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Sample records for addition high resolution

  1. [INVITED] Laser-induced forward transfer: A high resolution additive manufacturing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaporte, Philippe; Alloncle, Anne-Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Among the additive manufacturing techniques, laser-induced forward transfer addresses the challenges of printing thin films in solid phase or small volume droplets in liquid phase with very high resolution. This paper reviews the physics of this process and explores the pros and cons of this technology versus other digital printing technologies. The main field of applications are printed electronics, organic electronics and tissue engineering, and the most promising short terms ones concern digital laser printing of sensors and conductive tracks. Future directions and emerging areas of interest are discussed such as printing solid from a liquid phase and 3D digital nanomanufacturing.

  2. Determination of plastic additives in packaging by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María-Teresa

    2015-10-02

    A simple and sensitive analytical method for the determination of several plastic additives in multilayer packaging based on solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to variable wavelength (VWD) and time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) detectors is presented. The proposed method allows the simultaneous determination of fourteen additives belonging to different families such as antioxidants, slip agents and light stabilizers, as well as two oxidation products in only 9min. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, matrix effect error, detection and quantification limits, repeatability and intermediate precision. The instrumental method showed satisfactory repeatability and intermediate precision at concentrations closed to LOQ with RSDs less than 7 and 20%, respectively, and LODs until 5000 times more sensitive than other GC-FID and HPLC-VWD methods previously reported. Also, focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) was optimized and evaluated to extract plastic additives from packaging. Extraction results obtained by FUSLE and SLE were compared to those obtained by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). All extraction methods showed excellent extraction efficiency for slip agents, however quantitative recovery of all analytes was achieved only by SLE with just 5ml of hexane for 10h. Finally, the selected method was applied to the analysis of packaging samples where erucamide, Irgafos 168, oxidized Irgafos 168, Irganox 1076 and Irganox 1010 were detected and quantified.

  3. Squaramide-tertiary amine catalyzed asymmetric cascade sulfa-Michael/Michael addition via dynamic kinetic resolution: access to highly functionalized chromans with three contiguous stereocenters.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Yang, Yi; Du, Da-Ming

    2013-03-15

    An efficient asymmetric cascade sulfa-Michael/Michael addition reaction catalyzed by a chiral bifunctional squaramide-tertiary amine catalyst has been developed. This organocatalytic cascade reaction provides easy access to highly functionalized chromans with three contiguous stereocenters, including one quaternary center. In addition, a novel cascade sulfa Michael/retro-sulfa-Michael/sulfa-Michael/Michael reaction process, involving dynamic kinetic resolution, is described.

  4. High Resolution Computed Tomography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-31

    samples. 14. SUBJECTTERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 38 High Resolution, Microfocus , Characterization, X - Ray , Micrography, Computed Tomography (CT), Failure...high resolutions (50 g.tm feature sensitivity) when a small field of view (50 mm) is used [11]. Specially designed detectors and a microfocus X - ray ...Wright Laboratories. Feldkamp [14] at Ford used a microfocus X - ray source and an X - ray image intensifier to develop a system capable of 20 g.m

  5. High-Resolution Autoradiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towe, George C; Gomberg, Henry J; Freemen, J W

    1955-01-01

    This investigation was made to adapt wet-process autoradiography to metallurgical samples to obtain high resolution of segregated radioactive elements in microstructures. Results are confined to development of the technique, which was perfected to a resolution of less than 10 microns. The radioactive samples included carbon-14 carburized iron and steel, nickel-63 electroplated samples, a powder product containing nickel-63, and tungsten-185 in N-155 alloy.

  6. Ultra high resolution tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  7. Characterizing a switching reagent ion chemical ionization high resolution time of flight mass spectrometer: Standard additions, External calibrations, and Inlet response during SOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, P.; Farmer, D.

    2013-12-01

    A high-resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HRToF-CIMS) with switching reagent ion source and low pressure, gas-phase inlet was deployed during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) in Brent, Alabama. Acetate chemistry was employed for the detection of small acids and iodine chemistry for the detection of peroxy acids. Switching between the two ion sources was found to be possible on less than ten minute time scales with minimal artifacts observed. Online calibrations for formic acid on both the acetate and iodine sources were performed every hour using both standard addition techniques as well as external standard calibrations; offline formic acid calibrations were also conducted. Inlet responses were investigated though a number of experiments finding that the inlet has minimal hysteresis and rapid response times.

  8. High resolution drift chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 ..mu..m resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. High-resolution headlamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gut, Carsten; Cristea, Iulia; Neumann, Cornelius

    2016-04-01

    The following article shall describe how human vision by night can be influenced. At first, front lighting systems that are already available on the market will be described, followed by their analysis with respect to the positive effects on traffic safety. Furthermore, how traffic safety by night can be increased since the introduction of high resolution headlamps shall be discussed.

  10. High resolution data acquisition

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1993-04-06

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  11. High resolution data acquisition

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  12. High resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    F. Garibaldi

    2005-02-01

    Hypernuclear spectroscopy provides fundamental information for understanding the effective ?-Nucleon interaction. Jefferson Laboratory experiment E94-107 was designed to perform high resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy by electroproduction of strangeness in four 1p-shell nuclei: 12C, 9Be, 16O, and 7Li. The first part of the experiment on 12C and 9Be has been performed in January and April-May 2004 in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. Significant modifications were made to the standard Hall A apparatus for this challenging experiment: two septum magnets and a RICH detector have been added to get reasonable counting rates and excellent particle identification, as required for the experiment. A description of the apparatus and the preliminary analysis results are presented here.

  13. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks.

  14. High Resolution Laboratory Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brünken, S.; Schlemmer, S.

    2016-05-01

    In this short review we will highlight some of the recent advancements in the field of high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy that meet the needs dictated by the advent of highly sensitive and broadband telescopes like ALMA and SOFIA. Among these is the development of broadband techniques for the study of complex organic molecules, like fast scanning conventional absorption spectroscopy based on multiplier chains, chirped pulse instrumentation, or the use of synchrotron facilities. Of similar importance is the extension of the accessible frequency range to THz frequencies, where many light hydrides have their ground state rotational transitions. Another key experimental challenge is the production of sufficiently high number densities of refractory and transient species in the laboratory, where discharges have proven to be efficient sources that can also be coupled to molecular jets. For ionic molecular species sensitive action spectroscopic schemes have recently been developed to overcome some of the limitations of conventional absorption spectroscopy. Throughout this review examples demonstrating the strong interplay between laboratory and observational studies will be given.

  15. High Resolution Doppler Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on UARS spacecraft during the period 4/l/96 - 3/31/99. During this period, HRDI operation, data processing, and data analysis continued, and there was a high level of vitality in the HRDI project. The HRDI has been collecting data from the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere since instrument activation on October 1, 1991. The HRDI team has stressed three areas since operations commenced: 1) operation of the instrument in a manner which maximizes the quality and versatility of the collected data; 2) algorithm development and validation to produce a high-quality data product; and 3) scientific studies, primarily of the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. There has been no significant degradation in the HRDI instrument since operations began nearly 8 years ago. HRDI operations are fairly routine, although we have continued to look for ways to improve the quality of the scientific product, either by improving existing modes, or by designing new ones. The HRDI instrument has been programmed to collect data for new scientific studies, such as measurements of fluorescence from plants, measuring cloud top heights, and lower atmosphere H2O.

  16. High resolution time interval meter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  17. High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna (HRSRA) for the purpose of tracking ground terminals and space craft communication applications. The present invention provides an alternative to using gimbaled parabolic dish antennas and direct radiating phased arrays. When compared to a gimbaled parabolic dish, the HRSRA offers the advantages of vibration free steering without incurring appreciable cost or prime power penalties. In addition, it offers full beam steering at a fraction of the cost of direct radiating arrays and is more efficient.

  18. High Resolution Formaldehyde Photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, C. T.; Bauer, D.; Hynes, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most abundant and most important organic carbonyl compound in the atmosphere. The sources of formaldehyde are the oxidation of methane, isoprene, acetone, and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); fossil fuel combustion; and biomass burning. The dominant loss mechanism for formaldehyde is photolysis which occurs via two pathways: (R1) HCHO + hv → HCO + H (R2) HCHO + hv → H2 + CO The first pathway (R1) is referred to as the radical channel, while the second pathway (R2) is referred to as the molecular channel. The products of both pathways play a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. The CO that is produced in the molecular channel undergoes further oxidation to produce CO2. Under atmospheric conditions, the H atom and formyl radical that are produced in the radical channel undergo rapid reactions with O2 to produce the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) via (R3) and (R4). (R3) HCO + O2 → HO2 + CO (R4) H + O2 → HO2 Thus, for every photon absorbed, the photolysis of formaldehyde can contribute one CO2 molecule to the global greenhouse budget or two HO2 radicals to the tropospheric HOx (OH + HO2) cycle. The HO2 radicals produced during formaldehyde photolysis have also been implicated in the formation of photochemical smog. The HO2 radicals act as radical chain carriers and convert NO to NO2, which ultimately results in the catalytic production of O3. Constraining the yield of HO2 produced via HCHO photolysis is essential for improving tropospheric chemistry models. In this study, both the absorption cross section and the quantum yield of the radical channel (R1) were measured at high resolution over the tropospherically relevant wavelength range 304-330 nm. For the cross section measurements a narrow linewidth Nd:YAG pumped dye laser was used with a multi-pass cell. Partial pressures of HCHO were kept below 0.3 torr. Simultaneous measurement of OH LIF in a flame allowed absolute calibration of the wavelength scale. Pressure

  19. High resolution telescope

    DOEpatents

    Massie, Norbert A.; Oster, Yale

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  20. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  1. High Resolution Orientation Imaging Microscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-02

    Functions, ICCES 2010, Las Vegas. 17. David Fullwood, Brent Adams, Mike Miles, Stuart Rogers, Ali Khosravani, Raj Mishra, Design for Ductility : Defect... Pseudo -Symmetries by High Resolution EBSD Methods, MS&T. 2009: Pittsburgh. 27. Oliver Johnson, Calvin Gardner, David Fullwood, Brent Adams, George...applied to strain measurements ................................... 6 2.3 Recovery of Lattice Tetragonality and Pseudo -Symmetry Resolution

  2. High resolution imaging at Palomar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    1992-01-01

    For the last two years we have embarked on a program of understanding the ultimate limits of ground-based optical imaging. We have designed and fabricated a camera specifically for high resolution imaging. This camera has now been pressed into service at the prime focus of the Hale 5 m telescope. We have concentrated on two techniques: the Non-Redundant Masking (NRM) and Weigelt's Fully Filled Aperture (FFA) method. The former is the optical analog of radio interferometry and the latter is a higher order extension of the Labeyrie autocorrelation method. As in radio Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), both these techniques essentially measure the closure phase and, hence, true image construction is possible. We have successfully imaged binary stars and asteroids with angular resolution approaching the diffraction limit of the telescope and image quality approaching that of a typical radio VLBI map. In addition, we have carried out analytical and simulation studies to determine the ultimate limits of ground-based optical imaging, the limits of space-based interferometric imaging, and investigated the details of imaging tradeoffs of beam combination in optical interferometers.

  3. Ultra-high resolution AMOLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ghosh, Amal

    2011-06-01

    AMOLED microdisplays continue to show improvement in resolution and optical performance, enhancing their appeal for a broad range of near-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming. eMagin's latest development of an HDTV+ resolution technology integrates an OLED pixel of 3.2 × 9.6 microns in size on a 0.18 micron CMOS backplane to deliver significant new functionality as well as the capability to implement a 1920×1200 microdisplay in a 0.86" diagonal area. In addition to the conventional matrix addressing circuitry, the HDTV+ display includes a very lowpower, low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) serialized interface to minimize cable and connector size as well as electromagnetic emissions (EMI), an on-chip set of look-up-tables for digital gamma correction, and a novel pulsewidth- modulation (PWM) scheme that together with the standard analog control provides a total dimming range of 0.05cd/m2 to 2000cd/m2 in the monochrome version. The PWM function also enables an impulse drive mode of operation that significantly reduces motion artifacts in high speed scene changes. An internal 10-bit DAC ensures that a full 256 gamma-corrected gray levels are available across the entire dimming range, resulting in a measured dynamic range exceeding 20-bits. This device has been successfully tested for operation at frame rates ranging from 30Hz up to 85Hz. This paper describes the operational features and detailed optical and electrical test results for the new AMOLED WUXGA resolution microdisplay.

  4. High Resolution Spectral Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-25

    filter - bank (one input many outputs) is then selected with a bandpass characteristic over the frequency range of interest. It consists of a dynamical...tailored to, disturbance isolation of a targeting system (e.g., laser) using input from a distributed array of 4 CHAPTER 1. ABSTRACT sensors. High...outstanding paper award from the IEEE Control Systems Society in 2003, and a U.S. patent [41] which was based on this and subsequent work. We mention that

  5. High-Resolution Autoradiography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1955-01-01

    Laboratory, Cleveland, Ohio WALTER C. WILLIAMS, B. S., Chief, High-Speed Flight Station, Edwards, Calif. HIItIU-ItE•,OL.I’TION Al’TIlT.AI) iIO (ltAIIII 3 Of )4r...comparison was made betw,,ia wvet-prociss autoraffio- eraluate this autoradiographic technique, several types of radio - graphs and autoradiographs...apart. heterogeneous system. The radiation emitted by the radio - Wet-process autoradiography, as developed in 1949 by Dr. active elements acts on a

  6. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.

    2011-06-01

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 Å TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron® accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  7. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.

    2011-06-01

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 A ring TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron registered accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  8. High Resolution Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This Grant supported the development of an incoherent lidar system to measure winds and aerosols in the lower atmosphere. During this period the following activities occurred: (1) an active feedback system was developed to improve the laser frequency stability; (2) a detailed forward model of the instrument was developed to take into account many subtle effects, such as detector non-linearity; (3) a non-linear least squares inversion method was developed to recover the Doppler shift and aerosol backscatter without requiring assumptions about the molecular component of the signal; (4) a study was done of the effects of systematic errors due to multiple etalon misalignment. It was discovered that even for small offsets and high aerosol loadings, the wind determination can be biased by as much as 1 m/s. The forward model and inversion process were modified to account for this effect; and (5) the lidar measurements were validated using rawinsonde balloon measurements. The measurements were found to be in agreement within 1-2 m/s.

  9. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  10. Screening of additives in plastics with high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry and different ionization sources: direct probe injection (DIP)-APCI, LC-APCI, and LC-ion booster ESI.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; Jonkers, Tim; Covaci, Adrian; de Boer, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Plastics are complex mixtures consisting of a polymer and additives with different physico-chemical properties. We developed a broad screening method to elucidate the nature of compounds present in plastics used in electrical/electronic equipment commonly found at homes (e.g., electrical adaptors, computer casings, heaters). The analysis was done by (a) solvent extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled to high accuracy/resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) with different ionization sources or (b) direct analysis of the solid by ambient mass spectrometry high accuracy/resolution TOFMS. The different ionization methods showed different selectivity and sensitivity for the different compound classes and were complementary. A variety of antioxidants, phthalates, UV filters, and flame retardants were found in most samples. Furthermore, some recently reported impurities or degradation products derived from flame retardants were identified, such as hydroxylated triphenyl phosphate and tetrabromobisphenol A monoglycidyl ether.

  11. High Resolution DNA Stable Isotope Probing Reveals that Root Exudate Addition to Soil Changes the Identity of the Microbes that Degrade Cellulose but not the Rate of Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, A.; Pepe-Ranney, C. P.; Nguyen, A. V. T.; Buckley, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Plant roots release compounds, such as root exudates, which can alter soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and have large impacts on soil carbon (C) retention. The changes in SOM turnover resulting from the addition of organic and/or inorganic substrates are termed 'priming effects'. In this study we examine the effects of root exudates on the priming of cellulose added as particulate organic matter. We amended soil microcosms with 13C-cellulose in the presence or absence of artificial root exudate additions and incubated over time for 45 days. Soils receiving the root exudate (RE) were given either one large dose or multiple, small doses of RE. In each treatment we tracked operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assimilating 13C from cellulose (herein, known as a 'responder') over time using DNA stable isotope probing coupled with next generation sequencing. In all treatments the same amount of cellulose-13C was respired indicating the addition of RE did not result in the priming of cellulose decomposition. However, cellulose responders were different depending on treatment and time of sampling (days 14, 28 and 45). We identified a total of 10,361 OTUs, of which there were 369 cellulose responders in the cellulose only treatment, 273 in the repeated, small dose RE treatment, and 358 in the RE single, large dose treatment. Most of the cellulose responders found in all treatments belonged to phyla Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Chloroflexi. The response time of phyla varies; for instance, more OTUs in Bacteroidetes were observed on day 14 and diminish with each subsequent sampling time. On the other hand, OTUs in Verrucomicrobia increased in response over time. Our study shows no priming effect resulting from the addition of root exudates, although the identity of the microbial mediators of cellulose decomposition varies in each treatment.

  12. High-resolution instrumentation radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dydbal, Robert B.; Hurlbut, Keith H.; Mori, Tsutomu T.

    1987-03-01

    An instrumentation radar that uses a chirp waveform to achieve high-range resolution is described. High-range-resolution instrumentation radars evaluate the target response to operational waveforms used in high-performance radars and/or obtain a display of the individual target scattering mechanisms to better understand the scattering process. This particular radar was efficiently constructed from a combination of commercially available components and in-house fabricated circuitry. This instrumentation radar operates at X-band and achieves a 4.9-in-range resolution. A key feature of the radar is the combination of amplitude weighting with a high degree of waveform fidelity to achieve a very good range sidelobe performance. This range sidelobe performance is important to avoid masking lower level target returns in the range sidelobes of higher target returns.

  13. Carbon addition during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum: Model inversion of a new, high-resolution carbon isotope record from Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y.; Kump, L.; Ridgwell, A.; Junium, C.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Freeman, K. H.; Urban, N.

    2010-12-01

    Newly analyzed core material from Svalbard presents the most expanded sedimentary section spanning the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) studied to date. Carbon isotopic analysis of the bulk organic matter extracted from core BH9-05 details the onset of the negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) of approximately 4.2‰ over 19,000 years (8 m of section, sampled every 30 cm) and its recovery over 50 m of section, representing 150,000 years. The CIE of terrestrial higher plant n-alkanes (~6‰) is larger than that of the bulk organic carbon (4.2‰), suggesting the CIE of the atmospheric CO2 is in the range of 4.2 to 6‰. We use a novel approach to modeling the excursion, forcing an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to conform to the total organic carbon isotope record, yielding rates of carbon release at the PETM for a specified isotopic composition representing end-member potential sources (methane or fossil organic matter). We find that the peak rate of carbon addition is only a small fraction of the current rate of fossil fuel burning (9 Pg C/yr) whether the source is methane (0.3 Pg C/yr; δ13C = -60‰) or organic matter (1.7 Pg C/yr; δ13C = -22‰). Model/data comparison, especially the observed and modeled seafloor carbonate dissolution record, favors the higher peak rate and larger (~13,000 Pg C) cumulative addition associated with an organic-matter source, such as rapid oxidation of peat/coal/marine organic matter, thermal alteration of marine organic matter during emplacement of the N. Atlantic Volcanic Province, or a mix of relatively 13C enriched (volcanic) and relatively 13C depleted (methane) sources. However, model sensitivity analysis shows that while the rate and amount of carbon added (for a specified source type) is relatively insensitive to key model uncertainties, the predicted seafloor carbonate dissolution response is quite sensitive to the presumed initial ocean alkalinity and seafloor carbonate distribution (i.e., the

  14. High-resolution instrumentation radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybdal, Robert B.; Hurlbut, Keith H.; Mori, Tsutomu T.

    1986-09-01

    The development of an instrumentation radar that uses a chirp waveform to achieve high range resolution is described. Such range resolution capability is required for two reasons: (1) to evaluate the response of targets to the operational waveforms used in high-performance radars; and (2) to obtain a means of separating the individual mechanisms that comprise the target scattering response to better understand the scattering process. This particular radar was efficiently constructed from a combination of commercially available components and in-house-fabricated circuitry. This instrumentation radar operates at X-band and achieves a 4.9-in. range resolution. A key feature of the radar is its ability to combine amplitude weighting with a high degree of waveform fidelity, with the result being very good range sidelobe performance.

  15. High resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudin, Jim; Dinyari, Rostam; Huie, Phil; Butterwick, Alex; Peumans, Peter; Palanker, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Electronic retinal prostheses seek to restore sight in patients with retinal degeneration by delivering pulsed electric currents to retinal neurons via an array of microelectrodes. Most implants use inductive or optical transmission of information and power to an intraocular receiver, with decoded signals subsequently distributed to retinal electrodes through an intraocular cable. Surgical complexity could be minimized by an "integrated" prosthesis, in which both power and data are delivered directly to the stimulating array without any discrete components or cables. We present here an integrated retinal prosthesis system based on a photodiode array implant. Video frames are processed and imaged onto the retinal implant by a video goggle projection system operating at near-infrared wavelengths (~ 900 nm). Photodiodes convert light into pulsed electric current, with charge injection maximized by specially optimized series photodiode circuits. Prostheses of three different pixel densities (16 pix/mm2, 64 pix/mm2, and 256 pix/mm2) have been designed, simulated, and prototyped. Retinal tissue response to subretinal implants made of various materials has been investigated in RCS rats. The resulting prosthesis can provide sufficient charge injection for high resolution retinal stimulation without the need for implantation of any bulky discrete elements such as coils or tethers. In addition, since every pixel functions independently, pixel arrays may be placed separately in the subretinal space, providing visual stimulation to a larger field of view.

  16. High-resolution infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, Charles M.

    2010-08-01

    The hands and mind of an artist are intimately involved in the creative process of image formation, intrinsically making paintings significantly more complex than photographs to analyze. In spite of this difficulty, several years ago the artist David Hockney and I identified optical evidence within a number of paintings that demonstrated artists began using optical projections as early as c1425 - nearly 175 years before Galileo - as aids for producing portions of their images. In the course of our work, Hockney and I developed insights that I have been applying to a new approach to computerized image analysis. Recently I developed and characterized a portable high resolution infrared for capturing additional information from paintings. Because many pigments are semi-transparent in the IR, in a number of cases IR photographs ("reflectograms") have revealed marks made by the artists that had been hidden under paint ever since they were made. I have used this IR camera to capture photographs ("reflectograms") of hundreds of paintings in over a dozen museums on three continents and, in some cases, these reflectograms have provided new insights into decisions the artists made in creating the final images that we see in the visible.

  17. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  18. Advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer development program is considered. The program covered the design, construction, and test of a breadboard model, engineering model, protoflight model, mechanical structural model, and a life test model. Special bench test and calibration equipment was also developed for use on the program.

  19. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, A.

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  20. High resolution optical DNA mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baday, Murat

    Many types of diseases including cancer and autism are associated with copy-number variations in the genome. Most of these variations could not be identified with existing sequencing and optical DNA mapping methods. We have developed Multi-color Super-resolution technique, with potential for high throughput and low cost, which can allow us to recognize more of these variations. Our technique has made 10--fold improvement in the resolution of optical DNA mapping. Using a 180 kb BAC clone as a model system, we resolved dense patterns from 108 fluorescent labels of two different colors representing two different sequence-motifs. Overall, a detailed DNA map with 100 bp resolution was achieved, which has the potential to reveal detailed information about genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis of genetic disease.

  1. High angular resolution at LBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, A.; Arcidiacono, C.; Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.; Davies, A. G.; Defrere, D.; de Kleer, K.; De Pater, I.; Hinz, P.; Hofmann, K. H.; La Camera, A.; Leisenring, J.; Kürster, M.; Rathbun, J. A.; Schertl, D.; Skemer, A.; Skrutskie, M.; Spencer, J. R.; Veillet, C.; Weigelt, G.; Woodward, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    High angular resolution from ground-based observatories stands as a key technology for advancing planetary science. In the window between the angular resolution achievable with 8-10 meter class telescopes, and the 23-to-40 meter giants of the future, LBT provides a glimpse of what the next generation of instruments providing higher angular resolution will provide. We present first ever resolved images of an Io eruption site taken from the ground, images of Io's Loki Patera taken with Fizeau imaging at the 22.8 meter LBT [Conrad, et al., AJ, 2015]. We will also present preliminary analysis of two data sets acquired during the 2015 opposition: L-band fringes at Kurdalagon and an occultation of Loki and Pele by Europa (see figure). The light curves from this occultation will yield an order of magnitude improvement in spatial resolution along the path of ingress and egress. We will conclude by providing an overview of the overall benefit of recent and future advances in angular resolution for planetary science.

  2. HRSC: High resolution stereo camera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neukum, G.; Jaumann, R.; Basilevsky, A.T.; Dumke, A.; Van Gasselt, S.; Giese, B.; Hauber, E.; Head, J. W.; Heipke, C.; Hoekzema, N.; Hoffmann, H.; Greeley, R.; Gwinner, K.; Kirk, R.; Markiewicz, W.; McCord, T.B.; Michael, G.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Murray, J.B.; Oberst, J.; Pinet, P.; Pischel, R.; Roatsch, T.; Scholten, F.; Willner, K.

    2009-01-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on Mars Express has delivered a wealth of image data, amounting to over 2.5 TB from the start of the mapping phase in January 2004 to September 2008. In that time, more than a third of Mars was covered at a resolution of 10-20 m/pixel in stereo and colour. After five years in orbit, HRSC is still in excellent shape, and it could continue to operate for many more years. HRSC has proven its ability to close the gap between the low-resolution Viking image data and the high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera images, leading to a global picture of the geological evolution of Mars that is now much clearer than ever before. Derived highest-resolution terrain model data have closed major gaps and provided an unprecedented insight into the shape of the surface, which is paramount not only for surface analysis and geological interpretation, but also for combination with and analysis of data from other instruments, as well as in planning for future missions. This chapter presents the scientific output from data analysis and highlevel data processing, complemented by a summary of how the experiment is conducted by the HRSC team members working in geoscience, atmospheric science, photogrammetry and spectrophotometry. Many of these contributions have been or will be published in peer-reviewed journals and special issues. They form a cross-section of the scientific output, either by summarising the new geoscientific picture of Mars provided by HRSC or by detailing some of the topics of data analysis concerning photogrammetry, cartography and spectral data analysis.

  3. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  4. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  5. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefitted greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  6. High Resolution Thermometry for EXACT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, J. S.; Nash, A. E.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    2000-01-01

    High Resolution Thermometers (HRTs) based on SQUID detection of the magnetization of a paramagnetic salt or a metal alloy has been commonly used for sub-nano Kelvin temperature resolution in low temperature physics experiments. The main applications to date have been for temperature ranges near the lambda point of He-4 (2.177 K). These thermometers made use of materials such as Cu(NH4)2Br4 *2H2O, GdCl3, or PdFe. None of these materials are suitable for EXACT, which will explore the region of the He-3/He-4 tricritical point at 0.87 K. The experiment requirements and properties of several candidate paramagnetic materials will be presented, as well as preliminary test results.

  7. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  8. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  9. High-resolution multiphoton cryomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    König, Karsten; Uchugonova, Aisada; Breunig, Hans Georg

    2014-03-15

    An ultracompact high-resolution multiphoton cryomicroscope with a femtosecond near infrared fiber laser has been utilized to study the cellular autofluorescence during freezing and thawing of cells. Cooling resulted in an increase of the intracellular fluorescence intensity followed by morphological modifications at temperatures below -10 °C, depending on the application of the cryoprotectant DMSO and the cooling rate. Furthermore, fluorescence lifetime imaging revealed an increase of the mean lifetime with a decrease in temperature. Non-destructive, label-free optical biopsies of biomaterial in ice can be obtained with sub-20 mW mean powers.

  10. High resolution time interval counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Victor S.; Davis, Dick D.; Lombardi, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, we have developed two types of high resolution, multi-channel time interval counters. In the NIST two-way time transfer MODEM application, the counter is designed for operating primarily in the interrupt-driven mode, with 3 start channels and 3 stop channels. The intended start and stop signals are 1 PPS, although other frequencies can also be applied to start and stop the count. The time interval counters used in the NIST Frequency Measurement and Analysis System are implemented with 7 start channels and 7 stop channels. Four of the 7 start channels are devoted to the frequencies of 1 MHz, 5 MHz or 10 MHz, while triggering signals to all other start and stop channels can range from 1 PPS to 100 kHz. Time interval interpolation plays a key role in achieving the high resolution time interval measurements for both counters. With a 10 MHz time base, both counters demonstrate a single-shot resolution of better than 40 ps, and a stability of better than 5 x 10(exp -12) (sigma(sub chi)(tau)) after self test of 1000 seconds). The maximum rate of time interval measurements (with no dead time) is 1.0 kHz for the counter used in the MODEM application and is 2.0 kHz for the counter used in the Frequency Measurement and Analysis System. The counters are implemented as plug-in units for an AT-compatible personal computer. This configuration provides an efficient way of using a computer not only to control and operate the counters, but also to store and process measured data.

  11. Mars gravity - Additional resolution from Viking Orbiter I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjogren, W. L.; Wimberly, R. N.; Cain, D. L.; Brenkle, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Doppler radio tracking data taken from Viking Orbiter I at a 300 km periapsis altitude are now capable of resolving shorter wavelength features such as Olympus Mons and Alba Patera. The number of data is limited as is the area of high resolution which forms a narrow band near 35 deg N latitude. The masses of 71 disks, placed in a geometric pattern on the surface, were estimated. Location of each disk, the mass estimate, and the corresponding uncertainty are given for each disk mass included in the estimator. The new gravity results are compared with previous gravity reductions. The corresponding acceleration surface at 350 km altitude is displayed. It is concluded that systematic postfit residuals imply that further information can be extracted with more detailed modeling.

  12. A simple, high efficiency, high resolution spectropolarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, Samuel C.

    2012-09-01

    A simple concept is described that uses volume phase holographic gratings as polarizing dispersers for a high efficiency, high resolution spectropolarimeter. Although the idea has previously been mentioned in the literature as possible, such a concept has not been explored in detail. Performance analysis is presented for a VPHG spectropolarimeter concept that could be utilized for both solar and night-time astronomy. Instrumental peak efficiency can approach 100% with spectral dispersions permitting R~200,000 spectral resolution with diffraction limited telescopes. The instrument has 3-channels: two dispersed image planes with orthogonal polarization and an undispersed image plane. The concept has a range of versatility where it could be configured (with appropriate half-wave plates) for slit-fed spectroscopy or without slits for snapshot/hyperspectral/tomographic spectroscopic imaging. Multiplex gratings could also be used for the simultaneous recording of two separate spectral bands or multiple instruments could be daisy chained with beam splitters for further spectral coverage.

  13. Sparse and accurate high resolution SAR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Duc; Zhao, Kexin; Rowe, William; Li, Jian

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the usage of an adaptive method, the Iterative Adaptive Approach (IAA), in combination with a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate to reconstruct high resolution SAR images that are both sparse and accurate. IAA is a nonparametric weighted least squares algorithm that is robust and user parameter-free. IAA has been shown to reconstruct SAR images with excellent side lobes suppression and high resolution enhancement. We first reconstruct the SAR images using IAA, and then we enforce sparsity by using MAP with a sparsity inducing prior. By coupling these two methods, we can produce a sparse and accurate high resolution image that are conducive for feature extractions and target classification applications. In addition, we show how IAA can be made computationally efficient without sacrificing accuracies, a desirable property for SAR applications where the size of the problems is quite large. We demonstrate the success of our approach using the Air Force Research Lab's "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set Version 1.0" challenge dataset. Via the widely used FFT, individual vehicles contained in the scene are barely recognizable due to the poor resolution and high side lobe nature of FFT. However with our approach clear edges, boundaries, and textures of the vehicles are obtained.

  14. High-resolution slug testing.

    PubMed

    Zemansky, G M; McElwee, C D

    2005-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity (K) variation has important ramifications for ground water flow and the transport of contaminants in ground water. The delineation of the nature of that variation can be critical to complete characterization of a site and the planning of effective and efficient remedial measures. Site-specific features (such as high-conductivity zones) need to be quantified. Our alluvial field site in the Kansas River valley exhibits spatial variability, very high conductivities, and nonlinear behavior for slug tests in the sand and gravel aquifer. High-resolution, multilevel slug tests have been performed in a number of wells that are fully screened. A general nonlinear model based on the Navier-Stokes equation, nonlinear frictional loss, non-Darcian flow, acceleration effects, radius changes in the wellbore, and a Hvorslev model for the aquifer has been used to analyze the data, employing an automated processing system that runs within the Excel spreadsheet program. It is concluded that slug tests can provide the necessary data to identify the nature of both horizontal and vertical K variation in an aquifer and that improved delineation or higher resolution of K structure is possible with shorter test intervals. The gradation into zones of higher conductivity is sharper than seen previously, and the maximum conductivity observed is greater than previously measured. However, data from this project indicate that well development, the presence of fines, and the antecedent history of the well are important interrelated factors in regard to slug-test response and can prevent obtaining consistent results in some cases.

  15. High-resolution interferometric spectrophotopolarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Spectrophotopolarimetric capability can be added to a laboratory interferometer-spectrometer by use of a specially designed module described herein. With the instrument so augmented, high-resolution spectra can be obtained of the Stokes parameters of the reference beam and the beams diffusely reflected or transmitted by a sample medium of interest. For any such beam, the exponential Fourier transforms of the two interferograms obtained with a polarizer-analyzer oriented along the 0 deg and the 90 deg directions provide the spectra of I and Q, separately. Within experimental (and numerical) noise, this I spectrum should be the same as the one obtained with the polarizer removed. The remaining Stokes parameters U and V are obtained with a third interferogram recorded with the polarizer along the 45 deg direction. The complete theory of this instrument is described including the detailed analysis of the polarization-interferograms it provides.

  16. High-resolution land topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonnet, Didier; Elachi, Charles

    2006-11-01

    After a description of the background, methods of production and some scientific uses of high-resolution land topography, we present the current status and the prospect of radar interferometry, regarded as one of the best techniques for obtaining the most global and the most accurate topographic maps. After introducing briefly the theoretical aspects of radar interferometry - principles, limits of operation and various capabilities -, we will focus on the topographic applications that resulted in an almost global topographic map of the earth: the SRTM map. After introducing the Interferometric Cartwheel system, we will build on its expected performances to discuss the scientific prospects of refining a global topographic map to sub-metric accuracy. We also show how other fields of sciences such as hydrology may benefit from the products generated by interferometric radar systems. To cite this article: D. Massonnet, C. Elachi, C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  17. High-Resolution Traction Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Plotnikov, Sergey V.; Sabass, Benedikt; Schwarz, Ulrich S.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton and transmitted to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through discrete, integrin-based protein assemblies, that is, focal adhesions, are critical to developmental morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis, as well as disease progression in cancer. However, quantitative mapping of these forces has been difficult since there has been no experimental technique to visualize nanonewton forces at submicrometer spatial resolution. Here, we provide detailed protocols for measuring cellular forces exerted on two-dimensional elastic substrates with a high-resolution traction force microscopy (TFM) method. We describe fabrication of polyacrylamide substrates labeled with multiple colors of fiducial markers, functionalization of the substrates with ECM proteins, setting up the experiment, and imaging procedures. In addition, we provide the theoretical background of traction reconstruction and experimental considerations important to design a high-resolution TFM experiment. We describe the implementation of a new algorithm for processing of images of fiducial markers that are taken below the surface of the substrate, which significantly improves data quality. We demonstrate the application of the algorithm and explain how to choose a regularization parameter for suppression of the measurement error. A brief discussion of different ways to visualize and analyze the results serves to illustrate possible uses of high-resolution TFM in biomedical research. PMID:24974038

  18. High Resolution Science with High Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windhorst, R.

    I will first review high resolution science that has been done with the Hubble Space Telescope on high redshift galaxies Next I will review the capabilities of the 6 5 meter James Webb Space Telescope JWST which is an optimized infrared telescope that can deploy automatically in space slated for launch to a halo L2 orbit in 2013 I will outline how the JWST can go about measuring First Light Reionization and Galaxy Assembly building on lessons learned from the Hubble Space Telescope I will show what more nearby galaxies observed in their restframe UV--optical light may look like to JWST at high redshifts Last I will summarize the Generation-X mission concept for an X-ray telescope designed to study the very early universe with 1000-times greater sensitivity than current facilities Gen-X will study the first generations of stars and black holes in the epoch z 10-20 the evolution of black holes and galaxies from high z to the present the chemical evolution of the universe and the properties of matter under extreme conditions This requires an effective area of 100 m 2 at 1 keV an angular resolution of 0 1 HPD over 0 1-10 keV

  19. High Resolution Frequency Swept Imaging.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-30

    recording configuration similar to that of a lensless Fourier transform hologram, the resolution and spacial sampling requirement from the recording...a lensless Fourier Transform hologram, the resolution requirements from the recording device are greatly !.4 + ’+:::,,,. :,;,,,,o...n X-Ray Crytallography and Electron Microscopy By Reduction to Two-Dimensional Holographic Implementation", Trans. Amr. Crytallographic Assoc., Vol

  20. Evaluation of Advanced Bionics high resolution mode.

    PubMed

    Buechner, Andreas; Frohne-Buechner, Carolin; Gaertner, Lutz; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke; Battmer, Rolf-Dieter; Lenarz, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the advantages of the Advanced Bionic high resolution mode for speech perception, through a retrospective analysis. Forty-five adult subjects were selected who had a minimum experience of three months' standard mode (mean of 10 months) before switching to high resolution mode. Speech perception was tested in standard mode immediately before fitting with high resolution mode, and again after a maximum of six months high resolution mode usage (mean of two months). A significant improvement was found, between 11 and 17%, depending on the test material. The standard mode preference does not give any indication about the improvement when switching to high resolution. Users who are converted within any study achieve a higher performance improvement than those converted in the clinical routine. This analysis proves the significant benefits of high resolution mode for users, and also indicates the need for guidelines for individual optimization of parameter settings in a high resolution mode program.

  1. High resolution auditory perception system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Iftekhar; Ghatol, Ashok

    2005-04-01

    Blindness is a sensory disability which is difficult to treat but can to some extent be helped by artificial aids. The paper describes the design aspects of a high resolution auditory perception system, which is designed on the principle of air sonar with binaural perception. This system is a vision substitution aid for enabling blind persons. The blind person wears ultrasonic eyeglasses which has ultrasonic sensor array embedded on it. The system has been designed to operate in multiresolution modes. The ultrasonic sound from the transmitter array is reflected back by the objects, falling in the beam of the array and is received. The received signal is converted to a sound signal, which is presented stereophonically for auditory perception. A detailed study has been done as the background work required for the system implementation; the appropriate range analysis procedure, analysis of space-time signals, the acoustic sensors study, amplification methods and study of the removal of noise using filters. Finally the system implementation including both the hardware and the software part of it has been described. Experimental results on actual blind subjects and inferences obtained during the study have also been included.

  2. High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Papers and working group summaries presented at the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video (HHV) Workshop are compiled. HHV system is intended for future use on the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The Workshop was held for the dual purpose of: (1) allowing potential scientific users to assess the utility of the proposed system for monitoring microgravity science experiments; and (2) letting technical experts from industry recommend improvements to the proposed near-term HHV system. The following topics are covered: (1) State of the art in the video system performance; (2) Development plan for the HHV system; (3) Advanced technology for image gathering, coding, and processing; (4) Data compression applied to HHV; (5) Data transmission networks; and (6) Results of the users' requirements survey conducted by NASA.

  3. Planetary Atmospheres at High Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurwell, M.; Butler, B.; Moullet, A.

    2013-10-01

    The long millimeter through submillimeter bands are particularly well suited for studying the wide variety of planetary atmospheres in our solar system. Temperatures ranging from a few 10s to hundreds of degrees, coupled with typically high densities (relative to the ISM) mean that thermal ‘continuum’ emission can be strong and molecular rotational transitions can be well-populated. Large bodies (Jovian and terrestrial planets) can be reasonably well studied by current interferometers such as the Submillimeter Array, IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer, and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, yet many smaller bodies with atmospheres can only be crudely studied, primarily due to lack of sensitivity on baselines long enough to well resolve the object. Newly powerful interferometers such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array will usher in a new era of planetary atmospheric exploration. The vast sensitivity and spatial resolution of these arrays will increase our ability to image all bodies with extremely fine fidelity (due to the large number of antennas), and for study of smaller objects by resolving their disks into many pixels while providing the sensitivity necessary to detect narrow and/or weak line emission. New science topics will range from detailed mapping of HDO, ClO, and sulfur species in the mesosphere of Venus and PH3 and H2S in the upper tropospheres of the gas and ice giants, high SNR mapping of winds on Mars, Neptune and Titan, down to spectroscopic imaging of volcanic eruptions within the tenuous atmosphere on Io, resolved imaging of CO and other species in the atmosphere of Pluto, and even potentially detection of gases within the plumes of Enceladus.

  4. Passive High Resolution RF Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-02

    sensing applications: 1. Imaging with potential resolution of meters sq. 1.1 Forests areas controlling 1.2 Foliage mass evaluation 1.3...from TOPCON. Currently, work is in progress to study and customise the software and satellite position extraction from the receiver. 6. BRIEF

  5. The EUV dayglow at high spectral resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, M.D.; Bowers, C.W.; Feldman, P.D. ); Meier, R.R. )

    1990-04-01

    Rocket observations of the dayglow spectrum of the terrestrial atmosphere between 840 {angstrom} and 1860 {angstrom} at 2 {angstrom} resolution were obtained with a sounding rocket payload flown on January 17, 1985. Additionally, spectra were also obtained using a 0.125-m focal length scanning Ebert-Fastie monochromator covering the wavelength interval of 1150-1550 {angstrom} at 7 {angstrom} resolution on this flight and on a sounding rocket flight on August 29, 1983, under similar viewing geometries and solar zenith angles. Three bands of the N{sub 2} c{prime}{sub 4} system are seen clearly resolved in the dayglow. Analysis of high-resolution N{sub 2} Lyman-Birge-Hopfield data shows no anomalous vibrational distribution as has been reported from other observations. The altitude profiles of the observed O and N{sub 2} emissions demonstrate that the MSIS-83 model O and N{sub 2} densities are appropriate for the conditions of both the 1983 and 1985 rocket flights. A reduction of a factor of 2 in the model O{sub 2} density is required for both flights to reproduce the low-altitude atomic oxygen emission profiles. The volume excitation rates calculated using the Hinteregger et al. (1981) SC{number sign}21REFW solar reference spectrum and the photoelectron flux model of Strickland and Meier (1982) need to be scaled upward by a factor of 1.4 for both fights to match the observations.

  6. High energy resolution plastic scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loef, Edgar V.; Feng, Patrick; Markosyan, Gary; Shirwadkar, Urmila; Doty, Patrick; Shah, Kanai S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present results on a novel tin-loaded plastic scintillator. We will show that this particular plastic scintillator has a light output similar to that of BGO, a fast scintillation decay (< 10 ns), exhibits good neutron/gamma PSD with a Figure-of-Merit of 1.3 at 2.5 MeVee cut-off energy, and excellent energy resolution of about 12% (FWHM) at 662 keV. Under X-ray excitation, the radioluminescence spectrum exhibits a broad band between 350 and 500 nm peaking at 420 nm which is well-matched to bialkali photomultiplier tubes and UV-enhanced photodiodes.

  7. High Spectral Resolution Lidar Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Eloranta, Ed

    2004-12-01

    The HSRL provided calibrated vertical profiles of optical depth, backscatter cross section and depoloarization at a wavelength of 532 nm. Profiles were acquired at 2.5 second intervals with 7.5 meter resolution. Profiles extended from an altitude of 100 m to 30 km in clear air. The lidar penetrated to a maximum optical depth of ~ 4 under cloudy conditions. Our data contributed directly to the aims of the M-PACE experiment, providing calibrated optical depth and optical backscatter measurements which were not available from any other instrument.

  8. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Craig S.; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  9. High Resolution PDF Measurements on Ag Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Tulio C. R.; Martin, Chris; Kycia, Stefan; Zanchet, Daniela

    2009-01-29

    The quantitative analysis of structural defects in Ag nanoparticles was addressed in this work. We performed atomic scale structural characterization by a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Pair Distribution Function analysis (PDF) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD measurements were performed using an innovative instrumentation setup to provide high resolution PDF patterns.

  10. Fast access to reduced-resolution subsamples of high-resolution images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Joel S.

    1991-08-01

    Frequently, displaying a digital image requires reducing the volume of data contained in a high-resolution image. This reduction can be performed by sub- sampling pixels from the high resolution image. Some examples of systems that need fast access to reduced resolution images are: modern digital prepress production; flight simulators; terrestrial planetary and astronomical imaging systems. On standard workstations, a lower resolution image cannot be read without essentially reading the whole high-resolution image. This paper demonstrates a method that allows fast access to lower scale resolution images. The method has the following characteristics. The proposed storage format greatly lessens the time needed to read a low-resolution image typically by an order of magnitude. The storage format supports efficient reading of multiple scale reduced resolutions. The image file size remains the same as in current formats. No penalty is imposed by using this new format for any operation that uses the image at full resolution. Additionally, an efficient method for rotating images in this format is demonstrated that is many times faster than methods currently employed. The last section gives benchmarks that demonstrate the utility of this format for reading an image at low resolution.

  11. High Resolution Globe of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This true-color simulated view of Jupiter is composed of 4 images taken by NASA's Cassini spacecraft on December 7, 2000. To illustrate what Jupiter would have looked like if the cameras had a field-of-view large enough to capture the entire planet, the cylindrical map was projected onto a globe. The resolution is about 144 kilometers (89 miles) per pixel. Jupiter's moon Europa is casting the shadow on the planet.

    Cassini is a cooperative mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages Cassini for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  12. High Resolution Camera for Mapping Titan Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, Bianca

    2011-01-01

    Titan, Saturn's largest moon, has a dense atmosphere and is the only object besides Earth to have stable liquids at its surface. The Cassini/Huygens mission has revealed the extraordinary breadth of geological processes shaping its surface. Further study requires high resolution imaging of the surface, which is restrained by light absorption by methane and scattering from aerosols. The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft has demonstrated that Titan's surface can be observed within several windows in the near infrared, allowing us to process several regions in order to create a geological map and to determine the morphology. Specular reflections monitored on the lakes of the North Pole show little scattering at 5 microns, which, combined with the present study of Titan's northern pole area, refutes the paradigm that only radar can achieve high resolution mapping of the surface. The present data allowed us to monitor the evolution of lakes, to identify additional lakes at the Northern Pole, to examine Titan's hypothesis of non-synchronous rotation and to analyze the albedo of the North Pole surface. Future missions to Titan could carry a camera with 5 micron detectors and a carbon fiber radiator for weight reduction.

  13. Flare Data in High Temporal Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaparová, J.

    Analysis of the September 23, 1998 flare H? spectra and filtergrams is presented. Spectra were obtained using multichannel flare spectrograph (MFS) at the Astronomical Institute in Ond?ejov, Czech Republic, having a temporal resolution of 25 frames/s and a spatial resolution of ?1? decreased by seeing to 3? - 5?. High temporal resolution was firstly used for detecting of the chromosphere response to the pulse beam heating.

  14. High-Resolution Data for a Low-Resolution World

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Brendan Williams

    2016-05-10

    In the past 15 years, the upper section of Cañon de Valle has been severely altered by wildfires and subsequent runoff events. Loss of root structures on high-angle slopes results in debris flow and sediment accumulation in the narrow canyon bottom. The original intent of the study described here was to better understand the changes occurring in watershed soil elevations over the course of several post-fire years. An elevation dataset from 5 years post-Cerro Grande fire was compared to high-resolution LiDAR data from 14 years post-Cerro Grande fire (also 3 years post-Las Conchas fire). The following analysis was motivated by a problematic comparison of these datasets of unlike resolution, and therefore focuses on what the data reveals of itself. The objective of this study is to highlight the effects vegetation can have on remote sensing data that intends to read ground surface elevation.

  15. High Resolution Powder Diffraction and Structure Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D. E.

    1999-04-23

    It is clear that high-resolution synchrotrons X-ray powder diffraction is a very powerful and convenient tool for material characterization and structure determination. Most investigations to date have been carried out under ambient conditions and have focused on structure solution and refinement. The application of high-resolution techniques to increasingly complex structures will certainly represent an important part of future studies, and it has been seen how ab initio solution of structures with perhaps 100 atoms in the asymmetric unit is within the realms of possibility. However, the ease with which temperature-dependence measurements can be made combined with improvements in the technology of position-sensitive detectors will undoubtedly stimulate precise in situ structural studies of phase transitions and related phenomena. One challenge in this area will be to develop high-resolution techniques for ultra-high pressure investigations in diamond anvil cells. This will require highly focused beams and very precise collimation in front of the cell down to dimensions of 50 {micro}m or less. Anomalous scattering offers many interesting possibilities as well. As a means of enhancing scattering contrast it has applications not only to the determination of cation distribution in mixed systems such as the superconducting oxides discussed in Section 9.5.3, but also to the location of specific cations in partially occupied sites, such as the extra-framework positions in zeolites, for example. Another possible application is to provide phasing information for ab initio structure solution. Finally, the precise determination of f as a function of energy through an absorption edge can provide useful information about cation oxidation states, particularly in conjunction with XANES data. In contrast to many experiments at a synchrotron facility, powder diffraction is a relatively simple and user-friendly technique, and most of the procedures and software for data analysis

  16. NOAA's Use of High-Resolution Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hund, Erik

    2007-01-01

    NOAA's use of high-resolution imagery consists of: a) Shoreline mapping and nautical chart revision; b) Coastal land cover mapping; c) Benthic habitat mapping; d) Disaster response; and e) Imagery collection and support for coastal programs.

  17. High-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Rubén; García, Ricardo; Schwarz, Udo

    2009-07-01

    Progress in nanoscience and nanotechnology requires tools that enable the imaging and manipulation of matter at the atomic and molecular scale. During the last two decades or so, scanning probe-based techniques have proven to be particularly versatile in this regard. Among the various probe-based approaches, atomic force microscopy (AFM) stands out in many ways, including the total number of citations and the breadth of possible applications, ranging from materials characterization to nanofabrication and biological studies. However, while nanometer scale operation in different environments became routine, atomic resolution imaging remained elusive for a long time. The reason for this initial deficiency was that contact with the sample blunts atomically sharp tips, which are mandatory for successful atomic resolution imaging. This problem was overcome in the mid-1990s with the introduction of noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM), which represents a version of AFM where the cantilever is oscillated close to the sample surface without actually 'touching' it. This allows the preservation of the atomic sharpness of the tip while interaction-induced changes in the cantilever's resonance frequency are used to quantify the tip-sample distance. Since then, progress has been steady and includes the development of commercial instruments as well as the addition of many new capabilities beyond imaging, such as the identification and manipulation of individual atoms. A series of annual international conferences, starting in Osaka in 1998, have contributed significantly to this outstanding performance. The program of the most recent conference from this series, held in Madrid on 15-19 September 2008, reflects the maturity of this field, with an increasing number of groups developing strong activities that involve novel approaches and applications covering areas well beyond the original vacuum-based imaging. In this special issue of Nanotechnology we present a selection of

  18. High-Resolution X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODell, Stephen L.; Brissenden, Roger J.; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald F.; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terry; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental needs for future x-ray telescopes: a) Sharp images => excellent angular resolution. b) High throughput => large aperture areas. Generation-X optics technical challenges: a) High resolution => precision mirrors & alignment. b) Large apertures => lots of lightweight mirrors. Innovation needed for technical readiness: a) 4 top-level error terms contribute to image size. b) There are approaches to controlling those errors. Innovation needed for manufacturing readiness. Programmatic issues are comparably challenging.

  19. Tough, High-Performance, Thermoplastic Addition Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Proctor, K. Mason; Gleason, John; Morgan, Cassandra; Partos, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Series of addition-type thermoplastics (ATT's) exhibit useful properties. Because of their addition curing and linear structure, ATT polymers have toughness, like thermoplastics, and easily processed, like thermosets. Work undertaken to develop chemical reaction forming stable aromatic rings in backbone of ATT polymer, combining high-temperature performance and thermo-oxidative stability with toughness and easy processibility, and minimizing or eliminating necessity for tradeoffs among properties often observed in conventional polymer syntheses.

  20. High spectral resolution reflectance spectroscopy of minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Roger N.; King, Trude V. V.; Klejwa, Matthew; Swayze, Gregg A.; Vergo, Norma

    1990-01-01

    The reflectance spectra of minerals are studied as a function of spectral resolution in the range from 0.2 to 3.0 microns. Selected absorption bands were studied at resolving powers as high as 2240. At resolving powers of approximately 1000, many OH-bearing minerals show diagnostic sharp absorptions at the resolution limit. At low resolution, some minerals may not be distinguishable, but as the resolution is increased, most can be easily identified. As the resolution is increased, many minerals show fine structure, particularly in the OH-stretching overtone region near 1.4 micron. The fine structure can enhance the ability to discriminate between minerals, and in some cases the fine structure can be used to determine elemental composition.

  1. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2006-01-01

    The major research activities performed during the cooperative agreement enhanced our spectroscopic knowledge of molecules of atmospheric interest such as H2O (water vapor), O3 (ozone), HCN (hydrogen cyanide), CH4 (methane), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) and CO (carbon monoxide). The data required for the analyses were obtained from two different Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS); one of which is located at the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak, Arizona and the other instrument is located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) at Richland, Washington. The data were analyzed using a modified multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm developed by Dr. D. Chris Benner of the College of William and Mary. The results from these studies made significant improvements in the line positons and intensities for these molecules. The measurements of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients and the temperature dependence of pressure broadening and pressure induced shift coefficients for hundreds of infrared transitions of HCN, CO3 CH4 and H2O were also performed during this period. Results from these studies have been used for retrievals of stratospheric gas concentration profiles from data collected by several Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) infrared instruments as well as in the analysis of high resolution atmospheric spectra such as those acquired by space-based, ground-based, and various balloon- and aircraft-borne experiments. Our results made significant contributions in several updates of the HITRAN (HIgh resolution TRANsmission) spectral line parameters database. This database enjoys worldwide recognition in research involving diversified scientific fields. The research conducted during the period 2003-2006 has resulted in publications given in this paper. In addition to Journal publications, several oral and poster presentations were given at various Scientific conferences within the United States

  2. High resolution SAR applications and instrument design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dionisio, C.; Torre, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has viewed, in the last two years, a huge increment of interest from many preset and potential users. The good spatial resolution associated to the all weather capability lead to considering SAR not only a scientific instrument but a tool for verifying and controlling the daily human relationships with the Earth Environment. New missions were identified for SAR as spatial resolution became lower than three meters: disasters, pollution, ships traffic, volcanic eruptions, earthquake effect are only a few of the possible objects which can be effectively detected, controlled and monitored by SAR mounted on satellites. High resolution radar design constraints and dimensioning are discussed.

  3. Invariant high resolution optical skin imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, Supraja; Rolland, Jannick

    2007-02-01

    Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) is a bio-medical low coherence interferometric imaging technique that has become a topic of active research because of its ability to provide accurate, non-invasive cross-sectional images of biological tissue with much greater resolution than the current common technique ultrasound. OCM is a derivative of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) that enables greater resolution imposed by the implementation of an optical confocal design involving high numerical aperture (NA) focusing in the sample. The primary setback of OCM, however is the depth dependence of the lateral resolution obtained that arises from the smaller depth of focus of the high NA beam. We propose to overcome this limitation using a dynamic focusing lens design that can achieve quasi-invariant lateral resolution up to 1.5mm depth of skin tissue.

