 45 T (H||c) at 50K. The difference in pinning landscape shifts the vortex solid-liquid transition upwards, increasing the vortex region useful for power applications, while keeping the upper critical field, critical temperature and electronic mass anisotropy unchanged.

  12. Upward shift of the vortex solid phase in high-temperature-superconducting wires through high density nanoparticle addition.

    PubMed

    Miura, Masashi; Maiorov, Boris; Balakirev, Fedor F; Kato, Takeharu; Sato, Michio; Takagi, Yuji; Izumi, Teruo; Civale, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    We show a simple and effective way to improve the vortex irreversibility line up to very high magnetic fields (60T) by increasing the density of second phase BaZrO3 nanoparticles. (Y0.77,Gd0.23)Ba2Cu3Oy films were grown on metal substrates with different concentration of BaZrO3 nanoparticles by the metal organic deposition method. We find that upon increase of the BaZrO3 concentration, the nanoparticle size remains constant but the twin-boundary density increases. Up to the highest nanoparticle concentration (n ~ 1.3 × 10(22)/m(3)), the irreversibility field (Hirr) continues to increase with no sign of saturation up to 60 T, although the vortices vastly outnumber pinning centers. We find extremely high Hirr, namely Hirr = 30 T (H||45°) and 24 T (H||c) at 65 K and 58 T (H||45°) and 45 T (H||c) at 50K. The difference in pinning landscape shifts the vortex solid-liquid transition upwards, increasing the vortex region useful for power applications, while keeping the upper critical field, critical temperature and electronic mass anisotropy unchanged. PMID:26853703

  13. Upward shift of the vortex solid phase in high-temperature-superconducting wires through high density nanoparticle addition

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Masashi; Maiorov, Boris; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Kato, Takeharu; Sato, Michio; Takagi, Yuji; Izumi, Teruo; Civale, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    We show a simple and effective way to improve the vortex irreversibility line up to very high magnetic fields (60T) by increasing the density of second phase BaZrO3 nanoparticles. (Y0.77,Gd0.23)Ba2Cu3Oy films were grown on metal substrates with different concentration of BaZrO3 nanoparticles by the metal organic deposition method. We find that upon increase of the BaZrO3 concentration, the nanoparticle size remains constant but the twin-boundary density increases. Up to the highest nanoparticle concentration (n ~ 1.3 × 1022/m3), the irreversibility field (Hirr) continues to increase with no sign of saturation up to 60 T, although the vortices vastly outnumber pinning centers. We find extremely high Hirr, namely Hirr = 30 T (H||45°) and 24 T (H||c) at 65 K and 58 T (H||45°) and 45 T (H||c) at 50K. The difference in pinning landscape shifts the vortex solid-liquid transition upwards, increasing the vortex region useful for power applications, while keeping the upper critical field, critical temperature and electronic mass anisotropy unchanged. PMID:26853703

  14. Upward shift of the vortex solid phase in high-temperature-superconducting wires through high density nanoparticle addition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Miura, Masashi; Maiorov, Boris; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Kato, Takeharu; Sato, Michio; Takagi, Yuji; Izumi, Teruo; Civale, Leonardo

    2016-02-08

    Here, we show a simple and effective way to improve the vortex irreversibility line up to very high magnetic fields (60T) by increasing the density of second phase BaZrO3 nanoparticles. (Y0.77,Gd0.23)Ba2Cu3Oy films were grown on metal substrates with different concentration of BaZrO3 nanoparticles by the metal organic deposition method. We find that upon increase of the BaZrO3 concentration, the nanoparticle size remains constant but the twin-boundary density increases. Up to the highest nanoparticle concentration (n ~ 1.3 × 1022/m3), the irreversibility field (Hirr) continues to increase with no sign of saturation up to 60 T, although the vortices vastly outnumbermore » pinning centers. We find extremely high Hirr, namely Hirr = 30 T (H||45°) and 24 T (H||c) at 65 K and 58 T (H||45°) and 45 T (H||c) at 50K. The difference in pinning landscape shifts the vortex solid-liquid transition upwards, increasing the vortex region useful for power applications, while keeping the upper critical field, critical temperature and electronic mass anisotropy unchanged.« less

  15. JET MIXING ANALYSIS FOR SRS HIGH-LEVEL WASTE RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2011-07-05

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank to ensure uniformity of the discharge stream. Mixing is accomplished with one to four slurry pumps located within the tank liquid. The slurry pump may be fixed in position or they may rotate depending on the specific mixing requirements. The high-level waste in Tank 48 contains insoluble solids in the form of potassium tetraphenyl borate compounds (KTPB), monosodium titanate (MST), and sludge. Tank 48 is equipped with 4 slurry pumps, which are intended to suspend the insoluble solids prior to transfer of the waste to the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) process. The FBSR process is being designed for a normal feed of 3.05 wt% insoluble solids. A chemical characterization study has shown the insoluble solids concentration is approximately 3.05 wt% when well-mixed. The project is requesting a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) mixing study from SRNL to determine the solids behavior with 2, 3, and 4 slurry pumps in operation and an estimate of the insoluble solids concentration at the suction of the transfer pump to the FBSR process. The impact of cooling coils is not considered in the current work. The work consists of two principal objectives by taking a CFD approach: (1) To estimate insoluble solids concentration transferred from Tank 48 to the Waste Feed Tank in the FBSR process and (2) To assess the impact of different combinations of four slurry pumps on insoluble solids suspension and mixing in Tank 48. For this work, several different combinations of a maximum of four pumps are considered to determine the resulting flow patterns and local flow velocities which are thought to be associated with sludge particle mixing. Two different elevations of pump nozzles are used for an assessment of the flow patterns on the tank mixing. Pump design and operating parameters used for the analysis are summarized in Table 1. The baseline

  16. Reusable, Extensible High-Level Data-Distribution Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark; Zima, Hans; Diaconescua, Roxana

