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Sample records for addition histological analysis

  1. Comprehensive histologic analysis of ALK-rearranged lung carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Akihiko; Tsuta, Koji; Nakamura, Harumi; Kohno, Takashi; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Asamura, Hisao; Sekine, Ikuo; Fukayama, Masashi; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Furuta, Koh; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2011-08-01

    A subset (1% to 5%) of non-small-cell lung carcinomas harbors the EML4-ALK fusion gene. Data from previous studies on the histomorphology of ALK-rearranged lung cancer are inconsistent, and the specific histologic parameters that characterize this subset and how accurately such parameters predict underlying ALK abnormality remain uncertain. To answer these questions, we performed a comprehensive histologic analysis of 54 surgically resected, extensively sampled ALK-rearranged lung carcinomas and compared them with 100 consecutive resections of ALK-wild-type lung cancers. All 54 cases showed at least a focal adenocarcinoma component, and 3 and 2 cases had additional squamous and sarcomatoid differentiation, respectively. Solid or acinar growth pattern, cribriform structure, presence of mucous cells (signet-ring cells or goblet cells), abundant extracellular mucus, lack of lepidic growth, and lack of significant nuclear pleomorphism were more common in ALK-positive cancers. Two recognizable constellations of findings, a solid signet-ring cell pattern and a mucinous cribriform pattern, were present at least focally in the majority (78%) of ALK-positive tumors, but were rare (1%) in ALK-negative tumors. Multivariate analysis showed that a combination of these 2 patterns was the most powerful histologic indicator of ALK rearrangement. Characteristic histologies were present both in primary sites and in metastases. Thus, histologic findings may help to identify cases for ALK testing. However, none of the histologic parameters were completely sensitive or specific to ALK rearrangement, and histomorphology should not replace confirmatory molecular or immunohistochemical studies. ALK-positive cancers commonly showed coexpression of thyroid transcription factor-1 and p63, and its significance is currently unclear. PMID:21753699

  2. Image-based histologic grade estimation using stochastic geometry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petushi, Sokol; Zhang, Jasper; Milutinovic, Aladin; Breen, David E.; Garcia, Fernando U.

    2011-03-01

    Background: Low reproducibility of histologic grading of breast carcinoma due to its subjectivity has traditionally diminished the prognostic value of histologic breast cancer grading. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness and reproducibility of grading breast carcinomas with automated computer-based image processing that utilizes stochastic geometry shape analysis. Methods: We used histology images stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) from invasive mammary carcinoma, no special type cases as a source domain and study environment. We developed a customized hybrid semi-automated segmentation algorithm to cluster the raw image data and reduce the image domain complexity to a binary representation with the foreground representing regions of high density of malignant cells. A second algorithm was developed to apply stochastic geometry and texture analysis measurements to the segmented images and to produce shape distributions, transforming the original color images into a histogram representation that captures their distinguishing properties between various histological grades. Results: Computational results were compared against known histological grades assigned by the pathologist. The Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) similarity metric and the K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) classification algorithm provided correlations between the high-dimensional set of shape distributions and a priori known histological grades. Conclusion: Computational pattern analysis of histology shows promise as an effective software tool in breast cancer histological grading.

  3. Intestinal Preparation Techniques for Histological Analysis in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jonathan M; Duckworth, Carrie A; Vowell, Kate; Burkitt, Michael D; Pritchard, D Mark

    2016-01-01

    The murine intestinal tract represents a difficult organ system to study due to its long convoluted tubular structure, narrow diameter, and delicate mucosa which undergoes rapid changes after sampling prior to fixation. These features do not make for easy histological analysis as rapid fixation in situ, or after simple removal without careful dissection, results in poor postfixation tissue handling and limited options for high quality histological sections. Collecting meaningful quantitative data by analysis of this tissue is further complicated by the anatomical changes in structure along its length. This article describes two methods of intestinal sampling at necropsy that allow systematic histological analysis of the entire intestinal tract, either through examination of cross sections (circumferences) by the gut bundling technique or longitudinal sections by the adapted Swiss roll technique, together with basic methods for data collection. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27248432

  4. Multi-class texture analysis in colorectal cancer histology

    PubMed Central

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Bianconi, Francesco; Melchers, Susanne M.; Schad, Lothar R.; Gaiser, Timo; Marx, Alexander; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Automatic recognition of different tissue types in histological images is an essential part in the digital pathology toolbox. Texture analysis is commonly used to address this problem; mainly in the context of estimating the tumour/stroma ratio on histological samples. However, although histological images typically contain more than two tissue types, only few studies have addressed the multi-class problem. For colorectal cancer, one of the most prevalent tumour types, there are in fact no published results on multiclass texture separation. In this paper we present a new dataset of 5,000 histological images of human colorectal cancer including eight different types of tissue. We used this set to assess the classification performance of a wide range of texture descriptors and classifiers. As a result, we found an optimal classification strategy that markedly outperformed traditional methods, improving the state of the art for tumour-stroma separation from 96.9% to 98.6% accuracy and setting a new standard for multiclass tissue separation (87.4% accuracy for eight classes). We make our dataset of histological images publicly available under a Creative Commons license and encourage other researchers to use it as a benchmark for their studies. PMID:27306927

  5. Multi-class texture analysis in colorectal cancer histology.

    PubMed

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Bianconi, Francesco; Melchers, Susanne M; Schad, Lothar R; Gaiser, Timo; Marx, Alexander; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Automatic recognition of different tissue types in histological images is an essential part in the digital pathology toolbox. Texture analysis is commonly used to address this problem; mainly in the context of estimating the tumour/stroma ratio on histological samples. However, although histological images typically contain more than two tissue types, only few studies have addressed the multi-class problem. For colorectal cancer, one of the most prevalent tumour types, there are in fact no published results on multiclass texture separation. In this paper we present a new dataset of 5,000 histological images of human colorectal cancer including eight different types of tissue. We used this set to assess the classification performance of a wide range of texture descriptors and classifiers. As a result, we found an optimal classification strategy that markedly outperformed traditional methods, improving the state of the art for tumour-stroma separation from 96.9% to 98.6% accuracy and setting a new standard for multiclass tissue separation (87.4% accuracy for eight classes). We make our dataset of histological images publicly available under a Creative Commons license and encourage other researchers to use it as a benchmark for their studies. PMID:27306927

  6. Multi-class texture analysis in colorectal cancer histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Bianconi, Francesco; Melchers, Susanne M.; Schad, Lothar R.; Gaiser, Timo; Marx, Alexander; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2016-06-01

    Automatic recognition of different tissue types in histological images is an essential part in the digital pathology toolbox. Texture analysis is commonly used to address this problem; mainly in the context of estimating the tumour/stroma ratio on histological samples. However, although histological images typically contain more than two tissue types, only few studies have addressed the multi-class problem. For colorectal cancer, one of the most prevalent tumour types, there are in fact no published results on multiclass texture separation. In this paper we present a new dataset of 5,000 histological images of human colorectal cancer including eight different types of tissue. We used this set to assess the classification performance of a wide range of texture descriptors and classifiers. As a result, we found an optimal classification strategy that markedly outperformed traditional methods, improving the state of the art for tumour-stroma separation from 96.9% to 98.6% accuracy and setting a new standard for multiclass tissue separation (87.4% accuracy for eight classes). We make our dataset of histological images publicly available under a Creative Commons license and encourage other researchers to use it as a benchmark for their studies.

  7. Histology image analysis for carcinoma detection and grading

    PubMed Central

    He, Lei; Long, L. Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Thoma, George R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the image analysis techniques in the domain of histopathology, specifically, for the objective of automated carcinoma detection and classification. As in other biomedical imaging areas such as radiology, many computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) systems have been implemented to aid histopathologists and clinicians in cancer diagnosis and research, which have been attempted to significantly reduce the labor and subjectivity of traditional manual intervention with histology images. The task of automated histology image analysis is usually not simple due to the unique characteristics of histology imaging, including the variability in image preparation techniques, clinical interpretation protocols, and the complex structures and very large size of the images themselves. In this paper we discuss those characteristics, provide relevant background information about slide preparation and interpretation, and review the application of digital image processing techniques to the field of histology image analysis. In particular, emphasis is given to state-of-the-art image segmentation methods for feature extraction and disease classification. Four major carcinomas of cervix, prostate, breast, and lung are selected to illustrate the functions and capabilities of existing CAD systems. PMID:22436890

  8. Quantitative histology analysis of the ovarian tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Lan, Chunyan; Heindl, Andreas; Huang, Xin; Xi, Shaoyan; Banerjee, Susana; Liu, Jihong; Yuan, Yinyin

    2015-01-01

    Concerted efforts in genomic studies examining RNA transcription and DNA methylation patterns have revealed profound insights in prognostic ovarian cancer subtypes. On the other hand, abundant histology slides have been generated to date, yet their uses remain very limited and largely qualitative. Our goal is to develop automated histology analysis as an alternative subtyping technology for ovarian cancer that is cost-efficient and does not rely on DNA quality. We developed an automated system for scoring primary tumour sections of 91 late-stage ovarian cancer to identify single cells. We demonstrated high accuracy of our system based on expert pathologists' scores (cancer = 97.1%, stromal = 89.1%) as well as compared to immunohistochemistry scoring (correlation = 0.87). The percentage of stromal cells in all cells is significantly associated with poor overall survival after controlling for clinical parameters including debulking status and age (multivariate analysis p = 0.0021, HR = 2.54, CI = 1.40-4.60) and progression-free survival (multivariate analysis p = 0.022, HR = 1.75, CI = 1.09-2.82). We demonstrate how automated image analysis enables objective quantification of microenvironmental composition of ovarian tumours. Our analysis reveals a strong effect of the tumour microenvironment on ovarian cancer progression and highlights the potential of therapeutic interventions that target the stromal compartment or cancer-stroma signalling in the stroma-high, late-stage ovarian cancer subset. PMID:26573438

  9. Examining brain microstructure using structure tensor analysis of histological sections.

    PubMed

    Budde, Matthew D; Frank, Joseph A

    2012-10-15

    The mammalian central nervous system has a tremendous structural complexity, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is unique in its ability to extract microstructural tissue properties at a macroscopic scale. However, despite its widespread use and applications in clinical and research settings, accurate validation of DTI has notoriously lagged the advances in image acquisition and analysis. In this report, we demonstrate an approach to visualize and quantify the microscopic features of histological sections on multiple length scales using techniques derived from image texture analysis. Structure tensor (ST) analysis was applied to fluorescence microscopy images of rat brain sections to visualize and quantify tissue microstructure. Images were digitally color-coded based on the local orientation in the pixelwise ST implementation, which allowed direct visualization of white matter complexity at the microscopic level. A piecewise ST algorithm was also employed to quantify anisotropy and orientation at a resolution comparable to that typically acquired with DTI. Anisotropy measured with ST analysis of stained histological sections was highly correlated with anisotropy measured by ex vivo DTI of the same brains (R(2)=0.92). Furthermore, angular histograms, or Fiber Orientation Distributions (FODs), were computed to mimic similar measures derived from high angular resolution diffusion imaging methods. The FODs for each pixel were fit to a mixture of von Mises distributions to identify putative regions of multiple fiber populations (i.e. crossing fibers). Despite its current application to two-dimensional microscopy, the ST analysis is a novel approach to visualize and quantify microstructure in the central nervous system in both health and disease, and advances the available set of tools for validating DTI and other diffusion MRI techniques. PMID:22759994

  10. A parallel solution for high resolution histological image analysis.

    PubMed

    Bueno, G; González, R; Déniz, O; García-Rojo, M; González-García, J; Fernández-Carrobles, M M; Vállez, N; Salido, J

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a general methodology for developing parallel image processing algorithms based on message passing for high resolution images (on the order of several Gigabytes). These algorithms have been applied to histological images and must be executed on massively parallel processing architectures. Advances in new technologies for complete slide digitalization in pathology have been combined with developments in biomedical informatics. However, the efficient use of these digital slide systems is still a challenge. The image processing that these slides are subject to is still limited both in terms of data processed and processing methods. The work presented here focuses on the need to design and develop parallel image processing tools capable of obtaining and analyzing the entire gamut of information included in digital slides. Tools have been developed to assist pathologists in image analysis and diagnosis, and they cover low and high-level image processing methods applied to histological images. Code portability, reusability and scalability have been tested by using the following parallel computing architectures: distributed memory with massive parallel processors and two networks, INFINIBAND and Myrinet, composed of 17 and 1024 nodes respectively. The parallel framework proposed is flexible, high performance solution and it shows that the efficient processing of digital microscopic images is possible and may offer important benefits to pathology laboratories. PMID:22522064

  11. [Comparative clinical analysis of histological systems of adrenocortical tumors diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Bokhyan, V Yu; Stilidi, I S; Pavlovskaya, A I

    2015-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of adrenocortical cancer (ACC) and cortical adenoma presents certain difficulties since there is no specific histological criterion allowing to distinguish tumors of the adrenal cortex with malignant clinical course. Currently there are offered several systems, and the most widely spread have the index Weiss (IW) and the modified index Weiss (MIW). The accuracy of one or another of the proposed systems remains a matter of debate. There was analyzed own experience on the use of IW and MIW in the diagnosis of 91 cases of the ACC and 13 cases of cortex adenomas of the size at least 5 cm. For the diagnosis of large adenomas sensitivity IW was 77%, MIW--100%. For the diagnosis of metastatic and non-metastatic ACC--100% and 97%, 100% and 86%, respectively (p > 0.05). In multivariate analysis of life expectancy of patients the definition of IW and MIW had a prognostic significance. MIW was less subjective, more simple and convenient to be used and it showed a great informative value at the reclassification of certain "adenomas" into ACC. However to use it on their own, without IW, was impractical as MIW had wider gray area and did not reach the threshold value in some cases of ACC. For the diagnosis of tumors of the adrenal cortex IW remains a standard; when a value was equal of 2 or in cases of doubt it was necessary to calculate MIW as well. PMID:26995980

  12. Quantitative image analysis of histological sections of coronary arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, David R., III; Robb, Richard A.

    2000-06-01

    The study of coronary arteries has evolved from examining gross anatomy and morphology to scrutinizing micro-anatomy and cellular composition. Technological advances such as high- resolution digital microscopes and high precision cutting devices have allowed examination of coronary artery morphology and pathology at micron resolution. We have developed a software toolkit to analyze histological sections. In particular, we are currently engaged in examining normal coronary arteries in order to provide the foundation for study of remodeled tissue. The first of two coronary arteries was stained for elastin and collagen. The second coronary artery was sectioned and stained for cellular nuclei and smooth muscle. High resolution light microscopy was used to image the sections. Segmentation was accomplished initially with slice- to-slice thresholding algorithms. These segmentation techniques choose optimal threshold values by modeling the tissue as one or more distributions. Morphology and image statistics were used to further differentiate the thresholded data into different tissue categories therefore refine the results of the segmentation. Specificity/sensitivity analysis suggests that automatic segmentation can be very effective. For both tissue samples, greater than 90% specificity was achieved. Summed voxel projection and maximum intensity projection appear to be effective 3-D visualization tools. Shading methods also provide useful visualization, however it is important to incorporate combined 2-D and 3-D displays. Surface rendering techniques (e.g. color mapping) can be used for visualizing parametric data. Preliminary results are promising, but continued development of algorithms is needed.

  13. A quantitative histological analysis of the dilated ureter of childhood.

    PubMed

    Lee, B R; Partin, A W; Epstein, J I; Quinlan, D M; Gosling, J A; Gearhart, J P

    1992-11-01

    A quantitative histological study of the dilated ureter of childhood was performed on 26 ureters. The specimens were from 15 male and 11 female patients 10 days to 12 years old (mean age 2.0 years). A color image analysis system was used to examine and compare collagen and smooth muscle components of the muscularis layers to normal control ureters of similar age. In comparing primary obstructed (12) to primary refluxing (14) megaureters and control ureters (6), there was a statistically different collagen-to-smooth muscle ratio (p < 0.001) between the primary obstructed and primary refluxing megaureter groups. For patients with primary refluxing megaureter there was a 2-fold increase in the tissue matrix ratio of collagen-to-smooth muscle when compared to patients with primary obstructed megaureter. In the primary obstructed megaureters the amount of collagen and smooth muscle was not statistically different from controls (p > 0.01). The increased tissue matrix ratio of 2.0 +/- 0.35 (collagen-to-smooth muscle) in the refluxing megaureter group compared to 0.78 +/- 0.22 in the obstructed megaureter group and 0.52 +/- 0.12 in controls was found to be due not only to a marked increase in collagen but also a significant decrease in the smooth muscle component of the tissue. Primary obstructed and normal control ureters had similar quantitative amounts of smooth muscle with 60 +/- 5% and 61 +/- 6%, respectively, while refluxing megaureters had only 40 +/- 5% smooth muscle. The percentage collagen was 36 +/- 5 in the obstructed megaureter group and 30 +/- 5 in controls, with refluxing megaureters having 58 +/- 5% collagen on analysis. Our findings emphasize the significant differences in the structural components (collagen and smooth muscle) of the dilated ureter of childhood, and provide us with further insight into the pathological nature of these dilated ureters and their surgical repair. PMID:1433552

  14. Two Subtypes of Atypical Leiomyoma: Clinical, Histologic, and Molecular Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ubago, Julianne M; Zhang, Qing; Kim, Julie J; Kong, Beihua; Wei, Jian-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Atypical leiomyoma (ALM) is a rare variant of uterine smooth muscle tumors. Several recent studies have suggested that ALM has distinct, but also heterogenous, histologic and molecular features, yet little is known about the biology and histogenesis of ALM. Some have even postulated whether the atypical histologic features represent true atypia or simply degenerative changes. In this study, we analyzed the cytologic features of 60 ALM cases and found that ALM could be further divided into 2 subtypes, type I and type II, based primarily on nuclear features. Type I ALM showed round or oval nuclei, distinct and smooth nuclear membranes, prominent nucleoli with perinucleolar halos, and open coarse chromatin. Type II ALM showed elongated or spindled nuclei, irregular nuclear membranes, pinpoint or no nucleoli, and dark smudgy chromatin. There were also architectural differences between type I and type II ALM. Type I ALM often showed diffuse atypia within the tumor, whereas the atypia in type II ALM was patchy, surrounded by usual-type leiomyoma. The 2 subtypes also differed when we compared the immunohistochemical and molecular patterns. Type II tumors showed significantly higher rates of immunoreactivity for p16, p53, and HMGA2 and showed MED12 mutations more frequently than the type I counterparts. Our findings suggest that the type I and type II subtypes of ALM may arise from 2 different pathways. Type I tumors may be related to fumarate hydratase mutations, whereas type II ALM appear to arise in a existing usual-type leiomyomas. PMID:27015034

  15. Usefulness of Skin Explants for Histologic Analysis after Fractional Photothermolysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Bang, Seunghyun; Won, Kwang Hee; Won, Chong Hyun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background Fractional laser resurfacing treatment has been extensively investigated and is widely used. However, the mechanism underlying its effects is poorly understood because of the ethical and cosmetic problems of obtaining skin biopsies required to study the changes after laser treatment. Objective To evaluate the usefulness of human skin explants for the investigation of fractional photothermolysis. Methods Full-thickness discarded skin was treated in 4 ways: no treatment (control), fractional carbon dioxide laser, fractional Er:YAG laser, and fractional 1,550-nm erbium-doped fiber laser. Both treated and non-treated skin samples were cultured ex vivo at the air-medium interface for 7 days. Frozen tissue was sectioned and stained with hematoxylin & eosin for histologic examination and nitro blue tetrazolium chloride for viability testing. Results Skin explants cultured for up to 3 days exhibited histologic changes similar to those observed in in vivo studies, including microscopic treatment zones surrounded by a thermal coagulation zone, re-epithelialization, and formation of microscopic epidermal necrotic debris. However, the explant structure lost its original form within 7 days of culture. The viability of skin explants was maintained for 3 days of culture but was also lost within 7 days. Conclusion The skin explant model may be a useful tool for investigating the immediate or early changes following fractional photothermolysis, but further improvements are required to evaluate the long-term and dermal changes. PMID:26082585

  16. Skin burns after laser exposure: histological analysis and predictive simulation.

    PubMed

    Museux, Nathanaëlle; Perez, Laetitia; Autrique, Laurent; Agay, Diane

    2012-08-01

    Thermal effects of laser irradiation on skin are investigated in this paper. The main purpose is to determine the damage level induced by a laser exposure. Potential burns induced by two lasers (wavelength 808nm and 1940nm) are studied and animal experimentations are performed. Several exposure durations and laser powers are tested. Based on previous works, a mathematical model dedicated to temperature prediction is proposed and finite-element method is implemented. This numerical predictive tool based on the bioheat equation takes into account heat losses due to the convection on skin surface, blood circulatory and also evaporation. Thermal behavior of each skin layer is also described considering distinct thermal and optical properties. Since the mathematical model is able to estimate damage levels, histological analyses were also carried through. It is confirmed that the mathematical model is an efficient predictive tool for estimation of damage caused by lasers and that thermal effects sharply depend on laser wavelength. PMID:22237052

  17. Validation of In utero Tractography of Human Fetal Commissural and Internal Capsule Fibers with Histological Structure Tensor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mitter, Christian; Jakab, András; Brugger, Peter C.; Ricken, Gerda; Gruber, Gerlinde M.; Bettelheim, Dieter; Scharrer, Anke; Langs, Georg; Hainfellner, Johannes A.; Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography offer the unique possibility to visualize the developing white matter macroanatomy of the human fetal brain in vivo and in utero and are currently under investigation for their potential use in the diagnosis of developmental pathologies of the human central nervous system. However, in order to establish in utero DTI as a clinical imaging tool, an independent comparison between macroscopic imaging and microscopic histology data in the same subject is needed. The present study aimed to cross-validate normal as well as abnormal in utero tractography results of commissural and internal capsule fibers in human fetal brains using postmortem histological structure tensor (ST) analysis. In utero tractography findings from two structurally unremarkable and five abnormal fetal brains were compared to the results of postmortem ST analysis applied to digitalized whole hemisphere sections of the same subjects. An approach to perform ST-based deterministic tractography in histological sections was implemented to overcome limitations in correlating in utero tractography to postmortem histology data. ST analysis and histology-based tractography of fetal brain sections enabled the direct assessment of the anisotropic organization and main fiber orientation of fetal telencephalic layers on a micro- and macroscopic scale, and validated in utero tractography results of corpus callosum and internal capsule fiber tracts. Cross-validation of abnormal in utero tractography results could be achieved in four subjects with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) and in two cases with malformations of internal capsule fibers. In addition, potential limitations of current DTI-based in utero tractography could be demonstrated in several brain regions. Combining the three-dimensional nature of DTI-based in utero tractography with the microscopic resolution provided by histological ST analysis may ultimately facilitate a more complete morphologic

  18. Validation of In utero Tractography of Human Fetal Commissural and Internal Capsule Fibers with Histological Structure Tensor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mitter, Christian; Jakab, András; Brugger, Peter C; Ricken, Gerda; Gruber, Gerlinde M; Bettelheim, Dieter; Scharrer, Anke; Langs, Georg; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography offer the unique possibility to visualize the developing white matter macroanatomy of the human fetal brain in vivo and in utero and are currently under investigation for their potential use in the diagnosis of developmental pathologies of the human central nervous system. However, in order to establish in utero DTI as a clinical imaging tool, an independent comparison between macroscopic imaging and microscopic histology data in the same subject is needed. The present study aimed to cross-validate normal as well as abnormal in utero tractography results of commissural and internal capsule fibers in human fetal brains using postmortem histological structure tensor (ST) analysis. In utero tractography findings from two structurally unremarkable and five abnormal fetal brains were compared to the results of postmortem ST analysis applied to digitalized whole hemisphere sections of the same subjects. An approach to perform ST-based deterministic tractography in histological sections was implemented to overcome limitations in correlating in utero tractography to postmortem histology data. ST analysis and histology-based tractography of fetal brain sections enabled the direct assessment of the anisotropic organization and main fiber orientation of fetal telencephalic layers on a micro- and macroscopic scale, and validated in utero tractography results of corpus callosum and internal capsule fiber tracts. Cross-validation of abnormal in utero tractography results could be achieved in four subjects with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) and in two cases with malformations of internal capsule fibers. In addition, potential limitations of current DTI-based in utero tractography could be demonstrated in several brain regions. Combining the three-dimensional nature of DTI-based in utero tractography with the microscopic resolution provided by histological ST analysis may ultimately facilitate a more complete morphologic

  19. Automated high-content morphological analysis of muscle fiber histology.

    PubMed

    Miazaki, Mauro; Viana, Matheus P; Yang, Zhong; Comin, Cesar H; Wang, Yaming; da F Costa, Luciano; Xu, Xiaoyin

    2015-08-01

    In the search for a cure for many muscular disorders it is often necessary to analyze muscle fibers under a microscope. For this morphological analysis, we developed an image processing approach to automatically analyze and quantify muscle fiber images so as to replace today's less accurate and time-consuming manual method. Muscular disorders, that include cardiomyopathy, muscular dystrophies, and diseases of nerves that affect muscles such as neuropathy and myasthenia gravis, affect a large percentage of the population and, therefore, are an area of active research for new treatments. In research, the morphological features of muscle fibers play an important role as they are often used as biomarkers to evaluate the progress of underlying diseases and the effects of potential treatments. Such analysis involves assessing histopathological changes of muscle fibers as indicators for disease severity and also as a criterion in evaluating whether or not potential treatments work. However, quantifying morphological features is time-consuming, as it is usually performed manually, and error-prone. To replace this standard method, we developed an image processing approach to automatically detect and measure the cross-sections of muscle fibers observed under microscopy that produces faster and more objective results. As such, it is well-suited to processing the large number of muscle fiber images acquired in typical experiments, such as those from studies with pre-clinical models that often create many images. Tests on real images showed that the approach can segment and detect muscle fiber membranes and extract morphological features from highly complex images to generate quantitative results that are readily available for statistical analysis. PMID:26004825

  20. Fourier Transform Methods Applied To The Analysis Of Microphotometric Images Of Histologic Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dytch, Harvey E.; Wied, George L.

    1989-06-01

    Implementation of one-dimensional Fourier transform techniques for the analysis of histologic sections is discussed, as is the motivation for their use. Features of the frequency domain representation derived by such a transform are shown to be related to several important diagnostic clues. The interpretation of the Fourier magnitude spectrum in histologically relevant terms is examined by means of Fourier transforms of idealized tissue simulations. Some of the perturbations of these ideal spectra produced by biologic reality are discussed. Three classic types of cervical epithelial tissue are modeled, and their representation as Fourier magnitude spectra interpreted in the light of the previous results: characteristic frequency domain signatures are obtained for each. It is concluded that these techniques may provide diagnostically important objective measures, and may be applied to otherwise intractable histologic specimens with crowded and overlapping nuclei.

  1. Automated Analysis and Classification of Histological Tissue Features by Multi-Dimensional Microscopic Molecular Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Riordan, Daniel P.; Varma, Sushama; West, Robert B.; Brown, Patrick O.

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of the molecular attributes and spatial arrangements of cells and features within complex human tissues provides a critical basis for understanding processes involved in development and disease. Moreover, the ability to automate steps in the analysis and interpretation of histological images that currently require manual inspection by pathologists could revolutionize medical diagnostics. Toward this end, we developed a new imaging approach called multidimensional microscopic molecular profiling (MMMP) that can measure several independent molecular properties in situ at subcellular resolution for the same tissue specimen. MMMP involves repeated cycles of antibody or histochemical staining, imaging, and signal removal, which ultimately can generate information analogous to a multidimensional flow cytometry analysis on intact tissue sections. We performed a MMMP analysis on a tissue microarray containing a diverse set of 102 human tissues using a panel of 15 informative antibody and 5 histochemical stains plus DAPI. Large-scale unsupervised analysis of MMMP data, and visualization of the resulting classifications, identified molecular profiles that were associated with functional tissue features. We then directly annotated H&E images from this MMMP series such that canonical histological features of interest (e.g. blood vessels, epithelium, red blood cells) were individually labeled. By integrating image annotation data, we identified molecular signatures that were associated with specific histological annotations and we developed statistical models for automatically classifying these features. The classification accuracy for automated histology labeling was objectively evaluated using a cross-validation strategy, and significant accuracy (with a median per-pixel rate of 77% per feature from 15 annotated samples) for de novo feature prediction was obtained. These results suggest that high-dimensional profiling may advance the development of computer

  2. Feature-based analysis of mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in histological tissue sections

    PubMed Central

    Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Valkonen, Mira; Nykter, Matti; Visakorpi, Tapio; Latonen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes work presented at the Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology 2015, in Linköping, Sweden. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) represents premalignant tissue involving epithelial growth confined in the lumen of prostatic acini. In the attempts to understand oncogenesis in the human prostate, early neoplastic changes can be modeled in the mouse with genetic manipulation of certain tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. As with many early pathological changes, the PIN lesions in the mouse prostate are macroscopically small, but microscopically spanning areas often larger than single high magnification focus fields in microscopy. This poses a challenge to utilize full potential of the data acquired in histological specimens. We use whole prostates fixed in molecular fixative PAXgene™, embedded in paraffin, sectioned through and stained with H&E. To visualize and analyze the microscopic information spanning whole mouse PIN (mPIN) lesions, we utilize automated whole slide scanning and stacked sections through the tissue. The region of interests is masked, and the masked areas are processed using a cascade of automated image analysis steps. The images are normalized in color space, after which exclusion of secretion areas and feature extraction is performed. Machine learning is utilized to build a model of early PIN lesions for determining the probability for histological changes based on the calculated features. We performed a feature-based analysis to mPIN lesions. First, a quantitative representation of over 100 features was built, including several features representing pathological changes in PIN, especially describing the spatial growth pattern of lesions in the prostate tissue. Furthermore, we built a classification model, which is able to align PIN lesions corresponding to grading by visual inspection to more advanced and mild lesions. The classifier allowed both determining the probability of early histological changes for uncategorized

  3. Feature-based analysis of mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in histological tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Valkonen, Mira; Nykter, Matti; Visakorpi, Tapio; Latonen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes work presented at the Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology 2015, in Linköping, Sweden. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) represents premalignant tissue involving epithelial growth confined in the lumen of prostatic acini. In the attempts to understand oncogenesis in the human prostate, early neoplastic changes can be modeled in the mouse with genetic manipulation of certain tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. As with many early pathological changes, the PIN lesions in the mouse prostate are macroscopically small, but microscopically spanning areas often larger than single high magnification focus fields in microscopy. This poses a challenge to utilize full potential of the data acquired in histological specimens. We use whole prostates fixed in molecular fixative PAXgene™, embedded in paraffin, sectioned through and stained with H&E. To visualize and analyze the microscopic information spanning whole mouse PIN (mPIN) lesions, we utilize automated whole slide scanning and stacked sections through the tissue. The region of interests is masked, and the masked areas are processed using a cascade of automated image analysis steps. The images are normalized in color space, after which exclusion of secretion areas and feature extraction is performed. Machine learning is utilized to build a model of early PIN lesions for determining the probability for histological changes based on the calculated features. We performed a feature-based analysis to mPIN lesions. First, a quantitative representation of over 100 features was built, including several features representing pathological changes in PIN, especially describing the spatial growth pattern of lesions in the prostate tissue. Furthermore, we built a classification model, which is able to align PIN lesions corresponding to grading by visual inspection to more advanced and mild lesions. The classifier allowed both determining the probability of early histological changes for uncategorized

  4. Re-visiting Luck's classification: a histological analysis of Dupuytren's disease.

    PubMed

    Lam, W L; Rawlins, J M; Karoo, R O S; Naylor, I; Sharpe, D T

    2010-05-01

    Luck (1959) described a histological staging system for Dupuytren's disease, classifying the disease into three stages. Previous biochemical and immunochemical studies have detailed the decrease in type III/I collagen ratio with disease progression. Herovici (1963) described a histological stain that produced a differential red/purple and blue colour for type I and III collagen respectively. We stained 15 specimens of Dupuytren's disease and quantified the different collagen types in each using computer analysis. We found a corresponding decrease in the amount of type III collagen as a percentage of the total collagen with disease progression: stage I range 35-49% (mean 38%); stage 2 range 21-33% (mean 27%) and stage 3 range 11-19% (mean 14%). We propose a new staging system based on the relative amount of type III collagen, where stage 1: >35%, stage 2: >20% and <35%, and stage 3: <20%. PMID:20181770

  5. Complex Retrieval of Embedded IVC Filters: Alternative Techniques and Histologic Tissue Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, William T.; Cupp, John S.; Louie, John D.; Kothary, Nishita; Hofmann, Lawrence V.; Sze, Daniel Y.; Hovsepian, David M.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of alternative endovascular methods to retrieve embedded optional and permanent filters in order to manage or reduce risk of long-term complications from implantation. Histologic tissue analysis was performed to elucidate the pathologic effects of chronic filter implantation. Methods: We studied the safety and effectiveness of alternative endovascular methods for removing embedded inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in 10 consecutive patients over 12 months. Indications for retrieval were symptomatic chronic IVC occlusion, caval and aortic perforation, and/or acute PE (pulmonary embolism) from filter-related thrombus. Retrieval was also performed to reduce risk of complications from long-term filter implantation and to eliminate the need for lifelong anticoagulation. All retrieved specimens were sent for histologic analysis. Results: Retrieval was successful in all 10 patients. Filter types and implantation times were as follows: one Venatech (1,495 days), one Simon-Nitinol (1,485 days), one Optease (300 days), one G2 (416 days), five Guenther-Tulip (GTF; mean 606 days, range 154-1,010 days), and one Celect (124 days). There were no procedural complications or adverse events at a mean follow-up of 304 days after removal (range 196-529 days). Histology revealed scant native intima surrounded by a predominance of neointimal hyperplasia and dense fibrosis in all specimens. Histologic evidence of photothermal tissue ablation was confirmed in three laser-treated specimens. Conclusion: Complex retrieval methods can now be used in select patients to safely remove embedded optional and permanent IVC filters previously considered irretrievable. Neointimal hyperplasia and dense fibrosis are the major components that must be separated to achieve successful retrieval of chronic filter implants.