  4. High resolution X-ray scattering measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zombeck, M. V.; Braeuninger, H.; Ondrusch, A.; Predehl, P.

    1982-01-01

    The results of high angular resolution grazing incidence scattering measurements of highly polished, coated optical flats in the X-ray spectral range of 1.5 to 6.4 keV are reported. The interpretation of these results in terms of surface microtopography is presented and the implications for grazing incidence X-ray imaging are discussed.

  5. High spectral resolution reflectance spectroscopy of minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.; King, T.V.V.; Klejwa, M.; Swayze, G.A.; Vergo, N.

    1990-01-01

    The reflectance spectra of minerals are studied as a function of spectral resolution in the range from 0.2 to 3.0 ??m. Selected absorption bands were studied at resolving powers (??/????) as high as 2240. At resolving powers of approximately 1000, many OH-bearing minerals show diagnostic sharp absorptions at the resolution limit. At low resolution, some minerals may not be distinguishable, but as the resolution is increased, most can be easily identified. As the resolution is increased, many minerals show fine structure, particularly in the OH-stretching overtone region near 1.4 ??m. The fine structure can enhance the ability to discriminate between minerals, and in some cases the fine structure can be used to determine elemental composition. The study shows that high-resolution reflectance spectroscopy of minerals may prove to be a very important tool in the laboratory, in the field using field-portable spectrometers, from aircraft, and from satellites looking at Earth or other planetary surfaces. -from Authors

  6. Solar system events at high spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, K H; Gavel, D T; Getz, A M; Gibbartd, S G; MacIntosh, B; Max, C E; McKay, C P; Young, E F; de Pater, I

    1999-02-19

    Until relatively recent advances in technology, astronomical observations from the ground were limited in image resolution by the blurring effects of earth's atmosphere. The blur extent, ranging typically from 0.5 to 2 seconds of arc at the best astronomical sights, precluded ground-based observations of the details of the solar system's moons, asteroids, and outermost planets. With the maturing of a high resolution image processing technique called speckle imaging the resolution limitation of the atmosphere can now be largely overcome. Over the past three years they have used speckle imaging to observe Titan, a moon of Saturn with an atmospheric density comparable to Earth's, Io, the volcanically active innermost moon of Jupiter, and Neptune, a gas giant outer planet which has continually changing planet-encircling storms. These observations were made at the world's largest telescope, the Keck telescope in Hawaii and represent the highest resolution infrared images of these objects ever taken.

  7. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  8. High Spatial Resolution Thermal Satellite Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This document in the form of viewslides, reviews various low-cost alternatives to high spatial resolution thermal satellite technologies. There exists no follow-on to Landsat 7 or ASTER high spatial resolution thermal systems. This document reviews the results of the investigation in to the use of new technologies to create a low-cost useful alternative. Three suggested technologies are examined. 1. Conventional microbolometer pushbroom modes offers potential for low cost Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) thermal or ASTER capability with at least 60-120 ground sampling distance (GSD). 2. Backscanning could produce MultiSpectral Thermal Imager performance without cooled detectors. 3. Cooled detector could produce hyperspectral thermal class system or extremely high spatial resolution class instrument.

  9. MULTIPULSE - high resolution and high power in one TDEM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tianyou; Hodges, Greg; Miles, Philip

    2015-09-01

    An airborne time domain electromagnetic (TEM) system with high resolution and great depth of exploration is desired for geological mapping as well as for mineral exploration. The MULTIPULSE technology enables an airborne TEM system to transmit a high power pulse (a half-sine, for instance) and one or multiple low power pulse(s) (trapezoid or square) within a half-cycle. The high power pulse ensures good depth of exploration and the low power pulse allows a fast transmitter current turn off and earlier off-time measurement thus providing higher frequency signals, which allows higher near-surface resolution and better sensitivity to weak conductors. The power spectrum of the MULTIPULSE waveform comprising a half-sine and a trapezoid pulse clearly shows increased power in the higher frequency range (> ~2.3 kHz) compared to that of a single half-sine waveform. The addition of the low power trapezoid pulse extends the range of the sensitivity 10-fold towards the weak conductors, expanding the geological conductivity range of a system and increasing the scope of its applications. The MULTIPULSE technology can be applied to standard single-pulse airborne TEM systems on both helicopter and fixed-wing. We field tested the HELITEM MULTIPULSE system over a wire-loop in Iroquois Falls, demonstrating the different sensitivity of the high and low power pulses to the overburden and the wire-loop. We also tested both HELITEM and GEOTEM MULTIPULSE systems over a layered oil sand geologic setting in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. The results show comparable shallow geologic resolution of the MULTIPULSE to that of the RESOLVE system while maintaining superior depth of exploration, confirming the increased geological conductivity range of a system employing MULTIPULSE compared to the standard single-pulse systems.

  10. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  11. A high-resolution tungstate membrane label

    SciTech Connect

    Hainfeld, J.F.; Quaite, F.E. ); Lipka, J.J. )

    1990-01-01

    A new class of membrane labels was synthesized which contain a tungstate cluster (having 11 tungsten atoms) and an aliphatic organo-tin moiety with various chain lengths (C{sub 4}, C{sub 8}, C{sub 12}, C{sub 18}, C{sub 22}). These molecules were found to insert into synthetic phospholipid vesicles and biological membranes (human red blood cell membranes). The tungstate clusters can be individually visualized in the high resolution STEM or seen en mass in thin-sectioned labeled membranes in the CTEM. These new labels should provide a means for direct high-resolution imaging of lipid-phase systems.

  12. A High Resolution Scale-of-four

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fitch, V.

    1949-08-25

    A high resolution scale-of-four has been developed to be used in conjunction with the nuclear particle detection devices in applications where the counting rate is unusually high. Specifically, it is intended to precede the commercially available medium resolution scaling circuits and so decrease the resolving time of the counting system. The circuit will function reliably on continuously recurring pulses separated by less than 0.1 microseconds. It will resolve two pulses (occurring at a moderate repetition rate) which are spaced at 0.04 microseconds. A five-volt input signal is sufficient to actuate the device.

  13. Titania High-Resolution Color Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This high-resolution color composite of Titania was made from Voyager 2 images taken Jan. 24, 1986, as the spacecraft neared its closest approach to Uranus. Voyager's narrow-angle camera acquired this image of Titania, one of the large moons of Uranus, through the violet and clear filters. The spacecraft was about 500,000 kilometers (300,000 miles) away; the picture shows details about 9 km (6 mi) in size. Titania has a diameter of about 1,600 km (1,000 mi). In addition to many scars due to impacts, Titania displays evidence of other geologic activity at some point in its history. The large, trenchlike feature near the terminator (day-night boundary) at middle right suggests at least one episode of tectonic activity. Another, basinlike structure near the upper right is evidence of an ancient period of heavy impact activity. The neutral gray color of Titania is characteristic of the Uranian satellites as a whole. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  14. Customized MFM probes with high lateral resolution

    PubMed Central

    Jaafar, Miriam; Berganza, Eider; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-01-01

    Summary Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is a widely used technique for magnetic imaging. Besides its advantages such as the high spatial resolution and the easy use in the characterization of relevant applied materials, the main handicaps of the technique are the lack of control over the tip stray field and poor lateral resolution when working under standard conditions. In this work, we present a convenient route to prepare high-performance MFM probes with sub-10 nm (sub-25 nm) topographic (magnetic) lateral resolution by following an easy and quick low-cost approach. This allows one to not only customize the tip stray field, avoiding tip-induced changes in the sample magnetization, but also to optimize MFM imaging in vacuum (or liquid media) by choosing tips mounted on hard (or soft) cantilevers, a technology that is currently not available on the market. PMID:27547625

  15. High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing.

    PubMed

    Park, Jang-Ung; Hardy, Matt; Kang, Seong Jun; Barton, Kira; Adair, Kurt; Mukhopadhyay, Deep Kishore; Lee, Chang Young; Strano, Michael S; Alleyne, Andrew G; Georgiadis, John G; Ferreira, Placid M; Rogers, John A

    2007-10-01

    Efforts to adapt and extend graphic arts printing techniques for demanding device applications in electronics, biotechnology and microelectromechanical systems have grown rapidly in recent years. Here, we describe the use of electrohydrodynamically induced fluid flows through fine microcapillary nozzles for jet printing of patterns and functional devices with submicrometre resolution. Key aspects of the physics of this approach, which has some features in common with related but comparatively low-resolution techniques for graphic arts, are revealed through direct high-speed imaging of the droplet formation processes. Printing of complex patterns of inks, ranging from insulating and conducting polymers, to solution suspensions of silicon nanoparticles and rods, to single-walled carbon nanotubes, using integrated computer-controlled printer systems illustrates some of the capabilities. High-resolution printed metal interconnects, electrodes and probing pads for representative circuit patterns and functional transistors with critical dimensions as small as 1 mum demonstrate potential applications in printed electronics.

  16. Customized MFM probes with high lateral resolution.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Freire, Óscar; Jaafar, Miriam; Berganza, Eider; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is a widely used technique for magnetic imaging. Besides its advantages such as the high spatial resolution and the easy use in the characterization of relevant applied materials, the main handicaps of the technique are the lack of control over the tip stray field and poor lateral resolution when working under standard conditions. In this work, we present a convenient route to prepare high-performance MFM probes with sub-10 nm (sub-25 nm) topographic (magnetic) lateral resolution by following an easy and quick low-cost approach. This allows one to not only customize the tip stray field, avoiding tip-induced changes in the sample magnetization, but also to optimize MFM imaging in vacuum (or liquid media) by choosing tips mounted on hard (or soft) cantilevers, a technology that is currently not available on the market.

  17. High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jang-Ung; Hardy, Matt; Kang, Seong Jun; Barton, Kira; Adair, Kurt; Mukhopadhyay, Deep Kishore; Lee, Chang Young; Strano, Michael S.; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Georgiadis, John G.; Ferreira, Placid M.; Rogers, John A.

    2007-10-01

    Efforts to adapt and extend graphic arts printing techniques for demanding device applications in electronics, biotechnology and microelectromechanical systems have grown rapidly in recent years. Here, we describe the use of electrohydrodynamically induced fluid flows through fine microcapillary nozzles for jet printing of patterns and functional devices with submicrometre resolution. Key aspects of the physics of this approach, which has some features in common with related but comparatively low-resolution techniques for graphic arts, are revealed through direct high-speed imaging of the droplet formation processes. Printing of complex patterns of inks, ranging from insulating and conducting polymers, to solution suspensions of silicon nanoparticles and rods, to single-walled carbon nanotubes, using integrated computer-controlled printer systems illustrates some of the capabilities. High-resolution printed metal interconnects, electrodes and probing pads for representative circuit patterns and functional transistors with critical dimensions as small as 1μm demonstrate potential applications in printed electronics.

  18. High-resolution two dimensional advective transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, P.E.; Larock, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes a two-dimensional high-resolution scheme for advective transport that is based on a Eulerian-Lagrangian method with a flux limiter. The scheme is applied to the problem of pure-advection of a rotated Gaussian hill and shown to preserve the monotonicity property of the governing conservation law.

  19. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  20. A Portable, High Resolution, Surface Measurement Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Burns, Bradley M.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution, portable, surface measurement device has been demonstrated to provide micron-resolution topographical plots. This device was specifically developed to allow in-situ measurements of defects on the Space Shuttle Orbiter windows, but is versatile enough to be used on a wide variety of surfaces. This paper discusses the choice of an optical sensor and then the decisions required to convert a lab bench optical measurement device into an ergonomic portable system. The necessary trade-offs between performance and portability are presented along with a description of the device developed to measure Orbiter window defects.

  1. Detectors for high resolution dynamic pet

    SciTech Connect

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.; Huesman, R.H.

    1983-05-01

    This report reviews the motivation for high spatial resolution in dynamic positron emission tomography of the head and the technical problems in realizing this objective. We present recent progress in using small silicon photodiodes to measure the energy deposited by 511 keV photons in small BGO crystals with an energy resolution of 9.4% full-width at half-maximum. In conjunction with a suitable phototube coupled to a group of crystals, the photodiode signal to noise ratio is sufficient for the identification of individual crystals both for conventional and time-of-flight positron tomography.

  2. THz holography in reflection using a high resolution microbolometer array.

    PubMed

    Zolliker, Peter; Hack, Erwin

    2015-05-04

    We demonstrate a digital holographic setup for Terahertz imaging of surfaces in reflection. The set-up is based on a high-power continuous wave (CW) THz laser and a high-resolution (640 × 480 pixel) bolometer detector array. Wave propagation to non-parallel planes is used to reconstruct the object surface that is rotated relative to the detector plane. In addition we implement synthetic aperture methods for resolution enhancement and compare Fourier transform phase retrieval to phase stepping methods. A lateral resolution of 200 μm and a relative phase sensitivity of about 0.4 rad corresponding to a depth resolution of 6 μm are estimated from reconstructed images of two specially prepared test targets, respectively. We highlight the use of digital THz holography for surface profilometry as well as its potential for video-rate imaging.

  3. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Fowler, J.; Koribalski, B.; Lake, S.; Neill, James D.; Seibert, M.; Stanford, S.; Wright, E.

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  4. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Fowler, J.; Koribalski, B.; Lake, S.; Neill, James D.; Seibert, M.; Sheth, K.; Stanford, S.; Wright, E.

    2012-08-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 μm, 4.6 μm, 12 μm, and 22 μm. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  5. High resolution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.

    1983-01-01

    A class of new explicit second order accurate finite difference schemes for the computation of weak solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is presented. These highly nonlinear schemes are obtained by applying a nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme to an appropriately modified flux function. The so-derived second order accurate schemes achieve high resolution while preserving the robustness of the original nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the performance of these new schemes.

  6. The High Time Resolution Radio Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, D.

    2013-11-01

    each orbit, PSR J1729-2117 which is an unusual isolated recycled pulsar, and PSR J2322-2650 which has a companion of very low mass - just 7 × 10^{-4} {M}_{⊙}, amongst others. I begin this thesis with the study of these pulsars and discuss their histories. In addition, I demonstrate that optical observations of the companions to some of the newly discovered pulsars in the High Time Resolution Universe survey may result in a measurement of their age and that of the pulsar. I have discovered five new extragalactic single radio bursts, confirming them as an astronomical population. These appear to occur frequently, with a rate of 1.0^{+0.6}_{-0.5} × 10^4 sky^{-1} day^{-1}. The sources are likely at cosmological distances - with redshifts between 0.45 and 1.45, making them more than half way to the Big Bang in the most distant case. This implies their luminosities must be enormous, 10^{31} to 10^{33} J emitted in just a few milliseconds. Their source is unknown but I present an analysis of the options. I also perform a population simulation of the bursts which demonstrates how their intrinsic spectrum could be measured, even for unlocalised FRBs: early indications are that the spectral index of FRBs < 0.

  7. Superconducting High Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Hau, Ionel Dragos

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting high resolution fast-neutron calorimetric spectrometers based on 6LiF and TiB{sub 2} absorbers have been developed. These novel cryogenic spectrometers measure the temperature rise produced in exothermal (n, α) reactions with fast neutrons in 6Li and 10B-loaded materials with heat capacity C operating at temperatures T close to 0.1 K. Temperature variations on the order of 0.5 mK are measured with a Mo/Cu thin film multilayer operated in the transition region between its superconducting and its normal state. The advantage of calorimetry for high resolution spectroscopy is due to the small phonon excitation energies kBT on the order of μeV that serve as signal carriers, resulting in an energy resolution ΔE ~ (kBT2C)1/2, which can be well below 10 keV. An energy resolution of 5.5 keV has been obtained with a Mo/Cu superconducting sensor and a TiB2 absorber using thermal neutrons from a 252Cf neutron source. This resolution is sufficient to observe the effect of recoil nuclei broadening in neutron spectra, which has been related to the lifetime of the first excited state in 7Li. Fast-neutron spectra obtained with a 6Li-enriched LiF absorber show an energy resolution of 16 keV FWHM, and a response in agreement with the 6Li(n, α)3H reaction cross section and Monte Carlo simulations for energies up to several MeV. The energy resolution of order of a few keV makes this novel instrument applicable to fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy based on the unique elemental signature provided by the neutron absorption and scattering resonances. The optimization of the energy resolution based on analytical and numerical models of the detector response is discussed in the context of these applications.

  8. High resolution beamforming for small aperture arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Chris; Null, Tom; Wagstaff, Ronald A.

    2003-04-01

    Achieving fine resolution bearing estimates for multiple sources using acoustic arrays with small apertures, in number of wavelengths, is a difficult challenge. It requires both large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gains and very narrow beam responses. High resolution beamforming for small aperture arrays is accomplished by exploiting acoustical fluctuations. Acoustical fluctuations in the atmosphere are caused by wind turbulence along the propagation path, air turbulence at the sensor, source/receiver motion, unsteady source level, and fine scale temperature variations. Similar environmental and source dependent phenomena cause fluctuations in other propagation media, e.g., undersea, optics, infrared. Amplitude fluctuations are exploited to deconvolve the beam response functions from the beamformed data of small arrays to achieve high spatial resolution, i.e., fine bearing resolution, and substantial SNR gain. Results are presented for a six microphone low-frequency array with an aperture of less than three wavelengths. [Work supported by U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center.

  9. High-Resolution US of Rheumatologic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Gimber, Lana H; Scalcione, Luke R; Miller, Margaret D; Kwoh, C Kent; Klauser, Andrea S

    2015-01-01

    For the past 15 years, high-resolution ultrasonography (US) is being routinely and increasingly used for initial evaluation and treatment follow-up of rheumatologic diseases. This imaging technique is performed by using high-frequency linear transducers and has proved to be a powerful diagnostic tool in evaluation of articular erosions, simple and complex joint and bursal effusions, tendon sheath effusions, and synovitis, with results comparable to those of magnetic resonance imaging, excluding detection of bone marrow edema. Crystal deposition diseases including gouty arthropathy and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) have characteristic appearances at US, enabling differentiation between these two diseases and from inflammatory arthropathies. Enthesopathy, which frequently accompanies psoriatic and reactive arthritis, also has a characteristic appearance at high-resolution US, distinguishing these two entities from other inflammatory and metabolic arthropathies. The presence of Doppler signal in examined joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths indicates active synovitis. Microbubble echo contrast agents augment detection of tissue vascularity and may act in the future as a drug delivery vehicle. Frequently, joint, tendon sheath, and bursal fluid aspirations and therapeutic injections are performed under US guidance. The authors describe the high-resolution US technique including gray-scale, color or power Doppler, and contrast agent-enhanced US that is used in evaluation of rheumatologic diseases of the wrist and hand and the ankle and foot in their routine clinical practice. This article demonstrates imaging findings of normal joints, rheumatoid arthritis, gouty arthritis, CPPD, psoriatic and reactive arthritis, and osteoarthritis.

  10. High-resolution flurescence spectroscopy in immunoanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grubor, Nenad M.

    2005-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation combines highly sensitive and selective fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy (FLNS) detection with various modes of immunoanalytical techniques. It has been shown that FLNS is capable of directly probing molecules immunocomplexed with antibodies, eliminating analytical ambiguities that may arise from interferences that accompany traditional immunochemical techniques. Moreover, the utilization of highly cross-reactive antibodies for highly specific analyte determination has been demonstrated. Finally, they demonstrate the first example of the spectral resolution of diastereomeric analytes based on their interaction with a cross-reactive antibody.

  11. High-Resolution Broadband Spectral Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J

    2002-08-09

    We demonstrate solar spectra from a novel interferometric method for compact broadband high-resolution spectroscopy. The spectral interferometer (SI) is a hybrid instrument that uses a spectrometer to externally disperse the output of a fixed-delay interferometer. It also has been called an externally dispersed interferometer (EDI). The interferometer can be used with linear spectrometers for imaging spectroscopy or with echelle spectrometers for very broad-band coverage. EDI's heterodyning technique enhances the spectrometer's response to high spectral-density features, increasing the effective resolution by factors of several while retaining its bandwidth. The method is extremely robust to instrumental insults such as focal spot size or displacement. The EDI uses no moving parts, such as purely interferometric FTS spectrometers, and can cover a much wider simultaneous bandpass than other internally dispersed interferometers (e.g. HHS or SHS).

  12. High resolution, large area, high energy x-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Trebes, J.E.; Dolan, K.W.; Haddad, W.S.; Haskins, J.J.; Lerche, R.A.; Logan, C.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Schneberk, D.J.; Rikard, R.D.

    1997-08-01

    An x-ray tomography system is being developed for high resolution inspection of large objects. The goal is to achieve 25 micron resolution over object sizes that are tens of centimeters in extent. Typical objects will be metal in composition and therefore high energy, few MeV x-rays will be required. A proof-of-principle system with a limited field of view has been developed. Preliminary results are presented.

  13. A high-resolution anatomical rat atlas

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xueling; Yu, Li; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Jie; Li, Anan; Han, Dao; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the availability of a high-resolution atlas of the adult rat. The atlas is composed of 9475 cryosectional images captured in 4600 × 2580 × 24-bit TIFF format, constructed using serial cryosection-milling techniques. Cryosection images were segmented, labelled and reconstructed into three-dimensional (3D) computerized models. These images, 3D models, technical details, relevant software and further information are available at our website, http://vchibp.vicp.net/vch/mice/. PMID:17062027

  14. High spatial resolution passive microwave sounding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Rosenkranz, P. W.; Bonanni, P. G.; Gasiewski, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    Two extensive series of flights aboard the ER-2 aircraft were conducted with the MIT 118 GHz imaging spectrometer together with a 53.6 GHz nadir channel and a TV camera record of the mission. Other microwave sensors, including a 183 GHz imaging spectrometer were flown simultaneously by other research groups. Work also continued on evaluating the impact of high-resolution passive microwave soundings upon numerical weather prediction models.

  15. Stellar Tools for High Resolution Population Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chávez, M.; Bertone, E.; Rodríguez-Merino, L.; Buzzoni, A.

    2005-12-01

    We present preliminary results of the application of a new stellar library of high-resolution synthetic spectra (based upon ATLAS9 and SYNTHE codes developed by R. L. Kurucz) in the calculation of the ultraviolet-optical spectral energy distribution of simple stellar populations (SSPs). For this purpose, the library has been coupled with Buzzoni's population synthesis code. Part of this paper is also devoted to illustrate quantitatively the extent to which synthetic stellar libraries represent real stars.

  16. A High Resolution Ammunition Resupply Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Transportation Assets .. . . . . . . . 111 b. Maximization of Shipping Space . . . . . 112 c. Adjustments Due to Priority Requisitions. 112 3. RESUPPLY...planned logistics module was expanded to a full stand-alone, high resolution model. Supplementary objectives were established in order to achieve the...each variable, and replication of the process described by these variables in order to achieve an expected value outcome. Using this technique, the

  17. High resolution image measurements of nuclear tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirk, E. K.; Price, P. B.

    1980-01-01

    The striking clarity and high contrast of the mouths of tracks etched in CR-39 plastic detectors allow automatic measurement of track parameters to be made with simple image-recognition equipment. Using a commercially available Vidicon camera system with a microprocessor-controlled digitizer, resolution for normally incident C-12 and N-14 ions at 32 MeV/amu equivalent to a 14sigma separation of adjacent charges was demonstrated.

  18. High-resolution, high-pressure NMR studies of proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, J; Ballard, L; Nash, D

    1998-01-01

    Advanced high-resolution NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional NMR techniques, combined with high pressure capability, represents a powerful new tool in the study of proteins. This contribution is organized in the following way. First, the specialized instrumentation needed for high-pressure NMR experiments is discussed, with specific emphasis on the design features and performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity, high-resolution, variable-temperature NMR probe operating at 500 MHz and at pressures of up to 500 MPa. An overview of several recent studies using 1D and 2D high-resolution, high-pressure NMR spectroscopy to investigate the pressure-induced reversible unfolding and pressure-assisted cold denaturation of lysozyme, ribonuclease A, and ubiquitin is presented. Specifically, the relationship between the residual secondary structure of pressure-assisted, cold-denatured states and the structure of early folding intermediates is discussed. PMID:9649405

  19. High Resolution Measurement of the Glycolytic Rate

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Carla X.; Loaiza, Anitsi; Ruminot, Iván; Larenas, Valeria; Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Tamara; Gutiérrez, Robin; Córdova, Alex; Valdebenito, Rocío; Frommer, Wolf B.; Barros, L. Felipe

    2010-01-01

    The glycolytic rate is sensitive to physiological activity, hormones, stress, aging, and malignant transformation. Standard techniques to measure the glycolytic rate are based on radioactive isotopes, are not able to resolve single cells and have poor temporal resolution, limitations that hamper the study of energy metabolism in the brain and other organs. A new method is described in this article, which makes use of a recently developed FRET glucose nanosensor to measure the rate of glycolysis in single cells with high temporal resolution. Used in cultured astrocytes, the method showed for the first time that glycolysis can be activated within seconds by a combination of glutamate and K+, supporting a role for astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in the brain. It was also possible to make a direct comparison of metabolism in neurons and astrocytes lying in close proximity, paving the way to a high-resolution characterization of brain energy metabolism. Single-cell glycolytic rates were also measured in fibroblasts, adipocytes, myoblasts, and tumor cells, showing higher rates for undifferentiated cells and significant metabolic heterogeneity within cell types. This method should facilitate the investigation of tissue metabolism at the single-cell level and is readily adaptable for high-throughput analysis. PMID:20890447

  20. CrIS High Resolution Hyperspectral Radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepplewhite, C. L.; Strow, L. L.; Motteler, H.; Desouza-Machado, S. G.; Tobin, D. C.; Martin, G.; Gumley, L.

    2014-12-01

    The CrIS hyperspectral sounder flying on Suomi-NPPpresently has reduced spectral resolution in the mid-wave andshort-wave spectral bands due to truncation of the interferograms inorbit. CrIS has occasionally downlinked full interferograms for thesebands (0.8 cm max path, or 0.625 cm-1 point spacing) for a feworbits up to a full day. Starting Oct.1, 2014 CrIS will be commandedto download full interferograms continuously for the remainder of themission, although NOAA will not immediately produce high-spectralresolution Sensor Data Records (SDRs). Although the originalmotivation for operating in high-resolution mode was improved spectralcalibration, these new data will also improve (1) vertical sensitivityto water vapor, and (2) greatly increase the CrIS sensitivity tocarbon monoxide. This should improve (1) NWP data assimilation ofwater vapor and (2) provide long-term continuity of carbon monoxideretrievals begun with MOPITT on EOS-TERRA and AIRS on EOS-AQUA. Wehave developed a SDR algorithm to produce calibrated high-spectralresolution radiances which includes several improvements to theexisting CrIS SDR algorithm, and will present validation of thesehigh-spectral resolution radiances using a variety of techniques,including bias evaluation versus NWP model data and inter-comparisonsto AIRS and IASI using simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNOs). Theauthors are presently working to implement this algorithm for NASASuomi NPP Program production of Earth System Data Records.

  1. Acoustic force mapping in a hybrid acoustic-optical micromanipulation device supporting high resolution optical imaging† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information about 1D model calculations for a piezoelectric transducer. See DOI: 10.1039/c6lc00182c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Craig; MacDonald, Michael Peter; Ritsch-Marte, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Many applications in the life-sciences demand non-contact manipulation tools for forceful but nevertheless delicate handling of various types of sample. Moreover, the system should support high-resolution optical imaging. Here we present a hybrid acoustic/optical manipulation system which utilizes a transparent transducer, making it compatible with high-NA imaging in a microfluidic environment. The powerful acoustic trapping within a layered resonator, which is suitable for highly parallel particle handling, is complemented by the flexibility and selectivity of holographic optical tweezers, with the specimens being under high quality optical monitoring at all times. The dual acoustic/optical nature of the system lends itself to optically measure the exact acoustic force map, by means of direct force measurements on an optically trapped particle. For applications with (ultra-)high demand on the precision of the force measurements, the position of the objective used for the high-NA imaging may have significant influence on the acoustic force map in the probe chamber. We have characterized this influence experimentally and the findings were confirmed by model simulations. We show that it is possible to design the chamber and to choose the operating point in such a way as to avoid perturbations due to the objective lens. Moreover, we found that measuring the electrical impedance of the transducer provides an easy indicator for the acoustic resonances. PMID:27025398

  2. Large Scale, High Resolution, Mantle Dynamics Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geenen, T.; Berg, A. V.; Spakman, W.

    2007-12-01

    To model the geodynamic evolution of plate convergence, subduction and collision and to allow for a connection to various types of observational data, geophysical, geodetical and geological, we developed a 4D (space-time) numerical mantle convection code. The model is based on a spherical 3D Eulerian fem model, with quadratic elements, on top of which we constructed a 3D Lagrangian particle in cell(PIC) method. We use the PIC method to transport material properties and to incorporate a viscoelastic rheology. Since capturing small scale processes associated with localization phenomena require a high resolution, we spend a considerable effort on implementing solvers suitable to solve for models with over 100 million degrees of freedom. We implemented Additive Schwartz type ILU based methods in combination with a Krylov solver, GMRES. However we found that for problems with over 500 thousend degrees of freedom the convergence of the solver degraded severely. This observation is known from the literature [Saad, 2003] and results from the local character of the ILU preconditioner resulting in a poor approximation of the inverse of A for large A. The size of A for which ILU is no longer usable depends on the condition of A and on the amount of fill in allowed for the ILU preconditioner. We found that for our problems with over 5×105 degrees of freedom convergence became to slow to solve the system within an acceptable amount of walltime, one minute, even when allowing for considerable amount of fill in. We also implemented MUMPS and found good scaling results for problems up to 107 degrees of freedom for up to 32 CPU¡¯s. For problems with over 100 million degrees of freedom we implemented Algebraic Multigrid type methods (AMG) from the ML library [Sala, 2006]. Since multigrid methods are most effective for single parameter problems, we rebuild our model to use the SIMPLE method in the Stokes solver [Patankar, 1980]. We present scaling results from these solvers for 3D

  3. High-Resolution Mapping in Manus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, C. N.; Ferrini, V. L.

    2006-12-01

    Near-bottom seafloor mapping with precisely navigated deep submergence vehicles has become increasingly common in a range of oceanographic settings. Recent mapping efforts at deep-water hydrothermal vent sites have resulted in high-resolution (sub-meter) bathymetry datasets that can be used to identify morphological features associated with volcanic, tectonic, and hydrothermal processes. The resolution of these maps, and our ability to accurately quantify the complex morphologic details of hydrothermal structures has been limited by a number of variables including navigational accuracy, sonar settings (e.g. acoustic wavelength, sonar orientation, ping rate), survey parameters (e.g. altitude, speed), data density, and data processing techniques (e.g. gridding algorithms). We present the results of two near-bottom surveys conducted in August 2006 at the PACMANUS (Papua New Guinea-Australia-Canada Manus) hydrothermal field in the eastern Manus Basin of the Bismarck Sea, south of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. Data were simultaneously acquired with two high-resolution multibeam sonar systems mounted on the Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) Jason 2. A Simrad SM2000 (200 kHz) multibeam system was mounted in down-looking mode, and an Imagenex DeltaT (675 kHz) multibeam system was mounted on the brow of the vehicle in a forward-looking orientation. Surveys were conducted in parallel survey lines at 15 m altitude (15 m line spacing), and the can be used to generate sub-meter resolution maps of the seafloor. The maps were assembled using a terrain registration algorithm designed to minimize the affects of navigation error. Together, these sonars provide a complementary dataset that allows us to better quantify the 3-dimensional morphological characteristics of complex hydrothermal vent structures. This information can be used to more accurately estimate the volume of hydrothermal deposits, and render a more complete environmental picture that is less hindered by occlusions and

  4. Ultra-high resolution DNA structures.

    PubMed

    Wang, A H; Robinson, H; Gao, Y G

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the progress in our efforts at producing ultra-high resolution (< 0.8 A) DNA structures using advanced cryo-crystallography and synchrotron. Our work is aimed at providing reliable geometric (bond length and bond angle), electronic and motional information of DNA molecules in different conformational contexts. These highly-reliable, new structures will be the basis for constructing better DNA force-field parameters, which will benefit the structural refinement of DNA, protein-DNA complexes, and ligand-DNA complexes.

  5. Moderate resolution spectrophotometry of high redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1991-01-01

    A uniform set of photometry and high signal-to-noise moderate resolution spectroscopy of 33 quasars with redshifts larger than 3.1 is presented. The sample consists of 17 newly discovered quasars (two with redshifts in excess of 4.4) and 16 sources drawn from the literature. The objects in this sample have r magnitudes between 17.4 and 21.4; their luminosities range from -28.8 to -24.9. Three of the 33 objects are broad absorption line quasars. A number of possible high redshift damped Ly-alpha systems were found.

  6. Binary Cepheids From High-Angular Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallenne, A.; Mérand, A.; Kervella, P.

    2015-12-01

    Optical interferometry is the only technique giving access to milli-arcsecond (mas) spatial resolution. This is a powerful and unique tool to detect the close orbiting companions of Cepheids, and offers an unique opportunity to make progress in resolving the Cepheid mass discrepancy. Our goal in studying binary Cepheids is to measure the astrometric position of the high-contrast companion, and then combine them with spectroscopic measurements to derive the orbital elements, distances, and dynamical masses. In the course of this program, we developed a new tool, CANDID, to search for high-contrast companions and set detection limits from interferometric observations

  7. High Time Resolution Studies with the GBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowska, Natalia; Lynch, Ryan S.

    2017-01-01

    The detection of neutron stars 49 years ago has created many new and independent branches of research. In 1967, fast rotating neutron stars, or pulsars, became the first objects of this kind to be discovered at radio wavelengths -- more than 30years after their theoretical prediction.In spite of numerous studies throughout the years, the mechanism of the observed radio emission of pulsars is still not understood. Recent technological developments allow observations of pulsars with time resolutions extending into the nanoseconds range, providing a unique insight into the momentary state of a pulsar.Radio giant pulses are known to occur non-periodically in certain phase ranges, exhibit much higher peak flux densities than regular pulses, and to have pulse widths ranging from the micro- to nanoseconds. Their characteristics make them suitable for high time resolution studies. We present the first high time resolution observations of the original millisecond pulsar PSR B1937+21 carried out with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Radio Telescope.

  8. High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy of Rhenium Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Allan G.; Hall, Ryan M.; Linton, Colan; Tokaryk, Dennis

    2014-06-01

    The first spectroscopic study of rhenium carbide, ReC, has been performed using both low and high resolution techniques to collect rotationally resolved electronic spectra from 420 to 500nm. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and dispersed fluorescence (DF) techniques were employed. ReC was formed in our laser ablation molecular jet apparatus by ablating a rhenium target rod in the presence of 1% methane in helium. The low resolution spectrum identified four bands of an electronic system belonging to ReC, three of which have been studied so far. Extensive hyperfine structure composed of six hyperfine components was observed in the high resolution spectrum, as well as a clear distinction between the 187ReC and 185ReC isotopologues. The data seems consistent with a ^4Π - ^4Σ- transition, as was predicted before experimentation. Dispersed fluorescence spectra allowed us to determine the ground state vibrational frequency (ωe"=994.4 ± 0.3 wn), and to identify a low-lying electronically excited state at Te"=1118.4 ± 0.4 wn with a vibrational frequency of ωe"=984 ± 2 wn. Personal communication, F. Grein, University of New Brunswick

  9. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Esther; Bushnell, Brian; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Bowers, Robert M; Levy, Asaf; Gies, Esther A; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Copeland, Alex; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Hallam, Steven J; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tringe, Susannah G; Woyke, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, high-throughput short-read 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing has eclipsed clone-dependent long-read Sanger sequencing for microbial community profiling. The transition to new technologies has provided more quantitative information at the expense of taxonomic resolution with implications for inferring metabolic traits in various ecosystems. We applied single-molecule real-time sequencing for microbial community profiling, generating full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences at high throughput, which we propose to name PhyloTags. We benchmarked and validated this approach using a defined microbial community. When further applied to samples from the water column of meromictic Sakinaw Lake, we show that while community structures at the phylum level are comparable between PhyloTags and Illumina V4 16S rRNA gene sequences (iTags), variance increases with community complexity at greater water depths. PhyloTags moreover allowed less ambiguous classification. Last, a platform-independent comparison of PhyloTags and in silico generated partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated significant differences in community structure and phylogenetic resolution across multiple taxonomic levels, including a severe underestimation in the abundance of specific microbial genera involved in nitrogen and methane cycling across the Lake's water column. Thus, PhyloTags provide a reliable adjunct or alternative to cost-effective iTags, enabling more accurate phylogenetic resolution of microbial communities and predictions on their metabolic potential. PMID:26859772

  10. A high resolution ultraviolet Shuttle glow spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, George R.

    1993-01-01

    The High Resolution Shuttle Glow Spectrograph-B (HRSGS-B) is a small payload being developed by the Naval Research Laboratory. It is intended for study of shuttle surface glow in the 180-400 nm near- and middle-ultraviolet wavelength range, with a spectral resolution of 0.2 nm. It will search for, among other possible features, the band systems of excited NO which result from surface-catalyzed combination of N and O. It may also detect O2 Hertzberg bands and N2 Vegard-Kaplan bands resulting from surface recombination. This wavelength range also includes possible N2+ and OH emissions. The HRSGS-B will be housed in a Get Away Special canister, mounted in the shuttle orbiter payload bay, and will observe the glow on the tail of the orbiter.

  11. High resolution patterning of silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Bertino, M.F.; Hund, J.F.; Sosa, J.; Zhang, G.; Sotiriou-Leventis, C.; Leventis, N.; Tokuhiro, A.T.; Terry, J.

    2008-10-30

    Three-dimensional metallic structures are fabricated with high spatial resolution in silica aerogels. In our method, silica hydrogels are prepared with a standard base-catalyzed route, and exchanged with an aqueous solution typically containing Ag{sup +} ions (1 M) and 2-propanol (0.2 M). The metal ions are reduced photolytically with a table-top ultraviolet lamp, or radiolytically, with a focused X-ray beam. We fabricated dots and lines as small as 30 x 70 {micro}m, protruding for several mm into the bulk of the materials. The hydrogels are eventually supercritically dried to yield aerogels, without any measurable change in the shape and spatial resolution of the lithographed structures. Transmission electron microscopy shows that illuminated regions are composed by Ag clusters with a size of several {micro}m, separated by thin layers of silica.

  12. Computer synthesis of high resolution electron micrographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1976-01-01

    Specimen damage, spherical aberration, low contrast and noisy sensors combine to prevent direct atomic viewing in a conventional electron microscope. The paper describes two methods for obtaining ultra-high resolution in biological specimens under the electron microscope. The first method assumes the physical limits of the electron objective lens and uses a series of dark field images of biological crystals to obtain direct information on the phases of the Fourier diffraction maxima; this information is used in an appropriate computer to synthesize a large aperture lens for a 1-A resolution. The second method assumes there is sufficient amplitude scatter from images recorded in focus which can be utilized with a sensitive densitometer and computer contrast stretching to yield fine structure image details. Cancer virus characterization is discussed as an illustrative example. Numerous photographs supplement the text.

  13. High resolution mapping of martian neutron albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanin, A.

    It is known from data of High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND) on Mars Odyssey that there is very large regional variation of leakage flux of epithermal neutrons on the surface of Mars. The factor of regional variations is about 10 for mapping with linear resolution of about 200-300 km. Two circumpolar depressions of epithermal neutrons emission were found above latitudes of 50 - 60, which correspond to Northern and Southern permafrost regions with very high (up to 50 wt%) content of water ice. Also, according to the HEND mapping data, there are two opposite equatorial regions Arabia Terra and Memnonia, which contain about 10 wt% of water under the top layer of dry soil with a column density of about 30 g/cm2. The surface resolution of orbital data about 300 km is determined by natural collimation of neutrons in the subsurface and in the atmosphere. For a territory larger than this size, the average content of water could be estimated by the large area approximation. In this case the comparison is performed between the average counts of neutrons over the territory and predicted counts for the planet with the same model of the entire surface. The content of water is found, as the best fitting parameter of this model. For local spots of depression with much smaller sizes this procedure underestimates the content of water. Thus, according this approximation, the spot with largest depression in the Arabia Terra at 10-12 N and 30-32 E contains at least 16 wt% of water, but in reality this value could be much larger. The content of water at this spot will be obtained with better spatial resolution by so-called inverse projection procedure. This model-dependent procedure allows to test water content for areas much smaller than the size of HEND surface resolution. The results of water content according to this procedure will be presented for the Arabia spot with the greatest depression of epithermal neutrons.

  14. High resolution hyperspectral imaging with a high throughput virtual slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooding, Edward A.; Gunn, Thomas; Cenko, Andrew T.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) device users often require both high spectral resolution, on the order of 1 nm, and high light-gathering power. A wide entrance slit assures reasonable étendue but degrades spectral resolution. Spectrometers built using High Throughput Virtual Slit™ (HTVS) technology optimize both parameters simultaneously. Two remote sensing use cases that require high spectral resolution are discussed. First, detection of atmospheric gases with intrinsically narrow absorption lines, such as hydrocarbon vapors or combustion exhaust gases such as NOx and CO2. Detecting exhaust gas species with high precision has become increasingly important in the light of recent events in the automobile industry. Second, distinguishing reflected daylight from emission spectra in the visible and NIR (VNIR) regions is most easily accomplished using the Fraunhofer absorption lines in solar spectra. While ground reflectance spectral features in the VNIR are generally quite broad, the Fraunhofer lines are narrow and provide a signature of intrinsic vs. extrinsic illumination. The High Throughput Virtual Slit enables higher spectral resolution than is achievable with conventional spectrometers by manipulating the beam profile in pupil space. By reshaping the instrument pupil with reflective optics, HTVS-equipped instruments create a tall, narrow image profile at the exit focal plane, typically delivering 5X or better the spectral resolution achievable with a conventional design.

  15. Gemini high-resolution optical spectrograph conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeto, Kei; McConnachie, Alan; Anthony, André; Bohlender, David; Crampton, David; Desaulniers, Pierre; Dunn, Jennifer; Hardy, Tim; Hill, Alexis; Monin, Dmitry; Pazder, John; Schwab, Christian; Spano, Paola; Starkenburg, Else; Thibault, Simon; Walker, Gordon; Venn, Kim; Zhang, Hu

    2012-09-01

    A multiplexed moderate resolution (R = 34,000) and a single object high resolution (R = 90,000) spectroscopic facility for the entire 340 - 950nm wavelength region has been designed for Gemini. The result is a high throughput, versatile instrument that will enable precision spectroscopy for decades to come. The extended wavelength coverage for these relatively high spectral resolutions is achieved by use of an Echelle grating with VPH cross-dispersers and for the R = 90,000 mode utilization of an image slicer. The design incorporates a fast, efficient, reliable system for acquiring targets over the7 arcmin field of Gemini. This paper outlines the science case development and requirements flow-down process that leads to the configuration of the HIA instrument and describes the overall GHOS conceptual design. In addition, this paper discusses design trades examined during the conceptual design study instrument group of the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics has been commissioned by the Gemini Observatory as one of the three competing organizations to conduct a conceptual design study for a new Gemini High-Resolution Optical Spectrograph (GHOS). This paper outlines the science case development and requirements flow-down process that leads to the configuration of the HIA instrument and describes the overall GHOS conceptual design. In addition, this paper discusses design trades examined during the conceptual design study.

  16. High Spectral Resolution Lidar: System Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivek Vivekanandan, J.; Morley, Bruce; Spuler, Scott; Eloranta, Edwin

    2015-04-01

    One of the unique features of the high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) is simultaneous measurements of backscatter and extinction of atmosphere. It separates molecular scattering from aerosol and cloud particle backscatter based on their Doppler spectrum width. Scattering from aerosol and cloud particle are referred as Mie scattering. Molecular or Rayleigh scattering is used as a reference for estimating aerosol extinction and backscatter cross-section. Absolute accuracy of the backscattered signals and their separation into Rayleigh and Mie scattering depends on spectral purity of the transmitted signals, accurate measurement of transmit power, and precise performance of filters. Internal calibration is used to characterize optical subsystems Descriptions of high spectral resolution lidar system and its measurement technique can be found in Eloronta (2005) and Hair et al.(2001). Four photon counting detectors are used to measure the backscatter from the combined Rayleigh and molecular scattering (high and low gain), molecular scattering and cross-polarized signal. All of the detectors are sensitive to crosstalk or leakage through the optical filters used to separate the received signals and special data files are used to remove these effects as much as possible. Received signals are normalized with respect to the combined channel response to Mie and Rayleigh scattering. The laser transmit frequency is continually monitored and tuned to the 1109 Iodine absorption line. Aerosol backscatter cross-section is measured by referencing the aerosol return signal to the molecular return signal. Extinction measurements are calculated based on the differences between the expected (theoretical) and actual change in the molecular return. In this paper an overview of calibration of the HSRL is presented. References: Eloranta, E. W., High Spectral Resolution Lidar in Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Klaus Weitkamp editor, Springer Series in Optical

  17. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Esther; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Schwientek, Patrick; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Gies, Esther; Hallam, Steve; Tringe, Susannah; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-03-17

    The representation of bacterial and archaeal genome sequences is strongly biased towards cultivated organisms, which belong to merely four phylogenetic groups. Functional information and inter-phylum level relationships are still largely underexplored for candidate phyla, which are often referred to as microbial dark matter. Furthermore, a large portion of the 16S rRNA gene records in the GenBank database are labeled as environmental samples and unclassified, which is in part due to low read accuracy, potential chimeric sequences produced during PCR amplifications and the low resolution of short amplicons. In order to improve the phylogenetic classification of novel species and advance our knowledge of the ecosystem function of uncultivated microorganisms, high-throughput full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies with reduced biases are needed. We evaluated the performance of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in high-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling. For this purpose, we compared PacBio and Illumina metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a mock community as well as of an environmental sample from Sakinaw Lake, British Columbia. Sakinaw Lake is known to contain a large age of microbial species from candidate phyla. Sequencing results show that community structure based on PacBio shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequences is highly similar in both the mock and the environmental communities. Resolution power and community representation accuracy from SMRT sequencing data appeared to be independent of GC content of microbial genomes and was higher when compared to Illumina-based metagenome shotgun and 16S rRNA gene (iTag) sequences, e.g. full-length sequencing resolved all 23 OTUs in the mock community, while iTags did not resolve closely related species. SMRT sequencing hence offers various potential benefits when characterizing uncharted microbial communities.

  18. High resolution thermal denaturation of mammalian DNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Guttmann, T; Vítek, A; Pivec, L

    1977-01-01

    High resolution melting profiles of different mammalian DNAs are presented. Melting curves of various mammalian DNAs were compared with respect to the degree of asymmetry, first moment, transition breath and Tmi of individual subtransitions. Quantitative comparison of the shape of all melting curves was made. Correlation between phylogenetical relations among mammals and shape of the melting profiles of their DNAs was demonstrated. The difference between multi-component heterogeneity of mammalian DNAs found by optical melting analysis and sedimentation in CsCl-netropsin density gradient is also discussed. PMID:840642

  19. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  20. High resolution millimeter-wave imaging sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. J.; Howard, R. J.; Parks, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A scanning 3-mm radiometer is described that has been built for use on a small aircraft to produce real time high resolution images of the ground when atmospheric conditions such as smoke, dust, and clouds make IR and visual sensors unusable. The sensor can be used for a variety of remote sensing applications such as measurements of snow cover and snow water equivalent, precipitation mapping, vegetation type and extent, surface moisture and temperature, and surface thermal inertia. The advantages of millimeter waves for cloud penetration and the ability to observe different physical phenomena make this system an attractive supplement to visible and IR remote sensing systems.

  1. A CARS solution with high temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurquin, Vanessa; Hay, William C.; Landwehr, Stefanie; Krishnamachari, Vishnu

    2010-02-01

    Confocal and multiphoton microscopy are powerful fluorescence techniques for morphological and dynamics studies of labeled elements. For non-fluorescent components, CARS (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering) microscopy can be used for imaging various elements of cells such as lipids, proteins, DNA, etc. This technique is based on the intrinsic vibrational properties of the molecules. Leica Microsystems has combined CARS technology with its TCS SP5 II confocal microscope to provide several advantages for CARS imaging. The Leica TCS SP5 II combines two technologies in one system: a conventional scanner for maximum resolution and a resonant scanner for high time resolution. For CARS microscopy, two picosecond near-infrared lasers are tightly overlapped spatially and temporally and sent directly into the confocal system. The conventional scanner can be used for morphological studies and the resonant scanner for following dynamic processes of unstained living cells. The fast scanner has several advantages over other solutions. First, the sectioning is truly confocal and does not suffer from spatial leakage. Second, the high speed (29 images/sec @ 512×512 pixels) provides fast data acquisition at video rates, allowing studies at the sub-cellular level. In summary, CARS microscopy combined with the tandem scanner makes the Leica TCS SP5 II a powerful tool for multi-modal and three-dimensional imaging of chemical and biological samples. We will present our solution and show results from recent studies with the Leica instrument to illustrate the high flexibility of our system.

  2. High resolution detection system of capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Li Qiang; Shi, Yan; Zheng, Hua; Lu, Zu Kang

    2007-12-01

    The capillary electrophoresis (CE) with laser induced fluorescence detection (LIFD) system was founded according to confocal theory. The 3-D adjustment of the exciting and collecting optical paths was realized. The photomultiplier tube (PMT) is used and the signals are processed by a software designed by ourselves. Under computer control, high voltage is applied to appropriate reservoirs and to inject and separate DNA samples respectively. Two fluorescent dyes Thiazole Orange (TO) and SYBR Green I were contrasted. With both of the dyes, high signals-to-noise images were obtained with the CE-LIFD system. The single-bases can be distinguished from the electrophoretogram and high resolution of DNA sample separation was obtained.

  3. The importance of taxonomic resolution for additive beta diversity as revealed through DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Bringloe, Trevor T; Cottenie, Karl; Martin, Gillian K; Adamowicz, Sarah J

    2016-12-01

    Additive diversity partitioning (α, β, and γ) is commonly used to study the distribution of species-level diversity across spatial scales. Here, we first investigate whether published studies of additive diversity partitioning show signs of difficulty attaining species-level resolution due to inherent limitations with morphological identifications. Second, we present a DNA barcoding approach to delineate specimens of stream caddisfly larvae (order Trichoptera) and consider the importance of taxonomic resolution on classical (additive) measures of beta (β) diversity. Caddisfly larvae were sampled using a hierarchical spatial design in two regions (subarctic Churchill, Manitoba, Canada; temperate Pennsylvania, USA) and then additively partitioned according to Barcode Index Numbers (molecular clusters that serve as a proxy for species), genus, and family levels; diversity components were expressed as proportional species turnover. We screened 114 articles of additive diversity partitioning and found that a third reported difficulties with achieving species-level identifications, with a clear taxonomic tendency towards challenges identifying invertebrate taxa. Regarding our own study, caddisfly BINs appeared to show greater subregional turnover (e.g., proportional additive β) compared to genus or family levels. Diversity component studies failing to achieve species resolution due to morphological identifications may therefore be underestimating diversity turnover at larger spatial scales.

  4. Isotope labeling studies on the formation of multiple addition products of alanine in the pyrolysis residue of glucose/alanine mixtures by high-resolution ESI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Chu, Fong Lam; Sleno, Lekha; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2011-11-09

    Pyrolysis was used as a microscale sample preparation tool to generate glucose/alanine reaction products to minimize the use of expensive labeled precursors in isotope labeling studies. The residue remaining after the pyrolysis at 250 °C was analyzed by electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). It was observed that a peak at m/z 199.1445 in the ESI-TOF-MS spectrum appeared only when the model system contained at least 2-fold excess alanine. The accurate mass determination indeed indicated the presence of two nitrogen atoms in the molecular formula (C(10)H(18)N(2)O(2)). To verify the origin of the carbon atoms in this unknown compound, model studies with [(13)U(6)]glucose, [(13)C-1]alanine, [(13)C-2]alanine, [(13)C-3]alanine, and [(15)N]alanine were also performed. Glucose furnished six carbon atoms, and alanine provides four carbon (2 × C-2 and 2 × C-3) and two nitrogen atoms. When commercially available fructosylalanine (N-attached to C-1) was reacted with only 1 mol of alanine, a peak at m/z 199.1445 was once again observed. In addition, when 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) was reacted with a 2-fold excess of alanine, a peak at m/z 199.1433 was also generated, confirming the points of attachment of the two amino acids at C-1 and C-2 atoms of 3-DG. These studies have indicated that amino acids can undergo multiple addition reactions with 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds such as 3-deoxyglucosone and eventually form a tetrahydropyrazine moiety.

  5. Efficient Compression of High Resolution Climate Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Schuchardt, K. L.

    2011-12-01

    resolution climate data can be massive. Those data can consume a huge amount of disk space for storage, incur significant overhead for outputting data during simulation, introduce high latency for visualization and analysis, and may even make interactive visualization and analysis impossible given the limit of the data that a conventional cluster can handle. These problems can be alleviated by with effective and efficient data compression techniques. Even though HDF5 format supports compression, previous work has mainly focused on employ traditional general purpose compression schemes such as dictionary coder and block sorting based compression scheme. Those compression schemes mainly focus on encoding repeated byte sequences efficiently and are not well suitable for compressing climate data consist mainly of distinguished float point numbers. We plan to select and customize our compression schemes according to the characteristics of high-resolution climate data. One observation on high resolution climate data is that as the resolution become higher, values of various climate variables such as temperature and pressure, become closer in nearby cells. This provides excellent opportunities for predication-based compression schemes. We have performed a preliminary estimation of compression ratios of a very simple minded predication-based compression ratio in which we compute the difference between current float point number with previous float point number and then encoding the exponent and significance part of the float point number with entropy-based compression scheme. Our results show that we can achieve higher compression ratios between 2 and 3 in lossless compression, which is significantly higher than traditional compression algorithms. We have also developed lossy compression with our techniques. We can achive orders of magnitude data reduction while ensure error bounds. Moreover, our compression scheme is much more efficient and introduces much less overhead

  6. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  7. High Resolution BPM for Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, C.; Chel, S.; Luong, M.; Napoly, O.; Novo, J.; Roudier, D.; Rouviere, N.

    2006-11-20

    A high resolution Beam Position Monitor (BPM) is necessary for the beam-based alignment systems of high energy and low emittance electron linacs. Such a monitor is developed in the framework of the European CARE/SRF programme, in a close collaboration between DESY and CEA/DSM/DAPNIA. This monitor is a radiofrequency re-entrant cavity, which can be used either at room or cryogenic temperature, in an environment where dust particle contamination has to be avoided, such as superconducting cavities in a cryomodule. A first prototype of a re-entrant BPM has already delivered measurements at 2K. inside the first cryomodule (ACC1) on the TESLA Test Facility 2 (TTF2). The performances of this BPM are analyzed both experimentally and theoretically, and the limitations of this existing system clearly identified. A new cavity and new electronics have been designed in order to improve the position resolution down to 1 {mu}m and the damping time down to 10 ns.