    2007-01-01

    A framework for high-level specification of data distributions in data-parallel application programs has been conceived. [As used here, distributions signifies means to express locality (more specifically, locations of specified pieces of data) in a computing system composed of many processor and memory components connected by a network.] Inasmuch as distributions exert a great effect on the performances of application programs, it is important that a distribution strategy be flexible, so that distributions can be adapted to the requirements of those programs. At the same time, for the sake of productivity in programming and execution, it is desirable that users be shielded from such error-prone, tedious details as those of communication and synchronization. As desired, the present framework enables a user to refine a distribution type and adjust it to optimize the performance of an application program and conceals, from the user, the low-level details of communication and synchronization. The framework provides for a reusable, extensible, data-distribution design, denoted the design pattern, that is independent of a concrete implementation. The design pattern abstracts over coding patterns that have been found to be commonly encountered in both manually and automatically generated distributed parallel programs. The following description of the present framework is necessarily oversimplified to fit within the space available for this article. Distributions are among the elements of a conceptual data-distribution machinery, some of the other elements being denoted domains, index sets, and data collections (see figure). Associated with each domain is one index set and one distribution. A distribution class interface (where "class" is used in the object-oriented-programming sense) includes operations that enable specification of the mapping of an index to a unit of locality. Thus, "Map(Index)" specifies a unit, while "LocalLayout(Index)" specifies the local address

  17. Energy and water additions give rise to simple responses in plant canopy and soil microclimates of a high arctic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Patrick F.; Welker, Jeffrey M.; Steltzer, Heidi; Sletten, Ronald S.; Hagedorn, Birgit; Arens, Seth J. T.; Horwath, Jennifer L.

    2008-09-01

    Energy and water inputs were increased during the snow-free season to test the sensitivity of a cold, dry ecosystem to climate change. Infrared radiators were used to provide two levels of supplemental radiation (T1 and T2) to prostrate dwarf-shrub, herb tundra in northwest Greenland. The higher radiation addition was combined with supplemental water in a factorial design. Radiation additions increased midday canopy temperatures by up to 4.0°C and 6.0°C and growing season mean shallow soil temperatures by 1.3°C and 2.4°C in T1 and T2 plots, respectively. Soil warming was measured at and probably exceeded 10 cm in depth. There was no evidence of soil drying in plots that received additional radiation, in contrast with other studies, nor was there evidence that supplemental water interacted with radiation additions to affect soil temperatures. Water additions were generally undetectable against a background of large seasonal changes in soil water content. We suggest that well-drained soils and strong seasonal controls on soil water contents (e.g., soil thaw and evapotranspiration) limit the system's sensitivity to changes in precipitation during the brief growing season. In general, multifactor changes in climate gave rise to simple changes in the vegetation microclimate of this cold, dry ecosystem.

  18. Oasis: A high-level/high-performance open source Navier-Stokes solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortensen, Mikael; Valen-Sendstad, Kristian

    2015-03-01

    Oasis is a high-level/high-performance finite element Navier-Stokes solver written from scratch in Python using building blocks from the FEniCS project (fenicsproject.org). The solver is unstructured and targets large-scale applications in complex geometries on massively parallel clusters. Oasis utilizes MPI and interfaces, through FEniCS, to the linear algebra backend PETSc. Oasis advocates a high-level, programmable user interface through the creation of highly flexible Python modules for new problems. Through the high-level Python interface the user is placed in complete control of every aspect of the solver. A version of the solver, that is using piecewise linear elements for both velocity and pressure, is shown to reproduce very well the classical, spectral, turbulent channel simulations of Moser et al. (1999). The computational speed is strongly dominated by the iterative solvers provided by the linear algebra backend, which is arguably the best performance any similar implicit solver using PETSc may hope for. Higher order accuracy is also demonstrated and new solvers may be easily added within the same framework.

  19. Nontargeted Screening Method for Illegal Additives Based on Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yanqing; Zhou, Zhihui; Kong, Hongwei; Lu, Xin; Zhao, Xinjie; Chen, Yihui; Chen, Jia; Wu, Zeming; Xu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Chunxia; Xu, Guowang

    2016-09-01

    Identification of illegal additives in complex matrixes is important in the food safety field. In this study a nontargeted screening strategy was developed to find illegal additives based on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). First, an analytical method for possible illegal additives in complex matrixes was established including fast sample pretreatment, accurate UHPLC separation, and HRMS detection. Second, efficient data processing and differential analysis workflow were suggested and applied to find potential risk compounds. Third, structure elucidation of risk compounds was performed by (1) searching online databases [Metlin and the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB)] and an in-house database which was established at the above-defined conditions of UHPLC-HRMS analysis and contains information on retention time, mass spectra (MS), and tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) of 475 illegal additives, (2) analyzing fragment ions, and (3) referring to fragmentation rules. Fish was taken as an example to show the usefulness of the nontargeted screening strategy, and six additives were found in suspected fish samples. Quantitative analysis was further carried out to determine the contents of these compounds. The satisfactory application of this strategy in fish samples means that it can also be used in the screening of illegal additives in other kinds of food samples. PMID:27480407

  20. Removal of cesium from a high-level calcined waste by high temperature volatilization

    SciTech Connect

    Del Debbio, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    Pyrochemical methods are being evaluated for the separation of actinides and fission products from inert material in high-level waste calcine. Separation processes have the potential of reducing waste disposal costs by reducing the volume of high-level waste requiring final disposal in a repository. Tests were conducted to evaluate high temperature volatilization for removing {sup 137}Cs from four types of calcines. The results for pilot plant calcines indicate greater than 99% cesium removal for alumina and fluorinel/sodium calcines heated at 1000{degree}C and 99% removal for zirconia calcine heated at 1100{degree}C. Tests with actual calcine generated at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) from a blend of aluminium, sodium and zirconium/fluorinel wastes resulted in 96% cesium removal at 1000{degree}C and greater than 99% removal at 1170{degree}C.

  1. An integrated framework for high level design of high performance signal processing circuits on FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkrid, K.; Belkacemi, S.; Sukhsawas, S.

    2005-06-01

    This paper proposes an integrated framework for the high level design of high performance signal processing algorithms' implementations on FPGAs. The framework emerged from a constant need to rapidly implement increasingly complicated algorithms on FPGAs while maintaining the high performance needed in many real time digital signal processing applications. This is particularly important for application developers who often rely on iterative and interactive development methodologies. The central idea behind the proposed framework is to dynamically integrate high performance structural hardware description languages with higher level hardware languages in other to help satisfy the dual requirement of high level design and high performance implementation. The paper illustrates this by integrating two environments: Celoxica's Handel-C language, and HIDE, a structural hardware environment developed at the Queen's University of Belfast. On the one hand, Handel-C has been proven to be very useful in the rapid design and prototyping of FPGA circuits, especially control intensive ones. On the other hand, HIDE, has been used extensively, and successfully, in the generation of highly optimised parameterisable FPGA cores. In this paper, this is illustrated in the construction of a scalable and fully parameterisable core for image algebra's five core neighbourhood operations, where fully floorplanned efficient FPGA configurations, in the form of EDIF netlists, are generated automatically for instances of the core. In the proposed combined framework, highly optimised data paths are invoked dynamically from within Handel-C, and are synthesized using HIDE. Although the idea might seem simple prima facie, it could have serious implications on the design of future generations of hardware description languages.