  6. Biocompatibility Assessment of Detonation Nanodiamond in Non-Human Primates and Rats Using Histological, Hematologic, and Urine Analysis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Laura; Yang, Junyu; Lan, Thanh T Ha; Osawa, Eiji; Lee, Dong-Keun; Johnson, William D; Xi, Jianzhong; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua; Ho, Dean

    2016-08-23

    Detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) have been widely explored for biomedical applications ranging from cancer therapy to magnetic resonance imaging due to several promising properties. These include faceted surfaces that mediate potent drug binding and water coordination that have resulted in marked enhancements to the efficacy and safety of drug delivery and imaging. In addition, scalable processing of DNDs yields uniform particles. Furthermore, a broad spectrum of biocompatibility studies has shown that DNDs appear to be well-tolerated. Prior to the clinical translation of DNDs for indications that are addressed via intravenous administration, comprehensive assessment of DND safety in both small and large animal preclinical models is needed. This article reports the results of a DND biocompatibility study in both non-human primates and rats. The rat study was performed as a multiple dose subacute investigation in two cohorts that lasted for 2 weeks and included histological, serum, and urine analysis. The non-human primate study was performed as a dual gender, multiple dose, and long-term investigation in both standard/clinically relevant and elevated dosing cohorts that lasted for 6 months and included comprehensive serum, urine, histological, and body weight analysis. The results from these studies indicate that NDs are well-tolerated at clinically relevant doses. Examination of dose-dependent changes in biomarker levels provides important guidance for the downstream in-human validation of DNDs for clinical drug delivery and imaging. PMID:27439019

  7. Analysis of angiogenic factors and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in cartilaginous tumors – clinical and histological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Cintra, Francisco Fontes; Etchebehere, Mauricio; Gonçalves, José Carlos Barbi; Cassone, Alejandro Enzo; Amstalden, Eliane Maria Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the role of angiogenesis and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in cartilaginous tumors and correlate these factors with prognosis. INTRODUCTION: For chondrosarcoma, the histological grade is the current standard for predicting tumor outcome. However, a low-grade chondrosarcoma can follow an aggressive course—as monitored by sequential imaging techniques—even when it is histologically indistinguishable from an enchondroma. Therefore, additional tools are needed to help identify the biological potential of these tumors. The degree of angiogenesis that is induced by the tumor could assist in this task. Angiogenesis can be quantified by measuring the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and CD34, and cyclooxygenase-2 can induce angiogenesis by stimulating the production of pro-angiogenic factors. METHODS: In total, 21 enchondromas and 58 conventional chondrosarcomas were studied by examining the clinical and histopathological findings in conjunction with the immunostaining markers of angiogenesis and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. RESULTS: The significant variables that were associated with poor outcome were 1) higher-grade chondrosarcomas, 2) tumors that developed in flat bones, and 3) over-expression of CD34 (with a median count that was higher than 5.9 vessels in 5 high power fields). Moreover, CD34 expression (measured using the Chalkley method) revealed significantly higher microvessel density in flat bone chondrosarcomas. DISCUSSION: Previous studies have shown a positive correlation between Chalkley microvessel density and histological grade; however, in our sample, we found that the former is predictive of the outcome. Chondrosarcomas in flat bones have been shown to correlate with a poor prognosis. We also found that CD34 microvessel density values were significantly higher in flat-bone chondrosarcomas. This could explain—at least in part—the more aggressive biological course that is taken by these tumors. CONCLUSIONS: These

  8. Cellular Blue Nevomelanocytic Lesions: Analysis of Clinical, Histological, and Outcome Data in 37 Cases.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tawny; Argenyi, Zsolt; Erickson, Lori; Guitart, Joan; Horenstein, Marcelo G; Lowe, Lori; Messina, Jane; Piepkorn, Michael W; Prieto, Victor G; Rabkin, Michael S; Schmidt, Birgitta; Selim, Maria A; Shea, Christopher R; Trotter, Martin J; Barnhill, Raymond L

    2016-07-01

    Cellular blue nevomelanocytic lesions (CBNLs) frequently pose diagnostic problems to pathologists, and their biological potential may be difficult to establish. In this study, the authors have analyzed the clinical, histological, and outcome data of 37 cellular blue nevomelanocytic lesions and the molecular characteristics of 4 lesions. The cohort of cases comprised 8 cellular blue nevi (CBNs), 17 atypical cellular blue nevi (ACBNs), and 12 blue-nevus-like melanomas (BNLMs) with a mean follow-up of 5 years. The average age at diagnosis was 25.9 years for patients with ACBN, versus 30.4 years for CBN, and 44.6 years for BNLM. Both CBN and ACBN occurred most frequently on the trunk or extremities, whereas BNLM primarily involved the scalp. Histologically, CBN and ACBN were characterized by a mean diameter of <1 cm, absence of necrosis, low mitotic rate (mean: 1-2 mitotic figures/mm), little or no infiltrative properties, and usually low-grade cytologic atypia. In contrast, BNLM had a mean diameter of 1.6 cm, necrosis, tissue infiltration, greater mitotic activity (mean: 6 mitotic figures/mm), and high-grade cytologic atypia. ACBNs often were larger, more densely cellular, exhibited higher mitotic counts, and were cytologically more atypical than CBN. Seven CBN cases with follow-up had a benign clinical course (average follow-up of 4.7 years). Among 6 patients with ACBN who underwent sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy, 3 were positive, and a single additional case had 1 positive non-SLN (this patient did not have a SLN biopsy performed). All 14 cases of ACBN with follow-up were alive and without recurrence with mean follow-up of 5 years. Of the 9 melanoma cases with follow-up, 3 patients with SLN and non-SLN involvement died from their disease (average follow-up of 4.8 years). Array comparative genomic hybridization was performed on 2 ACBNs and 1 BNLM: One of the 2 ACBNs showed chromosomal aberrations and 1 BNLM showed multiple chromosomal gains and losses. Multiplex

  9. Localization of the human cortical visual area MT based on computer aided histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Annese, J; Gazzaniga, M S; Toga, A W

    2005-07-01

    We describe human area MT histologically based on the observer independent analysis of cortical myeloarchiteture, multiple complementary staining techniques and 3-D reconstruction. The topography of an architectonic field that presented constant structural characteristics across specimens was studied in relation to the sulcal geography of the occipito-temporal region. Objective and semi-automated analysis of local microstructure revealed a distinct cortical architecture and matched topographically the localization of MT derived from functional imaging. MT was localized by the histotopographic method in relation to definite macroscopic landmarks. This study demonstrates a new set of distinguishing architectonic features of human MT that permit localization on structural grounds and suggests that the characteristic laminar structure of this area may be related to its unique pattern of connections and to its role in visual perception. PMID:15590914

  10. Alpha-CTLA-4 mAb-associated panenteritis: a histologic and immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Oble, Darryl A; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Goldsmith, Jeffrey; Hodi, F Stephen; Seliem, Rania M; Dranoff, Glenn; Mihm, Martin; Hasserjian, Robert; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2008-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) molecule are used as an adjuvant to experimental tumor immunization protocols in the treatment of malignant melanomas and ovarian cancers. Aside from noted early therapeutic successes, a spectrum of adverse effects, including severe gastroenteritis, has been reported. We report herein our observations of 5 patients who developed severe gastrointestinal toxicity affecting the gastric, small intestinal, and colonic mucosa. The endoscopic findings were variable, ranging from normal to diffusely erythematous and ulcerated mucosa. The constant histologic findings included a lymphoplasmacytic expansion of the lamina propria with increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes. Increased epithelial apoptosis was also a distinctive feature. Cryptitis and glandular inflammation were observed in the colon, ileum, and stomach, whereas villous blunting was present in the ileal and duodenal mucosa. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a marked increase of all T-cell subsets (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) and of CD4CD25 regulatory T cells. We conclude that the panenteritis associated with injection of alpha-CTLA-4 mAbs demonstrates histology resembling autoimmune enteropathy. Furthermore, although the pathogenesis of immune dysregulation after the infusion of alpha-CTLA-4 mAbs remains unclear, we suspect that the increased number of regulatory T cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa may play a role in the pathogenicity. PMID:18545145

  11. A tortoiseshell male cat: chromosome analysis and histologic examination of the testis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, A S; Berg, L C; Almstrup, K; Thomsen, P D

    2014-01-01

    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man: the extra X chromosome of a 39,XXY karyotype introduces the possibility of an orange and a non-orange allele which produce the mixture of orange and non-orange coat spotting known as tortoiseshell. We analyzed the chromosome complement of a fibroblast culture and did histological examinations of testicular tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells. Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. PMID:24335095

  12. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Gotham, Douglas J.; Luciani, Ralph L.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  13. Histological data in a combined phylogenetic analysis of scleractinian reef corals.

    PubMed

    Cordie, David R; Budd, Ann F

    2016-04-01

    Scleractinian systematics have undergone rapid changes due to increased use of molecular phylogenetics and new perspectives on skeletal morphology from micromorphology and microstructure. Despite this increase in characters there are still unresolved clades in the phylogeny, indicating that more characters are needed. This study investigates a new source of morphological data within the soft tissue of Indo-Pacific scleractinian corals. Features of tissue layers, especially cnidocytes, are described in hematoxylin and eosin stained thin sections. Based on this new histological data source, a combined analysis with mitochondrial DNA and skeletal data is performed using parsimony and Bayesian analysis. Parsimony analysis yields three most-parsimonious trees similar to trees based on Bayesian analysis. Character maps are also produced that show origination of histomorphological traits at deep nodes within the phylogeny. In general, both analyses retain the previously designated families Lobophylliidae and Merulinidae, but some genera are found to be paraphyletic. Nonetheless, the combined analysis produces a highly resolved and well-supported phylogeny, which could lead to more effective use of biological conservation metrics based on evolutionary distinctiveness. These results show for the first time that inclusion of histomorphological characters improves the resolution of phylogenetic analyses of reef corals. PMID:26843148

  14. Neovascularization and coronary atherosclerotic plaque: cinematographic localization and quantitative histologic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamat, B R; Galli, S J; Barger, A C; Lainey, L L; Silverman, K J

    1987-10-01

    A new technique was developed for analyzing the neovascularization associated with coronary artery atherosclerosis: cinematography during silicone polymer injection of the coronary arteries of fixed and cleared human hearts, followed by histologic analysis in routine and 1-micron-thick, Epon-embedded sections. Twenty-two hearts obtained at autopsy were studied. On the basis of cinematographic findings, individual regions of the coronary arteries were classified as negative, positive, or abundantly positive for neovascularization. Positive and abundantly positive areas, which invariably occurred in segments exhibiting changes of atherosclerosis, contained numerous small vessels in the adventitia and outer media (4.7 +/- 1.5 and 9.8 +/- 1.3 [SE] vessel profiles/artery cross-section in positive and abundantly positive areas, versus 1.0 +/- 0.6 in negative regions). Abundantly positive areas, which occurred in coronary artery segments demonstrating the most extensive atherosclerotic change, contained numerous small vessels in the inner media or in the plaque itself. Some of these microvessels were in close proximity to mast cells, which represent potentially rich sources of mediators affecting vascular tone and permeability. Vessels were not observed in the inner media or in atherosclerotic plaque in areas designated either positive or negative by cinematography. These findings show how our approach can be used both to define the three-dimensional, in situ configuration of coronary artery neovascularization and to characterize the histology of this process in detail. They also confirm previous work indicating that areas of coronary arteries involved by atherosclerosis frequently exhibit extensive neovascularization. PMID:2443438

  15. Histology-directed microwave assisted enzymatic protein digestion for MALDI MS analysis of mammalian tissue.

    PubMed

    Taverna, Domenico; Norris, Jeremy L; Caprioli, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    This study presents on-tissue proteolytic digestion using a microwave irradiation and peptide extraction method for in situ analysis of proteins from spatially defined regions of a tissue section. The methodology utilizes hydrogel discs (1 mm diameter) embedded with trypsin solution. The enzyme-laced hydrogel discs are applied to a tissue section, directing enzymatic digestion to a spatially confined area of the tissue. By applying microwave radiation, protein digestion is performed in 2 min on-tissue, and the extracted peptides are then analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The reliability and reproducibility of the microwave assisted hydrogel mediated on-tissue digestion is demonstrated by the comparison with other on-tissue digestion strategies, including comparisons with conventional heating and in-solution digestion. LC-MS/MS data were evaluated considering the number of identified proteins as well as the number of protein groups and distinct peptides. The results of this study demonstrate that rapid and reliable protein digestion can be performed on a single thin tissue section while preserving the relationship between the molecular information obtained and the tissue architecture, and the resulting peptides can be extracted in sufficient abundance to permit analysis using LC-MS/MS. This approach will be most useful for samples that have limited availability but are needed for multiple analyses, especially for the correlation of proteomics data with histology and immunohistochemistry. PMID:25427280

  16. Histological and physical analysis of bone neoformation by osteogenesis distraction: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Vannucci, Marcello Gaieta; Dreyer, Juliana; Kreisner, Paulo; Gaião, Leonilson; Moraes, João Feliz Duarte; de Oliveira, Marilia Gerhardt

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Osteogenesis distraction (OD) is a mainstream technique in maxillofacial surgical reconstruction with varied applications. OD technique employs a distractor with the aim to get new bone in the site of interest. Osseous maturation time is necessary before the device can be removed and few patients’ complaint of related discomfort, especially when these devices are external, and induces superficial infections, paresthesia, hypertrophic scars and social relationship difficulties. The use of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has been proved beneficial to soft tissue and osseous repairs. Materials and Method: 12 rabbits were randomly divided in to two groups. In all animals, distractor was placed and one group was exposed to LLLT while the other group served as control. After consolidation, animals were sacrificed, the new bone formed were subjected to investigations including histomorphometric, physical analysis and tomographical analysis. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. Result: Newly formed bone was significantly different between the groups. The physical properties of the neobone were comparatively better when the animals were exposed to LLLT with varying statistical significance. Conclusion: The results obtained with smaller sample size in this study need to be interpreted with care. The results of this preliminary pilot study encourage the use of LLLT during healing period. However the histological, tomographical and physical findings need to be ascertained using a larger sample size to study the bio-stimulatory effects with laser therapy from basics to clinical relevance on wound and bone healing. PMID:23482632

  17. Mucocele-like lesions of the breast: a clinical outcome and histologic analysis of 102 cases.

    PubMed

    Meares, Annie L; Frank, Ryan D; Degnim, Amy C; Vierkant, Robert A; Frost, Marlene H; Hartmann, Lynn C; Winham, Stacey J; Visscher, Daniel W

    2016-03-01

    Mucocele-like lesions (MLLs) of the breast are characterized by cystic architecture with stromal mucin and frequent atypia, but it is unknown whether they convey long-term breast cancer risk. We evaluated 102 MLLs that were derived from a single-institution benign breast disease cohort of 13412 women who underwent biopsy from 1967 to 2001. MLLs were histologically characterized by type of lining epithelium, architecture of the lesion, associated atypical hyperplasia (AH), and incidence of breast cancer (14.8-year median follow-up). A relatively large proportion of MLLs (42%) were diagnosed in women older than 55 years. AH was significantly more frequent in MLL patient compared to the cohort overall (27% versus 5%; P < .001). Breast cancer has developed in 13 patients with MLL. This frequency is only slightly higher than population expected rates overall (standardized incidence ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-3.91) and not significantly different from women in the cohort with (nonatypical) proliferative breast lesions. Younger women (<45) with MLL had a nonsignificant increase in risk of cancer compared to the general population (standardized incidence ratio, 5.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-13.23). We conclude that MLL is an uncommon breast lesion that is often associated with coexisting AH. However, in women older than 45 years, MLLs do not convey additional risk of breast cancer beyond that associated with the presence of proliferative disease. PMID:26826407

  18. Metabolite Analysis and Histology on the Exact Same Tissue: Comprehensive Metabolomic Profiling and Metabolic Classification of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Huan, Tao; Troyer, Dean A; Li, Liang

    2016-01-01

    We report a method of metabolomic profiling of intact tissue based on molecular preservation by extraction and fixation (mPREF) and high-performance chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). mPREF extracts metabolites by aqueous methanol from tissue biopsies without altering tissue architecture and thus conventional histology can be performed on the same tissue. In a proof-of-principle study, we applied dansylation LC-MS to profile the amine/phenol submetabolome of prostate needle biopsies from 25 patient samples derived from 16 subjects. 2900 metabolites were consistently detected in more than 50% of the samples. This unprecedented coverage allowed us to identify significant metabolites for differentiating tumor and normal tissues. The panel of significant metabolites was refined using 36 additional samples from 18 subjects. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis showed area-under-the-curve (AUC) of 0.896 with sensitivity of 84.6% and specificity of 83.3% using 7 metabolites. A blind study of 24 additional validation samples gave a specificity of 90.9% at the same sensitivity of 84.6%. The mPREF extraction can be readily implemented into the existing clinical workflow. Our method of combining mPREF with CIL LC-MS offers a powerful and convenient means of performing histopathology and discovering or detecting metabolite biomarkers in the same tissue biopsy. PMID:27578275

  19. Metabolite Analysis and Histology on the Exact Same Tissue: Comprehensive Metabolomic Profiling and Metabolic Classification of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Tao; Troyer, Dean A.; Li, Liang

    2016-01-01

    We report a method of metabolomic profiling of intact tissue based on molecular preservation by extraction and fixation (mPREF) and high-performance chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). mPREF extracts metabolites by aqueous methanol from tissue biopsies without altering tissue architecture and thus conventional histology can be performed on the same tissue. In a proof-of-principle study, we applied dansylation LC-MS to profile the amine/phenol submetabolome of prostate needle biopsies from 25 patient samples derived from 16 subjects. 2900 metabolites were consistently detected in more than 50% of the samples. This unprecedented coverage allowed us to identify significant metabolites for differentiating tumor and normal tissues. The panel of significant metabolites was refined using 36 additional samples from 18 subjects. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis showed area-under-the-curve (AUC) of 0.896 with sensitivity of 84.6% and specificity of 83.3% using 7 metabolites. A blind study of 24 additional validation samples gave a specificity of 90.9% at the same sensitivity of 84.6%. The mPREF extraction can be readily implemented into the existing clinical workflow. Our method of combining mPREF with CIL LC-MS offers a powerful and convenient means of performing histopathology and discovering or detecting metabolite biomarkers in the same tissue biopsy. PMID:27578275

  20. Digital histologic analysis reveals morphometric patterns of age-related involution in breast epithelium and stroma.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Rupninder; Chollet-Hinton, Lynn; Kirk, Erin L; Midkiff, Bentley; Troester, Melissa A

    2016-02-01

    Complete age-related regression of mammary epithelium, often termed postmenopausal involution, is associated with decreased breast cancer risk. However, most studies have qualitatively assessed involution. We quantitatively analyzed epithelium, stroma, and adipose tissue from histologically normal breast tissue of 454 patients in the Normal Breast Study. High-resolution digital images of normal breast hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were partitioned into epithelium, adipose tissue, and nonfatty stroma. Percentage area and nuclei per unit area (nuclear density) were calculated for each component. Quantitative data were evaluated in association with age using linear regression and cubic spline models. Stromal area decreased (P = 0.0002), and adipose tissue area increased (P < 0.0001), with an approximate 0.7% change in area for each component, until age 55 years when these area measures reached a steady state. Although epithelial area did not show linear changes with age, epithelial nuclear density decreased linearly beginning in the third decade of life. No significant age-related trends were observed for stromal or adipose nuclear density. Digital image analysis offers a high-throughput method for quantitatively measuring tissue morphometry and for objectively assessing age-related changes in adipose tissue, stroma, and epithelium. Epithelial nuclear density is a quantitative measure of age-related breast involution that begins to decline in the early premenopausal period. PMID:26772400

  1. Histological and finite element analysis of cell death due to irreversible electroporation.

    PubMed

    Long, G; Bakos, G; Shires, P K; Gritter, L; Crissman, J W; Harris, J L; Clymer, J W

    2014-12-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) has been shown to be an effective method of killing cells locally. In contrast to radiofrequency ablation, the mechanism by which cells are thought to die via IRE is the creation of pores in cell membranes, without substantial increase in tissue temperature. To determine the degree to which cell death is non-thermal, we evaluated IRE in porcine hepatocytes in vivo. Using pulse widths of 10 µs, bursts of 3 kV square-wave pulses were applied through a custom probe to the liver of an anesthetized pig. Affected tissue was evaluated histologically via stainings of hematoxylin & eosin (H&E), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) to monitor cell respiration and TUNEL to gauge apoptosis. Temperature was measured during the application of electroporation, and heat transfer was modeled via finite element analysis. Cell death was calculated via Arrhenius kinetics. Four distinct zones were observed within the ring return electrode; heat-fixed tissue, coagulation, necrotic, and viable. The Arrhenius damage integral estimated complete cell death only in the first zone, where the temperature exceeded 70°C, and partial or no cell death in the other zones, where maximum temperature was approximately 45°C. Except for a limited area near the electrode tip, cell death in IRE is predominantly due to a non-thermal mechanism. PMID:24000980

  2. Comparing the TiOblast and Osseospeed surfaces. Histomorphometric and histological analysis in humans

    PubMed Central

    ROCCI, M.; ROCCI, A.; MARTIGNONI, M.; ALBREKTSSON, T.; BARLATTANI, A.; GARGARI, M.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of the present study was to compare two implant surfaces, the TiOblast (Astra Tech) surface, manufactured by blasting the surface and already present in literature and the Osseospeed (Astra Tech) surface, manufactured by blasting and treating the surface with fluoride ions and recently launched onto the market with the modified surfaces of the latest generation. This study is part of a more extensive research project whose protocol required the insertion of 10 couples of implants; thus in the present discussion partial data are being taken into consideration, with an eye at collecting more data in the future, regarding both microscopy and histomorphometric histological analysis on 5 couples of implants. The purpose of the study is to investigate how the modified surfaces of the latest generation can guarantee a greater osseointegration both from a qualitative and quantitative level compared to the surfaces presently used and that they may represent the first example of “bioactivity”, that is, an active interaction with the processes of new bone formation and tissue healing. PMID:23285334

  3. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of colonic dysplasia: prospects for optical histological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, Ramasamy; Zonios, George I.; Cothren, Robert M., Jr.; Arendt, Joseph; Van Dam, Jacques; Feld, Michael S.

    1995-05-01

    Several groups have shown that laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy can detect dysplastic changes in human colon tissues. We present an approach based on analysis of the underlying tissue microstructure for extracting histological information from such spectral signals. The method employs fluorescence microscopy and tissue optics to model the `bulk' fluorescence collected with an optical fiber probe in a clinical setting. For both colonic normal and adenoma, we measured the intrinsic fluorescence lineshapes, the spatial distributions of the fluorophores, and optical parameters of tissue. Numerical and analytical solutions to the radiative transfer equation were then used to compute fluorescence spectra. The results of the model were in excellent agreement with clinical spectra collected during colonoscopy, using 370 nm excitation. Four factors were found to be responsible for the spectral differences between normal tissue and adenoma: fluorescence of mucosal collagen, dysplastic cell, and submucosa, and hemoglobin attenuation. Preliminary results indicate that these parameters can be extracted from individual clinical spectra by reversing the modeling procedure.

  4. Osteoarthritic cartilage lesions in the bovine patellar groove: a macroscopic, histological and immunohistological analysis.

    PubMed

    Heinola, T; Sukura, A; Virkki, L M; Sillat, T; Lekszycki, T; Konttinen, Y T

    2014-04-01

    A high percentage of osteoarthritis (OA)-like patellar groove lesions in the stifle joint in calcium-deficient bulls has been recently reported. The prevalence of these lesions in bulls deficient in or supplemented with calcium was compared to findings in culled and healthy bulls to determine whether they represent normal anatomical variations, developmental anomalies or OA. It was hypothesized that the patellar groove lesions may represent OA. Distal cartilage samples from 160 femurs were analysed using a macroscopic Société Française d'Arthroscopie (SFA) OA grading system. Samples representing different SFA grades were subjected to Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) histological and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) immunohistological OA grading. For a qualitative analysis three OA samples were immunostained for interleukin (IL)-1β, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and collagenase-produced COL2-3/4M neoepitopes. Patellar groove lesions were found in 48% of the femurs and were highest in calcium-deficient animals (71%, P<0.001). All three different grading systems disclosed OA in culled bulls, but no focal areas of cartilage necrosis. OARSI and HMGB1 grades were fairly concordant (Spearman's ρ=0.95, P<0.001; Cohen's κ=0.23, P<0.005), both with a slight disparity with the SFA grade (ρ=0.80 and 0.87, P<0.01; κ=0.36 and 0.46, P<0.001). IL-1β, MMP-13 and COL2-3/4M staining patterns were compatible with OA. The study showed that patellar groove lesions are common in bulls. In all SFA, OARSI and HMGB1 graded samples the lesions clearly demonstrated OA and showed OA-typical pathophysiology. Arthroscopic SFA grading showed similar changes in calcium-deficient and calcium-supplemented bulls, but in the absence of a time course study and histological data the primary nature of these lesions could not be established with certainty. PMID:24581814

  5. Acid Rain Analysis by Standard Addition Titration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ophardt, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    The standard addition titration is a precise and rapid method for the determination of the acidity in rain or snow samples. The method requires use of a standard buret, a pH meter, and Gran's plot to determine the equivalence point. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are presented. (JN)

  6. Histological and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adult Japanese Medaka Sampled Onboard the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Takako; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Oda, Shoji; Mantoku, Akiko; Takeyama, Kazuhiro; Chatani, Masahiro; Kudo, Akira; Uchida, Satoko; Suzuki, Hiromi; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shirakawa, Masaki; Fujisawa, Koichi; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Terai, Shuji; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    To understand how humans adapt to the space environment, many experiments can be conducted on astronauts as they work aboard the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS). We also need animal experiments that can apply to human models and help prevent or solve the health issues we face in space travel. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a suitable model fish for studying space adaptation as evidenced by adults of the species having mated successfully in space during 15 days of flight during the second International Microgravity Laboratory mission in 1994. The eggs laid by the fish developed normally and hatched as juveniles in space. In 2012, another space experiment (“Medaka Osteoclast”) was conducted. Six-week-old male and female Japanese medaka (Cab strain osteoblast transgenic fish) were maintained in the Aquatic Habitat system for two months in the ISS. Fish of the same strain and age were used as the ground controls. Six fish were fixed with paraformaldehyde or kept in RNA stabilization reagent (n = 4) and dissected for tissue sampling after being returned to the ground, so that several principal investigators working on the project could share samples. Histology indicated no significant changes except in the ovary. However, the RNA-seq analysis of 5345 genes from six tissues revealed highly tissue-specific space responsiveness after a two-month stay in the ISS. Similar responsiveness was observed among the brain and eye, ovary and testis, and the liver and intestine. Among these six tissues, the intestine showed the highest space response with 10 genes categorized as oxidation–reduction processes (gene ontogeny term GO:0055114), and the expression levels of choriogenin precursor genes were suppressed in the ovary. Eleven genes including klf9, klf13, odc1, hsp70 and hif3a were upregulated in more than four of the tissues examined, thus suggesting common immunoregulatory and stress responses during space adaptation. PMID:26427061

  7. Histological and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adult Japanese Medaka Sampled Onboard the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Takako; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Oda, Shoji; Mantoku, Akiko; Takeyama, Kazuhiro; Chatani, Masahiro; Kudo, Akira; Uchida, Satoko; Suzuki, Hiromi; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shirakawa, Masaki; Fujisawa, Koichi; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Terai, Shuji; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    To understand how humans adapt to the space environment, many experiments can be conducted on astronauts as they work aboard the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS). We also need animal experiments that can apply to human models and help prevent or solve the health issues we face in space travel. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a suitable model fish for studying space adaptation as evidenced by adults of the species having mated successfully in space during 15 days of flight during the second International Microgravity Laboratory mission in 1994. The eggs laid by the fish developed normally and hatched as juveniles in space. In 2012, another space experiment ("Medaka Osteoclast") was conducted. Six-week-old male and female Japanese medaka (Cab strain osteoblast transgenic fish) were maintained in the Aquatic Habitat system for two months in the ISS. Fish of the same strain and age were used as the ground controls. Six fish were fixed with paraformaldehyde or kept in RNA stabilization reagent (n = 4) and dissected for tissue sampling after being returned to the ground, so that several principal investigators working on the project could share samples. Histology indicated no significant changes except in the ovary. However, the RNA-seq analysis of 5345 genes from six tissues revealed highly tissue-specific space responsiveness after a two-month stay in the ISS. Similar responsiveness was observed among the brain and eye, ovary and testis, and the liver and intestine. Among these six tissues, the intestine showed the highest space response with 10 genes categorized as oxidation-reduction processes (gene ontogeny term GO:0055114), and the expression levels of choriogenin precursor genes were suppressed in the ovary. Eleven genes including klf9, klf13, odc1, hsp70 and hif3a were upregulated in more than four of the tissues examined, thus suggesting common immunoregulatory and stress responses during space adaptation. PMID:26427061

  8. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  9. Classification of histologically scored human knee osteochondral plugs by quantitative analysis of magnetic resonance images at 3T.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Vanessa A; Fishbein, Kenneth W; Lin, Ping-Chang; Schär, Michael; Schneider, Erika; Neu, Corey P; Spencer, Richard G; Reiter, David A

    2015-05-01

    This work evaluates the ability of quantitative MRI to discriminate between normal and pathological human osteochondral plugs characterized by the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) histological system. Normal and osteoarthritic human osteochondral plugs were scored using the OARSI histological system and imaged at 3 T using MRI sequences producing T1 and T2 contrast and measuring T1, T2, and T2* relaxation times, magnetization transfer, and diffusion. The classification accuracies of quantitative MRI parameters and corresponding weighted image intensities were evaluated. Classification models based on the Mahalanobis distance metric for each MRI measurement were trained and validated using leave-one-out cross-validation with plugs grouped according to OARSI histological grade and score. MRI measurements used for classification were performed using a region-of-interest analysis which included superficial, deep, and full-thickness cartilage. The best classifiers based on OARSI grade and score were T1- and T2-weighted image intensities, which yielded accuracies of 0.68 and 0.75, respectively. Classification accuracies using OARSI score-based group membership were generally higher when compared with grade-based group membership. MRI-based classification--either using quantitative MRI parameters or weighted image intensities--is able to detect early osteoarthritic tissue changes as classified by the OARSI histological system. These findings suggest the benefit of incorporating quantitative MRI acquisitions in a comprehensive clinical evaluation of OA. PMID:25641500

  10. Epidemiology of Histologically Proven Glomerulonephritis in Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Okpechi, Ikechi G.; Ameh, Oluwatoyin I.; Bello, Aminu K.; Ronco, Pierre; Swanepoel, Charles R.; Kengne, Andre P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Glomerulonephritis (GN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Africa. Data on epidemiology and outcomes of glomerular diseases from Africa is still limited. We conducted a systematic review on the epidemiology of histologically proven glomerular diseases in Africa between 1980 and 2014. Materials and methods We searched literature using PubMed, AfricaWide, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature on EBSCO Host, Scopus, African Journals online databases, and the African Index Medicus, for relevant studies. The review was conducted using standard methods and frameworks using only biopsy-confirmed data. Results Twenty four (24) studies comprising 12,093 reported biopsies from 13 countries were included in this analysis. The median number of biopsies per study was 127.0 (50–4436), most of the studies (70.0%) originated from North Africa and the number of performed kidney biopsies varied from 5.2 to 617 biopsies/year. Nephrotic syndrome was the commonest indication of renal biopsy. The frequency of reported primary pathologic patterns included, minimal change disease (MCD); 16.5% (95%CI: 11.2–22.6), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS); 15.9% (11.3–21.1), mesangiocapillary GN (MCGN); 11.8% (9.2–14.6), crescentic GN; 2.0% (0.9–3.5) and IgA nephropathy 2.8% (1.3–4.9). Glomerular diseases related to hepatitis B and systemic lupus erythematosus had the highest prevalence among assessed secondary diseases: 8.4% (2.0–18.4) and 7.7% (4.5–11.7) respectively. There was no evidence of publication bias and regional differences were seen mostly for secondary GNs. Conclusions Glomerular diseases remain poorly characterized in sub-Saharan Africa due to declining renal biopsy rates and consequent paucity of data on pathologic patterns of key renal diseases. Development of renal biopsy registries in Africa is likely to enable adequate characterization of the prevalence and patterns of glomerular diseases

  11. Analysis of repeated 24-core saturation prostate biopsy: Inverse association between asymptomatic histological inflammation and prostate cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Tomonori; Komiya, Akira; Morii, Akihiro; Iida, Hiroaki; Ito, Takatoshi; Fuse, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Saturation prostate biopsy protocols have been developed to improve the prostate cancer (PCa) detection rate, particularly in the setting of repeat biopsies. The present study attempted to clarify the association between PCa detection and various risk factors in repeat saturation biopsies. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 78 Japanese patients for whom findings had caused suspicion of PCa despite previous negative prostate biopsies, and who consecutively underwent a 24-core transperineal repeat biopsy at Toyama University Hospital (Toyama, Japan). PCa was confirmed histologically in 16 of the 78 patients (20.5%). A univariate analysis revealed that the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at repeat biopsy was higher (P<0.01), the fPSA/tPSA ratio was lower (P=0.04), the total prostate volume was smaller (P=0.01) and the PSA density was higher (P<0.01) in PCa patients than in patients with benign prostatic disease (BPD). Histological inflammation was more frequently observed in BPD patients than in PCa patients (P<0.01). A multivariate analysis revealed that histological inflammation was the only independent predictor of the presence of a malignant lesion on repeat biopsy (odds ratio, 0.027; P=0.01). It must be considered that inflammation may cause a PSA increase in some patients with a negative initial biopsy, leading to unnecessary repeat biopsy. PMID:27446407

  12. Discordance of Intraoperative Frozen Section Analysis with Definitive Histology of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer Surgery: Complementary Axillary Lymph Node Dissection is Irrelevant for Subsequent Systemic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Geertsema, D.; Gobardhan, P. D.; Madsen, E. V. E.; Albregts, M.; van Gorp, J.; de Hooge, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background In breast cancer surgery, intraoperative frozen section (FS) analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) enables axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) during the same operative procedure. In case of discordance between a “negative” FS analysis and definitive histology, an ALND as a second operation is advocated since additional lymph node metastases may be present. The clinical implications of the subsequent ALND in these patients were evaluated. Materials and Methods Between November 2000 and May 2008, 879 consecutive breast cancer patients underwent surgery including sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) with intraoperative FS analysis of 2 central cuts from axillary SLNs. Following fixation and serial sectioning, SLNs were further examined postoperatively with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical techniques. For patients with a discordant FS examination, the effect of the pathology findings of the subsequent ALND specimen on subsequent nonsurgical therapy were evaluated. Results FS analysis detected axillary metastases in the SLN(s) in 200 patients (23%), while the definitive pathology examination detected metastases in SLNs in another 151 patients (17%). A complementary ALND was performed in 108 of the 151 patients with discordant FS. Additional tumor positive axillary lymph nodes were found in 17 patients (16%), leading to “upstaging” in 7 (6%). Subsequent nonsurgical treatment was adjusted in 4 patients (4%): all 4 had more extensive locoregional radiotherapy; no patient received additional hormonal and/or chemotherapy. Conclusion Discordance between intraoperative FS analysis and definitive histology of SLNs is common. In this selection of patients, a substantial proportion had additional lymph node metastases, but postsurgical treatment was rarely adjusted based on the findings of the complementary ALND. PMID:20422461

  13. Bone graft and mesenchimal stem cells: clinical observations and histological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bertolai, Roberto; Catelani, Carlo; Aversa, Alessandro; Rossi, Alessandro; Giannini, Domenico; Bani, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Summary Autologous bone, for its osteoconductive, osteoinductive and osteogenetic properties, has been considered to be the gold standard for maxillary sinus augmentation procedures. Autograft procedures bring also some disadvantages: sometimes the limited amount of available intraoral bone makes necessary to obtain bone from an extraoral site, and this carries an associated morbidity. To overcome this problem we started using homologous freeze-dried bone in maxillary sinus augmentation procedures. This bone is industrially processed with γ-irradiation to eliminate its disease transmission potential and it’s considered safe, but this treatment also eliminates the osteoinductive and osteogenetic properties, making it just an inert scaffold for regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells are successfully used in and orthopedic surgery for their amplification potential of healing mechanisms. We assumed that mesenchymal stem cells can restore the osteogenetic and osteoinductive properties in homologous bone grafts. The aim of this study was an histological evaluation of bone regeneration in maxillary sinus elevation using: 1) mesenchymal stem cells engineered freeze-dried bone allografts; 2) freeze-dried bone allografts. Twenty patients (10M, 10F) with a mean age of 55.2 years affected by severe maxillary atrophy were treated with bilateral maxillary sinus floor elevation. For each patient were randomly assigned a “test” side and a “control” side, different from each other exclusively in the composition of the graft material. The “control” sides were composed by corticocancellous freeze-dried bone chips and the “test” sides were composed by corticocancellous freeze-dried bone chips engineered in a bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells concentrate. After three months bone biopsies were performed on the grafts and histological specimens were made in order to evaluate the healed bone from an histological point of view. Histologically all the specimens showed

  14. Ophthalmic artery originating from the anterior cerebral artery: anatomo-radiological study, histological analysis, and literature review.

    PubMed

    Belotti, Francesco; Ferrari, Marco; Doglietto, Francesco; Cocchi, Marco Angelo; Lancini, Davide; Buffoli, Barbara; Nicolai, Piero; Fontanella, Marco Maria; Maroldi, Roberto; Tschabitscher, Manfred; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    The ophthalmic artery has an anomalous origin in 2-3 % of cases and rarely arises from the anterior cerebral artery. Herein, we provide the first anatomical, radiological, and histological description of such an anomalous origin, together with a literature review. During the anatomical dissection of an 81-year-old Caucasian male, the absence of the right ophthalmic artery in its usual location was evident from an endonasal transsphenoidal perspective. The specimen was then studied in detail, through multiple dissections, corrosion casting, high-resolution CT, and histological analysis. The English literature on anomalous origins of the ophthalmic artery was reviewed, together with reported associated pathologies. Anatomo-radiological analysis documented that the right ophthalmic artery arose from the inferior surface of A1 tract of the anterior cerebral artery (A1) and passed over the optic nerve in its subarachnoid tract. A meningo-ophthalmic artery was evident on the same side and reached the orbit through the superior orbital fissure. Histological examination of both internal carotid artery (ICA) walls documented a significantly decreased thickness of the tunica media and adventitia on the side of the anomalous ophthalmic artery, with a significantly different content of collagen types I and III. The literature review documented an association of aneurysms and anomalous ophthalmic arteries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first anatomical report that includes a radiological and arterial wall analysis of a persistent ventral ophthalmic artery. The latter provides histological data that support the clinical evidence of a higher association of aneurysms with anomalous origins of the ophthalmic artery. PMID:27048359

  15. Comparative analysis of codeword representation by clustering methods for the classification of histological tissue types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygili, Ahmet; Uysal, Gunalp; Bilgin, Gokhan

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the classification of several histological tissue types, i.e., muscles, nerves, connective and epithelial tissue cells, is studied in high resolutional histological images. In the feature extraction step, bag of features method is utilized to reveal distinguishing features of each tissue cell types. Local small blocks of sub-images/patches are extracted to find discriminative patterns for followed strategy. For detecting points of interest in local patches, Harris corner detection method is applied. Afterwards, discriminative features are extracted using the scale invariant feature transform method using these points of interests. Several code word representations are obtained by clustering approach (using k-means fuzzy c-means, expectation maximization method, Gaussian mixture models) and evaluated in comparative manner. In the last step, the classification of the tissue cells data are performed using k-nearest neighbor and support vector machines methods.