  8. High-resolution light microscopy of nanoforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Pustovyy, Oleg; Vainrub, Arnold

    2007-09-01

    We developed a high resolution light imaging system. Diffraction gratings with 100 nm width lines as well as less than 100 nm size features of different-shaped objects are clearly visible on a calibrated microscope test slide (Vainrub et al., Optics Letters, 2006, 31, 2855). The two-point resolution increase results from a known narrowing of the central diffraction peak for the annular aperture. Better visibility and advanced contrast of the smallest features in the image are due to enhancement of high spatial frequencies in the optical transfer function. The imaging system is portable, low energy, and battery operated. It has been adapted to use in both transmitting and reflecting light. It is particularly applicable for motile nanoform systems where structure and functions can be depicted in real time. We have isolated micrometer and submicrometer particles, termed proteons, from human and animal blood. Proteons form by reversible seeded aggregation of proteins around proteon nucleating centers (PNCs). PNCs are comprised of 1-2nm metallic nanoclusters containing 40-300 atoms. Proteons are capable of spontaneous assembling into higher nanoform systems assuming structure of complicated topology. The arrangement of complex proteon system mimics the structure of a small biological cell. It has structures that imitate membrane and nucleolus or nuclei. Some of these nanoforms are motile. They interact and divide. Complex nanoform systems can spontaneously reduce to simple proteons. The physical properties of these nanoforms could shed some light on the properties of early life forms or forms at extreme conditions.

  9. High resolution guided wave pipe inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velichko, Alexander; Wilcox, Paul D.

    2009-03-01

    Commercial guided wave inspection systems provide rapid screening of pipes, but limited sizing capability for small defects. However, accurate detection and sizing of small defects is essential for assessing the integrity of inaccessible pipe regions where guided waves provide the only possible inspection mechanism. In this paper an array-based approach is presented that allows guided waves to be focused on both transmission and reception to produce a high resolution image of a length of pipe. In the image, it is shown that a signal to coherent noise ratio of over 40 dB with respect to the reflected signal from a free end of pipe can be obtained, even taking into account typical levels of experimental uncertainty in terms of transducer positioning, wave velocity etc. The combination of an image with high resolution and a 40 dB dynamic range enables the detection of very small defects. It also allows the in-plane shape of defects over a certain size to be observed directly. Simulations are used to estimate the detection and sizing capability of the system for crack-like defects. Results are presented from a prototype system that uses EMATs to fully focus pipe guided wave modes on both transmission and reception in a 12 inch diameter stainless steel pipe. The 40 dB signal to coherent noise ratio is obtained experimentally and a 2 mm diameter (0.08 wavelengths) half-thickness hole is shown to be detectable.

  10. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2000-01-01

    The major research activities performed during the cooperative agreement enhanced our spectroscopic knowledge of molecules of atmospheric interest such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, ozone, methane, and carbon monoxide, to name a few. Measurements were made using the NASA Langley Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer System (TDL) and several Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems (FTS) around the globe. The results from these studies made remarkable improvements in the line positions and intensities for several molecules, particularly ozone and carbon dioxide in the 2 to 17-micrometer spectral region. Measurements of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients and the temperature dependence of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients for infrared transitions of ozone, methane, and water vapor were also performed. Results from these studies have been used for retrievals of stratospheric gas concentration profiles from data collected by several Upper Atmospheric Research satellite (UARS) infrared instruments as well as in the analysis of high resolution atmospheric spectra such as those acquired by space-based, ground-based, and various balloon-and aircraft-borne experiments. Our results made significant contributions in several updates of the HITRAN (HIgh resolution TRANsmission) spectral line parameters database. This database enjoys worldwide recognition in research involving diversified scientific fields.

  11. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2000-01-01

    The major research activities performed during the cooperative agreement enhanced our spectroscopic knowledge of molecules of atmospheric interest such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, ozone, methane, and carbon monoxide, to name a few. Measurements were made using the NASA Langley Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer System (TDL) and several Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems (FTS) around the globe. The results from these studies made remarkable improvements in the line positions and intensities for several molecules, particularly ozone and carbon dioxide in the 2 to 17-micrometer spectral region. Measurements of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients and the temperature dependence of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients for infrared transitions of ozone, methane, and water vapor were also performed. Results from these studies have been used for retrievals of stratospheric gas concentration profiles from data collected by several Upper Atmospheric Research satellite (UARS) infrared instruments as well as in the analysis of high resolution atmospheric spectra such as those acquired by space-based, ground-based, and various balloon- and aircraft-borne experiments. Our results made significant contributions in several updates of the HITRAN (HIgh resolution TRANsmission) spectral line parameters database. This database enjoys worldwide recognition in research involving diversified scientific fields.

  12. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2003-01-01

    Spectroscopic parameters (such as line position, intensity, broadening and shifting coefficients and their temperature dependences, line mixing coefficients etc.) for various molecular species of atmospheric interest are determined. In order to achieve these results, infrared spectra of several molecular bands are obtained using high-resolution recording instruments such as tunable diode laser spectrometer and Fourier transform spectrometers. Using sophisticated analysis routines (Multispectrum nonlinear least squares technique) these high-resolution infrared spectra are processed to determine the various spectral line parameters that are cited above. Spectra were taken using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona as well as the Bruker FTS at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at Richland, Washington. Most of the spectra are acquired not only at room temperature, but also at several different cold temperatures. This procedure is necessary to study the variation of the spectral line parameters as a function of temperature in order to simulate the Earth's and other planetary atmospheric environments. Depending upon the strength or weakness of the various bands recorded and analyzed, the length(s) of the absorption cells in which the gas samples under study are kept varied from a few centimeters up to several meters and the sample temperatures varied from approximately +30 C to -63 C. Research on several infrared bands of various molecular species and their isotopomers are undertaken. Those studies are briefly described.

  13. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

  14. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    DOEpatents

    Paulus, Michael J.; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Gleason, Shaun S.; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  15. High resolution wavefront measurement of aspheric optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erichsen, I.; Krey, S.; Heinisch, J.; Ruprecht, A.; Dumitrescu, E.

    2008-08-01

    With the recently emerged large volume production of miniature aspheric lenses for a wide range of applications, a new fast fully automatic high resolution wavefront measurement instrument has been developed. The Shack-Hartmann based system with reproducibility better than 0.05 waves is able to measure highly aspheric optics and allows for real time comparison with design data. Integrated advanced analysis tools such as calculation of Zernike coefficients, 2D-Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Point Spread Function (PSF), Strehl-Ratio and the measurement of effective focal length (EFL) as well as flange focal length (FFL) allow for the direct verification of lens properties and can be used in a development as well as in a production environment.

  16. Venus gravity - A high-resolution map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.; Macneil, P. E.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1981-01-01

    The Doppler data from the radio tracking of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) have been used in a two-stage analysis to develop a high-resolution map of the gravitational potential of Venus, represented by a central mass and a surface mass density. The two-stage procedure invokes a Kalman filter-smoother to determine the orbit of the spacecraft, and a stabilized linear inverter to estimate the surface mass density. The resultant gravity map is highly correlated with the topographic map derived from the PVO radar altimeter data. However, the magnitudes of the gravity variations are smaller than would be expected if the topography were uncompensated, indicating that at least partial compensation has taken place.

  17. The High Resolution Infrared Spectrum of HCl().

    PubMed

    Doménech, J L; Drouin, B J; Cernicharo, J; Herrero, V J; Tanarro, I

    2016-12-20

    The chloroniumyl cation, HCl(+), has been recently identified in space from Herschel's spectra. A joint analysis of extensive vis-UV spectroscopy emission data together with a few high-resolution and high-accuracy millimiter-wave data provided the necessary rest frequencies to support the astronomical identification. Nevertheless, the analysis did not include any infrared (IR) vibration-rotation data. Furthermore, with the end of the Herschel mission, infrared observations from the ground may be one of the few available means to further study this ion in space. In this work, we provide a set of accurate rovibrational transition wavenumbers as well as a new and improved global fit of vis-UV, IR and millimiter-wave spectroscopy laboratory data, that will aid in future studies of this molecule.

  18. High resolution imaging of live mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jakobs, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Classically, mitochondria have been studied by biochemical, genetic and electron microscopic approaches. In the last two decades, it became evident that mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that are frequently dividing and fusing, changing size and shape and traveling long distances throughout the life of a cell. The study of the complex structural changes of mitochondria in vivo became possible with the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques in combination with live cell imaging microscopy. This review aims to provide an overview on novel fluorescent markers that are used in combination with mitochondrial fusion assays and various live cell microscopy techniques to study mitochondrial dynamics. In particular, approaches to study the movement of mitochondrial proteins and novel imaging techniques (FRET imaging-, 4Pi- and STED-microscopy) that provide high spatial resolution are considered.

  19. The High Resolution Infrared Spectrum of HCl+

    PubMed Central

    Drouin, B. J.; Cernicharo, J.; Herrero, V. J.; Tanarro, I.

    2017-01-01

    The chloroniumyl cation, HCl+, has been recently identified in space from Herschel’s spectra. A joint analysis of extensive vis-UV spectroscopy emission data together with a few high-resolution and high-accuracy millimiter-wave data provided the necessary rest frequencies to support the astronomical identification. Nevertheless, the analysis did not include any infrared (IR) vibration-rotation data. Furthermore, with the end of the Herschel mission, infrared observations from the ground may be one of the few available means to further study this ion in space. In this work, we provide a set of accurate rovibrational transition wavenumbers as well as a new and improved global fit of vis-UV, IR and millimiter-wave spectroscopy laboratory data, that will aid in future studies of this molecule. PMID:28261442

  20. High-resolution colorimetric imaging of paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Kirk; Cupitt, John; Saunders, David R.

    1993-05-01

    With the aim of providing a digital electronic replacement for conventional photography of paintings, a scanner has been constructed based on a 3000 X 2300 pel resolution camera which is moved precisely over a 1 meter square area. Successive patches are assembled to form a mosaic which covers the whole area at c. 20 pels/mm resolution, which is sufficient to resolve the surface textures, particularly craquelure. To provide high color accuracy, a set of seven broad-band interference filters are used to cover the visible spectrum. A calibration procedure based upon a least-mean-squares fit to the color of patches from a Macbeth Colorchecker chart yields an average color accuracy of better than 3 units in the CMC uniform color space. This work was mainly carried out as part of the VASARI project funded by the European Commission's ESPRIT program, involving companies and galleries from around Europe. The system is being used to record images for conservation research, for archival purposes and to assist in computer-aided learning in the field of art history. The paper will describe the overall system design, including the selection of the various hardware components and the design of controlling software. The theoretical basis for the color calibration methodology is described as well as the software for its practical implementation. The mosaic assembly procedure and some of the associated image processing routines developed are described. Preliminary results from the research will be presented.

  1. High Resolution Radar Measurements of Snow Avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, Jim; Sovilla, Betty; Vriend, Nathalie; Brennan, Paul; Ash, Matt; Keylock, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Geophysical mass flows, such as snow avalanches, are a major hazard in mountainous areas and have a significant impact on the infrastructure, economy and tourism of such regions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the dynamics of snow avalanches is crucial for risk assessment and the design of defensive structures. However, because the underlying physics is poorly understood there are significant uncertainties concerning current models, which are poorly validated due to a lack of high resolution data. Direct observations of the denser core of a large avalanche are particularly difficult, since it is frequently obscured by the dilute powder cloud. We have developed and installed a phased array FMCW radar system that penetrates the powder cloud and directly images the dense core with a resolution of around 1 m at 50 Hz over the entire slope. We present data from recent avalanches at Vallee de la Sionne that show a wealth of internal structure and allow the tracking of individual fronts, roll waves and surges down the slope for the first time. We also show good agreement between the radar results and existing measurement systems that record data at particular points on the avalanche track.

  2. High Resolution Radar Measurements of Snow Avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, J. N.; Vriend, N. M.; Sovilla, B.; Keylock, C. J.; Brennan, P.; Ash, M.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysical mass flows, such as snow avalanches, are a major hazard in mountainous areas and have a significant impact on the infrastructure, economy and tourism of such regions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the dynamics of snow avalanches is crucial for risk assessment and the design of defensive structures. However, because the underlying physics is poorly understood there are significant uncertainties concerning current models, which are poorly validated due to a lack of high resolution data. Direct observations of the denser core of a large avalanche are particularly difficult, since it is frequently obscured by the dilute powder cloud. We have developed and installed a phased array FMCW radar system that penetrates the powder cloud and directly images the dense core with a resolution of around 1 m at 50 Hz over the entire slope. We present data from recent avalanches at Vallée de la Sionne that show a wealth of internal structure and allow the tracking of individual fronts, roll waves and surges down the slope for the first time. We also show good agreement between the radar results and existing measurement systems that record data at particular points on the avalanche track.

  3. Pyramidal fractal dimension for high resolution images.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Fractal analysis (FA) should be able to yield reliable and fast results for high-resolution digital images to be applicable in fields that require immediate outcomes. Triggered by an efficient implementation of FA for binary images, we present three new approaches for fractal dimension (D) estimation of images that utilize image pyramids, namely, the pyramid triangular prism, the pyramid gradient, and the pyramid differences method (PTPM, PGM, PDM). We evaluated the performance of the three new and five standard techniques when applied to images with sizes up to 8192 × 8192 pixels. By using artificial fractal images created by three different generator models as ground truth, we determined the scale ranges with minimum deviations between estimation and theory. All pyramidal methods (PM) resulted in reasonable D values for images of all generator models. Especially, for images with sizes ≥1024×1024 pixels, the PMs are superior to the investigated standard approaches in terms of accuracy and computation time. A measure for the possibility to differentiate images with different intrinsic D values did show not only that the PMs are well suited for all investigated image sizes, and preferable to standard methods especially for larger images, but also that results of standard D estimation techniques are strongly influenced by the image size. Fastest results were obtained with the PDM and PGM, followed by the PTPM. In terms of absolute D values best performing standard methods were magnitudes slower than the PMs. Concluding, the new PMs yield high quality results in short computation times and are therefore eligible methods for fast FA of high-resolution images.

  4. ALMA Debuts High-Resolution Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    through space as it orbits the Sun. The resolution of these images — enough to study the shape and even some surface features of the asteroid! — are unprecedented for this wavelength. HL Tau is a young star surrounded by a protoplanetary disk. ALMA's detailed observations of this region revealed remarkable structure within the disk: a series of light and dark concentric rings indicative of planets caught in the act of forming. Studying this system will help us understand how multi-planet solar systems like our own form and evolve. The star-forming galaxy SDP.81 — located so far away that the light we see was emitted when the Universe was only 15% of its current age — is gravitationally-lensed into a cosmic arc, due to the convenient placement of a nearby foreground galaxy. The combination of the lucky alignment and ALMA's high resolution grant us a spectacularly detailed view of this distant galaxy, allowing us to study its actual shape and the motion within it. The observations from ALMA's first test of its long baseline demonstrate that ALMA is capable of doing the transformational science it promised. As we gear up for the next cycle of observations, it's clear that exciting times are ahead! Citation: ALMA ship et al. 2015 ApJ 808 L1, L2, L3 and L4. Focus on the ALMA Long Baseline Campaign

  5. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This report constitutes the final report for NASA Contract NASW-5054. This project processed Clementine I high resolution images of the Moon, mosaicked these images together, and created a 22-disk set of compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM) volumes. The mosaics were produced through semi-automated registration and calibration of the high resolution (HiRes) camera's data against the geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS). The HiRes mosaics were compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution nadir-looking observations. The images were spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel for sub-polar mosaics (below 80 deg. latitude) and using the stereographic projection at a scale of 30 m/pixel for polar mosaics. Only images with emission angles less than approximately 50 were used. Images from non-mapping cross-track slews, which tended to have large SPICE errors, were generally omitted. The locations of the resulting image population were found to be offset from the UV/Vis basemap by up to 13 km (0.4 deg.). Geometric control was taken from the 100 m/pixel global and 150 m/pixel polar USGS Clementine Basemap Mosaics compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Radiometric calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity dominated by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap, that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The sub-polar mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 deg. of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. Polar mosaics are tiled into squares 2250 pixels on a

  6. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Brochard, T.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Prezado, Y.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Bravin, A.; Dusseau, L.; Berkvens, P.

    2010-07-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow (˜25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 μm microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy/s, micron

  7. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  8. High resolution derivative spectra in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demetriades-Shah, Tanvir H.; Steven, Michael D.; Clark, Jeremy A.

    1990-01-01

    The use of derivative spectra is an established technique in analytical chemistry for the elimination of background signals and for resolving overlapping spectral features. Application of this technique for tackling analogous problems such as interference from soil background reflectance in the remote sensing of vegetation or for resolving complex spectra of several target species within individual pixels in remote sensing is proposed. Methods for generating derivatives of high spectral resolution data are reviewed. Results of experiments to test the use of derivatives for monitoring chlorosis in vegetation show that derivative spectral indices are superior to conventional broad-band spectral indices such as the near-infrared/red reflectance ratio. Conventional broad-band indices are sensitive to both leaf cover as well as leaf color. New derivative spectral indices which were able to monitor chlorosis unambiguously were identified. Potential areas for the application of this technique in remote sensing are considered.

  9. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    SciTech Connect

    Braeuer-Krisch, E.; Brochard, T.; Prezado, Y.; Bravin, A.; Berkvens, P.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.

    2010-07-23

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow ({approx}25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 {mu}m microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy

  10. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C44H90 paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol.

  11. Classification of High Spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report,High Spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery of the Little Miami River Watershed in Southwest Ohio, USA . This report and associated land use/land cover (LULC) coverage is the result of a collaborative effort among an interdisciplinary team of scientists with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Office of Research and Development in Cincinnati, Ohio. A primary goal of this project is to enhance the use of geography and spatial analytic tools in risk assessment, and to improve the scientific basis for risk management decisions affecting drinking water and water quality. The land use/land cover classification is derived from 82 flight lines of Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspectral imagery acquired from July 24 through August 9, 2002 via fixed-wing aircraft.

  12. High-Resolution Anamorphic SPECT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Durko, Heather L.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a gamma-ray imaging system that combines a high-resolution silicon detector with two sets of movable, half-keel-edged copper-tungsten blades configured as crossed slits. These apertures can be positioned independently between the object and detector, producing an anamorphic image in which the axial and transaxial magnifications are not constrained to be equal. The detector is a 60 mm × 60 mm, one-millimeter-thick, one-megapixel silicon double-sided strip detector with a strip pitch of 59 μm. The flexible nature of this system allows the application of adaptive imaging techniques. We present system details; calibration, acquisition, and reconstruction methods; and imaging results. PMID:26160983

  13. High-resolution Martian atmosphere modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, W. G.; Fischbein, W. L.; Smith, L. L.; Hilgeman, T.

    1980-01-01

    A multilayer radiative transfer, high-spectral-resolution infrared model of the lower atmosphere of Mars has been constructed to assess the effect of scattering on line profiles. The model takes into accout aerosol scattering and absorption and includes a line-by-line treatment of scattering and absorption by CO2 and H2O. The aerosol complex indices of refraction used were those measured on montmorillonite and basalt chosen on the basis of Mars ir data from the NASA Lear Airborne Observatory. The particle sizes and distribution were estimated using Viking data. The molecular line treatment employs the AFGL line parameters and Voigt profiles. The modeling results indicate that the line profiles are only slightly affected by normal aerosol scattering and absorption, but the effect could be appreciable for heavy loading. The technique described permits a quantitative approach to assessing and correcting for the effect of aerosols on lineshapes in planetary atmospheres.

  14. High resolution CT of Meckel's cave.

    PubMed

    Chui, M; Tucker, W; Hudson, A; Bayer, N

    1985-01-01

    High resolution CT of the parasellar region was carried out in 50 patients studied for suspected pituitary microadenoma, but who showed normal pituitary gland or microadenoma on CT. This control group of patients all showed an ellipsoid low-density area in the posterior parasellar region. Knowledge of the gross anatomy and correlation with metrizamide cisternography suggest that the low density region represents Meckel's cave, rather than just the trigeminal ganglion alone. Though there is considerable variation in the size of Meckel's cave in different patients as well as the two sides of the same patient, the rather constant ellipsoid configuration of the cave in normal subjects will aid in diagnosing small pathological lesions, thereby obviating more invasive cisternography via the transovale or lumbar route. Patients with "idiopathic" tic douloureux do not show a Meckel's cave significantly different from the control group.

  15. High Spatial Resolution Spectroscopy of Semiconductor Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Timothy D.; Gershoni, David; Pfeiffer, Loren N.

    1996-03-01

    Several recent reports employing high spatial resolution have revealed the dominance of exciton localization in the low temperature luminescence of semiconductor quantum structures.^[1-3] Understanding this localization is of critical importance for the reliable studies of low dimensional structures such as quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots. We report on low temperature and high spatial resolution photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation studies of cleaved edge overgrown (CEO) single quantum wires. These samples permit the direct and unambiguous comparison between the optical properties of a (100) oriented quantum well, a (110) oriented quantum well, and the quantum wire which is formed at their intersection. Using low temperature near field optical spectroscopy, and a novel diffraction limited far field apparatus, we determine the carrier diffusion length dependence on pump wavelength and sample temperature in both the 2d systems and the genuinely 1D wire system. We also measure the absorption strength of the 1D system and find it to be a factor of 3 stronger than the absorption of the associated 2D systems.^[2] Using low temperature near field optical spectroscopy, and a novel diffraction limited far field apparatus, we also determine the carrier diffusion length dependence on pump wavelength and sample temperature. ^[1] H. F. Hess, E. Betzig, T. D. Harris, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Science 264, 1740 (1994). ^[2] T. D. Harris, D. Gershoni, R. D. Grober, L. Pfeiffer, K. West, and N. Chand, Appl. Phys. Lett, in press (1996) ^[3] D. Gammon, E. S. Snow, and D. S. Katzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2391 (1995)

  16. High resolution films for bone regeneration evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jammal, María V; Territoriale, Erika B; Abate, Carlos M; Missana, Liliana R

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging techniques (DIxT) seem to be a useful tool for evaluating bone formation in both human and animal models. There is little evidence on the use of Soft X-Rays (sXR) with high-resolution films for studying the healing process in critical bone size defects (CSD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of soft X-Ray - High Resolution Films (sXR) to distinguish bone regeneration in CSDs. A CSD was created in each of 16 Wistar rat calvariae. The animals were euthanized at 1, 3 and 6 weeks after surgery. The samples were submitted to cXR (conventional X-rays), sXR techniques and histological procedures (HP). Bone formation was observed at CSD edges at all periods of time. At 6 week there was also new bone in the central area. The CSD was not fully regenerated after any period of time. Histometric results were 0.16%; 0.75% and 0.89% new bone formed at weeks 1, 3 and 6 respectively; radiometric results at cXR were 0% in all samples. Evaluation of sXR shows 0.4%; 0.50% and 3.64% bone at weeks 1, 3 and 6. Mean and Standard Deviation were calculated. The data were submitted to statistical analysis using the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient test. The r value was 0.581. Under these experimental conditions, sXR was found to be a suitable method for detecting new bone formation, based on the positive correlation between sXR and HP during the bone healing process of CSDs in rat calvaria. Furthermore, the sXR technique allowed us to obtain samples with appropriate spatial orientation.

  17. High Resolution Simulations of Future Climate in West Africa Using a Variable-Resolution Atmospheric Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegoke, J. O.; Engelbrecht, F.; Vezhapparambu, S.

    2013-12-01

    In previous work demonstrated the application of a var¬iable-resolution global atmospheric model, the conformal-cubic atmospheric model (CCAM), across a wide range of spatial and time scales to investigate the ability of the model to provide realistic simulations of present-day climate and plausible projections of future climate change over sub-Saharan Africa. By applying the model in stretched-grid mode the versatility of the model dynamics, numerical formulation and physical parameterizations to function across a range of length scales over the region of interest, was also explored. We primarily used CCAM to illustrate the capability of the model to function as a flexible downscaling tool at the climate-change time scale. Here we report on additional long term climate projection studies performed by downscaling at much higher resolutions (8 Km) over an area that stretches from just south of Sahara desert to the southern coast of the Niger Delta and into the Gulf of Guinea. To perform these simulations, CCAM was provided with synoptic-scale forcing of atmospheric circulation from 2.5 deg resolution NCEP reanalysis at 6-hourly interval and SSTs from NCEP reanalysis data uses as lower boundary forcing. CCAM 60 Km resolution downscaled to 8 Km (Schmidt factor 24.75) then 8 Km resolution simulation downscaled to 1 Km (Schmidt factor 200) over an area approximately 50 Km x 50 Km in the southern Lake Chad Basin (LCB). Our intent in conducting these high resolution model runs was to obtain a deeper understanding of linkages between the projected future climate and the hydrological processes that control the surface water regime in this part of sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Wavefront metrology for high resolution optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Ryan H.

    Next generation extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical systems are moving to higher resolution optics to accommodate smaller length scales targeted by the semiconductor industry. As the numerical apertures (NA) of the optics become larger, it becomes increasingly difficult to characterize aberrations due to experimental challenges associated with high-resolution spatial filters and geometrical effects caused by large incident angles of the test wavefront. This dissertation focuses on two methods of wavefront metrology for high resolution optical systems. The first method, lateral shearing interferometry (LSI), is a self-referencing interferometry where the test wavefront is incident on a low spatial frequency grating, and the resulting interference between the diffracted orders is used to reconstruct the wavefront aberrations. LSI has many advantages over other interferometric tests such as phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry (PS/PDI) due to its experimental simplicity, stability, relaxed coherence requirements, and its ability to scale to high numerical apertures. While LSI has historically been a qualitative test, this dissertation presents a novel quantitative investigation of the LSI interferogram. The analysis reveals the existence of systematic aberrations due to the nonlinear angular response from the diffraction grating that compromises the accuracy of LSI at medium to high NAs. In the medium NA regime (0.15 < NA < 0.35), a holographic model is presented that derives the systematic aberrations in closed form, which demonstrates an astigmatism term that scales as the square of the grating defocus. In the high NA regime (0.35 < NA), a geometrical model is introduced that describes the aberrations as a system of transcendental equations that can be solved numerically. The characterization and removal of these systematic errors is a necessary step that unlocks LSI as a viable candidate for high NA EUV optical testing. The second method is a novel image

  19. Toward high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, Daniel; Huie, Philip; Vankov, Alexander; Asher, Alon; Baccus, Steven

    2005-04-01

    It has been already demonstrated that electrical stimulation of retina can produce visual percepts in blind patients suffering from macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Current retinal implants provide very low resolution (just a few electrodes), while several thousand pixels are required for functional restoration of sight. We present a design of the optoelectronic retinal prosthetic system that can activate a retinal stimulating array with pixel density up to 2,500 pix/mm2 (geometrically corresponding to a visual acuity of 20/80), and allows for natural eye scanning rather than scanning with a head-mounted camera. The system operates similarly to "virtual reality" imaging devices used in military and medical applications. An image from a video camera is projected by a goggle-mounted infrared LED-LCD display onto the retina, activating an array of powered photodiodes in the retinal implant. Such a system provides a broad field of vision by allowing for natural eye scanning. The goggles are transparent to visible light, thus allowing for simultaneous utilization of remaining natural vision along with prosthetic stimulation. Optical control of the implant allows for simple adjustment of image processing algorithms and for learning. A major prerequisite for high resolution stimulation is the proximity of neural cells to the stimulation sites. This can be achieved with sub-retinal implants constructed in a manner that directs migration of retinal cells to target areas. Two basic implant geometries are described: perforated membranes and protruding electrode arrays. Possibility of the tactile neural stimulation is also examined.

  20. Eigenvector pruning method for high resolution beamforming.

    PubMed

    Quijano, Jorge E; Zurk, Lisa M

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces an eigenvector pruning algorithm for the estimation of the signal-plus-interference eigenspace, required as a preliminary step to subspace beamforming. The proposed method considers large-aperture passive array configurations operating in environments with multiple maneuvering targets in background noise, in which the available data for estimation of sample covariances and eigenvectors are limited. Based on statistical properties of scalar products between deterministic and complex random vectors, this work defines a statistically justified threshold to identify target-related features embedded in the sample eigenvectors, leading to an estimator for the signal-bearing eigenspace. It is shown that data projection into this signal subspace results in sharpening of beamforming outputs corresponding to closely spaced targets and provides better target separation compared to current subspace beamformers. In addition, the proposed threshold gives the user control over the worst-case scenario for the number of false detections by the beamformer. Simulated data are used to quantify the performance of the subspace estimator according to the distance between estimated and true signal subspaces. Beamforming resolution using the proposed method is analyzed with simulated data corresponding to a horizontal line array, as well as experimental data from the Shallow Water Array Performance experiment.

  1. High Resolution Image Reconstruction from Projection of Low Resolution Images DIffering in Subpixel Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mareboyana, Manohar; Le Moigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Bennett, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple algorithm that projects low resolution (LR) images differing in subpixel shifts on a high resolution (HR) also called super resolution (SR) grid. The algorithm is very effective in accuracy as well as time efficiency. A number of spatial interpolation techniques using nearest neighbor, inverse-distance weighted averages, Radial Basis Functions (RBF) etc. used in projection yield comparable results. For best accuracy of reconstructing SR image by a factor of two requires four LR images differing in four independent subpixel shifts. The algorithm has two steps: i) registration of low resolution images and (ii) shifting the low resolution images to align with reference image and projecting them on high resolution grid based on the shifts of each low resolution image using different interpolation techniques. Experiments are conducted by simulating low resolution images by subpixel shifts and subsampling of original high resolution image and the reconstructing the high resolution images from the simulated low resolution images. The results of accuracy of reconstruction are compared by using mean squared error measure between original high resolution image and reconstructed image. The algorithm was tested on remote sensing images and found to outperform previously proposed techniques such as Iterative Back Projection algorithm (IBP), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and Maximum a posterior (MAP) algorithms. The algorithm is robust and is not overly sensitive to the registration inaccuracies.

  2. Measuring Large-Scale Social Networks with High Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Sekara, Vedran; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Cuttone, Andrea; Madsen, Mette My; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years—the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics) for a densely connected population of 1 000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles. The paper is concluded with early results from data analysis, illustrating the importance of multi-channel high-resolution approach to data collection. PMID:24770359

  3. High-resolution observation by double-biprism electron holography

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Ken; Tonomura, Akira; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Akashi, Tetsuya; Togawa, Yoshihiko

    2004-12-01

    High-resolution electron holography has been achieved by using a double-biprism interferometer implemented on a 1 MV field emission electron microscope. The interferometer was installed behind the first magnifying lens to narrow carrier fringes and thus enabled complete separation of sideband Fourier spectrum from center band in reconstruction process. Holograms of Au fine particles and single-crystalline thin films with the finest fringe spacing of 4.2 pm were recorded and reconstructed. The overall holography system including the reconstruction process performed well for holograms in which carrier fringes had a spacing of around 10 pm. High-resolution lattice images of the amplitude and phase were clearly reconstructed without mixing of the center band and sideband information. Additionally, entire holograms were recorded without Fresnel fringes normally generated by the filament electrode of the biprism, and the holograms were thus reconstructed without the artifacts caused by Fresnel fringes.

  4. High resolution low frequency ultrasonic tomography.

    PubMed

    Lasaygues, P; Lefebvre, J P; Mensah, S

    1997-10-01

    Ultrasonic reflection tomography results from a linearization of the inverse acoustic scattering problem, named the inverse Born approximation. The goal of ultrasonic reflection tomography is to obtain reflectivity images from backscattered measurements. This is a Fourier synthesis problem and the first step is to correctly cover the frequency space of the object. For this inverse problem, we use the classical algorithm of tomographic reconstruction by summation of filtered backprojections. In practice, only a limited number of views are available with our mechanical rig, typically 180, and the frequency bandwidth of the pulses is very limited, typically one octave. The resolving power of the system is them limited by the bandwidth of the pulse. Low and high frequencies can be restored by use of a deconvolution algorithm that enhances resolution. We used a deconvolution technique based on the Papoulis method. The advantage of this technique is conservation of the overall frequency information content of the signals. The enhancement procedure was tested by imaging a square aluminium rod with a cross-section less than the wavelength. In this application, the central frequency of the transducer was 250 kHz so that the central wavelength was 6 mm whereas the cross-section of the rod was 4 mm. Although the Born approximation was not theoretically valid in this case (high contrast), a good reconstruction was obtained.

  5. Memory bandwidth efficient two-layer reduced-resolution decoding of high-definition video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer, Mary L.

    2000-12-01

    This paper addresses the problem of efficiently decoding high- definition (HD) video for display at a reduced resolution. The decoder presented in this paper is intended for applications that are constrained not only in memory size, but also in peak memory bandwidth. This is the case, for example, during decoding of a high-definition television (HDTV) channel for picture-in-picture (PIP) display, if the reduced resolution PIP-channel decoder is sharing memory with the full-resolution main-channel decoder. The most significant source of video quality degradation in a reduced-resolution decoder is prediction drift, which is caused by the mismatch between the full-resolution reference frames used by the encoder and the subsampled reference frames used by the decoder. to mitigate the visually annoying effects of prediction drift, the decoder described in this paper operates at two different resolutions -- a lower resolution for B pictures, which do not contribute to prediction drift and a higher resolution for I and P pictures. This means that the motion-compensation unit (MCU) essentially operates at the higher resolution, but the peak memory bandwidth is the same as that required to decode at the lower resolution. Storage of additional data, representing the higher resolution for I and P pictures, requires a relatively small amount of additional memory as compared to decoding at the lower resolution. Experimental results will demonstrate the improvement in video quality achieved by the addition of the higher-resolution data in forming predictions for P pictures.

  6. Feasibility study of an avalanche photodiode readout for a high resolution PET with nsec time resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelz, C.; Ziegler, S.; Bradbury, S.M.; Holl, I.; Lorenz, E.; Renker, D.

    1995-08-01

    A feasibility study for a high resolution positron emission tomograph, based on 9.5 x 4 x 4 mm{sup 3} LSO crystals viewed by 3 mm diameter avalanche photodiodes, has been carried out. Using a Na{sup 22} source the authors determined a spatial resolution of 2.3 {+-} 0.1 mm, an energy resolution around 15 % and a time resolution of 2.6 nsec. Possible configurations for larger scale tests and a tomograph are given.

  7. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Ge_2C_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorwirth, S.; Lutter, V.; Schlemmer, S.; Giesen, T. F.; Gauss, J.

    2013-06-01

    Carbon-rich systems are of great importance in diverse areas of research like material science as well as astro- and structural chemistry. Despite this relevance, our knowledge of smaller cluster units is still fragmentary, particularly with respect to investigations at high-spectral resolution in the gas phase. Unequivocal assignment of spectral features to their molecular carriers is critically dependent on predictions from high-level quantum-chemical calculations. In turn, high-resolution studies provide useful information to assess the predictive power of quantum-chemical methods. This is particularly interesting for cluster systems harboring heavy elements for which so far relatively little is known from experiment. With this contribution, we would like to present a recent gas-phase study of a polyatomic germanium-carbon cluster, linear Ge_2C_3 (Ge=C=C=C=Ge), which was previously studied in an Ar matrix. The cluster was produced through laser ablation of germanium-graphite sample rods and observed in a free jet at wavelengths around 5μm. Additionally, quantum-chemical calculations of Ge_2C_3 were performed at the CCSD(T) level of theory. The production and observation of Ge_2C_3 suggests that many more binary clusters should be amenable to high-resolution spectroscopic techniques not only in the infrared but also in the microwave region. D. L. Robbins, C. M. L. Rittby, and W. R. M. Graham, J. Chem. Phys. 114, 3570 (2001).

  8. High-resolution imaging using endoscopic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1990-08-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help to their control. 1.

  9. Holographic high-resolution endoscopic image recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1991-03-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help

  10. High vertical resolution crosswell seismic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Lazaratos, Spyridon K.

    1999-12-07

    A method for producing high vertical resolution seismic images from crosswell data is disclosed. In accordance with one aspect of the disclosure, a set of vertically spaced, generally horizontally extending continuous layers and associated nodes are defined within a region between two boreholes. The specific number of nodes is selected such that the value of a particular characteristic of the subterranean region at each of the nodes is one which can be determined from the seismic data. Once values are established at the nodes, values of the particular characteristic are assigned to positions between the node points of each layer based on the values at node within that layer and without regard to the values at node points within any other layer. A seismic map is produced using the node values and the assigned values therebetween. In accordance with another aspect of the disclosure, an approximate model of the region is established using direct arrival traveltime data. Thereafter, the approximate model is adjusted using reflected arrival data. In accordance with still another aspect of the disclosure, correction is provided for well deviation. An associated technique which provides improvements in ray tracing is also disclosed.

  11. High spatial resolution probes for neurobiology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunning, D. E.; Kenney, C. J.; Litke, A. M.; Mathieson, K.

    2009-06-01

    Position-sensitive biological neural networks, such as the brain and the retina, require position-sensitive detection methods to identify, map and study their behavior. Traditionally, planar microelectrodes have been employed to record the cell's electrical activity with device limitations arising from the electrode's 2-D nature. Described here is the development and characterization of an array of electrically conductive micro-needles aimed at addressing the limitations of planar electrodes. The capability of this array to penetrate neural tissue improves the electrode-cell electrical interface and allows more complicated 3-D networks of neurons, such as those found in brain slices, to be studied. State-of-the-art semiconductor fabrication techniques were used to etch and passivate conformally the metal coat and fill high aspect ratio holes in silicon. These are subsequently transformed into needles with conductive tips. This process has enabled the fabrication of arrays of unprecedented dimensions: 61 hexagonally close-packed electrodes, ˜200 μm tall with 60 μm spacing. Electroplating the tungsten tips with platinum ensure suitable impedance values (˜600 kΩ at 1 kHz) for the recording of neuronal signals. Without compromising spatial resolution of the neuronal recordings, this array adds a new and exciting dimension to the study of biological neural networks.

  12. High resolution EUV monochromator/spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Koike, Masako

    1996-01-01

    This invention is related to a monochromator which employs a spherical mirror, a traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation, and a varied spacing plane grating. The divergent beam from the entrance slit is converged by the spherical mirror located at the various positions in the monochromator depending of the inventive system. To provide the meaningful diffraction efficiencies and to reduce unwanted higher order lights, the deviation angle subtending the incidence and diffraction beams for the plane grating is varied with the position of the traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation located in the front or back of the plane grating with wavelength scanning. The outgoing beam from the monochromator goes through the fixed exit slit and has same beam direction regardless of the scanning wavelength. The combination of properly designed motions of the plane mirror and novel varied-spacing parameters of the inventive plane grating corrects the aberrations and focuses the monochromatic spectral image on the exit slit, enabling measurements at high spectral resolution.

  13. The High Resolution Tropospheric Ozone Residual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2006-01-01

    The co-flight of the MLS stratospheric limb sounder and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) provides the capability of computing the Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR) in much greater detail [Ziemke et al., 2006]. Using forward trajectory calculations of MLS ozone measurements combined with OMI column ozone we have developed a high horizontal resolution tropospheric ozone residual (HTOR) which can provide even more detail than the standard TOR product. HTOR is especially useful for extra-tropical studies of tropospheric ozone transport. We find that both the Pacific pollution corridor (East Asia to Alaska) and the Atlantic pollution corridor (North America east coast to Europe) are also preferred locations for strat-trop folds leading to systematic overestimates of pollution amounts. In fact, fold events appear to dominate extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere day-to-day maps of HTOR. Model estimates of the tropospheric column are in reasonable agreement with the HTOR amounts when offsets due to different tropopause height calculations are taken into consideration.

  14. Europa Ice Cliffs-High Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This view of the Conamara Chaos region on Jupiter's moon Europa shows cliffs along the edges of high-standing ice plates. The washboard texture of the older terrain has been broken into plates which are separated by material with a jumbled texture. The cliffs themselves are rough and broadly scalloped, and smooth debris shed from the cliff faces is piled along the base. For scale, the height of the cliffs and size of the scalloped indentations are comparable to the famous cliff face of Mount Rushmore in South Dakota.

    This image was taken on December 16, 1997 at a range of 900 kilometers (540 miles) by the solid state imaging system (camera) on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. North is to the top right of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the east. This image, centered at approximately 8 degrees north latitude and 273 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 1.5 kilometers by 4 kilometers (0.9 miles by 2.4 miles). The resolution is 9 meters (30 feet) per picture element.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  15. The High Resolution Tropospheric Ozone Residual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Ziemke, J.; Bhartia, P.; Froidevaux, L.; Levelt, P.

    2006-12-01

    The co-flight of the MLS stratospheric limb sounder and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) provides the capability of computing the Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR) in much greater detail [Ziemke et al., 2006]. Using forward trajectory calculations of MLS ozone measurements combined with OMI column ozone we have developed a high horizontal resolution tropospheric ozone residual (HTOR) which can provide even more detail than the standard TOR product. HTOR is especially useful for extra-tropical studies of tropospheric ozone transport. We find that both the Pacific pollution corridor (East Asia to Alaska) and the Atlantic pollution corridor (North America east coast to Europe) are also preferred locations for strat-trop folds leading to systematic over-estimates of pollution amounts. In fact, fold events appear to dominate extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere day-to-day maps of HTOR. Model estimates of the tropospheric column are in reasonable agreement with the HTOR amounts when offsets due to different tropopause height calculations are taken into consideration.

  16. High resolution EUV monochromator/spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Koike, Masako

    1996-06-18

    This invention is related to a monochromator which employs a spherical mirror, a traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation, and a varied spacing plane grating. The divergent beam from the entrance slit is converged by the spherical mirror located at the various positions in the monochromator depending of the inventive system. To provide the meaningful diffraction efficiencies and to reduce unwanted higher order lights, the deviation angle subtending the incidence and diffraction beams for the plane grating is varied with the position of the traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation located in the front or back of the plane grating with wavelength scanning. The outgoing beam from the monochromator goes through the fixed exit slit and has same beam direction regardless of the scanning wavelength. The combination of properly designed motions of the plane mirror and novel varied-spacing parameters of the inventive plane grating corrects the aberrations and focuses the monochromatic spectral image on the exit slit, enabling measurements at high spectral resolution. 10 figs.

  17. High-resolution ophthalmic imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Olivier, Scot S.; Carrano, Carmen J.

    2007-12-04

    A system for providing an improved resolution retina image comprising an imaging camera for capturing a retina image and a computer system operatively connected to the imaging camera, the computer producing short exposures of the retina image and providing speckle processing of the short exposures to provide the improved resolution retina image. The system comprises the steps of capturing a retina image, producing short exposures of the retina image, and speckle processing the short exposures of the retina image to provide the improved resolution retina image.

  18. High resolution in galaxy photometry and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, J.-L.; Lelievre, G.

    Techniques for increasing the resolution of ground-based photometric observations of galaxies are discussed. The theoretical limitations on resolution and their implications for choosing telescope size at a given site considered, with an emphasis on the importance of the Fried (1966) parameter r0. The techniques recommended are shortening exposure time, selection of the highest-resolution images, and a posteriori digital image processing (as opposed to active-mirror image stabilization or the cine-CCD system of Fort et al., 1984). The value of the increased resolution (by a factor of 2) achieved at Pic du Midi observatory for studies of detailed structure in extragalactic objects, for determining the distance to galaxies, and for probing the central cores of galaxies is indicated.

  19. Polystyrene negative resist for high-resolution electron beam lithography

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We studied the exposure behavior of low molecular weight polystyrene as a negative tone electron beam lithography (EBL) resist, with the goal of finding the ultimate achievable resolution. It demonstrated fairly well-defined patterning of a 20-nm period line array and a 15-nm period dot array, which are the densest patterns ever achieved using organic EBL resists. Such dense patterns can be achieved both at 20 and 5 keV beam energies using different developers. In addition to its ultra-high resolution capability, polystyrene is a simple and low-cost resist with easy process control and practically unlimited shelf life. It is also considerably more resistant to dry etching than PMMA. With a low sensitivity, it would find applications where negative resist is desired and throughput is not a major concern. PMID:21749679

  20. High resolution heterodyne interferometer without detectable periodic nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Joo, Ki-Nam; Ellis, Jonathan D; Buice, Eric S; Spronck, Jo W; Schmidt, Robert H Munnig

    2010-01-18

    A high resolution heterodyne laser interferometer without periodic nonlinearity for linear displacement measurements is described. It uses two spatially separated beams with an offset frequency and an interferometer configuration which has no mixed states to prevent polarization mixing. In this research, a simple interferometer configuration for both retroreflector and plane mirror targets which are both applicable to industrial applications was developed. Experimental results show there is no detectable periodic nonlinearity for both of the retro-reflector interferometer and plane mirror interferometer to the noise level of 20 pm. Additionally, the optical configuration has the benefit of doubling the measurement resolution when compared to its respective traditional counterparts. Because of non-symmetry in the plane mirror interferometer, a differential plane mirror interferometer to reduce the thermal error is also discussed.

  1. High Resolution Imaging of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, Andrea K.; Adams, E.; Ciardi, D. R.; Gautier, T. N., III; Howell, S.; Kulesa, C.; McCarthy, D.; Kepler Science Team

    2011-05-01

    The spatial resolution of the Kepler telescope is designed to be 4 arcsec ( 1 pixel) which could allow background stars to contribute to the light of a Kepler target. Thus an observed transit might be a false positive due to a background eclipsing binary. In addition, dilution of the transit signal by a background star can severely compromise the parameters derived for a planet candidate. The Kepler Follow on Program (KFOP) includes high resolution images of the KOI targets, obtained principally at the following facilities: speckle imaging in V and R with the two-color speckle camera on the 3.5m WIYN telescope; Adaptive Optics imaging in J band and Ks with the PHARO near-infrared camera on the 200-in Hale Telescope; Adaptive Optics imaging in J and Ks band with the ARIES camera on the 6.5m MMT Telescope; AO imaging in J band and Ks with IRCAL on the 3-m telescope at Lick Observatory. Results from the follow up observations will be shown as well as the implications for the derivation of planetary characteristics. High spatial resolution images are a key part of the follow-up program for high-confidence level acceptance for Earth and super Earth-size planets.

  2. Climate Simulations with a Variable-Resolution GCM: Stretched Cubed-Sphere High Resolution Atmospheric Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, C. Y.; Harris, L.; Lin, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Variable-resolution GCM with enhanced resolution over the region of interest is an adaptive approach to self-consistent interactions between global and regional phenomena. A stretched cubed-sphere High Resolution Atmosphere Model (HiRAM) is constructed using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) finite-volume dynamical core. The horizontal grid spacing in the stretched cubed-sphere is smoothly transformed from the center of highest-resolution region to the center of coarsest-resolution region. Three 30-yr AMIP type simulations were performed in this study; one C384 uniformed cubed-sphere grid, and two stretched cubed-sphere grid with stretching factor 2.5. Two stretched-grid experiments further set the center of highest-resolution region in Taiwan (C384R2.5TW) and Oklahoma City (C384R2.5OKC), respectively. The horizontal resolution in this C384R2.5 stretched grid ranges from 10km to 65km. Three climate simulations were compared against re-analysis data to understand the effect of horizontal resolution on both the simulated global climate and regional features. The global mean climatology in stretched-grid AMIP simulations shows no unrealistic drift comparing to the uniform-grid simulation and observation. Regional orographic precipitation is better simulated in the high-resolution region. High resolution also shows improvement in typhoon/hurricane simulation. In western Pacific basin, high resolution improves simulated typhoon intensity. For weak and moderate typhoons, there is no strong trend with enhancing resolution. But for strong typhoon, there is high correlation between enhancing resolution with typhoon intensity. By comparing simulations with IBTrACS (International Best Track Archieve for Climate Stewardship) in different basins, HiRAM demonstrates the reduction of simulated typhoon/hurricane numbers with enhancement of horizontal resolution.

  3. Single sensor processing to obtain high resolution color component signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, William E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for generating color video signals representative of color images of a scene includes the following steps: focusing light from the scene on an electronic image sensor via a filter having a tri-color filter pattern; producing, from outputs of the sensor, first and second relatively low resolution luminance signals; producing, from outputs of the sensor, a relatively high resolution luminance signal; producing, from a ratio of the relatively high resolution luminance signal to the first relatively low resolution luminance signal, a high band luminance component signal; producing, from outputs of the sensor, relatively low resolution color component signals; and combining each of the relatively low resolution color component signals with the high band luminance component signal to obtain relatively high resolution color component signals.

  4. High resolution electron microscopy study of amorphous calcium phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brès, E. F.; Moebus, G.; Kleebe, H.-J.; Pourroy, G.; Werkmann, J.; Ehret, G.

    1993-03-01

    "Amorphous" calcium phosphate (ACP) from human tooth enamel and different synthetic materials has been analysed by high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). All the materials studied showed, in addition to a "truly" amorphous phase, other calcium phosphate phases such as poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (OHAP), well crystallized OHAP and poorly crystalline CaO type phase. Such structural heterogeneities have not been observed before in ACP, and are only possible to be detected by HREM as this is the only technique able to analyse nanometre size materials in the real space.

  5. Parallel Reaction Monitoring: A Targeted Experiment Performed Using High Resolution and High Mass Accuracy Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rauniyar, Navin

    2015-01-01

    The parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) assay has emerged as an alternative method of targeted quantification. The PRM assay is performed in a high resolution and high mass accuracy mode on a mass spectrometer. This review presents the features that make PRM a highly specific and selective method for targeted quantification using quadrupole-Orbitrap hybrid instruments. In addition, this review discusses the label-based and label-free methods of quantification that can be performed with the targeted approach. PMID:26633379

  6. High Resolution Sensor for Nuclear Waste Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Kanai; Higgins, William; Van Loef, Edgar V

    2006-01-23

    Gamma ray spectrometers are an important tool in the characterization of radioactive waste. Important requirements for gamma ray spectrometers used in this application include good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, compact size, light weight, portability, and low power requirements. None of the available spectrometers satisfy all of these requirements. The goal of the Phase I research was to investigate lanthanum halide and related scintillators for nuclear waste clean-up. LaBr3:Ce remains a very promising scintillator with high light yield and fast response. CeBr3 is attractive because it is very similar to LaBr3:Ce in terms of scintillation properties and also has the advantage of much lower self-radioactivity, which may be important in some applications. CeBr3 also shows slightly higher light yield at higher temperatures than LaBr3 and may be easier to produce with high uniformity in large volume since it does not require any dopants. Among the mixed lanthanum halides, the light yield of LaBrxI3-x:Ce is lower and the difference in crystal structure of the binaries (LaBr3 and LaI3) makes it difficult to grow high quality crystals of the ternary as the iodine concentration is increased. On the other hand, LaBrxCl3-x:Ce provides excellent performance. Its light output is high and it provides fast response. The crystal structures of the two binaries (LaBr3 and LaCl3) are very similar. Overall, its scintillation properties are very similar to those for LaBr3:Ce. While the gamma-ray stopping efficiency of LaBrxCl3-x:Ce is lower than that for LaBr3:Ce (primarily because the density of LaCl3 is lower than that of LaBr3), it may be easier to grow large crystals of LaBrxCl3-x:Ce than LaBr3:Ce since in some instances (for example, CdxZn1-xTe), the ternary compounds provide increased flexibility in the crystal lattice. Among the new dopants, Eu2+ and Pr3+, tried in LaBr3 host crystals, the Eu2+ doped samples exhibited low light output. This was mostly because a

  7. High Spatial Resolution Commercial Satellite Imaging Product Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Blonski, Slawomir; Ross, Kenton W.; Stnaley, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center's Remote Sensing group has been characterizing privately owned high spatial resolution multispectral imaging systems, such as IKONOS, QuickBird, and OrbView-3. Natural and man made targets were used for spatial resolution, radiometric, and geopositional characterizations. Higher spatial resolution also presents significant adjacency effects for accurate reliable radiometry.

  8. Ensemble 3D PTV for high resolution turbulent statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agüera, Nereida; Cafiero, Gioacchino; Astarita, Tommaso; Discetti, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    A method to extract turbulent statistics from three-dimensional (3D) PIV measurements via ensemble averaging is presented. The proposed technique is a 3D extension of the ensemble particle tracking velocimetry methods, which consist in summing distributions of velocity vectors calculated on low image density samples and then extract the statistical moments from the velocity vectors within sub-volumes, with the size of the sub-volume depending on the desired number of particles and on the available number of snapshots. The extension to 3D measurements poses the additional difficulty of sparse velocity vectors distributions, thus requiring a large number of snapshots to achieve high resolution measurements with a sufficient degree of accuracy. At the current state, this hinders the achievement of single-voxel measurements, unless millions of samples are available. Consequently, one has to give up spatial resolution and live with still relatively large (if compared to the voxel) sub-volumes. This leads to the further problem of the possible occurrence of a residual mean velocity gradient within the sub-volumes, which significantly contaminates the computation of second order moments. In this work, we propose a method to reduce the residual gradient effect, allowing to reach high resolution even with relatively large interrogation spots, therefore still retrieving a large number of particles on which it is possible to calculate turbulent statistics. The method consists in applying a polynomial fit to the velocity distributions within each sub-volume trying to mimic the residual mean velocity gradient.

  9. Pioneering high angular resolution at GTC: FRIDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    FRIDA imager and integral-field spectrograph will provide the GTC community with the first diffraction-limited angular resolutions of a 10 m telescope: 25 - 40 mas in the 1 - 2.5 um range. These angular resolutions are a factor 15 improvement with respect to those of current and/or planned instruments for GTC, factor 1.5 superior to that of JWST. In this talk I will develop on science paths for FRIDA, with natural and laser guide star that illustrate the potential and unique capabilities of GTCAO+FRIDA till the arrival of the ELTs.

  10. High resolution, high rate x-ray spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.

    1983-07-14

    It is an object of the invention to provide a pulse processing system for use with detected signals of a wide dynamic range which is capable of very high counting rates, with high throughput, with excellent energy resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio. It is a further object to provide a pulse processing system wherein the fast channel resolving time is quite short and substantially independent of the energy of the detected signals. Another object is to provide a pulse processing system having a pile-up rejector circuit which will allow the maximum number of non-interfering pulses to be passed to the output. It is also an object of the invention to provide new methods for generating substantially symmetrically triangular pulses for use in both the main and fast channels of a pulse processing system.

  11. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Gok, R.; Zor, E.; Walter, W. R.

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the crust and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet, forming a complex tectonic regime. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provide a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure of the region. Zor et al. (2003) found an average 46 km thick crust in the Anatolian plateau using a six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver functions alone, however, may result in an apparent depth-velocity trade-off [Ammon et al., 1990]. In order to improve upon this velocity model, we have combined the receiver functions with surface wave data using the joint inversion method of Julia et al. (2000). In this technique, the two sets of observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. The receiver functions are calculated using an iterative time-domain deconvolution technique. We also consider azimuthal changes in the receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups accordingly. We are improving our surface wave model by making Love and Rayleigh dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and incorporating them into a regional group velocity model for periods between 10 and 100 seconds. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocities toward the northeast, indicating slow upper mantle velocities in the area consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. Starting models used for the joint inversions include both a 1-D model from a 12-ton dam shot recorded by ETSE [Gurbuz et al., 2004] and

  12. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M; Gok, R; Zor, E; Walter, W

    2004-09-03

    We investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet and form a complex tectonic structure. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provided a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure. Zor et al. found an average 46 km thick crust in Anatolian plateau using six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver function alone with many-layered parameterization may result in an apparent depth-velocity tradeoff. In order to improve previous velocity model, we employed the joint inversion method with many layered parameterization of Julia et al. (2000) to the ETSE receiver functions. In this technique, the receiver function and surface-wave observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. We consider azimuthal changes of receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups. We calculated the receiver functions using iterative time-domain deconvolution technique and surface wave group velocity dispersion curves between 10-100 sec. We are making surface wave dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and have incorporated them into a regional group velocity model. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocity in the northeast. This indicates slow upper mantle velocities in the region consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. We started with both the 1-D model that is obtained with the 12 tones dam explosion shot data recorded by ETSE network and the existing receiver function

  13. High Resolution Surface Science at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Zachary J.; Tamppari, Leslie K.; Lock, Robert E.; Sturm, Erick J.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed mission would place a 2.4 m telescope in orbit around Mars with two focal plane instruments to obtain the highest resolution images and spectral maps of the surface to date (3-10x better than current). This investigation would make major contributions to all of the Mars Program Goals: life, climate, geology and preparation for human presence.