  2. PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Richardson

    2003-03-19

    In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, Yucca Mountain was designated as the site to be investigated as a potential repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain site is an undeveloped area located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), about 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The site currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way. If the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for the repository, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Waste Management (OCRWM) Program because of the potential of rail transportation to reduce costs and to reduce the number of shipments relative to highway transportation. A Preliminary Rail Access Study evaluated 13 potential rail spur options. Alternative routes within the major options were also developed. Each of these options was then evaluated for potential land use conflicts and access to regional rail carriers. Three potential routes having few land use conflicts and having access to regional carriers were recommended for further investigation. Figure 1-1 shows these three routes. The Jean route is estimated to be about 120 miles long, the Carlin route to be about 365 miles long, and Caliente route to be about 365 miles long. The remaining ten routes continue to be monitored and should any of the present conflicts change, a re-evaluation of that route will be made. Complete details of the evaluation of the 13 routes can be found in the previous study. The DOE has not identified any preferred route and recognizes that the transportation issues need a full and open treatment under the National Environmental Policy Act. The issue of transportation will be included in public hearings to support development of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) proceedings for either the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility or the Yucca Mountain Project or both.

  3. One-Lung Ventilation with Additional Ipsilateral Ventilation of Low Tidal Volume and High Frequency in Lung Lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong; Wang, Jianyue; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Shiduan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND To investigate the protective effects of additional ipsilateral ventilation of low tidal volume and high frequency on lung functions in the patients receiving lobectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty patients receiving lung lobectomy were randomized into the conventional one-lung ventilation (CV) group (n=30) and the ipsilateral low tidal volume high frequency ventilation (LV) group (n=30). In the CV group, patients received only contralateral OLV. In the LV group, patients received contralateral ventilation and additional ipsilateral ventilation of low tidal volume of 1-2 ml/kg and high frequency of 40 times/min. Normal lung tissues were biopsied for the analysis of lung injury. Lung injury was scored by evaluating interstitial edema, alveolar edema, neutrophil infiltration, and alveolar congestion. RESULTS At 30 min and 60 min after the initiation of one-lung ventilation and after surgery, patients in the LV group showed significantly higher ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen than those in the CV group (P<0.001). Lung injury was significantly less severe (2.7±0.7) in the LV group than in the CV group (3.1±0.7) (P=0.006). CONCLUSIONS Additional ipsilateral ventilation of low tidal volume and high frequency can decrease the risk of hypoxemia and alleviate lung injury in patients receiving lobectomy. PMID:27166086

  4. One-Lung Ventilation with Additional Ipsilateral Ventilation of Low Tidal Volume and High Frequency in Lung Lobectomy

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yong; Wang, Jianyue; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Shiduan

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the protective effects of additional ipsilateral ventilation of low tidal volume and high frequency on lung functions in the patients receiving lobectomy. Material/Methods Sixty patients receiving lung lobectomy were randomized into the conventional one-lung ventilation (CV) group (n=30) and the ipsilateral low tidal volume high frequency ventilation (LV) group (n=30). In the CV group, patients received only contralateral OLV. In the LV group, patients received contralateral ventilation and additional ipsilateral ventilation of low tidal volume of 1–2 ml/kg and high frequency of 40 times/min. Normal lung tissues were biopsied for the analysis of lung injury. Lung injury was scored by evaluating interstitial edema, alveolar edema, neutrophil infiltration, and alveolar congestion. Results At 30 min and 60 min after the initiation of one-lung ventilation and after surgery, patients in the LV group showed significantly higher ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen than those in the CV group (P<0.001). Lung injury was significantly less severe (2.7±0.7) in the LV group than in the CV group (3.1±0.7) (P=0.006). Conclusions Additional ipsilateral ventilation of low tidal volume and high frequency can decrease the risk of hypoxemia and alleviate lung injury in patients receiving lobectomy. PMID:27166086

  5. Addressing the Language and Literacy Needs of Aboriginal High School VET Students Who Speak SAE as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Grote, Ellen; Rochecouste, Judith; Exell, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Vocational Education and Training (VET) in high schools has had positive effects on the retention of Indigenous students, providing important pathways into further education and the workforce. However, low-level literacy (and numeracy) skills can make successful completion difficult, especially for students who speak Standard Australian English as…

  6. Southern routes for high-level radioactive waste: Agencies, contacts, and designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The Southern Routes for High-Level Radioactive Waste: Agencies, Contacts and Designations is a compendium of sixteen southern states` routing programs for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies` rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed. This report also examines alternative route designations made by southern states and the lessons that were learned from the designation process.

  7. Southern routes for high-level radioactive waste: Agencies, contacts, and designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The Southern Routes for High-Level Radioactive Waste: Agencies, Contacts and Designations is a compendium of sixteen southern states' routing programs for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed. This report also examines alternative route designations made by southern states and the lessons that were learned from the designation process.

  8. Progress of the High Level Waste Program at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13178

    SciTech Connect

    Bricker, Jonathan M.; Fellinger, Terri L.; Staub, Aaron V.; Ray, Jeff W.; Iaukea, John F.

    2013-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site treats and immobilizes High Level Waste into a durable borosilicate glass for safe, permanent storage. The High Level Waste program significantly reduces environmental risks associated with the storage of radioactive waste from legacy efforts to separate fissionable nuclear material from irradiated targets and fuels. In an effort to support the disposition of radioactive waste and accelerate tank closure at the Savannah River Site, the Defense Waste Processing Facility recently implemented facility and flowsheet modifications to improve production by 25%. These improvements, while low in cost, translated to record facility production in fiscal years 2011 and 2012. In addition, significant progress has been accomplished on longer term projects aimed at simplifying and expanding the flexibility of the existing flowsheet in order to accommodate future processing needs and goals. (authors)

  9. Human factors programs for high-level radioactive waste handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Human Factors is the discipline concerned with the acquisition of knowledge about human capabilities and limitations, and the application of such knowledge to the design of systems. This paper discusses the range of human factors issues relevant to high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) management systems and, based on examples from other organizations, presents mechanisms through which to assure application of such expertise in the safe, efficient, and effective management and disposal of high-level waste. Additionally, specific attention is directed toward consideration of who might be classified as a human factors specialist, why human factors expertise is critical to the success of the HLRW management system, and determining when human factors specialists should become involved in the design and development process.