  16. Histological analysis of the alterations on cortical bone channels network after radiotherapy: A rabbit study.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Gustavo Davi; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; Dechichi, Paula

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiotherapy in cortical bone channels network. Fourteen rabbits were divided in two groups and test group received single dose of 15 Gy cobalt-60 radiation in tibia, bilaterally. The animals were sacrificed and a segment of tibia was removed and histologically processed. Histological images were taken and had their bone channels segmented and called regions of interest (ROI). Images were analyzed through developed algorithms using the SCILAB mathematical environment, getting percentage of bone matrix, ROI areas, ROI perimeters, their standard deviations and Lacunarity. The osteocytes and empty lacunae were also counted. Data were evaluated using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann Whitney, and Student's t test (P < 0.05). Significant differences in bone matrix percentage, area and perimeters of the channels, their respective standard deviations and lacunarity were found between groups. In conclusion, the radiotherapy causes reduction of bone matrix and modifies the morphology of bone channels network. PMID:20169617

  17. Semi-Automated Atlas-based Analysis of Brain Histological Sections

    PubMed Central

    Kopec, Charles D.; Bowers, Amanda C.; Pai, Shraddha; Brody, Carlos D.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the location and/or number of features in a histological section of the brain currently requires one to first, manually register a corresponding section from a tissue atlas onto the experimental section and second, count the features. No automated method exists for the first process (registering), and most automated methods for the second process (feature counting) operate reliably only in a high signal-to-noise regime. To reduce experimenter bias and inconsistencies and increase the speed of these analyses, we developed Atlas Fitter, a semi-automated, open-source MatLab-based software package that assists in rapidly registering atlas panels onto histological sections. We also developed CellCounter, a novel fully-automated cell counting algorithm that is designed to operate on images with non-uniform background intensities and low signal-to-noise ratios. PMID:21194546

  18. Histological analysis of indirect somatic embryogenesis in the Marsh clubmoss Lycopodiella inundata (L.) Holub (Pteridophytes).

    PubMed

    Atmane; Blervacq; Michaux-Ferriere; Vasseur

    2000-07-28

    An efficient in vitro plant regeneration method was developed for Lycopodiella inundata (L.) Holub, an endangered medicinal Lycopod (Pteridophytes). Vegetative apices were used as explant material. Nodular calluses were established after three cycles (13 weeks each) on a medium containing a few minerals and organic compounds and supplemented with 0.05 µM 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA) and 1.4 µM kinetin (Kin). Propagation was achieved every 13 weeks on this callus medium (CM). When nodular calluses were transferred on a medium supplemented with 2.5 µM IBA and 0.33 µM gibberellic acid (GA(3)) designated as embryogenic medium (EM), organized structures appeared and developed into plantlets. Development phases were characterized by histological studies. Some phases of zygotic embryogenesis previously described for Lycopods were observed in L. inundata. Histological analyses established that an indirect somatic embryo was derived from a single embryogenic cell by following the zygotic developmental pathway. As this phenomenon has not previously been reported in Lycopods, a comparison between somatic and zygotic embryos is discussed based upon morphology and histology. PMID:10936522

  19. Histology of damaged acetabular cartilage in symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement: an observational analysis.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Sandro; Hosalkar, Harish S; Mainil-Varlet, P; Krueger, Andreas; Buechler, Lorenz; Siebenrock, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    This prospective study on symptomatic adult patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) who underwent open surgical intervention for management was designed to identify any obvious histological differences in the damaged acetabular cartilage within different subgroups of FAI. 20 patients underwent surgical intervention following safe surgical dislocation of the hip. There were 6 cases of cam impingement, 5 cases of pincer impingement and 9 of the mixed type. Pincer impingement cases demonstrated a characteristic focal, well-circumscribed and localized area of severe damage. On the other hand, cases with cam impingement showed a diffuse area of involvement affecting a larger surface of the acetabular cartilage, with degenerative changes, superficial erosions and some discontinuities. A small biopsy specimen of the acetabular rim including bone, cartilage and labrum from the affected zone was obtained in all cases. Histological evaluation was performed under normal and polarized light microscopy. Histological findings helped corroborate the pre-operative diagnosis and also define the unique nature of impingement and specific damage according to the type of impingement. PMID:21484743

  20. In Vivo Inflammatory Effects of Ceria Nanoparticles on CD-1 Mouse: Evaluation by Hematological, Histological, and TEM Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Poma, Anna; Ragnelli, Anna Maria; de Lapuente, Joaquin; Ramos, David; Borras, Miquel; Di Gioacchino, Mario; Santucci, Sandro; De Marzi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The attention on CeO2-NPs environmental and in vivo effects is due to their presence in diesel exhaust and in diesel filters that release a more water-soluble form of ceria NPs, as well as to their use for medical applications. In this work, acute and subacute in vivo toxicity assays demonstrate no lethal effect of these NPs. Anyhow, performing in vivo evaluations on CD-1 mouse systems, we demonstrate that it is even not correct to assert that ceria NPs are harmless for living systems as they can induce status of inflammation, revealed by hematological-chemical-clinical assays as well as histological and TEM microscope observations. TEM analysis showed the presence of NPs in alveolar macrophages. Histological evaluation demonstrated the NPs presence in lungs tissues and this can be explained by assuming their ability to go into the blood stream and lately into the organs (generating inflammation). PMID:25032226

  1. Two- and three-dimensional quantitative image analysis of coronary arteries from high-resolution histological sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, David R., III; Robb, Richard A.

    2000-05-01

    The study of coronary arteries has evolved from examining gross anatomy and morphology to scrutinizing micro-anatomy and cellular composition. Technological advances such as high-powered digital microscopes and high precision cutting devices have allowed clinicians to examine coronary artery morphology and pathology at micron resolution. Our work explores the composition of normal coronary arteries in order to provide the foundation for further study of remodeled tissue. The first of two coronary arteries was sliced into 442 sections with 4 micron inter-slice spacing. Each slice was stained for elastin and collagen. The second coronary artery was sectioned into 283 slices, also with 4 micron resolution. These slices were stained for cellular nuclei and smooth muscle. High sectioned into 283 slices, also with 4 micron resolution. These slices were stained for cellular nuclei and smooth muscle. High resolution light microscopy was used to image the sections. The data was analyzed for collagen/elastin content and nuclei density, respectively. Processing of this type of data is challenging in the areas of segmentation, visualization and quantification. Segmentation was confounded by variation in image quality as well as complexity of the coronary tissue. These problems were overcome by the development of 'smart' thresholding algorithms for segmentation. In addition, morphology and image statistics were used to further refine the result of the segmentation. Specificity/sensitivity analysis suggests that automatic segmentation can be very effective. 3D visualization of coronary arteries is challenging due to multiple tissue layers. Method such as summed voxel projection and maximum intensity projection appear to be effective. Shading methods also provide adequate visualization, however it is important to incorporate combined 2D and 3D displays. Surface rendering techniques are useful tools for visualizing parametric data. Quantification in 3D is simple in practice but

  2. Histologic evaluation and removal torque analysis of nano- and microtreated titanium implants in the dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Seok; Vang, Mong-Sook; Yang, Hong-So; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2009-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM A number of studies about the nano-treated surfaces of implants have been conducting along with micro-treated surfaces of implants. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to get information for the clinical use of nano-treated surfaces compared with micro-treated surfaces by measuring removal torque and analyzing histological characteristics after the placement of various surface-treated implants on femurs of dogs. MATERIAL AND METHODS Machined surface implants were used as a control group. 4 nano-treated surface implants and 3 micro-treated surface implants [resorbable blast media surface (RBM), sandblast and acid-etched surface (SAE), anodized RBM surface] were used as experimental groups. Removal torque values of implants were measured respectively and the histological analyses were conducted on both 4weeks and 8weeks after implant surgery. The surfaces of removed implants after measuring removal torque values were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at 8 weeks. RESULTS 1. Removal torque values of the nano-treated groups were lower than those of micro-treated groups. 2. Removal torque values were similar in the anodized RBM surface groups. 3. On the histological views, there was much of bone formation at 8 weeks, but there was no difference between 4 and 8 weeks, and between the types of implant surfaces as well. CONCLUSION It is suggested that implant topography is more effective in removal torque test than surface chemistry. To get better clinical result, further studies should be fulfilled on the combined effect of surface topography and chemistry for the implant surface treatments. PMID:21165259

  3. Spleen Histologic Appearance in Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Analysis of 17 Cases.

    PubMed

    Furudoï, Adeline; Gros, Audrey; Stanislas, Sophie; Hamidou, Mohamed; Furudoï, Enio; Oksenhendler, Éric; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Viallard, Jean-François; Parrens, Marie

    2016-07-01

    Histologic and phenotypic analyses of splenectomy samples from 17 patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) showed the following nonspecific, evocative, white-pulp lesions: white-pulp hyperplasia (WPH) with reactive follicles, giant follicles (GFs), marginal zone hyperplasia, periarteriolar T-zone hyperplasia (PATH) and/or granulomas, which enabled us to discern 2 groups: the first (n=6) composed of WPH with reactive follicles without granulomas, and the second (n=9) characterized by the presence of granulomas with or without WPH. All specimens were Epstein-Barr virus negative by in situ hybridization. Molecular analyses revealed a polyclonal immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGH) rearrangement (n=12). WPH-only patients were mostly female individuals and younger at CVID onset, diagnosis, and splenectomy, but their interval between the first symptom and diagnosis was longer; they had more associated infectious events, autoimmune disease, pulmonary complications, and liver regenerative nodular hyperplasia; their IgG, IgA, and IgM concentrations were also higher. Granuloma-group patients were mostly male individuals; were older at CVID onset, diagnosis, and splenectomy; had disseminated granulomatous disease, but infectious events, autoimmune disease, pulmonary complications, and liver regenerative nodular hyperplasia were less common; their immunoglobulin concentrations were lower. Histologic comparisons between the WPH-only and granuloma groups showed more intense WPH and more intense marginal zone hyperplasia and fewer GFs in the former versus more developed PATH and more common GFs in the latter. The results of this novel comparative study of the histologic patterns of 17 CVID patients' evocative splenic lesions suggested different biological and clinical profiles. PMID:27158760

  4. Water jet-assisted liposuction for patients with lipoedema: histologic and immunohistologic analysis of the aspirates of 30 lipoedema patients.

    PubMed

    Stutz, J J; Krahl, D

    2009-03-01

    Lipoedema is a fat distribution disorder causing massive, bilaterally symmetrical enlargement of the lower and in some cases the upper extremities in women. The atraumatic, anatomically appropriate procedure of water jet-assisted liposuction available today represents a promising treatment for these patients who generally suffer from severe subjective and objective impairment. Liposuction treatment can bring long-term improvement if the operative technique focuses on lymph vessel preservation. Immunohistologic analyses show minimal evidence of lymph vessel structures in lipoaspirates. The histologic analysis of the aspirates documents a relatively specific removal ("apheresis") of primarily intact lipocytes with low vascular amount. PMID:18663515

  5. Histological and In Vivo Microscopic Analysis of the Bone Marrow Microenvironment in a Murine Model of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Weissenberger, Eva S; Krause, Daniela S

    2016-01-01

    Imaging of the leukemic bone marrow microenvironment, also called the leukemic bone marrow niche, is an essential method to determine and to evaluate the progression of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and other leukemias in murine models. In this chapter we introduce the murine model of CML primarily used in our laboratory by describing blood and bone marrow analysis as well as the method of histological sectioning and immunohistochemistry in combination with various stainings that can help to understand the complex interaction between leukemic cells, their normal hematopoietic counterparts, and the bone marrow microenvironment. We conclude with describing how to image the bone marrow niche using in vivo microscopy. PMID:27581139

  6. Cell Proliferation Analysis Using EdU Labeling in Whole Plant and Histological Samples of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kazda, Anita; Akimcheva, Svetlana; Watson, J Matthew; Riha, Karel

    2016-01-01

    The ability to analyze cell division in both spatial and temporal dimensions within an organism is a key requirement in developmental biology. Specialized cell types within individual organs, such as those within shoot and root apical meristems, have often been identified by differences in their rates of proliferation prior to the characterization of distinguishing molecular markers. Replication-dependent labeling of DNA is a widely used method for assaying cell proliferation. The earliest approaches used radioactive labeling with tritiated thymidine, which were later followed by immunodetection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). A major advance in DNA labeling came with the use of 5-ethynyl-2'deoxyuridine (EdU) which has proven to have multiple advantages over BrdU. Here we describe the methodology for analyzing EdU labeling and retention in whole plants and histological sections of Arabidopsis. PMID:26659962

  7. Computer assisted detection and analysis of tall cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma in histological images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Edward; Baloch, Zubair; Kim, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    The number of new cases of thyroid cancer are dramatically increasing as incidences of this cancer have more than doubled since the early 1970s. Tall cell variant (TCV-PTC) papillary thyroid carcinoma is one type of thyroid cancer that is more aggressive and usually associated with higher local recurrence and distant metastasis. This variant can be identified through visual characteristics of cells in histological images. Thus, we created a fully automatic algorithm that is able to segment cells using a multi-stage approach. Our method learns the statistical characteristics of nuclei and cells during the segmentation process and utilizes this information for a more accurate result. Furthermore, we are able to analyze the detected regions and extract characteristic cell data that can be used to assist in clinical diagnosis.

  8. Uncemented acetabular components. Histologic analysis of retrieved hydroxyapatite-coated and porous implants.

    PubMed

    Bauer, T W; Stulberg, B N; Ming, J; Geesink, R G

    1993-04-01

    Histologic sections of five hydroxyapatite-coated acetabular components retrieved at autopsy (2 dual geometry and 3 threaded cup designs) were analyzed, and the extent and pattern of bone apposition were compared with that of an uncoated, porous (beaded) dual geometry acetabular cup that had been removed for repeated dislocations. The results show hydroxyapatite and bone apposition most prominent in areas of likely load transmission, primarily around the peripheral rim of the dual-geometry cups and at the peaks of the threads of the screw cups. Hydroxyapatite and bone may have been removed by remodeling from the grooves between the threads. Although no significant wear debris was identified, the screw holes were incompletely covered by bone. The dual-geometry designs generally showed somewhat more bone apposition than the threaded cups, but all implants demonstrated less bone than might have been predicted from radiographs. PMID:8386747

  9. Histologic analysis of resorbable blasting media surface implants retrieved from humans: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the degree of osseointegration of resorbable blasting media (RBM) surface implants retrieved from humans. Three implants in the mandibular molar region that were surface-treated with RBM were retrieved from two patients. The implants were used to manufacture specimens in order to measure the bone-implant contact (BIC) ratio. The BIC ratios of the three implants were found to be an average of 69.0%±9.1%. In conclusion, that RBM surface implants are integrated into the host environment with histological significance and the BIC ratio of the RBM surface-treated implant was not significantly different from that of other surface-treated implants. PMID:26904493

  10. Endometrial biopsy in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. III. Bacteriological analysis and correlations with histological findings.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, B N; Martin, S W; Gannon, V P; Miller, R B; Etherington, W G

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the results of bacterial culture from 159 endometrial biopsy samples from 97 commercial dairy cows and correlations between bacteriological and histological findings. Bacteria were isolated from approximately 80% of biopsies taken at day 26 and day 40 postpartum. Eleven percent of biopsies were positive for both aerobic and anaerobic culture. Streptococci, Escherichia coli and Actinomyces pyogenes were the most common isolates. Isolation of A. pyogenes from a biopsy at day 26 was positively correlated with isolation of anaerobic bacteria and segmented cell inflammation in the same biopsy, and with subsequent isolation of A. pyogenes at day 40. There was a strong association between isolation of A. pyogenes and anaerobes at day 26 with increased uterine lesions at day 40. Isolation of alpha hemolytic streptococci (AHS) was negatively correlated with isolation of A. pyogenes and with inflammation. Actinomyces pyogenes and AHS showed opposite associations with mononuclear cell inflammation and lymphocytic foci. PMID:1884297

  11. Histologic analysis of resorbable blasting media surface implants retrieved from humans: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyung-In; Kim, Young-Kyun; Moon, Sang-Woon; Kim, Su-Gwan; Lim, Sung-Chul; Yun, Pil-Young

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the degree of osseointegration of resorbable blasting media (RBM) surface implants retrieved from humans. Three implants in the mandibular molar region that were surface-treated with RBM were retrieved from two patients. The implants were used to manufacture specimens in order to measure the bone-implant contact (BIC) ratio. The BIC ratios of the three implants were found to be an average of 69.0%±9.1%. In conclusion, that RBM surface implants are integrated into the host environment with histological significance and the BIC ratio of the RBM surface-treated implant was not significantly different from that of other surface-treated implants. PMID:26904493

  12. Estrogen receptor determination in fine needle aspirates of the breast. Correlation with histologic grade and comparison with biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Lozowski, M S; Mishriki, Y; Chao, S; Grimson, R; Pai, P; Harris, M A; Lundy, J

    1987-01-01

    Material obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA) of 25 surgically removed breast carcinomas was tested for the immunocytochemical localization of estrogen receptor (ER) using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method and a monoclonal antibody developed against human breast cancer ER. The results were compared to those obtained by the conventional biochemical analysis of cytosol protein. A semiquantitative relationship between the immunoperoxidase stain and the biochemical analysis suggests that cases in which greater than 70% of the cells stain and in which intense staining is present are likely to contain ER in a concentration of greater than 250 fmol/mg of cytosol. Less than 15% stained cells and an absence of intense staining is indicative of a concentration of less than 10 fmol/mg. In only one case was there a significant difference in positivity between the two methods, possibly as a result of a functional heterogeneity of the tumor cell population. Intense staining is strongly suggestive of a tumor of low histologic grade and was never seen in tumors with a high histologic grade or nuclear grade. The immunoperoxidase method of ER detection on material obtained by FNA is a semiquantitative means of selecting patients with breast cancer who are likely to respond to hormonal therapy. The method overcomes many important disadvantages of cytosol analysis and provides clinically significant information regarding the ER content and the degree of tumor differentiation. PMID:3314302

  13. Supervised Regularized Canonical Correlation Analysis: integrating histologic and proteomic measurements for predicting biochemical recurrence following prostate surgery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multimodal data, especially imaging and non-imaging data, is being routinely acquired in the context of disease diagnostics; however, computational challenges have limited the ability to quantitatively integrate imaging and non-imaging data channels with different dimensionalities and scales. To the best of our knowledge relatively few attempts have been made to quantitatively fuse such data to construct classifiers and none have attempted to quantitatively combine histology (imaging) and proteomic (non-imaging) measurements for making diagnostic and prognostic predictions. The objective of this work is to create a common subspace to simultaneously accommodate both the imaging and non-imaging data (and hence data corresponding to different scales and dimensionalities), called a metaspace. This metaspace can be used to build a meta-classifier that produces better classification results than a classifier that is based on a single modality alone. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and Regularized CCA (RCCA) are statistical techniques that extract correlations between two modes of data to construct a homogeneous, uniform representation of heterogeneous data channels. In this paper, we present a novel modification to CCA and RCCA, Supervised Regularized Canonical Correlation Analysis (SRCCA), that (1) enables the quantitative integration of data from multiple modalities using a feature selection scheme, (2) is regularized, and (3) is computationally cheap. We leverage this SRCCA framework towards the fusion of proteomic and histologic image signatures for identifying prostate cancer patients at the risk of 5 year biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy. Results A cohort of 19 grade, stage matched prostate cancer patients, all of whom had radical prostatectomy, including 10 of whom had biochemical recurrence within 5 years of surgery and 9 of whom did not, were considered in this study. The aim was to construct a lower fused dimensional

  14. Quantitative ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and histologic image analysis of hepatic iron accumulation in pigeons (Columbia livia).

    PubMed

    Matheson, Jodi S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; O'Brien, Robert T; Steinberg, Howard

    2007-06-01

    Iron overload was induced by iron dextran i.v. in clinically healthy adult pigeons, Columbia livia, (n = 8). Hemosiderosis was induced in all treated birds. Two control pigeons received no iron injections. Pigeons did not show clinical signs of iron overload during the 6-wk study. Ultrasound examination of the liver in the pigeons receiving iron dextran was performed on days 0, 13, 28, and 42. No ultrasound images were collected on the control pigeons. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on days 0, 13, 28, and 42 on all study pigeons and imaging sequences were collected in three different imaging formats: T1, T2, and gradient-recalled echo (GRE). Surgical liver biopsies were performed on pigeons receiving iron dextran on days 2, 16, and 45 (at necropsy). A single liver sample was collected at necropsy from the control birds. Histologic examination, quantitative image analysis, and tissue iron analysis by thin-layer chromatography were performed on each liver sample and compared to the imaging studies. Although hemosiderosis was confirmed histologically in each experimental pigeon, no significant change in pixel intensity of the ultrasound images was seen at any point in the study. Signal intensity, in all magnetic resonance imaging formats, significantly decreased in a linear fashion as the accumulation of iron increased. PMID:17679505

  15. BOVINE LYOPHILIZED GRAFT (BLG): HISTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS ON BEHAVIOR IN HUMANS AFTER 49 MONTHS

    PubMed Central

    Galia, Carlos Roberto; De Luca, Giuseppe; Ávila, Luiz Müller; Rosito, Ricardo; Macedo, Carlos Alberto Souza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the histological behavior of bovine lyophilized grafts (BLG) produced according to a protocol developed by the first author, in humans over a 49-month period by measuring the graft/bone neoformation ratio in relation to the total mineralized area. Methods: This was a case series involving 12 patients: eight females (66%) and four males (34%), totaling 13 biopsies. BLG was used, and surgical reintervention was subsequently required during the period 2000 to 2011. The slides produced were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE), were analyzed by a pathologist and were digitized for the proposed evaluation. Results: The mean age was 57 years and the mean follow-up was 49 months (range: 6-115). The average proportion of BLG was 42% (range: 13-85) and neoformed bone, 58% (range: 15-87) in relation to the total area mineralized. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the BLG used presented osteoconductive characteristics and biocompatibility. BLG is a therapeutic option that can be used in orthopedic surgery in which bone defects need to be filled. PMID:27047899

  16. Cleaning capacity of hybrid instrumentation technique using reamer with alternating cutting edges system files: Histological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Emilio Carlos Sponchiado; da Fonseca, Tiago Silva; da Frota, Matheus Franco; de Carvalho, Fredson Marcio Acris; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the following study is to evaluate the cleaning capacity of a hybrid instrumentation technique using Reamer with Alternating Cutting Edges (RaCe) system files in the apical third of mesial roots of mandibular molars. Materials and Methods: Twenty teeth were selected and separated into two groups (n = 20) according to instrumentation technique as follows: BioRaCe - chemomechanical preparation with K-type files #10 and #15; and files BioRaCe BR0, BR1, BR2, BR3, and BR4; HybTec - hybrid instrumentation technique with K-type files #10 and #15 in the working length, #20 at 2 mm, #25 at 3 mm, cervical preparation with Largo burs #1 and #2; apical preparation with K-type files #15, #20, and #25 and RaCe files #25.04 and #30.04. The root canals were irrigated with 1 ml of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite at each change of instrument. The specimens were histologically processed and photographed under light optical microscope. The images were inserted onto an integration grid to count the amount of debris present in the root canal. Results: BioRaCe presented the highest percentage of debris in the apical third, however, with no statistically significant difference for HybTec (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The hybrid technique presented similar cleaning capacity as the technique recommended by the manufacturer. PMID:24963247

  17. The effect of in situ freezing on rabbit patellar tendon. A histologic, biochemical, and biomechanical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, B. K.; Fujisaki, K.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Cell necrosis has been well documented as one of the many changes that occur in autogenous tendon when it is used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament. The purpose of this experiment was to isolate cell necrosis as a variable and study its effect on the patellar tendon. To accomplish this, both knees of 25 New Zealand White rabbits were operated on. In one knee, a 5-mm wide band of patellar tendon was subjected to two rapid freeze-thaw cycles, while the other knee underwent sham surgery. Histologic evaluation showed a zone of necrosis at 2 and 4 weeks with cellular repopulation complete at 8 weeks. patellar tendon cross-sectional area was 0.118 cm2 at 8 weeks for the frozen specimens compared to 0.102 cm2 for the sham-operated controls. This difference was significant at the P = 0.025 level. Mechanical testing at 4 and 8 weeks revealed no significant changes in tendon length, maximum load, or stiffness. The collagen content was also unchanged at both 4 and 8 weeks.

  18. Histologic analysis of rabbit liver cancer treated by bulk ultrasound ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakaran, Chandra Priya; Rudich, Steven M.; Alqadah, Amel; Burgess, Mark T.; Narmoneva, Daria A.; Mast, T. Douglas

    2012-10-01

    VX2 rabbit liver cancer, treated in vivo using bulk ultrasound ablation by miniaturized image-ablate arrays, was histologically analyzed using TTC vital stain and DAPI nucleic acid stain. VX2 cells were implanted into rabbit liver lobes and allowed to grow for 11-21 days. Liver lobes containing solid VX2 tumors were then treated with 4.8 MHz, 22.5-38.5 W/cm2 in situ intensity, unfocused ultrasound for exposure times of 20-120 s. After animal sacrifice, thermal lesions were bisected along the imaging/treatment plane, one face stained with TTC, and the other with DAPI. Levels of TTC uptake (no uptake, partial uptake, and complete uptake) in liver parenchyma corresponded to three discrete regions of tan, pink and red color. By processing images of DAPI-stained parenchymal tissue from these three regions, cellular damage was quantified. A viability index parameter incorporating the size and shape of DAPI-stained nuclei correlated significantly with levels of TTC uptake, and thus with local tissue viability. For ablation of normal liver, viability indices for parenchymal regions of no TTC uptake and partial TTC uptake were significantly different from those for viable tissue. For ablation of VX2 tumor, differences in viability index between regions of no TTC uptake and complete TTC uptake were smaller, but significant overall.

  19. Neurodegenerative diversity in human cortical contusion: histological analysis of tissue derived from decompressive craniectomy.

    PubMed

    Riascos, David; Buriticá, Efraín; Jiménez, Eliecer; Castro, Olagide; Guzmán, Francisco; Palacios, Mauricio; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Geula, Changiz; Escobar, Martha; Pimienta, Hernán

    2013-11-01

    The principal aim in the management of patients with cerebral contusion (CC) following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the prevention, amelioration, and treatment of secondary neuronal dysfunction and pathology. Distinguishing between irreversibly damaged and surviving tissue could have considerable therapeutic and prognostic implications for patients. To characterize structurally the neuronal compartment of the contused region in samples derived from patients who suffered severe TBI and were subjected to decompressive craniectomy, we used NeuN, a neuronal marker. We determined that NeuN "patches", sectors with loss of NeuN immunoreactivity (NeuN-IR), represented 25% of the area among the analyzed cases. We also found a 67% decrease in NeuN levels via Western blot. Tissue adjoining patches of NeuN-IR were considered "preserved" due to the apparent normal density of neurons and conservation of the six cortical layers. Nevertheless, these sectors retained only 39% of their neurons with the classical pattern described for normal NeuN-IR. Using Fluorojade we identified a 16-fold increase in density of moribund neurons in "preserved" sectors when compared to controls. Additionally these abnormalities were enhanced 5-fold in "patches" of NeuN-IR when compared to preserved regions. Therefore, NeuN/Fluorojade abnormalities are indicative of different cell fates characteristic of CC tissue. This analysis addressed exclusively the neuronal compartment and provides new insights into the degenerative state of neurons in the contused region that is likely to contribute to clinical outcome and differentiate TBI from ischemia. PMID:24060647

  20. Localized graft incompatibility in pear/quince (Pyrus communis/Cydonia oblonga) combinations: multivariate analysis of histological data from 5-month-old grafts.

    PubMed

    Ermel, F. F.; Kervella, J.; Catesson, A. M.; Poëssel, J. L.

    1999-08-01

    To characterize the structural events associated with incompatibility of graft development, we conducted a histological study of compatible and incompatible pear/pear and pear/quince grafts that had been grown for five months in a greenhouse. Multivariate analysis of histological data describing the structure of the graft union allowed us to discriminate between compatible and incompatible combinations before either macroscopic examination or qualitative microscopic examination differences between graft combinations became evident. The histological variables responsible for the discrimination between incompatible and compatible unions were related to three typical symptoms of graft incompatibility: bark discontinuity, which was the main feature; cambial dysfunction; and accumulation of starch in the scion. Little cell necrosis was observed at the interface of incompatible grafts at the 5-month stage of graft development. Multivariate analysis of histological data provides a new tool for studying early structural events resulting from the graft incompatibility response and for diagnosing early graft incompatibility. PMID:12651320

  1. Elemental Analysis of Histological Specimens: A Method to Unmask Nano Asbestos Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Scimeca, M.; Pietroiusti, A.; Milano, F.; Anemona, L.; Orlandi, A.; Marsella, L.T.; Bonanno, E.

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing amount of evidence that nanoparticles may enhance toxicological potential in comparison to the same material in the bulk form. The aim of this study was to develop a new method to unmask asbestos nanofibers from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) tissue. For the first time, in this study we applied Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis through transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate the presence of asbestos nanofibers in histological specimens of patients with possible occupational exposure to asbestos. The diagnostic protocol was applied to 10 randomly selected lung cancer patients with no history of previous asbestos exposure. We detected asbestos nanofibers in close contact with lung cancer cells in two lung cancer patients with previous possible occupational exposure to asbestos. We were also able to identify the specific asbestos iso-type, which in one of the cases was the same rare variety used in the workplace of the affected patient. By contrast, asbestos nanofibers were not detected in lung cancer patients with no history of occupational asbestos exposure. The proposed technique can represent a potential useful tool for linking the disease to previous workplace exposure in uncertain cases. Furthermore, Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) tissues stored in the pathology departments might be re-evaluated for possible etiological attribution to asbestos in the case of plausible exposure. Since diseases acquired through occupational exposure to asbestos are generally covered by workers’ insurance in most countries, the application of the protocol used in this study may have also relevant social and economic implications. PMID:26972714

  2. Three-Dimensional Bone Regeneration of Alveolar Ridge Defects Using Corticocancellous Allogeneic Block Grafts: Histologic and Immunohistochemical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jun, Choong-Man; Yun, Jeong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of a corticocancellous block allograft for restoring alveolar ridge defects in preparation for the placement of dental implants was assessed. Significant ridge defects in four partially edentulous patients were reconstructed using an irradiated corticocancellous allogeneic block soaked in platelet-rich plasma, which was also covered with a resorbable collagen membrane. After 5 or 6 months, the sites were reentered and a trephine bone core specimen was obtained from each augmented site for histologic, histomorphometric, and immunohistochemical assessment. In all four cases, histologic evaluation of the augmented site showed areas of new vital bone formation around the graft material (mean newly formed bone fraction, 23.7%; mean total mineralized tissue fraction, 40.1%), in which osteocytes were frequently observed within the lacunae. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the presence of biomarkers commonly related to active bone formation (alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone morphogenetic protein-2), confirming that the biochemical environment was conducive to new bone formation. The findings of this study demonstrate that the use of allogeneic block grafts for restoring alveolar ridge defects prior to the placement of dental implants may be an effective and advantageous alternative to autograft procedures. PMID:26697555

  3. Multi-Parametric MRI and Texture Analysis to Visualize Spatial Histologic Heterogeneity and Tumor Extent in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Leland S.; Ning, Shuluo; Eschbacher, Jennifer M.; Gaw, Nathan; Dueck, Amylou C.; Smith, Kris A.; Nakaji, Peter; Plasencia, Jonathan; Ranjbar, Sara; Price, Stephen J.; Tran, Nhan; Loftus, Joseph; Jenkins, Robert; O’Neill, Brian P.; Elmquist, William; Baxter, Leslie C.; Gao, Fei; Frakes, David; Karis, John P.; Zwart, Christine; Swanson, Kristin R.; Sarkaria, Jann; Wu, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic profiling represents the future of neuro-oncology but suffers from inadequate biopsies in heterogeneous tumors like Glioblastoma (GBM). Contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) targets enhancing core (ENH) but yields adequate tumor in only ~60% of cases. Further, CE-MRI poorly localizes infiltrative tumor within surrounding non-enhancing parenchyma, or brain-around-tumor (BAT), despite the importance of characterizing this tumor segment, which universally recurs. In this study, we use multiple texture analysis and machine learning (ML) algorithms to analyze multi-parametric MRI, and produce new images indicating tumor-rich targets in GBM. Methods We recruited primary GBM patients undergoing image-guided biopsies and acquired pre-operative MRI: CE-MRI, Dynamic-Susceptibility-weighted-Contrast-enhanced-MRI, and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Following image coregistration and region of interest placement at biopsy locations, we compared MRI metrics and regional texture with histologic diagnoses of high- vs low-tumor content (≥80% vs <80% tumor nuclei) for corresponding samples. In a training set, we used three texture analysis algorithms and three ML methods to identify MRI-texture features that optimized model accuracy to distinguish tumor content. We confirmed model accuracy in a separate validation set. Results We collected 82 biopsies from 18 GBMs throughout ENH and BAT. The MRI-based model achieved 85% cross-validated accuracy to diagnose high- vs low-tumor in the training set (60 biopsies, 11 patients). The model achieved 81.8% accuracy in the validation set (22 biopsies, 7 patients). Conclusion Multi-parametric MRI and texture analysis can help characterize and visualize GBM’s spatial histologic heterogeneity to identify regional tumor-rich biopsy targets. PMID:26599106

  4. Analysis of Plaque Composition in Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion Lesion Using Virtual Histology-Intravascular Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yo-Han; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Seo, Duck-Jun; Seo, Young-Hoon; Lee, Chung-Seop; Song, In-Geol; Yang, Dong-Ju; Kim, Ki-Hong; Park, Hyun-Woong; Kim, Wan-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Success rates of chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have recently been reported to range from 80% to 90%. A better understanding of the pathologic characteristics of the CTO lesion may helpful to improving CTO PCI success rates. We evaluated the CTO lesion in patients with stable angina (SA) by virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS). Subjects and Methods The study population consisted of 149 consecutive patients with SA underwent VH-IVUS examination. We analyzed demographic and VH-IVUS findings in 22 CTO patients (17 males; mean, 62.3 years old) compared with 127 non-CTO patients (82 males; mean, 61.3 years old). Results A significantly lower ejection fraction (57.6±13.0% vs. 65.4±8.8%, p=0.007) was detected in the CTO group compared with the non-CTO group. Reference vessel lumen area of the proximal and distal segment was significantly less in CTO group than in non-CTO group. The lesion length of the CTO group was significantly longer than those of the non-CTO group (24.4±9.6 mm vs. 17.2±7.4 mm, p<0.001). Total atheroma volume (224±159 mm3 vs. 143±86 mm3, p=0.006) and percent atheroma volume (63.2±9.6% vs. 55.8±8.5%, p=0.011) of the CTO group were also significantly greater than those of non-CTO group. However, the lesion length adjusted plaque composition of the CTO group was not significantly different compared with that of the non-CTO group. Conclusion CTO lesions had a longer lesion length and greater plaque burden than the non-CTO lesion in patients with SA. However, lesion length adjusted plaque composition showed similar between the two groups. These results support that plaque characteristics of CTO lesions are similar to non-CTO lesions in patients with SA. PMID:26798383

  5. Histological and histochemical analysis of the gastrointestinal tract of the common pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus).

    PubMed

    Strobel, S; Encarnação, J A; Becker, N I; Trenczek, T E

    2015-01-01

    Bats have a very high mass-specific energy demand due to small size and active flight. European bat species are mostly insectivorous and the morphology of the gastrointestinal tract should be adapted accordingly. This study investigated the general anatomy by histology and the function by analysing carbohydrate distribution in particular of the mucus of the GI tract of the insectivorous bat Pipistrellus pipistrellus. The GI tracts of three individuals were dissected, fixed in formaldehyde, and embedded in paraffin wax. The tissues and cells of the GI tract of P. pipistrellus were analysed by classical (Acid Alizarin Blue, Haematoxylin-Eosin, and Masson Goldner Trichrome), histochemical (periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian blue at pH 2.5) and lectin histochemical (lectins WGA and HPA) staining procedures. The GI tract of P. pipistrellus was organised into the typical mammalian layers. The short, narrow, and thin-walled esophagus was simple with a folded stratified squamous epithelium without glands but mucous surface cells secreting neutral mucus. The stomach was globular shaped without specialisation. Mucous surface cells produced neutral mucus whereas neck and parietal cells secreted a mixture of neutral and acid mucus. Chief cell surface was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and the cytoplasm for N-acetylgalactosamine residues. The intestine lacked a caecum and appendix. The small intestine was divided into duodenum, jejunum‑ileum and ileum‑colon. The epithelium consisted of columnar enterocytes and goblet cells. The large intestine was short, only represented by the descending colon-rectum. It lacked villi and the mucosa had only crypts of Lieberkühn. Towards the colon-rectum, goblet cells produced mucus with N-acetylglucosamine residues increasing in acidity except in colon-rectum where acidity was highest in the base of crypts. Along the tube the surface of enterocytes was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. All over the mucus filling

  6. Histological and Histochemical Analysis of the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Common Pipistrelle Bat (Pipistrellus Pipistrellus)

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, S.; Encarnação, J.A.; Becker, N.I.; Trenczek, T.E.