  14. Theoretical performance analysis for CMOS based high resolution detectors.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2013-03-06

    High resolution imaging capabilities are essential for accurately guiding successful endovascular interventional procedures. Present x-ray imaging detectors are not always adequate due to their inherent limitations. The newly-developed high-resolution micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF-CCD) detector has demonstrated excellent clinical image quality; however, further improvement in performance and physical design may be possible using CMOS sensors. We have thus calculated the theoretical performance of two proposed CMOS detectors which may be used as a successor to the MAF. The proposed detectors have a 300 μm thick HL-type CsI phosphor, a 50 μm-pixel CMOS sensor with and without a variable gain light image intensifier (LII), and are designated MAF-CMOS-LII and MAF-CMOS, respectively. For the performance evaluation, linear cascade modeling was used. The detector imaging chains were divided into individual stages characterized by one of the basic processes (quantum gain, binomial selection, stochastic and deterministic blurring, additive noise). Ranges of readout noise and exposure were used to calculate the detectors' MTF and DQE. The MAF-CMOS showed slightly better MTF than the MAF-CMOS-LII, but the MAF-CMOS-LII showed far better DQE, especially for lower exposures. The proposed detectors can have improved MTF and DQE compared with the present high resolution MAF detector. The performance of the MAF-CMOS is excellent for the angiography exposure range; however it is limited at fluoroscopic levels due to additive instrumentation noise. The MAF-CMOS-LII, having the advantage of the variable LII gain, can overcome the noise limitation and hence may perform exceptionally for the full range of required exposures; however, it is more complex and hence more expensive.

  15. High-Resolution Views of Io's Emakong Patera: Latest Galileo Imaging Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Davies, A. G.; Greeley, R.; Head, J. W., III

    2002-01-01

    This presentation will discuss analyses of the latest Galileo SSI (solid state imaging) high-resolution images of the Emakong lava channels and flow field on Jupiter's moon Io. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. High Resolution non-Markovianity in NMR

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes, Nadja K.; Peterson, John P. S.; Sarthour, Roberto S.; Souza, Alexandre M.; Monken, C. H.; Roditi, Itzhak; Oliveira, Ivan S.; Santos, Marcelo F.

    2016-01-01

    Memoryless time evolutions are ubiquitous in nature but often correspond to a resolution-induced approximation, i.e. there are correlations in time whose effects are undetectable. Recent advances in the dynamical control of small quantum systems provide the ideal scenario to probe some of these effects. Here we experimentally demonstrate the precise induction of memory effects on the evolution of a quantum coin (qubit) by correlations engineered in its environment. In particular, we design a collisional model in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and precisely control the strength of the effects by changing the degree of correlation in the environment and its time of interaction with the qubit. We also show how these effects can be hidden by the limited resolution of the measurements performed on the qubit. The experiment reinforces NMR as a test bed for the study of open quantum systems and the simulation of their classical counterparts. PMID:27669652

  17. Quantum interpolation for high-resolution sensing.

    PubMed

    Ajoy, Ashok; Liu, Yi-Xiang; Saha, Kasturi; Marseglia, Luca; Jaskula, Jean-Christophe; Bissbort, Ulf; Cappellaro, Paola

    2017-02-28

    Recent advances in engineering and control of nanoscale quantum sensors have opened new paradigms in precision metrology. Unfortunately, hardware restrictions often limit the sensor performance. In nanoscale magnetic resonance probes, for instance, finite sampling times greatly limit the achievable sensitivity and spectral resolution. Here we introduce a technique for coherent quantum interpolation that can overcome these problems. Using a quantum sensor associated with the nitrogen vacancy center in diamond, we experimentally demonstrate that quantum interpolation can achieve spectroscopy of classical magnetic fields and individual quantum spins with orders of magnitude finer frequency resolution than conventionally possible. Not only is quantum interpolation an enabling technique to extract structural and chemical information from single biomolecules, but it can be directly applied to other quantum systems for superresolution quantum spectroscopy.

  18. High Resolution non-Markovianity in NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardes, Nadja K.; Peterson, John P. S.; Sarthour, Roberto S.; Souza, Alexandre M.; Monken, C. H.; Roditi, Itzhak; Oliveira, Ivan S.; Santos, Marcelo F.

    2016-09-01

    Memoryless time evolutions are ubiquitous in nature but often correspond to a resolution-induced approximation, i.e. there are correlations in time whose effects are undetectable. Recent advances in the dynamical control of small quantum systems provide the ideal scenario to probe some of these effects. Here we experimentally demonstrate the precise induction of memory effects on the evolution of a quantum coin (qubit) by correlations engineered in its environment. In particular, we design a collisional model in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and precisely control the strength of the effects by changing the degree of correlation in the environment and its time of interaction with the qubit. We also show how these effects can be hidden by the limited resolution of the measurements performed on the qubit. The experiment reinforces NMR as a test bed for the study of open quantum systems and the simulation of their classical counterparts.

  19. Ultra-high resolution electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxley, Mark P.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2017-02-01

    The last two decades have seen dramatic advances in the resolution of the electron microscope brought about by the successful correction of lens aberrations that previously limited resolution for most of its history. We briefly review these advances, the achievement of sub-Ångstrom resolution and the ability to identify individual atoms, their bonding configurations and even their dynamics and diffusion pathways. We then present a review of the basic physics of electron scattering, lens aberrations and their correction, and an approximate imaging theory for thin crystals which provides physical insight into the various different imaging modes. Then we proceed to describe a more exact imaging theory starting from Yoshioka’s formulation and covering full image simulation methods using Bloch waves, the multislice formulation and the frozen phonon/quantum excitation of phonons models. Delocalization of inelastic scattering has become an important limiting factor at atomic resolution. We therefore discuss this issue extensively, showing how the full-width-half-maximum is the appropriate measure for predicting image contrast, but the diameter containing 50% of the excitation is an important measure of the range of the interaction. These two measures can differ by a factor of 5, are not a simple function of binding energy, and full image simulations are required to match to experiment. The Z-dependence of annular dark field images is also discussed extensively, both for single atoms and for crystals, and we show that temporal incoherence must be included accurately if atomic species are to be identified through matching experimental intensities to simulations. Finally we mention a few promising directions for future investigation.

  20. Ultra-high resolution electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Oxley, Mark P.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2016-12-23

    The last two decades have seen dramatic advances in the resolution of the electron microscope brought about by the successful correction of lens aberrations that previously limited resolution for most of its history. Here we briefly review these advances, the achievement of sub-Ångstrom resolution and the ability to identify individual atoms, their bonding configurations and even their dynamics and diffusion pathways. We then present a review of the basic physics of electron scattering, lens aberrations and their correction, and an approximate imaging theory for thin crystals which provides physical insight into the various different imaging modes. Then we proceed tomore » describe a more exact imaging theory starting from Yoshioka’s formulation and covering full image simulation methods using Bloch waves, the multislice formulation and the frozen phonon/quantum excitation of phonons models. Delocalization of inelastic scattering has become an important limiting factor at atomic resolution. We therefore discuss this issue extensively, showing how the full-width-half-maximum is the appropriate measure for predicting image contrast, but the diameter containing 50% of the excitation is an important measure of the range of the interaction. These two measures can differ by a factor of 5, are not a simple function of binding energy, and full image simulations are required to match to experiment. The Z-dependence of annular dark field images is also discussed extensively, both for single atoms and for crystals, and we show that temporal incoherence must be included accurately if atomic species are to be identified through matching experimental intensities to simulations. Finally we mention a few promising directions for future investigation.« less

  1. Ultra-high resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Oxley, Mark P.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2016-12-23

    The last two decades have seen dramatic advances in the resolution of the electron microscope brought about by the successful correction of lens aberrations that previously limited resolution for most of its history. Here we briefly review these advances, the achievement of sub-Ångstrom resolution and the ability to identify individual atoms, their bonding configurations and even their dynamics and diffusion pathways. We then present a review of the basic physics of electron scattering, lens aberrations and their correction, and an approximate imaging theory for thin crystals which provides physical insight into the various different imaging modes. Then we proceed to describe a more exact imaging theory starting from Yoshioka’s formulation and covering full image simulation methods using Bloch waves, the multislice formulation and the frozen phonon/quantum excitation of phonons models. Delocalization of inelastic scattering has become an important limiting factor at atomic resolution. We therefore discuss this issue extensively, showing how the full-width-half-maximum is the appropriate measure for predicting image contrast, but the diameter containing 50% of the excitation is an important measure of the range of the interaction. These two measures can differ by a factor of 5, are not a simple function of binding energy, and full image simulations are required to match to experiment. The Z-dependence of annular dark field images is also discussed extensively, both for single atoms and for crystals, and we show that temporal incoherence must be included accurately if atomic species are to be identified through matching experimental intensities to simulations. Finally we mention a few promising directions for future investigation.

  2. Recent Progress in High-Resolution Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T. E.; Title, A. M.

    2004-12-01

    We review recent optical observations of the solar photosphere and chromosphere with an emphasis on those observations that attain spatial resolution values below 0.25 arcsec. Results from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma, the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) on Sacramento Peak, and the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) on Tenerife are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on results from the newly commissioned Swedish 1-meter Solar Telescope (SST) on La Palma following our successful campaigns at this instrument in 2002 and 2003. The SST with adaptive optics can now achieve 0.0 arcsec resolution imaging of the Sun in multiple simultaneous wavelengths. Scientific findings on the structure of sunspot penumbrae and lightbridges, small-scale magnetic elements, and faculae at the limb are reviewed. The Lockheed Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) birefringent tunable filter at the SST produced 0.16 arcsec resolution magnetograms in the summer of 2003 that have shed new light on the structure and dynamics of small-scale magnetic fields in the solar photosphere.

  3. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy: the ultimate nanoanalytical technique.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John Meurig; Midgley, Paul A

    2004-06-07

    To be able to determine the elemental composition and morphology of individual nanoparticles consisting of no more than a dozen or so atoms that weigh a few zeptograms (10(-21) g) is but one of the attainments of modern electron microscopy. With slightly larger specimens (embracing a few unit cells of the structure) their symmetry, crystallographic phase, unit-cell dimension, chemical composition and often the valence state (from parallel electron spectroscopic measurements) of the constituent atoms may also be determined using a scanning beam of electrons of ca. 0.5 nm diameter. Nowadays electron crystallography, which treats the digital data of electron diffraction (ED) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images of minute (ca. 10(-18)g) specimens in a quantitatively rigorous manner, solves hitherto unknown structures just as X-ray diffraction does with bulk single crystals. In addition, electron tomography (see cover photograph and its animation) enables a three-dimensional picture of the internal structure of minute objects, such as nanocatalysts in a single pore, as well as structural faults such as micro-fissures, to be constructed with a resolution of 1 nm from an angular series of two-dimensional (projected) images. Very recently (since this article was first written) a new meaning has been given to electron crystallography as a result of the spatio-temporal resolution of surface phenomena achieved on a femtosecond timescale.

  4. Using high-resolution displays for high-resolution cardiac data.

    PubMed

    Goodyer, Christopher; Hodrien, John; Wood, Jason; Kohl, Peter; Brodlie, Ken

    2009-07-13

    The ability to perform fast, accurate, high-resolution visualization is fundamental to improving our understanding of anatomical data. As the volumes of data increase from improvements in scanning technology, the methods applied to visualization must evolve. In this paper, we address the interactive display of data from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scanning of a rabbit heart and subsequent histological imaging. We describe a visualization environment involving a tiled liquid crystal display panel display wall and associated software, which provides an interactive and intuitive user interface. The oView software is an OpenGL application that is written for the VR Juggler environment. This environment abstracts displays and devices away from the application itself, aiding portability between different systems, from desktop PCs to multi-tiled display walls. Portability between display walls has been demonstrated through its use on walls at the universities of both Leeds and Oxford. We discuss important factors to be considered for interactive two-dimensional display of large three-dimensional datasets, including the use of intuitive input devices and level of detail aspects.

  5. High Resolution Atmospheric Modeling for Wind Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M; Bulaevskaya, V; Glascoe, L; Singer, M

    2010-03-18

    The ability of the WRF atmospheric model to forecast wind speed over the Nysted wind park was investigated as a function of time. It was found that in the time period we considered (August 1-19, 2008), the model is able to predict wind speeds reasonably accurately for 48 hours ahead, but that its forecast skill deteriorates rapidly after 48 hours. In addition, a preliminary analysis was carried out to investigate the impact of vertical grid resolution on the forecast skill. Our preliminary finding is that increasing vertical grid resolution does not have a significant impact on the forecast skill of the WRF model over Nysted wind park during the period we considered. Additional simulations during this period, as well as during other time periods, will be run in order to validate the results presented here. Wind speed is a difficult parameter to forecast due the interaction of large and small length scale forcing. To accurately forecast the wind speed at a given location, the model must correctly forecast the movement and strength of synoptic systems, as well as the local influence of topography / land use on the wind speed. For example, small deviations in the forecast track or strength of a large-scale low pressure system can result in significant forecast errors for local wind speeds. The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary baseline of a high-resolution limited area model forecast performance against observations from the Nysted wind park. Validating the numerical weather prediction model performance for past forecasts will give a reasonable measure of expected forecast skill over the Nysted wind park. Also, since the Nysted Wind Park is over water and some distance from the influence of terrain, the impact of high vertical grid spacing for wind speed forecast skill will also be investigated.

  6. High resolution, high bandwidth global shutter CMOS area scan sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramarzpour, Naser; Sonder, Matthias; Li, Binqiao

    2013-10-01

    Global shuttering, sometimes also known as electronic shuttering, enables the use of CMOS sensors in a vast range of applications. Teledyne DALSA Global shutter sensors are able to integrate light synchronously across millions of pixels with microsecond accuracy. Teledyne DALSA offers 5 transistor global shutter pixels in variety of resolutions, pitches and noise and full-well combinations. One of the recent generations of these pixels is implemented in 12 mega pixel area scan device at 6 um pitch and that images up to 70 frames per second with 58 dB dynamic range. These square pixels include microlens and optional color filters. These sensors also offer exposure control, anti-blooming and high dynamic range operation by introduction of a drain and a PPD reset gate to the pixel. The state of the art sense node design of Teledyne DALSA's 5T pixel offers exceptional shutter rejection ratio. The architecture is consistent with the requirements to use stitching to achieve very large area scan devices. Parallel or serial digital output is provided on these sensors using on-chip, column-wise analog to digital converters. Flexible ADC bit depth combined with windowing (adjustable region of interest, ROI) allows these sensors to run with variety of resolution/bandwidth combinations. The low power, state of the art LVDS I/O technology allows for overall power consumptions of less than 2W at full performance conditions.

  7. Medusae Fossae Formation - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An exotic terrain of wind-eroded ridges and residual smooth surfaces are seen in one of the highest resolution images ever taken of Mars from orbit. The Medusae Fossae formation is believed to be formed of the fragmental ejecta of huge explosive volcanic eruptions. When subjected to intense wind-blasting over hundreds of millions of years, this material erodes easily once the uppermost tougher crust is breached. The crust, or cap rock, can be seen in the upper right part of the picture. The finely-spaced ridges are similar to features on Earth called yardangs, which are formed by intense winds plucking individual grains from, and by wind-driven sand blasting particles off, sedimentary deposits.

    The image was taken on October 30, 1997 at 11:05 AM PST, shortly after the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft's 31st closest approach to Mars. The image covers an area 3.6 X 21.5 km (2.2 X 13.4 miles) at 3.6 m (12 feet) per picture element--craters only 11 m (36 feet, about the size of a swimming pool) across can be seen. The best Viking view of the area (VO 1 387S34) has a resolution of 240 m/pixel, or 67 times lower resolution than the MOC frame.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  8. High Resolution Imaging of Space Objects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    one second of arc, com - pared with 0.02 seconds of arc, the theoretical diffraction-limited resolution of a five-meter diameter telescope. That is...follows: First, fn = f *f(0) D (3, i,, so that factor can be divided out from the last three terms ot Lq. Vk (A). Second, let the coefficients of...tnor " porno one of them yields a function G(w) sucn that, Uy C-orol ay G) U, U> JC daf q are not equivalent. I i#: By Lemma , if F a, n n nlY one non

  9. DSCOVR High Time Resolution Solar Wind Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), previously known as Triana, spacecraft is expected to be launched in late 2014. It will carry a fluxgate magnetometer, Faraday Cup solar wind detector and a top-hat electron electrostatic analyzer. The Faraday Cup will provide an unprecedented 10 vectors/sec time resolution measurement of the solar wind proton and alpha reduced distribution functions. Coupled with the 40 vector/sec vector magnetometer measurements, the identification of specific wave modes in the solar wind will be possible for the first time. The science objectives and data products of the mission will be discussed.

  10. High resolution IVEM tomography of biological specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Sedat, J.W.; Agard, D.A.

    1997-02-01

    Electron tomography is a powerful tool for elucidating the three-dimensional architecture of large biological complexes and subcellular organelles. The introduction of intermediate voltage electron microscopes further extended the technique by providing the means to examine very large and non-symmetrical subcellular organelles, at resolutions beyond what would be possible using light microscopy. Recent studies using electron tomography on a variety of cellular organelles and assemblies such as centrosomes, kinetochores, and chromatin have clearly demonstrated the power of this technique for obtaining 3D structural information on non-symmetric cell components. When combined with biochemical and molecular observations, these 3D reconstructions have provided significant new insights into biological function.

  11. High resolution obtained by photoelectric scanning techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Several applications of linear scanning of different types of objects are described; examples include double stars, satellites, the Red Spot of Jupiter and a landing site on the moon. This technique allows one to achieve a gain of about an order of magnitude in resolution over conventional photoelectric techniques; it is also effective in providing sufficient data for removing background effects and for the application of deconvolution procedures. Brief consideration is given to two-dimensional scanning, either at the telescope or of electronographic images in the laboratory. It is suggested that some of the techniques described should be given serious consideration for space applications.

  12. ESSENSE: Ultra high resolution spectroscopy for the ESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasini, Stefano; Monkenbusch, Michael; Kozielewski, Tadeusz

    2016-09-01

    The instrument concept for a very high intensity neutron spin-echo spectrometer with ultimate resolution properties has been developed and submitted as an instrument proposal to ESS. Effective intensity gain factors up to 30 compared to the best current instruments are anticipated. In addition the resolution will be boosted to the technical limits by newly designed superconducting precession solenoids. The intensity gain results from the use of an optimized guide transporting the high flux from the ESS cold moderator on the one side and from the utilization of an extended wavelength frame of 8 Å yielding a multiplication of information collection rate on the other side. The instrument thus enables novel views on soft matter systems ranging from polymers, functional gels and more to to dynamics of biological molecules with relevance for MD development; the employment of new techniques for surface NSE (GINSE) may contribute to new knowledge in tribology and lubrication and other surface phenomena that currently are hampered by low intensity. New developments in “intelligent” polymers as e.g. self-healing, the properties of which depend on molecular mobility and dynamics, require observation at many 100 ns of correlation times with high intensity, which can be made with ESSENSE.

  13. High resolution telescopes at the National Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, R. B.; Smartt, R. N.

    The principal high-resolution telescopes of the National Solar Observatory are its two evacuated telescopes of 61-cm aperture (Kitt Peak) and 75-cm aperture (Sac Peak). The 61-cm telescope is used for making full-disk magnetograms, spectromagnetograms and 10830-wave length maps that show coronal holes, and is dedicated to synoptic programs. The 75-cm telescope at Sac Peak is described. Upgrades that are under way include an adaptive mirror and fast mirror system that will feed several focal-plane instruments, including the Universal Spectrograph (a new spectrograph whose detectors are CCD cameras), and the Universal Birefringent Filter, (a Fabry-Perot Interferometer); an Advanced Stokes Polarimeter is being constructed at the High Altitude Observatory. Additional equipment planned for this telescope includes an improved temperature control subsystem for the entrance window, an instrument that continually measures Fried's parameter, and integrating more advanced data collection systems into a computer network. The observatory is also pursuing a mirror coronagraph, which should have high resolution and which could be built in apertures larger than a meter.

  14. Gas scintillation glass GEM detector for high-resolution X-ray imaging and CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, T.; Mitsuya, Y.; Fushie, T.; Murata, K.; Kawamura, A.; Koishikawa, A.; Toyokawa, H.; Takahashi, H.

    2017-04-01

    A high-spatial-resolution X-ray-imaging gaseous detector has been developed with a single high-gas-gain glass gas electron multiplier (G-GEM), scintillation gas, and optical camera. High-resolution X-ray imaging of soft elements is performed with a spatial resolution of 281 μm rms and an effective area of 100×100 mm. In addition, high-resolution X-ray 3D computed tomography (CT) is successfully demonstrated with the gaseous detector. It shows high sensitivity to low-energy X-rays, which results in high-contrast radiographs of objects containing elements with low atomic numbers. In addition, the high yield of scintillation light enables fast X-ray imaging, which is an advantage for constructing CT images with low-energy X-rays.

  15. High-resolution ground-based spectroscopy: where and how ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, R.

    2002-07-01

    An overview is presented of high-resolution optical spectrographs in operation or under development at large telescopes, with emphasis on those facilities best suited for the study of late-type stars and stellar surface inhomogeneities. Plans for the development of new high-resolution spectroscopic instruments are discussed with emphasis on the ICE spectrograph for the PEPSI spectropolarimeter at the LBT.

  16. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  17. Detection of high-resolution Raman spectra in short oligonucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairamov, F. B.; Poloskin, E. D.; Chernev, A. L.; Toporov, V. V.; Dubina, M. V.; Lahderanta, E.; Lipsanen, H.; Bairamov, B. Kh.

    2014-06-01

    High-resolution spectra of single-chain short oligonucleotides d(20G, 20T), where d is a deoxyribonucleoside, G is guanine, and T is thymine, have been obtained by the highly sensitive nonresonant Raman scattering method of biomacromolecules. In addition to their own multifunctional significance, short oligonucleotides attract interest as ideal model objects for revealing poorly studied peculiarities of tertiary and quaternary structures of DNA. The detection of narrow spectral lines has allowed determining the characteristic time scale and makes it possible to study the dynamics of fast relaxation processes of vibrational motions of atoms in biomacromolecules. It has been found that the FWHM of the narrowest 1355.4 cm-1 spectral line attributed to the vibrations of the dT methyl group is 14.6 cm-1. The corresponding lifetime is 0.38 ps.

  18. High-resolution iris image reconstruction from low-resolution imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, R.; Pauca, V. P.; Torgersen, T. C.; Plemmons, R. J.; Prasad, S.; van der Gracht, J.; Nagy, J.; Chung, J.; Behrmann, G.; Mathews, S.; Mirotznik, M.

    2006-08-01

    We investigate the use of a novel multi-lens imaging system in the context of biometric identification, and more specifically, for iris recognition. Multi-lenslet cameras offer a number of significant advantages over standard single-lens camera systems, including thin form-factor and wide angle of view. By using appropriate lenslet spacing relative to the detector pixel pitch, the resulting ensemble of images implicitly contains subject information at higher spatial frequencies than those present in a single image. Additionally, a multi-lenslet approach enables the use of observational diversity, including phase, polarization, neutral density, and wavelength diversities. For example, post-processing multiple observations taken with differing neutral density filters yields an image having an extended dynamic range. Our research group has developed several multi-lens camera prototypes for the investigation of such diversities. In this paper, we present techniques for computing a high-resolution reconstructed image from an ensemble of low-resolution images containing sub-pixel level displacements. The quality of a reconstructed image is measured by computing the Hamming distance between the Daugman 4 iris code of a conventional reference iris image, and the iris code of a corresponding reconstructed image. We present numerical results concerning the effect of noise and defocus blur in the reconstruction process using simulated data and report preliminary work on the reconstruction of actual iris data obtained with our camera prototypes.

  19. High Resolution Mapping of Pluto's Albedo Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, S.

    1994-01-01

    This proposal requests time to map Pluto's albedo distribution, using the highest possible resolution of the CYCLE 4 HST. Maps will be made in several key UV and visible bandpasses. Our scientific objectives are to (a) study the distribution of light and dark areas, (b) make the first disk-resolved estimates of Pluto's limb darkening, and (c) compositional discriminate pure from contaminated frost regions. These objectives have not been previously achievable, but are essential to understanding the surface morphology, volatile transport, and the root cause of Pluto's secular lightcurve variations. It may also be possible to detect evidence of the reported limb haze layer(s) in Pluto's atmosphere. These maps will also provide the first direct check on Pluto maps made through indirect techniques. Owing to Pluto's elliptic orbit, we expect the distribution of albedo to change (on a years-to-decade timescale) as Pluto draws away from perihelion and volatile transport proceeds. The proposed observations will document the albedo state at three rotational epochs near the time of perihelion. These maps will be obtained in two colors, by the FOC. No other astronomical instrument has sufficient resolution to accomplish these important scientific objectives.

  20. High Resolution Chemical Study of ALH84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Douglas, Susanne; Kuhlman, Kimberly R.

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the chemistry of a sample of the SNC meteorite ALH84001 using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) with an energy dispersive chemical analytical detector and a focused ion beam secondary ion mass spectrometer (FIB-SIMS). Here we present the chemical data, both spectra and images, from two techniques that do not require sample preparation with a conductive coating, thus eliminating the possibility of preparation-induced textural artifacts. The FIB-SIMS instrument includes a column optimized for SEM with a quadrupole type mass spectrometer. Its spatial and spectral resolution are 20 nm and 0.4 AMU, respectively. The spatial resolution of the ESEM for chemical analysis is about 100 nm. Limits of detection for both instruments are mass dependent. Both the ESEM and the FIB-SIMS instrument revealed contrasting surficial features; crumbled, weathered appearance of the matrix in some regions as well as a rather ubiquitous presence of euhedral halite crystals, often associated with cracks or holes in the surface of the rock. Other halogen elements present in the vicinity of the NaCl crystals include K and Br. In this report, elemental inventories are shown as mass spectra and as X-ray maps.

  1. High-resolution imaging with AEOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patience, Jennifer; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Max, Claire E.

    2001-12-01

    The U.S. Air Force Advanced Electro-Optical System (AEOS) which includes a 941 actuator adaptive optics system on a 3.7 m telescope has recently been made available for astronomical programs. Operating at a wavelength of 750 nm, the diffraction-limited angular resolution of the system is 0'.04; currently, the magnitude limit is V approximately 7 mag. At the distances of nearby open clusters, diffraction- limited images should resolve companions with separations as small as 4 - 6 AU - comparable to the Sun-Jupiter distance. The ability to study such close separations is critical, since most companions are expected to have separations in the few AU to tens of AU range. With the exceptional angular resolution of the current AEOS setup, but restricted target magnitude range, we are conducting a companion search of a large, well-defined sample of bright early-type stars in nearby open clusters and in the field. Our data set will both characterize this relatively new adaptive optics system and answer questions in binary star formation and stellar X- ray activity. We will discuss our experience using AEOS, the data analysis involved, and our initial results.

  2. High Resolution X-ray Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, Webster

    2002-01-01

    NAG5-5020 covered a period of 7.5 years during which a great deal of progress was made in x-ray optical techniques under this grant. We survived peer review numerous times during the effort to keep the grant going. In 1994, when the grant started we were actively pursuing the application of spherical mirrors to improving x-ray telescopes. We had found that x-ray detectors were becoming rapidly more sophisticated and affordable, but that x-ray telescopes were only being improved through the intense application of money within the AXAF program. Clearly new techniques for the future were needed. We were successful in developing and testing at the HELSTF facility in New Mexico a four reflection coma-corrected telescope made from spheres. We were able to demonstrate 0.3 arcsecond resolution, almost to the diffraction limit of the system. The community as a whole was, at that time, not particularly interested in looking past AXAF (Chandra) and the effort needed to evolve. Since we had reached the diffraction limit using non-Wolter optics we then decided to see if we could build an x-ray interferometer in the laboratory. In the lab the potential for improved resolution was substantial. If synthetic aperture telescopes could be built in space, then orders of magnitude improvement would become feasible. In 1998 NASA, under the direction of Dr Nick White of Goddard, started a study to assess the potential and feasibility of x-ray interferometry in space. My work became of central interest to the committee because it indicated that such was possible. In early 1999 we had the breakthrough that allowed us build a practical interferometer. By using flats and hooking up with the Marshall Space Flight Center facilities we were able to demonstrate fringes at 1.25keV on a one millimeter baseline. This actual laboratory demonstration provided the solid proof of concept that NASA needed. As the year progressed the future of x-ray astronomy jelled around the Maxim program. Maxim is a

  3. Identification of trace additives in polymer materials by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared mapping coupled with multivariate curve resolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Tang, Yongjiao; Yan, Zhiwei; Zhang, Pudun

    2017-03-07

    Although multivariate curve resolution (MCR) has been applied to the analysis of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging, it is still problematic to determine the number of components. The reported methods at present tend to cause the components of low concentration missed. In this paper a new idea was proposed to resolve this problem. First, MCR calculation was repeated by increasing the number of components sequentially, then each retrieved pure spectrum of as-resulted MCR component was directly compared with a real-world pixel spectrum of the local high concentration in the corresponding MCR map. One component was affirmed only if the characteristic bands of the MCR component had been included in its pixel spectrum. This idea was applied to attenuated total reflection (ATR)/FTIR mapping for identifying the trace additives in blind polymer materials and satisfactory results were acquired. The successful demonstration of this novel approach opens up new possibilities for analyzing additives in polymer materials.

  4. Modified Noise Power Ratio testing of high resolution digitizers

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.S.

    1994-05-01

    A broadband, full signal range, side-by-side (tandem) test method for estimating the internal noise performance of high resolution digitizers is described and illustrated. The technique involves a re-definition of the traditional Noise Power Ratio (NPR) test, a change that not only makes this test applicable to higher resolution systems than was previously practical, but also enhances its value and flexibility. Since coherence analysis is the basis of this new definition, and since the application of coherence procedures to high resolution data poses several problems, this report discusses these problems and their resolution.

  5. Practical Applications Using A High Resolution Infrared Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraniak, David W.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared imaging systems can be classified into three general categories, low resolution, medium resolution and high resolution. It is the purpose of this paper to highlight specific applications best suited to high resolution, television capatable, infrared data acquisition techniques. The data was collected from both ground loped andoaerial based mobile positions where the temperature differentials varied from 15 C to 25 C. Specific applications include scanning building complexes from the exterior using a ground based moving vehicle, scanning buildings, concrete bridge decks and terrain from the air using a helicopter and scanning building interiors using a mobile hand truck.

  6. Progress toward accurate high spatial resolution actinide analysis by EPMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jercinovic, M. J.; Allaz, J. M.; Williams, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    volume, as well as interferences from fluorescence at a distance from adjacent phases or distinct compositional domains in the same phase. Interference corrections for elements detected during boundary fluorescence are further complicated by X-ray focusing geometry considerations. Additional complications arise from the high current densities required for high spatial resolution and high count precision, such as fluctuations in internal charge distribution and peak shape changes as satellite production efficiency varies from calibration to analysis. No flawless method has yet emerged. Extreme care in interference corrections, especially where multiple and sometime mutual overlaps are present, and maximum care (and precision) in background characterization to account for interferences and curvature (e.g., WDS scan or multipoint regression), are crucial developments. Calibration curves from multiple peak and interference calibration measurements at different concentrations, and iterative software methodologies for incorporating absorption edge effects, and non-linearities in interference corrections due to peak shape changes and off-axis X-ray defocussing during boundary fluorescence at a distance, are directions with significant potential.

  7. The high spectral resolution (scanning) lidar (HSRL)

    SciTech Connect

    Eloranta, E.

    1995-09-01

    Lidars enable the spatial resolution of optical depth variation in clouds. The optical depth must be inverted from the backscatter signal, a process which is complicated by the fact that both molecular and aerosol backscatter signals are present. The HSRL has the advantage of allowing these two signals to be separated. It has a huge dynamic range, allowing optical depth retrieval for t = 0.01 to 3. Depolarization is used to determine the nature of hydrometeors present. Experiments show that water clouds must almost always be taken into account during cirrus observations. An exciting new development is the possibility of measuring effective radius via diffraction peak width and variable field-of-view measurements. 2 figs.

  8. High Resolution X-ray Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, Webster

    2002-01-01

    NAG5-5020 covered a period of 7.5 years during which a great deal of progress was made in x-ray optical techniques under this grant. We survived peer review numerous times during the effort to keep the grant going. In 1994, when the grant started we were actively pursuing the application of spherical mirrors to improving x-ray telescopes. We had found that x-ray detectors were becoming rapidly more sophisticated and affordable, but that x-ray telescopes were only being improved through the intense application of money within the AXAF program. Clearly new techniques for the future were needed. We were successful in developing and testing at the HELSTF facility in New Mexico a four reflection coma-corrected telescope made from spheres. We were able to demonstrate 0.3 arcsecond resolution, almost to the diffraction limit of the system. The community as a whole was, at that time, not particularly interested in looking past AXAF (Chandra) and the effort needed to evolve. Since we had reached the diffraction limit using non-Wolter optics we then decided to see if we could build an x-ray interferometer in the laboratory. In the lab the potential for improved resolution was substantial. If synthetic aperture telescopes could be built in space, then orders of magnitude improvement would become feasible. In 1998 NASA, under the direction of Dr. Nick White of Goddard, started a study to assess the potential and feasibility of x-ray interferometry in space. My work became of central interest to the committee because it indicated that such was possible. In early 1999 we had the breakthrough that allowed us build a practical interferometer. By using flats and hooking up with the Marshall Space Flight Center facilities we were able to demonstrate fringes at 1.25keV on a one millimeter baseline. This actual laboratory demonstration provided the solid proof of concept that NASA needed.

  9. Using high spectral resolution spectrophotometry to study broad mineral absorption features on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Crisp, D.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally telescopic measurements of mineralogic absorption features have been made using relatively low to moderate (R=30-300) spectral resolution. Mineralogic absorption features tend to be broad so high resolution spectroscopy (R greater than 10,000) does not provide significant additional compositional information. Low to moderate resolution spectroscopy allows an observer to obtain data over a wide wavelength range (hundreds to thousands of wavenumbers) compared to the several wavenumber intervals that are collected using high resolution spectrometers. However, spectrophotometry at high resolution has major advantages over lower resolution spectroscopy in situations that are applicable to studies of the Martian surface, i.e., at wavelengths where relatively weak surface absorption features and atmospheric gas absorption features both occur.

  10. A high-resolution vehicle emission inventory for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, B.; Zhang, Q.; He, K.; Huo, H.; Yao, Z.; Wang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Developing high resolution emission inventory is an essential task for air quality modeling and management. However, current vehicle emission inventories in China are usually developed at provincial level and then allocated to grids based on various spatial surrogates, which is difficult to get high spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a new approach to construct a high-resolution vehicle emission inventory for China. First, vehicle population at county level were estimated by using the relationship between per-capita GDP and vehicle ownership. Then the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to drive the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to get monthly emission factors for each county. Finally, vehicle emissions by county were allocated to grids with 5-km horizon resolution by using high-resolution road network data. This work provides a better understanding of spatial representation of vehicle emissions in China and can benefit both air quality modeling and management with improved spatial accuracy.

  11. Research Relative to High Spatial Resolution Passive Microwave Sounding Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Rosenkranz, P. W.

    1984-01-01

    Methods to obtain high resolution passive microwave weather observations, and understanding of their probable impact on numerical weather prediction accuracy were investigated. The development of synthetic aperture concepts for geosynchronous passive microwave sounders were studied. The effects of clouds, precipitation, surface phenomena, and atmospheric thermal fine structure on a scale of several kilometers were examined. High resolution passive microwave sounders (e.g., AMSU) with an increased number of channels will produce initialization data for numerical weather prediction (NWP) models with both increased spatial resolution and coverage. The development of statistical models for error growth in high resolution primitive equation NWP models which permit the consequences of various observing system alternatives, including sensors and assimilation times and procedures is discussed. A high resolution three dimensional primitive equation NWP model to determine parameters in an error growth model similar to that formulated by Lorenz, but with more degrees of freedom is utilized.

  12. High-resolution diffraction grating interferometric transducer of linear displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Ping; Xia, Haojie; Fei, Yetai

    2016-01-01

    A high-resolution transducer of linear displacements is presented. The system is based on semiconductor laser illumination and a diffraction grating applied as a length master. The theory of the optical method is formulated using Doppler description. The relationship model among the interference strips, measurement errors, grating deflection around the X, Y and Z axes and translation along the Z axis is built. The grating interference strips' direction and space is not changed with movement along the X (direction of grating movement), Y (direction of grating line), Z axis, and the direction and space has a great effect when rotating around the X axis. Moreover the space is little affected by deflection around the Z axis however the direction is changed dramatically. In addition, the strips' position shifted rightward or downwards respectively for deflection around the X or Y axis. Because the emitted beams are separated on the grating plane, the tilt around the X axis error of the stage during motion will lead to the optical path difference of the two beams resulting in phase shift. This study investigates the influence of the tilt around the X axis error. Experiments show that after yaw error compensation, the high-resolution diffraction grating interferometric transducer readings can be significantly improved. The error can be reduced from +/-80 nm to +/-30 nm in maximum.

  13. Evaluation of a high resolution silicon PET insert module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grkovski, Milan; Brzezinski, Karol; Cindro, Vladimir; Clinthorne, Neal H.; Kagan, Harris; Lacasta, Carlos; Mikuž, Marko; Solaz, Carles; Studen, Andrej; Weilhammer, Peter; Žontar, Dejan

    2015-07-01

    Conventional PET systems can be augmented with additional detectors placed in close proximity of the region of interest. We developed a high resolution PET insert module to evaluate the added benefit of such a combination. The insert module consists of two back-to-back 1 mm thick silicon sensors, each segmented into 1040 1 mm2 pads arranged in a 40 by 26 array. A set of 16 VATAGP7.1 ASICs and a custom assembled data acquisition board were used to read out the signal from the insert module. Data were acquired in slice (2D) geometry with a Jaszczak phantom (rod diameters of 1.2-4.8 mm) filled with 18F-FDG and the images were reconstructed with ML-EM method. Both data with full and limited angular coverage from the insert module were considered and three types of coincidence events were combined. The ratio of high-resolution data that substantially improves quality of the reconstructed image for the region near the surface of the insert module was estimated to be about 4%. Results from our previous studies suggest that such ratio could be achieved at a moderate technological expense by using an equivalent of two insert modules (an effective sensor thickness of 4 mm).

  14. High-resolution gravity field modeling using GRAIL mission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Goossens, S. J.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Loomis, B.; Chinn, D. S.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were designed to map the structure of the Moon through high-precision global gravity mapping. The mission consisted of two spacecraft with Ka-band inter-satellite tracking complemented by tracking from Earth. The mission had two phases: a primary mapping mission from March 1 until May 29, 2012 at an average altitude of 50 km, and an extended mission from August 30 until December 14, 2012, with an average altitude of 23 km before November 18, and 20 and 11 km after. High-resolution gravity field models using both these data sets have been estimated, with the current resolution being degree and order 1080 in spherical harmonics. Here, we focus on aspects of the analysis of the GRAIL data: we investigate eclipse modeling, the influence of empirical accelerations on the results, and we discuss the inversion of large-scale systems. In addition to global models we also estimated local gravity adjustments in areas of particular interest such as Mare Orientale, the south pole area, and the farside. We investigate the use of Ka-band Range Rate (KBRR) data versus numerical derivatives of KBRR data, and show that the latter have the capability to locally improve correlations with topography.

  15. Whole-animal imaging with high spatio-temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhetri, Raghav; Amat, Fernando; Wan, Yinan; Höckendorf, Burkhard; Lemon, William C.; Keller, Philipp J.

    2016-03-01

    We developed isotropic multiview (IsoView) light-sheet microscopy in order to image fast cellular dynamics, such as cell movements in an entire developing embryo or neuronal activity throughput an entire brain or nervous system, with high resolution in all dimensions, high imaging speeds, good physical coverage and low photo-damage. To achieve high temporal resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time, IsoView microscopy rapidly images large specimens via simultaneous light-sheet illumination and fluorescence detection along four orthogonal directions. In a post-processing step, these four views are then combined by means of high-throughput multiview deconvolution to yield images with a system resolution of ≤ 450 nm in all three dimensions. Using IsoView microscopy, we performed whole-animal functional imaging of Drosophila embryos and larvae at a spatial resolution of 1.1-2.5 μm and at a temporal resolution of 2 Hz for up to 9 hours. We also performed whole-brain functional imaging in larval zebrafish and multicolor imaging of fast cellular dynamics across entire, gastrulating Drosophila embryos with isotropic, sub-cellular resolution. Compared with conventional (spatially anisotropic) light-sheet microscopy, IsoView microscopy improves spatial resolution at least sevenfold and decreases resolution anisotropy at least threefold. Compared with existing high-resolution light-sheet techniques, such as lattice lightsheet microscopy or diSPIM, IsoView microscopy effectively doubles the penetration depth and provides subsecond temporal resolution for specimens 400-fold larger than could previously be imaged.

  16. Cheetah: A high frame rate, high resolution SWIR image camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neys, Joel; Bentell, Jonas; O'Grady, Matt; Vermeiren, Jan; Colin, Thierry; Hooylaerts, Peter; Grietens, Bob

    2008-10-01

    A high resolution, high frame rate InGaAs based image sensor and associated camera has been developed. The sensor and the camera are capable of recording and delivering more than 1700 full 640x512pixel frames per second. The FPA utilizes a low lag CTIA current integrator in each pixel, enabling integration times shorter than one microsecond. On-chip logics allows for four different sub windows to be read out simultaneously at even higher rates. The spectral sensitivity of the FPA is situated in the SWIR range [0.9-1.7 μm] and can be further extended into the Visible and NIR range. The Cheetah camera has max 16 GB of on-board memory to store the acquired images and transfer the data over a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the PC. The camera is also equipped with a full CameralinkTM interface to directly stream the data to a frame grabber or dedicated image processing unit. The Cheetah camera is completely under software control.

  17. A high-resolution time-to-digital converter using a three-level resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, Asma; Saneei, Mohsen; Mahani, Ali

    2016-08-01

    In this article, a three-level resolution Vernier delay line time-to-digital converter (TDC) was proposed. The proposed TDC core was based on the pseudo-differential digital architecture that made it insensitive to nMOS and pMOS transistor mismatches. It also employed a Vernier delay line (VDL) in conjunction with an asynchronous read-out circuitry. The time interval resolution was equal to the difference of delay between buffers of upper and lower chains. Then, via the extra chain included in the lower delay line, resolution was controlled and power consumption was reduced. This method led to high resolution and low power consumption. The measurement results of TDC showed a resolution of 4.5 ps, 12-bit output dynamic range, and integral nonlinearity of 1.5 least significant bits. This TDC achieved the consumption of 68.43 µW from 1.1-V supply.

  18. High-resolution tomographic imaging of microvessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Bert; Lang, Sabrina; Dominietto, Marco; Rudin, Markus; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Germann, Marco; Pfeiffer, Franz; David, Christian; Weitkamp, Timm

    2008-08-01

    Cancer belongs to the primary diseases these days. Although different successful treatments including surgery, chemical, pharmacological, and radiation therapies are established, the aggressive proliferation of cancerous cells and the related formation of blood vessels has to be better understood to develop more powerful strategies against the different kinds of cancer. Angiogenesis is one of the crucial steps for the survival and metastasis formation of malignant tumors. Although therapeutic strategies attempting to inhibit these processes are being developed, the biological regulation is still unclear. This study concentrates on the three-dimensional morphology of vessels formed in a mouse tumor xenograft model post mortem. Synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography (SRμCT) could provide the necessary information that is essential for validating the simulations. Using mouse and human brain tissue, the different approaches to extract the vessel tree from SRμCT data are discussed. These approaches include corrosion casting, the application of contrast agents such as barium sulfate, tissue embedding, all of them regarded as materials science based. Alternatively, phase contrast tomography was used, which gave rise to promising results but still not reaches the spatial resolution to uncover the smallest capillaries.

  19. High-Resolution MOC Image of Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image of Phobos, the inner and larger of the two moons of Mars, was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor on August 19, 1998. This image shows a close-up of the largest crater on Phobos, Stickney, 10 kilometers (6 miles) in diameter. Individual boulders are visible on the near rim of the crater, and are presumed to be ejecta blocks from the impact that formed Stickney. Some of these boulders are enormous - more than 50 meters (160 feet) across. Also crossing at and near the rim of Stickney are shallow, elongated depressions called grooves. This crater is nearly half the size of Phobos and these grooves may be fractures caused by its formation. Phobos was observed by both the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). This image is one of the highest resolution images (4 meters or 13 feet per picture element or pixel) ever obtained of the Martian satellite.

    Malin Space Science Systems, Inc. and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Thermal Emission Spectrometer is operated by Arizona State University and was built by Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  20. Updating Maps Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrajhi, Muhamad; Shahzad Janjua, Khurram; Afroz Khan, Mohammad; Alobeid, Abdalla

    2016-06-01

    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the most dynamic countries of the world. We have witnessed a very rapid urban development's which are altering Kingdom's landscape on daily basis. In recent years a substantial increase in urban populations is observed which results in the formation of large cities. Considering this fast paced growth, it has become necessary to monitor these changes, in consideration with challenges faced by aerial photography projects. It has been observed that data obtained through aerial photography has a lifecycle of 5-years because of delay caused by extreme weather conditions and dust storms which acts as hindrances or barriers during aerial imagery acquisition, which has increased the costs of aerial survey projects. All of these circumstances require that we must consider some alternatives that can provide us easy and better ways of image acquisition in short span of time for achieving reliable accuracy and cost effectiveness. The approach of this study is to conduct an extensive comparison between different resolutions of data sets which include: Orthophoto of (10 cm) GSD, Stereo images of (50 cm) GSD and Stereo images of (1 m) GSD, for map updating. Different approaches have been applied for digitizing buildings, roads, tracks, airport, roof level changes, filling stations, buildings under construction, property boundaries, mosques buildings and parking places.

  1. The High-Resolution Powder Diffractometer at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Garlea, Vasile O; Chakoumakos, Bryan C; Moore, Scott A; Taylor, Gerald Brent; Chae, Timothy L; Maples, Ron G; Riedel, Richard A; Lynn, Gary W; Selby, Douglas L

    2010-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction is increasingly recognized as one of the most powerful techniques for studying the structural and magnetic properties of advanced materials. Despite the growing demand to study an ever-increasing array of interesting materials, there is only a handful of neutron diffractometers available to serve the U.S. neutron scattering community. This article describes the new high-resolution powder diffractometer that has recently been installed at the High Flux Isotope Reactor in Oak Ridge. The instrument is designed to provide an optimum balance between high neutron flux and high resolution. Due to its versatility the diffractometer can be employed for a large variety of experiments, but it is particularly adapted for refinements of structures with large interplanar spacings as well as of complex magnetic structures. In addition to traditional crystal and magnetic structural refinements, studies of phase transitions, thermal expansion, texture analysis, and ab initio structure solution from powder data can be undertaken.

  2. Reproducible high-resolution multispectral image acquisition in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duliu, Alexandru; Gardiazabal, José; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir

    2015-07-01

    Multispectral image acquisitions are increasingly popular in dermatology, due to their improved spectral resolution which enables better tissue discrimination. Most applications however focus on restricted regions of interest, imaging only small lesions. In this work we present and discuss an imaging framework for high-resolution multispectral imaging on large regions of interest.

  3. High Resolution Aerosol Modeling: Decadal Changes in Radiative Forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, D J; Chuang, C C; Govindasamy, B; Cameron-Smith, P J; Rotman, D A

    2005-02-01

    The Atmospheric Science Division of LLNL has performed high-resolution calculations of direct sulfate forcing using a DOE-provided computer resource at NERSC. We integrated our global chemistry-aerosol model (IMPACT) with the LLNL high-resolution global climate model (horizontal resolution as high as 100 km) to examine the temporal evolution of sulfate forcing since 1950. We note that all previous assessments of sulfate forcing reported in IPCC (2001) were based on global models with coarse spatial resolutions ({approx} 300 km or even coarser). However, the short lifetime of aerosols ({approx} days) results in large spatial and temporal variations of radiative forcing by sulfate. As a result, global climate models with coarse resolutions do not accurately simulate sulfate forcing on regional scales. It requires much finer spatial resolutions in order to address the effects of regional anthropogenic SO{sub 2} emissions on the global atmosphere as well as the effects of long-range transport of sulfate aerosols on the regional climate forcing. By taking advantage of the tera-scale computer resources at NERSC, we simulated the historic direct sulfate forcing at much finer spatial resolutions than ever attempted before. Furthermore, we performed high-resolution chemistry simulations and saved monthly averaged oxidant fields, which will be used in subsequent simulations of sulfate aerosol formation and their radiative impact.

  4. Ultrastable reference pulser for high-resolution spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, R.; Lenkszus, F. R.; Sifter, L. L.; Strauss, M. G.

    1970-01-01

    Solid-state double-pulse generator for a high resolution semiconductor detector meets specific requirements for resolution /0.05 percent/, amplitude range /0.1-13 MeV/, and repetition rate /0.1-1000 pulses per second/. A tag pulse is generated in coincidence with each reference pulse.

  5. High resolution data base for use with MAP

    SciTech Connect

    Tapley, W.C.; Harris, D.B.

    1987-05-05

    A high resolution cartographic data base of thw World is available from the CIA. We obtained this data, extracted portions of the data, and produced cartographic files of varying resolutions. The resulting data files are of the proper format for use with MAP (2), our in-house cartographic plotting program.

  6. High Resolution Digital Elevation Models of Pristine Explosion Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, T. G.; Krabill, W.; Garvin, J. B.

    2004-01-01

    In order to effectively capture a realistic terrain applicable to studies of cratering processes and landing hazards on Mars, we have obtained high resolution digital elevation models of several pristine explosion craters at the Nevada Test Site. We used the Airborne Terrain Mapper (ATM), operated by NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to obtain DEMs with 1 m spacing and 10 cm vertical errors of 4 main craters and many other craters and collapse pits. The main craters that were mapped are Sedan, Scooter, Schooner, and Danny Boy. The 370 m diameter Sedan crater, located on Yucca Flat, is the largest and freshest explosion crater on Earth that was formed under conditions similar to hypervelocity impact cratering. As such, it is effectively pristine, having been formed in 1962 as a result of a controlled detonation of a 100 kiloton thermonuclear device, buried at the appropriate equivalent depth of burst required to make a simple crater. Sedan was formed in alluvium of mixed lithology and subsequently studied using a variety of field-based methods. Nearby secondary craters were also formed at the time and were also mapped by ATM. Adjacent to Sedan and also in alluvium is Scooter, about 90 m in diameter and formed by a high-explosive event. Schooner (240 m) and Danny Boy (80 m) craters were also important targets for ATM as they were excavated in hard basalt and therefore have much rougher ejecta. This will allow study of ejecta patterns in hard rock as well as engineering tests of crater and rock avoidance and rover trafficability. In addition to the high resolution DEMs, crater geometric characteristics, RMS roughness maps, and other higher-order derived data products will be generated using these data. These will provide constraints for models of landing hazards on Mars and for rover trafficability. Other planned studies will include ejecta size-frequency distribution at the resolution of the DEM and at finer resolution through air photography and field measurements

  7. Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yongjin; Choi, Wonshik; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Badizadegan, Kamran; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S

    2009-01-05

    We report the experimental implementation of optical diffraction tomography for quantitative 3D mapping of refractive index in live biological cells. Using a heterodyne Mach-Zehnder interferometer, we record complex field images of light transmitted through a sample with varying directions of illumination. To quantitatively reconstruct the 3D map of complex refractive index in live cells, we apply optical diffraction tomography based on the Rytov approximation. In this way, the effect of diffraction is taken into account in the reconstruction process and diffraction-free high resolution 3D images are obtained throughout the entire sample volume. The quantitative refractive index map can potentially serve as an intrinsic assay to provide the molecular concentrations without the addition of exogenous agents and also to provide a method for studying the light scattering properties of single cells.

  8. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genot, A. J.; Baccouche, A.; Sieskind, R.; Aubert-Kato, N.; Bredeche, N.; Bartolo, J. F.; Taly, V.; Fujii, T.; Rondelez, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator-prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  9. High-resolution spectroscopy of a giant solar filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuckein, Christoph; Denker, Carsten; Verma, Meetu

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of a giant solar quiescent filament were taken with the Echelle spectrograph at the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT; Tenerife, Spain). A mosaic of various spectroheliograms (Hα, Hα+/-0.5 Å and Na D2) were chosen to examine the filament at different heights in the solar atmosphere. In addition, full-disk images (He i 10830 Å and Ca ii K) of the Chromspheric Telescope and full-disk magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager were used to complement the spectra. Preliminary results are shown of this filament, which had extremely large linear dimensions (~740'') and was observed in November 2011 while it traversed the northern solar hemisphere.

  10. SPARTAN: An Instructional High Resolution Land Combat Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    AD-A248 1681111 1 1 1 11 1 I’Ii’ I! ! DTICELECTIED m APR,0 11992.S Oct-D SPARTAN: An Instructional High Rezolution Land Combat Model THESIS David...SPARTAN: An Instructional Accesion For - High Resolution Land Combat Model NTIS CRA&IDTIC TAB ., THESIS U. a,1:!ot%,ced U 1stilcatonl...developed an instructional high resolution land combat simulation model . The purpose of this model is to demonstrate common techniques of modeling used

  11. A high resolution global scale groundwater model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.; Sutanudjaja, E. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is the world's largest accessible source of fresh water. It plays a vital role in satisfying needs for drinking water, agriculture and industrial activities. During times of drought groundwater sustains baseflow to rivers and wetlands, thereby supporting ecosystems. Most global scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, mainly due to lack of geohydrological data at the global scale. For the simulation of lateral flow and groundwater head dynamics a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system is needed, especially for GHMs that run at finer resolution. In this study we present a global scale groundwater model (run at 6' as dynamic steady state) using MODFLOW to construct an equilibrium water table at its natural state as the result of long-term climatic forcing. The aquifer schematization and properties were based on available global datasets of lithology and transmissivities combined with estimated aquifer thickness of an upper unconfined aquifer. The model is forced with outputs from the land-surface model PCR-GLOBWB, specifically with net recharge and surface water levels. A sensitivity analysis, in which the model was run with various parameter settings, showed variation in saturated conductivity causes most of the groundwater level variations. Simulated groundwater heads were validated against reported piezometer observations. The validation showed that groundwater depths are reasonably well simulated for many regions of the world, especially for sediment basins (R2 = 0.95). The simulated regional scale groundwater patterns and flowpaths confirm the relevance of taking lateral groundwater flow into account in GHMs. Flowpaths show inter-basin groundwater flow that can be a significant part of a basins water budget and helps to sustain river baseflow, explicitly during times of droughts. Also important aquifer systems are recharged by inter-basin groundwater flows that positively affect water

  12. High Resolution UV Observations of 47TUC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paresce, Francesco

    1994-01-01

    M15 is the archetype of the post collapse globular cluster with a very dense core unresolvable from the ground and power law surface brightness radial profile. It also exhibits a central cusp in the velocity dispersion radial profile. All this indicates that the cluster has most likely experienced core collapse. It is not clear yet what state it finds itself in now but it seems likely that it may be rebounding from its approach to the singularity either because of the production of energy producing hard binaries or of a black hole. Early HST observations of the core of M15 have been inconclusive in this regard in that the specific character of core collapse is impressed on the stellar density radial profile within 1" or so from the gravity center, well within the aberrated wings of the PSF. WF/PC observations in the U band indicate a core of radius 2.2"=0.13pc due to an unresolved stellar component fainter than U=18. Multicolor FOC observations show that there is a significant population of UV-bright stars in this area. The only way to measure this crucial radius and thus determine unambiguosly the evolutionary status of this object is to resolve the faint stars in the core with the highest possible resolution and sensitivity. Only the FOC F/96 relay with COSTAR can do this job properly, with tremendous scientific impact brought by the first measurement of a collapsed core, possible indications of a black hole, a new population of blue objects and the first observations of white dwarfs.