  10. The effect of trace element addition to mono-digestion of grass silage at high organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Wall, David M; Allen, Eoin; Straccialini, Barbara; O'Kiely, Padraig; Murphy, Jerry D

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of trace element addition to mono-digestion of grass silage at high organic loading rates. Two continuous reactors were compared. The first mono-digested grass silage whilst the second operated in co-digestion, 80% grass silage with 20% dairy slurry (VS basis). The reactors were run for 65weeks with a further 5weeks taken for trace element supplementation for the mono-digestion of grass silage. The co-digestion reactor reported a higher biomethane efficiency (1.01) than mono-digestion (0.90) at an OLR of 4.0kgVSm(-3)d(-1) prior to addition of trace elements. Addition of cobalt, iron and nickel, led to an increase in the SMY in mono-digestion of grass silage by 12% to 404LCH4kg(-1)VS and attained a biomethane efficiency of 1.01. PMID:25280042

  11. 3-D MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.

    2010-08-31

    This research investigated four techniques that could be applicable for mapping of solids remaining in radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site: stereo vision, LIDAR, flash LIDAR, and Structure from Motion (SfM). Stereo vision is the least appropriate technique for the solids mapping application. Although the equipment cost is low and repackaging would be fairly simple, the algorithms to create a 3D image from stereo vision would require significant further development and may not even be applicable since stereo vision works by finding disparity in feature point locations from the images taken by the cameras. When minimal variation in visual texture exists for an area of interest, it becomes difficult for the software to detect correspondences for that object. SfM appears to be appropriate for solids mapping in waste tanks. However, equipment development would be required for positioning and movement of the camera in the tank space to enable capturing a sequence of images of the scene. Since SfM requires the identification of distinctive features and associates those features to their corresponding instantiations in the other image frames, mockup testing would be required to determine the applicability of SfM technology for mapping of waste in tanks. There may be too few features to track between image frame sequences to employ the SfM technology since uniform appearance may exist when viewing the remaining solids in the interior of the waste tanks. Although scanning LIDAR appears to be an adequate solution, the expense of the equipment ($80,000-$120,000) and the need for further development to allow tank deployment may prohibit utilizing this technology. The development would include repackaging of equipment to permit deployment through the 4-inch access ports and to keep the equipment relatively uncontaminated to allow use in additional tanks. 3D flash LIDAR has a number of advantages over stereo vision, scanning LIDAR, and SfM, including full frame

  12. Concerns--High Sea Levels and Temperatures Seen Next Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Paul R.

    1984-01-01

    A National Research Council committee recently concluded that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will "most likely" double by late in the next century, causing an increase in the earth's average temperature. Effects of the increase on sea levels, global climate, and other parameters are discussed. (JN)

  13. Persisting High Levels of Synovial Fluid Markers after Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Konttinen, Yrjö T.; Peterson, Lars; Lindahl, Anders; Kiviranta, Ilkka

    2008-01-01

    Local attempts to repair a cartilage lesion could cause increased levels of anabolic and catabolic factors in the synovial fluid. After repair with regenerated cartilage, the homeostasis of the cartilage ideally would return to normal. In this pilot study, we first hypothesized levels of synovial fluid markers would be higher in patients with cartilage lesions than in patients with no cartilage lesions, and then we hypothesized the levels of synovial fluid markers would decrease after cartilage repair. We collected synovial fluid samples from 10 patients before autologous chondrocyte transplantation of the knee. One year later, a second set of samples was collected and arthroscopic evaluation of the repair site was performed. Fifteen patients undergoing knee arthroscopy for various symptoms but with no apparent cartilage lesions served as control subjects. We measured synovial fluid matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and insulinlike growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations with specific activity and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. The levels of MMP-3 and IGF-I were higher in patients having cartilage lesions than in control subjects with no cartilage lesions. One year after cartilage repair, the lesions were filled with repair tissue, but the levels of MMP-3 and IGF-I remained elevated, indicating either graft remodeling or early degeneration. Level of Evidence: Level III, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18709427

  14. Unusual high levels of ciclosporin in a female patient--the impact of lifestyle?

    PubMed

    Jürgen Roth, Heinz; Wintergalen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of ciclosporin whole blood levels is essential to be aware of any change in drug pharmacokinetics due to interaction with additionally applied drugs, phytochemical drugs or nutritional and environmental factors. While monitoring ciclosporin levels in a 23-year old Caucasian woman diagnosed to have focal segmental glomerulosclerosis a 6-fold higher value than expected was measured. Because the kind and the dose of prescribed drugs were unchanged a drug to drug interaction could be ruled out. Additionally, phytochemical drugs, antibiotics, antimycotics or nutritional factors such as grapefruit juice as well as alcohol and tobacco were denied by the patient. She kept her protein and sodium poor diet free of citrus fruits, rare in meat and rich in vegetables unchanged before and during the course of the unexpected high ciclosporin levels. As the elevated ciclosporin levels were closely related to her cooking habits by means of a brand new steamer we advised her to refrain from preparing her vegetarian meals in this steamer. Since then ciclosporin levels were again in relation to the administered dosage without any episode of unexpected high ciclosporin values. Repeating the experiment some weeks later no episode of unexpected high ciclosporin values occurred. Unfortunately we could only identify the cause (steamer) but not the definite reason why. The report illustrates that the bioavailability of ciclosporin may not only be influenced by drug to drug interactions with prescribed or phytochemical drugs and herbal remedies but also by some yet unknown or unidentified factors or chemicals induced or altered by eating and cooking behavior or lifestyle in general. Therefore a careful assessment of the patient's anamnestic data and lifestyle combined with an unorthodox way of thinking as well as close-meshed drug monitoring is essential to obtain the desired pharmacologic effects and to avoid adverse toxic effects. PMID:16122154

  15. High-efficiency sample preparation approach to determine acrylamide levels in high-fat foods.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaodan; Li, Jinwei; Cao, Peirang; Liu, Yuanfa