    2015-01-01

    Bats have a very high mass-specific energy demand due to small size and active flight. European bat species are mostly insectivorous and the morphology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract should be adapted accordingly. This study investigated the general anatomy by histology and the function by analysing carbohydrate distribution in particular of the mucus of the GI tract of the insectivorous bat Pipistrellus pipistrellus. The GI tracts of three individuals were dissected, fixed in formaldehyde, and embedded in paraffin wax. The tissues and cells of the GI tract of P. pipistrellus were analysed by classical (acid alizarin blue, haematoxylin-eosin, and Masson Goldner Trichrome), histochemical (periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian blue at pH 2.5) and lectin histochemical (lectins WGA and HPA) staining procedures. The GI tract of P. pipistrellus is organised into the typical mammalian layers. The short, narrow, and thin-walled esophagus is simple with a folded stratified squamous epithelium without glands but mucous surface cells secreting neutral mucus. The stomach is globular shaped without specialisation. Mucous surface cells produced neutral mucus whereas neck and parietal cells secreted a mixture of neutral and acid mucus. Chief cell surface was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and the cytoplasm for N-acetylgalactosamine residues. The intestine lacked a caecum and appendix. The small intestine was divided into duodenum, jejunum-ileum and ileum-colon. The epithelium consisted of columnar enterocytes and goblet cells. The large intestine is short, only represented by the descending colon-rectum. It lacked villi and the mucosa had only crypts of Lieberkühn. Towards the colon-rectum, goblet cells produced mucus with N-acetylglucosamine residues increasing in acidity except in colon-rectum where acidity was highest in the base of crypts. Along the tube the surface of enterocytes was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. All over the mucus filling the

  7. Histological and histomorphometric analysis of animal experimental dehiscence defect treated with three bio absorbable GTR collagen membrane

    PubMed Central

    Behfarnia, Parichehr; Khorasani, Mitra Mohammad; Birang, Reza; Abbas, Fateme Mashhadi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) allows mesenchymal cells to repopulate the defects. However, there is limited information regarding the efficacy of different membranes. The present study was designed to histologically and histomorphometrically compare three collagen membranes in regenerative treatment of dehiscence defects in dogs. Materials and Methods: This 8 weeks experimental animal study comprised 4 healthy dogs. 5 × 5 mm periodontal dehiscences were created in each side of the mandible (4 dehiscences in each side of dogs’ mandible). In each side, one dehiscence defect was left uncovered as a control site and three other sites were randomly covered with different collagen membranes (Biogide (BG), Biomend (BM), and Cytoplast (CYT)). Histomorphometric and histologic analysis were conducted at 4 and 8 weeks. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Mann-Withney, Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher 's exact tests (α = 0.05). Results: According to histomorphometric analysis there was a significant difference between treatment and control groups regarding the bone formation and the distance between the reference point and apical end of junctional epithelium (DJE) (P < 0.05). At 4 weeks, the maximum amount of bone thickness and height was observed in BG and CYT respectively, and this maximum rate was seen with the use of BG at 8 weeks. It was shown that DJE reached its highest rate in BM and CYT at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. Organized PDL was formed in treatment groups. Conclusion: The membrane-treated groups had a statistically significant increase in bone formation and connective tissue attachment compared to control groups. However, there are some differences among experimental groups, which should be considered in GTR treatments. PMID:23559922

  8. Computed Tomography Inspection and Analysis for Additive Manufacturing Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beshears, Ronald D.

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) inspection was performed on test articles additively manufactured from metallic materials. Metallic AM and machined wrought alloy test articles with programmed flaws were inspected using a 2MeV linear accelerator based CT system. Performance of CT inspection on identically configured wrought and AM components and programmed flaws was assessed using standard image analysis techniques to determine the impact of additive manufacturing on inspectability of objects with complex geometries.

  9. The impact of histological types on the efficacy of angiogenesis inhibitors in the treatment of advanced NSCLC: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Jie; Chen, Huiguo; Wu, Weibin; Li, Xiaojun; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Kai; Gu, Lijia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed at assessing the overall efficacy of angiogenesis inhibitor (AI)-containing regimens in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) according to histological types. Methods Studies from PubMed and Web of Science, and abstracts presented at American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) meeting up to October 31, 2014 were searched to identify relevant studies. Eligible studies included prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating AIs in advanced NSCLC with survival data according to patients’ histologies. The endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Statistical analyses were conducted by using either random effects or fixed effect models according to the heterogeneity of included studies. Results A total of 10,035 patients with advanced NSCLC from 13 RCTs were identified for analysis. The pooled results demonstrated that AI-containing regimens significantly improved the PFS (HR, 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78–0.91, P<0.001) and OS (HR, 0.92, 95% CI: 0.85–0.99, P=0.017) in lung adenocarcinoma when compared to non-AI-containing regimens. Additionally, there was a significantly improved PFS (HR, 0.87, 95% CI: 0.77–0.98, P=0.027) for AI-containing regimens in squamous cell lung carcinoma, but it did not translated into OS benefit (HR, 1.02, 95% CI: 0.92–1.15, P=0.68). For NSCLC patients with other histological types, the use of AIs did not significantly improve PFS (HR, 0.90, 95% CI: 0.75–1.09, P=0.27) and OS (HR, 0.90, 95% CI: 0.76–1.08, P=0.19). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the addition of AIs to the treatment therapies for patients with lung adenocarcinoma offers improved survival benefits. Prospective clinical trials investigating the role of AIs in this setting are recommended. PMID:26366091

  10. Association between endometriosis and risk of histological subtypes of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of case–control studies

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Templeman, Claire; Rossing, Mary Anne; Lee, Alice; Near, Aimee M; Webb, Penelope M; Nagle, Christina M; Doherty, Jennifer A; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L; Wicklund, Kristine G; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R; Carney, Michael E; Goodman, Marc T; Moysich, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K; Hogdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Larson, Melissa C; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Palmieri, Rachel T; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Vitonis, Allison F; Titus, Linda J; Ziogas, Argyrios; Brewster, Wendy; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gentry-Maharaj, Alexandra; Ramus, Susan J; Anderson, A Rebecca; Brueggmann, Doerthe; Fasching, Peter A; Gayther, Simon A; Huntsman, David G; Menon, Usha; Ness, Roberta B; Pike, Malcolm C; Risch, Harvey; Wu, Anna H; Berchuck, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Endometriosis is a risk factor for epithelial ovarian cancer; however, whether this risk extends to all invasive histological subtypes or borderline tumours is not clear. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess the association between endometriosis and histological subtypes of ovarian cancer. Methods Data from 13 ovarian cancer case–control studies, which were part of the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, were pooled and logistic regression analyses were undertaken to assess the association between self-reported endometriosis and risk of ovarian cancer. Analyses of invasive cases were done with respect to histological subtypes, grade, and stage, and analyses of borderline tumours by histological subtype. Age, ethnic origin, study site, parity, and duration of oral contraceptive use were included in all analytical models. Findings 13 226 controls and 7911 women with invasive ovarian cancer were included in this analysis. 818 and 738, respectively, reported a history of endometriosis. 1907 women with borderline ovarian cancer were also included in the analysis, and 168 of these reported a history of endometriosis. Self-reported endometriosis was associated with a significantly increased risk of clear-cell (136 [20·2%] of 674 cases vs 818 [6·2%] of 13 226 controls, odds ratio 3·05, 95% CI 2·43–3·84, p<0·0001), low-grade serous (31 [9·2%] of 336 cases, 2·11, 1·39–3·20, p<0·0001), and endometrioid invasive ovarian cancers (169 [13·9%] of 1220 cases, 2·04, 1·67–2·48, p<0·0001). No association was noted between endometriosis and risk of mucinous (31 [6·0%] of 516 cases, 1·02, 0·69–1·50, p=0·93) or high-grade serous invasive ovarian cancer (261 [7·1%] of 3659 cases, 1·13, 0·97–1·32, p=0·13), or borderline tumours of either subtype (serous 103 [9·0%] of 1140 cases, 1·20, 0·95–1·52, p=0·12, and mucinous 65 [8·5%] of 767 cases, 1·12, 0·84–1·48, p=0·45). Interpretation

  11. Evaluation of breast cancer using intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) histogram analysis: comparison with malignant status, histological subtype, and molecular prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Gene Young; Moy, Linda; Kim, Sungheon G.; Baete, Steven H.; Moccaldi, Melanie; Babb, James S.; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Sigmund, Eric E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine heterogeneous breast cancer through intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) histogram analysis. Materials and methods This HIPAA-compliant, IRB-approved retrospective study included 62 patients (age 48.44±11.14 years, 50 malignant lesions and 12 benign) who underwent contrast-enhanced 3 T breast MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and IVIM biomarkers of tissue diffusivity (Dt), perfusion fraction (fp), and pseudo-diffusivity (Dp) were calculated using voxel-based analysis for the whole lesion volume. Histogram analysis was performed to quantify tumour heterogeneity. Comparisons were made using Mann–Whitney tests between benign/malignant status, histological subtype, and molecular prognostic factor status while Spearman’s rank correlation was used to characterize the association between imaging biomarkers and prognostic factor expression. Results The average values of the ADC and IVIM biomarkers, Dt and fp, showed significant differences between benign and malignant lesions. Additional significant differences were found in the histogram parameters among tumour subtypes and molecular prognostic factor status. IVIM histogram metrics, particularly fp and Dp, showed significant correlation with hormonal factor expression. Conclusion Advanced diffusion imaging biomarkers show relationships with molecular prognostic factors and breast cancer malignancy. This analysis reveals novel diagnostic metrics that may explain some of the observed variability in treatment response among breast cancer patients. PMID:26615557

  12. Postmortem diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in patients with acute respiratory failure - demographics, etiologic and pulmonary histologic analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Matos Soeiro, Alexandre; Ruppert, Aline D; Canzian, Mauro; Capelozzi, Vera L; Serrano, Carlos V

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Acute respiratory failure is present in 5% of patients with acute myocardial infarction and is responsible for 20% to 30% of the fatal post-acute myocardial infarction. The role of inflammation associated with pulmonary edema as a cause of acute respiratory failure post-acute myocardial infarction remains to be determined. We aimed to describe the demographics, etiologic data and histological pulmonary findings obtained through autopsies of patients who died during the period from 1990 to 2008 due to acute respiratory failure with no diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction during life. METHODS: This study considers 4,223 autopsies of patients who died of acute respiratory failure that was not preceded by any particular diagnosis while they were alive. The diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was given in 218 (4.63%) patients. The age, sex and major associated diseases were recorded for each patient. Pulmonary histopathology was categorized as follows: diffuse alveolar damage, pulmonary edema, alveolar hemorrhage and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia. The odds ratio of acute myocardial infarction associated with specific histopathology was determined by logistic regression. RESULTS: In total, 147 men were included in the study. The mean age at the time of death was 64 years. Pulmonary histopathology revealed pulmonary edema as well as the presence of diffuse alveolar damage in 72.9% of patients. Bacterial bronchopneumonia was present in 11.9% of patients, systemic arterial hypertension in 10.1% and dilated cardiomyopathy in 6.9%. A multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant positive association between acute myocardial infarction with diffuse alveolar damage and pulmonary edema. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we demonstrated that in autopsies of patients with acute respiratory failure as the cause of death, 5% were diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction. Pulmonary histology revealed a significant inflammatory response, which has

  13. Treatment of Epilepsy with Bipolar Electro-coagulation: An Analysis of Cortical Blood Flow and Histological Change in Temporal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhi-Qiang; Luan, Guo-Ming; Zhou, Jian; Zhai, Feng; Guan, Yu-Guang; Bao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bipolar electro-coagulation has a reported efficacy in treating epilepsy involving functional cortex by pure electro-coagulation or combination with resection. However, the mechanisms of bipolar electro-coagulation are not completely known. We studied the acute cortical blood flow and histological changes after bipolar electro-coagulation in 24 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods: Twenty-four patients were consecutively enrolled, and divided into three groups according to the date of admission. The regional cortical blood flow (rCBF), electrocorticography, the depth of cortex damage, and acute histological changes (H and E staining, neuronal staining and neurofilament (NF) staining) were analyzed before and after the operation. The t-test analysis was used to compare the rCBF before and after the operation. Results: The rCBF after coagulation was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). The spikes were significantly reduced after electro-coagulation. For the temporal cortex, the depth of cortical damage with output power of 2–9 W after electro-coagulation was 0.34 ± 0.03, 0.48 ± 0.06, 0.69 ± 0.06, 0.84 ± 0.09, 0.98 ± 0.08, 1.10 ± 0.11, 1.11 ± 0.09, and 1.22 ± 0.11 mm, respectively. Coagulation with output power of 4–5 W completely damaged the neurons and NF protein in the molecular layer, external granular layer, and external pyramidal layer. Conclusions: The electro-coagulation not only destroyed the neurons and NF protein, but also reduced the rCBF. We concluded that the injuries caused by electro-coagulation would prevent horizontal synchronization and spread of epileptic discharges, and partially destroy the epileptic focus. PMID:25591564

  14. Intraoperative prediction of ischaemic injury of the bowel: a comparison of laser Doppler flowmetry and tissue oximetry to histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Krohg-Sørensen, K; Line, P D; Haaland, T; Horn, R S; Kvernebo, K

    1992-09-01

    Intraoperative diagnosis of inadequate colonic perfusion would contribute to prevention of ischaemic colitis after abdominal aortic reconstructions. The aim of this study was to evaluate laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and tissue oximetry (TpO2) as predictors of the development of bowel necrosis. Devascularised loops of colon and ileum in anaesthetised pigs were divided into 10-20 mm segments and measurements of laser Doppler flux and TpO2 were performed in each segment. After 7 h of ischaemia the segments were resected for histological and biochemical analysis. In 65 colonic and 58 ileal segments a significantly lower flux was found in segments with necrosis of greater than or equal to 30% of the mucosal thickness compared to segments with necrosis of less than or equal to 10% (p less than 0.01). The discriminant flux value was 50 perfusion units, confirming a previous clinical study. The specificity was 0.96 and the sensitivity 0.94. Flux was inversely correlated to tissue lactate concentration. Significantly lower TpO2 was found in 19 colonic segments with necrosis of greater than or equal to 30% of mucosa compared to 19 colonic segments with necrosis of less than or equal to 10% (p less than 0.01). Using a discriminant value of 5kPa, a specificity of 0.79, and a sensitivity of 0.95 were calculated. In 27 ileum segments no significant difference in TpO2 between different histological groups was found (p greater than 0.30). The results show that LDF and TpO2 can predict ischaemic injury of the colon, and LDF also of the small bowel. PMID:1397347

  15. Predictive Response Value of Pre- and Postchemoradiotherapy Variables in Rectal Cancer: An Analysis of Histological Data

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Marisa D.; Silva, Cristina; Rocha, Anabela; Nogueira, Carlos; Matos, Eduarda; Lopes, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) followed by curative surgery in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) improves pelvic disease control. Survival improvement is achieved only if pathological response occurs. Mandard tumor regression grade (TRG) proved to be a valid system to measure nCRT response. Potential predictive factors for Mandard response are analyzed. Materials and Methods. 167 patients with LARC were treated with nCRT and curative surgery. Tumor biopsies and surgical specimens were reviewed and analyzed regarding mitotic count, necrosis, desmoplastic reaction, and inflammatory infiltration grade. Surgical specimens were classified according to Mandard TRG. The patients were divided as “good responders” (Mandard TRG1-2) and “bad responders” (Mandard TRG3-5). According to results from our previous data, good responders have better prognosis than bad responders. We examined predictive factors for Mandard response and performed statistical analysis. Results. In univariate analysis, distance from anal verge and ten other postoperative variables related with nCRT tumor response had predictive value for Mandard response. In multivariable analysis only mitotic count, necrosis, and differentiation grade in surgical specimen had predictive value. Conclusions. There is a lack of clinical and pathological preoperative variables able to predict Mandard response. Only postoperative pathological parameters related with nCRT response have predictive value. PMID:26885438

  16. Optimal Multicomponent Analysis Using the Generalized Standard Addition Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment on the simultaneous determination of chromium and magnesium by spectophotometry modified to include the Generalized Standard Addition Method computer program, a multivariate calibration method that provides optimal multicomponent analysis in the presence of interference and matrix effects. Provides instructions for…

  17. Stability, Visibility, and Histologic Analysis of a New Implanted Fiducial for Use as a Kilovoltage Radiographic or Radioactive Marker for Patient Positioning and Monitoring in Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Neustadter, David; Tune, Michal; Zaretsky, Asaph; Shofti, Rona; Kushnir, Arnon; Harel, Tami; Carmi-Yinon, Dafna; Corn, Ben M.S.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the stability, visibility, and histology of a novel implantable soft-tissue marker (nonradioactive and radioactive) implanted in dog prostate and rabbit liver. Methods and Materials: A total of 34 nonradioactive and 35 radioactive markers were implanted in 1 dog and 16 rabbits. Stability was assessed by measuring intermarker distance (IMD) variation relative to IMDs at implantation. The IMDs were measured weekly for 4 months in the dog and biweekly for 2-4 weeks in the rabbits. Ultrasound and X-ray imaging were performed on all subjects. Computed tomography and MRI were performed on the dog. Histologic analysis was performed on the rabbits after 2 or 4 months. Results: A total of 139 measurements had a mean ({+-} SD) absolute IMD variation of 1.1 {+-} 1.1 mm. These IMD variations are consistent with those reported in the literature as due to random organ deformation. The markers were visible, identifiable, and induced minimal or no image artifacts in all tested imaging modalities. Histologic analysis revealed that all pathologic changes were highly localized and not expected to be clinically significant. Conclusions: The markers were stable from the time of implantation. The markers were found to be compatible with all common medical imaging modalities. The markers caused no significant histologic effects. With respect to marker stability, visibility, and histologic analysis these implanted fiducials are appropriate for soft-tissue target positioning in radiotherapy.

  18. Histological analysis of pollen-pistil interactions in sour passion fruit plants (Passiflora edulis Sims).

    PubMed

    Madureira, Hérika Chagas; Pereira, Telma Nair Santana; Da Cunha, Maura; Klein, Denise Espellet

    2012-08-01

    The success of sexual plant reproduction is directly influenced by specific interactions between the pollen and pistil. Light, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to evaluate the steps of pollination in sour passion fruit plants (Passiflora edulis Sims). In the compatible interaction, pollen tubes grow through stigma projections towards the ovary. The pollen grain surface was found to be spheroidal and to consist of heteroreticulate exine with six colpi. Furthermore, analysis in vivo of pollen-pistil interactions indicated that stigmas of flowers 24 hours before anthesis are unable to discriminate compatible (genetically unrelated) and incompatible (genetically related) pollen grains. Taken together, these results provide insight into the cellular mechanisms underlying pollination in passion fruit plants. PMID:23185783

  19. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry for direct tissue analysis: a new frontier for molecular histology

    PubMed Central

    Rauser, Sandra; Deininger, Sören-Oliver; Höfler, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful tool for investigating the distribution of proteins and small molecules within biological systems through the in situ analysis of tissue sections. MALDI-IMS can determine the distribution of hundreds of unknown compounds in a single measurement and enables the acquisition of cellular expression profiles while maintaining the cellular and molecular integrity. In recent years, a great many advances in the practice of imaging mass spectrometry have taken place, making the technique more sensitive, robust, and ultimately useful. In this review, we focus on the current state of the art of MALDI-IMS, describe basic technological developments for MALDI-IMS of animal and human tissues, and discuss some recent applications in basic research and in clinical settings. PMID:18618129

  20. Evaluation of Histological and non-Invasive Methods for the Detection of Liver Fibrosis: The Values of Histological and Digital Morphometric Analysis, Liver Stiffness Measurement and APRI Score.

    PubMed

    Halász, Tünde; Horváth, Gábor; Kiss, András; Pár, Gabriella; Szombati, Andrea; Gelley, Fanni; Nemes, Balázs; Kenessey, István; Piurkó, Violetta; Schaff, Zsuzsa

    2016-01-01

    Prognosis and treatment of liver diseases mainly depend on the precise evaluation of the fibrosis. Comparisons were made between the results of Metavir fibrosis scores and digital morphometric analyses (DMA), liver stiffness (LS) values and aminotransferase-platelet ratio (APRI) scores, respectively. Liver biopsy specimens stained with Sirius red and analysed by morphometry, LS and APRI measurements were taken from 96 patients with chronic liver diseases (56 cases of viral hepatitis, 22 cases of autoimmune- and 18 of mixed origin). The strongest correlation was observed between Metavir score and DMA (r = 0.75 p < 0.05), followed in decreasing order by LS and Metavir (r = 0.61), LS and DMA (r = 0.47) LS and APRI (r = 0.35) and Metavir and APRI (r = 0.24), respectively. DMA is a helpful additional tool for the histopathological evaluation of fibrosis, even when the sample size is small and especially in case of advanced fibrosis. The non-invasive methods showed good correlation with the histopathological methods; LS proved to be more accurate than APRI. The stronger correlation between LS values and Metavir scores, as well as the results of DMA in case of appropriate sample size were remarkable. PMID:26189126

  1. Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in the wild boar (Sus scrofa): chemical and histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Bozzo, Giancarlo; Ceci, Edmondo; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Di Pinto, Angela; Tantillo, Giuseppina; De Giglio, Elvira

    2012-12-01

    Ochratoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that may contaminate a broad variety of foodstuffs, such as grains, vegetables, coffee, dried fruits, beer, wine and meats. Ochratoxins are nephrotoxins, carcinogens, teratogens and immunotoxins in rats and are also likely to be in humans. In 2009/2010, a survey of the presence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in regularly hunted wild boars in the Calabria region of southern Italy detected OTA in 23 animals in the kidney, urinary bladder, liver and muscles: 1.1 ± 1.15, 0.6 ± 0.58, 0.5 ± 0.54 and 0.3 ± 0.26 μg/kg, respectively. Twelve tissue samples showed levels of OTA higher than the guideline level (1 μg/kg) established by the Italian Ministry of Health. In five wild boars, gross-microscopic lesions were described for the organs displaying the highest concentrations of OTA determined by HPLC-FLD analysis, i.e., the kidney, liver and urinary bladder. PMID:23211797

  2. Histological and ultrastructural analysis of white matter damage after naturally-occurring spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter M; Jeffery, Nick D

    2006-04-01

    Detailed analysis of the structural changes that follow human clinical spinal cord injury is limited by difficulties in achieving adequate tissue fixation. This study bypasses this obstacle by examining the spinal cord from paraplegic domestic animals, enabling us to document the ultrastructural changes at different times following injury. In all but one case, injury resulted from a combination of contusion and compression. There was infarction and hemorrhage, followed by gray matter destruction and the rapid development of a variety of white matter changes including axon swelling and myelin degeneration. Axons greater than 5 microm in diameter were more susceptible to degenerative changes, whereas smaller axons, particularly those in the subpial region, were relatively well preserved. Demyelinated axons were seen within 2 weeks after injury and, at later time points, both Schwann cell and oligodendrocyte remyelination was common. More subtle white matter abnormalities were identified by examining sagittal sections, including focal accumulation of organelles in the axoplasm and partial and paranodal myelin abnormalities. These observations serve to validate observations from experimental models of spinal contusion but also highlight the complexity of naturally occurring (ie, clinical) spinal injury. They also raise the possibility that focal abnormalities such as paranodal demyelination may contribute to early axonal dysfunction and possibly to progressive tissue damage. PMID:16768749

  3. Analysis and Evaluation of Supersonic Underwing Heat Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luidens, Roger W.; Flaherty, Richard J.

    1959-01-01

    The linearized theory for heat addition under a wing has been developed to optimize wing geometry, heat addition, and angle of attack. The optimum wing has all of the thickness on the underside of the airfoil, with maximum-thickness point well downstream, has a moderate thickness ratio, and operates at an optimum angle of attack. The heat addition is confined between the fore Mach waves from under the trailing surface of the wing. By linearized theory, a wing at optimum angle of attack may have a range efficiency about twice that of a wing at zero angle of attack. More rigorous calculations using the method of characteristics for particular flow models were made for heating under a flat-plate wing and for several wings with thickness, both with heat additions concentrated near the wing. The more rigorous calculations yield in practical cases efficiencies about half those estimated by linear theory. An analysis indicates that distributing the heat addition between the fore waves from the undertrailing portion of the wing is a way of improving the performance, and further calculations appear desirable. A comparison of the conventional ramjet-plus wing with underwing heat addition when the heat addition is concentrated near the wing shows the ramjet to be superior on a range basis up to Mach number of about B. The heat distribution under the wing and the assumed ramjet and airframe performance may have a marked effect on this conclusion. Underwing heat addition can be useful in providing high-altitude maneuver capability at high flight Mach numbers for an airplane powered by conventional ramjets during cruise.

  4. Laser probe ablation of normal and atherosclerotic human aorta in vitro: a first thermographic and histologic analysis.

    PubMed

    Welch, A J; Bradley, A B; Torres, J H; Motamedi, M; Ghidoni, J J; Pearce, J A; Hussein, H; O'Rourke, R A

    1987-12-01

    The metal-tipped optical fiber or "laser probe" has been extensively studied in animal preparations in vivo and in human clinical trials of revascularization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the thermal characteristics of laser probe tissue ablation and to contrast the vascular tissue response to exposure to the laser probe and bare optical fiber. A 2 mm laser probe was heated with up to 4 W of argon-ion laser irradiation and applied to six postmortem strips of human nonatherosclerotic aorta as well as to five atherosclerotic aortic specimens. Surface temperature maps of the laser probe and of the vascular tissue in air were obtained via 8 to 12 micron thermographic imaging. Laser probe temperature was additionally monitored via thermocouples. Two strips each of normal and diseased aorta were irradiated directly with the bare optical fiber. Thus a total of 43 laser probe application sites and 19 bare fiberoptic laser irradiation sites on a total of 15 aortic strips were analyzed both thermographically and histologically. Based on measured temperature rises and histologic findings, the following observations were made: (1) The laser probe heats initially at its tip and attains a uniform surface temperature distribution within 5 sec. The steady-state temperature attained by the probe is inversely related to the thermal conductivity of the surrounding media. In all media studied, probe temperature increases linearly with applied laser energy. (2) Tissue ablation starts at temperatures greater than 100 degrees C, and ablation temperatures typically exceed 180 degrees C. Adventitial temperatures during laser probe application may reach 70 degrees C. Tissue ablation is enhanced both by greater laser energy deposition in the probe and by higher force at which the probe is applied to tissue. (3) Ablation of fibrofatty atheromata is more extensive than of nonatherosclerotic aortic tissue. This may be due to the lower thermal conductivity of atheromatous tissue. (4) In

  5. Histological analysis and 3D reconstruction of winter cereal crowns recovering from freezing: a unique response in oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The crown is the below ground portion of the stem of a grass which contains meristematic cells that give rise to new shoots and roots following winter. To better understand mechanisms of survival from freezing, histological analysis was performed on rye, wheat, barley and oat plants that had been fr...

  6. ANALYSIS OF MPC ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR ADDITION OF FILLER MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    W. Wallin

    1996-09-03

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) in response to a request received via a QAP-3-12 Design Input Data Request (Ref. 5.1) from WAST Design (formerly MRSMPC Design). The request is to provide: Specific MPC access requirements for the addition of filler materials at the MGDS (i.e., location and size of access required). The objective of this analysis is to provide a response to the foregoing request. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a documented record of the basis for the response. The response is stated in Section 8 herein. The response is based upon requirements from an MGDS perspective.

  7. Histological analysis of the effects of a static magnetic field on bone healing process in rat femurs

    PubMed Central

    Puricelli, Edela; Ulbrich, Lucienne M; Ponzoni, Deise; Filho, João Julio da Cunha

    2006-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate, in vivo, the quality of bone healing under the effect of a static magnetic field, arranged inside the body. Methods A metallic device was developed, consisting of two stainless steel washers attached to the bone structure with titanium screws. Twenty-one Wistar rats (Rattus novergicus albinus) were used in this randomized experimental study. Each experimental group had five rats, and two animals were included as control for each of the groups. A pair of metal device was attached to the left femur of each animal, lightly touching a surgically created bone cavity. In the experimental groups, washers were placed in that way that they allowed mutual attraction forces. In the control group, surgery was performed but washers, screws or instruments were not magnetized. The animals were sacrificed 15, 45 and 60 days later, and the samples were submitted to histological analysis. Results On days 15 and 45 after the surgical procedure, bone healing was more effective in the experimental group as compared to control animals. Sixty days after the surgical procedure, marked bone neoformation was observed in the test group, suggesting the existence of continued magnetic stimulation during the experiment. Conclusion The magnetic stainless steel device, buried in the bone, in vivo, resulted in increased efficiency of the experimental bone healing process. PMID:17125508

  8. Insights from the inside: histological analysis of abnormal enamel microstructure associated with hypoplastic enamel defects in human teeth.

    PubMed

    Witzel, C; Kierdorf, U; Schultz, M; Kierdorf, H

    2008-08-01

    We studied the abnormalities in enamel microstructure associated with enamel hypoplasia in human teeth from the early medieval (5th-7th century AD) cemetery of Barbing, Germany, using light and scanning electron microscopy. The main aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that by analyzing the microstructure of fully formed enamel it is possible to reconstruct the reaction pattern of secretory ameloblasts to stress events leading to enamel hypoplasia. From the histological findings, a sequence of increasing impairment of secretory ameloblast function involving three thresholds was deduced. Surpassing of each of these thresholds is assumed to result in characteristic changes in enamel microstructure attributable to specific functional/morphological alterations of secretory ameloblasts. Based on our results we propose a model identifying the principal factors influencing the reaction of secretory ameloblasts to stress. The present study demonstrates that by including microscopic analysis in the study of enamel hypoplasia, it is possible to obtain a more complete picture of the formation of these developmental defects than is possible by inspection of crown surface features alone, and to draw more substantiated conclusions about the possible nature of developmental defects of enamel. PMID:18350581

  9. Spectral Envelopes and Additive + Residual Analysis/Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodet, Xavier; Schwarz, Diemo

    The subject of this chapter is the estimation, representation, modification, and use of spectral envelopes in the context of sinusoidal-additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis. A spectral envelope is an amplitude-vs-frequency function, which may be obtained from the envelope of a short-time spectrum (Rodet et al., 1987; Schwarz, 1998). [Precise definitions of such an envelope and short-time spectrum (STS) are given in Section 2.] The additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis method is based on a representation of signals in terms of a sum of time-varying sinusoids and of a non-sinusoidal residual signal [e.g., see Serra (1989), Laroche et al. (1993), McAulay and Quatieri (1995), and Ding and Qian (1997)]. Many musical sound signals may be described as a combination of a nearly periodic waveform and colored noise. The nearly periodic part of the signal can be viewed as a sum of sinusoidal components, called partials, with time-varying frequency and amplitude. Such sinusoidal components are easily observed on a spectral analysis display (Fig. 5.1) as obtained, for instance, from a discrete Fourier transform.

  10. Relation between Anemia and Vulnerable Coronary Plaque Components in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome: Virtual Histology-Intravascular Ultrasound Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young Joon; Choi, Yun Ha; Song, Jin A; Kim, Dong Han; Lee, Ki Hong; Yamanaka, Futoshi; Lee, Min Goo; Park, Keun Ho; Sim, Doo Sun; Yoon, Nam Sik; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Hyung Wook; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun; Kang, Jung Chaee

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the plaque components and the predictors of thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) in anemic patients with acute coronary syndrome using virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS). Anemia was defined according to criteria of the World Health Organization, (i.e. , hemoglobin levels < 13 g/dL in men and < 12 g/dL in women) and we compared VH-IVUS findings between anemia group (171 patients, 260 lesions) and non-anemia group (569 patients, 881 lesions). Anemia group had greater % necrotic core (NC) volume (21% ± 9% vs 19% ± 9%, P = 0.001) compared with non-anemia group. Hemoglobin level correlated negatively with absolute NC volume (r = -0.235, P < 0.001) and %NC volume (r = -0.209, P < 0.001). Independent predictors of TCFA by multivariate analysis were diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 2.213; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.403-3.612, P = 0.006), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (OR, 1.143; 95% CI, 1.058-1.304, P = 0.012), microalbuminuria (albumin levels of 30 to 300 mg/g of creatinine) (OR, 2.124; 95% CI, 1.041-3.214, P = 0.018), and anemia (OR: 2.112; 95% CI 1.022-3.208, P = 0.028). VH-IVUS analysis demonstrates that anemia at the time of clinical presentation is associated with vulnerable plaque component in patients with acute coronary syndrome. PMID:22468099

  11. Sensitivity analysis of geometric errors in additive manufacturing medical models.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jose Miguel; Arrieta, Cristobal; Andia, Marcelo E; Uribe, Sergio; Ramos-Grez, Jorge; Vargas, Alex; Irarrazaval, Pablo; Tejos, Cristian

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) models are used in medical applications for surgical planning, prosthesis design and teaching. For these applications, the accuracy of the AM models is essential. Unfortunately, this accuracy is compromised due to errors introduced by each of the building steps: image acquisition, segmentation, triangulation, printing and infiltration. However, the contribution of each step to the final error remains unclear. We performed a sensitivity analysis comparing errors obtained from a reference with those obtained modifying parameters of each building step. Our analysis considered global indexes to evaluate the overall error, and local indexes to show how this error is distributed along the surface of the AM models. Our results show that the standard building process tends to overestimate the AM models, i.e. models are larger than the original structures. They also show that the triangulation resolution and the segmentation threshold are critical factors, and that the errors are concentrated at regions with high curvatures. Errors could be reduced choosing better triangulation and printing resolutions, but there is an important need for modifying some of the standard building processes, particularly the segmentation algorithms. PMID:25649961

  12. Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and lung cancer by histological type: a pooled analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; McNallan, Sheila R; Cote, Michele L; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chang, Shen-Chih; Kim, Jin Hee; Ugolini, Donatella; Chen, Ying; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Andrew, Angeline S; Onega, Tracy; Duell, Eric J; Field, John K; Lazarus, Philip; Le Marchand, Loic; Neri, Monica; Vineis, Paolo; Kiyohara, Chikako; Hong, Yun-Chul; Morgenstern, Hal; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tajima, Kazuo; Christiani, David C; McLaughlin, John R; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Fabianova, Eleonora; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Rudnai, Peter; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mukeria, Anush; Zaridze, David; Seow, Adeline; Schwartz, Ann G; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    While the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer risk is well established, few studies with sufficient power have examined the association by histological type. In this study, we evaluated the secondhand smoke-lung cancer relationship by histological type based on pooled data from 18 case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), including 2,504 cases and 7,276 controls who were never smokers and 10,184 cases and 7,176 controls who were ever smokers. We used multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and study. Among never smokers, the odds ratios (OR) comparing those ever exposed to secondhand smoke with those never exposed were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.17–1.45) for all histological types combined, 1.26 (95% CI: 1.10–1.44) for adenocarcinoma, 1.41 (95% CI: 0.99–1.99) for squamous cell carcinoma, 1.48 (95% CI: 0.89–2.45) for large cell lung cancer, and 3.09 (95% CI: 1.62–5.89) for small cell lung cancer. The estimated association with secondhand smoke exposure was greater for small cell lung cancer than for non-small cell lung cancers (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.11–4.04). This analysis is the largest to date investigating the relation between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer. Our study provides more precise estimates of the impact of secondhand smoke on the major histological types of lung cancer, indicates the association with secondhand smoke is stronger for small cell lung cancer than for the other histological types, and suggests the importance of intervention against exposure to secondhand smoke in lung cancer prevention. PMID:24615328

  13. Histology Verification Demonstrates That Biospectroscopy Analysis of Cervical Cytology Identifies Underlying Disease More Accurately than Conventional Screening: Removing the Confounder of Discordance

    PubMed Central

    Gajjar, Ketan; Ahmadzai, Abdullah A.; Valasoulis, George; Trevisan, Júlio; Founta, Christina; Nasioutziki, Maria; Loufopoulos, Aristotelis; Kyrgiou, Maria; Stasinou, Sofia Melina; Karakitsos, Petros; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Da Gama-Rose, Bianca; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Martin, Francis L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Subjective visual assessment of cervical cytology is flawed, and this can manifest itself by inter- and intra-observer variability resulting ultimately in the degree of discordance in the grading categorisation of samples in screening vs. representative histology. Biospectroscopy methods have been suggested as sensor-based tools that can deliver objective assessments of cytology. However, studies to date have been apparently flawed by a corresponding lack of diagnostic efficiency when samples have previously been classed using cytology screening. This raises the question as to whether categorisation of cervical cytology based on imperfect conventional screening reduces the diagnostic accuracy of biospectroscopy approaches; are these latter methods more accurate and diagnose underlying disease? The purpose of this study was to compare the objective accuracy of infrared (IR) spectroscopy of cervical cytology samples using conventional cytology vs. histology-based categorisation. Methods Within a typical clinical setting, a total of n = 322 liquid-based cytology samples were collected immediately before biopsy. Of these, it was possible to acquire subsequent histology for n = 154. Cytology samples were categorised according to conventional screening methods and subsequently interrogated employing attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform IR (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. IR spectra were pre-processed and analysed using linear discriminant analysis. Dunn’s test was applied to identify the differences in spectra. Within the diagnostic categories, histology allowed us to determine the comparative efficiency of conventional screening vs. biospectroscopy to correctly identify either true atypia or underlying disease. Results Conventional cytology-based screening results in poor sensitivity and specificity. IR spectra derived from cervical cytology do not appear to discriminate in a diagnostic fashion when categories were based on conventional screening

  14. The Effect of Statin Therapy on Coronary Plaque Composition Using Virtual Histology Intravascular Ultrasound: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guian; Li, Yuxin; Huang, Huishan; Wang, Jinghan; Hirayama, Atsushi; Lin, Jinxiu

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have indicated that statin therapy may promote plaque regression. However, the impact of statin therapy on plaque composition has not been clearly elucidated. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effect of statin therapy on coronary plaque composition as assessed by virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS). Methods Online databases were searched from inception to March 1, 2015. Studies providing VH-IVUS volumetric analyses of coronary plaque composition at baseline and follow-up in patients receiving statin therapy were included. Weighted mean difference (WMD) using a random-effects model was used. Results Ten studies involving 682 patients were included. There was a substantial reduction in fibrous volume between baseline and follow-up (WMD: -2.37 mm3, 95% confidence interval (CI) -4.01 to -0.74 mm3, P=0.004), and a significant increase in dense calcium (DC) volume (WMD: 0.89 mm3, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.08 mm3, P<0.00001). No significant change was seen in fibro-fatty and necrotic core (NC) volumes. In stratified analyses, the fibrous volume was decreased significantly (WMD: -3.39 mm3, 95% CI -6.56 to -0.21 mm3, P=0.04) and the absolute DC volume (WMD: 0.99 mm3, 95% CI 0.23 to 1.76 mm3, P=0.01) was increased in the subgroup with ≥12 months follow-up, whereas no significant change was observed in the subgroup with < 12 months follow-up. Similarly, a substantial decrease in fibrous volume (WMD: -2.01 mm3, 95% CI -3.05 to -0.96 mm3, P< 0.0002) and an increase in DC volume (WMD: 0.90 mm3, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.10 mm3, P< 0.00001) were observed in the subgroup with high-intensive statin therapy, while the change in fibrous and DC volumes approached statistical significance (P=0.05 and P=0.05, respectively) in the subgroup with low-intensive statin therapy. Conclusions Statin treatment, particularly of high-intensity and long-term duration, induced a marked modification in coronary plaque composition including a decrease in

  15. Histological analysis of cells and matrix mineralization of new bone tissue induced in rabbit femur bones by Mg-Zr based biodegradable implants.