  13. High-Resolution Array with Prony, MUSIC, and ESPRIT Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-25

    N avalI Research La bora tory AD-A255 514 Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/FR/5324-92-9397 High-resolution Array with Prony, music , and ESPRIT...unlimited t"orm n pprovoiREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OMB. o 0 104 0188 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS High-resolution Array with Prony. MUSIC . and...the array high-resolution properties of three algorithms: the Prony algo- rithm, the MUSIC algorithm, and the ESPRIT algorithm. MUSIC has been much

  14. Distributed MIMO Radar for Imaging and High Resolution Target Localization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-02

    28-2012 Final Report 04/15/2009 - 11/30/2011 Distributed MIMO Radar for Imaging and High Resolution Target Localization FA9550-09-1-0303 Alexander M...randomly placed sensors. MIMO radar, High-Resolution radar 19 Distributed MIMO Radar for Imaging and High Resolution Target Localization Air Force Office...configured with its antennas collocated [6] or distributed over an area [7, 8]. We refer to radio elements of a MIMO radar as nodes. Nodes may be equipped

  15. Ultra-high resolution and high-brightness AMOLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Ghosh, Amal; Prache, Olivier; Draper, Russ; Fellowes, Dave

    2012-06-01

    As part of its continuing effort to improve both the resolution and optical performance of AMOLED microdisplays, eMagin has recently developed an SXGA (1280×3×1024) microdisplay under a US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD contract that combines the world's smallest OLED pixel pitch with an ultra-high brightness green OLED emitter. This development is aimed at next-generation HMD systems with "see-through" and daylight imaging requirements. The OLED pixel array is built on a 0.18-micron CMOS backplane and contains over 4 million individually addressable pixels with a pixel pitch of 2.7 × 8.1 microns, resulting in an active area of 0.52 inches diagonal. Using both spatial and temporal enhancement, the display can provide over 10-bits of gray-level control for high dynamic range applications. The new pixel design also enables the future implementation of a full-color QSXGA (2560 × RGB × 2048) microdisplay in an active area of only 1.05 inch diagonal. A low-power serialized low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) interface is integrated into the display for use as a remote video link for tethered systems. The new SXGA backplane has been combined with the high-brightness green OLED device developed by eMagin under an NVESD contract. This OLED device has produced an output brightness of more than 8000fL with all pixels on; lifetime measurements are currently underway and will presented at the meeting. This paper will describe the operational features and first optical and electrical test results of the new SXGA demonstrator microdisplay.

  16. All-Optical Ultrasound Transducers for High Resolution Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheaff, Clay Smith

    High frequency ultrasound (HFUS) has increasingly been used within the past few decades to provide high resolution (< 200 mum) imaging in medical applications such as endoluminal imaging, intravascular imaging, ophthalmology, and dermatology. The optical detection and generation of HFUS using thin films offers numerous advantages over traditional piezoelectric technology. Circumvention of an electronic interface with the device head is one of the most significant given the RF noise, crosstalk, and reduced capacitance that encumbers small-scale electronic transducers. Thin film Fabry-Perot interferometers - also known as etalons - are well suited for HFUS receivers on account of their high sensitivity, wide bandwidth, and ease of fabrication. In addition, thin films can be used to generate HFUS when irradiated with optical pulses - a method referred to as Thermoelastic Ultrasound Generation (TUG). By integrating a polyimide (PI) film for TUG into an etalon receiver, we have created for the first time an all-optical ultrasound transducer that is both thermally stable and capable of forming fully sampled 2-D imaging arrays of arbitrary configuration. Here we report (1) the design and fabrication of PI-etalon transducers; (2) an evaluation of their optical and acoustic performance parameters; (3) the ability to conduct high-resolution imaging with synthetic 2-D arrays of PI-etalon elements; and (4) work towards a fiber optic PI-etalon for in vivo use. Successful development of a fiber optic imager would provide a unique field-of-view thereby exposing an abundance of prospects for minimally-invasive analysis, diagnosis, and treatment of disease.

  17. A high-resolution mosaic of HI in M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilker, D. A.; Braun, R.; Walterbos, R. A. M.

    2000-12-01

    We have completed a high-resolution VLA/WSRT survey of HI in M33. Our data comprise the most detailed HI observations ever obtained for a spiral galaxy other than the Milky Way and reveal many striking properties of the neutral atomic gas. Spatial resolution of 20 pc (assuming a distance of 840 kpc) permits identification of expanding bubbles smaller than those cataloged by Deul & den Hartog, in addition to HI counterparts of discrete dust clouds. Likewise, we find a complex morphological relationship between HI and HII components. Velocity sampling of 1.3 km/s was achieved, thereby permitting the study of line profile variations as a function of environment within M33. A possible dark companion to M33 has been discovered using our WSRT observations. Deep 100m-class, single dish observations or D-configuration VLA images are needed to follow-up this lead, and exclude the possibility of a Galactic HVC explanation. This poster summarizes our initial analysis of the new dataset.

  18. High-resolution sea wind hindcasts over the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, M.; García-Díez, M.; Fita, L.; Fernández, J.; Méndez, F. J.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a high-resolution atmospheric hindcast over the Mediterranean area using the WRF-ARW model, focusing on offshore surface wind fields. In order to choose the most adequate model configuration, the study provides details on the calibration of the experimental saet-up through a sensitivity test considering the October-December 2001 period (the 2001 super-storm event in the West Mediterranean). A daily forecast outperforms the spectral technique of previous products and the boundary data from ERA-Interim reanalysis produces the most accurate estimates in terms of wind variability and hour-to-hour correspondence. According to the sensitivity test, two data sets of wind hindcast are produced: the SeaWind I (30-km horizontal resolution for a period of 60 years) and the SeaWind II (15-km horizontal resolution for 20 years). The validation of the resulting surface winds is undertaken considering two offshore observational datasets. On the one hand, hourly surface buoy stations are used to validate wind time series at specific locations; on the other hand, wind altimeter satellite observations are considered for spatial validation in the whole Mediterranean Sea. The results obtained from this validation process show a very good agreement with observations for the southern Europe region. Finally, SeaWind I and II are used to characterize offshore wind fields in the Mediterranean Sea. The statistical structure of sea surface wind is analyzed and the agreement with Weibull probability distribution is discussed. In addition, wind persistence and extreme wind speed (50 year return period) are characterized and relevant areas of wind power generation are described by estimating wind energy quantities.

  19. Feature tracking in high-resolution regional climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Neil R.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a suite of algorithms are presented which facilitate the identification and tracking of storm-indicative features, such as mean sea-level pressure minima, in high resolution regional climate data. The methods employ a hierarchical triangular mesh, which is tailored to the regional climate data by only subdividing triangles, from an initial icosahedron, within the domain of the data. The regional data is then regridded to this triangular mesh at each level of the grid, producing a compact representation of the data at numerous resolutions. Storm indicative features are detected by first subtracting the background field, represented by a low resolution version of the data, which occurs at a lower level in the mesh. Anomalies from this background field are detected, as feature objects, at a mesh level which corresponds to the spatial scale of the feature being detected and then refined to the highest mesh level. These feature objects are expanded to an outer contour and overlapping objects are merged. The centre points of these objects are tracked across timesteps by applying an optimisation scheme which uses five hierarchical rules. Objects are added to tracks based on the highest rule in the scheme they pass and, if two objects pass the same rule, the cost of adding the object to the track. An object exchange scheme ensures that adding an object to a track is locally optimal. An additional track optimisation phase is performed which exchanges segments between tracks and merges tracks to obtain a globally optimal track set. To validate the suite of algorithms they are applied to the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and compared to other storm-indicative feature tracking algorithms.

  20. High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP v1.0) for CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarsma, Reindert J.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Senior, Catherine A.; Bellucci, Alessio; Bao, Qing; Chang, Ping; Corti, Susanna; Fučkar, Neven S.; Guemas, Virginie; von Hardenberg, Jost; Hazeleger, Wilco; Kodama, Chihiro; Koenigk, Torben; Leung, L. Ruby; Lu, Jian; Luo, Jing-Jia; Mao, Jiafu; Mizielinski, Matthew S.; Mizuta, Ryo; Nobre, Paulo; Satoh, Masaki; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Semmler, Tido; Small, Justin; von Storch, Jin-Song

    2016-11-01

    Robust projections and predictions of climate variability and change, particularly at regional scales, rely on the driving processes being represented with fidelity in model simulations. The role of enhanced horizontal resolution in improved process representation in all components of the climate system is of growing interest, particularly as some recent simulations suggest both the possibility of significant changes in large-scale aspects of circulation as well as improvements in small-scale processes and extremes. However, such high-resolution global simulations at climate timescales, with resolutions of at least 50 km in the atmosphere and 0.25° in the ocean, have been performed at relatively few research centres and generally without overall coordination, primarily due to their computational cost. Assessing the robustness of the response of simulated climate to model resolution requires a large multi-model ensemble using a coordinated set of experiments. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6) is the ideal framework within which to conduct such a study, due to the strong link to models being developed for the CMIP DECK experiments and other model intercomparison projects (MIPs). Increases in high-performance computing (HPC) resources, as well as the revised experimental design for CMIP6, now enable a detailed investigation of the impact of increased resolution up to synoptic weather scales on the simulated mean climate and its variability. The High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP) presented in this paper applies, for the first time, a multi-model approach to the systematic investigation of the impact of horizontal resolution. A coordinated set of experiments has been designed to assess both a standard and an enhanced horizontal-resolution simulation in the atmosphere and ocean. The set of HighResMIP experiments is divided into three tiers consisting of atmosphere-only and coupled runs and spanning the period 1950-2050, with the

  1. High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP v1.0) for CMIP6

    SciTech Connect

    Haarsma, Reindert J.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Senior, Catherine A.; Bellucci, Alessio; Bao, Qing; Chang, Ping; Corti, Susanna; Fučkar, Neven S.; Guemas, Virginie; von Hardenberg, Jost; Hazeleger, Wilco; Kodama, Chihiro; Koenigk, Torben; Leung, L. Ruby; Lu, Jian; Luo, Jing-Jia; Mao, Jiafu; Mizielinski, Matthew S.; Mizuta, Ryo; Nobre, Paulo; Satoh, Masaki; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Semmler, Tido; Small, Justin; von Storch, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    Robust projections and predictions of climate variability and change, particularly at regional scales, rely on the driving processes being represented with fidelity in model simulations. The role of enhanced horizontal resolution in improved process representation in all components of the climate system is of growing interest, particularly as some recent simulations suggest both the possibility of significant changes in large-scale aspects of circulation as well as improvements in small-scale processes and extremes.

    However, such high-resolution global simulations at climate timescales, with resolutions of at least 50 km in the atmosphere and 0.25° in the ocean, have been performed at relatively few research centres and generally without overall coordination, primarily due to their computational cost. Assessing the robustness of the response of simulated climate to model resolution requires a large multi-model ensemble using a coordinated set of experiments. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6) is the ideal framework within which to conduct such a study, due to the strong link to models being developed for the CMIP DECK experiments and other model intercomparison projects (MIPs).

    Increases in high-performance computing (HPC) resources, as well as the revised experimental design for CMIP6, now enable a detailed investigation of the impact of increased resolution up to synoptic weather scales on the simulated mean climate and its variability.

    The High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP) presented in this paper applies, for the first time, a multi-model approach to the systematic investigation of the impact of horizontal resolution. A coordinated set of experiments has been designed to assess both a standard and an enhanced horizontal-resolution simulation in the atmosphere and ocean. The set of HighResMIP experiments is divided into three tiers consisting of atmosphere-only and coupled runs and

  2. High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP v1.0) for CMIP6

    DOE PAGES

    Haarsma, Reindert J.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Vidale, Pier Luigi; ...

    2016-11-22

    Robust projections and predictions of climate variability and change, particularly at regional scales, rely on the driving processes being represented with fidelity in model simulations. The role of enhanced horizontal resolution in improved process representation in all components of the climate system is of growing interest, particularly as some recent simulations suggest both the possibility of significant changes in large-scale aspects of circulation as well as improvements in small-scale processes and extremes. However, such high-resolution global simulations at climate timescales, with resolutions of at least 50 km in the atmosphere and 0.25° in the ocean, have been performed at relativelymore » few research centres and generally without overall coordination, primarily due to their computational cost. Assessing the robustness of the response of simulated climate to model resolution requires a large multi-model ensemble using a coordinated set of experiments. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6) is the ideal framework within which to conduct such a study, due to the strong link to models being developed for the CMIP DECK experiments and other model intercomparison projects (MIPs). Increases in high-performance computing (HPC) resources, as well as the revised experimental design for CMIP6, now enable a detailed investigation of the impact of increased resolution up to synoptic weather scales on the simulated mean climate and its variability. The High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP) presented in this paper applies, for the first time, a multi-model approach to the systematic investigation of the impact of horizontal resolution. A coordinated set of experiments has been designed to assess both a standard and an enhanced horizontal-resolution simulation in the atmosphere and ocean. The set of HighResMIP experiments is divided into three tiers consisting of atmosphere-only and coupled runs and spanning the period 1950

  3. High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP v1.0) for CMIP6

    SciTech Connect

    Haarsma, Reindert J.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Senior, Catherine A.; Bellucci, Alessio; Bao, Qing; Chang, Ping; Corti, Susanna; Fuckar, Neven S.; Guemas, Virginie; von Hardenberg, Jost; Hazeleger, Wilco; Kodama, Chihiro; Koenigk, Torben; Leung, L. Ruby; Lu, Jian; Luo, Jing -Jia; Mao, Jiafu; Mizielinski, Matthew S.; Mizuta, Ryo; Nobre, Paulo; Satoh, Masaki; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Semmler, Tido; Small, Justin; von Storch, Jin -Song

    2016-11-22

    Robust projections and predictions of climate variability and change, particularly at regional scales, rely on the driving processes being represented with fidelity in model simulations. The role of enhanced horizontal resolution in improved process representation in all components of the climate system is of growing interest, particularly as some recent simulations suggest both the possibility of significant changes in large-scale aspects of circulation as well as improvements in small-scale processes and extremes.

    However, such high-resolution global simulations at climate timescales, with resolutions of at least 50 km in the atmosphere and 0.25° in the ocean, have been performed at relatively few research centres and generally without overall coordination, primarily due to their computational cost. Assessing the robustness of the response of simulated climate to model resolution requires a large multi-model ensemble using a coordinated set of experiments. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6) is the ideal framework within which to conduct such a study, due to the strong link to models being developed for the CMIP DECK experiments and other model intercomparison projects (MIPs).

    Increases in high-performance computing (HPC) resources, as well as the revised experimental design for CMIP6, now enable a detailed investigation of the impact of increased resolution up to synoptic weather scales on the simulated mean climate and its variability.

    The High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP) presented in this paper applies, for the first time, a multi-model approach to the systematic investigation of the impact of horizontal resolution. A coordinated set of experiments has been designed to assess both a standard and an enhanced horizontal-resolution simulation in the atmosphere and ocean. The set of HighResMIP experiments is divided into three tiers consisting of atmosphere-only and coupled runs and spanning

  4. Spatially adaptive regularized iterative high-resolution image reconstruction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Won Bae; Park, Min K.; Kang, Moon Gi

    2000-12-01

    High resolution images are often required in applications such as remote sensing, frame freeze in video, military and medical imaging. Digital image sensor arrays, which are used for image acquisition in many imaging systems, are not dense enough to prevent aliasing, so the acquired images will be degraded by aliasing effects. To prevent aliasing without loss of resolution, a dense detector array is required. But it may be very costly or unavailable, thus, many imaging systems are designed to allow some level of aliasing during image acquisition. The purpose of our work is to reconstruct an unaliased high resolution image from the acquired aliased image sequence. In this paper, we propose a spatially adaptive regularized iterative high resolution image reconstruction algorithm for blurred, noisy and down-sampled image sequences. The proposed approach is based on a Constrained Least Squares (CLS) high resolution reconstruction algorithm, with spatially adaptive regularization operators and parameters. These regularization terms are shown to improve the reconstructed image quality by forcing smoothness, while preserving edges in the reconstructed high resolution image. Accurate sub-pixel motion registration is the key of the success of the high resolution image reconstruction algorithm. However, sub-pixel motion registration may have some level of registration error. Therefore, a reconstruction algorithm which is robust against the registration error is required. The registration algorithm uses a gradient based sub-pixel motion estimator which provides shift information for each of the recorded frames. The proposed algorithm is based on a technique of high resolution image reconstruction, and it solves spatially adaptive regularized constrained least square minimization functionals. In this paper, we show that the reconstruction algorithm gives dramatic improvements in the resolution of the reconstructed image and is effective in handling the aliased information. The

  5. High resolution digital holography based on the point source scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minchao; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Wang, Fengpeng; Lin, Qiaowen

    2016-10-01

    Digital holographic microscopy has been widely used for the imaging of micro-objects and biological samples. Lensless in-line digital holographic microscopy is capable of wide field-of-view imaging. However the spatial resolution of the reconstructed images is limited by the pixel size of the detector. The relative position shift between the sample and the detector can effectively improve the resolution in the traditional sub-pixel shifting method, but it requires a high precision of translation stage. To overcome this problem, we propose a method based on the point source scanning to realize sub-pixel shifting. High precision sub-pixel shifting is achieved easily by using the geometric between point source and detector. Through moving the point source, multiple holograms with sub-pixel shifts are captured. These holograms are merged together to obtained a high resolution hologram by a synthesizing algorithm. Then, the high resolution reconstructed image of the object can be obtained by the angular spectrum algorithm. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by simulation and experiments. A USAF resolution test target was used as the object. Compared with the traditional digital holography, a higher resolution reconstructed image is obtained by our method. The proposed method has the advantages of simple recording setup and lower precision requirement of the translation stage. It can achieve the wide field-of-view and high resolution imaging.

  6. Sensitivity study of reliable, high-throughput resolution metricsfor photoresists

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Christopher N.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2007-07-30

    The resolution of chemically amplified resists is becoming an increasing concern, especially for lithography in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) regime. Large-scale screening and performance-based down-selection is currently underway to identify resist platforms that can support shrinking feature sizes. Resist screening efforts, however, are hampered by the absence of reliable resolution metrics that can objectively quantify resist resolution in a high-throughput fashion. Here we examine two high-throughput metrics for resist resolution determination. After summarizing their details and justifying their utility, we characterize the sensitivity of both metrics to two of the main experimental uncertainties associated with lithographic exposure tools, namely: limited focus control and limited knowledge of optical aberrations. For an implementation at EUV wavelengths, we report aberration and focus limited error bars in extracted resolution of {approx} 1.25 nm RMS for both metrics making them attractive candidates for future screening and down-selection efforts.

  7. Additional studies of forest classification accuracy as influenced by multispectral scanner spatial resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowski, F. E.; Sarno, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    First, an analysis of forest feature signatures was used to help explain the large variation in classification accuracy that can occur among individual forest features for any one case of spatial resolution and the inconsistent changes in classification accuracy that were demonstrated among features as spatial resolution was degraded. Second, the classification rejection threshold was varied in an effort to reduce the large proportion of unclassified resolution elements that previously appeared in the processing of coarse resolution data when a constant rejection threshold was used for all cases of spatial resolution. For the signature analysis, two-channel ellipse plots showing the feature signature distributions for several cases of spatial resolution indicated that the capability of signatures to correctly identify their respective features is dependent on the amount of statistical overlap among signatures. Reductions in signature variance that occur in data of degraded spatial resolution may not necessarily decrease the amount of statistical overlap among signatures having large variance and small mean separations. Features classified by such signatures may thus continue to have similar amounts of misclassified elements in coarser resolution data, and thus, not necessarily improve in classification accuracy.

  8. High-Resolution Measurements of Coastal Bioluminescence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-30

    seen at the canyon edge. The bioluminescence signal confirms that this is biological, and likely a swarm of krill , which it also detects high levels...lifesci.ucsb.edu/~biolum/ Invited talks, Outreach articles: Sep. 2006. Science Year 2007. Photos and research discussion in Worldbook supplement

  9. Strategies for Interpreting High Resolution Coherent Multidimensional Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Thresa A.; House, Zuri R.; Chen, Peter C.; Strangfeld, Benjamin R.

    2013-06-01

    The electronic spectra of certain molecules can be very complex and consist of a high density of peaks. The high density of peaks results in severe spectral congestion, making conventional data analysis techniques extremely difficult to use. One solution to this problem is to use high resolution coherent 2D spectroscopy (HRC2DS), which can improve resolution and sort peaks into recognizable clusters. This technique requires new data analysis techniques to accurately assign peaks. Even though HRC2DS can improve spectral resolution, some regions of the spectra may still remain congested. The ability to solve this problem using even higher dimensional techniques (e.g., high resolution coherent 3D spectroscopy) with 3D pattern recognition and data analysis techniques will be discussed.

  10. High Resolution CryoFESEM of Microbial Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandsen, Stanley; Lei, Ming; Martin-Lacave, Ines; Dunny, Gary; Wells, Carol

    2003-08-01

    The outer surfaces of three microorganisms, Giardia lamblia, Enterococcus faecalis, and Proteus mirabilis, were investigated by cryo-immobilization followed by sublimation of extracellular ice and cryocoating with either Pt alone or Pt plus carbon. Cryocoated samples were examined at [minus sign]125°C in either an in-lens field emission SEM or a below-the-lens field emission SEM. Cryocoating with Pt alone was sufficient for low magnification observation, but attempts to do high-resolution imaging resulted in radiolysis and cracking of the specimen surface. Double coating with Pt and carbon, in combination with high resolution backscatter electron detectors, enabled high-resolution imaging of the glycocalyx of bacteria, revealing a sponge-like network over the surface. High resolution examination of bacterial flagella also revealed a periodic substructure. Common artifacts included radiolysis leading to “cracking” of the surface, and insufficient deposition of Pt resulting in the absence of detectable surface topography.

  11. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  12. High resolution x-ray scattering and diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Moncton, D.

    1983-01-01

    In the general class of high resolution x-ray scattering studies experiments one analyzes the distribution of photon energies and wave vectors resulting from illumination of a sample with collimated monochromatic radiation. Applications abound in the field of structural physics, which may be described as the study of structures for their intrinsic physical interest. This includes studies of novel states of matter, phase transitions, and dynamics. As both the wave vector and the energy of scattered photons are of interest, one may conceptually divide high resolution experimental setups for this work into two classes: those with high Q-resolution (momemtum transfer analysis) and those with high E-resolution (energy transfer analysis). The former class is exemplified by the existing experimental station on SSRL wiggler experimental station VII-2 and the proposed high Q-resolution wiggler station for NSLS Phase II. The latter class is dependent on extremely high flux, as discussed more fully below, and the possibility of constructing a high E-resolution scattering station fed by an x-ray undulator is one of the exciting opportunities presented by the proposed construction of a 6 GeV storage ring.

  13. High resolution survey for topographic surveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luh, L. C.; Setan, H.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A. K.; Tan, Z.

    2014-02-01

    In this decade, terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is getting popular in many fields such as reconstruction, monitoring, surveying, as-built of facilities, archaeology, and topographic surveying. This is due the high speed in data collection which is about 50,000 to 1,000,000 three-dimensional (3D) points per second at high accuracy. The main advantage of 3D representation for the data is that it is more approximate to the real world. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to show the use of High-Definition Surveying (HDS), also known as 3D laser scanning for topographic survey. This research investigates the effectiveness of using terrestrial laser scanning system for topographic survey by carrying out field test in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor. The 3D laser scanner used in this study is a Leica ScanStation C10. Data acquisition was carried out by applying the traversing method. In this study, the result for the topographic survey is under 1st class survey. At the completion of this study, a standard of procedure was proposed for topographic data acquisition using laser scanning systems. This proposed procedure serves as a guideline for users who wish to utilize laser scanning system in topographic survey fully.

  14. High-spectral-resolution lidar for ocean ecosystem studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Zhou, Yudi; Yang, Yongying; Cheng, Zhongtao; Luo, Jing; Zhang, Yupeng; Shen, Yibing; Wang, Kaiwei; Liu, Chong; Bai, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The research and protection of the ocean ecosystem are key works to maintain the marine status and develop marine functions. However, human's knowledge about the ocean is greatly limited. Now, in situ, acoustic and remote sensing methods have been applied in the research to understand and explore the ocean. Especially, the lidar is one outstanding remote sensing method for its high spatial and temporal resolution as well as the ability of the vertical detection. Highspectral- resolution lidar (HSRL) employs an ultra-narrow spectral filter to distinguish scattering signals between particles and water molecules without assuming a lidar ratio and obtains optical properties of the ocean with a high accuracy. Nevertheless, the complexity of the seawater causes variable marine optical properties, which gives huge potentiality to develop a HSRL working at different wavelengths in order to promote the inversion accuracy and increase the detection depth. The field-widened Michelson interferometer (FWMI), whose central transmittance can be tuned to any wavelength and field of view is large, can be employed as the HSRL spectral filter and solves problems that the operating wavelength of the iodine filter is fixed and the field of view of Fabry-Perot interferometer is small. The principle of the HSRL based on the FWMI designing for the ocean remote sensing will be presented in detail. In addition, the availability of the application of the FWMI influenced by the disturbance of the states of Brillouin scattering is analyzed and the preliminary theory shows that the HSRL instrument basing on FWMI could be employed in the marine remote sensing with a high accuracy.

  15. AVHRR/1-FM Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer is discussed. The program covers design, construction, and test of a breadboard model, engineering model, protoflight model, mechanical/structural model, and a life test model. Special bench test and calibration equipment was developed for use on the program. The flight model program objectives were to fabricate, assemble and test four of the advanced very high resolution radiometers along with a bench cooler and collimator.

  16. Imaging transient events at high angular resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Gail H.

    2016-08-01

    Resolving the spatial structure of transient events provides insights into their physical nature and origin. Recent observations using long baseline optical/infrared interferometry have revealed the size, shape, and angular expansion of bright novae within a few days after their outbursts. This has implications for understanding the timescale for the development of asymmetric features in novae ejecta. Additionally, combining spectroscopic measurements of the expansion velocity with the angular expansion rate provides a way to measure a geometric distance to the nova. In this paper, I provide a review of interferometric observations of novae, with a focus on recent results on the expansion and spatial structure of nova V339 Del in 2013. I also discuss other promising applications of interferometry to transient sources, such as measuring the image size and centroid displacements to measure planetary masses in gravitational microlensing events. Given the timescales of transient events, it is critical for interferometric arrays to respond rapidly to targets of opportunity in order to optimize the instrumental sensitivity and baselines required to resolve the source while its brightness and size change over time.

  17. Multilayer Patterning of High Resolution Intrinsically Stretchable Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Tybrandt, Klas; Stauffer, Flurin; Vörös, Janos

    2016-01-01

    Stretchable electronics can bridge the gap between hard planar electronic circuits and the curved, soft and elastic objects of nature. This has led to applications like conformal displays, electronic skin and soft neuroprosthetics. A remaining challenge, however, is to match the dimensions of the interfaced systems, as all require feature sizes well below 100 μm. Intrinsically stretchable nanocomposites are attractive in this context as the mechanical deformations occur on the nanoscale, although methods for patterning high performance materials have been lacking. Here we address these issues by reporting on a multilayer additive patterning approach for high resolution fabrication of stretchable electronic devices. The method yields highly conductive 30 μm tracks with similar performance to their macroscopic counterparts. Further, we demonstrate a three layer micropatterned stretchable electroluminescent display with pixel sizes down to 70 μm. These presented findings pave the way towards future developments of high definition displays, electronic skins and dense multielectrode arrays. PMID:27157804

  18. a High-Resolution Study of the SILICON-29

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Paul Matthew

    The gamma-decays of 25 resonances in the ^{29}Si(p, gamma) reaction have been measured in the energy range E_{p} = 1.74 -2.50 MeV. This work was performed at the High Resolution Laboratory at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory and represents a major step toward the goal of the determination of the complete level scheme of ^{30 }P from the ground state to 8820 keV. Previous and concurrent experiments have measured the ^ {29}Si(p.p) cross section as well as gamma-ray yields from the ^{29}Si(p,gamma), ^{29}Si(p,p_1 gamma) and ^{29} Si(p,p_2gamma) reactions in the range E_{p} = 1.04 -3.33 MeV. Future angular distribution experiments are planned. Spectral fluctuation properties are believed to give insight into the dynamics of quantum systems. This work was motivated by results from the study of the fluctuation properties of the nuclide ^{26} Al which indicates dynamics that fall between regular and chaotic. A high-resolution (~220 eV) proton beam is produced by the 4 MeV KN Van de Graaff accelerator housed in the High Resolution Laboratory. This beam is directed onto thin films of ^{29 }Si of thickness 1.5-3.0mug/cm ^2. Two high-purity germanium detectors are used to collect detailed gamma -ray spectra; one detector is surrounded by a bismuth germanate anti-Compton shield. These spectra have been analyzed and branching ratios for the resonances have been deduced. Once the branching ratios were determined, Jpi selection rules and recommended upper limits for reduced transition rates were used to reduce the range of possible quantum number (Jpi ; T ) assignments. Of the 25 resonances, sixteen had previous assignments which were confirmed by this work. The allowed ranges were reduced for seven resonances and two resonances had assignments which were changed outright. In addition, a level at E_{x} = 6006.1 keV was discovered; its branching ratios were determined and Jpi ;T assignment restricted.

  19. Optical autofocus for high resolution laser photoplotting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Jose; Crespo, Daniel; Jimenez, Isidoro; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2005-07-01

    An all optical autofocus has been designed and tested for tight line width control in a high NA laser photoplotter system. The laser system is based in a GaN semiconductor laser with power 30 mW and wavelength 405 nm. The advantage of using this laser, despite the relatively long wavenlength, is compactness and easy for high frequency modulation. The autofocus system is based in a secondary 635 nm GaAlAs laser without need for wavelength, neither power stabilization. The two beams are delivered coaxially through the focusing lens by means of a dichroic beamsplitter. Focusing lens need no correction for chromatic aberration, as this is compensed by appropriate autofocus beam divergence. After reflection in the sample, the autofocus beam is separated from the returning writing beam and then guided to a collimation sensor, in which defocus of about 1/20 of the Rayleigh range of the writing beam can be detected and compensated by an analogue PID electronic control. Stable linewidth within 5% is achieved with different numerical aperture focusing lenses.

  20. A CARS solution with high temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landwehr, Stefanie; Lurquin, Vanessa; Hay, William C.; Krishnamachari, Vishnu; Schwarz, Ulf

    2011-03-01

    Confocal and multiphoton microscopy are powerful fluorescence techniques for morphological and dynamics studies of labeled elements. For non-fluorescent components, CARS (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering) microscopy can be used for imaging various elements of cells such as lipids, proteins, DNA, etc. This technique is based on the intrinsic vibrational properties of the molecules. Leica Microsystems has combined CARS technology with its TCS SP5 II confocal microscope to provide several advantages for CARS imaging. The Leica TCS CARS combines two technologies in one system: a conventional scanner for maximum accuracy and a resonant scanner for highly time resolved imaging. For CARS microscopy, two picosecond near-infrared lasers are overlapped tightly, spatially and temporally, and sent directly into the confocal system. The conventional scanner can be used for morphological studies and the resonant scanner for following dynamic processes of unstained living cells. The fast scanner has several advantages over other solutions. First, the sectioning is truly confocal and does not suffer from spatial leakage. Second, the high speed (29 images/sec @ 512x512 pixels) provides fast data acquisition at video rates, allowing studies at the sub-cellular level. In summary, CARS microscopy combined with the tandem scanner makes the Leica TCS CARS a powerful tool for multimodal and three-dimensional imaging of chemical and biological sample.

  1. EAST ELEVATION OF HIGH BAY ADDITION OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION OF HIGH BAY ADDITION OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0603-00-706-051286. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. High resolution studies of deep earth structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xiaoming

    1998-11-01

    Recent advances in seismic tomography has imaged major deep structure in the lower mantle. The ring of fast velocities originally derived from global long-period inversions has been resolved into interspersed sheet-like structure which appears to be old slabs. Beneath some of the structure, there are high velocity zones (HVZ) with variable thickness approaching the core mantle boundary (CMB). Seismic data recorded on TERRAscope and Berkeley Digital Seismic Network are used to study the HVZ beneath Central America. Modeling these waveforms (P, SV and SH) constitutes a major portion of this thesis. Two modeling strategies were employed in the thesis: (1) Assume a "Lay type" D ″ with a sharp velocity discontinuity; (2) Assume an upper transition zone approaching D″, and a lower transition zone approaching the CMB (old slabs). Our preferred model following strategy (1) (Chapter 2) has an S discontinuity 200 km above the CMB with 3% jump and a negative gradient in the D″ layer. In Chapter 4 the ULVZ beneath Iceland and Africa are addressed. The major phases used to study the ULVZ are SKS and SPdiffKS which travels along the CMB as P at both the core entry (SPdiffKS) and exit (SKPdiffS) locations. A major structure beneath Iceland (SKPdiffS) as identified from data recorded on stations in Northern Europe appears to be shaped like a dome, 80 km high, 200 km wide with a 10% drop in P and S velocities. The data for Africa is less complete but highly anomalous. Shear wave record sections across Africa and Europe containing the cross-over from S to SKS and extended core-phases (75° to 120°) are presented from deep South American events. By studying the various branches of the core phases PKP, it has become quite clear that North-South paths in the inner-core appear faster than East-West paths Moreover, the broadband seismograms associated with these paths are distinct. The reason for this difference is not known but suggests a lower (anisotropic) inner-core with an

  3. Phase contrast in high resolution electron microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Rose, H.H.

    1975-09-23

    This patent relates to a device for developing a phase contrast signal for a scanning transmission electron microscope. The lens system of the microscope is operated in a condition of defocus so that predictable alternate concentric regions of high and low electron density exist in the cone of illumination. Two phase detectors are placed beneath the object inside the cone of illumination, with the first detector having the form of a zone plate, each of its rings covering alternate regions of either higher or lower electron density. The second detector is so configured that it covers the regions of electron density not covered by the first detector. Each detector measures the number of electrons incident thereon and the signal developed by the first detector is subtracted from the signal developed by the record detector to provide a phase contrast signal. (auth)

  4. High-resolution gravity model of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.

    1992-01-01

    The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter has been evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.

  5. Variational data assimilation system with nesting model for high resolution ocean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Yoichi; In, Teiji; Nakada, Satoshi; Nishina, Kei; Igarashi, Hiromichi; Hiyoshi, Yoshimasa; Sasaki, Yuji; Wakamatsu, Tsuyoshi; Awaji, Toshiyuki

    2015-10-01

    To obtain the high-resolution analysis fields for ocean circulation, a new incremental approach is developed using a four-dimensional variational data assimilation system with nesting models. The results show that there are substantial biases when using a classical method combined with data assimilation and downscaling, caused by different dynamics resulting from the different resolutions of the models used within the nesting models. However, a remarkable reduction in biases of the low-resolution model relative to the high-resolution model was observed using our new approach in narrow strait regions, such as the Tsushima and Tsugaru straits, where the difference in the dynamics represented by the high- and low-resolution models is substantial. In addition, error reductions are demonstrated in the downstream region of these narrow channels associated with the propagation of information through the model dynamics.

  6. A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai Shah, M.S.

    2007-03-06

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated.

  7. Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chenhao; Chen, Jian; Zhan, Qiwen

    2017-03-01

    A compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) sorter is proposed and demonstrated. The sorter comprises a quadratic fan-out mapper and a dual-phase corrector positioned in the pupil plane and the Fourier plane, respectively. The optical system is greatly simplified compared to previous demonstrations of OAM sorting, and the performance in resolution and efficiency is maintained. A folded configuration is set up using a single reflective spatial light modulator (SLM) to demonstrate the validity of the scheme. The two phase elements are implemented on the left and right halves of the SLM and connected by a right-angle prism. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolution of the compact OAM sorter, and the current limit in efficiency can be overcome by replacing with transmissive SLMs and removing the beam splitters. This novel scheme paves the way for the miniaturization and integration of high-resolution OAM sorters.

  8. High-resolution Urban Image Classification Using Extended Features

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution image classification poses several challenges because the typical object size is much larger than the pixel resolution. Any given pixel (spectral features at that location) by itself is not a good indicator of the object it belongs to without looking at the broader spatial footprint. Therefore most modern machine learning approaches that are based on per-pixel spectral features are not very effective in high- resolution urban image classification. One way to overcome this problem is to extract features that exploit spatial contextual information. In this study, we evaluated several features in- cluding edge density, texture, and morphology. Several machine learning schemes were tested on the features extracted from a very high-resolution remote sensing image and results were presented.

  9. Seismic investigations for high resolution exploration ahead and around boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksch, Katrin; Giese, Ruediger; Kopf, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Deep reservoirs usually will be explored with a surface seismic survey often in combination with borehole seismic measurements like VSP or SWD which can improve the velocity model of the underground. Reservoirs especially in geothermal fields are often characterized by small-scale structures. Additionally, with depth the need for exploration methods with a high resolution increases because standard methods like borehole seismic measurements cannot improve their resolution with depth. To localize structures with more accuracy methods with higher resolution in the range of meters are necessary. Within the project SPWD - Seismic Prediction While Drilling a new exploration method will be developed. With an implementation of seismic sources and receivers in one device an exploration method ahead and around the borehole will be enabled. Also, a high resolution independent from the depth will be achieved. Therefore active and powerful seismic sources are necessary to reach an acceptable penetration depth. Step by step seismic borehole devices were developed, which can be used under different conditions. Every borehole device contains four seismic sources and several three-component geophones. A small distance between actuators and geophones allows detecting also the high frequency content of the wave field reflected at geological structures. Also, exploration with a high resolution is possible. A first borehole device was developed for basic conditions in horizontal boreholes without special terms to temperature or pressure. In a mine first methodical measurements for the initiated wave field were performed. Therefor an existing seismic test area at the research and education mine of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg was extended with boreholes. In the seismic test area, consisting of a dense geophone array with three-component geophone anchors, two horizontal and one vertical borehole was drilled. To achieve a radiation pattern in predefined directions by constructive

  10. High spectral resolution image of Barnacle Bill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The rover Sojourner's first target for measurement by the Alpha-Proton-Xray Spectrometer (APXS) was the rock named Barnacle Bill, located close to the ramp down which the rover made its egress from the lander. The full spectral capability of the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), consisting of 13 wavelength filters, was used to characterize the rock's surface. The measured area is relatively dark, and is shown in blue. Nearby on the rock surface, soil material is trapped in pits (shown in red).

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  11. APPLYING MULTIMETRIC INDICES AT HIGH RESOLUTION ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Like many inland waters worldwide, streams and rivers of the Western U.S. are faced with a multitude of challenges stemming from past land use practices and changing future conditions. To address these issues, the USEPA has developed empirical tools for evaluating instream conditions and monitoring the status of our freshwater resources over time. These efforts have made substantial progress in integrating quantitative methods into multimetric indices (MMIs) used for national and regional assessments and have provided an enhanced understanding of condition patterns across the broader landscape. To examine the extent of spatial and temporal variability not captured by the sparse distribution of sample sites used in these large-scale assessments, we applied two existing MMIs to inter-seasonal fish and macroinvertebrate data from the Calapooia Basin in Oregon’s Willamette Valley. Our chosen indices revealed a high degree of variation in biotic condition within our study area. With notable exceptions, indices were seasonally robust, indicating potential flexibility for scheduling sampling. An increased understanding of condition patterns occurring at fine spatial scales and the natural and anthropogenic effects influencing them can help guide and prioritize restoration and management. Multimetric indices (MMIs) that incorporate data on the biological and physical characteristics of freshwater systems and provide meaningful indicators of instream conditions

  12. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, Robert A.; Kaplan, Selig N.; Perez-Mendez, Victor

    1992-01-01

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n type, intrinsic, p type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography.

  13. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, R.A.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-05-26

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n-type, intrinsic, p-type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography. 18 figs.

  14. High Resolution Infrared Spectra of Triacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doney, Kirstin D.; Zhao, Dongfeng; Linnartz, Harold

    2015-06-01

    Triacetylene, HC6H, is the longest poly-acetylene chain found in space, and is believed to be involved in the formation of longer chain molecules and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, abundances are expected to be low, and observational confirmation requires knowledge of the gas-phase spectra, which up to now has been incomplete with only the weak, low lying bending modes being known. We present new infrared (IR) spectra in the C-H stretch region obtained using ultra-sensitive and highly precise IR continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS), combined with supersonic plasma expansions The talk reviews the accurate determination of the rotational constants of the asymmetric fundamental mode, νb{5}, including discussion on the perturber state, and associated hot bands. The determined molecular parameters are accurate enough to aid astronomical searches with such facilities as ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) or the upcoming JWST (James Webb Space Telecscope), which can now probe even trace molecules (abundances of ˜ 10-6 - 10-10 with respect to H2). D. Zhao, J. Guss, A. Walsh, H. Linnartz, Chem. Phys. Lett., 565, 132 (2013) K.D. Doney, D. Zhao, H. Linnartz, in preparation

  15. High-resolution studies of protoplanetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütz, Oliver

    2005-02-01

    This work presents a multiwavelength search (near-IR, mid-IR, mm) for previously unknown circumstellar disks and a study of those disk candidate objects which are not jet well characterised in the literature. 22 candidate stars, most of these constituting known exoplanet systems, were examined for circumstellar material using the Adaptive Optics instrument ADONIS at La Silla Observatory (Chile). With the new Adaptive Optics system NAOS-CONICA at Paranal (Chile) we tested the technique of Polarimetric Differential Imaging. Advances in mid-IR data reduction were achieved, e.g., a method was developed to correct the chromatic and airmass dependent extinction. We show new N-band photometry and spectra for eight pre-main sequence stars, six main sequence stars and one post-MS object using the TIMMI2 camera at La Silla, and model the emission spectra with a mixture of silicates consisting of different grain sizes and composition. The most important result thereof is the discovery of two previously unknown circumstellar disks around HD 72106 and HD 113766. Both objects are host to highly processed silicates, resembling those found in solar-system comets. We further present the first observational confirmation for an extended circumstellar dust disk around ɛ Eri obtained with the bolometer array SIMBA at the 15 m radio telescope SEST in La Silla and demonstrate that the previously claimed disk substructure may alternatively be explained by remnant noise effects.

  16. High-resolution seismic reflection surveying with a land streamer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cengiz Tapırdamaz, Mustafa; Cankurtaranlar, Ali; Ergintav, Semih; Kurt, Levent

    2013-04-01

    In this study, newly designed seismic reflection data acquisition array (land streamer) is utilized to image the shallow subsurface. Our acquisition system consist of 24 geophones screwed on iron plates with 2 m spacing, moving on the surface of the earth which are connected with fire hose. Completely original, 4.5 Kg weight iron plates provides satisfactory coupling. This land-streamer system enables rapid and cost effective acquisition of seismic reflection data due to its operational facilities. First test studies were performed using various seismic sources such as a mini-vibro truck, buffalo-gun and hammer. The final fieldwork was performed on a landslide area which was studied before. Data acquisition was carried out on the line that was previously measured by the seismic survey using 5 m geophone and shot spacing. This line was chosen in order to re-image known reflection patterns obtained from the previous field study. Taking penetration depth into consideration, a six-cartridge buffalo-gun was selected as a seismic source to achieve high vertical resolution. Each shot-point drilled 50 cm for gunshots to obtain high resolution source signature. In order to avoid surface waves, the offset distance between the source and the first channel was chosen to be 50 m and the shot spacing was 2 m. These acquisition parameters provided 12 folds at each CDP points. Spatial sampling interval was 1 m at the surface. The processing steps included standard stages such as gain recovery, editing, frequency filtering, CDP sorting, NMO correction, static correction and stacking. Furthermore, surface consistent residual static corrections were applied recursively to improve image quality. 2D F-K filter application was performed to suppress air and surface waves at relatively deep part of the seismic section. Results show that, this newly designed, high-resolution land seismic data acquisition equipment (land-streamer) can be successfully used to image subsurface. Likewise

  17. Visualizing sediment dynamics through repeated high-resolution multibeam mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, J. J.; Greinert, J.; Maierhofer, T.

    2013-12-01

    Multibeam mapping has become a common method for mapping the seafloor in shallow and great water depths with different spatial resolutions depending on the system platform (ship-based, AUV- or ROV-based), the beam angle of the system itself, the survey speed, and the distance to the seafloor. Significant advances in system accuracy, processing power and new software make multibeam mapping a powerful tool for studying sediment dynamics in 4D through repeated surveys that are ideally linked to additional studies on currents and sediment load in the water column. The Texelstroom channel, which is part of the Marsdiep between the city of Den Helder and the island of Texel (North Holland, the Netherlands), has been investigated in such a way for many years using water depth estimates from an ADCP installed on a ferry shuttling 24 times a day between the mainland and the island. Since 2009, repeated multibeam surveys have been undertaken up to three times per year as part of a student course, revealing sediment dynamics in much more detail than could be previously seen with the water depth estimates from the ferry-based ADCP. In the Texelstroom channel, the water depth ranges from a few meters to 45 meters. In the highly variable bathymetry, a series of large, bended sand waves exist mainly perpendicular to the direction of the main current. The shape of the sand waves changes from asymmetrical to symmetrical depending on the time of year, with more symmetrical shapes in spring and summer. Perpendicular to the large sand waves, smaller ripples develop during autumn. In addition to these changes in sand wave characteristics, sand wave crests sometimes migrate more than 30m in two months with an average movement of half a meter per day. The migration direction changes during the year resulting in a non-constant back-and-forth movement of the large sand waves. These intra-annual variations are characterized by changes in the slope of the sand waves, variations in the

  18. High-resolution radio emission from RCW 49/Westerlund 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaglia, P.; Koribalski, B.; Peri, C. S.; Martí, J.; Sánchez-Sutil, J. R.; Dougherty, S. M.; Noriega-Crespo, A.

    2013-11-01

    Aims: The HII region RCW 49 and its ionizing cluster form an extensive, complex region that has been widely studied at infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. The Molonglo 843 MHz and Australia Telescope Compact Array data at 1.4 and 2.4 GHz showed two shells. Recent high-resolution IR imaging revealed a complex dust structure and ongoing star formation. New high-bandwidth and high-resolution data of the RCW 49 field have been obtained to survey the radio emission at arcsec scale and investigate the small-scale features and nature of the HII region. Methods: Radio observations were collected with the new 2-GHz bandwidth receivers and the CABB correlator of the Australia Telescope Compact Array [ATCA], at 5.5 and 9.0 GHz. In addition, archival observations at 1.4 and 2.4 GHz have been re-reduced and re-analyzed in conjunction with observations in the optical, IR, X-ray, and gamma-ray regimes. Results: The new 2-GHz bandwidth data result in the most detailed radio continuum images of RCW 49 to date. The radio emission closely mimics the near-IR emission observed by Spitzer, showing pillars and filaments. The brightest continuum emission comes from the region known as the bridge. The overall flattish spectral index is typically consistent with a free-free emission mechanism. However, hints of nonthermal components are also present in the bridge. An interesting jet-like structure surrounded by a bubble feature whose nature is still unclear has been discovered close to the Westerlund 2 core. Two apparent bow shocks and a number of discrete sources have been detected as well in the surroundings of RCW 49. In addition, we also report on and discuss the possible detection of a hydrogen recombination line. Conclusions: The radio results support an association between the cm continuum and molecular emission. The detection of the radio recombination line kinematically favors a RCW 49 distance of 6-7 kpc. If the negative spectral indices measured at the bridge should be

  19. Achieving High Spatial Resolution Surface Plasmon Resonance Microscopy with Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Shan, Xiaonan; Wang, Shaopeng; Tao, Nongjian

    2017-03-07

    Surface plasmon resonance microscopy (SPRM) is a powerful platform for biomedical imaging and molecular binding kinetics analysis. However, the spatial resolution of SPRM along the plasmon propagation direction (longitudinal) is determined by the decaying length of the plasmonic wave, which can be as large as tens of microns. Different methods have been proposed to improve the spatial resolution, but each at the expense of decreased sensitivity or temporal resolution. Here we present a method to achieve high spatial resolution SPRM based on deconvolution of complex field. The method does not require additional optical setup and improves the spatial resolution in the longitudinal direction. We applied the method to image nanoparticles and achieved close-to-diffraction limit resolution in both longitudinal and transverse directions.

  20. High resolution helium ion scanning microscopy of the rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Rice, William L; Van Hoek, Alfred N; Păunescu, Teodor G; Huynh, Chuong; Goetze, Bernhard; Singh, Bipin; Scipioni, Larry; Stern, Lewis A; Brown, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Helium ion scanning microscopy is a novel imaging technology with the potential to provide sub-nanometer resolution images of uncoated biological tissues. So far, however, it has been used mainly in materials science applications. Here, we took advantage of helium ion microscopy to explore the epithelium of the rat kidney with unsurpassed image quality and detail. In addition, we evaluated different tissue preparation methods for their ability to preserve tissue architecture. We found that high contrast, high resolution imaging of the renal tubule surface is possible with a relatively simple processing procedure that consists of transcardial perfusion with aldehyde fixatives, vibratome tissue sectioning, tissue dehydration with graded methanol solutions and careful critical point drying. Coupled with the helium ion system, fine details such as membrane texture and membranous nanoprojections on the glomerular podocytes were visualized, and pores within the filtration slit diaphragm could be seen in much greater detail than in previous scanning EM studies. In the collecting duct, the extensive and striking apical microplicae of the intercalated cells were imaged without the shrunken or distorted appearance that is typical with conventional sample processing and scanning electron microscopy. Membrane depressions visible on principal cells suggest possible endo- or exocytotic events, and central cilia on these cells were imaged with remarkable preservation and clarity. We also demonstrate the use of colloidal gold probes for highlighting specific cell-surface proteins and find that 15 nm gold labels are practical and easily distinguishable, indicating that external labels of various sizes can be used to detect multiple targets in the same tissue. We conclude that this technology represents a technical breakthrough in imaging the topographical ultrastructure of animal tissues. Its use in future studies should allow the study of fine cellular details and provide

  1. Intact MicroRNA Analysis Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullolli, Majlinda; Knouf, Emily; Arampatzidou, Maria; Tewari, Muneesh; Pitteri, Sharon J.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single-stranded non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression, and play key roles in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes and in disease. New tools to analyze miRNAs will add understanding of the physiological origins and biological functions of this class of molecules. In this study, we investigate the utility of high resolution mass spectrometry for the analysis of miRNAs through proof-of-concept experiments. We demonstrate the ability of mass spectrometry to resolve and separate miRNAs and corresponding 3' variants in mixtures. The mass accuracy of the monoisotopic deprotonated peaks from various miRNAs is in the low ppm range. We compare fragmentation of miRNA by collision-induced dissociation (CID) and by higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) which yields similar sequence coverage from both methods but additional fragmentation by HCD versus CID. We measure the linear dynamic range, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation of miRNA loaded onto a C18 column. Lastly, we explore the use of data-dependent acquisition of MS/MS spectra of miRNA during online LC-MS and demonstrate that multiple charge states can be fragmented, yielding nearly full sequence coverage of miRNA on a chromatographic time scale. We conclude that high resolution mass spectrometry allows the separation and measurement of miRNAs in mixtures and a standard LC-MS setup can be adapted for online analysis of these molecules.

  2. Intact MicroRNA Analysis Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kullolli, Majlinda; Knouf, Emily; Arampatzidou, Maria; Tewari, Muneesh; Pitteri, Sharon J.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single-stranded non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression, and play key roles in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes and in disease. New tools to analyze miRNAs will add understanding of the physiological origins and biological functions of this class of molecules. In this study we investigate the utility of high resolution mass spectrometry for the analysis of miRNAs through proof-of-concept experiments. We demonstrate the ability of mass spectrometry to resolve and separate miRNAs and corresponding 3′ variants in mixtures. The mass accuracy of the monoisotopic deprotonated peaks from various miRNAs is in the low ppm range. We compare fragmentation of miRNA by collision-induced dissociation (CID) and by higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) which yields similar sequence coverage from both methods but additional fragmentation by HCD versus CID. We measure the linear dynamic range, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation of miRNA loaded onto a C18 column. Lastly we explore the use of data dependent acquisition of MS/MS spectra of miRNA during online LC-MS and demonstrate that multiple charge states can be fragmented, yielding nearly full sequence coverage of miRNA on a chromatographic time scale. We conclude that high resolution mass spectrometry allows the separation and measurement of miRNAs in mixtures and a standard LC-MS setup can be adapted for online analysis of these molecules. PMID:24174127

  3. Apparent diffusion profile estimation from high angular resolution diffusion images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descoteaux, Maxime; Angelino, Elaine; Fitzgibbons, Shaun; Deriche, Rachid

    2006-03-01

    High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) has recently been of great interest to characterize non-Gaussian diffusion process. In the white matter of the brain, this occurs when fiber bundles cross, kiss or diverge within the same voxel. One of the important goal is to better describe the apparent diffusion process in these multiple fiber regions, thus overcoming the limitations of classical diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In this paper, we design the appropriate mathematical tools to describe noisy HARDI data. Using a meaningful modified spherical harmonics basis to capture the physical constraints of the problem, we propose a new regularization algorithm to estimate a smoother and closer diffusivity profile to the true diffusivities without noise. We exploit properties of the spherical harmonics to define a smoothing term based on the Laplace-Beltrami for functions defined on the unit sphere. An additional contribution of the paper is the derivation of the general transformation taking the spherical harmonics coefficients to the high order tensor independent elements. This allows the careful study of the state of the art high order anisotropy measures computed from either spherical harmonics or tensor coefficients. We analyze their ability to characterize the underlying diffusion process. We are able to recover voxels with isotropic, single fiber anisotropic and multiple fiber anisotropic diffusion. We test and validate the approach on diffusion profiles from synthetic data and from a biological rat phantom.