    2016-08-01

    An improved sample preparation method was developed to enhance acrylamide recovery in high-fat foods. Prior to concentration, distilled deionized water was added to protect acrylamide from degradation, resulting in a higher acrylamide recovery rate from fried potato chips. A Chrome-Matrix C18 column (2.6 μm, 2.1 × 100 mm) was used for the first time to analyze acrylamide levels using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, displaying good separation of acrylamide from interference. A solid-phase extraction procedure was avoided, and an average recovery of >89.00% was achieved from different food matrices for three different acrylamide spiking levels. Good reproducibility was observed, with an intraday relative standard deviation of 0.04-2.38%, and an interday relative standard deviation of 2.34-3.26%. Thus, combining the improved sample preparation method for acrylamide analysis with the separation on a Chrome-Matrix C18 column (2.6 μm, 2.1 × 100 mm) using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry is highly useful for analyzing acrylamide levels in complex food matrices. PMID:27279364

  16. Assessment of thermal comfort level at pedestrian level in high-density urban area of Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Ng, E.; Yuan, C.; Lai, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hong Kong is a subtropical city which is very hot and humid in the summer. Pedestrians commonly experience thermal discomfort. Various studies have shown that the tall bulky buildings intensify the urban heat island effect and reduce urban air ventilation. However, relatively few studies have focused on modeling the thermal load at pedestrian level (~ 2 m). This study assesses the thermal comfort level, quantified by PET (Physiological Equivalent Temperature), using a GIS - based simulation approach. A thermal comfort level map shows the PET value of a typical summer afternoon in the high building density area. For example, the averaged PET in Sheung Wan is about 41 degree Celsius in a clear day and 38 degree Celsius in a cloudy day. This map shows where the walkways, colonnades, and greening is most needed. In addition, given a start point, a end point, and weather data, we generate the most comfort walking routes weighted by the PET. In the simulation, shortwave irradiance is calculated using the topographic radiation model (Fu and Rich, 1999) under various cloud cover scenarios; longwave irradiance is calculated based the radiative transfer equation (Swinbank, 1963). Combining these two factors, Tmrt (mean radiant temperature) is solved. And in some cases, the Tmrt differ more than 40 degree Celsius between areas under the sun and under the shades. Considering thermal load and wind information, we found that shading from buildings has stronger effect on PET than poor air ventilation resulted from dense buildings. We predict that pedestrians would feel more comfortable (lower PET) in a hot summer afternoon when walking in the higher building density area.

  17. Active-material additives for high-rate lead/acid batteries: have there been any positive advances?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, K.

    Low positive mass utilization poses a major problem for lead/acid batteries, particularly at high discharge rates, and is one of the major factors that limits the specific energy of the battery. The reasons for the incomplete discharge at high rates are generally ascribed to a combination of various polarization phenomena including: (i) poor acid transport from the bulk of the solution in the interior of the plate, and (ii) a continuous decrease in the conductivity of the plates due to formation of non-conductive PbSO 4. One approach to alleviating these problems is to improve the positive-plate porosity and/or conductivity by the incorporation of additives into the positive active-material. The purpose of this paper is to reew recent work with such additives, and to appraise their effectiveness towards raising battery performance.

  18. Biomechanical efficacy of monoaxial or polyaxial pedicle screw and additional screw insertion at the level of fracture, in lumbar burst fracture: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwei; Li, Changqing; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Wei-dong; Zhou, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Background: Use of a pedicle screw at the level of fracture, also known as an intermediate screw, has been shown to improve clinical results in managing lumbar fracture, but there is a paucity of biomechanical studies to support the claim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding intermediate pedicle screws at the level of a fracture on the stiffness of a short-segment pedicle fixation using monoaxial or polyaxial screws and to compare the strength of monoaxial and polyaxial screws in the calf spine fracture model. Materials and Methods: Flexibility of 12 fresh-frozen calf lumbar spine specimens was evaluated in all planes. An unstable burst fracture model was created at the level of L3 by the pre-injury and dropped-mass technique. The specimens were randomly divided into monoaxial pedicle screw (MPS) and polyaxial pedicle screw (PPS) groups. Flexibility was retested without and with intermediate screws (MPSi and PPSi) placed at the level of fracture in addition to standard screws placed at L2 and L4. Results: The addition of intermediate screws significantly increased the stability of the constructs, as measured by a decreased range of motion (ROM) in flexion, extension, and lateral bending in both MPS and PPS groups (P < 0.05). There was neither any significant difference in the ROM in the spines of the two groups before injury, nor a difference in the ROM between the MPSi and PPSi groups (P > 0.05), but there was a significant difference between MPS and PPS in flexion and extension in the short-segment fixation group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The addition of intermediate screws at the level of a burst fracture significantly increased the stability of short-segment pedicle screw fixation in both the MPS and PPS groups. However, in short-segment fixation group, monoaxial pedicle screw exhibited more stability in flexion and extension than the polyaxial pedicle screw. PMID:22912513

  19. High performance flexible double-sided micro-supercapacitors with an organic gel electrolyte containing a redox-active additive.

    PubMed

    Kim, Doyeon; Lee, Geumbee; Kim, Daeil; Yun, Junyeong; Lee, Sang-Soo; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2016-08-25

    In this study, we report the fabrication of a high performance flexible micro-supercapacitor (MSC) with an organic gel electrolyte containing a redox-active additive, referred to as poly(methyl methacrylate)-propylene carbonate-lithium perchlorate-hydroquinone (PMMA-PC-LiClO4-HQ). Hexagonal MSCs fabricated on thin polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films had interdigitated electrodes made of spray-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on Au. The addition of HQ as a redox-active additive enhanced not only the specific capacitance but also the energy density of the MSCs dramatically, which is approximately 35 times higher than that of MSCs without the HQ additive. In addition, both areal capacitance and areal energy density could be doubled by fabrication of double-sided MSCs, where two MSCs are connected in parallel. The double-sided MSCs exhibited stable electrochemical performance during repeated deformation by bending. By dry-transferring the double-sided MSCs based on PMMA-PC-LiClO4-HQ on a deformable polymer substrate, we fabricated a stretchable MSC array, which also retained its electrochemical performance during a uniaxial strain of 40%. Furthermore, a wearable energy storage bracelet made of such an MSC array could operate a μ-LED on the wrist. PMID:27511060