    PubMed

    Ragamouni, Sravanthi; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Mushahary, Dolly; Nemani, Harishankar; Pande, Gopal

    2013-09-01

    The biological efficacy of bone inducing implant materials in situ can be assessed effectively by performing histological analysis. We studied the peri-implant bone regeneration around two types of biodegradable magnesium-zirconium alloys, Mg-5Zr and Mg-Zr-2Sr, using histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods in the femur of New Zealand White strain rabbits. Our study includes three animal groups: (a) Mg-5Zr, (b) Mg-Zr-2Sr and (c) control. In each group three animals were used and in groups 'a' and 'b' the respective alloys were implanted in cavities made at the distal ends of the femur; control animals were left without implants to observe natural bone healing. Qualitative assessment of the cellularity and matrix mineralization events of the newly formed bone tissue was done at three months after implantation by histological methods in methyl methacrylate embedded tissue without decalcifying the bone. Quantitative mineral content and density of the new bone (NB) were evaluated by the statistical analysis of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data obtained from three animals in each experimental group. Based on our analysis we conclude that Mg-Zr-2Sr alloy showed better osseointegration of the newly formed bone with the implant surface. Our methodology of studying peri-implant osteoinduction of degradable implants using low temperature methyl methacrylate embedding resin can be useful as a general method for determining the bio-efficacy of implant materials. PMID:23628266

  16. Nonparametric survival analysis using Bayesian Additive Regression Trees (BART).

    PubMed

    Sparapani, Rodney A; Logan, Brent R; McCulloch, Robert E; Laud, Purushottam W

    2016-07-20

    Bayesian additive regression trees (BART) provide a framework for flexible nonparametric modeling of relationships of covariates to outcomes. Recently, BART models have been shown to provide excellent predictive performance, for both continuous and binary outcomes, and exceeding that of its competitors. Software is also readily available for such outcomes. In this article, we introduce modeling that extends the usefulness of BART in medical applications by addressing needs arising in survival analysis. Simulation studies of one-sample and two-sample scenarios, in comparison with long-standing traditional methods, establish face validity of the new approach. We then demonstrate the model's ability to accommodate data from complex regression models with a simulation study of a nonproportional hazards scenario with crossing survival functions and survival function estimation in a scenario where hazards are multiplicatively modified by a highly nonlinear function of the covariates. Using data from a recently published study of patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, we illustrate the use and some advantages of the proposed method in medical investigations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26854022

  17. Campylobacter pylori: prospective analysis of clinical and histological factors associated with colonization of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Börsch, G; Schmidt, G; Wegener, M; Sandmann, M; Adamek, R; Leverkus, F; Reitemeyer, E

    1988-04-01

    The association of Campylobacter pylori (C.p.) colonization of the upper gastrointestinal tract with five predefined anamnestic variables, seven symptoms of dyspepsia, and various blindly evaluated histological criteria, was prospectively investigated in a consecutive series of 149 patients submitted to upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy. Colonization was determined by biopsy urease tests and histological searches. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) between C.p.-positive and C.p.-negative patients were found for smoker status and the frequency of therapy with ulcer-healing drugs (positive association with C.p.) and antibiotics (negative association), but not for any other of the anamnestic data or symptoms. These data were further submitted to stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses. Concerning histological findings, C.p. colonization was significantly associated with the degree of antrum and body gastritis (P less than 0.01), and also with lymphocellular infiltration in antrum and body biopsies and neutrophil cellular grading in gastric antra. We conclude that C.p. colonization of the upper gastrointestinal tract is associated with gastritic change of the antrum and, albeit to a lesser extent, of the body mucosa. However, a specific pattern of symptoms to predict C.p. colonization could not be established. PMID:3133219

  18. Identification of histological markers for malignant glioma by genome-wide expression analysis: dynein, alpha-PIX and sorcin.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Takashi; Kouno, Jun; Adachi, Koji; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Teramoto, Akira; Matsumoto, Koshi; Sugisaki, Yuichi; Onda, Masamitsu; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most malignant class of glial neoplasm (grade IV in WHO criteria), carries the worst clinical prognosis among primary brain tumors in adults. To identify a set of genes involved in the tumorigenesis of GBM, we evaluated expression profiles of GBM tissues from 11 patients using a cDNA microarray representing 25,344 human genes. By comparing the profiles with those of normal brain tissue, we identified a number of differentially expressed genes: 54 with increased expression and 45 with reduced expression in GBMs. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR experiments with 6 of those genes confirmed higher expression of DNCH2, ARHGEF6, NPM1 and SRI and lower expression of NRGN and TM4SF2 in GBM tumors. Immunohistochemical staining for 3 of the respective gene products, dynein (product of DNCH2), alpha-PIX (product of ARHGEF6), and sorcin (product of SRI) indicated that this technique might be useful for histological grading of glial tumors. To establish criteria for this diagnostic approach, we scored glial tumor tissues of different histological grades according to the staining results; the scores were significantly higher in anaplastic astrocytomas and GBMs than in diffuse astrocytomas or normal brain tissues. These findings indicated that levels of these three proteins might serve as histological markers for malignant glioma classification. PMID:16320026

  19. Porcine deltacoronavirus: histological lesions and genetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leyi; Hayes, Jeff; Sarver, Craig; Byrum, Beverly; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    First identified in 2012 in a surveillance study in Hong Kong, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a proposed member of the genus Deltacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae. In February of 2014, PDCoV was detected in pigs with clinical diarrheal symptoms for the first time in the USA. Since then, it has been detected in more than 20 states in the USA and in other countries, including Canada, South Korea, and mainland China. So far, histological lesions in the intestines of pigs naturally infected with PDCoV under field conditions have not been reported. In this report, we describe the characteristic histological lesions in the small intestine that were associated with PDCoV infection, as evidenced by detection of viral nucleic acid by RT-PCR. In addition, we performed genomic analysis to determine the genetic relationship of all PDCoV strains from the four countries. We found that PDCoV mainly caused histological lesions in the small intestines of naturally infected piglets. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the PDCoV strains of different countries are closely related and shared high nucleotide sequence similarity; however, deletion patterns in the spike and 3' untranslated regions are different among the strains from mainland China, Hong Kong, the USA, and South Korea. Our study highlights the fact that continual surveillance is needed to trace the evolution of this virus. PMID:26475155

  20. Precessing rotating flows with additional shear: Stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salhi, A.; Cambon, C.

    2009-03-01

    We consider unbounded precessing rotating flows in which vertical or horizontal shear is induced by the interaction between the solid-body rotation (with angular velocity Ω0 ) and the additional “precessing” Coriolis force (with angular velocity -ɛΩ0 ), normal to it. A “weak” shear flow, with rate 2ɛ of the same order of the Poincaré “small” ratio ɛ , is needed for balancing the gyroscopic torque, so that the whole flow satisfies Euler’s equations in the precessing frame (the so-called admissibility conditions). The base flow case with vertical shear (its cross-gradient direction is aligned with the main angular velocity) corresponds to Mahalov’s [Phys. Fluids A 5, 891 (1993)] precessing infinite cylinder base flow (ignoring boundary conditions), while the base flow case with horizontal shear (its cross-gradient direction is normal to both main and precessing angular velocities) corresponds to the unbounded precessing rotating shear flow considered by Kerswell [Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 72, 107 (1993)]. We show that both these base flows satisfy the admissibility conditions and can support disturbances in terms of advected Fourier modes. Because the admissibility conditions cannot select one case with respect to the other, a more physical derivation is sought: Both flows are deduced from Poincaré’s [Bull. Astron. 27, 321 (1910)] basic state of a precessing spheroidal container, in the limit of small ɛ . A Rapid distortion theory (RDT) type of stability analysis is then performed for the previously mentioned disturbances, for both base flows. The stability analysis of the Kerswell base flow, using Floquet’s theory, is recovered, and its counterpart for the Mahalov base flow is presented. Typical growth rates are found to be the same for both flows at very small ɛ , but significant differences are obtained regarding growth rates and widths of instability bands, if larger ɛ values, up to 0.2, are considered. Finally, both flow cases

  1. Oxidative Stress Markers and Histological Analysis in Diverse Organs from Rats Treated with a Hepatotoxic Dose of Cr(VI): Effect of Curcumin.

    PubMed

    García-Niño, Wylly Ramsés; Zatarain-Barrón, Zyanya Lucía; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Vega-García, Claudia Cecilia; Tapia, Edilia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2015-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are extremely toxic and carcinogenic. Despite the vast quantity of reports about Cr(VI) toxicity, the information regarding its effects when it is intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered is still limited. In contrast, it has been shown that curcumin prevents hepatotoxicity induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 15 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). This study aims to evaluate oxidative stress markers, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and the potential histological injury in brain, heart, lung, kidney, spleen, pancreas, stomach, and intestine from rats treated with a hepatotoxic dose of K2Cr2O7 (15 mg/kg b.w.), and the effect of curcumin pretreatment. Rats were divided into four groups: control, curcumin, K2Cr2O7, and curcumin+K2Cr2O7. At the end of the treatment, plasma and ascites fluid were collected and target organs were dissected out for biochemical and histological analysis. K2Cr2O7 induced hepatotoxicity but failed to induce in all the other studied organs either oxidative or histological injury, since levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and related GSH enzymes were unchanged. As expected, curcumin was safe. Lack of K2Cr2O7-induced toxicity in those target organs could be due to the following: (1) route of administration, (2) absorption through the portal circulation, (3) lower dose than needed, (4) short time of exposure, or (5) repeated doses are required to produce damage. Thus, the intraperitoneal injection of 15 mg/kg of K2Cr2O7, that is able to induce hepatotoxicity, was unable to induce histological and oxidative damage in other target organs. PMID:25774041

  2. Clinico-Histologic Conferences: Histology and Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Phyllis A.; Friedman, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    Providing a context for learning information and requiring learners to teach specific content has been demonstrated to enhance knowledge retention. To enhance students' appreciation of the role of science and specifically histology in clinical reasoning, disease diagnosis, and treatment, a new teaching format was created to provide clinical…

  3. Endovascular image-guided treatment of in-vivo model aneurysms with asymmetric vascular stents (AVS): evaluation with time-density curve angiographic analysis and histology

    PubMed Central

    Dohatcu, A.; Ionita, C. N.; Paciorek, A.; Bednarek, D. R.; Hoffmann, K. R.; Rudin, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we compare the results obtained from Time-Density Curve (TDC) analysis of angiographic imaging sequences with histological evaluation for a rabbit aneurysm model treated with standard stents and new asymmetric vascular stents (AVS) placed by image-guided endovascular deployment. AVSs are stents having a low-porosity patch region designed to cover the aneurysm neck and occlude blood flow inside. To evaluate the AVSs, rabbits with elastase-induced aneurysm models (n=20) were divided into three groups: the first (n=10) was treated with an AVS, the second (n=5) with a non-patch standard coronary stent, and third was untreated as a control (n=5). We used TDC analysis to measure how much contrast media entered the aneurysm before and after treatment. TDCs track contrast-media-density changes as a function of time over the region of interest in x-ray DSA cine-sequences. After 28 days, the animals were sacrificed and the explanted specimens were histologically evaluated. The first group showed an average reduction of contrast flow into the aneurysm of 95% after treatment with an AVS with fully developed thrombus at 28 days follow-up. The rabbits treated with standard stents showed an increase in TDC residency time after treatment and partial-thrombogenesis. The untreated control aneurysms displayed no reduction in flow and were still patent at follow-up. The quantitative TDC analysis findings were confirmed by histological evaluation suggesting that the new AVS has great potential as a definitive treatment for cerebro-vascular aneurysms and that angiographic TDC analysis can provide in-vivo verification. PMID:18958295

  4. A long term histological analysis of effect of interposed hydroxyapatite between bone and bone cement in THA and TKA.

    PubMed

    Oonishi, Hironobu

    2012-01-01

    The standard cementing technique for total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA) was modified by interposing osteoconductive porous polycrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) granules at the cement-bone interface to augment cement-bone bonding. Twenty-one specimens from the acetabulum and two specimens from the femur containing well-fixed bone-cement interface were retrieved five months to twenty-two years after THA and TKA with an interface bioactive bone cement technique. Histological findings were evaluated in terms of the retrieved sites, the interval between index operation and revision, patient age at retrieval and bone pathology. Dense bone ingrowth was observed in all specimens retrieved from the superior wall of the acetabulum. Cancellous bone ingrowth was observed in specimens retrieved from the infero-medial wall of the acetabulum. Connective tissue interposition and osteolysis were observed at the sites where hydroxyapatite granules were absent. Findings of bone ingrowth for the HA interposed retrievals were similar regardless of the interval between index operation and revision, patient age at retrieval, and bone pathology. Longer survivability of the bone-cement bonding was attributed more to the interposed HA granules. In spite of various degrees of aging, postmenopausal osteoporosis, and pathological bone condition the histological findings were not affected by the bone pathology. There was long-term direct contact between the bone and hydroxyapatite granules. Thus, the interface bioactive bone cement technique can ensure longevity of bone-cement bonding even after the onset of osteoporosis and for pathological bone conditions. PMID:23428252

  5. Insights into the renal pathogenesis in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia: A renal histological characterization and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Sanjay; Javidan, Ashkan; Boivin, Felix; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Lukic, Dusan; Svajger, Bruno; Chu, Stephanie; Baradaran-Heravi, Alireza; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Rosenblum, Norman D; Bridgewater, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD) is a pleiotropic disorder caused by mutations in the SWI/SNF2-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like-1 (SMARCAL1) gene, with multiple clinical features, notably end-stage renal disease. Here we characterize the renal pathology in SIOD patients. Our analysis of SIOD patient renal biopsies demonstrates the tip and collapsing variants of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Additionally, electron microscopy revealed numerous glomerular abnormalities most notably in the podocyte and Bowman's capsule. To better understand the role of SMARCAL1 in the pathogenesis of FSGS, we defined SMARCAL1 expression in the developing and mature kidney. In the developing fetal kidney, SMARCAL1 is expressed in the ureteric epithelium, stroma, metanephric mesenchyme, and in all stages of the developing nephron, including the maturing glomerulus. In postnatal kidneys, SMARCAL1 expression is localized to epithelial tubules of the nephron, collecting ducts, and glomerulus (podocytes and endothelial cells). Interestingly, not all cells within the same lineage expressed SMARCAL1. In renal biopsies from SIOD patients, TUNEL analysis detected marked increases in DNA fragmentation. Our results highlight the cells that may contribute to the renal pathogenesis in SIOD. Further, we suggest that disruptions in genomic integrity during fetal kidney development contribute to the pathogenesis of FSGS in SIOD patients. PMID:25319549

  6. Systematic review and meta-analysis: rapid diagnostic tests versus placental histology, microscopy and PCR for malaria in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background During pregnancy, malaria infection with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax is related to adverse maternal health and poor birth outcomes. Diagnosis of malaria, during pregnancy, is complicated by the absence or low parasite densities in peripheral blood. Diagnostic methods, other than microscopy, are needed for detection of placental malaria. Therefore, the diagnostic accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), detecting antigen, and molecular techniques (PCR), detecting DNA, for the diagnosis of Plasmodium infections in pregnancy was systematically reviewed. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched for studies assessing the diagnostic accuracy of RDTs, PCR, microscopy of peripheral and placental blood and placental histology for the detection of malaria infection (all species) in pregnant women. Results The results of 49 studies were analysed in metandi (Stata), of which the majority described P. falciparum infections. Although both placental and peripheral blood microscopy cannot reliably replace histology as a reference standard for placental P. falciparum infection, many studies compared RDTs and PCR to these tests. The proportion of microscopy positives in placental blood (sensitivity) detected by peripheral blood microscopy, RDTs and PCR are respectively 72% [95% CI 62-80], 81% [95% CI 55-93] and 94% [95% CI 86-98]. The proportion of placental blood microscopy negative women that were negative in peripheral blood microscopy, RDTs and PCR (specificity) are 98% [95% CI 95-99], 94% [95% CI 76-99] and 77% [95% CI 71-82]. Based on the current data, it was not possible to determine if the false positives in RDTs and PCR are caused by sequestered parasites in the placenta that are not detected by placental microscopy. Conclusion The findings suggest that RDTs and PCR may have good performance characteristics to serve as alternatives for the diagnosis of malaria in pregnancy, besides any other limitations and practical considerations

  7. Additional analysis of dendrochemical data of Fallon, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Paul R; Helsel, Dennis R; Speakman, Robert J; Ridenour, Gary; Witten, Mark L

    2012-04-01

    Previously reported dendrochemical data showed temporal variability in concentration of tungsten (W) and cobalt (Co) in tree rings of Fallon, Nevada, US. Criticism of this work questioned the use of the Mann-Whitney test for determining change in element concentrations. Here, we demonstrate that Mann-Whitney is appropriate for comparing background element concentrations to possibly elevated concentrations in environmental media. Given that Mann-Whitney tests for differences in shapes of distributions, inter-tree variability (e.g., "coefficient of median variation") was calculated for each measured element across trees within subsites and time periods. For W and Co, the metals of highest interest in Fallon, inter-tree variability was always higher within versus outside of Fallon. For calibration purposes, this entire analysis was repeated at a different town, Sweet Home, Oregon, which has a known tungsten-powder facility, and inter-tree variability of W in tree rings confirmed the establishment date of that facility. Mann-Whitney testing of simulated data also confirmed its appropriateness for analysis of data affected by point-source contamination. This research adds important new dimensions to dendrochemistry of point-source contamination by adding analysis of inter-tree variability to analysis of central tendency. Fallon remains distinctive by a temporal increase in W beginning by the mid 1990s and by elevated Co since at least the early 1990s, as well as by high inter-tree variability for W and Co relative to comparison towns. PMID:22227064

  8. Histological evolution of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Takako; Yoshida, Yuji; Kitasato, Yasuhiko; Yoshimi, Michihiro; Koga, Takaomi; Tsuruta, Nobuko; Minami, Masato; Harada, Taishi; Ishii, Hiroshi; Fujita, Masaki; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Nagata, Nobuhiko; Watanabe, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the histological evolution in the development of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE). Methods and results We examined four patients who had undergone surgical lung biopsy twice, or who had undergone surgical lung biopsy and had been autopsied, and in whom the histological diagnosis of the first biopsy was not PPFE, but the diagnosis of the second biopsy or of the autopsy was PPFE. The histological patterns of the first biopsy were cellular and fibrotic interstitial pneumonia, cellular interstitial pneumonia (CIP) with organizing pneumonia, CIP with granulomas and acute lung injury in cases 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Septal elastosis was already present in the non-specific interstitial pneumonia-like histology of case 1, but a few additional years were necessary to reach consolidated subpleural fibroelastosis. In case 3, subpleural fibroelastosis was already present in the first biopsy, but only to a small extent. Twelve years later, it was replaced by a long band of fibroelastosis. The septal inflammation and fibrosis and airspace organization observed in the first biopsies were replaced by less cellular subpleural fibroelastosis within 3–12 years. Conclusions Interstitial inflammation or acute lung injury may be an initial step in the development of PPFE. PMID:25234959

  9. Analysis of Saccharides by the Addition of Amino Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Abdil; Lin, Jung-Lee; Gillig, Kent J.; Gulfen, Mustafa; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we present the detection sensitivity improvement of electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry of neutral saccharides in a positive ion mode by the addition of various amino acids. Saccharides of a broad molecular weight range were chosen as the model compounds in the present study. Saccharides provide strong noncovalent interactions with amino acids, and the complex formation enhances the signal intensity and simplifies the mass spectra of saccharides. Polysaccharides provide a polymer-like ESI spectrum with a basic subunit difference between multiply charged chains. The protonated spectra of saccharides are not well identified because of different charge state distributions produced by the same molecules. Depending on the solvent used and other ions or molecules present in the solution, noncovalent interactions with saccharides may occur. These interactions are affected by the addition of amino acids. Amino acids with polar side groups show a strong tendency to interact with saccharides. In particular, serine shows a high tendency to interact with saccharides and significantly improves the detection sensitivity of saccharide compounds.

  10. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part’s porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  11. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  12. Additional EIPC Study Analysis: Interim Report on High Priority Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W

    2013-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 13 topics was developed for further analysis; this paper discusses the first five.

  13. Mini-pillar array for hydrogel-supported 3D culture and high-content histologic analysis of human tumor spheroids.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jihoon; Lee, Dong Woo; Hwang, Hyun Ju; Yeon, Sang-Eun; Lee, Moo-Yeal; Kuh, Hyo-Jeong

    2016-06-21

    Three-dimensional (3D) cancer cell culture models mimic the complex 3D organization and microenvironment of human solid tumor tissue and are thus considered as highly predictive models representing avascular tumor regions. Confocal laser scanning microscopy is useful for monitoring drug penetration and therapeutic responses in 3D tumor models; however, photonic attenuation at increasing imaging depths and limited penetration of common fluorescence tracers are significant technical challenges to imaging. Immunohistological staining would be a good alternative, but the preparation of tissue sections from rather fragile spheroids through fixing and embedding procedures is challenging. Here we introduce a novel 3 × 3 mini-pillar array chip that can be utilized for 3D cell culturing and sectioning for high-content histologic analysis. The mini-pillar array chip facilitated the generation of 3D spheroids of human cancer cells within hydrogels such as alginate, collagen, and Matrigel. As expected, visualization of the 3D distribution of calcein AM and doxorubicin by optical sectioning was limited by photonic attenuation and dye penetration. The integrity of the 3D microtissue section was confirmed by immunostaining on paraffin sections and cryo-sections. The applicability of the mini-pillar array for drug activity evaluation was tested by measuring viability changes in spheroids exposed to anti-cancer agents, 5-fluorouracil and tirapazamine. Thus, our novel mini-pillar array platform can potentially promote high-content histologic analysis of 3D cultures and can be further optimized for field-specific needs. PMID:27194205

  14. Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.

    PubMed

    Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level. PMID:23552653

  15. Comparative histological analysis of bone healing of standardized bone defects performed with the Er:YAG laser and steel burs.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Elaine Duarte Artuso; Pagnoncelli, Rogério Miranda; Munin, Egberto; Filho, Manoel Sant'Ana; de Mello, Guilherme Paulo Scarpel; Arisawa, Emília Angela Loschiavo; de Oliveira, Marília Gerhardt

    2008-07-01

    This study compares the bone repair process after ostectomies performed either with the erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser or with the low-speed bur drilling. Eighteen rats were used for this study. In the control group, the ostectomy was performed with a low-speed bur drilling. In the experimental group, the ostectomy was made with an Er:YAG laser (500 mJ, 10 Hz). At 7 and 14 days after surgery, the experimental group presented earlier bone repair in comparison to the control group. The experimental group presented an altered layer of approximately 24-microm thickness, whereas the control group did not present any altered layer in the margins of the ostectomies. At 21 days, the histological features of the two groups were very similar, although the altered layer could still be seen. The Er:YAG laser successfully promoted the ablation of the bone tissue, but caused some thermal damage at the margins of the ostectomies. PMID:17632745

  16. Histological analysis of the repair of dural lesions with silicone mesh in rats subjected to experimental lesions

    PubMed Central

    da Rosa, Fernando William Figueiredo; Pohl, Pedro Henrique Isoldi; Mader, Ana Maria Amaral Antônio; de Paiva, Carla Peluso; dos Santos, Aline Amaro; Bianco, Bianca; Rodrigues, Luciano Miller Reis

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate inflammatory reaction, fibrosis and neovascularization in dural repairs in Wistar rats using four techniques: simple suture, bovine collagen membrane, silicon mesh and silicon mesh with suture. Methods Thirty Wistar rats were randomized in five groups: the first was the control group, submitted to dural tear only. The others underwent durotomy and simple suture, bovine collagen membrane, silicon mesh and silicon mesh with suture. Animals were euthanized and the spine was submitted to histological evaluation with a score system (ranging from zero to 3) for inflammation, neovascularization and fibrosis. Results Fibrosis was significantly different between simple suture and silicon mesh (p=0.005) and between simple suture and mesh with suture (p=0.015), showing that fibrosis is more intense when a foreign body is used in the repair. Bovine membrane was significantly different from mesh plus suture (p=0.011) regarding vascularization. Inflammation was significantly different between simple suture and bovine collagen membrane. Conclusion Silicon mesh, compared to other commercial products available, is a possible alternative for dural repair. More studies are necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:26761555

  17. Histologic diagnosis of sodomy.

    PubMed

    Paparo, G P; Siegel, H

    1979-10-01

    A case of homicidal strangulation with sodomy is presented. Without the use of a simple routine histologic technique, the diagnosis of sodomy could not have been unequivocally substantiated. PMID:541642

  18. Ceramic femoral component fracture in total knee arthroplasty: an analysis using fractography, fourier-transform infrared microscopy, contact radiography and histology.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Alexander P; Singh, Gurpal; Beil, Frank Timo; Feuerstein, Bernd; Ruether, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Christoph H

    2014-05-01

    Ceramic components in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are evolving. We analyze the first case of BIOLOX delta ceramic femoral component fracture. A longitudinal midline fracture in the patellar groove was present, with an intact cement mantle and no bony defects. Fractographic analysis with laser scanning microscopy and white light interferometry showed no evidence of arrest lines, hackles, wake hackles, material flaws, fatigue or crack propagation. Analysis of periprosthetic tissues with Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) microscopy, contact radiography, histology, and subsequent digestion and high-speed centrifugation did not show ceramic debris. A macrophage-dominated response was present around polyethylene debris. We conclude that ceramic femoral component failure in this case was related to a traumatic event. Further research is needed to determine the suitability of ceramic components in TKA. PMID:24360338

  19. Additional challenges for uncertainty analysis in river engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berends, Koen; Warmink, Jord; Hulscher, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    the proposed intervention. The implicit assumption underlying such analysis is that both models are commensurable. We hypothesize that they are commensurable only to a certain extent. In an idealised study we have demonstrated that prediction performance loss should be expected with increasingly large engineering works. When accounting for parametric uncertainty of floodplain roughness in model identification, we see uncertainty bounds for predicted effects of interventions increase with increasing intervention scale. Calibration of these types of models therefore seems to have a shelf-life, beyond which calibration does not longer improves prediction. Therefore a qualification scheme for model use is required that can be linked to model validity. In this study, we characterize model use along three dimensions: extrapolation (using the model with different external drivers), extension (using the model for different output or indicators) and modification (using modified models). Such use of models is expected to have implications for the applicability of surrogating modelling for efficient uncertainty analysis as well, which is recommended for future research. Warmink, J. J.; Straatsma, M. W.; Huthoff, F.; Booij, M. J. & Hulscher, S. J. M. H. 2013. Uncertainty of design water levels due to combined bed form and vegetation roughness in the Dutch river Waal. Journal of Flood Risk Management 6, 302-318 . DOI: 10.1111/jfr3.12014

  20. A Porcine Animal Model for Early Meniscal Degeneration – Analysis of Histology, Gene Expression and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Six Months after Resection of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Kreinest, Michael; Reisig, Gregor; Ströbel, Philipp; Dinter, Dietmar; Attenberger, Ulrike; Lipp, Peter; Schwarz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective The menisci of the mammalian knee joint balance the incongruence between femoral condyle and tibial plateau and thus menisci absorb and distribute high loads. Degeneration processes of the menisci lead to pain syndromes in the knee joint. The origin of such degenerative processes on meniscal tissue is rarely understood and may be described best as an imbalance of anabolic and catabolic metabolism. A standardized animal model of meniscal degeneration is needed for further studies. The aim of the current study was to develop a porcine animal model with early meniscal degeneration. Material and Methods Resection of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACLR) was performed on the left knee joints of eight Göttingen minipigs. A sham operation was carried out on the right knee joint. The grade of degeneration was determined 26 weeks after the operation using histology and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, the expression of 14 genes which code for extracellular matrix proteins, catabolic matrix metalloproteinases and inflammation mediators were analyzed. Results Degenerative changes were detected by a histological analysis of the medial meniscus after ACLR. These changes were not detected by MRI. In terms of their gene expression profile, these degenerated medial menisci showed a significantly increased expression of COL1A1. Conclusion This paper describes a new animal model for early secondary meniscal degeneration in the Göttingen minipig. Histopathological evidence of the degenerative changes could be described. This early degenerative changes could not be seen by NMR imaging. PMID:27434644

  1. Pretreatment prognostic factors in carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a multivariable analysis of the effect of age, stage, histology and blood counts on survival

    SciTech Connect

    Kapp, D.S.; Fischer, D.; Gutierrez, E.; Kohorn, E.I.; Schwartz, P.E.

    1983-04-01

    From January, 1953 thorugh December, 1977, 910 previously untreated patients with invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix (Stages IB-IVB) were seen at Yale-New Haven Medical Center and affiliated hospitals. An extensive retrospective analysis was undertaken in an attempt to identify prognostically significant pretreatment factors. The patients studied were uniformly staged according to the current FIGO recommendations and the majority of patients had been treated under standardized protocols combining external beam radiation therapy and intracavity radium. Pretreatment parameters - including prior medical illnesses, gross tumor characteristics, histology, and blood parameters - were studied, employing stepwise Cox regression analyses to identify the possible effects of all factors and all two-way interactions among factors on survival, disease-free survival and freedom from local-regional failure, controlling for stage of disease. FIGO stage patients age at diagnosis, pretreatment neutrophil count and hematocrit, uterine position, prior subtotal hysterectomy, histology, history of diabetes mellitus and number of pregnancies were all found to have prognostic significance. When other factors including stage of disease were controlled for, increased tumor size was associated with decreased disease-free survival and local-regional control rates.

  2. Pretreatment prognostic factors in carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a multivariable analysis of the effect of age, stage, histology and blood counts on survival

    SciTech Connect

    Kapp, D.S.; Fischer, D.; Gutierrez, E.; Kohorn, E.I.; Schwartz, P.E.

    1983-04-01

    From January, 1953 thorugh December, 1977, 910 previously untreated patients with invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix (Stages IB-IVB) were seen at Yale-New Haven Medical Center and affiliated hospitals. An extensive retrospective analysis was undertaken in an attempt to identify prognostically significant pretreatment factors. The patients studied were uniformly staged according to the current FIGO recommendations and the majority of patients had been treatment under standardized protocols combining external beam radiation therapy and intracavity radium. Pretreatment parameters, including prior medical illnesses, gross tumor characteristics, histology, and blood parameters were studied, employing stepwise Cox regression analyses to identify the possible effects of all factors and all two-way interactions among fators on survival, disease-free survival and freedom from local-regional failure, controlling for stage of disease. FIGO stage patients age at diagnosis, pretreatment neutrophil count and hematocrit, uterine position, prior subtotal hysterectomy, histology, history of diabetes mellitus and number of pregnancies were all found to have prognostic significance. When other factors including stage of disease were controlled for, increased tumor size was associated with decreased disease-free survival and local-regional control rates.

  3. Role of pemetrexed in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, with histology subgroup analysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saleh, K.; Quinton, C.; Ellis, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Platinum-based regimens represent the standard first-line treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc). However, newer data have established a role for pemetrexed in the treatment of this disease. Such data suggest that histology represents a determining factor in the selection of treatment. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the literature for randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy of pemetrexed with that of other treatments in advanced nsclc. Data and study quality were assessed according to published guidelines. Results We identified five trials that compared pemetrexed with other treatments or with placebo. Overall survival for patients treated with pemetrexed was superior to that with other treatments: hazard ratio (hr): 0.89; 95% confidence interval (ci): 0.80 to 0.99. The survival benefit was limited to patients with non-squamous histology: hr: 0.82; 95% ci: 0.73 to 0.91. Pemetrexed was inferior to other chemotherapy options in patients with squamous histology: hr: 1.19; 95% ci: 0.99 to 1.43. Conclusions Compared with other chemotherapy agents, pemetrexed is more effective for the treatment of nsclc in patients with non-squamous histology. PMID:22328848

  4. Interface and biocompatibility of polyethylene terephthalate knee ligament prostheses. A histological and ultrastructural device retrieval analysis in failed synthetic implants used for surgical repair of anterior cruciate ligaments.