  4. Tough, high performance, addition-type thermoplastic polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A tough, high performance polyimide is provided by reacting a triple bond conjugated with an aromatic ring in a bisethynyl compound with the active double bond in a compound containing a double bond activated toward the formation of a Diels-Adler type adduct, especially a bismaleimide, a biscitraconimide, or a benzoquinone, or mixtures thereof. Addition curing of this product produces a high linear polymeric structure and heat treating the highly linear polymeric structure produces a thermally stable aromatic addition-type thermoplastic polyimide, which finds utility in the preparation of molding compounds, adhesive compositions, and polymer matrix composites.

  5. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, S; Boogert, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Frisch, J; Gronberg, J; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Kolomensky, Y; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; May, J; McCormick, D; Meller, R; Miller, D; Orimoto, T; Ross, M; Slater, M; Smith, S; Smith, T; Terunuma, N; Thomson, M; Urakawa, J; Vogel, V; Ward, D; White, G

    2006-12-18

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {micro}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {micro}m.

  6. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Joe; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David John; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; /Fermilab /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley /Cambridge U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Cornell U., LNS /LLNL, Livermore /University Coll. London /SLAC /Caltech /KEK, Tsukuba

    2007-06-08

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {mu}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {mu}m.

  7. A procedure for high resolution satellite imagery quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Mattia; De Vendictis, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Data products generated from High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) are routinely evaluated during the so-called in-orbit test period, in order to verify if their quality fits the desired features and, if necessary, to obtain the image correction parameters to be used at the ground processing center. Nevertheless, it is often useful to have tools to evaluate image quality also at the final user level. Image quality is defined by some parameters, such as the radiometric resolution and its accuracy, represented by the noise level, and the geometric resolution and sharpness, described by the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). This paper proposes a procedure to evaluate these image quality parameters; the procedure was implemented in a suitable software and tested on high resolution imagery acquired by the QuickBird, WorldView-1 and Cartosat-1 satellites.

  8. A Procedure for High Resolution Satellite Imagery Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, Mattia; De Vendictis, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Data products generated from High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) are routinely evaluated during the so-called in-orbit test period, in order to verify if their quality fits the desired features and, if necessary, to obtain the image correction parameters to be used at the ground processing center. Nevertheless, it is often useful to have tools to evaluate image quality also at the final user level. Image quality is defined by some parameters, such as the radiometric resolution and its accuracy, represented by the noise level, and the geometric resolution and sharpness, described by the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). This paper proposes a procedure to evaluate these image quality parameters; the procedure was implemented in a suitable software and tested on high resolution imagery acquired by the QuickBird, WorldView-1 and Cartosat-1 satellites. PMID:22412312

  9. Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing: Route to High Structural Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanivel, S.; Sidhar, H.; Mishra, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    Aerospace and automotive industries provide the next big opportunities for additive manufacturing. Currently, the additive industry is confronted with four major challenges that have been identified in this article. These challenges need to be addressed for the additive technologies to march into new frontiers and create additional markets. Specific potential success in the transportation sectors is dependent on the ability to manufacture complicated structures with high performance. Most of the techniques used for metal-based additive manufacturing are fusion based because of their ability to fulfill the computer-aided design to component vision. Although these techniques aid in fabrication of complex shapes, achieving high structural performance is a key problem due to the liquid-solid phase transformation. In this article, friction stir additive manufacturing (FSAM) is shown as a potential solid-state process for attaining high-performance lightweight alloys for simpler geometrical applications. To illustrate FSAM as a high-performance route, manufactured builds of Mg-4Y-3Nd and AA5083 are shown as examples. In the Mg-based alloy, an average hardness of 120 HV was achieved in the built structure and was significantly higher than that of the base material (97 HV). Similarly for the Al-based alloy, compared with the base hardness of 88 HV, the average built hardness was 104 HV. A potential application of FSAM is illustrated by taking an example of a simple stiffener assembly.

  10. The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph: Instrument, goals, and science results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Heap, S. R.; Beaver, E. A.; Boggess, A.; Carpenter, K. G.; Ebbets, D. C.; Hutchings, J. B.; Jura, M.; Leckrone, D. S.; Linsky, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS), currently in Earth orbit on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), operates in the wavelength range 1150-3200 A with spectral resolutions (lambda/delta lambda) of approximately 2 x 10(exp 3), 2 x 10(exp 4), and 1 x 10(exp 3). The instrument and its development from inception, its current status, the approach to operations, representative results in the major areas of the scientific goals, and prospects for the future are described.

  11. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kotasidis, Fotis A.; Angelis, Georgios I.; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C.; Reader, Andrew J.; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution

  12. High-resolution land cover classification using low resolution global data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotto, Mark J.

    2013-05-01

    A fusion approach is described that combines texture features from high-resolution panchromatic imagery with land cover statistics derived from co-registered low-resolution global databases to obtain high-resolution land cover maps. The method does not require training data or any human intervention. We use an MxN Gabor filter bank consisting of M=16 oriented bandpass filters (0-180°) at N resolutions (3-24 meters/pixel). The size range of these spatial filters is consistent with the typical scale of manmade objects and patterns of cultural activity in imagery. Clustering reduces the complexity of the data by combining pixels that have similar texture into clusters (regions). Texture classification assigns a vector of class likelihoods to each cluster based on its textural properties. Classification is unsupervised and accomplished using a bank of texture anomaly detectors. Class likelihoods are modulated by land cover statistics derived from lower resolution global data over the scene. Preliminary results from a number of Quickbird scenes show our approach is able to classify general land cover features such as roads, built up area, forests, open areas, and bodies of water over a wide range of scenes.

  13. Placement of Accelerometers for High Sensing Resolution in Micromanipulation

    PubMed Central

    Latt, W. T.; Tan, U-X.; Riviere, C. N.; Ang, W. T.

    2012-01-01

    High sensing resolution is required in sensing of surgical instrument motion in micromanipulation tasks. Accelerometers can be employed to sense physiological motion of the instrument during micromanipulation. Various configurations of accelerometer placement had been introduced in the past to sense motion of a rigid-body such as a surgical instrument. Placement (location and orientation) of accelerometers fixed in the instrument plays a significant role in achieving high sensing resolution. However, there is no literature or work on the effect of placement of accelerometers on sensing resolution. In this paper, an approach of placement of accelerometers within an available space to obtain highest possible sensing resolution in sensing of rigid-body motion in micromanipulation tasks is proposed. Superiority of the proposed placement approach is shown in sensing of a microsurgical instrument angular motion by comparing sensing resolutions achieved as a result of employing the configuration following the proposed approach and the existing configurations. Apart from achieving high sensing resolution, and design simplicity, the proposed placement approach also provides flexibility in placing accelerometers; hence it is especially useful in applications with limited available space to mount accelerometers. PMID:22423176

  14. High Resolution Narrow-Field Versus Low Resolution Widefield Observations of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaccioli, M.; Davoust, E.; Lelievre, G.; Nieto, J. L.

    There is an increasing evidence that small-scale phenomena occurring in the inner regions of galaxies are related to large-scale phenomena such as, merging or violent interactions between galaxies. The aim of this communication is to illustrate the complementarity between high-resolution, small-field telescopes and Schmidt-type telescopes for the study of this phenomenology.

  15. Extension of least squares spectral resolution algorithm to high-resolution lipidomics data.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ying-Xu; Mjøs, Svein Are; David, Fabrice P A; Schmid, Adrien W

    2016-03-31

    Lipidomics, which focuses on the global study of molecular lipids in biological systems, has been driven tremendously by technical advances in mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation, particularly high-resolution MS. This requires powerful computational tools that handle the high-throughput lipidomics data analysis. To address this issue, a novel computational tool has been developed for the analysis of high-resolution MS data, including the data pretreatment, visualization, automated identification, deconvolution and quantification of lipid species. The algorithm features the customized generation of a lipid compound library and mass spectral library, which covers the major lipid classes such as glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Next, the algorithm performs least squares resolution of spectra and chromatograms based on the theoretical isotope distribution of molecular ions, which enables automated identification and quantification of molecular lipid species. Currently, this methodology supports analysis of both high and low resolution MS as well as liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) lipidomics data. The flexibility of the methodology allows it to be expanded to support more lipid classes and more data interpretation functions, making it a promising tool in lipidomic data analysis.

  16. Wide swath and high resolution optical imaging satellite of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Haruyoshi; Kato, Eri; Imai, Hiroko; Sagisaka, Masakazu

    2016-05-01

    The "Advanced optical satellite" (tentative name) is a follow-on mission from ALOS. Mission objectives of the advanced optical satellite is to build upon the existing advanced techniques for global land observation using optical sensors, as well as to promote data utilization for social needs. Wide swath and high resolution optical imager onboard the advanced optical satellite will extend the capabilities of earlier ALOS missions. The optical imager will be able to collect high-resolution (< 1 m) and wide-swath (70 km) images with high geo-location accuracy. This paper introduces a conceptual design of the advanced optical satellite.

  17. Study of Saturn electrostatic discharges with high time resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenko, V.; Mylostna, K.; Konovalenko, A.; Kolyadin, V.; Zarka, P.; Griessmeier, J.-M.; Litvinenko, G.; Sidorchuk, M.; Rucker, H.; Fischer, G.; Cecconi, B.; Coffre, A.; Denis, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Nikolaenko, V.

    2013-09-01

    Ground-based observations of SED (Saturn Electrostatic Discharges) with high time resolution are the next stage of extraterrestrial atmospheric processes study. Due to extremely high intensity of Saturn's storm J (2010) [1] we have obtained the records with high signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio with the time resolution of 15 ns. It permitted us to investigate the microsecond structure of lightning and clearly distinguish SED in the presence of local interference in virtue of a dispersive delay of extraterrestrial planetary signals.

  18. High Resolution Imaging of Io's Volcanoes with LBTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Al; Leisenring, Jarron; de Kleer, Katherine; Skemer, Andy; Hinz, Philip; Skrutskie, Michael; Veillet, Christian; de Pater, Imke; Bertero, Mario; Boccacci, Patrizia; Defrère, Denis; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; La Camera, Andrea; Schertl, Dieter; Spencer, John; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E.

    2014-11-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), located on Mount Graham in eastern Arizona, employs two 8.4 meter mirrors with a 14.4 center-to-center separation on a common mount. Coherent combination of these two AO-corrected apertures via the LBT Interferometer (LBTI) produces Fizeau interferometric images with spatial resolution consistent with the diffraction limit of the 22.8-meter aperture. In particular LBTI resolves thermal signatures (i.e., features observed at M-band) on the surface of Io down to ~150 kilometers; a two-fold improvement over what has previously been possible from the ground. We show images collected with LBTI on December 24, 2013, in which Loki's shape is clearly resolved and at least fourteen additional volcanic hot spots are detected.We analyze three locations in the LBTI data: emission features within Loki Patera, the area near Rarog and Heno Patarae, and a hot spot seen in the Colchis Regio.For Loki Patera, we interpret spatially resolved variation in the emission within that region. With M-band resolution that is comparable to what has previously been achievable only at K-band, we compare localized emission features with what has been seen in earlier observations at shorter wavelengths.Thermal emission from activity at Rarog and Heno Patarae is well resolved in these images, while a third hot-spot in the nearby Lerna Regio is also clearly resolved. This area is of special interest since it was the site of two high-effusion outbursts on August 15th, 2013 [de Pater et al. (2014) Icarus].Lastly, we explore a hot-spot seen in the Colchis Regio that may be a remnant of a violent outburst detected on August 29th, 2013 [de Kleer et al. (2014) Icarus].

  19. Evacuee Compliance Behavior Analysis using High Resolution Demographic Information

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Wei; Han, Lee; Liu, Cheng; Tuttle, Mark A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether evacuee compliance behavior with route assignments from different resolutions of demographic data would impact the evacuation performance. Most existing evacuation strategies assume that travelers will follow evacuation instructions, while in reality a certain percent of evacuees do not comply with prescribed instructions. In this paper, a comparison study of evacuation assignment based on Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ) and high resolution LandScan USA Population Cells (LPC) were conducted for the detailed road network representing Alexandria, Virginia. A revised platform for evacuation modeling built on high resolution demographic data and activity-based microscopic traffic simulation is proposed. The results indicate that evacuee compliance behavior affects evacuation efficiency with traditional TAZ assignment, but it does not significantly compromise the efficiency with high resolution LPC assignment. The TAZ assignment also underestimates the real travel time during evacuation, especially for high compliance simulations. This suggests that conventional evacuation studies based on TAZ assignment might not be effective at providing efficient guidance to evacuees. From the high resolution data perspective, traveler compliance behavior is an important factor but it does not impact the system performance significantly. The highlight of evacuee compliance behavior analysis should be emphasized on individual evacuee level route/shelter assignments, rather than the whole system performance.

  20. Design and implementation of spaceborne high resolution infrared touch screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tai-guo; Li, Wen-xin; Dong, Yi-peng; Ma, Wen; Xia, Jia-gao

    2015-10-01

    For the consideration of the special application environment of the electronic products used in aerospace and to further more improve the human-computer interaction of the manned aerospace area. The research is based on the design and implementation way of the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen on the basis of FPGA and DSP frame structure. Beside the introduction of the whole structure for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, this essay also gives the detail information about design of hardware for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, FPGA design, GUI design and DSP algorithm design based on Lagrange interpolation. What is more, the easy makes a comprehensive research of the reliability design for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen for the special purpose of it. Besides, the system test is done after installation of spaceborne infrared touch screen. The test result shows that the system is simple and reliable enough, which has a stable running environment and high resolution, which certainly can meet the special requirement of the manned aerospace instrument products.

  1. Lynx: A High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Pace, F.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I.; Walker, B.C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-03-08

    Lynx is a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has been designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA). Although Lynx may be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, it is primarily intended to be fielded on unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it may be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, or Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA Aeronautical Systems, Inc. The Lynx production weight is less than 120 lb. and has a slant range of 30 km (in 4 mm/hr rain). It has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode. In ground moving target indicator mode, the minimum detectable velocity is 6 knots with a minimum target cross-section of 10 dBsm. In coherent change detection mode, Lynx makes registered, complex image comparisons either of 0.1 m resolution (minimum) spotlight images or of 0.3 m resolution (minimum) strip images. The Lynx user interface features a view manager that allows it to pan and zoom like a video camera. Lynx was developed under corporate finding from GA and will be manufactured by GA for both military and commercial applications. The Lynx system architecture will be presented and some of its unique features will be described. Imagery at the finest resolutions in both spotlight and strip modes have been obtained and will also be presented.

  2. Dispute Resolution in Additional and Special Educational Needs: Local Authority Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Harris, Neville; Smith, Emily; Weedon, Elisabet

    2010-01-01

    The UK Government is keen to encourage the use of mediation, rather than court or tribunal, as the best means of resolving disputes between citizen and state on the grounds that legal proceedings are costly, lengthy and stressful. The policy of proportionate dispute resolution appears to be particularly applicable to the field of special…

  3. High Resolution Transferred Substrate HBT Microwave/RF ADCs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of wideband delta sigma ADCs using high speed Indium Phosphide bipolar transistors . 15. SUBJECTTERMS DISTRIBUTION STATEMENTA Approved for Public...kept below several hundred transistors , at high level only a single-bit internal quantizer is feasible. Secondly, although the transferred-substrate... transistor counts. Instead, in this program, higher resolutions were sought through the highest possible clock frequencies. Transferred-substrate HBTs

  4. High spectral resolution measurements for the ARM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Revercomb, H.E.

    1992-05-22

    This report focuses on the design and fabrication of high spectral resolution FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) instrumentation for the CART sites of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The ultimate objective of this grant is to develop three different types of instruments, named the AERI, AERI-X, and SORT. The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) is the simplest. It will be available for early deployment at the first ARM site and will be deployable at several locations in the extended network to give horizontal coverage. The AERI will be an 0.5 cm{sup {minus}1} resolution instrument, which measures accurately calibrated radiance spectra for radiation studies and for remote sensing of atmospheric state variables. The AERI-X and the SORTI are higher spectral resolution instruments for obtaining the highest practical resolution for spectroscopy at the ARM central sites. The AERI-X, like the AERI will measure atmospheric emitted radiance, but with resolutions as high as 0.1 cm{sup {minus}1}. The Solar Radiance Transmission Interferometer will measure the total transmission of the atmosphere by tracking the sun through changes in atmospheric air mass. The large solar signal makes it practical for this instrument to offer the ultimate in spectral resolution, about 0.002 cm{sup {minus}1}.

  5. High-Resolution Solar Imaging With Photon Sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktem, F. S.; Kamalabadi, F.; Davila, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    A photon sieve is a modification of a Fresnel zone plate in which open zones are replaced by a large number of circular holes. This lightweight optical device offers a superior image forming capability compared with the Fresnel zone plate, and is specially suited to observations at UV and x-ray wavelengths where refractive lenses are not available due to strong absorption of materials, and reflective mirrors are difficult to manufacture to achieve near diffraction-limited resolution. At these shorter wavelengths, photon sieves enable diffraction-limited imaging performance with relaxed manufacturing tolerances, and simple and low-cost fabrication. In this work, we present a new photon sieve imaging modality that, unlike previous designs, takes advantage of chromatic aberration. The fact that different wavelengths are focused at different distances from photon sieve is exploited to develop a novel multi-spectral imaging technique. The idea is to use a photon sieve imaging system with a moving detector which records images at different planes. Each measurement consists of superimposed images of different wavelengths, with each individual image being either in focus or out of focus. For spatially incoherent illumination, we study the problem of recovering the individual images from these superimposed measurements. We first formulate the discrete forward problem using the closed-form Fresnel imaging formulas. The inverse problem is then a multi-frame deconvolution problem involving multiple objects, and is formulated as a maximum posterior estimation problem. The resulting nonlinear optimization problem is solved using a fixed-point iterative algorithm. In contrast to traditional spectral imagers employing a series of wavelength filters, the proposed technique relies on a simple optical system, but incorporates powerful image processing methods to form spectral images computationally. In addition to diffraction-limited high spatial resolution enabled by photon sieves

  6. Classical broadcasting is possible with arbitrarily high fidelity and resolution.

    PubMed

    Walker, Thomas A; Braunstein, Samuel L

    2007-02-23

    We quantify the resolution with which any probability distribution may be distinguished from a displaced copy of itself in terms of a characteristic width. This width, which we call the resolution, is well defined for any normalizable probability distribution. We use this concept to study the broadcasting of classical probability distributions. Ideal classical broadcasting creates two (or more) output random variables each of which has the same distribution as the input random variable. We show that the universal broadcasting of probability distributions may be achieved with arbitrarily high fidelities for any finite resolution. By restricting probability distributions to any finite resolution we have therefore shown that the classical limit of quantum broadcasting is consistent with the actual classical case.

  7. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs—Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  8. Vehicle Detection and Classification from High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, L.; Sasikumar, M.

    2014-11-01

    In the past decades satellite imagery has been used successfully for weather forecasting, geographical and geological applications. Low resolution satellite images are sufficient for these sorts of applications. But the technological developments in the field of satellite imaging provide high resolution sensors which expands its field of application. Thus the High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) proved to be a suitable alternative to aerial photogrammetric data to provide a new data source for object detection. Since the traffic rates in developing countries are enormously increasing, vehicle detection from satellite data will be a better choice for automating such systems. In this work, a novel technique for vehicle detection from the images obtained from high resolution sensors is proposed. Though we are using high resolution images, vehicles are seen only as tiny spots, difficult to distinguish from the background. But we are able to obtain a detection rate not less than 0.9. Thereafter we classify the detected vehicles into cars and trucks and find the count of them.

  9. Adaptive optics high resolution spectroscopy: present status and future direction

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C; Angel, R; Ciarlo, D; Fugate, R O; Ge, J; Kuzmenko, P; Lloyd-Hart, M; Macintosh, B; Najita, J; Woolf, N

    1999-07-27

    High resolution spectroscopy experiments with visible adaptive optics (AO) telescopes at Starfire Optical Range and Mt. Wilson have demonstrated that spectral resolution can be routinely improved by a factor of - 10 over the seeing-limited case with no extra light losses at visible wavelengths. With large CCDs now available, a very wide wavelength range can be covered in a single exposure. In the near future, most large ground-based telescopes will be equipped with powerful A0 systems. Most of these systems are aimed primarily at diffraction-limited operation in the near IR. An exciting new opportunity will thus open up for high resolution IR spectroscopy. Immersion echelle gratings with much coarser grooves being developed by us at LLNL will play a critical role in achieving high spectral resolution with a compact and low cost IR cryogenically cooled spectrograph and simultaneous large wavelength coverage on relatively small IR detectors. We have constructed a new A0 optimized spectrograph at Steward Observatory to provide R = 200,000 in the optical, which is being commissioned at the Starfire Optical Range 3.5m telescope. We have completed the optical design of the LLNL IR Immersion Spectrograph (LISPEC) to take advantage of improved silicon etching technology. Key words: adaptive optics, spectroscopy, high resolution, immersion gratings

  10. High spatial resolution measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkey, J. B.; Burnham, E. A.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    High spatial resolution experimental tube wall pressure measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena are presented. The projectile resembles the centerbody of a ramjet and travels supersonically through a tube filled with a combustible gaseous mixture, with the tube acting as the outer cowling. Pressure data are recorded as the projectile passes by sensors mounted in the tube wall at various locations along the tube. Data obtained by using a special highly instrumented section of tube has allowed the recording of gas dynamic phenomena with a spatial resolution on the order of one tenth the projectile length. High spatial resolution tube wall pressure data from the three regimes of propulsion studied to date (subdetonative, transdetonative, and superdetonative) are presented and reveal the 3D character of the flowfield induced by projectile fins and the canting of the projectile body relative to the tube wall. Also presented for comparison to the experimental data are calculations made with an inviscid, 3D CFD code.

  11. In-Phase Ultra High-Resolution In Vivo NMR.

    PubMed

    Fugariu, Ioana; Bermel, Wolfgang; Lane, Daniel; Soong, Ronald; Simpson, Andre J

    2017-04-05

    Although current NMR techniques allow organisms to be studied in vivo, magnetic susceptibility distortions, which arise from inhomogeneous distributions of chemical moieties, prevent the acquisition of high-resolution NMR spectra. Intermolecular single quantum coherence (iSQC) is a technique that breaks the sample's spatial isotropy to form long range dipolar couplings, which can be exploited to extract chemical shift information free of perturbations. While this approach holds vast potential, present practical limitations include radiation damping, relaxation losses, and non-phase sensitive data. Herein, these drawbacks are addressed, and a new technique termed in-phase iSQC (IP-iSQC) is introduced. When applied to a living system, high-resolution NMR spectra, nearly identical to a buffer extract, are obtained. The ability to look inside an organism and extract a high-resolution metabolic profile is profound and should find applications in fields in which metabolism or in vivo processes are of interest.

  12. A new high resolution tidal model in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancet, Mathilde; Andersen, Ole; Lyard, Florent; Cotton, David; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is a challenging region for tidal modeling, because of its complex and not well-documented bathymetry, together combined with the intermittent presence of sea ice and the fact that the in situ tidal observations are scarce at such high latitudes. As a consequence, the accuracy of the global tidal models decreases by several centimeters in the Polar Regions. It has a large impact on the quality of the satellite altimeter sea surface heights in these regions (ERS1/2, Envisat, CryoSat-2, SARAL/AltiKa and the future Sentinel-3 mission), but also on the end-users' applications that need accurate tidal information. Better knowledge of the tides will improve the quality of the high latitudes altimeter sea surface heights and of all derived products, such as the altimetry-derived geostrophic currents, the mean sea surface and the mean dynamic topography. In addition, accurate tidal models are highly strategic information for ever-growing maritime and industrial activities in this region. NOVELTIS and DTU Space have recently developed a regional, high-resolution tidal atlas in the Arctic Ocean, in the framework of an extension of the CryoSat Plus for Oceans (CP4O) project funded by ESA (STSE program). In particular, this atlas benefits from the assimilation of the most complete satellite altimetry dataset ever used in this region, including the Envisat data up to 82°N and the CryoSat-2 reprocessed data between 82°N and 88°N. The combination of all these satellites gives the best possible coverage of altimetry-derived tidal constituents. Tide gauge data have also been used either for assimilation or validation. This paper presents the methodology followed to develop the model and the performances of this new regional tidal model in the Arctic Ocean.

  13. High-resolution subsurface water-ice distributions on Mars.

    PubMed

    Bandfield, Joshua L

    2007-05-03

    Theoretical models indicate that water ice is stable in the shallow subsurface (depths of <1-2 m) of Mars at high latitudes. These models have been mainly supported by the observed presence of large concentrations of hydrogen detected by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer suite of instruments on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The models and measurements are consistent with a water-ice table that steadily increases in depth with decreasing latitude. More detailed modelling has predicted that the depth at which water ice is stable can be highly variable, owing to local surface heterogeneities such as rocks and slopes, and the thermal inertia of the ground cover. Measurements have, however, been limited to the footprint (several hundred kilometres) of the Gamma Ray Spectrometer suite, preventing the observations from documenting more detailed water-ice distributions. Here I show that by observing the seasonal temperature response of the martian surface with the Thermal Emission Imaging System on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft, it is possible to observe such heterogeneities at subkilometre scale. These observations show significant regional and local water-ice depth variability, and, in some cases, support distributions in the subsurface predicted by atmospheric exchange and vapour diffusion models. The presence of water ice where it follows the depth of stability under current climatic conditions implies an active martian water cycle that responds to orbit-driven climate cycles. Several regions also have apparent deviations from the theoretical stability level, indicating that additional factors influence the ice-table depth. The high-resolution measurements show that the depth to the water-ice table is highly variable within the potential Phoenix spacecraft landing ellipses, and is likely to be variable at scales that may be sampled by the spacecraft.

  14. Thermospheric dynamics investigations with very high resolution spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, G; Roble, R G

    1979-10-15

    Since 1972 high resolution Fabry-Perot spectrometers have been used at Fritz Peak Observatory (39.9 degrees N, 105.5 degrees W), Colorado to measure the nighttime variation of thermospheric temperatures and winds from the line profiles and Doppler shifts of the OI 15,867 K (630.0-nm) line emission in the nightglow. With the aid of these measurements we have defined the nighttime variation of winds and temperatures at F-layer heights for the various seasons of the year during geomagnetic quiet periods. During geomagnetic storm periods deviation in the nighttime variation of the winds and temperatures from those determined during geomagnetic quiet conditions have been shown to occur. In addition, measurements made during geomagnetic disturbed conditions have shown the existence of large-scale thermospheric waves generated at high latitudes by impulsive auroral heating events that are observed to propagate equatorward. The nighttime winds and temperatures measured from Fritz Peak Observatory have been used in various heoretical models of global thermospheric dynamics to infer the global circulation patterns, temperature structure, and thermospheric response to geomagnetic activity. By requiring agreement between the calculated and measured winds and temperatures over Fritz Peak Observatory, the over-all magnitude of the thermospheric high latitude heat source due to auroral processes has been inferred for both geomagnetic quiet and disturbed conditions. This energy source has been shown to be related to dissipation of the ring current energy in the high latitude ionosphere. The results of various geophysical studies using Fritz Peak Observatory data and theoretical model calculation are summarized.

  15. High-resolution harmonic motion imaging (HR-HMI) for tissue biomechanical property characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Teng; Qian, Xuejun; Chiu, Chi Tat; Yu, Mingyue; Jung, Hayong; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Background Elastography, capable of mapping the biomechanical properties of biological tissues, serves as a useful technique for clinicians to perform disease diagnosis and determine stages of many diseases. Many acoustic radiation force (ARF) based elastography, including acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging and harmonic motion imaging (HMI), have been developed to remotely assess the elastic properties of tissues. However, due to the lower operating frequencies of these approaches, their spatial resolutions are insufficient for revealing stiffness distribution on small scale applications, such as cancerous tumor margin detection, atherosclerotic plaque composition analysis and ophthalmologic tissue characterization. Though recently developed ARF-based optical coherence elastography (OCE) methods open a new window for the high resolution elastography, shallow imaging depths significantly limit their usefulness in clinics. Methods The aim of this study is to develop a high-resolution HMI method to assess the tissue biomechanical properties with acceptable field of view (FOV) using a 4 MHz ring transducer for efficient excitation and a 40 MHz needle transducer for accurate detection. Under precise alignment of two confocal transducers, the high-resolution HMI system has a lateral resolution of 314 µm and an axial resolution of 
147 µm with an effective FOV of 2 mm in depth. Results The performance of this high resolution imaging system was validated on the agar-based tissue mimicking phantoms with different stiffness distributions. These data demonstrated the imaging system’s improved resolution and sensitivity on differentiating materials with varying stiffness. In addition, ex vivo imaging of a human atherosclerosis coronary artery demonstrated the capability of high resolution HMI in identifying layer-specific structures and characterizing atherosclerotic plaques based on their stiffness differences. Conclusions All together high resolution HMI

  16. High School Science Technology Additions, Midland Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Discusses design goals, space requirements, and need for mobile furniture and "imagination stations" at Michigan's Midland Public High School science technology addition. Describes the architectural design, costs, and specifications. Includes floor plans, general description, photos and a list of consultants, manufacturers, and suppliers…

  17. Theoretical Problems in High Resolution Solar Physics, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athay, G. (Editor); Spicer, D. S. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The Science Working Group for the High Resolution Solar Observatory (HRSO) laid plans beginning in 1984 for a series of workshops designed to stimulate a broadbased input from the scientific community to the HRSO mission. These workshops have the dual objectives of encouraging an early start on the difficult theoretical problems in radiative transfer, magnetohydrodynamics, and plasma physics that will be posed by the HRSO data, and maintaining current discussions of results in high resolution solar studies. This workshop was the second in the series. The workshop format presented invited review papers during the formal sessions and contributed poster papers for discussions during open periods. Both are presented.

  18. High Angular Resolution Microwave Sensing with Large, Sparse, Random Arrays.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    b.cnuainas saldaatv an quired at microwaves to achieve the rec0n(pwro cam’ forming or seti -colternng or phas. synchronzing. After the moo optical...AD A126 866 HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTICN MICROWAVE SENSING WITH LARGE 1/ SPARSE RANDOM ARRAYS..U) MOORE SCHOOL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PHILADELPHIAPA...RESOLUTION TEST CHART N4ATIONAL BUREAU Of SrANDARDS 1963 A iOSR-TR- 83-0225 HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION MICROWAVE SENSING WITH LARGE, SPARSE, RANDOM ARRAYS Annual

  19. High-resolution seismic studies applied to injected geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.T.; Kasameyer, P.

    1985-01-01

    The application of high-resolution microseismicity studies to the problem of monitoring injected fluids is one component of the Geothermal Injection Monitoring Project at LLNL. The evaluation of microseismicity includes the development of field techniques, and the acquisition and processing of events during the initial development of a geothermal field. To achieve a specific detection threshold and location precision, design criteria are presented for seismic networks. An analysis of a small swarm near Mammoth Lakes, California, demonstrates these relationships and the usefulness of high-resolution seismic studies. A small network is currently monitoring the Mammoth-Pacific geothermal power plant at Casa Diablo as it begins production.

  20. High Resolution 3d Modeling of the Behaim Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menna, F.; Rizzi, A.; Nocerino, E.; Remondino, F.; Gruen, A.

    2012-07-01

    The article describes the 3D surveying and modeling of the Behaim globe, the oldest still existing and intact globe of the earth, preserved at the German National Museum of Nuremberg, Germany. The work is primarily performed using high-resolution digital images and automatic photogrammetric techniques. Triangulation-based laser scanning is also employed to fill some gaps in the derived image-based 3D geometry and perform geometric comparisons. Major problems are encountered in texture mapping. The 3D modeling project and the creation of high-resolution map-projections is performed for scientific, conservation, visualization and education purposes.

  1. On the application and extension of Harten's high resolution scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Warming, R. F.; Harten, A.

    1982-01-01

    Extensions of a second order high resolution explicit method for the numerical computation of weak solutions of one dimensonal hyperbolic conservation laws are discussed. The main objectives were (1) to examine the shock resoluton of Harten's method for a two dimensional shock reflection problem, (2) to study the use of a high resolution scheme as a post-processor to an approximate steady state solution, and (3) to construct an implicit in the delta-form using Harten's scheme for the explicit operator and a simplified iteration matrix for the implicit operator.

  2. High-resolution second harmonic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yi; Tomov, Ivan V.; Wang, Yimin; Chen, Zhongping

    2005-04-01

    A high-resolution Second Harmonic Optical Coherence Tomography (SH-OCT) system is demonstrated using a spectrum broadened femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. An axial resolution of 4.2 μm at the second harmonic wave center wavelength of 400 nm has been achieved. Because the SH-OCT system uses the second harmonic generation signals that strongly depend on the orientation, polarization and local symmetry properties of chiral molecules, this technique provides unique contrast enhancement to conventional optical coherence tomography. The system is applied to image biological tissues like the rat-tail tendon. Images of highly organized collagen fibrils in the rat-tail tendon have been demonstrated.

  3. High resolution collimator system for X-ray detector

    DOEpatents

    Eberhard, Jeffrey W.; Cain, Dallas E.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution in an X-ray computerized tomography (CT) inspection system is achieved by using a collimator/detector combination to limit the beam width of the X-ray beam incident on a detector element to the desired resolution width. In a detector such as a high pressure Xenon detector array, a narrow tapered collimator is provided above a wide detector element. The collimator slits have any desired width, as small as a few mils at the top, the slit width is easily controlled, and they are fabricated on standard machines. The slit length determines the slice thickness of the CT image.

  4. High-resolution low-dose scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Buban, James P; Ramasse, Quentin; Gipson, Bryant; Browning, Nigel D; Stahlberg, Henning

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades instrumentation in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has pushed toward higher intensity electron probes to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of recorded images. While this is suitable for robust specimens, biological specimens require a much reduced electron dose for high-resolution imaging. We describe here protocols for low-dose STEM image recording with a conventional field-emission gun STEM, while maintaining the high-resolution capability of the instrument. Our findings show that a combination of reduced pixel dwell time and reduced gun current can achieve radiation doses comparable to low-dose TEM.

  5. High-Efficiency High-Resolution Global Model Developments at the NASA Goddard Data Assimilation Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shian-Jiann; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Data Assimilation Office (DAO) has been developing a new generation of ultra-high resolution General Circulation Model (GCM) that is suitable for 4-D data assimilation, numerical weather predictions, and climate simulations. These three applications have conflicting requirements. For 4-D data assimilation and weather predictions, it is highly desirable to run the model at the highest possible spatial resolution (e.g., 55 km or finer) so as to be able to resolve and predict socially and economically important weather phenomena such as tropical cyclones, hurricanes, and severe winter storms. For climate change applications, the model simulations need to be carried out for decades, if not centuries. To reduce uncertainty in climate change assessments, the next generation model would also need to be run at a fine enough spatial resolution that can at least marginally simulate the effects of intense tropical cyclones. Scientific problems (e.g., parameterization of subgrid scale moist processes) aside, all three areas of application require the model's computational performance to be dramatically improved as compared to the previous generation. In this talk, I will present the current and future developments of the "finite-volume dynamical core" at the Data Assimilation Office. This dynamical core applies modem monotonicity preserving algorithms and is genuinely conservative by construction, not by an ad hoc fixer. The "discretization" of the conservation laws is purely local, which is clearly advantageous for resolving sharp gradient flow features. In addition, the local nature of the finite-volume discretization also has a significant advantage on distributed memory parallel computers. Together with a unique vertically Lagrangian control volume discretization that essentially reduces the dimension of the computational problem from three to two, the finite-volume dynamical core is very efficient, particularly at high resolutions. I will also present the

  6. High-Efficiency High-Resolution Global Model Developments at the NASA Goddard Data Assimilation Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shian-Jiann; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Data Assimilation Office (DAO) has been developing a new generation of ultra-high resolution General Circulation Model (GCM) that is suitable for 4-D data assimilation, numerical weather predictions, and climate simulations. These three applications have conflicting requirements. For 4-D data assimilation and weather predictions, it is highly desirable to run the model at the highest possible spatial resolution (e.g., 55 kin or finer) so as to be able to resolve and predict socially and economically important weather phenomena such as tropical cyclones, hurricanes, and severe winter storms. For climate change applications, the model simulations need to be carried out for decades, if not centuries. To reduce uncertainty in climate change assessments, the next generation model would also need to be run at a fine enough spatial resolution that can at least marginally simulate the effects of intense tropical cyclones. Scientific problems (e.g., parameterization of subgrid scale moist processes) aside, all three areas of application require the model's computational performance to be dramatically improved as compared to the previous generation. In this talk, I will present the current and future developments of the "finite-volume dynamical core" at the Data Assimilation Office. This dynamical core applies modem monotonicity preserving algorithms and is genuinely conservative by construction, not by an ad hoc fixer. The "discretization" of the conservation laws is purely local, which is clearly advantageous for resolving sharp gradient flow features. In addition, the local nature of the finite-volume discretization also has a significant advantage on distributed memory parallel computers. Together with a unique vertically Lagrangian control volume discretization that essentially reduces the dimension of the computational problem from three to two, the finite-volume dynamical core is very efficient, particularly at high resolutions. I will also present the

  7. Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoan; Horstmeyer, Roarke; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we report an imaging method, termed Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM), which iteratively stitches together a number of variably illuminated, low-resolution intensity images in Fourier space to produce a wide-field, high-resolution complex sample image. By adopting a wavefront correction strategy, the FPM method can also correct for aberrations and digitally extend a microscope’s depth-of-focus beyond the physical limitations of its optics. As a demonstration, we built a microscope prototype with a resolution of 0.78 μm, a field-of-view of ~120 mm2, and a resolution-invariant depth-of-focus of 0.3 mm (characterized at 632 nm). Gigapixel colour images of histology slides verify FPM’s successful operation. The reported imaging procedure transforms the general challenge of high-throughput, high-resolution microscopy from one that is coupled to the physical limitations of the system’s optics to one that is solvable through computation. PMID:25243016

  8. Multi-resolution voxel phantom modeling: a high-resolution eye model for computational dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracappa, Peter F.; Rhodes, Ashley; Fiedler, Derek

    2014-09-01

    Voxel models of the human body are commonly used for simulating radiation dose with a Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Due to memory limitations, the voxel resolution of these computational phantoms is typically too large to accurately represent the dimensions of small features such as the eye. Recently reduced recommended dose limits to the lens of the eye, which is a radiosensitive tissue with a significant concern for cataract formation, has lent increased importance to understanding the dose to this tissue. A high-resolution eye model is constructed using physiological data for the dimensions of radiosensitive tissues, and combined with an existing set of whole-body models to form a multi-resolution voxel phantom, which is used with the MCNPX code to calculate radiation dose from various exposure types. This phantom provides an accurate representation of the radiation transport through the structures of the eye. Two alternate methods of including a high-resolution eye model within an existing whole-body model are developed. The accuracy and performance of each method is compared against existing computational phantoms.

  9. Multi-resolution voxel phantom modeling: a high-resolution eye model for computational dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Caracappa, Peter F; Rhodes, Ashley; Fiedler, Derek

    2014-09-21

    Voxel models of the human body are commonly used for simulating radiation dose with a Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Due to memory limitations, the voxel resolution of these computational phantoms is typically too large to accurately represent the dimensions of small features such as the eye. Recently reduced recommended dose limits to the lens of the eye, which is a radiosensitive tissue with a significant concern for cataract formation, has lent increased importance to understanding the dose to this tissue. A high-resolution eye model is constructed using physiological data for the dimensions of radiosensitive tissues, and combined with an existing set of whole-body models to form a multi-resolution voxel phantom, which is used with the MCNPX code to calculate radiation dose from various exposure types. This phantom provides an accurate representation of the radiation transport through the structures of the eye. Two alternate methods of including a high-resolution eye model within an existing whole-body model are developed. The accuracy and performance of each method is compared against existing computational phantoms.

  10. New Challenges in High-Resolution Modeling of Hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. S.

    2006-12-01

    The extreme active Atlantic hurricane seasons in recent years have highlighted the urgent need for a better understanding of the factors that contribute to hurricane intensity and for development of the corresponding advanced hurricane prediction models to improve intensity forecasts. The lack of skill in present forecasts of hurricane structure and intensity may be attributed in part to deficiencies in the current prediction models: insufficient grid resolution, inadequate surface and boundary layer formulations, and the lack of full coupling to a dynamic ocean. The extreme high winds, intense rainfall, large ocean waves, and copious sea spray in hurricanes push the surface-exchange parameters for temperature, water vapor, and momentum into untested regimes. The recent modeling effort is to develop and test a fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean modeling system that is capable of resolving the eye and eyewall in a hurricane at ~1 km grid resolution. The new challenges for these very high resolution models are the corresponding physical representations at 1-km scale, including microphysics, sub-grid turbulence parameterization, atmospheric boundary layer, physical processes at the air-sea interface with surface waves among others. The lack of accurate initial conditions for high-resolution hurricane modeling presents another major challenge. Improvements in initial conditions rest on the use of more airborne and remotely sensed observations in high-resolution assimilation systems and on the application of advanced assimilation schemes to hurricanes. This study aimed to provide an overview of these new challenges using high-resolution model simulations of Hurricanes Isabel (2003), Frances (2004), Katrina and Rita (2005) that were observed extensively by two recent field programs, namely, the Coupled Boundary Layer Air-Sea Transfer (CBLAST)-Hurricane in 2003-2004 and the Hurricane Rainbands and Intensity Change Experiment (RAINEX) in 2005.

  11. Optical multichannel analyzer techniques for high resolution optical spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, J.L.

    1980-06-01

    The development of optical multichannel analyzer techniques for UV/VIS spectroscopy is presented. The research focuses on the development of spectroscopic techniques for measuring high resolution spectral lineshape functions from the exciton phosphorescence in H/sub 2/-1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene. It is found that the temperature dependent frequency shifts and widths confirm a theoretical model based on an exchange theory. The exchange of low energy phonon modes which couple with excited state exciton transitions is shown to display the proper temperature dependent behavior. In addition to the techniques for using the optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) to perform low light level target integration, the use of the OMA for capturing spectral information in transient pulsed laser applications is discussed. An OMP data acquisition system developed for real-time signal processng is described. Both hardware and software interfacing considerations for control and data acquisition by a microcomputer are described. The OMA detector is described in terms of the principles behind its photoelectron detection capabilities and its design is compared with other optoelectronic devices.

  12. Small UAV-Acquired, High-resolution, Georeferenced Still Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Hruska

    2005-09-01

    Currently, small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are primarily used for capturing and down-linking real-time video. To date, their role as a low-cost airborne platform for capturing high-resolution, georeferenced still imagery has not been fully utilized. On-going work within the Unmanned Vehicle Systems Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is attempting to exploit this small UAV-acquired, still imagery potential. Initially, a UAV-based still imagery work flow model was developed that includes initial UAV mission planning, sensor selection, UAV/sensor integration, and imagery collection, processing, and analysis. Components to support each stage of the work flow are also being developed. Critical to use of acquired still imagery is the ability to detect changes between images of the same area over time. To enhance the analysts’ change detection ability, a UAV-specific, GIS-based change detection system called SADI or System for Analyzing Differences in Imagery is under development. This paper will discuss the associated challenges and approaches to collecting still imagery with small UAVs. Additionally, specific components of the developed work flow system will be described and graphically illustrated using varied examples of small UAV-acquired still imagery.

  13. High resolution imaging of objects located within a wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greneker, Eugene F.; Showman, Gregory A.; Trostel, John M.; Sylvester, Vincent

    2006-05-01

    Researchers at Georgia Tech Research Institute have developed a high resolution imaging radar technique that allows large sections of a test wall to be scanned in X and Y dimensions. The resulting images that can be obtained provide information on what is inside the wall, if anything. The scanning homodyne radar operates at a frequency of 24.1 GHz at with an output power level of approximately 10 milliwatts. An imaging technique that has been developed is currently being used to study the detection of toxic mold on the back surface of wallboard using radar as a sensor. The moisture that is associated with the mold can easily be detected. In addition to mold, the technique will image objects as small as a 4 millimeter sphere on the front or rear of the wallboard and will penetrate both sides of a wall made of studs and wallboard. Signal processing is performed on the resulting data to further sharpen the image. Photos of the scanner and images produced by the scanner are presented. A discussion of the signal processing and technical challenges are also discussed.

  14. Volume Based DTM Generation from Very High Resolution Photogrammetric Dsms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piltz, B.; Bayer, S.; Poznanska, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we propose a new algorithm for digital terrain (DTM) model reconstruction from very high spatial resolution digital surface models (DSMs). It represents a combination of multi-directional filtering with a new metric which we call normalized volume above ground to create an above-ground mask containing buildings and elevated vegetation. This mask can be used to interpolate a ground-only DTM. The presented algorithm works fully automatically, requiring only the processing parameters minimum height and maximum width in metric units. Since slope and breaklines are not decisive criteria, low and smooth and even very extensive flat objects are recognized and masked. The algorithm was developed with the goal to generate the normalized DSM for automatic 3D building reconstruction and works reliably also in environments with distinct hillsides or terrace-shaped terrain where conventional methods would fail. A quantitative comparison with the ISPRS data sets Potsdam and Vaihingen show that 98-99% of all building data points are identified and can be removed, while enough ground data points (~66%) are kept to be able to reconstruct the ground surface. Additionally, we discuss the concept of size dependent height thresholds and present an efficient scheme for pyramidal processing of data sets reducing time complexity to linear to the number of pixels, O(WH).

  15. Pulse energy evolution for high-resolution Lamb wave inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Jiadong; Lin, Jing; Zeng, Liang; Gao, Fei

    2015-06-01

    Generally, tone burst excitation methods are used to reduce the effect of dispersion in Lamb wave inspection. In addition, algorithms for dispersion compensation are required to simplify responses, especially in long-range inspection. However, the resolution is always limited by the time duration of tone burst excitation. A pulse energy evolution method is established to overcome this limitation. In this method, a broadband signal with a long time (e.g. a chirp, white noise signal, or a pseudo-random sequence) is used as excitation to actuate Lamb waves. First of all, pulse compression is employed to estimate system impulse response with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Then, dispersion compensation is applied repeatedly with systemically varied compensation distances, obtaining a series of compensated signals. In these signals, amplitude (or energy) evolution associated with the change of compensation distance is utilized to estimate the actual propagation distance of the interested wave packet. Finally, the defect position is detected by an imaging algorithm. Several experiments are given to validate the proposed method.

  16. Advanced very high resolution radiometer, Mod 2 engineering report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Advanced High Resolution Radiometer, Mod 2 (AVHRR/2) is a modification of the original AVHRR (AVHRR/1) to expand the number of channels from four to five and provide additional sensing in the infrared region. A comparison of the spectral regions employed in the two instruments is given. Three of the channels are the same on both instruments. The difference in instruments is in the long wave IR region where a single channel was replaced by two channels. The modification from AVHRR/1 to AVHRR/2 was done with a minimum of changes. The areas of change are highlighted and the modifications by module are summarized. It is seen that the primary changes are in the relay optics and in the cooler. In this development program only two models are involved. The first model, the Optical Test Model was constructed and tested to prove the performance and structural integrity of the optical system and the modified cooler. The second model constructed is the Protoflight. Only the areas of the AVHRR/2 which were modified from the AVHRR/1 design are discussed.

  17. Linking high resolution mass spectrometry data with exposure ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is a growing need in the field of exposure science for monitoring methods that rapidly screen environmental media for suspect contaminants. Measurement and analysis platforms, based on high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), now exist to meet this need. Here we describe results of a study that links HRMS data with exposure predictions from the U.S. EPA's ExpoCast™ program and in vitro bioassay data from the U.S. interagency Tox21 consortium. Vacuum dust samples were collected from 56 households across the U.S. as part of the American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS). Sample extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC–TOF/MS) with electrospray ionization. On average, approximately 2000 molecular features were identified per sample (based on accurate mass) in negative ion mode, and 3000 in positive ion mode. Exact mass, isotope distribution, and isotope spacing were used to match molecular features with a unique listing of chemical formulas extracted from EPA's Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) database. A total of 978 DSSTox formulas were consistent with the dust LC–TOF/molecular feature data (match score ≥ 90); these formulas mapped to 3228 possible chemicals in the database. Correct assignment of a unique chemical to a given formula required additional validation steps. Each suspect chemical was prioritized for follow-up confirmation using abundance and detection frequency results, along wi

  18. High-Resolution Multiple Sulfur Isotope Studies of Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojzsis, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    Sensitive, high resolution measurements of S-32, S-31, and S-34 in individual pyrite grains in martian meteorite ALH84001 by an in situ ion microprobe multi-collection technique reveal mass-independent anomalies in Delta.S-33 (Delta.S-33 = delta.S-33 - 0.516delta.S-34) in addition to the lowest 634S found in an extraterrestrial material. Low delta.S-34 values in two pyrite grains intimately associated with carbonate in ALH84001 can be explained by the sensitivity of sulfur to fractionations in the geologic environment. Anomalies in Delta.S-33 recorded in ALH84001 pyrites probably formed by gas-phase reactions in the early martian atmosphere (>4 Ga). The discovery of clearly resolvable Delta-S33 anomalies in 2 of 12 ALH84001 pyrites analyzed in their petrographic context in thin section, is considered strong evidence for crust-atmosphere exchange and the global cycling of volatile sulfur species on early Mars. These results corroborate previous measurements by Farquhar and co-workers who used a different technique that measures that bulk Delta.S-33 values of martian meteorites. These independent techniques, and their results, suggest that sulfur affected by mass-independent fractionation is common on Mars.

  19. High resolution weak lensing mass mapping combining shear and flexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Starck, J.-L.; Leonard, A.; Pires, S.

    2016-06-01

    Aims: We propose a new mass mapping algorithm, specifically designed to recover small-scale information from a combination of gravitational shear and flexion. Including flexion allows us to supplement the shear on small scales in order to increase the sensitivity to substructures and the overall resolution of the convergence map without relying on strong lensing constraints. Methods: To preserve all available small scale information, we avoid any binning of the irregularly sampled input shear and flexion fields and treat the mass mapping problem as a general ill-posed inverse problem, which is regularised using a robust multi-scale wavelet sparsity prior. The resulting algorithm incorporates redshift, reduced shear, and reduced flexion measurements for individual galaxies and is made highly efficient by the use of fast Fourier estimators. Results: We tested our reconstruction method on a set of realistic weak lensing simulations corresponding to typical HST/ACS cluster observations and demonstrate our ability to recover substructures with the inclusion of flexion, which are otherwise lost if only shear information is used. In particular, we can detect substructures on the 15'' scale well outside of the critical region of the clusters. In addition, flexion also helps to constrain the shape of the central regions of the main dark matter halos. Our mass mapping software, called Glimpse2D, is made freely available at http://www.cosmostat.org/software/glimpse

  20. Automated target classification in high resolution dual frequency sonar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aridgides, Tom; Fernández, Manuel

    2007-04-01

    An improved computer-aided-detection / computer-aided-classification (CAD/CAC) processing string has been developed. The classified objects of 2 distinct strings are fused using the classification confidence values and their expansions as features, and using "summing" or log-likelihood-ratio-test (LLRT) based fusion rules. The utility of the overall processing strings and their fusion was demonstrated with new high-resolution dual frequency sonar imagery. Three significant fusion algorithm improvements were made. First, a nonlinear 2nd order (Volterra) feature LLRT fusion algorithm was developed. Second, a Box-Cox nonlinear feature LLRT fusion algorithm was developed. The Box-Cox transformation consists of raising the features to a to-be-determined power. Third, a repeated application of a subset feature selection / feature orthogonalization / Volterra feature LLRT fusion block was utilized. It was shown that cascaded Volterra feature LLRT fusion of the CAD/CAC processing strings outperforms summing, baseline single-stage Volterra and Box-Cox feature LLRT algorithms, yielding significant improvements over the best single CAD/CAC processing string results, and providing the capability to correctly call the majority of targets while maintaining a very low false alarm rate. Additionally, the robustness of cascaded Volterra feature fusion was demonstrated, by showing that the algorithm yields similar performance with the training and test sets.

  1. Tree Species Classification By Multiseasonal High Resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elatawneh, Alata; Wallner, Adelheid; Straub, Christoph; Schneider, Thomas; Knoke, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Accurate forest tree species mapping is a fundamental issue for sustainable forest management and planning. Forest tree species mapping with the means of remote sensing data is still a topic to be investigated. The Bavaria state institute of forestry is investigating the potential of using digital aerial images for forest management purposes. However, using aerial images is still cost- and time-consuming, in addition to their acquisition restrictions. The new space-born sensor generations such as, RapidEye, with a very high temporal resolution, offering multiseasonal data have the potential to improve the forest tree species mapping. In this study, we investigated the potential of multiseasonal RapidEye data for mapping tree species in a Mid European forest in Southern Germany. The RapidEye data of level A3 were collected on ten different dates in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. For data analysis, a model was developed, which combines the Spectral Angle Mapper technique with a 10-fold- cross-validation. The analysis succeeded to differentiate four tree species; Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), Silver Fir (Abies alba Mill.), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus). The model success was evaluated using digital aerial images acquired in the year 2009 and inventory point records from 2008/09 inventory. Model results of the multiseasonal RapidEye data analysis achieved an overall accuracy of 76%. However, the success of the model was evaluated only for all the identified species and not for the individual.

  2. ISMI: a classification index for high angular resolution diffusion imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röttger, D.; Dudai, D.; Merhof, D.; Müller, S.

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic resonance diffusion imaging provides a unique insight into the white matter architecture of the brain in vivo. Applications include neurosurgical planning and fundamental neuroscience. Contrary to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) is able to characterize complex intra-voxel diffusion distributions and hence provides more accurate information about the true diffusion profile. Anisotropy indices aim to reduce the information of the diffusion probability function to a meaningful scalar representation that classifies the underlying diffusion and thereby the neuronal fiber configuration within a voxel. These indices can be used to answer clinical questions such as the integrity of certain neuronal pathways. Information about the underlying fiber distribution can be beneficial in tractography approaches, reconstructing neuronal pathways using local diffusion orientations. Therefore, an accurate classification of diffusion profiles is of great interest. However, the differentiation between multiple fiber orientations and isotropic diffusion is still a challenging task. In this work, we introduce ISMI, an index which successfully differentiates isotropic diffusion and single and multiple fiber populations. The classifier is based on the orientation distribution function (ODF) resulting from Q-ball imaging. We compare our results with the well-known general fractional anisotropy (GFA) index using a fiber phantom comprising challenging diffusion profiles such as crossing, fanning and kissing fiber configurations and a human brain dataset considering the centrum semiovale. Additionally, we visualize the results directly on the fibers represented by streamtubes using a heat color map.

  3. Super-resolution high sensitivity AC Magnetic Field Imaging with NV Centers in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, Erik; Jaskula, Jean-Christophe; Trifonov, Alexei; Walsworth, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    The Nitrogen-Vacancy center in diamond (NV center), a defect consisting of a nitrogen atom next to a missing atom, has been successfully applied to sense magnetic field, electric field, temperature and can also be used as fluorescence marker and single photon emitter. We will present super-resolution imaging of NV centers and simultaneous sensing of AC magnetic fields with high sensitivity. To demonstrate the applicability of super-resolution magnetic field imaging, we resolve several NV centers with an optical resolution smaller than 20 nm and probe locally the gradient of a externally applied magnetic field. Additionally, we demonstrate the detection of magnetic field signals from 1H protons with subdiffraction image resolution. We will also show that our super-resolution magnetometer will benefit from a new readout method based on a spin-to-charge mapping that we have developed to increase the readout contrast.