  20. The negative effect of Zr addition on the high temperature strength in alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Joonoh; Jang, Min-Ho; Kang, Jun-Yun; Lee, Tae-Ho

    2014-01-15

    The effect of a Zr addition on the precipitation behavior and mechanical properties in Nb-containing alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels was investigated using tensile tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) analysis. The TEM observation showed that a Zr addition led to the formation of a (Nb,Zr)(C,N) complex particle, which coarsened the Nb-rich carbonitride. Tensile tests were performed at an elevated temperature (700 °C), and both the tensile and yield strengths decreased with a Zr addition. This unexpected result of a Zr addition was due to the reduction of the precipitation strengthening by particle coarsening. - Highlights: • The effect of Zr on high temperature strength in AFA steel containing Nb was studied. • Both the tensile and yield strengths of an AFA steel decreased with Zr-addition. • This is due to the reduction of precipitation strengthening by particle coarsening. • Nb(C,N) and (Nb,Zr)(C,N) particles were precipitated in an AFA and Zr-added AFA steel. • The size of (Nb,Zr)(C,N) particle is much bigger than that of Nb(C,N) particle.

  1. Impact testing of simulated high-level waste glass canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.E.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Slate, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    Three Savannah River Laboratory reference high-level waste canisters were subjected to impact tests at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington, in June 1983. The purpose of the test was to determine the integrity of the canister, nozzle, and final closure weld and to assess the effects of impacts on the glass. Two of the canisters were fabricated from 304L stainless steel and the third canister from titanium. The titanium canister was subjected to two drops. The first drop was vertical from 9.14 m onto an unyielding surface with the bottom corner of the canister receiving the impact. No failure occurred during this drop. The second drop was vertical from 9.14 m onto an unyielding surface with the corner of the fill nozzle receiving the impact. A large breach in the canister occurred in the region where the fill nozzle joins the dished head. The first stainless steel canister was dropped with the corner of the fill nozzle receiving the impact. The canister showed significant strain with no rupturing in the region where the fill nozzle joins the dished head. The second canister was dropped with the bottom corner receiving the impact and also, dropped horizontally onto an unyielding vertical solid steel cylinder in a puncture test. The bottom drop did not damage the weld and the puncture test did not rupture the canister body. The glass particles in the damaged zone of these canisters were sampled and analyzed for particle size. A comparison was made with control canister in which no impact had occurred. The particle size distribution for the control canisters and the zones of damaged glass were determined down to 1.5 ..mu..m. The quantity of glass fines, smaller than 10 ..mu..m, which must be determined for transportation safety studies, was found to be the largest in the bottom-damaged zone. The total amount of fines smaller than 10 ..mu..m after impact was less than 0.01 wt % of the total amount of glass in the canister.

  2. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High-Contrast Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marois, Christian; Lafrenière, David; Macintosh, Bruce; Doyon, René

    2008-01-01

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground- and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analyses have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follow a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil, this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fixed separation from the point-spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and noncoronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level (CL). In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding CL as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckle noise, a detection threshold up to 3 times higher is required to obtain a CL equivalent to that at 5 σ for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested on data acquired by simultaneous spectral differential imaging with TRIDENT and by angular differential imaging with NIRI. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. Finally, a power law is derived to predict the 1 - 3 × 10-7 CL detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of

  3. High Technology Internship at the Secondary Level. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Clifford J.

    A program was conducted during the Spring semester, 1985, in the San Antonio area to place high school juniors and seniors from three high schools in the Edgewood Independent School District in three-month interships in high-technology industries. Students traveled to their training locations on school-provided transportation on Mondays through…

  4. Avoided level crossings in very highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Scofield, J. H.; Brown, G. V.; Chen, M. H.; Hell, N.; Osterheld, A. L.; Vogel, D. A.; Wong, K. L.

    2016-05-01

    We report a systematic measurement of the (2p1/2 -13 d3/2) J =1 and (2s1/2 -13 p1/2) J =1 levels in 14 neonlike ions between Ba46 + and Pb72 + and document the effects of their avoided crossing near Z =68 . Strong mixing affects the oscillator strengths over a surprisingly wide range of atomic numbers and leads to the vanishing of one transition two atomic numbers below the crossing. The crossing voids the otherwise correct expectation that the (2p1/2 -13 d3/2) J =1 level energy is only weakly affected by quantum electrodynamics (QED). For about 10 atomic numbers surrounding the crossing, its QED contributions are anomalously large, attaining almost equality to those affecting the (2s1/2 -13 p1/2) J =1 level. As a result, the accuracy of energy level calculations appears compromised near the crossing.

  5. Structure and high-temperature properties of Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} with interstitial additions

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Jason

    1999-12-01

    This study was motivated by the fact that previous research on the structure and properties of Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} showed unacceptably inconsistent results. The primary reason for these inconsistencies was interstitial contamination of Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} by carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Thus, this study measured the effects that these interstitial atoms have on some of the previously reported properties. These properties include crystalline structure, thermal expansion anisotropy, electronic structure and bonding, and high temperature oxidation resistance. In Chapter 2 of this study, the lattice parameters and atomic positions of Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} as a function of carbon, nitrogen or oxygen content were measured via x-ray and neutron diffraction. Comparing these lattice parameters to those reported in other studies on supposedly pure Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} confirmed that the majority of the previous studies had samples with a considerable amount of interstitial impurities. In fact, the lattice parameter trends given in Chapter 2 can be used to estimate the types and level of impurities in these studies. Furthermore, Chapter 2 discusses how atomic positions change as interstitial atoms are incorporated into the lattice. These changes in atomic separations suggest that strong bonds form between the interstitial atoms and the surrounding titanium atoms. This is in full agreement with the electronic structure calculations given in Chapter 4. These calculations show that bonding does occur between titanium d-states and interstitial atom p-states at the expense of bonding between some of the titanium and silicon atoms. In addition, carbon seems to be the most strongly bonded interstitial atom. Knowledge of the exact interstitial content and its effect on bonding is important because Chapters 3 and 5 have shown that interstitial atoms have a marked effect on the thermal expansion and oxidation resistance. As discussed in Chapter 3, all interstitial atoms lower the thermal

  6. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  7. Exposure to Common Food Additive Carrageenan Alone Leads to Fasting Hyperglycemia and in Combination with High Fat Diet Exacerbates Glucose Intolerance and Hyperlipidemia without Effect on Weight