    PubMed

    Kock, H J; Stürmer, K M; Letsch, R; Schmit-Neuerburg, K P

    1994-01-01

    In a prospective clinical study of 54 patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament instability, 56 artificial ligaments made of polyethylene terephthalate (Trevira hochfest) were implanted to restore knee stability. The average follow-up of these artificial knee ligaments was 40.2 (12-79) months; five implants (10%) had to be explanted due to failure after an average of 17.8 (6-50) months. All explants were examined by histological and ultrastructural methods in a device retrieval analysis. With regard to short- and medium-term artificial ligament failure in the human knee joint, a non-isometric surgical implantation technique, inappropriate strain during rehabilitation and implant fatigue and wear were responsible for ligament failures. PMID:7696041

  5. Histological Analysis of the Arabidopsis Gynoecium and Ovules Using Chloral Hydrate Clearing and Differential Interference Contrast Light Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Franks, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    The use of chloral hydrate optical clearing paired with differential interference contrast microscopy allows the analysis of internal structures of developing plant organs without the need for paraffin embedding and sectioning. This approach is appropriate for the analysis of the developing gynoecium or seedpod of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana and many other types of fixed plant material. Early stages of ovule development are observable with this approach. PMID:27557569

  6. Histologic classification of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arie; Wesseling, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas form a heterogeneous group of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and are traditionally classified based on histologic type and malignancy grade. Most gliomas, the diffuse gliomas, show extensive infiltration in the CNS parenchyma. Diffuse gliomas can be further typed as astrocytic, oligodendroglial, or rare mixed oligodendroglial-astrocytic of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), III (anaplastic), or IV (glioblastoma). Other gliomas generally have a more circumscribed growth pattern, with pilocytic astrocytomas (WHO grade I) and ependymal tumors (WHO grade I, II, or III) as the most frequent representatives. This chapter provides an overview of the histology of all glial neoplasms listed in the WHO 2016 classification, including the less frequent "nondiffuse" gliomas and mixed neuronal-glial tumors. For multiple decades the histologic diagnosis of these tumors formed a useful basis for assessment of prognosis and therapeutic management. However, it is now fully clear that information on the molecular underpinnings often allows for a more robust classification of (glial) neoplasms. Indeed, in the WHO 2016 classification, histologic and molecular findings are integrated in the definition of several gliomas. As such, this chapter and Chapter 6 are highly interrelated and neither should be considered in isolation. PMID:26948349

  7. BIOMECHANICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE GASTROCNEMIUS IN RATS SUBJECTED TO MUSCLE INJURY AND TREATMENT WITH LOW-LEVEL LASER THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Falcai, Mauricio José; Monte-Raso, Vanessa Vilela; Okubo, Rodrigo; Zamarioli, Ariane; Carvalho, Leonardo César; Shimano, Antõnio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To mechanically and histologically evaluate the application of low-level laser therapy to the reparative process on lesions caused by impact on the gastrocnemius muscles of rats. Methods: 45 female Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=15/ group): C (control, no lesion), ML (muscle lesion) and ML-L (muscle lesion and laser therapy). The experimental muscle lesion was produced by letting a 250 g load drop from a height of 30 cm, directly onto the muscle. The animals in the ML-L group were subjected to application of 960 nm laser, 2 J/cm2, on the lesion site, for three days, twice a day. Mechanical tests were performed on an Emic® universal testing machine. Results: The mean values for the maximum force were: 35.70 (± 2.69) N in group C, 31.77 (± 2.59) N in group ML and 34.36 (± 3.63) N in group ML-L, with a statistically significant difference between groups C and ML (p < 0.05). The mean values for relative stiffness were: 3.75 (± 0.98) N/mm in group C, 3.84 (± 0.32) N/mm in group ML and 4.43 (± 0.68) N/mm in group ML-L, with no statistically significant differences (p>0.05). Histological analysis showed the presence of blood vessels in group ML-L and hematomas during the repair process. Conclusion: Laser therapy had a positive effect on the regeneration process of the muscle injury. PMID:27022578

  8. Histological examination has a major impact on macroscopic necropsy diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, F D C; Saldiva, P H N; Mauad, T

    2005-01-01

    Background: Necropsy is the gold standard for clinicopathological discrepancy studies and epidemiological surveys. Inadequate sampling or lack of tissue may hamper the final interpretation and quality of the necropsy. Aim: To compare the histological and gross necropsy diagnoses of different organs. Methods: A retrospective comparison of the provisional reports (gross findings only) and the final reports (after histological examination) of the necropsies performed at the department of pathology of the Hospital das Clínicas, Sao Paulo University, Brazil, a large tertiary care complex, in 2001. The total number of diagnoses listed for the lungs, heart, liver, pancreas, kidneys, and spleen were calculated. Findings were categorised into concordant/refined diagnosis, discordant/additional diagnosis, histology needed, and inconclusive. Results: Three hundred and seventy one postmortem reports were analysed. There were 214 men and 157 women, with a mean age of 50.3 years, ranging from 1 to 92. The lung received the highest number (954) and the pancreas the lowest number (390) of diagnoses. The highest frequencies of discrepancies between the gross and microscopic findings were found in the lung and the liver: 38.7% and 35.1%, respectively. The brain had the lowest frequency of discrepancies. In a small number of cases, the final diagnosis could only be achieved through microscopic analysis, with the highest frequency being found in the kidneys (8.5%). Conclusions: Histological analysis has a major impact on previously performed gross diagnosis at necropsy, especially in the lungs, liver, and kidneys. Adequate sampling and histological analysis are important for necropsy quality. PMID:16311344

  9. Graphs and Grammars for Histology: An Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Prewitt, Judith M. S.

    1979-01-01

    The invention of the microscope disclosed a whole new world, that of the hitherto invisibly small. Histologic evidence as revealed by the microscope has become a cornerstone of medical diagnosis, and efforts are now being made to lay foundations so that the medical visual information processing burden can be alleviated significantly by cost-effective automation. This paper lays image processing foundations by presenting a graph-theoretic and syntactic model for the analysis of histologic patterns, and presents results to date.

  10. Histological analysis on adhesive molecules of renal intravascular large B cell lymphoma treated with CHOP chemotherapy and rituximab.

    PubMed

    Kusaba, T; Hatta, T; Tanda, S; Kameyama, H; Tamagaki, K; Okigaki, M; Inaba, T; Shimazaki, C; Sasaki, S

    2006-03-01

    A 48-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for investigation of mild renal dysfunction. A blood examination revealed mild elevation of creatinine level (1.77 mg/dl). Urinary examination revealed mild protein excretion (0.54 g/day) and microhematuria; renal biopsy revealed the focal proliferation of large mononuclear cells with mitosis in glomerular capillaries. According to immunohistochemical analysis, the intravascular lymphomatous cells stained positively with anti-leukocyte common antigen (LCA: CD45) and CD20, indicating a B lymphocyte lineage. In electron microscopy, the glomerular capillary was filled with lymphoma cells and epithelial foot process fusion was noted. Immunohistochemical analysis on adhesive molecules revealed a lack of CD11a expression on lymphoma cells, but positive CD54 expression on endothelial cells. Systemic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) revealed no abnormal uptake of isotopes. On the basis of these findings, we diagnosed intravascular diffuse large B cell lymphoma localized in the kidney. Despite treatment with rituximab and CHOP (prednisolone, doxorubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide) for 3 cycles at 1-month intervals, the renal dysfunction did not change. In histopathological analysis of the second biopsy, lymphoma cells disappeared, but focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and moderate interstitial fibrosis were noted. Electron microscopic findings revealed severe subendothelial edema with mesangial interposition, indicating severe endothelial damage. Epithelial foot process fusion was improved. These pathological analyses let us conclude that a lack of CD11a could be a candidate factor for prevention of the extravasation of lymphoma cells from blood vessels in our patient. We also presumed that the intraglomerular endothelial damage occurred due to chemotherapy-associated cell injury. PMID:16550755

  11. Quantitative histologic analysis of the mitral valve anterior leaflet: ischemic alterations and implications for valve replacement design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, David W.; Kunzelman, Karyn S.; Cochran, Richard P.

    1999-06-01

    There is a current trend to design innovative mitral valve replacements that mimic the native mitral valve (MV). A prerequisite for these new designs is the characterization of MV structure. This study was conducted to determine the distribution of MV collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) in MV anterior leaflets. Methods: Specimens from the mid-line of eight sheep MV anterior leaflets were stained with aniline blue (collagen) and alcian blue (GAGs). These specimens were analyzed using an image analysis system running Optimas software. Based on the luminance of stains within individual valve layers, the distribution of valvular collagen and GAGs from leaflet annulus to free-edge were determined. Results: Near the annulus, 100% of MV thickness is fibrosa (collagen dominated layer). Moving towards the free-edge, fibrosa prominence decreases and there is a transition to spongiosa (GAG dominated layer). Near the free-edge 100% of MV thickness is dominated by the spongiosa. Conclusions: Valvular collagen dominates MV structure near the annulus to support the stresses of bending and pressurization. Valvular GAGs dominate the MV near the free-edge to absorb the impact of leaflet coaptation. Image analysis has proven to be an effective tool to evaluate MV structure and facilitate the design of valve replacements.

  12. [Histological techniques in oncodermatology].

    PubMed

    Chaput, B; Le Guellec, S; Courtade-Saïdi, M; Gangloff, D; Meresse, T; Chavoin, J-P; Grolleau, J-L; Garrido, I

    2012-04-01

    The skin oncology or "oncodermatology" requires a surgical treatment in most cases. For some surgeons, the oncodermatology takes a very important part of their practice. In the course of diagnostic and therapeutic of skin lesions, the pathologist plays now an essential role. He will guide our surgery. The techniques used by this specialist are numerous. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review the different histological methods used to improve our management of skin tumors. PMID:22463986

  13. A biophysical and histological analysis of factors that lead to aortic rupture in normal and lathyritic turkeys.

    PubMed

    Terpin, T; Roach, M R

    1987-03-01

    These experiments were designed to determine if local differences in elastic properties or wall structure contributed to the development of aortic rupture in turkeys. Static elastic properties were measured from pressure-volume curves of cylindrical segments of upper and lower thoracic aorta and innominate artery in two groups of lathyritic birds and two age-matched control groups. The biggest changes were in the young lathyritic group that was on 0.04% beta-aminoproprionitrile at 3 weeks of age and continued for 2, 3, or 4 weeks. Much smaller changes were seen in the older group that started on 0.05% beta-aminoproprionitrile at 6 weeks of age for 10 days and then 0.02% beta-aminoproprionitrile for the next 9-12 weeks. The biggest changes were seen in the abdominal aorta, which ruptured spontaneously in 50% of the young lathyritic group. The birds had a marked decrease in the number of elastin layers per unit wall thickness. Analysis of the elastic diagrams showed that the elastance of both elastin and collagen were altered in the young lathyritic group. Rupture appeared to follow partial dissection of plaques, but true longitudinal dissection did not occur. PMID:3555748

  14. Histological Analysis and 3D Reconstruction of Winter Cereal Crowns Recovering from Freezing: A Unique Response in Oat (Avena sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, David P.; Henson, Cynthia A.; Tuong, Tan D.; Wise, Mitchell L.; Tallury, Shyamalrau P.; Duke, Stanley H.

    2013-01-01

    The crown is the below ground portion of the stem of a grass which contains meristematic cells that give rise to new shoots and roots following winter. To better understand mechanisms of survival from freezing, a histological analysis was performed on rye, wheat, barley and oat plants that had been frozen, thawed and allowed to resume growth under controlled conditions. Extensive tissue disruption and abnormal cell structure was noticed in the center of the crown of all 4 species with relatively normal cells on the outside edge of the crown. A unique visual response was found in oat in the shape of a ring of cells that stained red with Safranin. A tetrazolium analysis indicated that tissues immediately inside this ring were dead and those outside were alive. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the barrier fluoresced with excitation between 405 and 445 nm. Three dimensional reconstruction of a cross sectional series of images indicated that the red staining cells took on a somewhat spherical shape with regions of no staining where roots entered the crown. Characterizing changes in plants recovering from freezing will help determine the genetic basis for mechanisms involved in this important aspect of winter hardiness. PMID:23341944

  15. Demographic, etiological, and histological pulmonary analysis of patients with acute respiratory failure: a study of 19 years of autopsies

    PubMed Central

    de Matos Soeiro, Alexandre; Ruppert, Aline D; Canzian, Mauro; Parra, Edwin R; Farhat, Cecília; Capelozzi, Vera L

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory failure has been one of the most important causes of death in intensive care units, and certain aspects of its pulmonary pathology are currently unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to describe the demographic data, etiology, and pulmonary histopathological findings of different diseases in the autopsies of patients with acute respiratory failure. METHOD: Autopsies of 4,710 patients with acute respiratory failure from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed, and the following data were obtained: age, sex, and major associated diseases. The pulmonary histopathology was categorized as diffuse alveolar damage, pulmonary edema, alveolar hemorrhage, and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia. The odds ratio of the concordance between the major associated diseases and specific autopsy findings was calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Bacterial bronchopneumonia was present in 33.9% of the cases and cancer in 28.1%. The pulmonary histopathology showed diffuse alveolar damage in 40.7% (1,917) of the cases. A multivariate analysis showed a significant and powerful association between diffuse alveolar damage and bronchopneumonia, HIV/AIDS, sepsis, and septic shock, between liver cirrhosis and pulmonary embolism, between pulmonary edema and acute myocardial infarction, between dilated cardiomyopathy and cancer, between alveolar hemorrhage and bronchopneumonia and pulmonary embolism, and between lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia and HIV/AIDS and liver cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchopneumonia was the most common diagnosis in these cases. The most prevalent pulmonary histopathological pattern was diffuse alveolar damage, which was associated with different inflammatory conditions. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the complete pathophysiological mechanisms involved with each disease and the development of acute respiratory failure. PMID:21876973

  16. BIOMECHANICS AND HISTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS IN RABBIT FLEXOR TENDONS REPAIRED USING THREE SUTURE TECHNIQUES (FOUR AND SIX STRANDS) WITH EARLY ACTIVE MOBILIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Arenhart, Rodrigo; Silveira, Daniela; Ávila, Aluísio Otávio Vargas; Berral, Francisco José; Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Piluski, Paulo César Faiad; Lech, Osvandré Luís Canfield; Fukushima, Walter Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Analyzing suture time, biomechanics (deformity between the stumps) and the histology of three groups of tendinous surgical repair: Brazil-2 (4-strands) which the end knot (core) is located outside the tendon, Indiana (4-strands) and Tsai (6-strands) with sutures technique which the end knot (core) is inner of the tendon, associated with early active mobilization. Methods: The right calcaneal tendons (plantar flexor of the hind paw) of 36 rabbits of the New Zealand breed (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were used in the analysis. This sample presents similar size to human flexor tendon that has approximately 4.5 mm (varying from 2mm). The selected sample showed the same mass (2.5 to 3kg) and were male or female adults (from 8 ½ months). For the flexor tendons of the hind paws, sterile and driven techniques were used in accordance to the Committee on Animal Research and Ethics (CETEA) of the University of the State of Santa Catarina (UDESC), municipality of Lages, in Brazil (protocol # 1.33.09). Results: In the biomechanical analysis (deformity) carried out between tendinous stumps, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.01). There was no statistical difference in relation to surgical time in all three suture techniques with a mean of 6.0 minutes for Tsai (6- strands), 5.7 minutes for Indiana (4-strands) and 5.6 minutes for Brazil (4-strands) (p>0.01). With the early active mobility, there was qualitative and quantitative evidence of thickening of collagen in 38.9% on the 15th day and in 66.7% on the 30th day, making the biological tissue stronger and more resistant (p=0.095). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that there was no histological difference between the results achieved with an inside or outside end knot with respect to the repaired tendon and the number of strands did not affect healing, vascularization or sliding of the tendon in the osteofibrous tunnel, which are associated with early active mobility, with the repair techniques

  17. Inferring primary tumor sites from mutation spectra: a meta-analysis of histology-specific aberrations in cancer-derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dietlein, Felix; Eschner, Wolfgang

    2014-03-15

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have led to profound characterization of mutation spectra for several cancer types. Hence, we sought to systematically compare genomic aberrations between primary tumors and cancer lines. For this, we compiled publically available sequencing data of 1651 genes across 905 cell lines. We used them to characterize 23 distinct primary tumor sites by a novel approach that is based on Bayesian spam-filtering techniques. Thereby, we confirmed the strong overall similarity of alterations between patient samples and cell culture. However, we also identified several suspicious mutations, which had not been associated with their cancer types before. Based on these characterizations, we developed the inferring cancer origins from mutation spectra (ICOMS) tool. On our cell line collection, the algorithm reached a prediction specificity rate of 79%, which strongly variegated between primary cancer sites. On an independent validation cohort of 431 primary tumor samples, we observed a similar accuracy of 71%. Additionally, we found that ICOMS could be employed to deduce further attributes from mutation spectra, including sub-histology and compound sensitivity. Thus, thorough classification of site-specific mutation spectra for cell lines may decipher further genome-phenotype associations in cancer. PMID:24163242

  18. Comprehensive Analysis of the Incidence and Survival Patterns of Lung Cancer by Histologies, Including Rare Subtypes, in the Era of Molecular Medicine and Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jeffrey.S.; Chen, Li-Tzong; Shan, Yan-Shen; Lin, Sheng-Fung; Hsiao, Sheng-Yen; Tsai, Chia-Rung; Yu, Shu-Jung; Tsai, Hui-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lung cancer is the third most common cancer in the world and has the highest cancer mortality rate. A worldwide increasing trend of lung adenocarcinoma has been noted. In addition, the identification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and the introduction of EGFR inhibitors to successfully treat EGFR mutated non–small cell lung cancers are breakthroughs for lung cancer treatment. The current study evaluated the incidence and survival of lung cancer using data collected by the Taiwan Cancer Registry between 1996 and 2008. The results showed that the most common histologic subtype of lung cancer was adenocarcinoma, followed by squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, lymphoma, and sarcoma. Overall, the incidence of lung cancer in Taiwan increased significantly from 1996 to 2008. An increased incidence was observed for adenocarcinoma, particularly for women, with an annual percentage change of 5.9, whereas the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma decreased. Among the subtypes of lung cancer, the most rapid increase occurred in neuroendocrine tumors with an annual percentage change of 15.5. From 1996–1999 to 2005–2008, the 1-year survival of adenocarcinoma increased by 10% for men, whereas the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survivals of adenocarcinoma for women increased by 18%, 11%, and 5%, respectively. Overall, the incidence of lung cancer has been increasing in Taiwan, although the trends were variable by subtype. The introduction of targeted therapies was associated with a significantly improved survival for lung adenocarcinoma in Taiwan; however, more studies are needed to explain the rising incidence of lung adenocarcinoma. In addition, it is important to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of the various subtypes of lung cancer to develop novel therapeutic agents.

  19. Boron determination in liver tissue by combining quantitative neutron capture radiography (QNCR) and histological analysis for BNCT treatment planning at the TRIGA Mainz.

    PubMed

    Schütz, C; Brochhausen, C; Altieri, S; Bartholomew, K; Bortolussi, S; Enzmann, F; Gabel, D; Hampel, G; Kirkpatrick, C J; Kratz, J V; Minouchehr, S; Schmidberger, H; Otto, G

    2011-09-01

    The typical primary malignancies of the liver are hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, whereas colorectal liver metastases are the most frequently occurring secondary tumors. In many cases, only palliative treatment is possible. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) represents a technique that potentially destroys tumor tissue selectively by use of externally induced, locally confined secondary particle irradiation. In 2001 and 2003, BNCT was applied to two patients with colorectal liver metastases in Pavia, Italy. To scrutinize the rationale of BNCT, a clinical pilot study on patients with colorectal liver metastases was carried out at the University of Mainz. The distribution of the (10)B carrier (p-borono-phenylalanine) in the liver and its uptake in cancerous and tumor-free tissue were determined, focusing on a potential correlation between the uptake of p-borono-phenylalanine and the biological characteristics of cancerous tissue. Samples were analyzed using quantitative neutron capture radiography of cryosections combined with histological analysis. Methodological aspects of the combination of these techniques and results from four patients enrolled in the study are presented that indicate that the uptake of p-borono-phenylalanine strongly depends on the metabolic activity of cells. PMID:21692653

  20. Bone apposition on implants coated with calcium phosphate by ion beam assisted deposition in oversized drilled sockets: a histologic and histometric analysis in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Soo; Jung, Ui-Won; Kim, Sungtae; Lee, Jung-Seok; Lee, In-Seop

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the osseointegration of calcium phosphate (CaP)-coated implants by ion beam assisted deposition with a lack of primary stability. Methods A total of 20 CaP-coated implants were bilaterally placed in the mandible of five dogs. In the rotational implant group, the implants were inserted in oversized drilled sockets without mechanical engagement, while the conventional surgical protocol was followed in the control group. Each group was allowed to heal for 4 and 8 weeks. The bone-to-implant contact (BIC, %) was measured by a histometric analysis. Results All of the implants were well-maintained and healing was uneventful. In the histologic observation, all of the implants tested were successfully osseointegrated with a high level of BIC at both observation intervals. There was no significant difference in BIC among any of the groups. Conclusions Within the limitation of this study, successful osseointegration of CaP-coated implants could be achieved in unfavorable conditions without primary stability. PMID:23507657

  1. In-Vivo Characterization of Glassy Carbon Micro-Electrode Arrays for Neural Applications and Histological Analysis of the Brain Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vomero, Maria

    The aim of this work is to fabricate and characterize glassy carbon Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs) for sensing and stimulating neural activity, and conduct histological analysis of the brain tissue after the implant to determine long-term performance. Neural applications often require robust electrical and electrochemical response over a long period of time, and for those applications we propose to replace the commonly used noble metals like platinum, gold and iridium with glassy carbon. We submit that such material has the potential to improve the performances of traditional neural prostheses, thanks to better charge transfer capabilities and higher electrochemical stability. Great interest and attention is given in this work, in particular, to the investigation of tissue response after several weeks of implants in rodents' brain motor cortex and the associated materials degradation. As part of this work, a new set of devices for Electrocorticography (ECoG) has been designed and fabricated to improve durability and quality of the previous generation of devices, designed and manufactured by the same research group in 2014. In-vivo long-term impedance measurements and brain activity recordings were performed to test the functionality of the neural devices. In-vitro electrical characterization of the carbon electrodes, as well as the study of the adhesion mechanisms between glassy carbon and different substrates is also part of the research described in this book.

  2. Does the analysis based on a histological and immunohistochemical grading system in the model of BDL kidney allow the quantification of the degree of injury?

    PubMed

    Büyükbayram, Hüiseyin; Oztürk, Hayrettin; Kara, Ismail H; Arslan, Adem

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate histopathological findings induced by Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and molsidomine (MOL) on the kidney of bile duct ligated rats. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats, each weighing 125 to 140 g, were included in the study. Extent of histological glomerular injury scores (GIS), arterial injury scores (AIS), and tubulointerstitial injury scores (TIS) in each animal were graded. Alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), tenascin, lectin (Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1), and vimentin were used to determine extent of the injury. The cholestasis was evidenced by a significant increase in the levels of serum total bilirubin in BDL rats (p < 0.01). Malondialdeyde MDA levels increased by the bile duct ligation (BDL) to 12.10 +/- 0.45. This value was significantly higher than the other groups (p < 0.01). Changes in the BDL kidney were marked at 7 days after surgery. GIS were observed to have the highest score, especially at juxtamedullary region in BDL/L-NAME rats, and AIS were also the highest score in this region. These observations were lower in BDL/MOL rats. There is a correlation between GIS and AIS scores (r = .2, p < .01). TIS revealed that BDL/L-NAME rats were significantly more damage than rats in the other groups (p<.001). MOL-treated rats showed considerably fewer lesions in the tubules and interstitium (p < .001). The tubular injuries observed in BDL and BDL/L-NAME rats were significantly attenuated by MOL treatment. Lectin was more and extensively stained in tubular epithelia of the BDL/L-NAME group than in the other (p <.05). Expression of tenascin in tubular epithelia was significantly higher in BDL and BDL/L-NAME as compared with controls (p < .01). Fibrous tissue was only observed in the BDL and BDL/L-NAME group. These areas were weakly stained with vimentin. alpha-SMA staining was more reduced in the L-NAME-treated arterioles than in BDL/MOL (p < .05). In conclusion, the analysis of cell injury based on a histological

  3. Comprehensive histological evaluation of bone implants.

    PubMed

    Rentsch, Claudia; Schneiders, Wolfgang; Manthey, Suzanne; Rentsch, Barbe; Rammelt, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    To investigate and assess bone regeneration in sheep in combination with new implant materials classical histological staining methods as well as immunohistochemistry may provide additional information to standard radiographs or computer tomography. Available published data of bone defect regenerations in sheep often present none or sparely labeled histological images. Repeatedly, the exact location of the sample remains unclear, detail enlargements are missing and the labeling of different tissues or cells is absent. The aim of this article is to present an overview of sample preparation, staining methods and their benefits as well as a detailed histological description of bone regeneration in the sheep tibia. General histological staining methods like hematoxylin and eosin, Masson-Goldner trichrome, Movat's pentachrome and alcian blue were used to define new bone formation within a sheep tibia critical size defect containing a polycaprolactone-co-lactide (PCL) scaffold implanted for 3 months (n = 4). Special attention was drawn to describe the bone healing patterns down to cell level. Additionally one histological quantification method and immunohistochemical staining methods are described. PMID:24504113

  4. Comprehensive histological evaluation of bone implants

    PubMed Central

    Rentsch, Claudia; Schneiders, Wolfgang; Manthey, Suzanne; Rentsch, Barbe; Rammelt, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    To investigate and assess bone regeneration in sheep in combination with new implant materials classical histological staining methods as well as immunohistochemistry may provide additional information to standard radiographs or computer tomography. Available published data of bone defect regenerations in sheep often present none or sparely labeled histological images. Repeatedly, the exact location of the sample remains unclear, detail enlargements are missing and the labeling of different tissues or cells is absent. The aim of this article is to present an overview of sample preparation, staining methods and their benefits as well as a detailed histological description of bone regeneration in the sheep tibia. General histological staining methods like hematoxylin and eosin, Masson-Goldner trichrome, Movat’s pentachrome and alcian blue were used to define new bone formation within a sheep tibia critical size defect containing a polycaprolactone-co-lactide (PCL) scaffold implanted for 3 months (n = 4). Special attention was drawn to describe the bone healing patterns down to cell level. Additionally one histological quantification method and immunohistochemical staining methods are described. PMID:24504113

  5. Histological inflammation increases the risk of colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Ruben J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Ulcerative colitis (UC) patients are at greater risk for the development of colorectal neoplasia. Several individual studies have demonstrated associations between severity of histologic inflammation and colorectal neoplasia. However, a comprehensive systematic review has not been completed. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the relationship between histologic inflammation and risk for neoplasia among available observational studies. Methods Three databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library) were systematically searched. Studies were included if they included UC patients who underwent colonoscopic assessment and when histologic inflammation and colorectal neoplasia were both reported. Colorectal neoplasia rates were compared. Quantitative meta-analysis was attempted. Results Four of 1,422 records found were eligible. Results from 2 case-control studies reported a 3.5-fold increased risk for colorectal neoplasia associated with a single point increase in histologic inflammation. This result was further corroborated by one cohort study that demonstrated increased hazard ratios. The second cohort study reported outcomes for patients with normal gross endoscopy, but had increased histological inflammation when neoplasia was assessed. Finally, this study reported increased risk for neoplastic progression by histological inflammation among patients who were normal by gross endoscopic evaluation. Quantitative meta-analysis was unsuccessful due to heterogeneity between study measures. Conclusions There is strong evidence that histologic inflammation among patients with UC increases the risk of colorectal neoplasia. The depth and nature of assessment of additional clinical variables was varied and may have resulted in greater outcome discrepancy. Additional study related to mechanisms of inflammation-related neoplasia and therapeutic modification is needed.

  6. Analysis methods for the determination of anthropogenic additions of P to agricultural soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus additions and measurement in soil is of concern on lands where biosolids have been applied. Colorimetric analysis for plant-available P may be inadequate for the accurate assessment of soil P. Phosphate additions in a regulatory environment need to be accurately assessed as the reported...

  7. Gene expression analysis of early stage endometrial cancers reveals unique transcripts associated with grade and histology but not depth of invasion.

    PubMed

    Risinger, John I; Allard, Jay; Chandran, Uma; Day, Roger; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V R; Miller, Caela; Zahn, Christopher; Oliver, Julie; Litzi, Tracy; Marcus, Charlotte; Dubil, Elizabeth; Byrd, Kevin; Cassablanca, Yovanni; Becich, Michael; Berchuck, Andrew; Darcy, Kathleen M; Hamilton, Chad A; Conrads, Thomas P; Maxwell, G Larry

    2013-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States but it remains poorly understood at the molecular level. This investigation was conducted to specifically assess whether gene expression changes underlie the clinical and pathologic factors traditionally used for determining treatment regimens in women with stage I endometrial cancer. These include the effect of tumor grade, depth of myometrial invasion and histotype. We utilized oligonucleotide microarrays to assess the transcript expression profile in epithelial glandular cells laser microdissected from 79 endometrioid and 12 serous stage I endometrial cancers with a heterogeneous distribution of grade and depth of myometrial invasion, along with 12 normal post-menopausal endometrial samples. Unsupervised multidimensional scaling analyses revealed that serous and endometrioid stage I cancers have similar transcript expression patterns when compared to normal controls where 900 transcripts were identified to be differentially expressed by at least fourfold (univariate t-test, p < 0.001) between the cancers and normal endometrium. This analysis also identified transcript expression differences between serous and endometrioid cancers and tumor grade, but no apparent differences were identified as a function of depth of myometrial invasion. Four genes were validated by quantitative PCR on an independent set of cancer and normal endometrium samples. These findings indicate that unique gene expression profiles are associated with histologic type and grade, but not myometrial invasion among early stage endometrial cancers. These data provide a comprehensive perspective on the molecular alterations associated with stage I endometrial cancer, particularly those subtypes that have the worst prognosis. PMID:23785665

  8. Analysis of CNT additives in porous layered thin film lubrication with electric double layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, T. V. V. L. N.; Rani, A. M. A.; Sufian, S.; Mohamed, N. M.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of thin film lubrication of porous layered carbon nanotubes (CNTs) additive slider bearing with electric double layer. The CNTs additive lubricant flow in the thin fluid film and porous layers are governed by Stokes and Brinkman equations respectively, including electro-kinetic force. The apparent viscosity and nondimensional pressure expression are derived. The nondimensional load capacity increases under the influence of electro-viscosity, CNT additives volume fraction, permeability and thickness of porous layer. A CNTs additive lubricated porous thin film slider bearing with electric double layer provides higher load capacity.

  9. Image Guided Focal Therapy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Visible Prostate Cancer: Defining a 3-Dimensional Treatment Margin Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Histology Co-Registration Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Le Nobin, Julien; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.; Villers, Arnauld; Orczyk, Clément; Deng, Fang-Ming; Melamed, Jonathan; Mikheev, Artem; Rusinek, Henry; Taneja, Samir S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We compared prostate tumor boundaries on magnetic resonance imaging and radical prostatectomy histological assessment using detailed software assisted co-registration to define an optimal treatment margin for achieving complete tumor destruction during image guided focal ablation. Materials and Methods Included in study were 33 patients who underwent 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging before radical prostatectomy. A radiologist traced lesion borders on magnetic resonance imaging and assigned a suspicion score of 2 to 5. Three-dimensional reconstructions were created from high resolution digitalized slides of radical prostatectomy specimens and co-registered to imaging using advanced software. Tumors were compared between histology and imaging by the Hausdorff distance and stratified by the magnetic resonance imaging suspicion score, Gleason score and lesion diameter. Cylindrical volume estimates of treatment effects were used to define the optimal treatment margin. Results Three-dimensional software based registration with magnetic resonance imaging was done in 46 histologically confirmed cancers. Imaging underestimated tumor size with a maximal discrepancy between imaging and histological boundaries for a given tumor of an average ± SD of 1.99 ± 3.1 mm, representing 18.5% of the diameter on imaging. Boundary underestimation was larger for lesions with an imaging suspicion score 4 or greater (mean 3.49 ± 2.1 mm, p <0.001) and a Gleason score of 7 or greater (mean 2.48 ± 2.8 mm, p = 0.035). A simulated cylindrical treatment volume based on the imaging boundary missed an average 14.8% of tumor volume compared to that based on the histological boundary. A simulated treatment volume based on a 9 mm treatment margin achieved complete histological tumor destruction in 100% of patients. Conclusions Magnetic resonance imaging underestimates histologically determined tumor boundaries, especially for lesions with a high imaging suspicion score and a high Gleason

  10. Effect of hyaluronan on periodontitis: A clinical and histological study

    PubMed Central

    Gontiya, Gauri; Galgali, Sushama R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Conventional, non-surgical periodontal therapy consists of supra- and subgingival tooth debridement. However, it is a technically demanding procedure and is not always efficient at eradicating all periodontal pathogens and in reducing inflammation. Therefore, local subgingival application of other chemotherapeutic agents may be used as an adjunct to non-surgical therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and histological outcomes of local subgingival application of 0.2% hyaluronic acid gel (GENGIGEL®) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty sites were chosen from 26 patients with chronic periodontitis (criteria being periodontal pockets ≥5mm). Experimental sites additionally received HA gel subgingivally at baseline, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd week. Clinical parameters were re-assessed at 4th, 6th, and 12th week. At 4th week recall, a gingival biopsy was obtained from test and control site for histologic examination. Results: Intra-group analysis of all the clinical parameters at all sites from baseline to 4th, 6th, and 12th week showed statistically significant changes. Experimental sites showed statistically significant improvement in Gingival index and Bleeding index at 6th and 12th week when compared with control sites. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in the PPD and RAL between control and experimental sites at 4th, 6th, and 12th week time interval. No statistically significant association was found between the histological grading of the sites that received HA treatment. Conclusion: Subgingival placement of 0.2% HA gel along with SRP provided a significant improvement in gingival parameters. However, no additional benefit was found in periodontal parameters. Histologically, experimental sites showed reduced inflammatory infiltrate, but it was not statistically significant. PMID:23055583

  11. New Colors for Histology: Optimized Bivariate Color Maps Increase Perceptual Contrast in Histological Images

    PubMed Central

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Marx, Alexander; Schuster, Alexander K.; Schad, Lothar R.; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate evaluation of immunostained histological images is required for reproducible research in many different areas and forms the basis of many clinical decisions. The quality and efficiency of histopathological evaluation is limited by the information content of a histological image, which is primarily encoded as perceivable contrast differences between objects in the image. However, the colors of chromogen and counterstain used for histological samples are not always optimally distinguishable, even under optimal conditions. Methods and Results In this study, we present a method to extract the bivariate color map inherent in a given histological image and to retrospectively optimize this color map. We use a novel, unsupervised approach based on color deconvolution and principal component analysis to show that the commonly used blue and brown color hues in Hematoxylin—3,3’-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) images are poorly suited for human observers. We then demonstrate that it is possible to construct improved color maps according to objective criteria and that these color maps can be used to digitally re-stain histological images. Validation To validate whether this procedure improves distinguishability of objects and background in histological images, we re-stain phantom images and N = 596 large histological images of immunostained samples of human solid tumors. We show that perceptual contrast is improved by a factor of 2.56 in phantom images and up to a factor of 2.17 in sets of histological tumor images. Context Thus, we provide an objective and reliable approach to measure object distinguishability in a given histological image and to maximize visual information available to a human observer. This method could easily be incorporated in digital pathology image viewing systems to improve accuracy and efficiency in research and diagnostics. PMID:26717571

  12. Relation Between High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Coronary Plaque Components in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome: Virtual Histology-Intravascular Ultrasound Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young Joon; Choi, Yun Ha; Cho, Suk Hee; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Ko, Jum Suk; Lee, Min Goo; Park, Keun Ho; Sim, Doo Sun; Yoon, Nam Sik; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Hyung Wook; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun; Kang, Jung Chaee

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives We used virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) to evaluate the relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and plaque components in 279 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Subjects and Methods We divided patients into three groups according to their hs-CRP levels {lowest tertile <0.07 mg/dL (n=93), middle tertile ≥0.07, <0.4 mg/dL (n=93), and highest tertile ≥0.4 mg/dL (n=93)}. Thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) was defined as focal, necrotic core (NC)-rich (≥10% of the cross-sectional area) plaques in contact with the lumen in a plaque burden ≥40%. Results The highest tertile group was mostly diabetics (20%, 27%, 40%, p=0.009), and had the greatest plaque plus media volume (163±139/mm3 vs. 201±155/mm3 vs. 232±176/mm3, p=0.013). The highest tertile group had the greatest absolute and % NC volumes (13.6±15.1 mm3 vs. 14.8±14.2 mm3 vs. 23.7±24.3 mm3, p<0.001, and 14.9±8.7% vs. 16.0±8.7% vs. 19.5±10.2%, p=0.024, respectively). The culprit lesion TCFA was observed most frequently in the highest tertile group (28% vs. 35% vs. 55%, p=0.006). By multivariable analysis, absolute NC volume was an independent predictor of hs-CRP elevation {odds ratio (OR); 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.06-1.21, p=0.004}, and hs-CRP was an independent predictor of TCFA (OR; 1.86, 95% CI=1.11-2.90, p=0.010). Conclusion VH-IVUS analysis has demonstrated that ACS patients with elevated hs-CRP have more vulnerable plaque component (NC-rich plaques and higher frequency of culprit lesion TCFA), compared with ACS patients with normal hs-CRP. PMID:21949527

  13. Psammomatous Melanotic Schwannoma: A Challenging Histological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Merat, Rastine; Szalay-Quinodoz, Ildiko; Laffitte, Emmanuel; Kaya, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Psammomatous melanotic schwannoma (PMS) is a rare pigmented tumor that can be part of the Carney complex. Here, we describe the case of a 35-year-old female patient presenting an isolated subcutaneous PMS. Histopathological analysis could not formally exclude the malignant nature of the tumor. The challenging histological diagnosis and consequently the management of the patient are described. PMID:27047937

  14. ALK-rearranged adenocarcinoma with extensive mucin production can mimic mucinous adenocarcinoma: clinicopathological analysis and comprehensive histological comparison with KRAS-mutated mucinous adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cha, Yoon Jin; Han, Joungho; Hwang, Soo Hyun; Lee, Tae Bum; Kim, Hojoong; Zo, Jea Ill

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate clinicopathological features and histology of ALK-rearranged adenocarcinomas with extensive mucin production (AEM) that mimic mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA). Retrospectively, 12 cases of AEM and 25 cases of MA harbouring KRAS mutation were retrieved. The clinicopathological profile and detailed histological features were analysed and compared based on the ALK and KRAS status. AEMs occurred in younger patients (p = 0.044) and were characterised by floating tubulopapillary pattern (p < 0.001), prominent nucleolus (p < 0.001), and apical cytoplasmic snouts (p < 0.001). In contrast, KRAS-mutated MAs lacked ALK-specific histological patterns (p < 0.05). Instead, tumour-infiltrating leukocytes (p = 0.018) and smooth cytoplasmic borders (p < 0.001) with vesicular nuclei (p = 0.004) were prominent in KRAS-mutated MAs. AEMs demonstrated characteristic tubulopapillary pattern and apical snouts, which were distinguishing features from MAs with KRAS mutation. Apical snouts can be a useful histological surrogate for ALK rearrangement in the pulmonary adenocarcinomas showing extensive mucin that mimic MA. PMID:27114375

  15. Validation analysis of probabilistic models of dietary exposure to food additives.

    PubMed

    Gilsenan, M B; Thompson, R L; Lambe, J; Gibney, M J

    2003-10-01

    The validity of a range of simple conceptual models designed specifically for the estimation of food additive intakes using probabilistic analysis was assessed. Modelled intake estimates that fell below traditional conservative point estimates of intake and above 'true' additive intakes (calculated from a reference database at brand level) were considered to be in a valid region. Models were developed for 10 food additives by combining food intake data, the probability of an additive being present in a food group and additive concentration data. Food intake and additive concentration data were entered as raw data or as a lognormal distribution, and the probability of an additive being present was entered based on the per cent brands or the per cent eating occasions within a food group that contained an additive. Since the three model components assumed two possible modes of input, the validity of eight (2(3)) model combinations was assessed. All model inputs were derived from the reference database. An iterative approach was employed in which the validity of individual model components was assessed first, followed by validation of full conceptual models. While the distribution of intake estimates from models fell below conservative intakes, which assume that the additive is present at maximum permitted levels (MPLs) in all foods in which it is permitted, intake estimates were not consistently above 'true' intakes. These analyses indicate the need for more complex models for the estimation of food additive intakes using probabilistic analysis. Such models should incorporate information on market share and/or brand loyalty. PMID:14555358

  16. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  17. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety. PMID:25300041

  18. 7 CFR 91.38 - Additional fees for appeal of analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional fees for appeal of analysis. 91.38 Section 91.38 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... for laboratory service that appears in this paragraph. The new fiscal year for Science and...