  4. A high-resolution ambient seismic noise model for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Toni

    2014-05-01

    measurement precision (i.e. earthquake location), while considering this extremely complex boundary condition. To solve this problem I have developed a high-resolution ambient seismic noise model for Europe. The model is based on land-use data derived from satellite imagery by the EU-project CORINE in a resolution of 100x100m. The the CORINE data consists of several land-use classes, which, besides others, contain: industrial areas, mines, urban fabric, agricultural areas, permanent corps, forests and open spaces. Additionally, open GIS data for highways, and major and minor roads and railway lines were included from the OpenStreetMap project (www.openstreetmap.org). This data was divided into three classes that represent good, intermediate and bad ambient conditions of the corresponding land-use class based on expert judgment. To account for noise propagation away from its source a smoothing operator was applied to individual land-use noise-fields. Finally, the noise-fields were stacked to obtain an European map of ambient noise conditions. A calibration of this map with data of existing seismic stations Europe allowed me to estimate the expected noise level in actual ground motion units for the three ambient noise condition classes of the map. The result is a high-resolution ambient seismic noise map, that allows the network designer to make educated predictions on the expected noise level for arbitrary location in Europe. The ambient noise model was successfully tested in several network optimization projects in Switzerland and surrounding countries and will hopefully be a valuable contribution to improving the data quality of microseismic monitoring networks in Europe.

  5. Remote sensing cloud properties from high spectral resolution infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William L.; Ma, Xia L.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Knuteson, R. O.

    1993-01-01

    A technique for estimating cloud radiative properties (spectral emissivity and reflectivity) in the IR is developed based on observations at a spectral resolution of approximately 0.5/cm. The algorithm uses spectral radiance observations and theoretical calculations of the IR spectra for clear and cloudy conditions along with lidar-determined cloud-base and cloud-top pressure. An advantage of the high spectral resolution observations is that the absorption effects of atmospheric gases are minimized by analyzing between gaseous absorption lines. The technique is applicable to both ground-based and aircraft-based platforms and derives the effective particle size and associated cloud water content required to satisfy, theoretically, the observed cloud IR spectra. The algorithm is tested using theoretical simulations and applied to observations made with the University of Wisconsin's ground-based and NASA ER-2 aircraft High-Resolution Infrared Spectrometer instruments.

  6. High-resolution real-time ultrasonic scanner.

    PubMed

    Berson, M; Vaillant, L; Patat, F; Pourcelot, L

    1992-01-01

    High spatial resolution is required for echographic exploration of the skin, microvessels or small laboratory animals. With the scanner described here, high resolution is obtained by means of a strongly focused, wide-band 17 MHz center frequency transducer (-6 dB bandwidth: 22 MHz). The movement of this transducer above the skin provides a 6 mm wide and 5 mm deep echographic cross-section with an image rate of 15 images/s. The resolution is about 0.08 mm in axial and 0.2 to 0.3 mm in lateral directions. The device was tested on phantoms in water and in vivo on normal and pathological skin in the Department of Dermatology. With the easy-to-handle probe, explorations were made on psoriasis, basocellular carcinoma, malignant melanoma and sarcoidosis.

  7. High Resolution Coherent Three-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Zuri R.; Wells, Thresa A.; Chen, Peter C.; Strangfeld, Benjamin R.

    2013-06-01

    The heavy congestion found in many one-dimensional spectra can make it difficult to study many transitions. A new coherent three-dimensional spectroscopic technique has been developed to eliminate the kind of congestion commonly seen in high resolution electronic spectra. The molecule used for this test was Iodine. A well-characterized transition (X to B) was used to determine which four wave mixing process or processes were responsible for the peaks in the resulting multidimensional spectrum. The resolution of several peaks that overlap in a coherent 2D spectrum can be accomplished by using a higher dimensional (3D) spectroscopic method. This talk will discuss strategies for finding spectroscopic constants using this high resolution coherent 3D spectroscopic method.

  8. An Introduction to High Resolution Coherent Multidimensional Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Wells, Thresa A.; House, Zuri R.; Strangfeld, Benjamin R.

    2013-06-01

    High resolution coherent multidimensional spectroscopy is a technique that can be used to analyze and assign peaks for molecules that have resisted spectral analysis. Molecules that yield heavily congested and seemingly patternless spectra using conventional methods can yield 2D spectra that have recognizable patterns. The off-diagonal region of the coherent 2D plot shows only cross-peaks that are related by rotational selection rules. The resulting patterns facilitate peak assignment if they are sufficiently resolved. For systems that are not well-resolved, coherent 3D spectra may be generated to further improve resolution and provide selectivity. This presentation will provide an introduction to high resolution coherent 2D and 3D spectroscopies.

  9. High resolution map of light pollution over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzel, Henryka; Netzel, Paweł

    2016-09-01

    In 1976 Berry introduced a simple mathematical equation to calculate artificial night sky brightness at zenith. In the original model cities, considered as points with given population, are only sources of light emission. In contrary to Berry's model, we assumed that all terrain surface can be a source of light. Emission of light depends on percent of built up area in a given cell. We based on Berry's model. Using field measurements and high-resolution data we obtained the map of night sky brightness over Poland in 100-m resolution. High resolution input data, combined with a very simple model, makes it possible to obtain detailed structures of the night sky brightness without complicating the calculations.

  10. Science with High Spatial Resolution Far-Infrared Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, Susan (Editor); Mazzarella, Joseph M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this workshop was to discuss new science and techniques relevant to high spatial resolution processing of far-infrared data, with particular focus on high resolution processing of IRAS data. Users of the maximum correlation method, maximum entropy, and other resolution enhancement algorithms applicable to far-infrared data gathered at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) for two days in June 1993 to compare techniques and discuss new results. During a special session on the third day, interested astronomers were introduced to IRAS HIRES processing, which is IPAC's implementation of the maximum correlation method to the IRAS data. Topics discussed during the workshop included: (1) image reconstruction; (2) random noise; (3) imagery; (4) interacting galaxies; (5) spiral galaxies; (6) galactic dust and elliptical galaxies; (7) star formation in Seyfert galaxies; (8) wavelet analysis; and (9) supernova remnants.

  11. Portable electro-mechanically cooled high-resolution germanium detector

    SciTech Connect

    Neufeld, K.W.; Ruhter, W.D.

    1995-05-01

    We have integrated a small, highly-reliable, electro-mechanical cryo-cooler with a high-resolution germanium detector for portable/field applications. The system weighs 6.8 kg and requires 40 watts of power to operate once the detector is cooled to its operating temperature. the detector is a 500 mm{sup 2} by 20-mm thick low-energy configuration that gives a full-width at half maximum (FWHM) energy resolution of 523 eV at 122 keV, when cooled with liquid nitrogen. The energy resolution of the detector, when cooled with the electro-mechanical cooler, is 570 eV at 122 keV. We have field tested this system in measurements of plutonium and uranium for isotopic and enrichment information using the MGA and MGAU analysis programs without any noticeable effects on the results.

  12. High-emulation mask recognition with high-resolution hyperspectral video capture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jiao; Fang, Xiaojing; Li, Shoufeng; Wang, Yongjin

    2014-11-01

    We present a method for distinguishing human face from high-emulation mask, which is increasingly used by criminals for activities such as stealing card numbers and passwords on ATM. Traditional facial recognition technique is difficult to detect such camouflaged criminals. In this paper, we use the high-resolution hyperspectral video capture system to detect high-emulation mask. A RGB camera is used for traditional facial recognition. A prism and a gray scale camera are used to capture spectral information of the observed face. Experiments show that mask made of silica gel has different spectral reflectance compared with the human skin. As multispectral image offers additional spectral information about physical characteristics, high-emulation mask can be easily recognized.

  13. High Resolution Urban Feature Extraction for Global Population Mapping using High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan; Bright, Eddie A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2007-01-01

    The advent of high spatial resolution satellite imagery like Quick Bird (0.6 meter) and IKONOS (1 meter) has provided a new data source for high resolution urban land cover mapping. Extracting accurate urban regions from high resolution images has many applications and is essential to the population mapping efforts of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) LandScan population distribution program. This paper discusses an automated parallel algorithm that has been implemented on a high performance computing environment to extract urban regions from high resolution images using texture and spectral features

  14. Unsupervised Feature Learning for High-Resolution Satellite Image Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2013-01-01

    The rich data provided by high-resolution satellite imagery allow us to directly model geospatial neighborhoods by understanding their spatial and structural patterns. In this paper we explore an unsupervised feature learning approach to model geospatial neighborhoods for classification purposes. While pixel and object based classification approaches are widely used for satellite image analysis, often these approaches exploit the high-fidelity image data in a limited way. In this paper we extract low-level features to characterize the local neighborhood patterns. We exploit the unlabeled feature measurements in a novel way to learn a set of basis functions to derive new features. The derived sparse feature representation obtained by encoding the measured features in terms of the learned basis function set yields superior classification performance. We applied our technique on two challenging image datasets: ORNL dataset representing one-meter spatial resolution satellite imagery representing five land-use categories and, UCMERCED dataset consisting of 21 different categories representing sub-meter resolution overhead imagery. Our results are highly promising and, in the case of UCMERCED dataset we outperform the best results obtained for this dataset. We show that our feature extraction and learning methods are highly effective in developing a detection system that can be used to automatically scan large-scale high-resolution satellite imagery for detecting large-facility.

  15. πSPIM: high NA high resolution isotropic light-sheet imaging in cell culture dishes

    PubMed Central

    Theer, Patrick; Dragneva, Denitsa; Knop, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM), also termed single plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), enables live cell fluorescence imaging with optical sectioning capabilities superior to confocal microscopy and without any out-of-focus exposure of the specimen. However, the need of two objective lenses, one for light-sheet illumination and one for imaging, imposes geometrical constraints that require LSFM setups to be adapted to the specific needs of different types of specimen in order to obtain optimal imaging conditions. Here we demonstrate the use of an oblique light-sheet configuration adapted to provide the highest possible Gaussian beam enabled resolution in LSFM. The oblique light-sheet configuration furthermore enables LSFM imaging at the surface of a cover slip, without the need of specific sample mounting. In addition, the system is compatible with simultaneous high NA wide-field epi-fluorescence imaging of the specimen contained in a glass-bottom cell culture dish. This prevents cumbersome sample mounting and enables rapid screening of large areas of the specimen followed by high-resolution LSFM imaging of selected cells. We demonstrate the application of this microscope for in toto imaging of endocytosis in yeast, showing for the first time imaging of all endocytic events of a given cell over a period of >5 minutes with sub-second resolution. PMID:27619647

  16. Bias correction of high resolution regional climate model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, P.; Feldmann, H.; Panitz, H.-J.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryBias correction of varying complexity - from simple scaling and additive corrections to more advanced histogram equalisation (HE) corrections - is applied to high resolution (7 km) regional climate model (RCM) simulations. The aim of the study is to compare different methods that are easily implemented and applied to the data, and to assess the applicability and impact of the bias correction depending on the type of bias. The model bias is determined by comparison to a new gridded high resolution (1 km) data set of temperature and precipitation, which is also used as reference for the corrections. The performance of the different methods depends on the type of bias of the model, and on the investigated statistic. Whereas simpler methods correct the first moment of the distributions, they can have adverse effects on higher moments. The HE method corrects also higher moments, but approximations of the transfer function are necessary when applying the method to other data than the calibration data. Here, an empirical transfer function with linear fits to the tails is compared to a version where the complete function is approximated by a linear fit. The latter is thus limited to corrections of the first and second moments of the distribution. While making the transfer function more generally applicable, these approximations also limit the performance of the HE method. For the current model biases, the linear approximation is found suitable for precipitation, but for temperature it is not able to correct the whole distribution. The lower performance of the linear correction is most pronounced in summer, and is likely due to a difference in skewness between the model and observational data. Further limitations of the HE method are due to the need for long time series in order to have robust distributions for calculating the transfer function. Theoretical approximations of the required length of the calibration period were performed by using different sampling

  17. High-resolution metabolomics of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Douglas I; Uppal, Karan; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Smith, Martyn; Hu, Wei; Purdue, Mark P; Tang, Xiaojiang; Reiss, Boris; Kim, Sungkyoon; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Pennell, Kurt D; Jones, Dean P; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) has been linked to adverse health outcomes including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and kidney and liver cancer; however, TCE’s mode of action for development of these diseases in humans is not well understood. Methods: Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of plasma obtained from 80 TCE-exposed workers [full shift exposure range of 0.4 to 230 parts-per-million of air (ppma)] and 95 matched controls were completed by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. Biological response to TCE exposure was determined using a metabolome-wide association study (MWAS) framework, with metabolic changes and plasma TCE metabolites evaluated by dose-response and pathway enrichment. Biological perturbations were then linked to immunological, renal and exposure molecular markers measured in the same population. Results: Metabolic features associated with TCE exposure included known TCE metabolites, unidentifiable chlorinated compounds and endogenous metabolites. Exposure resulted in a systemic response in endogenous metabolism, including disruption in purine catabolism and decreases in sulphur amino acid and bile acid biosynthesis pathways. Metabolite associations with TCE exposure included uric acid (β = 0.13, P-value = 3.6 × 10−5), glutamine (β = 0.08, P-value = 0.0013), cystine (β = 0.75, P-value = 0.0022), methylthioadenosine (β = −1.6, P-value = 0.0043), taurine (β = −2.4, P-value = 0.0011) and chenodeoxycholic acid (β = −1.3, P-value = 0.0039), which are consistent with known toxic effects of TCE, including immunosuppression, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Correlation with additional exposure markers and physiological endpoints supported known disease associations. Conclusions: High-resolution metabolomics correlates measured occupational exposure to internal dose and metabolic response, providing insight into molecular mechanisms of exposure

  18. High resolution neutron imaging of water in PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L; Davey, John R; Spendelow, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    Optimal water management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells is critical to improving the performance and durability of fuel cell systems especially during transient, start-up and shut-down operations. For example, while a high water content is desirable for improved membrane and catalyst ionomer conductivity, high water content can also block gas access to the triple-phase boundary resulting in lowered performance due to catalyst and gas diffusion layer (GDL) flooding. Visualizing liquid water by neutron imaging has been used over the past decade to study the water distribution inside operating fuel cells. In this paper, the results from our imaging at NIST using their recently installed higher resolution ({approx} 25 mm) Microchannel Plate (MCP) detector with a pixel pitch of 14.7 mm are presented. This detector is capable of quantitatively imaging the water inside the MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly)/GDL (Gas Diffusion Layer) of working fuel cells and can provide the water profiles within these various components in addition to the channel water. Specially designed fuel cells (active area = 2.25 cm{sup 2}) have been used in order to take advantage of the full detector resolution. The cell design is illustrated in a figure where one of the current collector/end plates is shown. The serpentine pattern was machined into a block of aluminum and plated with nickel and then gold to form the flow field. The measurements were performed using beam no. 1 and aperture no. 2 with a fluence rate of 1.9 x 10{sup 6} neutrons cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. The cells were assembled with Gore{sup TM} Primea{sup R} MEAs and SGL Sigracet {sup R} 24 series GDLs (PRIMEA, GORE-SELECT and GORE are trademarks of W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc). All the cells were tested at 80 {sup o}C with 1.2 stoichiometry H{sub 2} and 2.0 stoichiometry air flows.

  19. Instrument for high resolution magnetization measurements at high pressures, high magnetic fields and low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, K.; Hane, S.; Kamishima, K.; Goto, T.

    1998-08-01

    An instrument has been developed for the first time that makes high resolution magnetization measurements at high pressures, high magnetic fields and low temperatures. The instrument consists of an extraction-type magnetometer, a nonmagnetic high pressure clamp cell and a 20 T superconducting magnet with a 3He refrigerator and is able to precisely measure the magnetization of weakly magnetic materials. TiCu alloy with 3 wt % Ti is employed as a nonmagnetic material with high mechanical strength for the high pressure clamp cell. This apparatus can be used in the pressure range 0⩽P⩽13 kbar, the field range 0⩽H⩽200 kOe and the temperature range 0.5⩽T⩽4.2 K. The resolution of the instrument is estimated to be ±0.002 emu. For demonstrating the ability of the instrument, the experimental results on a heavy fermion antiferromagnet Ce7Ni3 is presented.

  20. Immersion Gratings for Infrared High-resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarugaku, Yuki; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kaji, Sayumi; Sukegawa, Takashi; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Nakagawa, Takao; Arasaki, Takayuki; Kondo, Sohei; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Yasui, Chikako; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy in the infrared wavelength range is essential for observations of minor isotopologues, such as HDO for water, and prebiotic organic molecules like hydrocarbons/P-bearing molecules because numerous vibrational molecular bands (including non-polar molecules) are located in this wavelength range. High spectral resolution enables us to detect weak lines without spectral line confusion. This technique has been widely used in planetary sciences, e.g., cometary coma (H2O, CO, and organic molecules), the martian atmosphere (CH4, CO2, H2O and HDO), and the upper atmosphere of gas giants (H3+ and organic molecules such as C2H6). Spectrographs with higher resolution (and higher sensitivity) still have a potential to provide a plenty of findings. However, because the size of spectrographs scales with the spectral resolution, it is difficult to realize it.Immersion grating (IG), which is a diffraction grating wherein the diffraction surface is immersed in a material with a high refractive index (n > 2), provides n times higher spectral resolution compared to a reflective grating of the same size. Because IG reduces the size of spectrograph to 1/n compared to the spectrograph with the same spectral resolution using a conventional reflective grating, it is widely acknowledged as a key optical device to realize compact spectrographs with high spectral resolution.Recently, we succeeded in fabricating a CdZnTe immersion grating with the theoretically predicted diffraction efficiency by machining process using an ultrahigh-precision five-axis processing machine developed by Canon Inc. Using the same technique, we completed a practical germanium (Ge) immersion grating with both a reflection coating on the grating surface and the an AR coating on the entrance surface. It is noteworthy that the wide wavelength range from 2 to 20 um can be covered by the two immersion gratings.In this paper, we present the performances and the applications of the immersion

  1. High-Resolution Electronics: Spontaneous Patterning of High-Resolution Electronics via Parallel Vacuum Ultraviolet (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuying; Kanehara, Masayuki; Liu, Chuan; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Takeshi; Takeya, Jun; Minari, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    On page 6568, T. Minari and co-workers describe spontaneous patterning based on the parallel vacuum ultraviolet (PVUV) technique, enabling the homogeneous integration of complex, high-resolution electronic circuits, even on large-scale, flexible, transparent substrates. Irradiation of PVUV to the hydrophobic polymer surface precisely renders the selected surface into highly wettable regions with sharply defined boundaries, which spontaneously guides a metal nanoparticle ink into a series of circuit lines and gaps with the widths down to a resolution of 1 μm.

  2. Workshop on high-resolution, large-acceptance spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidman, B.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on High-Resolution, Large-Acceptance Spectrometers was to provide a means for exchange of information among those actively engaged in the design and construction of these new spectrometers. Thirty-seven papers were prepared for the data base.

  3. High-Resolution Simulations of Coal Injection in A Gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen; Gel, Aytekin; Syamlal, M; Guenther, Chris; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2010-01-01

    This study demonstrates an approach to effectively combine high- and low-resolution simulations for design studies of industrial coal gasifier. The flow-field data from a 10 million cell full-scale simulation of a commercial-scale gasifier were used to construct a reduced configuration to economically study the coal injection in detail. High-resolution numerical simulations of the coal injection were performed using the open-source code MFIX running on a high performance computing system. Effects of grid resolution and numerical discretization scheme on the predicted behavior of coal injection and gasification kinetics were analyzed. Pronounced differences were predicted in the devolatilization and steam gasification rates because of different discretization schemes, implying that a high-order numerical scheme is required to predict well the unsteady gasification process on an adequately resolved grid. Computational costs for simulations of varying resolutions are presented to illustrate the trade-off between the accuracy of solution and the time-to-solution, an important consideration when engineering simulations are used for the design of commercial-scale units.

  4. A DVD Spectroscope: A Simple, High-Resolution Classroom Spectroscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakabayashi, Fumitaka; Hamada, Kiyohito

    2006-01-01

    Digital versatile disks (DVDs) have successfully made up an inexpensive but high-resolution spectroscope suitable for classroom experiments that can easily be made with common material and gives clear and fine spectra of various light sources and colored material. The observed spectra can be photographed with a digital camera, and such images can…

  5. Persistence Diagrams of High-Resolution Temporal Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Méndez, F.; Carsteanu, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study applies Topological Data Analysis (TDA), by generating persistence diagrams to uncover patterns in the data of high-resolution temporal rainfall intensities from Iowa City (IIHR, U of Iowa). Persistence diagrams are a way to identify essential cycles in state-space representations of the data.

  6. Application of Classification Models to Pharyngeal High-Resolution Manometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielens, Jason D.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Ciucci, Michelle R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors present 3 methods of performing pattern recognition on spatiotemporal plots produced by pharyngeal high-resolution manometry (HRM). Method: Classification models, including the artificial neural networks (ANNs) multilayer perceptron (MLP) and learning vector quantization (LVQ), as well as support vector machines (SVM), were…

  7. Laser direct writing of rotationally symmetric high-resolution structures.

    PubMed

    Haefner, Matthias; Pruss, Christof; Osten, Wolfgang

    2011-11-01

    We present a laser direct writing system for the efficient fabrication of high-resolution axicon structures. The setup makes use of scanning beam interference lithography incorporated with a fringe locking scheme for tight fringe phase control and allows us to fabricate large area structures with a period down to 450 nm.

  8. High-resolution airway morphometry from polyurethane casts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Gordon R.; Vargas, John; Hoford, John D.; Craft, Jeanne; Shroff, Sunil; McRae, Karen M.

    1995-05-01

    An airway cast was made and imbedded in a solid polyurethane block of a contrasting color. The block was sequentially milled and photographed. The sequential photographs were scanned to create an image database which was analyzed on VIDA; a multidimensional image analysis software package. The technique shows promise as a semi-automated process for generating a high resolution morphometric database from airway casts.

  9. Plant respirometer enables high resolution of oxygen consumption rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, D. L.

    1966-01-01

    Plant respirometer permits high resolution of relatively small changes in the rate of oxygen consumed by plant organisms undergoing oxidative metabolism in a nonphotosynthetic state. The two stage supply and monitoring system operates by a differential pressure transducer and provides a calibrated output by digital or analog signals.

  10. High resolution bone mineral densitometry with a gamma camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.; Evans, H.; Jhingran, S.; Johnson, P.

    1983-01-01

    A technique by which the regional distribution of bone mineral can be determined in bone samples from small animals is described. The technique employs an Anger camera interfaced to a medical computer. High resolution imaging is possible by producing magnified images of the bone samples. Regional densitometry of femurs from oophorectomised and bone mineral loss.

  11. High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Solids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maciel, Gary E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines recent developments in techniques for obtaining high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra on solid samples, discussing the kinds of applications for which these techniques are well suited. Also discusses the characteristics of NMR of solids and generating magnetization for NMR in solids. (JN)

  12. Development of high accuracy and resolution geoid and gravity maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    Precision satellite to satellite tracking can be used to obtain high precision and resolution maps of the geoid. A method is demonstrated to use data in a limited region to map the geopotential at the satellite altitude. An inverse method is used to downward continue the potential to the Earth surface. The method is designed for both satellites in the same low orbit.

  13. Texture analysis of high-resolution FLAIR images for TLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Elisevich, Kost

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a study of the texture information of high-resolution FLAIR images of the brain with the aim of determining the abnormality and consequently the candidacy of the hippocampus for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery. Intensity and volume features of the hippocampus from FLAIR images of the brain have been previously shown to be useful in detecting the abnormal hippocampus in TLE. However, the small size of the hippocampus may limit the texture information. High-resolution FLAIR images show more details of the abnormal intensity variations of the hippocampi and therefore are more suitable for texture analysis. We study and compare the low and high-resolution FLAIR images of six epileptic patients. The hippocampi are segmented manually by an expert from T1-weighted MR images. Then the segmented regions are mapped on the corresponding FLAIR images for texture analysis. The 2-D wavelet transforms of the hippocampi are employed for feature extraction. We compare the ability of the texture features from regular and high-resolution FLAIR images to distinguish normal and abnormal hippocampi. Intracranial EEG results as well as surgery outcome are used as gold standard. The results show that the intensity variations of the hippocampus are related to the abnormalities in the TLE.

  14. Human enamel structure studied by high resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, S.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Human enamel structural features are characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. The human enamel consists of polycrystals with a structure similar to Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. This article describes the structural features of human enamel crystal at atomic and nanometer level. Besides the structural description, a great number of high resolution images are included. Research into the carious process in human enamel is very important for human beings. This article firstly describes the initiation of caries in enamel crystal at atomic and unit-cell level and secondly describes the further steps of caries with structural and chemical demineralization. The demineralization in fact, is the origin of caries in human enamel. The remineralization of carious areas in human enamel has drawn more and more attention as its potential application is realized. This process has been revealed by high resolution electron microscopy in detail in this article. On the other hand, the radiation effects on the structure of human enamel are also characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. In order to reveal this phenomenon clearly, a great number of electron micrographs have been shown, and a physical mechanism is proposed. 26 references.

  15. High-Resolution Land Use and Land Cover Mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    As the Nation?s population grows, quantifying, monitoring, and managing land use becomes increasingly important. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover (LULC) mapping that has been the model both nationally and internationally for over 20 years. At present, the USGS is producing high-resolution LULC data for several watershed and urban areas within the United States. This high-resolution LULC mapping is part of an ongoing USGS Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP). The four components of the LCCP are global (1:2,000,000-scale), national (1:100,000-scale), urban (1:24,000-scale), and special projects (various scales and time periods). Within the urban and special project components, the USGS Rocky Mountain Mapping Center (RMMC) is collecting historical as well as contemporary high-resolution LULC data. RMMC?s high-resolution LULC mapping builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS LULC programs and provides LULC information to meet user requirements.

  16. HIGH RESOLUTION RESISTIVITY LEAK DETECTION DATA PROCESSING & EVALUATION MEHTODS & REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    SCHOFIELD JS

    2007-10-04

    This document has two purposes: {sm_bullet} Describe how data generated by High Resolution REsistivity (HRR) leak detection (LD) systems deployed during single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval operations are processed and evaluated. {sm_bullet} Provide the basic review requirements for HRR data when Hrr is deployed as a leak detection method during SST waste retrievals.

  17. High Resolution Mass Spectra Analysis with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, David K.

    1980-01-01

    Highlighted are characteristics of programs written for a pocket-sized programmable calculator to analyze mass spectra data (such as displaying high resolution masses for formulas, predicting whether formulas are stable molecules or molecular ions, determining formulas by isotopic abundance measurement) in a laboratory or classroom. (CS)

  18. Five Micron High Resolution MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging with Simple, Interchangeable, Multi-Resolution Optical System

    DOE PAGES

    Feenstra, Adam D.; Dueñas, Maria Emilia; Lee, Young Jin

    2017-01-03

    High-spatial resolution mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is crucial for the mapping of chemical distributions at the cellular and subcellular level. Here in this work, we improved our previous laser optical system for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-MSI, from ~9 μm practical laser spot size to a practical laser spot size of ~4 μm, thereby allowing for 5 μm resolution imaging without oversampling. This is accomplished through a combination of spatial filtering, beam expansion, and reduction of the final focal length. Most importantly, the new laser optics system allows for simple modification of the spot size solely through the interchanging ofmore » the beam expander component. Using 10×, 5×, and no beam expander, we could routinely change between ~4, ~7, and ~45 μm laser spot size, in less than 5 min. We applied this multi-resolution MALDI-MSI system to a single maize root tissue section with three different spatial resolutions of 5, 10, and 50 μm and compared the differences in imaging quality and signal sensitivity. Lastly, we also demonstrated the difference in depth of focus between the optical systems with 10× and 5× beam expanders.« less

  19. Five Micron High Resolution MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging with Simple, Interchangeable, Multi-Resolution Optical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feenstra, Adam D.; Dueñas, Maria Emilia; Lee, Young Jin

    2017-01-01

    High-spatial resolution mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is crucial for the mapping of chemical distributions at the cellular and subcellular level. In this work, we improved our previous laser optical system for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-MSI, from 9 μm practical laser spot size to a practical laser spot size of 4 μm, thereby allowing for 5 μm resolution imaging without oversampling. This is accomplished through a combination of spatial filtering, beam expansion, and reduction of the final focal length. Most importantly, the new laser optics system allows for simple modification of the spot size solely through the interchanging of the beam expander component. Using 10×, 5×, and no beam expander, we could routinely change between 4, 7, and 45 μm laser spot size, in less than 5 min. We applied this multi-resolution MALDI-MSI system to a single maize root tissue section with three different spatial resolutions of 5, 10, and 50 μm and compared the differences in imaging quality and signal sensitivity. We also demonstrated the difference in depth of focus between the optical systems with 10× and 5× beam expanders.

  20. fMRI at High Spatial Resolution: Implications for BOLD-Models

    PubMed Central

    Goense, Jozien; Bohraus, Yvette; Logothetis, Nikos K.

    2016-01-01

    As high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and fMRI of cortical layers become more widely used, the question how well high-resolution fMRI signals reflect the underlying neural processing, and how to interpret laminar fMRI data becomes more and more relevant. High-resolution fMRI has shown laminar differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF), volume (CBV), and neurovascular coupling. Features and processes that were previously lumped into a single voxel become spatially distinct at high resolution. These features can be vascular compartments such as veins, arteries, and capillaries, or cortical layers and columns, which can have differences in metabolism. Mesoscopic models of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response therefore need to be expanded, for instance, to incorporate laminar differences in the coupling between neural activity, metabolism and the hemodynamic response. Here we discuss biological and methodological factors that affect the modeling and interpretation of high-resolution fMRI data. We also illustrate with examples from neuropharmacology and the negative BOLD response how combining BOLD with CBF- and CBV-based fMRI methods can provide additional information about neurovascular coupling, and can aid modeling and interpretation of high-resolution fMRI. PMID:27445782

  1. 3D high resolution pure optical photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhixing; Chen, Sung-Liang; Ling, Tao; Guo, L. Jay; Carson, Paul L.; Wang, Xueding

    2012-02-01

    The concept of pure optical photoacoustic microscopy(POPAM) was proposed based on optical rastering of a focused excitation beam and optically sensing the photoacoustic signal using a microring resonator fabricated by a nanoimprinting technique. After some refinedment of in the resonator structure and mold fabrication, an ultrahigh Q factor of 3.0×105 was achieved which provided high sensitivity with a noise equivalent detectable pressure(NEDP) value of 29Pa. This NEDP is much lower than the hundreds of Pascals achieved with existing optical resonant structures such as etalons, fiber gratings and dielectric multilayer interference filters available for acoustic measurement. The featured high sensitivity allowed the microring resonator to detect the weak photoacoustic signals from micro- or submicroscale objects. The inherent superbroad bandwidth of the optical microring resonator combined with an optically focused scanning beam provided POPAM of high resolution in the axial as well as both lateral directions while the axial resolution of conventional photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) suffers from the limited bandwidth of PZT detectors. Furthermore, the broadband microring resonator showed similar sensitivity to that of our most sensitive PZT detector. The current POPAM system provides a lateral resolution of 5μm and an axial resolution of 8μm, comparable to that achieved by optical microscopy while presenting the unique contrast of optical absorption and functional information complementing other optical modalities. The 3D structure of microvasculature, including capillary networks, and even individual red blood cells have been discerned successfully in the proof-of-concept experiments on mouse bladders ex vivo and mouse ears in vivo. The potential of approximately GHz bandwidth of the microring resonator also might allow much higher resolution than shown here in microscopy of optical absorption and acoustic propagation properties at depths in unfrozen tissue

  2. Reconstruction of high resolution MLC leaf positions using a low resolution detector for accurate 3D dose reconstruction in IMRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, R.; Godart, J.; Wauben, D. J. L.; Langendijk, J. A.; van't Veld, A. A.; Korevaar, E. W.

    2016-12-01

    In pre-treatment dose verification, low resolution detector systems are unable to identify shifts of individual leafs of high resolution multi leaf collimator (MLC) systems from detected changes in the dose deposition. The goal of this study was to introduce an alternative approach (the shutter technique) combined with a previous described iterative reconstruction method to accurately reconstruct high resolution MLC leaf positions based on low resolution measurements. For the shutter technique, two additional radiotherapy treatment plans (RT-plans) were generated in addition to the original RT-plan; one with even MLC leafs closed for reconstructing uneven leaf positions and one with uneven MLC leafs closed for reconstructing even leaf positions. Reconstructed leaf positions were then implemented in the original RT-plan for 3D dose reconstruction. The shutter technique was evaluated for a 6 MV Elekta SLi linac with 5 mm MLC leafs (Agility™) in combination with the MatriXX Evolution detector with detector spacing of 7.62 mm. Dose reconstruction was performed with the COMPASS system (v2.0). The measurement setup allowed one row of ionization chambers to be affected by two adjacent leaf pairs. Measurements were obtained for various field sizes with MLC leaf position errors ranging from 1.0 mm to 10.0 mm. Furthermore, one clinical head and neck IMRT treatment beam with MLC introduced leaf position errors of 5.0 mm was evaluated to illustrate the impact of the shutter technique on 3D dose reconstruction. Without the shutter technique, MLC leaf position reconstruction showed reconstruction errors up to 6.0 mm. Introduction of the shutter technique allowed MLC leaf position reconstruction for the majority of leafs with sub-millimeter accuracy resulting in a reduction of dose reconstruction errors. The shutter technique in combination with the iterative reconstruction method allows high resolution MLC leaf position reconstruction using low resolution

  3. High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with mechanically bent crystals

    DOEpatents

    Smither, Robert K.

    2008-12-23

    A method for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. High quality mechanically bent diffracting crystals of 0.1 mm radial width are used for focusing the radiation and directing the radiation to an array of detectors which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for the use of a multi-component high resolution detector array and for narrow source and detector apertures.

  4. High resolution hard X-ray spectra of solar and cosmic sources. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    High resolution hard X-ray observations of a large solar flare and the Crab Nebula were obtained during balloon flights using an array of cooled germanium planar detectors. In addition, high time resolution high sensitivity measurements were obtained with a 300 square cm NaI/CsI phoswich scintillator. The Crab spectrum from both flights was searched without finding evidence of line emission below 200 keV. In particular, for the 73 keV line previously reported a 3 sigma upper limit for a narrow (1 keV FWHM) line .0019 and .0014 ph square cm/sec for the 1979 and 1980 flights, respectively was obtained.

  5. CASSIS: The Cornell Atlas of Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph Sources. II. High-resolution Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebouteiller, V.; Barry, D. J.; Goes, C.; Sloan, G. C.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Weedman, D. W.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Houck, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    The Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope observed about 15,000 objects during the cryogenic mission lifetime. Observations provided low-resolution (R=λ /{Δ }λ ≈ 60-127) spectra over ≈ 5-38 μm and high-resolution (R≈ 600) spectra over 10-37 μm. The Cornell Atlas of Spitzer/IRS Sources (CASSIS) was created to provide publishable quality spectra to the community. Low-resolution spectra have been available in CASSIS since 2011, and here we present the addition of the high-resolution spectra. The high-resolution observations represent approximately one-third of all staring observations performed with the IRS instrument. While low-resolution observations are adapted to faint objects and/or broad spectral features (e.g., dust continuum, molecular bands), high-resolution observations allow more accurate measurements of narrow features (e.g., ionic emission lines) as well as a better sampling of the spectral profile of various features. Given the narrow aperture of the two high-resolution modules, cosmic ray hits and spurious features usually plague the spectra. Our pipeline is designed to minimize these effects through various improvements. A super-sampled point-spread function was created in order to enable the optimal extraction in addition to the full aperture extraction. The pipeline selects the best extraction method based on the spatial extent of the object. For unresolved sources, the optimal extraction provides a significant improvement in signal-to-noise ratio over a full aperture extraction. We have developed several techniques for optimal extraction, including a differential method that eliminates low-level rogue pixels (even when no dedicated background observation was performed). The updated CASSIS repository now includes all the spectra ever taken by the IRS, with the exception of mapping observations.

  6. A novel high-efficiency methodology for metal additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jun; Wei, Zhengying; Wang, Xin; Fang, Xuewei; Zhao, Guangxi

    2016-11-01

    Metal additive manufacturing (AM) offers unrivalled design freedom with the ability to manufacture complex parts. However, the high capital costs and slow throughput printing have severely restricted its application. In this paper, a new metal AM process, referred to as the "metal fused-coating additive manufacturing (MFCAM)", was developed for highly efficient metal parts production. This new process is the combination of metal fused-coating process and laser surface melting process. A two-dimensional numerical model was established to provide an insight into the primary thermo-physical phenomena occurring in the MFCAM process. Experiments of single-track formation were conducted using MFCAM to validate the feasibility of the proposed process. The good agreement between experimental and simulated results demonstrated the reasonableness of the established models.

  7. High-Resolution Entrainment in Stratocumulus During the POST Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    In July and August of 2008 an NSF-supported field campaign called POST (Physics of Stratocumulus Top) was conducted off the California coast using the fully-instrumented Twin Otter aircraft from the Naval Post Graduate School. POST provided the first opportunity to closely co-locate on an aircraft high-rate and time synchronized microphysics (PVM; LWC and effective radius) and thermodynamics (UFT; Ultra-Fast Temperature) probes and a gust probe to produce measurements of entrainment fluxes and features over entrainment scales thought to be important in warm stratocumulus (Sc). This combination of probes permitted investigating the properties of individual entrained parcels Seventeen flights were conducted during POST in a quasi-Lagrangian fashion in largely unbroken stratocumulus. The horizontal fight path was adjusted to follow the mean air velocity in the Sc. The vertical flight path concentrated on flying between 100-m above and below the cloud-top interface; and some additional profiles were flown to various higher and lower levels where flux runs were made. This presentation describes the analysis of this unique and excellent data set including the following: The data permitted testing Lilly's classical theory for the entrainment velocity where its application requires strong jumps of temperature and moisture across the inversion located above cloud top, a linear flux of the entrained scalar below cloud top, and entrained parcels that descend. All flights showed Sc with wind shear and mixing at cloud top with some strong enough to dissipate the Sc. The relationship between shear and entrainment velocity is described. The pdf of the horizontal size of entrainment parcels vs entrainment flux is established for all flights to help in choosing grid-sizes for modeling. High -resolution in-cloud temperature and LWC measurements in entrained parcels reveal the relative importance of radiative cooling vs cooling by liquid water evaporation in causing buoyancy reversal

  8. A High Resolution Imaging Survey of A Stars with AEOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patience, J.; Macintosh, B. A.; Max, C. E.

    2001-12-01

    We are conducting a companion search to field and cluster A stars using the U. S. Air Force Advanced Electro-Optical System (AEOS) which includes a 941 actuator adaptive optics system on a 3.7m telescope on Haleakala. Operating at I-band, the diffraction limit of the system is 0".05. This program is designed to address questions in binary star formation and stellar X-ray activity. The first goal of our project is to obtain high resolution adaptive optics observations of a large sample of early-type stars in order to extend the mass range covered by binary star searches and to test binary formation theories. In addition to providing insight into the star formation process, studies of companion stars may also explain the unexpected detection of X-rays from A stars. Since A stars lack both the strong winds of the earlier spectral types and the dynamos of the later spectral types, they are not expected to produce X-rays, however, some A stars are detected as X-ray sources. Typical ROSAT error boxes can include a companion star and the second goal of our program is to investigate the possibility that companions are the true source of X-ray emission from A stars. A stars in the young open clusters Coma Berenices and the Pleiades have been targeted as well as field A stars. Our initial results show a binary fraction for X-ray detected A stars that is twice as high as that of non-detected A stars. We gratefully acknowledge support from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research through grant AFOSR-ISSA-01-NM-016. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48.

  9. High resolution atomic force microscopy of double-stranded RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ares, Pablo; Fuentes-Perez, Maria Eugenia; Herrero-Galán, Elías; Valpuesta, José M.; Gil, Adriana; Gomez-Herrero, Julio; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    Double-stranded (ds) RNA mediates the suppression of specific gene expression, it is the genetic material of a number of viruses, and a key activator of the innate immune response against viral infections. The ever increasing list of roles played by dsRNA in the cell and its potential biotechnological applications over the last decade has raised an interest for the characterization of its mechanical properties and structure, and that includes approaches using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and other single-molecule techniques. Recent reports have resolved the structure of dsDNA with AFM at unprecedented resolution. However, an equivalent study with dsRNA is still lacking. Here, we have visualized the double helix of dsRNA under near-physiological conditions and at sufficient resolution to resolve the A-form sub-helical pitch periodicity. We have employed different high-sensitive force-detection methods and obtained images with similar spatial resolution. Therefore, we show here that the limiting factors for high-resolution AFM imaging of soft materials in liquid medium are, rather than the imaging mode, the force between the tip and the sample and the sharpness of the tip apex.Double-stranded (ds) RNA mediates the suppression of specific gene expression, it is the genetic material of a number of viruses, and a key activator of the innate immune response against viral infections. The ever increasing list of roles played by dsRNA in the cell and its potential biotechnological applications over the last decade has raised an interest for the characterization of its mechanical properties and structure, and that includes approaches using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and other single-molecule techniques. Recent reports have resolved the structure of dsDNA with AFM at unprecedented resolution. However, an equivalent study with dsRNA is still lacking. Here, we have visualized the double helix of dsRNA under near-physiological conditions and at sufficient resolution to

  10. High-resolution threshold photoelectron spectroscopy by electron attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, J. M.; Chutjian, A.

    1976-01-01

    A new technique for measuring high-resolution threshold photoelectron spectra of atoms, molecules, and radicals is described. It involves photoionization of a gaseous species, attachment of the threshold, or nearly zero electron to some trapping molecule (here SF6 or CFCl3), and mass detection of the attachment product (SF6/-/ or Cl/-/ respectively). This technique of threshold photoelectron spectroscopy by electron attachment was used to measure the spectra of argon and xenon at 11 meV (FWHM) resolution, and was also applied to CFCl3.

  11. High-resolution imaging of globular cluster cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, N.; Piotto, G.; Djorgovski, S.

    1990-01-01

    An approach based on the maximum entropy method aimed at increasing angular resolution to study globular cluster cores is presented. To perform the image restoration the Gull-Skilling (1989) MEMSYS-3 code for maximum entropy reconstruction of arbitrary data sets was used. This software was recently applied to restoration of ESO images of the R136 object in the core of the 30 Doradus nebula. It was demonstrated that the software made it possible to restore an image at subpixel spatial scales which facilitates the detection of very high-resolution structure in the restored image.

  12. High resolution cross strip anodes for photon counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Tremsin, A. S.; Vallerga, J. V.; Abiad, R.; Hull, J.

    2003-05-01

    A new photon counting, imaging readout for microchannel plate sensors, the cross strip (XS) anode, has been investigated. Charge centroiding of signals detected on two orthogonal layers of sense strip sets are used to derive photon locations. The XS anode spatial resolution (<3 μm FWHM) exceeds the spatial resolution of most direct charge sensing anodes, and does so at low gain (<2×10 6). The image linearity and fidelity are high enough to resolve and map 7 μm MCP pores, offering new possibilities for astronomical and other applications.

  13. High resolution polar Kerr magnetometer for nanomagnetism and nanospintronics.

    PubMed

    Cormier, M; Ferré, J; Mougin, A; Cromières, J-P; Klein, V

    2008-03-01

    A new high resolution polar magneto-optical (MO) Kerr magnetometer, devoted to the study of nanometer sized elements with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, is described. The unique performances of this setup in terms of sensitivity (1.2x10(-15) emu), stability (lateral drift +/-35 nm over 3 h), and resolution (laser spot full width at half maximum down to 470 nm) are demonstrated, and illustrated by Kerr hysteresis loop measurements on a unique ultrathin magnetic nanodot, and over small segments of ultranarrow magnetic tracks. Large scanning MO Kerr microscopy images were also obtained with the same performances.

  14. Microcoil high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Hans; Brinkmann, Andreas; van Eck, Ernst R H; van Bentum, P Jan M; Kentgens, Arno P M

    2006-07-12

    We report the construction of a dual-channel microcoil nuclear magnetic resonance probehead allowing magic-angle spinning for mass-limited samples. With coils down to 235 mum inner diameter, this allows high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra to be obtained for amounts of materials of a few nanoliters. This is demonstrated by the carbon-13 spectrum of a tripeptide and a single silk rod, prepared from the silk gland of the Bombyx mori silkworm. Furthermore, the microcoil allows for radio frequency field strengths well beyond current probe technology, aiding in getting the highest possible resolution by efficiently decoupling the observed nuclei from the abundantly present proton nuclei.

  15. High Resolution Rapid Revisits Insar Monitoring of Surface Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhroy, V.; Li, J.; Charbonneau, F.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring surface deformation on strategic energy and transportation corridors requires high resolution spatial and temporal InSAR images for mitigation and safety purposes. High resolution air photos, lidar and other satellite images are very useful in areas where the landslides can be fatal. Recently, radar interferometry (InSAR) techniques using more rapid revisit images from several radar satellites are increasingly being used in active deformation monitoring. The Canadian RADARSAT Constellation (RCM) is a three-satellite mission that will provide rapid revisits of four days interferometric (InSAR) capabilities that will be very useful for complex deformation monitoring. For instance, the monitoring of surface deformation due to permafrost activity, complex rock slide motion and steam assisted oil extraction will benefit from this new rapid revisit capability. This paper provide examples of how the high resolution (1-3 m) rapid revisit InSAR capabilities will improve our monitoring of surface deformation and provide insights in understanding triggering mechanisms. We analysed over a hundred high resolution InSAR images over a two year period on three geologically different sites with various configurations of topography, geomorphology, and geology conditions. We show from our analysis that the more frequent InSAR acquisitions are providing more information in understanding the rates of movement and failure process of permafrost triggered retrogressive thaw flows; the complex motion of an asymmetrical wedge failure of an active rock slide and the identification of over pressure zones related to oil extraction using steam injection. Keywords: High resolution, InSAR, rapid revisits, triggering mechanisms, oil extraction.

  16. Copper Decoration of Carbon Nanotubes and High Resolution Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Camille

    size smaller than the size of the observed object (sample features) does not improve the spatial resolution. In addition, the effects of the accelerating voltage, the current intensity and the sample geometry and composition were analysed.

  17. Additive Manufacturing of High-Entropy Alloys by Laser Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocelík, V.; Janssen, N.; Smith, S. N.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2016-07-01

    This contribution concentrates on the possibilities of additive manufacturing of high-entropy clad layers by laser processing. In particular, the effects of the laser surface processing parameters on the microstructure and hardness of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were examined. AlCoCrFeNi alloys with different amounts of aluminum prepared by arc melting were investigated and compared with the laser beam remelted HEAs with the same composition. Attempts to form HEAs coatings with a direct laser deposition from the mixture of elemental powders were made for AlCoCrFeNi and AlCrFeNiTa composition. A strong influence of solidification rate on the amounts of face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic phase, their chemical composition, and spatial distribution was detected for two-phase AlCoCrFeNi HEAs. It is concluded that a high-power laser is a versatile tool to synthesize interesting HEAs with additive manufacturing processing. Critical issues are related to the rate of (re)solidification, the dilution with the substrate, powder efficiency during cladding, and differences in melting points of clad powders making additive manufacturing processing from a simple mixture of elemental powders a challenging approach.

  18. High-resolution structure of the native histone octamer

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Christopher M.; Nicholson, James M.; Lambert, Stanley J.; Chantalat, Laurent; Reynolds, Colin D.; Baldwin, John P.

    2005-06-01

    The high-resolution (1.90 Å) model of the native histone octamer allows structural comparisons to be made with the nucleosome-core particle, along with an identification of a likely core-histone binding site. Crystals of native histone octamers (H2A–H2B)–(H4–H3)–(H3′–H4′)–(H2B′–H2A′) from chick erythrocytes in 2 M KCl, 1.35 M potassium phosphate pH 6.9 diffract X-rays to 1.90 Å resolution, yielding a structure with an R{sub work} value of 18.7% and an R{sub free} of 22.2%. The crystal space group is P6{sub 5}, the asymmetric unit of which contains one complete octamer. This high-resolution model of the histone-core octamer allows further insight into intermolecular interactions, including water molecules, that dock the histone dimers to the tetramer in the nucleosome-core particle and have relevance to nucleosome remodelling. The three key areas analysed are the H2A′–H3–H4 molecular cluster (also H2A–H3′–H4′), the H4–H2B′ interaction (also H4′–H2B) and the H2A′–H4 β-sheet interaction (also H2A–H4′). The latter of these three regions is important to nucleosome remodelling by RNA polymerase II, as it is shown to be a likely core-histone binding site, and its disruption creates an instability in the nucleosome-core particle. A majority of the water molecules in the high-resolution octamer have positions that correlate to similar positions in the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle structure, suggesting that the high-resolution octamer model can be used for comparative studies with the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle.

  19. Bendable X-ray Optics for High Resolution Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Broadway, D.

    2014-01-01

    Current state-of the-art for x-ray optics fabrication calls for either the polishing of massive substrates into high-angular-resolution mirrors or the replication of thin, lower-resolution, mirrors from perfectly figured mandrels. Future X-ray Missions will require a change in this optics fabrication paradigm in order to achieve sub-arcsecond resolution in light-weight optics. One possible approach to this is to start with perfectly flat, light-weight surface, bend it into a perfect cone, form the desired mirror figure by material deposition, and insert the resulting mirror into a telescope structure. Such an approach is currently being investigated at MSFC, and a status report will be presented detailing the results of finite element analyses, bending tests and differential deposition experiments.

  20. Very High Resolution Climate Modelling in Northern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendel, M.; Christensen, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    Simulations with global climate models (GCMs) clearly indicate that major climate changes for the Arctic can be expected during the 21st century. Already now, there are substantial changes in sea-ice extent and thickness and a considerable increase in air temperature in several regions. Contemporary GCMs are unable to give a realistic representation of the climate and climate change in regions with steep orography, due to their coarse resolution. But even relatively high resolution regional climate models (RCMs) fail in this respect. We have therefore conducted a transient simulation with the newest version of the HIRHAM RCM, covering the period 1958-2001 over a region in northeast European Russia, including the Ural Mountains, with the unprecedented horizontal resolution of 4 km. For this simulation, a double downscaling procedure was applied. Average and extreme values will be discussed, and a comparison of subsurface temperatures to a set of observations from the region will be presented.

  1. High Resolution Absorption Spectroscopy using Externally Dispersed Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Edelstein, J; Erskine, D J

    2005-07-06

    We describe the use of Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI) for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy. By adding a small fixed-delay interferometer to a dispersive spectrograph, a precise fiducial grid in wavelength is created over the entire spectrograph bandwidth. The fiducial grid interacts with narrow spectral features in the input spectrum to create a moire pattern. EDI uses the moire pattern to obtain new information about the spectra that is otherwise unavailable, thereby improving spectrograph performance. We describe the theory and practice of EDI instruments and demonstrate improvements in the spectral resolution of conventional spectrographs by a factor of 2 to 6. The improvement of spectral resolution offered by EDI can benefit space instruments by reducing spectrograph size or increasing instantaneous bandwidth.

  2. Tuning and scanning control system for high resolution alexandrite lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James C.; Schwemmer, Geary K.

    1988-01-01

    An alexandrite laser is spectrally narrowed and tuned by the use of three optical elements. Each element provides a successively higher degree of spectral resolution. The digitally controlled tuning and scanning control servo system simultaneously positions all three optical elements to provide continuous high resolution laser spectral tuning. The user may select manual, single, or continuous modes of automated scanning of ranges up to 3.00/cm and at scan rates up to 3.85/cm/min. Scanning over an extended range of up to 9.999/cm may be achieved if the highest resolution optic is removed from the system. The control system is also capable of being remotely operated by another computer or controller via standard RS-232 serial data link.

  3. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Silver, Eric H.; Legros, Mark; Madden, Norm W.; Goulding, Fred; Landis, Don

    1998-01-01

    A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

  4. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

    1998-07-07

    A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

  5. Bayesian Peptide Peak Detection for High Resolution TOF Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianqiu; Zhou, Xiaobo; Wang, Honghui; Suffredini, Anthony; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Yufei; Wong, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we address the issue of peptide ion peak detection for high resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) data. A novel Bayesian peptide ion peak detection method is proposed for TOF data with resolution of 10 000–15 000 full width at half-maximum (FWHW). MS spectra exhibit distinct characteristics at this resolution, which are captured in a novel parametric model. Based on the proposed parametric model, a Bayesian peak detection algorithm based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling is developed. The proposed algorithm is tested on both simulated and real datasets. The results show a significant improvement in detection performance over a commonly employed method. The results also agree with expert’s visual inspection. Moreover, better detection consistency is achieved across MS datasets from patients with identical pathological condition. PMID:21544266

  6. Advances toward high spectral resolution quantum X-ray calorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, S. H.; Kelley, R. L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Mccammon, D.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal detectors for X-ray spectroscopy combining high spectral resolution and quantum efficiency have been developed. These microcalorimeters measure the energy released in the absorption of a single photon by sensing the rise in temperature of a small absorbing structure. The ultimate energy resolution of such a device is limited by the thermodynamic power fluctuations in the thermal link between the calorimeter and isothermal bath and can in principle be made as low as 1 eV. The performance of a real device is degraded due to noise contributions such as excess 1/f noise in the thermistor and incomplete conversion of energy into phonons. The authors report some recent advances in thermometry, X-ray absorption and thermalization, fabrication techniques, and detector optimization in the presence of noise. These improvements have resulted in a device with a spectral resolution of 17 eV FWHM, measured at 6 keV.

  7. High Order And High Resolution Methods For a Model CAA Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    2004-01-01

    The initial value problem for the first order linear wave equation in one space dimension is treated for two cases with specified initial data and grid, and data from solutions at t = 400 and t = 800 are presented, as prescribed for Problem 1 in Category 1. Results are shown from computations with a sequence of recently developed high order and high resolution methods which combine Hermite interpolation, Cauchy-Kowaleskya recursion for time derivatives, and Taylor series time advancement. These methods have the same order of accuracy in time as in space. Results are shown from methods that range from third to nineteenth order. The stated problems with the prescribed coarse grid can be simulated with errors that are at the level of machine accuracy if the method is sufficiently high order. In addition, the growth of the maximum absolute error out to t = 100,000 is given for simulations with the stated problem data.

  8. High resolution imaging with multilayer telescopes: resolution performance of the MSSTA II telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Galarce, Dennis S.; Walker, Arthur B. C. II; Gore, David B.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Hoover, Richard B.; Barbee, T. W. Jr.; Boerner, P. F. X.