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Feferman, Leo; Unterman, Terry; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Major aims were to determine whether exposure to the commonly used food additive carrageenan could induce fasting hyperglycemia and could increase the effects of a high fat diet on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either carrageenan, high fat diet, or the combination of high fat diet and carrageenan, or untreated, for one year. Effects on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid parameters, weight, glycogen stores, and inflammation were compared. Results. Exposure to carrageenan led to glucose intolerance by six days and produced elevated fasting blood glucose by 23 weeks. Effects of carrageenan on glucose tolerance were more severe than from high fat alone. Carrageenan in combination with high fat produced earlier onset of fasting hyperglycemia and higher glucose levels in glucose tolerance tests and exacerbated dyslipidemia. In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain. In hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp studies, the carrageenan-exposed mice had higher early glucose levels and lower glucose infusion rate and longer interval to achieve the steady-state. Conclusions. Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption. Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse. PMID:25883986

  8. Ceramic process and plant design for high-level nuclear waste immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Grantham, L.F.; McKisson, R.L.; De Wames, R.E.; Guon, J.; Flintoff, J.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    In the last 3 years, significant advances in ceramic technology for high-level nuclear waste solidification have been made. Product quality in terms of leach-resistance, compositional uniformity, structural integrity, and thermal stability promises to be superior to borosilicate glass. This paper addresses the process effectiveness and preliminary designs for glass and ceramic immobilization plants. The reference two-step ceramic process utilizes fluid-bed calcination (FBC) and hot isostatic press (HIP) consolidation. Full-scale demonstration of these well-developed processing steps has been established at DOE and/or commercial facilities for processing radioactive materials. Based on Savannah River-type waste, our model predicts that the capital and operating cost for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste is about the same for the ceramic and glass options. However, when repository costs are included, the ceramic option potentially offers significantly better economics due to its high waste loading and volume reduction. Volume reduction impacts several figures of merit in addition to cost such as system logistics, storage, transportation, and risk. The study concludes that the ceramic product/process has many potential advantages, and rapid deployment of the technology could be realized due to full-scale demonstrations of FBC and HIP technology in radioactive environments. Based on our finding and those of others, the ceramic innovation not only offers a viable backup to the glass reference process but promises to be a viable future option for new high-level nuclear waste management opportunities.

  9. High levels of impulsivity in rats are not accompanied by sensorimotor gating deficits and locomotor hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Feja, M; Lang, M; Deppermann, L; Yüksel, A; Wischhof, L

    2015-12-01

    High levels of impulsivity have been linked to a number of psychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, drug abuse and schizophrenia. Additionally, schizophrenia patients commonly show deficits in another rather preattentive form of response inhibition, called sensorimotor gating. Given that higher-order functions, such as impulse control, are protected by early and preattentive processes, disturbed gating mechanisms may hamper more complex cognitive-executive functions. In the present study, we therefore tested whether high levels of impulsivity are accompanied by impaired sensorimotor gating in rats. High (HI) and low impulsive (LI) rats were identified based on the number of premature responses in the 5-choice serial reaction time task. Here, LI rats showed higher numbers of omission errors which may suggest attentional deficits while HI rats completed significantly less trials which could indicate a decrease in motivation. However, HI and LI rats did not differ in terms of impulsive decision-making in a delay-based decision-making T-maze task, prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (a measure of sensorimotor gating mechanisms) or locomotor activity levels. Overall, our data indicate that high motor impulsivity is not a suitable predictor of deficient sensorimotor gating and is further not necessarily associated with attentional deficits and/or locomotor hyperactivity in rats. PMID:26484709

  10. Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma with Epithelioid Type, Demonstrating High Serum and Ascitic KL-6 Levels: Immunohistochemical Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Saifun; Nakamoto, Manabu; Hokama, Akira; Kobashigawa, Chiharu; Kaida, Masatoshi; Kinjo, Tetsu; Hirata, Tetsuo; Kinjo, Nagisa; Saio, Masanao; Yoshimi, Naoki; Ohtsuki, Yuji; Fujita, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of KL-6 producing peritoneal malignant mesothelioma. A 56-year-old woman was referred to our hospital on November 2005 with severe abdominal distention. Peritoneal malignant mesothelioma with epithelioid type was diagnosed by clinical symptoms, laboratory investigations, imaging studies, and immunohistochemical examination of known tumor markers. In addition, high serum and ascitic KL-6 levels were observed and the immunostaining of the tumor for KL-6 was evident. We thus consider KL-6 to be a potential novel marker for peritoneal malignant mesothelioma with epithelioid type. PMID:26500734

  11. Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma with Epithelioid Type, Demonstrating High Serum and Ascitic KL-6 Levels: Immunohistochemical Analyses.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Saifun; Nakamoto, Manabu; Hokama, Akira; Kobashigawa, Chiharu; Kaida, Masatoshi; Kinjo, Tetsu; Hirata, Tetsuo; Kinjo, Nagisa; Saio, Masanao; Yoshimi, Naoki; Ohtsuki, Yuji; Fujita, Jiro

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of KL-6 producing peritoneal malignant mesothelioma. A 56-year-old woman was referred to our hospital on November 2005 with severe abdominal distention. Peritoneal malignant mesothelioma with epithelioid type was diagnosed by clinical symptoms, laboratory investigations, imaging studies, and immunohistochemical examination of known tumor markers. In addition, high serum and ascitic KL-6 levels were observed and the immunostaining of the tumor for KL-6 was evident. We thus consider KL-6 to be a potential novel marker for peritoneal malignant mesothelioma with epithelioid type. PMID:26500734

  12. Microwave energy for post-calcination treatment of high-level nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, D.; Priebe, S.J.; Berreth, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes generated from nuclear fuel reprocessing require treatment for effective long-term storage. Heating by microwave energy is explored in processing of two possible waste forms: (1) drying of a pelleted form of calcined waste; and (2) vitrification of calcined waste. It is shown that residence times for these processes can be greatly reduced when using microwave energy rather than conventional heating sources, without affecting product properties. Compounds in the waste and in the glass frit additives couple very well with the 2.45 GHz microwave field so that no special microwave absorbers are necessary.

  13. High level tritiated water monitoring by Bremsstrahlung counting using a silicon drift detector

    SciTech Connect

    Niemes, S.; Sturm, M.; Michling, R.; Bornschein, B.