  19. 7 CFR 91.38 - Additional fees for appeal of analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional fees for appeal of analysis. 91.38 Section 91.38 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... for laboratory service that appears in this paragraph. The new fiscal year for Science and...

  20. Stimulation of terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage by nitrogen addition: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yue, Kai; Peng, Yan; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Xin; Wu, Fuzhong

    2016-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition alters the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, which is likely to feed back to further climate change. However, how the overall terrestrial ecosystem C pools and fluxes respond to N addition remains unclear. By synthesizing data from multiple terrestrial ecosystems, we quantified the response of C pools and fluxes to experimental N addition using a comprehensive meta-analysis method. Our results showed that N addition significantly stimulated soil total C storage by 5.82% ([2.47%, 9.27%], 95% CI, the same below) and increased the C contents of the above- and below-ground parts of plants by 25.65% [11.07%, 42.12%] and 15.93% [6.80%, 25.85%], respectively. Furthermore, N addition significantly increased aboveground net primary production by 52.38% [40.58%, 65.19%] and litterfall by 14.67% [9.24%, 20.38%] at a global scale. However, the C influx from the plant litter to the soil through litter decomposition and the efflux from the soil due to microbial respiration and soil respiration showed insignificant responses to N addition. Overall, our meta-analysis suggested that N addition will increase soil C storage and plant C in both above- and below-ground parts, indicating that terrestrial ecosystems might act to strengthen as a C sink under increasing N deposition. PMID:26813078

  1. Stimulation of terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage by nitrogen addition: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Kai; Peng, Yan; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Xin; Wu, Fuzhong

    2016-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition alters the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, which is likely to feed back to further climate change. However, how the overall terrestrial ecosystem C pools and fluxes respond to N addition remains unclear. By synthesizing data from multiple terrestrial ecosystems, we quantified the response of C pools and fluxes to experimental N addition using a comprehensive meta-analysis method. Our results showed that N addition significantly stimulated soil total C storage by 5.82% ([2.47%, 9.27%], 95% CI, the same below) and increased the C contents of the above- and below-ground parts of plants by 25.65% [11.07%, 42.12%] and 15.93% [6.80%, 25.85%], respectively. Furthermore, N addition significantly increased aboveground net primary production by 52.38% [40.58%, 65.19%] and litterfall by 14.67% [9.24%, 20.38%] at a global scale. However, the C influx from the plant litter to the soil through litter decomposition and the efflux from the soil due to microbial respiration and soil respiration showed insignificant responses to N addition. Overall, our meta-analysis suggested that N addition will increase soil C storage and plant C in both above- and below-ground parts, indicating that terrestrial ecosystems might act to strengthen as a C sink under increasing N deposition. PMID:26813078

  2. Stimulation of terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage by nitrogen addition: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Kai; Peng, Yan; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Xin; Wu, Fuzhong

    2016-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition alters the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, which is likely to feed back to further climate change. However, how the overall terrestrial ecosystem C pools and fluxes respond to N addition remains unclear. By synthesizing data from multiple terrestrial ecosystems, we quantified the response of C pools and fluxes to experimental N addition using a comprehensive meta-analysis method. Our results showed that N addition significantly stimulated soil total C storage by 5.82% ([2.47%, 9.27%], 95% CI, the same below) and increased the C contents of the above- and below-ground parts of plants by 25.65% [11.07%, 42.12%] and 15.93% [6.80%, 25.85%], respectively. Furthermore, N addition significantly increased aboveground net primary production by 52.38% [40.58%, 65.19%] and litterfall by 14.67% [9.24%, 20.38%] at a global scale. However, the C influx from the plant litter to the soil through litter decomposition and the efflux from the soil due to microbial respiration and soil respiration showed insignificant responses to N addition. Overall, our meta-analysis suggested that N addition will increase soil C storage and plant C in both above- and below-ground parts, indicating that terrestrial ecosystems might act to strengthen as a C sink under increasing N deposition.

  3. On an Additive Semigraphoid Model for Statistical Networks With Application to Pathway Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Chun, Hyonho; Zhao, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a nonparametric method for estimating non-gaussian graphical models based on a new statistical relation called additive conditional independence, which is a three-way relation among random vectors that resembles the logical structure of conditional independence. Additive conditional independence allows us to use one-dimensional kernel regardless of the dimension of the graph, which not only avoids the curse of dimensionality but also simplifies computation. It also gives rise to a parallel structure to the gaussian graphical model that replaces the precision matrix by an additive precision operator. The estimators derived from additive conditional independence cover the recently introduced nonparanormal graphical model as a special case, but outperform it when the gaussian copula assumption is violated. We compare the new method with existing ones by simulations and in genetic pathway analysis. PMID:26401064

  4. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery

    PubMed Central

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005–2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  5. Reducing the matrix effects in chemical analysis: fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliano, Enea; Meija, Juris

    2016-04-01

    The combination of isotope dilution and mass spectrometry has become an ubiquitous tool of chemical analysis. Often perceived as one of the most accurate methods of chemical analysis, it is not without shortcomings. Current isotope dilution equations are not capable of fully addressing one of the key problems encountered in chemical analysis: the possible effect of sample matrix on measured isotope ratios. The method of standard addition does compensate for the effect of sample matrix by making sure that all measured solutions have identical composition. While it is impossible to attain such condition in traditional isotope dilution, we present equations which allow for matrix-matching between all measured solutions by fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods.

  6. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    PubMed

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  7. Histologic changes in previously irradiated thyroid glands

    SciTech Connect

    Valdiserri, R.O.; Borochovitz, D.

    1980-03-01

    Thyroid tissue from 90 patients with a history of therapeutic irradiation to the head and neck in childhood and adolescence was examined microscopically. In addition to the well-known observation that these individuals have an increased incidence of primary thyroid carcinoma, it was also demonstrated that they have an increased incidence of benign histologic changes. These changes represent a spectrum from nonspecific hyperplastic lesions to benign neoplasis and thyroidltis.

  8. Neutron-activation analysis by standard addition and solvent extraction Determination of traces of antimony.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Shabana, R; Sanad, W; Allam, B; Khalifa, K

    1968-02-01

    The application of neutron activation analysis by standard addition and solvent extraction to the determination of traces of antimony in aluminium and rocks is reported. Three simple extraction procedures, using isopropyl ether, hexone, and tributyl phosphate, are described for the selective separation of radioantimony from interfering radionuclides. Antimony concentration is measured by counting the activities of the (122)Sb and (124)Sb photopeaks at 0.564 and 0.603 MeV. PMID:18960289

  9. The histological nature of epulides in dogs.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, F J; Ligthelm, A J; Weber, A

    1992-02-01

    The histological characteristics of a series of 154 oral tumours with the clinical appearance of epulides in 129 dogs were reviewed. Diagnoses were based on current criteria in human oral pathology and compared with the original diagnoses. The histological findings suggested that the majority of epulides in the dog can be classified as focal fibrous hyperplasia (43.5 per cent), peripheral ameloblastoma (17.5 per cent), peripheral odontogenic fibroma (WHO type) (16.9 per cent) and pyogenic granuloma (1.95 per cent). In addition, a number of other odontogenic tumours (1.95 per cent) and non-odontogenic tumours (18.2 per cent) such as fibrosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma, which are not traditionally associated with the clinical appearance of an epulis, were diagnosed. Of 74 lesions that were previously diagnosed as fibromatous and ossifying epulides, 50 (68 per cent) were reclassified as focal fibrous hyperplasia and 21 (28 per cent) as peripheral odontogenic fibroma (WHO type). The majority of lesions (76 per cent), which were originally classified as acanthomatous epulis, were found to be peripheral ameloblastoma. In addition, three squamous cell carcinomas, two rare odontogenic tumours and two cases of focal fibrous hyperplasia were diagnosed in this classification. It was concluded that, as in man, the term epulis is a clinically descriptive term and that the renal nature of these lesions should be determined histologically. PMID:1597534

  10. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  11. Analysis of redox additive-based overcharge protection for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A. I.; Bankston, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    The overcharge condition in secondary lithium batteries employing redox additives for overcharge protection, has been theoretically analyzed in terms of a finite linear diffusion model. The analysis leads to expressions relating the steady-state overcharge current density and cell voltage to the concentration, diffusion coefficient, standard reduction potential of the redox couple, and interelectrode distance. The model permits the estimation of the maximum permissible overcharge rate for any chosen set of system conditions. Digital simulation of the overcharge experiment leads to numerical representation of the potential transients, and estimate of the influence of diffusion coefficient and interelectrode distance on the transient attainment of the steady state during overcharge. The model has been experimentally verified using 1,1-prime-dimethyl ferrocene as a redox additive. The analysis of the experimental results in terms of the theory allows the calculation of the diffusion coefficient and the formal potential of the redox couple. The model and the theoretical results may be exploited in the design and optimization of overcharge protection by the redox additive approach.

  12. Somatic Embryogenesis in Peach Palm Using the Thin Cell Layer Technique: Induction, Morpho-histological Aspects and AFLP Analysis of Somaclonal Variation

    PubMed Central

    Steinmacher, D. A.; Krohn, N. G.; Dantas, A. C. M.; Stefenon, V. M.; Clement, C. R.; Guerra, M. P.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The thin cell layer (TCL) technique is based on the use of very small explants and has allowed enhanced in vitro morphogenesis in several plant species. The present study evaluated the TCL technique as a procedure for somatic embryo production and plantlet regeneration of peach palm. Methods TCL explants from different positions in the shoot apex and leaf sheath of peach palm were cultivated in MS culture medium supplemented with 0–600 µm Picloram in the presence of activated charcoal. The production of primary calli and embryogenic calli was evaluated in these different conditions. Histological and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses were conducted to study in vitro morphogenetic responses and genetic stability, respectively, of the regenerated plantlets. Key Results Abundant primary callus induction was observed from TCLs of the shoot meristem in culture media supplemented with 150–600 µm Picloram (83–97 %, respectively). The production of embryogenic calli depends on Picloram concentration and explant position. The best response observed was 43 % embryogenic callus production from shoot meristem TCL on 300 µm Picloram. In maturation conditions, 34 ± 4 somatic embryos per embryogenic callus were obtained, and 45·0 ± 3·4 % of these fully developed somatic embryos were converted, resulting in plantlets ready for acclimatization, of which 80 % survived. Histological studies revealed that the first cellular division events occurred in cells adjacent to vascular tissue, resulting in primary calli, whose growth was ensured by a meristematic zone. A multicellular origin of the resulting somatic embryos arising from the meristematic zone is suggested. During maturation, histological analyses revealed bipolarization of the somatic embryos, as well as the development of new somatic embryos. AFLP analyses revealed that 92 % of the regenerated plantlets were true to type. The use of TCL explants considerably improves the

  13. Homogenous demineralized dentin matrix and platelet-rich plasma for bone tissue engineering in cranioplasty of diabetic rabbits: biochemical, radiographic, and histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, M F; Valva, V N; Vieira, E M M; Giannasi, L C; Salgado, M A C; Vilela-Goulart, M G

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of homogenous demineralized dentin matrix (HDDM) slices and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in surgical defects created in the parietal bones of alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits, treated with a guided bone regeneration technique. Biochemical, radiographic, and histological analyses were performed. Sixty adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into five groups of 12: normoglycaemic (control, C), diabetic (D), diabetic with a PTFE membrane (DM), diabetic with a PTFE membrane and HDDM slices (DM-HDDM), and diabetic with PTFE membrane and PRP (DM-PRP). The quantity and quality of bone mass was greatest in the DM-HDDM group (respective radiographic and histological analyses: at 15 days, 71.70 ± 16.50 and 50.80 ± 1.52; 30 days, 62.73 ± 16.51 and 54.20 ± 1.23; 60 days, 63.03 ± 11.04 and 59.91 ± 3.32; 90 days, 103.60 ± 24.86 and 78.99 ± 1.34), followed by the DM-PRP group (respective radiographic and histological analyses: at 15 days 23.00 ± 2.74 and 20.66 ± 7.45; 30 days 31.92 ± 6.06 and 25.31 ± 5.59; 60 days 25.29 ± 16.30 and 46.73 ± 2.07; 90 days 38.10 ± 14.04 and 53.38 ± 9.20). PRP greatly enhanced vascularization during the bone repair process. Abnormal calcium metabolism was statistically significant in the DM-PRP group (P<0.001) for all four time intervals studied, especially when compared to the DM-HDDM group. Alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher in the DM-HDDM group (P<0.001) in comparison to the C, D, and DM-PRP groups, confirming the findings of intense osteoblastic activity and increased bone mineralization. Thus, HDDM promoted superior bone architectural microstructure in bone defects in diabetic rabbits due to its effective osteoinductive and osteoconductive activity, whereas PRP stimulated angiogenesis and red bone marrow formation. PMID:26482638

  14. Analysis of error-prone survival data under additive hazards models: measurement error effects and adjustments.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying; Yi, Grace Y

    2016-07-01

    Covariate measurement error occurs commonly in survival analysis. Under the proportional hazards model, measurement error effects have been well studied, and various inference methods have been developed to correct for error effects under such a model. In contrast, error-contaminated survival data under the additive hazards model have received relatively less attention. In this paper, we investigate this problem by exploring measurement error effects on parameter estimation and the change of the hazard function. New insights of measurement error effects are revealed, as opposed to well-documented results for the Cox proportional hazards model. We propose a class of bias correction estimators that embraces certain existing estimators as special cases. In addition, we exploit the regression calibration method to reduce measurement error effects. Theoretical results for the developed methods are established, and numerical assessments are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our methods. PMID:26328545

  15. In-line image analysis on the effects of additives in batch cooling crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Haiyan; Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta; Kallas, Juha

    2006-03-01

    The effects of two potassium salt additives, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid dipotassium salt (EDTA) and potassium pyrophosphate (KPY), on the batch cooling crystallization of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) were investigated. The crystal growth rates of certain crystal faces were determined from in-line images taken with a MTS particle image analysis (PIA) video microscope. An in-line image processing method was developed to characterize the size and shape of the crystals. The nucleation kinetics was studied by measurement of the metastable zone width and induction time. A significant promotion effect on both nucleation and growth of KDP was observed when EDTA was used as an additive. KPY, however, exhibited strong inhibiting impacts. The mechanism underlying the EDTA promotion effect on crystal growth was further studied with the 2-dimension nucleation model. It is shown that the presence of EDTA increased the density of adsorbed molecules of the crystallizing solute on the surface of the crystal.

  16. Neutron activation analysis by standard addition and solvent extraction: Determination of impurities in aluminium.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Haggag, A

    1967-09-01

    A separation scheme based on selective extraction in conjunction with the standard addition technique has been developed for the determination of impurities in aluminium by neutron activation. Preliminary investigations have been carried out on the extractability of Sc, Co, Hf, Fe, Sn, Cd, Zn, Ag, Cr, Ce, Cs and Rb by TDA and TBP from acidic media. The best conditions are predicted for the separation of these elements into fractions suitable for analysis by gamma-ray spectrometry. Recovery values of approximately 90% were obtained for all the elements. PMID:18960206

  17. A near-infrared spectroscopic study of young field ultracool dwarfs: additional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allers, K. N.; Liu, M. C.

    We present additional analysis of the classification system presented in \\citet{allers13}. We refer the reader to \\citet{allers13} for a detailed discussion of our near-IR spectral type and gravity classification system. Here, we address questions and comments from participants of the Brown Dwarfs Come of Age meeting. In particular, we examine the effects of binarity and metallicity on our classification system. We also present our classification of Pleiades brown dwarfs using published spectra. Lastly, we determine SpTs and calculate gravity-sensitive indices for the BT-Settl atmospheric models and compare them to observations.

  18. Addition of three-dimensional isoparametric elements to NASA structural analysis program (NASTRAN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, E. I.; Johnson, S. E.

    1973-01-01

    Implementation is made of the three-dimensional family of linear, quadratic and cubic isoparametric solid elements into the NASA Structural Analysis program, NASTRAN. This work included program development, installation, testing, and documentation. The addition of these elements to NASTRAN provides a significant increase in modeling capability particularly for structures requiring specification of temperatures, material properties, displacements, and stresses which vary throughout each individual element. Complete program documentation is presented in the form of new sections and updates for direct insertion to the three NASTRAN manuals. The results of demonstration test problems are summarized. Excellent results are obtained with the isoparametric elements for static, normal mode, and buckling analyses.

  19. Re-analysis of survival data of cancer patients utilizing additive homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Gleiss, Andreas; Frass, Michael; Gaertner, Katharina

    2016-08-01

    In this short communication we present a re-analysis of homeopathic patient data in comparison to control patient data from the same Outpatient´s Unit "Homeopathy in malignant diseases" of the Medical University of Vienna. In this analysis we took account of a probable immortal time bias. For patients suffering from advanced stages of cancer and surviving the first 6 or 12 months after diagnosis, respectively, the results show that utilizing homeopathy gives a statistically significant (p<0.001) advantage over control patients regarding survival time. In conclusion, bearing in mind all limitations, the results of this retrospective study suggest that patients with advanced stages of cancer might benefit from additional homeopathic treatment until a survival time of up to 12 months after diagnosis. PMID:27515878

  20. Appearance Normalization of Histology Slides

    PubMed Central

    Niethammer, Marc; Borland, David; Marron, J. S.; Woosley, John; Thomas, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearances across slides, that is very effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols, and to slide fading. The approach is validated using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets. PMID:25360444

  1. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing Part I: System Analysis, Component Identification, Additive Manufacturing, and Testing of Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Haller, William J.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Schnulo, Sydney L.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Weir, Don; Wali, Natalie; Vinup, Michael; Jones, Michael G.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom; Mehl, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The research and development activities reported in this publication were carried out under NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) funded project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing." The objective of the project was to conduct evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. The results of the activities are described in three part report. The first part of the report contains the data and analysis of engine system trade studies, which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. The technical scope of activities included an assessment of the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composites, which were accomplished by fabricating prototype engine components and testing them in simulated engine operating conditions. The manufacturing process parameters were developed and optimized for polymer and ceramic composites (described in detail in the second and third part of the report). A number of prototype components (inlet guide vane (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included turbine nozzle components. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  2. Do geese fully develop brood patches? A histological analysis of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross's geese (C. rossii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Homberger, D.G.; Henk, W.G.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    2006-01-01

    Most birds develop brood patches before incubation; epidermis and dermis in the brood patch region thicken, and the dermal connective tissue becomes increasingly vascularized and infiltrated by leukocytes. However, current dogma states that waterfowl incubate without modifications of skin within the brood patch region. The incubation periods of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter called snow geese) and Ross's geese (C. rossii) are 2-6 days shorter than those of other goose species; only females incubate. Thus, we hypothesized that such short incubation periods would require fully developed brood patches for sufficient heat transfer from incubating parents to eggs. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the skin histology of abdominal regions of snow and Ross's geese collected at Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. For female snow geese, we found that epidermis and dermis had thickened and vascularization of dermis was 14 times greater, on average, than that observed in males (n=5 pairs). Our results for Ross's geese (n=5 pairs) were more variable, wherein only one of five female Ross's geese fully developed a brood patch. Our results are consistent with three hypotheses about brood patch development and its relationship with different energetic cost-benefit relationships, resulting from differences in embryonic development and body size. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  3. Somatic embryogenesis, scanning electron microscopy, histology and biochemical analysis at different developing stages of embryogenesis in six date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Junaid; Khan, Saeed Ahmad; Cheruth, Abdul Jaleel; Mujib, Abdul; Sharma, Maheshwar Pershad; Srivastava, Prem Shanker

    2011-01-01

    An efficient somatic embryogenesis system has been established in six date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars (Barhee, Zardai, Khalasah, Muzati, Shishi and Zart). Somatic embryogenesis (SE) was growth regulators and cultivars dependent. Friable embryogenic callus was induced from excised shoot tips on MS medium supplemented with various auxins particularly 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 1.5 mg 1−l). Suspension culture increased embryogenesis potentiality. Only a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 0.5 mg 1−1) produced somatic embryos in culture. Somatic embryos germinated and converted into plantlets in N6-benzyladenine (BAP, 0.75 mg 1−l) added medium following a treatment with thidiazuron (TDZ, 1.0 mg 1−l) for maturation. Scanning electron microscopy showed early stages of somatic embryo particularly, globular types, and was in masses. Different developing stages of embryogenesis (heart, torpedo and cotyledonary) were observed under histological preparation of embryogenic callus. Biochemical screening at various stages of somatic embryogenesis (embryogenic callus, somatic embryos, matured, germinated embryos and converted plantlets) of date palm cultivars has been conducted and discussed in detail. The result discussed in this paper indicates that somatic embryos were produced in numbers and converted plantlets can be used as a good source of alternative propagation. Genetic modification to the embryo precursor cell may improve the fruit quality and yield further. PMID:23961149

  4. [Incus homograft--histological study of implanted ossicles (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sprem, N; Zirdum, A

    1976-11-01

    The methodes of obtaining, preparing and storing of ossicles for homoiotransplantation is described. Using this method, 21 patients have been operated. Four reoperations have been performed, and in two cases implants were found and subsequently subjected to histological analysis. The method of preparing the histological slides is described. The study of examined homografts revealed the normal bone structure and signs of revitalisation, which is clearly shown in the micrographs. On the basis of functional results and histological examination, the authors conclude that the use of devitalised homografts is recommanded in total and/or partial defects of ossicles. PMID:136576

  5. Histological findings in human brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, A. C.; Bothwell, P. W.

    1967-01-01

    The histological findings in 14 cases of brucellosis are described. Unusual findings include the occurrence of brucellosis in a patient with Hodgkin's disease and in another with lymphosarcoma. A patient with hepatic cirrhosis apparently due to brucellosis is included in the series. Images PMID:5632572

  6. Strongyloidiasis histologically mimicking eosinophilic folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Cannavò, Serafinella P; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Guarneri, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    The authors report an unusual case of strongyloidiasis in an Italian patient, who has always lived in Sicily. The patient presented with marked blood eosinophilia and an itching maculo-papular eruption, histologically simulating eosinophilic folliculitis. The clinical resolution was achieved after albendazol therapy. PMID:15319162

  7. Histologic Technician. Laboratory Occupations Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for histologic technician is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task numbers to job titles, and a task list. Each task…

  8. Reordering Histology to Enhance Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amerongen, Helen

    2011-01-01

    In redesigning the preclinical curriculum and shifting from a discipline-based approach to an organ system-based approach, faculty at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson took the opportunity to restructure the sequence of introductory histology content to make it more engaging and relevant. In this article, the author describes…

  9. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis and ovarian histology of women with Turner syndrome presenting with Y-chromosomal material: a correlation between oral epithelial cells, lymphocytes and ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Lars; Bryman, Inger; Janson, Per Olof; Jakobsen, Anne-Marie; Hanson, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The early detection of Y-chromosomal material in women with Turner syndrome (TS) is of great importance due to a relatively high risk of gonadal tumour development. Using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis, we studied the presence of three different Y-specific sequences (SRY, Ycen and Yq12) in three different tissues (oral epithelial cells, lymphocytes and ovarian tissue) of twelve TS women. We have also described their ovarian histology. Two of the women (17%) had gonadal tumours. In five women where ovarian tissue was available, the presence of Y-chromosomal material in oral epithelial cells and lymphocytes correlated to the presence of Y-chromosomal material in the gonads. We therefore conclude that FISH analysis of oral epithelial cells and/or lymphocytes is a valuable complement to karyotyping for the early detection of Y-chromosomal material in TS women. PMID:12564626

  10. THE IMPACT OF HISTOLOGY ON CLINICOPATHOLOGIC OUTCOMES FOR PATIENTS WITH RENAL CELL CARCINOMA AND VENOUS TUMOR THROMBUS: A MATCHED COHORT ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Dharam; Linder, Brian J.; Thompson, R. Houston; Eisenberg, Manuel S.; Lohse, Christine M.; Cheville, John C.; Leibovich, Bradley C.; Boorjian, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of tumor histology on clinicopathologic outcomes for patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and venous tumor thrombus (VTT). Methods We identified 807 patients with RCC and VTT who underwent nephrectomy at our institution between 1970–2008. All pathologic specimens were re-reviewed by a single urologic pathologist. Patients with non-clear cell RCC (non-ccRCC) (n=56) were matched 1:2 to patients with clear cell RCC (ccRCC) VTT based onsymptoms at presentation, regional lymph node involvement, distant metastases, tumor thrombus level, nuclear grade and sarcomatoid differentiation. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Results The 56 patients with non-ccRCC VTT included 26 papillary, 11 chromophobe, 5 collecting duct tumors, and 14 RCC not otherwise specified. Compared to unmatched patients with ccRCC VTT (n=751), patients with non-ccRCC VTT presented with larger tumor size (p=0.02), higher nuclear grade (p=0.04), and more frequent sarcomatoid differentiation (p<0.001) and lymph node invasion (p<0.001). However, when patients with non-ccRCC were matched to patients with cc-RCC, no significant differences were noted with regard to 5-year metastases-free survival (41% versus 34%; p=0.24) or cancer-specific survival (25% versus 27%; p=0.97). Conclusions Non-ccRCC VTT is associated with a high rate of adverse pathologic features. Nevertheless, when matched to patients with ccRCC, patients with non-ccRCC VTT did not have increased rates of recurrence or adverse survival. Aggressive surgical resection represents the mainstay of treatment in these cases, while continued efforts to optimize a multimodal management approach to such patients remain necessary. PMID:23642851

  11. Stereological Analysis of Liver Biopsy Histology Sections as a Reference Standard for Validating Non-Invasive Liver Fat Fraction Measurements by MRI

    PubMed Central

    St. Pierre, Tim G.; House, Michael J.; Bangma, Sander J.; Pang, Wenjie; Bathgate, Andrew; Gan, Eng K.; Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T.; Bhathal, Prithi S.; Clouston, Andrew; Olynyk, John K.; Adams, Leon A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Validation of non-invasive methods of liver fat quantification requires a reference standard. However, using standard histopathology assessment of liver biopsies is problematical because of poor repeatability. We aimed to assess a stereological method of measuring volumetric liver fat fraction (VLFF) in liver biopsies and to use the method to validate a magnetic resonance imaging method for measurement of VLFF. Methods VLFFs were measured in 59 subjects (1) by three independent analysts using a stereological point counting technique combined with the Delesse principle on liver biopsy histological sections and (2) by three independent analysts using the HepaFat-Scan® technique on magnetic resonance images of the liver. Bland Altman statistics and intraclass correlation (IC) were used to assess the repeatability of each method and the bias between the methods of liver fat fraction measurement. Results Inter-analyst repeatability coefficients for the stereology and HepaFat-Scan® methods were 8.2 (95% CI 7.7–8.8)% and 2.4 (95% CI 2.2–2.5)% VLFF respectively. IC coefficients were 0.86 (95% CI 0.69–0.93) and 0.990 (95% CI 0.985–0.994) respectively. Small biases (≤3.4%) were observable between two pairs of analysts using stereology while no significant biases were observable between any of the three pairs of analysts using HepaFat-Scan®. A bias of 1.4±0.5% VLFF was observed between the HepaFat-Scan® method and the stereological method. Conclusions Repeatability of the stereological method is superior to the previously reported performance of assessment of hepatic steatosis by histopathologists and is a suitable reference standard for validating non-invasive methods of measurement of VLFF. PMID:27501242

  12. Histologic and Histometric Analysis of Bone Repair at the Site of Mandibular Body Osteotomy and at the Bone-Screw Interface After Using a Biodegradable 2.0-mm Internal Fixation System.

    PubMed

    Sverzut, Cassio Edvard; de Matos, Fernando Pando; Trivellato, Alexandre Elias; Kato, Rogerio Bentes; Sverzut, Alexander Tadeu; Taba Junior, Mario; de Rezende Duek, Eliana Aparecida; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate histologically and histometrically the bone repair at the mandibular body osteotomy and at the bone-screw interface after using a biodegradable 2.0-mm internal fixation system. Six dogs were subjected to an osteotomy in the mandibular body, which was stabilized by applying a fixation device manufactured with poly-L-DL-lactic acid (70:30). The dogs were euthanized at 2 and 18 weeks. Each screw was sectioned along its long axis, and the osteotomy sites were divided into 3 parts: the upper part was labeled the tension third (TT); the lower part, compression third (CT); and the part between the TT and CT, intermediary third (IT). Histologic analysis showed areas of direct contact between the screw surface and the parent lamellar bone at 2 weeks. At 18 weeks, 3 microscopically distinct layers at the bone-screw interface were noted. At the osteotomy sites, union between the bone fragments was observed at 18 weeks. Statistically significant differences in the newly formed bone among TT, IT, and CT (P = 0.019) were observed. In conclusion, the biomechanical environment created by the biodegradable IF system used in this study facilitated bone repair at the osteotomy site. PMID:26080160

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of pemetrexed versus docetaxel in the second-line treatment of non-small cell lung cancer in Spain: results for the non-squamous histology population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness evaluation of pemetrexed compared to docetaxel in the treatment of advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for patients with predominantly non-squamous histology in the Spanish healthcare setting. Methods A Markov model was designed consisting of stable, responsive, progressive disease and death states. Patients could also experience adverse events as long as they received chemotherapy. Clinical inputs were based on an analysis of a phase III clinical trial that identified a statistically significant improvement in overall survival for non-squamous patients treated with pemetrexed compared with docetaxel. Costs were collected from the Spanish healthcare perspective. Results Outcomes of the model included total costs, total quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), total life years gained (LYG) and total progression-free survival (PFS). Mean survival was 1.03 years for the pemetrexed arm and 0.89 years in the docetaxel arm; QALYs were 0.52 compared to 0.42. Per-patient lifetime costs were € 34677 and € 32343, respectively. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were € 23967 per QALY gained and € 17225 per LYG. Conclusions Pemetrexed as a second-line treatment option for patients with a predominantly non-squamous histology in NSCLC is a cost-effective alternative to docetaxel according to the € 30000/QALY threshold commonly accepted in Spain. PMID:20113499

  14. Warming and drying of the eastern Mediterranean: Additional evidence from trend analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shohami, David; Dayan, Uri; Morin, Efrat

    2011-11-01

    The climate of the eastern Mediterranean (EM), at the transition zone between the Mediterranean climate and the semi-arid/arid climate, has been studied for a 39-year period to determine whether climate changes have taken place. A thorough trend analysis using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test with Sen's slope estimator has been applied to ground station measurements, atmospheric reanalysis data, synoptic classification data and global data sets for the years 1964-2003. In addition, changes in atmospheric regional patterns between the first and last twenty years were determined by visual comparisons of their composite mean. The main findings of the analysis are: 1) changes of atmospheric conditions during summer and the transitional seasons (mainly autumn) support a warmer climate over the EM and this change is already statistically evident in surface temperatures having exhibited positive trends of 0.2-1°C/decade; 2) changes of atmospheric conditions during winter and the transitional seasons support drier conditions due to reduction in cyclogenesis and specific humidity over the EM, but this change is not yet statistically evident in surface station rain data, presumably because of the high natural precipitation variance masking such a change. The overall conclusion of this study is that the EM region is under climate change leading to warmer and drier conditions.