    2000-04-01

    The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA) is a sounding rocket-borne observatory composed of a set of normal-incidence multilayer-coated telescopes that obtained selected bandpass spectroheliograms (44 to 1550 Aa) of the solar atmosphere. These spectroheliograms were recorded on specially fabricated XUV and FUV 70-mm Kodak film. Rocket launches of this instrument payload took place in 1991 (MSSTA I) and 1994 (MSSTA II) at the White Sands Missile Test Range in New Mexico, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sounding rocket experiment program. Immediately prior to the 1994 launch, visible light focusing tests of each telescope were performed in situ using a 1951 standard Air Force high-resolution test target, to measure optical resolution performance. We determined that the MSSTA II telescopes performed at diffraction-limited resolutions down to 0.70 arcsec at visible wavelengths. Based on these measurements, we calculate an upper bound to the focusing errors that incorporate the sum of all uncorrelated system focus errors that affect resolution performance. Coupling these upper bound estimates with the in-band diffraction limits, surface scattering errors and payload pointing jitter, we demonstrate that 11 of 19 MSSTA II telescopes--having negligible figures of focus errors in comparison to the corresponding visible diffraction limits--performed at sub arcsecond resolution at their operational FUV/EUV/XUV wavelengths during flight. We estimate the in-band performance down to 0.14{+-}0.08 arcsec. (c) 2000 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  9. Application of high-resolution depositional modeling to reservoir characterisation

    SciTech Connect

    Keyu, L.; Paterson, L.

    1995-08-01

    As hydrocarbon producing basins and fields become more intensely developed, conventional stratigraphic analysis methods can sometimes no longer meet the resolution required by petroleum geologists and engineers. High-resolution depositional modeling provides a quantitative alternative to the conventional approach of sequence stratigraphic analysis. A computer program, SEDPAK, which was designed primarily according to the basic premise of the sequence stratigraphic concept, was here used to conduct high-resolution simulations for two sedimentary sequences. One is a Pliocene to Recent shelf margin sediment sequence of the offshore Sydney Basin continental shelf, Australia; the other is the Early Cretaceous (Aptian) Windalia Sand reservoir of the Barrow Island Field, North West Shelf, Australia. In both instances, the simulations have well mimicked the variations of the sedimentary facies temporally and spatially in fine detail with each time step representing 10 ka and a vertical resolution of one meter. The reservoir heterogeneities and the observed cyclicity in the Windalia Sand were particularly well documented by the SEDPAK simulation using a locally derived sealevel curve. The simulation result suggested that high-frequency sealevel variations ?associated with Milankovitch cyclicity were probably the primary cause that controlled the reservoir heterogeneities of the Windalia Sand. This finding provides a working model for the Cretaceous coeval reservoirs in the North West Shelf, Australia.

  10. High resolution dissociative electron attachment to gas phase adenine

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, D.; Beikircher, M.; Denifl, S.; Zappa, F.; Matejcik, S.; Bacher, A.; Grill, V.; Maerk, T. D.; Scheier, P.

    2006-08-28

    The dissociative electron attachment to the gas phase nucleobase adenine is studied using two different experiments. A double focusing sector field mass spectrometer is utilized for measurements requiring high mass resolution, high sensitivity, and relative ion yields for all the fragment anions and a hemispherical electron monochromator instrument for high electron energy resolution. The negative ion mass spectra are discussed at two different electron energies of 2 and 6 eV. In contrast to previous gas phase studies a number of new negative ions are discovered in the mass spectra. The ion efficiency curves for the negative ions of adenine are measured for the electron energy range from about 0 to 15 eV with an electron energy resolution of about 100 meV. The total anion yield derived via the summation of all measured fragment anions is compared with the total cross section for negative ion formation measured recently without mass spectrometry. For adenine the shape of the two cross section curves agrees well, taking into account the different electron energy resolutions; however, for thymine some peculiar differences are observed.

  11. Photoacoustic lymphatic imaging with high spatial-temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Catherine; Yao, Junjie; Huang, Chih-Hsien; Zou, Jun; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-11-01

    Despite its critical function in coordinating the egress of inflammatory and immune cells out of tissues and maintaining fluid balance, the causative role of lymphatic network dysfunction in pathological settings is still understudied. Engineered-animal models and better noninvasive high spatial-temporal resolution imaging techniques in both preclinical and clinical studies will help to improve our understanding of different lymphatic-related pathologic disorders. Our aim was to take advantage of our newly optimized noninvasive wide-field fast-scanning photoacoustic (PA) microcopy system to coordinately image the lymphatic vasculature and its flow dynamics, while maintaining high resolution and detection sensitivity. Here, by combining the optical-resolution PA microscopy with a fast-scanning water-immersible microelectromechanical system scanning mirror, we have imaged the lymph dynamics over a large field-of-view, with high spatial resolution and advanced detection sensitivity. Depending on the application, lymphatic vessels (LV) were spectrally or temporally differentiated from blood vessels. Validation experiments were performed on phantoms and in vivo to identify the LV. Lymphatic flow dynamics in nonpathological and pathological conditions were also visualized. These results indicate that our newly developed PA microscopy is a promising tool for lymphatic-related biological research.

  12. High Resolution Modeling of Tropical Cyclones Using Rare Event Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, D. A.; Abbot, D. S.; Weare, J.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) present a challenge to modeling using general circulation models (GCMs) because they involve processes and structures that are too fine for GCMs to resolve. TCs have fine structures - e.g. the eye, eyewall, and rain bands - with length scales on the order of 10 km, while GCMs have typical resolutions on the order of 50-100 km. High resolution GCM runs that are sufficiently long to exhibit multiple TCs can be prohibitively computationally expensive. Thus, while GCMs exhibit TC-like vortices with similar spatial and temporal frequencies to observed TCs, the ability of GCMs to reproduce fine TC structures remains largely untested. In this study, we use recently developed rare event analysis and simulation methods to selectively simulate TCs under GCMs at very high resolution. These rare event simulation methods have been developed mostly in the context of computational chemistry, but are broadly applicable. They allow (either by careful manipulation of the model or by selection of trajectories) direct and detailed interrogation of the event of interest without introducing error and without the need to simulated for long periods of time to see the event. By creating targeted, high resolution GCM simulations with many TCs, we hope to determine whether or not GCMs can capture fine TC structures such as eyewalls and individual rain bands.

  13. High-resolution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.

    1982-01-01

    A class of new explicit second order accurate finite difference schemes for the computation of weak solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is presented. These highly nonlinear schemes are obtained by applying a nonoscillatory first order accurae scheme to an appropriately modified flux function. The so derived second order accurate schemes achieve high resolution while preserving the robustness of the original nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme.

  14. High Time Resolution Photon Counting 3D Imaging Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, O.; Ertley, C.; Vallerga, J.

    2016-09-01

    Novel sealed tube microchannel plate (MCP) detectors using next generation cross strip (XS) anode readouts and high performance electronics have been developed to provide photon counting imaging sensors for Astronomy and high time resolution 3D remote sensing. 18 mm aperture sealed tubes with MCPs and high efficiency Super-GenII or GaAs photocathodes have been implemented to access the visible/NIR regimes for ground based research, astronomical and space sensing applications. The cross strip anode readouts in combination with PXS-II high speed event processing electronics can process high single photon counting event rates at >5 MHz ( 80 ns dead-time per event), and time stamp events to better than 25 ps. Furthermore, we are developing a high speed ASIC version of the electronics for low power/low mass spaceflight applications. For a GaAs tube the peak quantum efficiency has degraded from 30% (at 560 - 850 nm) to 25% over 4 years, but for Super-GenII tubes the peak quantum efficiency of 17% (peak at 550 nm) has remained unchanged for over 7 years. The Super-GenII tubes have a uniform spatial resolution of <30 μm FWHM ( 1 x106 gain) and single event timing resolution of 100 ps (FWHM). The relatively low MCP gain photon counting operation also permits longer overall sensor lifetimes and high local counting rates. Using the high timing resolution, we have demonstrated 3D object imaging with laser pulse (630 nm 45 ps jitter Pilas laser) reflections in single photon counting mode with spatial and depth sensitivity of the order of a few millimeters. A 50 mm Planacon sealed tube was also constructed, using atomic layer deposited microchannel plates which potentially offer better overall sealed tube lifetime, quantum efficiency and gain stability. This tube achieves standard bialkali quantum efficiency levels, is stable, and has been coupled to the PXS-II electronics and used to detect and image fast laser pulse signals.

  15. Solar Flares at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2012-0055 Solar Flares at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Professor Mihalis Mathioudakis Queen’s...2012 2. REPORT TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 20 July 2009 – 19 July 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Solar Flares at High Spatial and...Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Solar flares vary in

  16. Accelerated High-Resolution Differential Ion Mobility Separations Using Hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    The resolving power of differential ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) was dramatically increased recently by carrier gases comprising up to 75% He or various vapors, enabling many new applications. However, the need for resolution of complex mixtures is virtually open-ended and many topical analyses demand yet finer separations. Also, the resolving power gains are often at the expense of speed, in particular making high-resolution FAIMS incompatible with online liquid-phase separations. Here, we report FAIMS employing hydrogen, specifically in mixtures with N2 containing up to 90% H2. Such compositions raise the mobilities of all ions and thus the resolving power beyond that previously feasible, while avoiding the electrical breakdown inevitable in He-rich mixtures. The increases in resolving power and ensuing peak resolution are especially significant at H2 fractions above ~50%. Higher resolution can be exchanged for acceleration of the analyses by up to ~4 times, at least. For more mobile species such as multiply-charged peptides, this exchange is presently forced by the constraints of existing FAIMS devices, but future designs optimized for H2 should consistently improve resolution for all analytes. PMID:22074292

  17. Cortical Surface Reconstruction from High-Resolution MR Brain Images

    PubMed Central

    Osechinskiy, Sergey; Kruggel, Frithjof

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of the cerebral cortex from magnetic resonance (MR) images is an important step in quantitative analysis of the human brain structure, for example, in sulcal morphometry and in studies of cortical thickness. Existing cortical reconstruction approaches are typically optimized for standard resolution (~1 mm) data and are not directly applicable to higher resolution images. A new PDE-based method is presented for the automated cortical reconstruction that is computationally efficient and scales well with grid resolution, and thus is particularly suitable for high-resolution MR images with submillimeter voxel size. The method uses a mathematical model of a field in an inhomogeneous dielectric. This field mapping, similarly to a Laplacian mapping, has nice laminar properties in the cortical layer, and helps to identify the unresolved boundaries between cortical banks in narrow sulci. The pial cortical surface is reconstructed by advection along the field gradient as a geometric deformable model constrained by topology-preserving level set approach. The method's performance is illustrated on exvivo images with 0.25–0.35 mm isotropic voxels. The method is further evaluated by cross-comparison with results of the FreeSurfer software on standard resolution data sets from the OASIS database featuring pairs of repeated scans for 20 healthy young subjects. PMID:22481909

  18. Performance characterization of a new high resolution PET scintillation detector

    PubMed Central

    Foudray, A M K; Olcott, P D

    2013-01-01

    Performance of a new high resolution PET detection concept is presented. In this new concept, annihilation radiation enters the scintillator detectors edge-on. Each detector module comprises two 8 × 8 LYSO scintillator arrays of 0.91 × 0.91 × 1 mm3 crystals coupled to two position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) mounted on a flex circuit. Appropriate crystal segmentation allows the recording of all three spatial coordinates of the interaction(s) simultaneously with submillimeter resolution. We report an average energy resolution of 14.6 ± 1.7% for 511 keV photons at FWHM. Coincident time resolution was determined to be 2.98 ± 0.13 ns FWHM on average. The coincidence point spread function (PSF) has an average FWHM of 0.837 ± 0.049 mm (using a 500 μm spherical source) and is uniform across the arrays. Both PSF and coincident time resolution degrade when Compton interactions are included in the data. Different blurring factors were evaluated theoretically, resulting in a calculated PSF of 0.793 mm, in good agreement with the measured value. PMID:20844332

  19. Immersion grating development for the VLT high-resolution IR echelle spectrometer: status report.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, G.

    Infrared immersion gratings are a possible way to realize the very high-resolution option in the planned VLT IR echelle spectrograph. In addition, immersion gratings and particular aspects of their fabrication are of interest to other applications. This paper summarizes the present status of the development program.

  20. Fiber optic cable-based high-resolution, long-distance VGA extenders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Jin-Geun; Lee, Iksoo; Kim, Heejoon; Kim, Sungjoon; Koh, Yeon-Wan; Kim, Hoik; Lim, Jiseok; Kim, Chur; Kim, Jungwon

    2013-02-01

    Remote transfer of high-resolution video information finds more applications in detached display applications for large facilities such as theaters, sports complex, airports, and security facilities. Active optical cables (AOCs) provide a promising approach for enhancing both the transmittable resolution and distance that standard copper-based cables cannot reach. In addition to the standard digital formats such as HDMI, the high-resolution, long-distance transfer of VGA format signals is important for applications where high-resolution analog video ports should be also supported, such as military/defense applications and high-resolution video camera links. In this presentation we present the development of a compressionless, high-resolution (up to WUXGA, 1920x1200), long-distance (up to 2 km) VGA extenders based on serialized technique. We employed asynchronous serial transmission and clock regeneration techniques, which enables lower cost implementation of VGA extenders by removing the necessity for clock transmission and large memory at the receiver. Two 3.125-Gbps transceivers are used in parallel to meet the required maximum video data rate of 6.25 Gbps. As the data are transmitted asynchronously, 24-bit pixel clock time stamp is employed to regenerate video pixel clock accurately at the receiver side. In parallel to the video information, stereo audio and RS-232 control signals are transmitted as well.

  1. Stars and their Environments at High-Resolution with IGRINS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, Gregory; Jaffe, Daniel; Kaplan, Kyle; Kidder, Benjamin; Oh, Heeyoung; Sneden, Christopher; Afşar, Melike

    2016-06-01

    TheImmersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) is a revolutionary instrument that exploits broad spectral coverage at high-resolution in the near-infrared. There are no moving parts in IGRINS and its high-throughput white-pupil design maximizes sensitivity. IGRINS on the 2.7 meter Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory is nearly as sensitive as CRIRES at the 8 meter Very Large Telescope. However, IGRINS at R=45,000 has more than 30 times the spectral grasp of CRIRES. The use of an immersion grating facilitates a compact cryostat while providing simultaneous H and K band observations with complete wavelength coverage from 1.45 - 2.45 microns. Here we discuss details of instrument performance and summarize the application of IGRINS to stellar characterization, star formation in regions like Taurus and Ophiuchus, the interstellar medium, and photodissociation regions. IGRINS has the largest spectral grasp of any high-resolution, near-infrared spectrograph, allowing us to study star formation and evolution in unprecedented detail. With its fixed format and high sensitivity, IGRINS is a great survey instrument for star clusters, high signal-to-noise (SNR>300) studies of field stars, and for mapping the interstellar medium. As a prototype for GMTNIRS on the Giant Magellan Telescope, IGRINS represents the future of high-resolution spectroscopy. In the future IGRINS will be deployed to numerous facilities and will remain a versatile instrument for the community while producing a rich archive of uniform spectra.

  2. High-resolution wavefront control of high-power laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brase, J; Brown, C; Carrano, C; Kartz, M; Olivier, S; Pennington, D; Silva, D

    1999-07-08

    Nearly every new large-scale laser system application at LLNL has requirements for beam control which exceed the current level of available technology. For applications such as inertial confinement fusion, laser isotope separation, laser machining, and laser the ability to transport significant power to a target while maintaining good beam quality is critical. There are many ways that laser wavefront quality can be degraded. Thermal effects due to the interaction of high-power laser or pump light with the internal optical components or with the ambient gas are common causes of wavefront degradation. For many years, adaptive optics based on thing deformable glass mirrors with piezoelectric or electrostrictive actuators have be used to remove the low-order wavefront errors from high-power laser systems. These adaptive optics systems have successfully improved laser beam quality, but have also generally revealed additional high-spatial-frequency errors, both because the low-order errors have been reduced and because deformable mirrors have often introduced some high-spatial-frequency components due to manufacturing errors. Many current and emerging laser applications fall into the high-resolution category where there is an increased need for the correction of high spatial frequency aberrations which requires correctors with thousands of degrees of freedom. The largest Deformable Mirrors currently available have less than one thousand degrees of freedom at a cost of approximately $1M. A deformable mirror capable of meeting these high spatial resolution requirements would be cost prohibitive. Therefore a new approach using a different wavefront control technology is needed. One new wavefront control approach is the use of liquid-crystal (LC) spatial light modulator (SLM) technology for the controlling the phase of linearly polarized light. Current LC SLM technology provides high-spatial-resolution wavefront control, with hundreds of thousands of degrees of freedom, more

  3. Coregistration of high-resolution Mars orbital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2015-04-01

    The systematic orbital imaging of the Martian surface started 4 decades ago from NASA's Viking Orbiter 1 & 2 missions, which were launched in August 1975, and acquired orbital images of the planet between 1976 and 1980. The result of this reconnaissance was the first medium-resolution (i.e. ≤ 300m/pixel) global map of Mars, as well as a variety of high-resolution images (reaching up to 8m/pixel) of special regions of interest. Over the last two decades NASA has sent 3 more spacecraft with onboard instruments for high-resolution orbital imaging: Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) having onboard the Mars Orbital Camera - Narrow Angle (MOC-NA), Mars Odyssey having onboard the Thermal Emission Imaging System - Visual (THEMIS-VIS) and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) having on board two distinct high-resolution cameras, Context Camera (CTX) and High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE). Moreover, ESA has the multispectral High resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) onboard ESA's Mars Express with resolution up to 12.5m since 2004. Overall, this set of cameras have acquired more than 400,000 high-resolution images, i.e. with resolution better than 100m and as fine as 25 cm/pixel. Notwithstanding the high spatial resolution of the available NASA orbital products, their accuracy of areo-referencing is often very poor. As a matter of fact, due to pointing inconsistencies, usually form errors in roll attitude, the acquired products may actually image areas tens of kilometers far away from the point that they are supposed to be looking at. On the other hand, since 2004, the ESA Mars Express has been acquiring stereo images through the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), with resolution that is usually 12.5-25 metres per pixel. The achieved coverage is more than 64% for images with resolution finer than 20 m/pixel, while for ~40% of Mars, Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) have been produced with are co-registered with MOLA [Gwinner et al., 2010]. The HRSC images and DTMs

  4. High Resolution X-ray-Induced Acoustic Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Liangzhong; Tang, Shanshan; Ahmad, Moiz; Xing, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Absorption based CT imaging has been an invaluable tool in medical diagnosis, biology, and materials science. However, CT requires a large set of projection data and high radiation dose to achieve superior image quality. In this letter, we report a new imaging modality, X-ray Induced Acoustic Tomography (XACT), which takes advantages of high sensitivity to X-ray absorption and high ultrasonic resolution in a single modality. A single projection X-ray exposure is sufficient to generate acoustic signals in 3D space because the X-ray generated acoustic waves are of a spherical nature and propagate in all directions from their point of generation. We demonstrate the successful reconstruction of gold fiducial markers with a spatial resolution of about 350 μm. XACT reveals a new imaging mechanism and provides uncharted opportunities for structural determination with X-ray. PMID:27189746

  5. Application of spectral phase shaping to high resolution CARS spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Postma, S; van Rhijn, A C W; Korterik, J P; Gross, P; Herek, J L; Offerhaus, H L

    2008-05-26

    By spectral phase shaping of both the pump and probe pulses in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy we demonstrate the extraction of the frequencies, bandwidths and relative cross sections of vibrational lines. We employ a tunable broadband Ti:Sapphire laser synchronized to a ps-Nd:YVO mode locked laser. A high resolution spectral phase shaper allows for spectroscopy with a precision better than 1 cm(-1) in the high frequency region around 3000 cm(-1). We also demonstrate how new spectral phase shaping strategies can amplify the resonant features of isolated vibrations to such an extent that spectroscopy and microscopy can be done at high resolution, on the integrated spectral response without the need for a spectrograph.

  6. High Resolution X-ray-Induced Acoustic Tomography.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Liangzhong; Tang, Shanshan; Ahmad, Moiz; Xing, Lei

    2016-05-18

    Absorption based CT imaging has been an invaluable tool in medical diagnosis, biology, and materials science. However, CT requires a large set of projection data and high radiation dose to achieve superior image quality. In this letter, we report a new imaging modality, X-ray Induced Acoustic Tomography (XACT), which takes advantages of high sensitivity to X-ray absorption and high ultrasonic resolution in a single modality. A single projection X-ray exposure is sufficient to generate acoustic signals in 3D space because the X-ray generated acoustic waves are of a spherical nature and propagate in all directions from their point of generation. We demonstrate the successful reconstruction of gold fiducial markers with a spatial resolution of about 350 μm. XACT reveals a new imaging mechanism and provides uncharted opportunities for structural determination with X-ray.

  7. High Resolution X-ray-Induced Acoustic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Liangzhong; Tang, Shanshan; Ahmad, Moiz; Xing, Lei

    2016-05-01

    Absorption based CT imaging has been an invaluable tool in medical diagnosis, biology, and materials science. However, CT requires a large set of projection data and high radiation dose to achieve superior image quality. In this letter, we report a new imaging modality, X-ray Induced Acoustic Tomography (XACT), which takes advantages of high sensitivity to X-ray absorption and high ultrasonic resolution in a single modality. A single projection X-ray exposure is sufficient to generate acoustic signals in 3D space because the X-ray generated acoustic waves are of a spherical nature and propagate in all directions from their point of generation. We demonstrate the successful reconstruction of gold fiducial markers with a spatial resolution of about 350 μm. XACT reveals a new imaging mechanism and provides uncharted opportunities for structural determination with X-ray.

  8. High-spatial-resolution nanoparticle x-ray fluorescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Jakob C.; Vâgberg, William; Vogt, Carmen; Lundström, Ulf; Larsson, Daniel H.; Hertz, Hans M.

    2016-03-01

    X-ray fluorescence tomography (XFCT) has potential for high-resolution 3D molecular x-ray bio-imaging. In this technique the fluorescence signal from targeted nanoparticles (NPs) is measured, providing information about the spatial distribution and concentration of the NPs inside the object. However, present laboratory XFCT systems typically have limited spatial resolution (>1 mm) and suffer from long scan times and high radiation dose even at high NP concentrations, mainly due to low efficiency and poor signal-to-noise ratio. We have developed a laboratory XFCT system with high spatial resolution (sub-100 μm), low NP concentration and vastly decreased scan times and dose, opening up the possibilities for in-vivo small-animal imaging research. The system consists of a high-brightness liquid-metal-jet microfocus x-ray source, x-ray focusing optics and an energy-resolving photon-counting detector. By using the source's characteristic 24 keV line-emission together with carefully matched molybdenum nanoparticles the Compton background is greatly reduced, increasing the SNR. Each measurement provides information about the spatial distribution and concentration of the Mo nanoparticles. A filtered back-projection method is used to produce the final XFCT image.

  9. Lidar determination of mixing layer height with high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martucci, Giovanni; Matthey, Renaud; Mitev, Valentin; Richner, Hans

    2005-10-01

    Ecological monitoring and analysis of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics require determination of the mixing layer height (MLH) on a continuous basis. In a number of cases it is necessary to determine the MLH with sufficiently high resolution - both altitude and temporal. The backscatter lidar provides a convenient tool for such determination, using the aerosol as tracer and determining its vertical profile and its time-evolution, with the capability for continuous measurements. Although methods already exist, based on the altitude derivative of the backscatter lidar signal (altitude Gradient method) and its time-variance (Variance method), the application of these methods with high resolution is limited by the background noise presence. We report here a further development of backscatter lidar gradient and variance methods for MLH determination, allowing higher resolutions. In it, the MLH determination from the gradient and the variance of the lidar signal is supported by a convenient filter technique. Time scale of increased temporal resolution allows the investigation of the fine atmospheric dynamic structures like convective motion. A number of examples in MLH retrieval are presented. The examples are based on backscatter lidar measurements performed in the PBL above Neuchatel, Switzerland (47.00°N, 6.95°S, 485m asl). The examples show the applicability and the usefulness of the reported technique in measurements of the daily cycle of the MLH dynamics.

  10. High resolution multiplexed functional imaging in live embyros (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dongli; Peng, Leilei

    2016-03-01

    Optical projection tomography (OPT) creates isotropic 3D imaging of tissue. Two approaches exist today: Wide-field OPT illuminates the entire sample and acquires projection images with a camera; Scanning-laser optical tomography (SLOT) generates the projection with a moving laser beam and point detector. SLOT has superior light collecting efficiency than wide-field optical tomography, making it ideal for tissue fluorescence imaging. Regardless the approach, traditional OPT has to compromise between the resolution and the depth of view. In traditional SLOT, the focused Gaussian beam diverges quickly from the focused plane, making it impossible to achieve high resolution imaging through a large volume specimen. We report using Bessel beam instead of Gaussian beam to perform SLOT. By illuminating samples with a narrow Bessel beam throughout an extended depth, high-resolution projection images can be measured in large volume. Under Bessel illumination, the projection image contains signal from annular-rings of the Bessel beam. Traditional inverse Radon transform of these projections will result in ringing artifacts in reconstructed imaging. Thus a modified 3D filtered back projection algorithm is developed to perform tomography reconstructing of Bessel-illuminated projection images. The resulting 3D imaging is free of artifact and achieved cellular resolution in extended sample volume. The system is applied to in-vivo imaging of transgenic Zebrafish embryos. Results prove Bessel SLOT a promising imaging method in development biology research.

  11. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  12. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging with compress sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingyi; Ke, Jun

    2016-10-01

    LIDAR three-dimensional imaging technology have been used in many fields, such as military detection. However, LIDAR require extremely fast data acquisition speed. This makes the manufacture of detector array for LIDAR system is very difficult. To solve this problem, we consider using compress sensing which can greatly decrease the data acquisition and relax the requirement of a detection device. To use the compressive sensing idea, a spatial light modulator will be used to modulate the pulsed light source. Then a photodetector is used to receive the reflected light. A convex optimization problem is solved to reconstruct the 2D depth map of the object. To improve the resolution in transversal direction, we use multiframe image restoration technology. For each 2D piecewise-planar scene, we move the SLM half-pixel each time. Then the position where the modulated light illuminates will changed accordingly. We repeat moving the SLM to four different directions. Then we can get four low-resolution depth maps with different details of the same plane scene. If we use all of the measurements obtained by the subpixel movements, we can reconstruct a high-resolution depth map of the sense. A linear minimum-mean-square error algorithm is used for the reconstruction. By combining compress sensing and multiframe image restoration technology, we reduce the burden on data analyze and improve the efficiency of detection. More importantly, we obtain high-resolution depth maps of a 3D scene.

  13. High resolution 3D fluorescence tomography using ballistic photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jie; Nouizi, Farouk; Cho, Jaedu; Kwong, Jessica; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2015-03-01

    We are developing a ballistic-photon based approach for improving the spatial resolution of fluorescence tomography using time-domain measurements. This approach uses early photon information contained in measured time-of-fight distributions originating from fluorescence emission. The time point spread functions (TPSF) from both excitation light and emission light are acquired with gated single photon Avalanche detector (SPAD) and time-correlated single photon counting after a short laser pulse. To determine the ballistic photons for reconstruction, the lifetime of the fluorophore and the time gate from the excitation profiles will be used for calibration, and then the time gate of the fluorescence profile can be defined by a simple time convolution. By mimicking first generation CT data acquisition, the sourcedetector pair will translate across and also rotate around the subject. The measurement from each source-detector position will be reshaped into a histogram that can be used by a simple back-projection algorithm in order to reconstruct high resolution fluorescence images. Finally, from these 2D sectioning slides, a 3D inclusion can be reconstructed accurately. To validate the approach, simulation of light transport is performed for biological tissue-like media with embedded fluorescent inclusion by solving the diffusion equation with Finite Element Method using COMSOL Multiphysics simulation. The reconstruction results from simulation studies have confirmed that this approach drastically improves the spatial resolution of fluorescence tomography. Moreover, all the results have shown the feasibility of this technique for high resolution small animal imaging up to several centimeters.

  14. High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors

    DOEpatents

    McGregor, Douglas S.; Rojeski, Ronald A.

    2001-01-16

    A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

  15. Accelerated high-resolution photoacoustic tomography via compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arridge, Simon; Beard, Paul; Betcke, Marta; Cox, Ben; Huynh, Nam; Lucka, Felix; Ogunlade, Olumide; Zhang, Edward

    2016-12-01

    Current 3D photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems offer either high image quality or high frame rates but are not able to deliver high spatial and temporal resolution simultaneously, which limits their ability to image dynamic processes in living tissue (4D PAT). A particular example is the planar Fabry-Pérot (FP) photoacoustic scanner, which yields high-resolution 3D images but takes several minutes to sequentially map the incident photoacoustic field on the 2D sensor plane, point-by-point. However, as the spatio-temporal complexity of many absorbing tissue structures is rather low, the data recorded in such a conventional, regularly sampled fashion is often highly redundant. We demonstrate that combining model-based, variational image reconstruction methods using spatial sparsity constraints with the development of novel PAT acquisition systems capable of sub-sampling the acoustic wave field can dramatically increase the acquisition speed while maintaining a good spatial resolution: first, we describe and model two general spatial sub-sampling schemes. Then, we discuss how to implement them using the FP interferometer and demonstrate the potential of these novel compressed sensing PAT devices through simulated data from a realistic numerical phantom and through measured data from a dynamic experimental phantom as well as from in vivo experiments. Our results show that images with good spatial resolution and contrast can be obtained from highly sub-sampled PAT data if variational image reconstruction techniques that describe the tissues structures with suitable sparsity-constraints are used. In particular, we examine the use of total variation (TV) regularization enhanced by Bregman iterations. These novel reconstruction strategies offer new opportunities to dramatically increase the acquisition speed of photoacoustic scanners that employ point-by-point sequential scanning as well as reducing the channel count of parallelized schemes that use detector arrays.

  16. Construction of a High Resolution Microscope with Conventional and Holographic Optical Trapping Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Butterfield, Jacqualine; Hong, Weili; Mershon, Leslie; Vershinin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    High resolution microscope systems with optical traps allow for precise manipulation of various refractive objects, such as dielectric beads 1 or cellular organelles 2,3, as well as for high spatial and temporal resolution readout of their position relative to the center of the trap. The system described herein has one such "traditional" trap operating at 980 nm. It additionally provides a second optical trapping system that uses a commercially available holographic package to simultaneously create and manipulate complex trapping patterns in the field of view of the microscope 4,5 at a wavelength of 1,064 nm. The combination of the two systems allows for the manipulation of multiple refractive objects at the same time while simultaneously conducting high speed and high resolution measurements of motion and force production at nanometer and piconewton scale. PMID:23629580

  17. Construction of a high resolution microscope with conventional and holographic optical trapping capabilities.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Jacqualine; Hong, Weili; Mershon, Leslie; Vershinin, Michael

    2013-04-22

    High resolution microscope systems with optical traps allow for precise manipulation of various refractive objects, such as dielectric beads (1) or cellular organelles (2,3), as well as for high spatial and temporal resolution readout of their position relative to the center of the trap. The system described herein has one such "traditional" trap operating at 980 nm. It additionally provides a second optical trapping system that uses a commercially available holographic package to simultaneously create and manipulate complex trapping patterns in the field of view of the microscope (4,5) at a wavelength of 1,064 nm. The combination of the two systems allows for the manipulation of multiple refractive objects at the same time while simultaneously conducting high speed and high resolution measurements of motion and force production at nanometer and piconewton scale.

  18. High throughput screening of ligand binding to macromolecules using high resolution powder diffraction

    DOEpatents

    Von Dreele, Robert B.; D'Amico, Kevin

    2006-10-31

    A process is provided for the high throughput screening of binding of ligands to macromolecules using high resolution powder diffraction data including producing a first sample slurry of a selected polycrystalline macromolecule material and a solvent, producing a second sample slurry of a selected polycrystalline macromolecule material, one or more ligands and the solvent, obtaining a high resolution powder diffraction pattern on each of said first sample slurry and the second sample slurry, and, comparing the high resolution powder diffraction pattern of the first sample slurry and the high resolution powder diffraction pattern of the second sample slurry whereby a difference in the high resolution powder diffraction patterns of the first sample slurry and the second sample slurry provides a positive indication for the formation of a complex between the selected polycrystalline macromolecule material and at least one of the one or more ligands.

  19. Aerosol Classification from High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, S. P.; Hair, J. W.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Kahnert, M.; Vaughan, M. A.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Berkoff, T.; Seaman, S. T.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Fenn, M. A.; Rogers, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidars, HSRL-1 and HSRL-2, have acquired large datasets of vertically resolved aerosol extinction, backscatter, and depolarization during >30 airborne field missions since 2006. The lidar measurements of aerosol intensive parameters like lidar ratio and color ratio embed information about intrinsic aerosol properties, and are combined to qualitatively classify HSRL aerosol measurements into aerosol types. Knowledge of aerosol type is important for assessing aerosol radiative forcing, and can provide useful information for source attribution studies. However, atmospheric aerosol is frequently not a single pure type, but instead is a mixture, which affects the optical and radiative properties of the aerosol. We show that aerosol intensive parameters measured by lidar can be understood using mixing rules for cases of external mixing. Beyond coarse classification and mixing between classes, variations in the lidar aerosol intensive parameters provide additional insight into aerosol processes and composition. This is illustrated by depolarization measurements at three wavelengths, 355 nm, 532 nm, and 1064 nm, made by HSRL-2. Particle depolarization ratio is an indicator of non-spherical particles. Three cases each have a significantly different spectral dependence of the depolarization ratio, related to the size of the depolarizing particles. For two dust cases, large non-spherical particles account for the depolarization of the lidar light. The spectral dependence reflects the size distribution of these particles and reveals differences in the transport histories of the two plumes. For a smoke case, the depolarization is inferred to be due to the presence of small coated soot aggregates. Interestingly, the depolarization at 355 nm is similar for this smoke case compared to the dust cases, having potential implications for the upcoming EarthCARE satellite, which will measure particle depolarization ratio only at 355 nm.

  20. Analysis of smear in high-resolution remote sensing satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahballah, Walid A.; Bazan, Taher M.; El-Tohamy, Fawzy; Fathy, Mahmoud

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution remote sensing satellites (HRRSS) that use time delay and integration (TDI) CCDs have the potential to introduce large amounts of image smear. Clocking and velocity mismatch smear are two of the key factors in inducing image smear. Clocking smear is caused by the discrete manner in which the charge is clocked in the TDI-CCDs. The relative motion between the HRRSS and the observed object obliges that the image motion velocity must be strictly synchronized with the velocity of the charge packet transfer (line rate) throughout the integration time. During imaging an object off-nadir, the image motion velocity changes resulting in asynchronization between the image velocity and the CCD's line rate. A Model for estimating the image motion velocity in HRRSS is derived. The influence of this velocity mismatch combined with clocking smear on the modulation transfer function (MTF) is investigated by using Matlab simulation. The analysis is performed for cross-track and along-track imaging with different satellite attitude angles and TDI steps. The results reveal that the velocity mismatch ratio and the number of TDI steps have a serious impact on the smear MTF; a velocity mismatch ratio of 2% degrades the MTFsmear by 32% at Nyquist frequency when the TDI steps change from 32 to 96. In addition, the results show that to achieve the requirement of MTFsmear >= 0.95 , for TDI steps of 16 and 64, the allowable roll angles are 13.7° and 6.85° and the permissible pitch angles are no more than 9.6° and 4.8°, respectively.

  1. High-resolution fracture aperture mapping using optical profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameli, Pasha; Elkhoury, Jean E.; Detwiler, Russell L.

    2013-10-01

    Fractures play an important role in the Earth's crust, often controlling both mechanical and transport processes. Developing a mechanistic understanding of these processes requires quantifying the roughness of fracture surfaces and the contacts and void spaces between fracture surfaces at high spatial resolution (10s of microns) over a broad range of scales (centimeters to meters). Here we present a scalable method for measuring fracture surfaces and reconstructing fracture aperture fields using an optical profilometer. We evaluate the method by measuring two fractured limestone cores; one is a tensile fracture with strong cross correlation between the surfaces and the other is a saw-cut, sand-blasted fracture with negligible cross correlation between the surfaces. Results of repeated measurements of these two fractures suggest that well-correlated surfaces, where the correlation between the surfaces can aid reconstruction, can be reproduced with local uncertainties with median standard deviation of 8 μm . Poorly correlated surfaces, where reconstruction relies solely upon the precision of the placement of the halves of the core on the profilometer stage, can be reproduced with local uncertainties with median standard deviation of 20 μm . Additionally, we quantified the accuracy of the technique by comparing calculated aperture profiles of a fractured concrete core to thin sections cut from the core after impregnating it with epoxy. The median deviation between the two measurements, which includes errors due to residual misalignment of the profiles, was 29 μm supporting the accuracy of the method. Our results emphasize the potential for using noncontact surface measurement techniques to accurately and precisely reconstruct fracture apertures over a wide range of length scales.

  2. Methods of photoelectrode characterization with high spatial and temporal resolution

    DOE PAGES

    Esposito, Daniel V.; Baxter, Jason B.; John, Jimmy; ...

    2015-06-19

    Here, materials and photoelectrode architectures that are highly efficient, extremely stable, and made from low cost materials are required for commercially viable photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting technology. A key challenge is the heterogeneous nature of real-world materials, which often possess spatial variation in their crystal structure, morphology, and/or composition at the nano-, micro-, or macro-scale. Different structures and compositions can have vastly different properties and can therefore strongly influence the overall performance of the photoelectrode through complex structure–property relationships. A complete understanding of photoelectrode materials would also involve elucidation of processes such as carrier collection and electrochemical charge transfer that occurmore » at very fast time scales. We present herein an overview of a broad suite of experimental and computational tools that can be used to define the structure–property relationships of photoelectrode materials at small dimensions and on fast time scales. A major focus is on in situ scanning-probe measurement (SPM) techniques that possess the ability to measure differences in optical, electronic, catalytic, and physical properties with nano- or micro-scale spatial resolution. In situ ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, used to probe carrier dynamics involved with processes such as carrier generation, recombination, and interfacial charge transport, are also discussed. Complementing all of these experimental techniques are computational atomistic modeling tools, which can be invaluable for interpreting experimental results, aiding in materials discovery, and interrogating PEC processes at length and time scales not currently accessible by experiment. In addition to reviewing the basic capabilities of these experimental and computational techniques, we highlight key opportunities and limitations of applying these tools for the development of PEC materials.« less

  3. Exploring NASA Satellite Data with High Resolution Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J. C.; Yang, W.; Johnson, J. E.; Shen, S.; Zhao, P.; Gerasimov, I. V.; Vollmer, B.; Vicente, G. A.; Pham, L.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite data products are important for a wide variety of applications that can bring far-reaching benefits to the science community and the broader society. These benefits can best be achieved if the satellite data are well utilized and interpreted, such as model inputs from satellite, or extreme event (such as volcano eruption, dust storm, ...etc) interpretation from satellite. Unfortunately, this is not always the case, despite the abundance and relative maturity of numerous satellite data products provided by NASA and other organizations. Such obstacles may be avoided by providing satellite data as ';Images' with accurate pixel-level (Level 2) information, including pixel coverage area delineation and science team recommended quality screening for individual geophysical parameters. We will present a prototype service from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) supporting various visualization and data accessing capabilities from satellite Level 2 data (non-aggregated and un-gridded) at high spatial resolution. Functionality will include selecting data sources (e.g., multiple parameters under the same measurement, like NO2 and SO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), or same parameter with different methods of aggregation, like NO2 in OMNO2G and OMNO2D products), defining area-of-interest and temporal extents, zooming, panning, overlaying, sliding, and data subsetting and reformatting. The portal interface will connect to the backend services with OGC standard-compliant Web Mapping Service (WMS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS) calls. The interface will also be able to connect to other OGC WMS and WCS servers, which will greatly enhance its expandability to integrate additional outside data/map sources.

  4. Methods of photoelectrode characterization with high spatial and temporal resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, Daniel V.; Baxter, Jason B.; John, Jimmy; Lewis, Nathan S.; Moffat, Thomas P.; Ogitsu, Tadashi; O'Neil, Glen D.; Pham, Tuan Anh; Talin, A. Alec; Velazquez, Jesus M.; Wood, Brandon C.

    2015-06-19

    Here, materials and photoelectrode architectures that are highly efficient, extremely stable, and made from low cost materials are required for commercially viable photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting technology. A key challenge is the heterogeneous nature of real-world materials, which often possess spatial variation in their crystal structure, morphology, and/or composition at the nano-, micro-, or macro-scale. Different structures and compositions can have vastly different properties and can therefore strongly influence the overall performance of the photoelectrode through complex structure–property relationships. A complete understanding of photoelectrode materials would also involve elucidation of processes such as carrier collection and electrochemical charge transfer that occur at very fast time scales. We present herein an overview of a broad suite of experimental and computational tools that can be used to define the structure–property relationships of photoelectrode materials at small dimensions and on fast time scales. A major focus is on in situ scanning-probe measurement (SPM) techniques that possess the ability to measure differences in optical, electronic, catalytic, and physical properties with nano- or micro-scale spatial resolution. In situ ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, used to probe carrier dynamics involved with processes such as carrier generation, recombination, and interfacial charge transport, are also discussed. Complementing all of these experimental techniques are computational atomistic modeling tools, which can be invaluable for interpreting experimental results, aiding in materials discovery, and interrogating PEC processes at length and time scales not currently accessible by experiment. In addition to reviewing the basic capabilities of these experimental and computational techniques, we highlight key opportunities and limitations of applying these tools for the development of PEC materials.

  5. Spatially Regularized Compressed Sensing for High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Yogesh; Dolui, Sudipto

    2013-01-01

    Despite the relative recency of its inception, the theory of compressive sampling (aka compressed sensing) (CS) has already revolutionized multiple areas of applied sciences, a particularly important instance of which is medical imaging. Specifically, the theory has provided a different perspective on the important problem of optimal sampling in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with an ever-increasing body of works reporting stable and accurate reconstruction of MRI scans from the number of spectral measurements which would have been deemed unacceptably small as recently as five years ago. In this paper, the theory of CS is employed to palliate the problem of long acquisition times, which is known to be a major impediment to the clinical application of high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI). Specifically, we demonstrate that a substantial reduction in data acquisition times is possible through minimization of the number of diffusion encoding gradients required for reliable reconstruction of HARDI scans. The success of such a minimization is primarily due to the availability of spherical ridgelet transformation, which excels in sparsifying HARDI signals. What makes the resulting reconstruction procedure even more accurate is a combination of the sparsity constraints in the diffusion domain with additional constraints imposed on the estimated diffusion field in the spatial domain. Accordingly, the present paper describes an original way to combine the diffusion-and spatial-domain constraints to achieve a maximal reduction in the number of diffusion measurements, while sacrificing little in terms of reconstruction accuracy. Finally, details are provided on an efficient numerical scheme which can be used to solve the aforementioned reconstruction problem by means of standard and readily available estimation tools. The paper is concluded with experimental results which support the practical value of the proposed reconstruction methodology. PMID:21536524

  6. Automated analysis for microcalcifications in high resolution digital mammograms

    DOEpatents

    Mascio, L.N.

    1996-12-17

    A method is disclosed for automatically locating microcalcifications indicating breast cancer. The invention assists mammographers in finding very subtle microcalcifications and in recognizing the pattern formed by all the microcalcifications. It also draws attention to microcalcifications that might be overlooked because a more prominent feature draws attention away from an important object. A new filter has been designed to weed out false positives in one of the steps of the method. Previously, iterative selection threshold was used to separate microcalcifications from the spurious signals resulting from texture or other background. A Selective Erosion or Enhancement (SEE) Filter has been invented to improve this step. Since the algorithm detects areas containing potential calcifications on the mammogram, it can be used to determine which areas need be stored at the highest resolution available, while, in addition, the full mammogram can be reduced to an appropriate resolution for the remaining cancer signs. 8 figs.

  7. Automated analysis for microcalcifications in high resolution digital mammograms

    DOEpatents

    Mascio, Laura N.

    1996-01-01

    A method for automatically locating microcalcifications indicating breast cancer. The invention assists mammographers in finding very subtle microcalcifications and in recognizing the pattern formed by all the microcalcifications. It also draws attention to microcalcifications that might be overlooked because a more prominent feature draws attention away from an important object. A new filter has been designed to weed out false positives in one of the steps of the method. Previously, iterative selection threshold was used to separate microcalcifications from the spurious signals resulting from texture or other background. A Selective Erosion or Enhancement (SEE) Filter has been invented to improve this step. Since the algorithm detects areas containing potential calcifications on the mammogram, it can be used to determine which areas need be stored at the highest resolution available, while, in addition, the full mammogram can be reduced to an appropriate resolution for the remaining cancer signs.

  8. High spatial resolution measurements in a single stage ram accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkey, J. B.; Burnham, E. A.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    High spatial resolution experimental tube wall pressure measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena are presented in this paper. The ram accelerator is a ramjet-in-tube device which operates in a manner similar to that of a conventional ramjet. The projectile resembles the centerbody of a ramjet and travels supersonically through a tube filled with a combustible gaseous mixture, with the tube acting as the outer cowling. Pressure data are recorded as the projectile passes by sensors mounted in the tube wall at various locations along the tube. Utilization of special highly instrumented sections of tube has allowed the recording of gas dynamic phenomena with high resolution. High spatial resolution tube wall pressure data from the three regimes of propulsion studied to date (subdetonative, transdetonative, and superdetonative) in a single stage gas mixture are presented and reveal the three-dimensional character of the flow field induced by projectile fins and the canting of the fins and the canting of the projectile body relative to the tube wall. Also presented for comparison to the experimental data are calculations made with an inviscid, three-dimensional CFD code. The knowledge gained from these experiments and simulations is useful in understanding the underlying nature of ram accelerator propulsive regimes, as well as assisting in the validation of three-dimensional CFD coded which model unsteady, chemically reactive flows.

  9. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-02-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  10. Towards Ultra-High Resolution Models of Climate and Weather

    SciTech Connect

    Wehner, Michael; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John

    2007-01-01

    We present a speculative extrapolation of the performance aspects of an atmospheric general circulation model to ultra-high resolution and describe alternative technological paths to realize integration of such a model in the relatively near future. Due to a superlinear scaling of the computational burden dictated by stability criterion, the solution of the equations of motion dominate the calculation at ultra-high resolutions. From this extrapolation, it is estimated that a credible kilometer scale atmospheric model would require at least a sustained ten petaflop computer to provide scientifically useful climate simulations. Our design study portends an alternate strategy for practical power-efficient implementations of petaflop scale systems. Embedded processor technology could be exploited to tailor a custom machine designed to ultra-high climate model specifications at relatively affordable cost and power considerations. The major conceptual changes required by a kilometer scale climate model are certain to be difficult to implement. Although the hardware, software, and algorithms are all equally critical in conducting ultra-high climate resolution studies, it is likely that the necessary petaflop computing technology will be available in advance of a credible kilometer scale climate model.

  11. High-resolution 3D digital models of artworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Raffaella; Gambino, Maria Chiara; Greco, Marinella; Pampaloni, Enrico; Pezzati, Luca; Scopigno, Roberto

    2003-10-01

    The measurement of the shape of an artwork usually requires a high-resolution instrumentation, in order to catch small details such as chisel marks, sculptural relieves, surface cracks, etc. 3D scanning techniques, together with new modeling software tools, allow a high fidelity reproduction of an artwork: these can be applied either to support and document its repair or for the realization of 3D archives and virtual museums. Starting from a high-resolution digital model of an object, a further step could be its reproduction by means of fast-prototyping techniques like stereo-lithography or electro-erosion. This work is aimed at showing the performance of a high-resolution laser scanner devoted to Cultural Heritage applications. The device is portable and very versatile, in order to allow in situ applications, accurate and reliable, so to capture intricate details. This laser profilometer has been used in a few surveys, the most significant of which are the monitoring the various phases of the restoration process of an ellenistic bronze (the Minerva of Arezzo, Florence), the cataloguing of some archaeological findings (from the Grotta della Poesia, Lecce) and the documenting of wooden panels surface conditions (the "Madonna del Cardellino" by Raffaello and "La Tebaide" by Beato Angelico).

  12. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics. PMID:22312577

  13. High Resolution, Real-Time Interferometer for Coherent Beam Combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simion, Sandel; Blanaru, Constantin; Ursescu, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    Piston errors introduced during the pumping of high energy amplifiers in the laser chains are estimated to produce significant distortion and dramatically reduce the intensity of the combined beam resulted from the Coherent Beam Combination (CBC) of ultra intense short pulses. For monitoring the phase and optical path shift, we developed a high resolution real time interferometer. Based on the code counting method, the device is suitable for high speed/real time measurements and is immune to vibrations which might appear in the laser system. The device consists of an analog stage which generates the counting code, later processed by the microprocessor unit (CPU). The analog stage ensures 20 nm resolution, 2 m/s optical path variation speed measurements and has low sensitivity to variations of quadrature signals amplitude. The CPU is based on a complex programmable logic device (CPLD), with 8 ns processing time of the signals. The algorithm provides simultaneously measurements with increasing speed for lower resolution (20 nm at 2 m/s, 40 nm at 4 m/s and 80 nm at 8 m/s), making the system fault tolerant at high speed fluctuations of the optical path. The device contains also a digital-to-analog converter stage, making the instrument suitable for implementation of closed loop control.

  14. High-resolution SIT TV tube for subnanosecond image shuttering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, G. J.; Vine, B. H.; Aeby, I.; Dunbar, D. L.; King, N. S. P.; Jaramillo, S. A.; Thayer, N. N.; Noel, B. W.

    1984-09-01

    A new ultrafast high-resolution image shutter tube with reasonable gain and shuttering efficiency has been designed and tested. The design uses a grid-gated silicon-intensified-target (SIT) image section and a high-speed focus projection and scan (FPS) vidicon read-out section in one envelope to eliminate resolution losses from external coupling. The design features low-gate-interface capacity, a high-conductivity shutter grid, and a segmented low-resistivity photocathode for optimum gating speed. Optical gate widths as short as 400 ps + or - 100 ps for full shuttering of the 25-mm-diam input window with spatial resolution as high as 15 1p/mm have been measured. Some design criteria, most of the electrical and optical performance data for several variations in the basic design, and a comparison (of several key response functions) with similarly tested 18- and 25-mm-diam proximity-focused microchannel-plate (MCP) image intensifier tubes (MCPTs) are included.

  15. High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS), phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) was successfully built, tested, and flight proven on the NASA U-2/ER-2 high altitude aircraft. The HIS demonstration has shown that, by using the technology of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTS), it is possible to measure the spectrum of upwelling infrared radiance needed for temperature and humidity sounding with high spectral resolution and high radiometric precision. By resolving individual carbon dioxide lines, the retrieved temperature profiles have vertical resolutions of 1 to 2 km and RMS errors less than 1 C, about 2 to 4 times better than possible with current sounders. Implementing this capability on satellite sounders will greatly enhance the dynamical information content of temperature measurements from space. The aircraft model HIS is now a resource which should be used to support field experiments in mesoscale meteorology, to monitor trace gas concentrations and to better understand their effects on climate, to monitor the surface radiation budget and the radiative effects of clouds, and to collect data for research into retrieval techniques, especially under partially cloudy conditions.

  16. Stereoscopic high-speed imaging using additive colors

    PubMed Central

    Sankin, Georgy N.; Piech, David; Zhong, Pei

    2012-01-01

    An experimental system for digital stereoscopic imaging produced by using a high-speed color camera is described. Two bright-field image projections of a three-dimensional object are captured utilizing additive-color backlighting (blue and red). The two images are simultaneously combined on a two-dimensional image sensor using a set of dichromatic mirrors, and stored for off-line separation of each projection. This method has been demonstrated in analyzing cavitation bubble dynamics near boundaries. This technique may be useful for flow visualization and in machine vision applications. PMID:22559533

  17. High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing of small-molecule organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kukjoo; Kim, Gyeomuk; Lee, Bo Ram; Ji, Sangyoon; Kim, So-Yun; An, Byeong Wan; Song, Myoung Hoon; Park, Jang-Ung

    2015-08-28

    The development of alternative organic light-emitting diode (OLED) fabrication technologies for high-definition and low-cost displays is an important research topic as conventional fine metal mask-assisted vacuum evaporation has reached its limit to reduce pixel sizes and manufacturing costs. Here, we report an electrohydrodynamic jet (e-jet) printing method to fabricate small-molecule OLED pixels with high resolution (pixel width of 5 μm), which significantly exceeds the resolutions of conventional inkjet or commercial OLED display pixels. In addition, we print small-molecule emitting materials which provide a significant advantage in terms of device efficiency and lifetime compared to those with polymers.

  18. Proceedings of the 2004 High Spatial Resolution Commercial Imagery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: NASA Applied Sciences Program; USGS Land Remote Sensing: Overview; QuickBird System Status and Product Overview; ORBIMAGE Overview; IKONOS 2004 Calibration and Validation Status; OrbView-3 Spatial Characterization; On-Orbit Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) Measurement of QuickBird; Spatial Resolution Characterization for QuickBird Image Products 2003-2004 Season; Image Quality Evaluation of QuickBird Super Resolution and Revisit of IKONOS: Civil and Commercial Application Project (CCAP); On-Orbit System MTF Measurement; QuickBird Post Launch Geopositional Characterization Update; OrbView-3 Geometric Calibration and Geopositional Accuracy; Geopositional Statistical Methods; QuickBird and OrbView-3 Geopositional Accuracy Assessment; Initial On-Orbit Spatial Resolution Characterization of OrbView-3 Panchromatic Images; Laboratory Measurement of Bidirectional Reflectance of Radiometric Tarps; Stennis Space Center Verification and Validation Capabilities; Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) Team; Adjacency Effects in High Resolution Imagery; Effect of Pulse Width vs. GSD on MTF Estimation; Camera and Sensor Calibration at the USGS; QuickBird Geometric Verification; Comparison of MODTRAN to Heritage-based Results in Vicarious Calibration at University of Arizona; Using Remotely Sensed Imagery to Determine Impervious Surface in Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Estimating Sub-Pixel Proportions of Sagebrush with a Regression Tree; How Do YOU Use the National Land Cover Dataset?; The National Map Hazards Data Distribution System; Recording a Troubled World; What Does This-Have to Do with This?; When Can a Picture Save a Thousand Homes?; InSAR Studies of Alaska Volcanoes; Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Data Products; Improving Access to the USGS Aerial Film Collections: High Resolution Scanners; Improving Access to the USGS Aerial Film Collections: Phoenix Digitizing System Product Distribution; System and Product Characterization: Issues Approach

  19. Flexible sample environment for high resolution neutron imaging at high temperatures in controlled atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Makowska, Małgorzata G.; Theil Kuhn, Luise; Cleemann, Lars N.; Lauridsen, Erik M.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Molaison, Jamie J.; Santodonato, Louis J.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Grosse, Mirco; Morgano, Manuel; Kabra, Saurabh; Strobl, Markus

    2015-12-15

    High material penetration by neutrons allows for experiments using sophisticated sample environments providing complex conditions. Thus, neutron imaging holds potential for performing in situ nondestructive measurements on large samples or even full technological systems, which are not possible with any other technique. This paper presents a new sample environment for in situ high resolution neutron imaging experiments at temperatures from room temperature up to 1100 °C and/or using controllable flow of reactive atmospheres. The design also offers the possibility to directly combine imaging with diffraction measurements. Design, special features, and specification of the furnace are described. In addition, examples of experiments successfully performed at various neutron facilities with the furnace, as well as examples of possible applications are presented. This covers a broad field of research from fundamental to technological investigations of various types of materials and components.

  20. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Alp, E.E.; Mooney, T.M.; Toellner, T.

    1996-06-04

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut ({alpha}=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5--30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the {micro}eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator. 7 figs.