    2015-03-15

    The β-ray induced X-ray spectrometry (BIXS) is a promising technique to monitor the tritium concentration in a fuel cycle of a fusion reactor. For in-situ measurements of high level tritiated water by Bremsstrahlung counting, the characteristics of a low-noise silicon drift detector (SDD) have been examined at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). In static measurements with constant sample volume and tritium concentration, the Bremsstrahlung spectra of tritiated water samples in a concentration range of 0.02 to 15 MBq/ml have been obtained. The volume has been kept constant at 5 cm{sup 3}. The observed spectra are well above the noise threshold. In addition to X-rays induced by β-rays, the spectra feature X-ray fluorescence peaks of the surrounding materials. No indications of memory effects have been observed. A linear relation between the X-ray intensity and the tritium concentration was obtained and the lower detection limit of the setup has been determined to 1 MBq ml{sup -1}, assessed by the Curie criterion. In addition, the spectra obtained experimentally could be reproduced with high agreement by Monte-Carlo simulations using the GEANT4-tool-kit. It was found that the present detection system is applicable to non-invasive measurements of high-level tritiated water and the SDD is a convenient tool to detect the low energy Bremsstrahlung X-rays. (authors)

  14. Functional assessment of high level ice-dancing.

    PubMed

    Roi, G S; Mevio, M; Occhi, G; Gemma, S; Facchini, R

    1989-06-01

    In these studies the anthropometric characteristics and some functional characteristics of ice-dancers are analysed. It has been shown that the maximum oxygen uptake is similar to that of classical ballet dancers. Tests effected on the ice revealed a high production of lactate, the involvement of the anaerobic metabolism, and high heart rates. It is concluded that the high production of lactate during the free dance on ice is due to the isometric muscular contraction, necessary to maintain certain positions. PMID:2593659

  15. Corrosion considerations of high-nickel alloys and titanium alloys for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Gdowski, G.E.; McCright, R.D.

    1991-07-01

    Corrosion resistant materials are being considered for the metallic barrier of the Yucca Mountain Project`s high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. High nickel alloys and titanium alloys have good corrosion resistance properties and are considered good candidates for the metallic barrier. The localized corrosion phenomena, pitting and crevice corrosion, are considered as potentially limiting for the barrier lifetime. An understanding of the mechanisms of localized corrosion of how various parameters affect it will be necessary for adequate performance assessments of candidate container materials. Examples of some of the concerns involving candidate container materials. Examples of some of the concerns of involving localized corrosion are discussed. The effects of various parameters, such as temperature and concentration of halide species, on localized corrosion are given. In addition concerns about aging of the protective oxide layer in the expected service temperature range (50 to 250{degrees}C) are presented. Also some mechanistic considerations of localized corrosion are given. 31 refs., 1 tab.

  16. High-performance gamma spectroscopy for equipment retrieval from Hanford high-level nuclear waste tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyer, Gary L.; Hillesand, K. E.; Goodwin, S. G.; Kessler, S. F.; Killian, E. W.; Legare, D.; Nelson, Joseph V., Jr.; Richard, R. F.; Nordquist, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    The cleanup of high level defense nuclear waste at the Hanford site presents several progressive challenges. Among these is the removal and disposal of various components from buried active waste tanks to allow new equipment insertion or hazards mitigation. A unique automated retrieval system at the tank provides for retrieval, high pressure washing, inventory measurement, and containment for disposal. Key to the inventory measurement is a three detector HPGe high performance gamma spectroscopy system capable of recovering data at up to ninety per cent saturation (200,000 counts per second). Data recovery is based on a unique embedded electronic pulser and specialized software to report the inventory. Each of the detectors have different shielding specified through Monte Carlo simulation with the MCNP program. This shielding provides performance over a dynamic range of eight orders of magnitude. System description, calibration issues and operational experiences are discussed.

  17. Additive manufacturing of liquid/gas diffusion layers for low-cost and high-efficiency hydrogen production

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mo, Jingke; Zhang, Feng -Yuan; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Peter, William H.; Toops, Todd J.; Green, Jr., Johney Boyd

    2016-01-14

    The electron beam melting (EBM) additive manufacturing technology was used to fabricate titanium liquid/gas diffusion media with high-corrosion resistances and well-controllable multifunctional parameters, including two-phase transport and excellent electric/thermal conductivities, has been first demonstrated. Their applications in proton exchange membrane eletrolyzer cells have been explored in-situ in a cell and characterized ex-situ with SEM and XRD. Compared with the conventional woven liquid/gas diffusion layers (LGDLs), much better performance with EBM fabricated LGDLs is obtained due to their significant reduction of ohmic loss. The EBM technology components exhibited several distinguished advantages in fabricating gas diffusion layer: well-controllable pore morphology and structure,more » rapid prototyping, fast manufacturing, highly customizing and economic. In addition, by taking advantage of additive manufacturing, it possible to fabricate complicated three-dimensional designs of virtually any shape from a digital model into one single solid object faster, cheaper and easier, especially for titanium. More importantly, this development will provide LGDLs with control of pore size, pore shape, pore distribution, and therefore porosity and permeability, which will be very valuable to develop modeling and to validate simulations of electrolyzers with optimal and repeatable performance. Further, it will lead to a manufacturing solution to greatly simplify the PEMEC/fuel cell components and to couple the LGDLs with other parts, since they can be easily integrated together with this advanced manufacturing process« less

  18. The Outdoor School Inspires Potentially Highly Qualified Middle Level Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Patricia A.; Doue, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Take 50 university education students who may not be quite sure they want to be teachers. Pour them all into a charter bus, and drive them five hours to a remote Texas Hill Country location. Mix in equal parts of enthusiasm and dedication, well-planned interdisciplinary curriculum, and face-to-face interaction with middle level students. Let…

  19. Levels of Meaning in Reading Comprehension of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenreich, Zachary; Knafle, June D.

    Working on the hypothesis that if readers had several alternative correct meanings of a given text set before them they would select the one in accordance with their abstract abilities and intellectual maturity, a study investigated the measurement of levels of meaning as illustrated in taxonomies and focused on the applicability of the taxonomies…

  20. High Smog Levels Seen in Mecca During the Annual Pilgrimage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urton, James

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the Hajj drew 3.5 million Muslims to Mecca for 5 days of prayer and spiritual enlightenment. The annual pilgrimage, one of the largest annual gatherings of people in the world, also brings dangerous levels of air pollution to Islam's holiest city.