  15. Appearance normalization of histology slides.

    PubMed

    Vicory, Jared; Couture, Heather D; Thomas, Nancy E; Borland, David; Marron, J S; Woosley, John; Niethammer, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the plane estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearance across slides and is effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols and counteracting slide fading. The approach is validated against non-prior plane-fitting using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets. Results of application of the method to adjustment of faded slides are given, and the effectiveness of the method in aiding statistical classification is shown. PMID:25863518

  16. Microvascular MRI and unsupervised clustering yields histology-resembling images in two rat models of glioma

    PubMed Central

    Coquery, Nicolas; Francois, Olivier; Lemasson, Benjamin; Debacker, Clément; Farion, Régine; Rémy, Chantal; Barbier, Emmanuel Luc

    2014-01-01

    Imaging heterogeneous cancer lesions is a real challenge. For diagnosis, histology often remains the reference, but it is widely acknowledged that biopsies are not reliable. There is thus a strong interest in establishing a link between clinical in vivo imaging and the biologic properties of tissues. In this study, we propose to construct histology-resembling images based on tissue microvascularization, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accessible source of contrast. To integrate the large amount of information collected with microvascular MRI, we combined a manual delineation of a spatial region of interest with an unsupervised, model-based cluster analysis (Mclust). This approach was applied to two rat models of glioma (C6 and F98). Six MRI parameters were mapped: apparent diffusion coefficient, vessel wall permeability, cerebral blood volume fraction, cerebral blood flow, tissular oxygen saturation, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. Five clusters, defined by their MRI features, were found to correspond to specific histologic features, and revealed intratumoral spatial structures. These results suggest that the presence of a cluster within a tumor can be used to assess the presence of a tissue type. In addition, the cluster composition, i.e., a signature of the intratumoral structure, could be used to characterize tumor models as histology does. PMID:24849664

  17. Changes of pore systems and infiltration analysis in two degraded soils after rock fragment addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargiulo, Laura; Coppola, Antonio; De Mascellis, Roberto; Basile, Angelo; Mele, Giacomo; Terribile, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Many soils in arid and semi-arid environments contain high amounts of rock fragments as a result of both natural soil forming processes and human activities. The amount, dimension and shape of rock fragment strongly influence soil structure development and therefore many soil processes (e.g. infiltration, water storage, solute transport, etc.). The aim of this work was to test the effects on both infiltration process and soil pore formation following an addition of rock fragments. The test was performed on two different soils: a clayey soil (Alfisol) and a clay loamy soil (Entisol) showing both a natural compact structure and water stagnation problems in field. Three concentrations of 4-8mm rock fragments (15%, 25% and 35%) were added to air-dried soils and the repacked samples have been subject to nine wet/dry cycles in order to induce soil structure formation and its stabilization. The process of infiltration was monitored at -12 cm of pressure heads imposed at the soil surface and kept constant for a certain time by a tension infiltrometer. Moreover, k(h) was determined imposing -9, -6,-3 and -1 cm at soil surface and applying a steady-state solution. After the hydrological measurements the soil samples were resin-impregnated and images of vertical sections of the samples, acquired at 20µm resolution, were analyzed in order to quantify the pore size distribution. This latter was calculated using the "successive opening" approach. The Entisol samples showed similar infiltration curves I(t) among the 4 treatments, with higher percentage of stones (i.e. 25 and 35%) showing a faster rising in the early-time (< 2 min) infiltration; the Alfisol samples are spread, showing a higher variability: limiting the analysis to the first three, despite they show a similar shape, the higher the stones content the lower the cumulated infiltration. The behavior of the 35% sample diverges from the others: it shows a fast rising step at the very early time (< 2 min) followed by a

  18. Methane flux in non-wetland soils in response to nitrogen addition: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Aronson, E L; Helliker, B R

    2010-11-01

    The controls on methane (CH4) flux into and out of soils are not well understood. Environmental variables including temperature, precipitation, and nitrogen (N) status can have strong effects on the magnitude and direction (e.g., uptake vs. release) of CH4 flux. To better understand the interactions between CH4-cycling microorganisms and N in the non-wetland soil system, a meta-analysis was performed on published literature comparing CH4 flux in N amended and matched control plots. An appropriate study index was developed for this purpose. It was found that smaller amounts of N tended to stimulate CH4 uptake while larger amounts tended to inhibit uptake by the soil. When all other variables were accounted for, the switch occurred at 100 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1). Managed land and land with a longer duration of fertilization showed greater inhibition of CH4 uptake with added N. These results support the hypotheses that large amounts of available N can inhibit methanotrophy, but also that methanotrophs in upland soils can be N limited in their consumption of CH4 from the atmosphere. There were interactions between other variables and N addition on the CH4 flux response: lower temperature and, to a lesser extent, higher precipitation magnified the inhibition of CH4 uptake due to N addition. Several mechanisms that may cause these trends are discussed, but none could be conclusively supported with this approach. Further controlled and in situ study should be undertaken to isolate the correct mechanism(s) responsible and to model upland CH4 flux. PMID:21141185

  19. A comparative analysis of British and Taiwanese students' conceptual and procedural knowledge of fraction addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui-Chuan

    2014-10-01

    This study examines students' procedural and conceptual achievement in fraction addition in England and Taiwan. A total of 1209 participants (561 British students and 648 Taiwanese students) at ages 12 and 13 were recruited from England and Taiwan to take part in the study. A quantitative design by means of a self-designed written test is adopted as central to the methodological considerations. The test has two major parts: the concept part and the skill part. The former is concerned with students' conceptual knowledge of fraction addition and the latter is interested in students' procedural competence when adding fractions. There were statistically significant differences both in concept and skill parts between the British and Taiwanese groups with the latter having a higher score. The analysis of the students' responses to the skill section indicates that the superiority of Taiwanese students' procedural achievements over those of their British peers is because most of the former are able to apply algorithms to adding fractions far more successfully than the latter. Earlier, Hart [1] reported that around 30% of the British students in their study used an erroneous strategy (adding tops and bottoms, for example, 2/3 + 1/7 = 3/10) while adding fractions. This study also finds that nearly the same percentage of the British group remained using this erroneous strategy to add fractions as Hart found in 1981. The study also provides evidence to show that students' understanding of fractions is confused and incomplete, even those who are successfully able to perform operations. More research is needed to be done to help students make sense of the operations and eventually attain computational competence with meaningful grounding in the domain of fractions.

  20. In-cloud sulfate addition to single particles resolved with sulfur isotope analysis during HCCT-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, E.; Sinha, B.; van Pinxteren, D.; Schneider, J.; Poulain, L.; Collett, J.; D'Anna, B.; Fahlbusch, B.; Foley, S.; Fomba, K. W.; George, C.; Gnauk, T.; Henning, S.; Lee, T.; Mertes, S.; Roth, A.; Stratmann, F.; Borrmann, S.; Hoppe, P.; Herrmann, H.

    2014-01-01

    In-cloud production of sulfate modifies the aerosol size distribution, with important implications for the magnitude of indirect and direct aerosol cooling and the impact of SO2 emissions on the environment. We investigate which sulfate sources dominate the in-cloud addition of sulfate to different particle classes as an air parcel passes through an orographic cloud. Sulfate aerosol, SO2 and H2SO4 were collected upwind, in-cloud and downwind of an orographic cloud for three cloud measurement events during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia campaign in Autumn, 2010 (HCCT-2010). Combined SEM and NanoSIMS analysis of single particles allowed the δ34S of particulate sulfate to be resolved for particle size and type. The most important in-cloud SO2 oxidation pathway at HCCT-2010 was aqueous oxidation catalysed by transition metal ions (TMI catalysis), which was shown with single particle isotope analyses to occur primarily in cloud droplets nucleated on coarse mineral dust. In contrast, direct uptake of H2SO4(g) and ultrafine particulate were the most important sources modifying fine mineral dust, increasing its hygroscopicity and facilitating activation. Sulfate addition to "mixed" particles (secondary organic and inorganic aerosol) and coated soot was dominated by in-cloud aqueous SO2 oxidation by H2O2 and direct uptake of H2SO4(g) and ultrafine particle sulfate, depending on particle size mode and time of day. These results provide new insight into in-cloud sulfate production mechanisms, and show the importance of single particle measurements and models to accurately assess the environmental effects of cloud processing.

  1. In-cloud sulfate addition to single particles resolved with sulfur isotope analysis during HCCT-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, E.; Sinha, B.; van Pinxteren, D.; Schneider, J.; Poulain, L.; Collett, J.; D'Anna, B.; Fahlbusch, B.; Foley, S.; Fomba, K. W.; George, C.; Gnauk, T.; Henning, S.; Lee, T.; Mertes, S.; Roth, A.; Stratmann, F.; Borrmann, S.; Hoppe, P.; Herrmann, H.

    2014-04-01

    In-cloud production of sulfate modifies aerosol size distribution, with important implications for the magnitude of indirect and direct aerosol cooling and the impact of SO2 emissions on the environment. We investigate which sulfate sources dominate the in-cloud addition of sulfate to different particle classes as an air parcel passes through an orographic cloud. Sulfate aerosol, SO2 and H2SO4 were collected upwind, in-cloud and downwind of an orographic cloud for three cloud measurement events during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia campaign in autumn 2010 (HCCT-2010). Combined SEM and NanoSIMS analysis of single particles allowed the δ34S of particulate sulfate to be resolved for particle size and type. The most important in-cloud SO2 oxidation pathway at HCCT-2010 was aqueous oxidation catalysed by transition metal ions (TMI catalysis), which was shown with single particle isotope analyses to occur primarily in cloud droplets nucleated on coarse mineral dust. In contrast, direct uptake of H2SO4 (g) and ultrafine particulate were the most important sources modifying fine mineral dust, increasing its hygroscopicity and facilitating activation. Sulfate addition to "mixed" particles (secondary organic and inorganic aerosol) and coated soot was dominated by in-cloud aqueous SO2 oxidation by H2O2 and direct uptake of H2SO4 (g) and ultrafine particle sulfate, depending on particle size mode and time of day. These results provide new insight into in-cloud sulfate production mechanisms, and show the importance of single particle measurements and models to accurately assess the environmental effects of cloud processing.

  2. Analysis of Time to Event Outcomes in Randomized Controlled Trials by Generalized Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Argyropoulos, Christos; Unruh, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Randomized Controlled Trials almost invariably utilize the hazard ratio calculated with a Cox proportional hazard model as a treatment efficacy measure. Despite the widespread adoption of HRs, these provide a limited understanding of the treatment effect and may even provide a biased estimate when the assumption of proportional hazards in the Cox model is not verified by the trial data. Additional treatment effect measures on the survival probability or the time scale may be used to supplement HRs but a framework for the simultaneous generation of these measures is lacking. Methods By splitting follow-up time at the nodes of a Gauss Lobatto numerical quadrature rule, techniques for Poisson Generalized Additive Models (PGAM) can be adopted for flexible hazard modeling. Straightforward simulation post-estimation transforms PGAM estimates for the log hazard into estimates of the survival function. These in turn were used to calculate relative and absolute risks or even differences in restricted mean survival time between treatment arms. We illustrate our approach with extensive simulations and in two trials: IPASS (in which the proportionality of hazards was violated) and HEMO a long duration study conducted under evolving standards of care on a heterogeneous patient population. Findings PGAM can generate estimates of the survival function and the hazard ratio that are essentially identical to those obtained by Kaplan Meier curve analysis and the Cox model. PGAMs can simultaneously provide multiple measures of treatment efficacy after a single data pass. Furthermore, supported unadjusted (overall treatment effect) but also subgroup and adjusted analyses, while incorporating multiple time scales and accounting for non-proportional hazards in survival data. Conclusions By augmenting the HR conventionally reported, PGAMs have the potential to support the inferential goals of multiple stakeholders involved in the evaluation and appraisal of clinical trial

  3. Can Additional Homeopathic Treatment Save Costs? A Retrospective Cost-Analysis Based on 44500 Insured Persons

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Julia K.; Reinhold, Thomas; Witt, Claudia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the health care costs for patients using additional homeopathic treatment (homeopathy group) with the costs for those receiving usual care (control group). Methods Cost data provided by a large German statutory health insurance company were retrospectively analysed from the societal perspective (primary outcome) and from the statutory health insurance perspective. Patients in both groups were matched using a propensity score matching procedure based on socio-demographic variables as well as costs, number of hospital stays and sick leave days in the previous 12 months. Total cumulative costs over 18 months were compared between the groups with an analysis of covariance (adjusted for baseline costs) across diagnoses and for six specific diagnoses (depression, migraine, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and headache). Results Data from 44,550 patients (67.3% females) were available for analysis. From the societal perspective, total costs after 18 months were higher in the homeopathy group (adj. mean: EUR 7,207.72 [95% CI 7,001.14–7,414.29]) than in the control group (EUR 5,857.56 [5,650.98–6,064.13]; p<0.0001) with the largest differences between groups for productivity loss (homeopathy EUR 3,698.00 [3,586.48–3,809.53] vs. control EUR 3,092.84 [2,981.31–3,204.37]) and outpatient care costs (homeopathy EUR 1,088.25 [1,073.90–1,102.59] vs. control EUR 867.87 [853.52–882.21]). Group differences decreased over time. For all diagnoses, costs were higher in the homeopathy group than in the control group, although this difference was not always statistically significant. Conclusion Compared with usual care, additional homeopathic treatment was associated with significantly higher costs. These analyses did not confirm previously observed cost savings resulting from the use of homeopathy in the health care system. PMID:26230412

  4. River catchment rainfall series analysis using additive Holt-Winters method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puah, Yan Jun; Huang, Yuk Feng; Chua, Kuan Chin; Lee, Teang Shui

    2016-03-01

    Climate change is receiving more attention from researchers as the frequency of occurrence of severe natural disasters is getting higher. Tropical countries like Malaysia have no distinct four seasons; rainfall has become the popular parameter to assess climate change. Conventional ways that determine rainfall trends can only provide a general result in single direction for the whole study period. In this study, rainfall series were modelled using additive Holt-Winters method to examine the rainfall pattern in Langat River Basin, Malaysia. Nine homogeneous series of more than 25 years data and less than 10% missing data were selected. Goodness of fit of the forecasted models was measured. It was found that seasonal rainfall model forecasts are generally better than the monthly rainfall model forecasts. Three stations in the western region exhibited increasing trend. Rainfall in southern region showed fluctuation. Increasing trends were discovered at stations in the south-eastern region except the seasonal analysis at station 45253. Decreasing trend was found at station 2818110 in the east, while increasing trend was shown at station 44320 that represents the north-eastern region. The accuracies of both rainfall model forecasts were tested using the recorded data of years 2010-2012. Most of the forecasts are acceptable.

  5. Characterization and analysis of surface notches on Ti-alloy plates fabricated by additive manufacturing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kwai S.

    2015-12-01

    Rectangular plates of Ti-6Al-4V with extra low interstitial (ELI) were fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition techniques that included electron beam melting (EBM) and laser beam melting (LBM). The surface conditions of these plates were characterized using x-ray micro-computed tomography. The depth and radius of surface notch-like features on the LBM and EBM plates were measured from sectional images of individual virtual slices of the rectangular plates. The stress concentration factors of individual surface notches were computed and analyzed statistically to determine the appropriate distributions for the notch depth, notch radius, and stress concentration factor. These results were correlated with the fatigue life of the Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloys from an earlier investigation. A surface notch analysis was performed to assess the debit in the fatigue strength due to the surface notches. The assessment revealed that the fatigue lives of the additively manufactured plates with rough surface topographies and notch-like features are dominated by the fatigue crack growth of large cracks for both the LBM and EBM materials. The fatigue strength reduction due to the surface notches can be as large as 60%-75%. It is concluded that for better fatigue performance, the surface notches on EBM and LBM materials need to be removed by machining and the surface roughness be improved to a surface finish of about 1 μm.

  6. Failure location prediction by finite element analysis for an additive manufactured mandible implant.

    PubMed

    Huo, Jinxing; Dérand, Per; Rännar, Lars-Erik; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél; Gamstedt, E Kristofer

    2015-09-01

    In order to reconstruct a patient with a bone defect in the mandible, a porous scaffold attached to a plate, both in a titanium alloy, was designed and manufactured using additive manufacturing. Regrettably, the implant fractured in vivo several months after surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the failure of the implant and show a way of predicting the mechanical properties of the implant before surgery. All computed tomography data of the patient were preprocessed to remove metallic artefacts with metal deletion technique before mandible geometry reconstruction. The three-dimensional geometry of the patient's mandible was also reconstructed, and the implant was fixed to the bone model with screws in Mimics medical imaging software. A finite element model was established from the assembly of the mandible and the implant to study stresses developed during mastication. The stress distribution in the load-bearing plate was computed, and the location of main stress concentration in the plate was determined. Comparison between the fracture region and the location of the stress concentration shows that finite element analysis could serve as a tool for optimizing the design of mandible implants. PMID:26227805

  7. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis.

    PubMed

    Hensen, B; Kalb, N; Blok, M S; Dréau, A E; Reiserer, A; Vermeulen, R F L; Schouten, R N; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Goodenough, K; Elkouss, D; Wehner, S; Taminiau, T H; Hanson, R

    2016-01-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682-686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823

  8. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hensen, B.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.

    2016-01-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823

  9. The "PIP problem": clinical and histologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Correia-Sá, Inês; Rodrigues-Pereira, Pedro; Marques, Marisa

    2013-10-01

    Implants from Poly Implant Prothése (PIP), the French manufacturer, showed increased risk of implant rupture and silicone leakage through the shell. Concerns also exist about the potential irritant behavior of silicone gel filler in these implants. This report presents the clinical, histologic, and microbiologic characteristics of a capsule and a siliconoma from a patient with a ruptured PIP implant. A 41-year-old woman submitted to breast augmentation in 2005 with PIP silicone gel implants presented with a recent history of progressive asymmetric breast enlargement and an enlarged lymph node on her right axilla. No capsular contracture was observed. A breast ultrasonography showed intra- and extracapsular ruptures of the right implant. The woman underwent explantation. Histologic analysis of the breast capsules showed a thin capsule with a chronic, mild inflammatory response. Microbiologic analysis showed no bacterial agent. The irritant behavior of the PIP silicone gel previously described was not able to produce capsular contracture or an exuberant inflammatory reaction. Studies to evaluate the potential risks of the silicone gel and to define the hazards for women implanted with those prostheses are urgently needed. PMID:23943050

  10. Analysis of chill-cast NiAl intermetallic compound with copper additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, J.; Gonzalez, C.; Herrera, R.; Juarez-Islas, J. A.

    2002-10-01

    This study carried out a characterization of chill-cast NiAl alloys with copper additions, which were added to NiAl, such that the resulting alloy composition occurred in the β-field of the ternary NiAlCu phase diagram. The alloys were vacuum induction melted and casted in copper chill molds to produce ingots 0.002 m thick, 0.020 m wide, and 0.050 m long. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) performed in chill-cast ingots identified mainly the presence of the β-(Ni,Cu)Al phase. As-cast ingots showed essentially no ductility at room temperature except for the Ni50Al40Cu10 alloy, which showed 1.79% of elongation at room temperature. Ingots with this alloy composition were then heat treated under a high-purity argon atmosphere at 550 °C (24 h) and cooled either in the furnace or in air, until room temperature was reached. β-(Ni,Cu)Al and γ'(Ni,Cu)3Al were present in specimens cooled in the furnace and β-(Ni,Cu)Al, γ'(Ni,Cu)3Al plus martensite-(Ni,Cu)Al were present in specimens cooled in air. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that martensite transformation was the result of a solid-state reaction with M s ˜ 470 and M f ˜ 430 °C. Tensile tests performed on bulk heat-treated ingots showed room-temperature ductility between 3 and 6%, depending on the cooling media.

  11. A new analysis of the WASP-3 system: no evidence for an additional companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalto, M.; Gregorio, J.; Boué, G.; Mortier, A.; Boisse, I.; Oshagh, M.; Maturi, M.; Figueira, P.; Sousa, S.; Santos, N. C.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the problem concerning the presence of additional bodies gravitationally bound with the WASP-3 system. We present eight new transits of this planet gathered between 2009 May and 2011 September by using the 30-cm telescope at the Crow Observatory-Portalegre, and analyse all the photometric and radial velocity data published so far. We did not observe significant periodicities in the Fourier spectrum of the observed minus calculated (O - C) transit timing and radial velocity diagrams (the highest peak having false-alarm probabilities of 56 and 31 per cent, respectively) or long-term trends. Combining all the available information, we conclude that the radial velocity and transit timing techniques exclude, at 99 per cent confidence limit, any perturber more massive than M ≳ 100 Mearth with periods up to 10 times the period of the inner planet. We also investigate the possible presence of an exomoon in this system and determine that considering the scatter of the O - C transit timing residuals a coplanar exomoon would likely produce detectable transits. This hypothesis is however apparently ruled out by observations conducted by other researchers. In the case where the orbit of the moon is not coplanar, the accuracy of our transit timing and transit duration measurements prevents any significant statement. Interestingly, on the basis of our reanalysis of SOPHIE data we noted that WASP-3 passed from a less active (logR HK '=-4.95) to a more active (logR HK '=-4.8) state during the 3 yr monitoring period spanned by the observations. Despite the fact that no clear spot crossing has been reported for this system, this analysis suggests a more intensive monitoring of the activity level of this star in order to understand its impact on photometric and radial velocity measurements.

  12. Analysis of synthetic motor oils for additive elements by ICP-AES

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.; Salmon, S.G.

    1995-12-31

    Standard motor oils are made by blending paraffinic or naphthenic mineral oil base stocks with additive packages containing anti-wear agents, dispersants, corrosion inhibitors, and viscosity index improvers. The blender can monitor the correct addition of the additives by determining the additive elements in samples dissolved in a solvent by ICP-AES. Internal standardization is required to control sample transport interferences due to differences in viscosity between samples and standards. Synthetic motor oils, made with poly-alpha-olefins and trimethylol propane esters, instead of mineral oils, pose an additional challenge since these compounds affect the plasma as well as having sample transport interference considerations. The synthetic lubricant base stocks add significant oxygen to the sample matrix, which makes the samples behave differently than standards prepared in mineral oil. Determination of additive elements in synthetic motor oils will be discussed.

  13. Histological aspects of cervical ripening.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, M; Shimizu, T; Sasai, Y

    1976-02-01

    There is a close relationship between the rate of the uterine cervix opening during parturition and the presence or absence of a completely ripened cervix. In order to learn the basic pattern of the ripening of cervix, histological and histochemical studies were performed on the human uterine cervix during pregnancy. It was noted that the collagen bundles disintegrated into fine fibers and also underwent quantitative changes during the ripening process of the cervix. During pregnancy, the number of connective tissue cells was increased, but that of mast cells was decreased. Acid mucopolysaccharides in the cervical ground substance were found to increase in late pregnancy. PMID:136067

  14. Classification of Tumor Histology via Morphometric Context.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hang; Borowsky, Alexander; Spellman, Paul; Parvin, Bahram

    2013-06-23

    Image-based classification of tissue histology, in terms of different components (e.g., normal signature, categories of aberrant signatures), provides a series of indices for tumor composition. Subsequently, aggregation of these indices in each whole slide image (WSI) from a large cohort can provide predictive models of clinical outcome. However, the performance of the existing techniques is hindered as a result of large technical and biological variations that are always present in a large cohort. In this paper, we propose two algorithms for classification of tissue histology based on robust representations of morphometric context, which are built upon nuclear level morphometric features at various locations and scales within the spatial pyramid matching (SPM) framework. These methods have been evaluated on two distinct datasets of different tumor types collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the experimental results indicate that our methods are (i) extensible to different tumor types; (ii) robust in the presence of wide technical and biological variations; (iii) invariant to different nuclear segmentation strategies; and (iv) scalable with varying training sample size. In addition, our experiments suggest that enforcing sparsity, during the construction of morphometric context, further improves the performance of the system. PMID:24319324

  15. Histology of the first fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, M.P.; Sansom, I.J.; Repetski, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    THE first description of Anatolepis Bockelie & Fortey was from early Ordovician sediments of Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen1,2, but the genus is now known from many localities in North America and Greenland, ranging in age from the Late Cambrian period to the Early Ordovician3-6. Although initially interpreted as an agnathan fish2,3 that predated other representatives7, this has been widely disputed because the available histological data were unconvincing6,8-10 and the scales fell outside the known morphological range of other accepted early vertebrates9-11. Further doubt was cast upon the vertebrate affinity of Anatolepis when specimens from East Greenland were interpreted as the cuticular fragments of aglaspid arthropods6, although this interpretation has also been refuted12. Here we report on the morphology and histology of large collections of Anatolepis, and demonstrate the presence of dentine, a tissue unique to vertebrates, confirming that the taxon is both a vertebrate and the oldest known fish.

  16. Multifractal analysis of the irregular set for almost-additive sequences via large deviations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomfim, Thiago; Varandas, Paulo

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we introduce a notion of free energy and large deviations rate function for asymptotically additive sequences of potentials via an approximation method by families of continuous potentials. We provide estimates for the topological pressure of the set of points whose non-additive sequences are far from the limit described through Kingman’s sub-additive ergodic theorem and give some applications in the context of Lyapunov exponents for diffeomorphisms and cocycles, and the Shannon-McMillan-Breiman theorem for Gibbs measures.

  17. Practical quantification of necrosis in histological whole-slide images.

    PubMed

    Homeyer, André; Schenk, Andrea; Arlt, Janine; Dahmen, Uta; Dirsch, Olaf; Hahn, Horst K

    2013-06-01

    Since the histological quantification of necrosis is a common task in medical research and practice, we evaluate different image analysis methods for quantifying necrosis in whole-slide images. In a practical usage scenario, we assess the impact of different classification algorithms and feature sets on both accuracy and computation time. We show how a well-chosen combination of multiresolution features and an efficient postprocessing step enables the accurate quantification necrosis in gigapixel images in less than a minute. The results are general enough to be applied to other areas of histological image analysis as well. PMID:23796718

  18. Effects of additives on the co-pyrolysis of municipal solid waste and paper sludge by using thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shiwen; Yu, Zhaosheng; Lin, Yan; Lin, Yousheng; Fan, Yunlong; Liao, Yanfen; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2016-06-01

    By using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the effects of different additives (MgO, Al2O3 and ZnO) on the pyrolysis characteristics and activation energy of municipal solid waste (MSW), paper sludge (PS) and their blends in N2 atmosphere had been investigated in this study. The experiments resulted that these additives were effective in reducing the initial temperature and activation energy. However, not all the additives were beneficial to reduce the residue mass and enhance the index D. For the different ratios of MSW and PS, the same additive even had the different influences. The catalytic effects of additives were not obvious and the pyrolysis became difficult with the increase of the proportion of PS. Based on all the contrast of the pyrolysis characteristics, MgO was the best additive and 70M30P was the best ratio, respectively. PMID:26985626

  19. Microcirculatory, mitochondrial, and histological changes following cerebral ischemia in swine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ischemic brain injury due to stroke and/or cardiac arrest is a major health issue in modern society requiring urgent development of new effective therapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate mitochondrial, microcirculatory, and histological changes in a swine model of global cerebral ischemia. Results In our model, significant microcirculatory changes, but only negligible histological cell alterations, were observed 3 h after bilateral carotid occlusion, and were more pronounced if the vascular occlusion was combined with systemic hypotension. Analysis of mitochondrial function showed that LEAK respiration (measured in the presence of pyruvate + malate but without ADP) was not affected in any model of global cerebral ischemia in pigs. The OXPHOS capacity with pyruvate + malate as substrates decreased compared with the control levels after bilateral carotid artery occlusion, and bilateral carotid artery occlusion + hypotension by 20% and 79%, respectively, resulting in decreases in the respiratory control index of 14% and 73%, respectively. OXPHOS capacity with succinate as a substrate remained constant after unilateral carotid artery occlusion or bilateral carotid artery occlusion, but decreased by 53% after bilateral carotid artery occlusion and hypotension compared with controls (p < 0.05, n = 3–6). Addition of exogenous cytochrome c to mitochondria isolated from ischemia brains had no effect on respiration in all models used in this study. Conclusions We found a decrease in microcirculation and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity, but insignificant neuronal death, after 3 h ischemia in all our pig models of global cerebral ischemia. Dysfunction of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system, particularly damage to complex I of the respiratory chain, may be the primary target of the ischemic insult, and occurs before signs of neuronal death can be detected. PMID:24387285

  20. Analysis of economics of a TV broadcasting satellite for additional nationwide TV programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, D.; Mertens, G.; Rappold, A.; Seith, W.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of a TV broadcasting satellite, transmitting four additional TV networks was analyzed. It is assumed that the cost of the satellite systems will be financed by the cable TV system operators. The additional TV programs increase income by attracting additional subscribers. Two economic models were established: (1) each local network is regarded as an independent economic unit with individual fees (cost price model) and (2) all networks are part of one public cable TV company with uniform fees (uniform price model). Assumptions are made for penetration as a function of subscription rates. Main results of the study are: the installation of a TV broadcasting satellite improves the economics of CTV-networks in both models; the overall coverage achievable by the uniform price model is significantly higher than that achievable by the cost price model.

  1. Application of Translational Addition Theorems to Electrostatic and Magnetostatic Field Analysis for Systems of Circular Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machynia, Adam

    Analytic solutions to the static and stationary boundary value field problems relative to an arbitrary configuration of parallel cylinders are obtained by using translational addition theorems for scalar Laplacian polar functions, to express the field due to one cylinder in terms of the polar coordinates of the other cylinders such that the boundary conditions can be imposed at all the cylinder surfaces. The constants of integration in the field expressions of all the cylinders are obtained from a truncated infinite matrix equation. Translational addition theorems are available for scalar cylindrical and spherical wave functions but such theorems are not directly available for the general solution of the Laplace equation in polar coordinates. The purpose of deriving these addition theorems and applying them to field problems involving systems of cylinders is to obtain exact analytic solutions with controllable accuracies, thereby, yielding benchmark solutions to validate other approximate numerical methods.

  2. Analysis of Glass-Filled Nylon in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotwinski, John; LaBarre, Erin; Forrest, Ryan; Crane, Emily

    2016-03-01

    At the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), glass bead-filled polyamide (a.k.a. nylon) (GFN) is being used frequently for functional parts and systems, built using a laser-based powder bed fusion (PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) system. Since these parts have performance requirements, it is important to understand the mechanical properties of the additively-made GFN as a function of build orientation and build parameters. In addition, the performance of the AM system used to manufacture these parts must be evaluated in order to understand its capabilities, especially in order to determine the dimensional precision and repeatability of features built with this system. This paper summarizes recent APL efforts to characterize the GFN powder, the mechanical properties of parts made with GFN, and the performance of the laser PBF machine while running GFN using an AM test artifact.

  3. Immunophenotypic and genotypic analysis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Correlation with histologic features in 36 cases. French Study Group of Pathology for HIV-Associated Tumors.

    PubMed

    Raphael, M M; Audouin, J; Lamine, M; Delecluse, H J; Vuillaume, M; Lenoir, G M; Gisselbrecht, C; Lennert, K; Diebold, J

    1994-06-01

    High-grade B-cell-type non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are observed in 5% to 8% of patients positive for the human immunodeficiency virus. Nearly all cases belong to one of the three major histologic types: centroblastic or large noncleaved cell, immunoblastic and Burkitt's lymphoma, or small noncleaved cell. Some cases that are polymorphic are termed high-grade B-cell, not otherwise specified (NOS). The authors determined the immunophenotype of each histologic category of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkins' lymphoma and sought a relationship with the presence of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). B-cell differentiation antigens, activation marker expression (human leukocyte antigen-DR, CD10, CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22, CD23, CD25, CD30, CD38), and epithelial membrane antigen were analyzed. The clonality was determined by the detection of cytoplasmic immunoglobulin, surface immunoglobulin, and the analysis of joining region (JH) immunoglobulin gene configuration by Southern blot. Epstein-Barr virus was detected either by Southern blot analysis using BamHI W probe fragment or by in situ hybridization with EBV-encoded RNA transcripts-1 specific probe. The immunophenotypic and genotypic results were compared with the morphology results and with the presence or absence of EBV. Burkitt's lymphomas were associated with EBV in 50% of cases, were monoclonal, and expressed mostly immunoglobulin (Ig) MK, CD10, CD19, CD20, CD22, and CD38. This immunophenotypic profile closely resembled those of the centroblastic cases (large noncleaved cell), in which EBV was absent. Epstein-Barr virus was associated with 90% of immunoblastic cases, and only CD10, CD20, and CD38 were expressed. CD71 was expressed in all categories of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and CD21 and CD23 were rarely expressed. Two cases of immunoblastic lymphoma and one case of high-grade B-NOS were polyclonal regarding JH rearrangement, but EBV tested with 1.9-Kb Xhol fragment was clonal. No significant

  4. Derivation and validation of murine histologic alterations resembling asthma, with two proposed histologic grade parameters

    PubMed Central

    Wachtel, Mitchell S; Shome, Goutam; Sutherland, Mhairi; McGlone, John J

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective was to define murine histologic alterations resembling asthma in a BALB/c OVA model and to suggest grading criteria. Identified were six salient histologic findings in lungs with putative allergic inflammation: 1) bronchoarterial space inflammation; 2) peri-venular inflammation; 3) inflammation about amuscular blood vessels; 4) inter-alveolar space inflammation, not about capillaries; 5) pleural inflammation; and 6) eosinophils within the inflammatory aggregates. An initial study comprised six groups of twelve mice each: 1) stressed, control; 2) stressed, sensitized; 3) stressed, challenged; 4) not physically stressed, control; 5) not physically stressed, sensitized; 6) not physically stressed, challenged. A second study comprised four experimental groups of twenty mice each: 1) stressed, control; 2) stressed, challenged; 3) not physically stressed, control; 4) not physically stressed, challenged. A third study evaluated two grading criteria, 1) the proportion of non-tracheal respiratory passages with inflammatory aggregates and 2) mitoses in the largest two non-tracheal respiratory passages, in five groups of five mice each, evaluated at different times after the last exposure. Results The first study suggested the six histological findings might reliably indicate the presence of alterations resembling asthma: whereas 82.4% of mice with a complete response had detectable interleukin (IL)-5, only 3.8% of mice without one did; whereas 77.8% of mice with a complete response were challenged mice, only 6.7% of mice without complete responses were. The second study revealed that the six histological findings provided a definition that was 97.4% sensitive and 100% specific. The third study found that the odds of a bronchial passage's having inflammation declined 1) when mitoses were present (OR = 0.73, 0.60 - 0.90), and 2) with one day increased time (OR = 0.75, 0.65 - 0.86). Conclusion A definition of murine histologic alterations resembling

  5. Consequence analysis of an unmitigated NaOH solution spray release during addition to waste tank

    SciTech Connect

    Himes, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-21

    Toxicological consequences were calculated for a postulated maximum caustic soda (NaOH) solution spray leak during addition to a waste tank to adjust tank pH. Although onsite risk guidelines were exceeded for the unmitigated release, site boundary consequences were below the level of concern. Means of mitigating the release so as to greatly reduce the onsite consequences were recommended.

  6. HUMAN HEALTH DAMAGES FROM MOBILE SOURCE AIR POLLUTION: ADDITIONAL DELPHI DATA ANALYSIS. VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report contains the results of additional analyses of the data generated by a panel of medical experts for a study of Human Health Damages from Mobile Source Air Pollution (hereafter referred to as HHD) conducted by the California Air Resources Board in 1973-75 for the U.S. E...

  7. An Analysis of Word Problems in School Mathematics Texts: Operation of Addition and Subtraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Parmjit

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the types of word problems represented in Malaysia's primary one, primary two and primary three mathematics texts based on Van De Walle's model (1998) in the operations of addition and subtraction. A test was constructed to measure students' success based on this model. The data from this study indicates that the Malaysian…

  8. Vector generalized additive models for extreme rainfall data analysis (study case rainfall data in Indramayu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, Eka Putri Nur; Wigena, Aji Hamim; Djuraidah, Anik

    2016-02-01

    Rainfall pattern are good indicators for potential disasters. Global Circulation Model (GCM) contains global scale information that can be used to predict the rainfall data. Statistical downscaling (SD) utilizes the global scale information to make inferences in the local scale. Essentially, SD can be used to predict local scale variables based on global scale variables. SD requires a method to accommodate non linear effects and extreme values. Extreme value Theory (EVT) can be used to analyze the extreme value. One of methods to identify the extreme events is peak over threshold that follows Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). The vector generalized additive model (VGAM) is an extension of the generalized additive model. It is able to accommodate linear or nonlinear effects by involving more than one additive predictors. The advantage of VGAM is to handle multi response models. The key idea of VGAM are iteratively reweighted least square for maximum likelihood estimation, penalized smoothing, fisher scoring and additive models. This works aims to analyze extreme rainfall data in Indramayu using VGAM. The results show that the VGAM with GPD is able to predict extreme rainfall data accurately. The prediction in February is very close to the actual value at quantile 75.

  9. Porokeratosis ptychotropica: a rare manifestation with typical histological exam*

    PubMed Central

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Dalapicola, Monique Coelho; Lellis, Rute Facchini; Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Manzione, Thiago da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Clarissa de Faria Soares

    2016-01-01

    Porokeratosis is a disorder of epidermal keratinization characterized clinically by a distinctive ridge-like border, and histologically by cornoid lamellae. The known clinical variants of porokeratosis are: classic porokeratosis of Mibelli, disseminated superficial (actinic) porokeratosis (DSAP), porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata, linear porokeratosis and punctate porokeratosis. In 1995, a seventh form was described as porokeratosis ptychotropica: a verrucous form resembling psoriasis involving the gluteal cleft presenting on the histological exam multiple cornoid lamellae. There are very few reports in the literature of this clinical variant. The present study describes the case of a healthy male presenting gluteal hyperkeratotic plaques for 22 years. He had been to several dermatologists, none of them had achieved a definitive diagnosis. We present a typical clinical presentation and its dermoscopy findings, in addition to histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27579746

  10. Effects of aleurone layer on rice cooking: A histological investigation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianyong; Chen, Jun; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chengmei; Zhong, Yejun; Luo, Dawen; Li, Zhongqiang; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2016-01-15

    Understanding how aleurone layer (AL) affects rice cooking behaviour is important for rice processing. Individual effects of AL on rice cooking behaviour were evaluated and histological characters of AL before and after cooking were investigated. AL slightly affected rice cooking quality (optimum cooking time, water absorption, volume expansion ratio and total solids loss) while remarkably affected rice texture (hardness and adhesiveness) and peak viscosity. Histological investigation showed that channels were formed in AL during cooking. The channels facilitated the penetration of water, which could explain why AL exhibited slight effects on rice cooking quality. In addition, thick cell walls and thermally stable aleurone grains were widely distributed in AL. Leached components accumulated on them and formed a reinforced coated film on rice surface during cooking, which may be a possible mechanism accounting for the remarkable effect of AL on rice texture. Histological characters of AL are closely related with rice cooking behaviour. PMID:26258698

  11. Porokeratosis ptychotropica: a rare manifestation with typical histological exam.

    PubMed

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Dalapicola, Monique Coelho; Lellis, Rute Facchini; Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Manzione, Thiago da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Clarissa de Faria Soares

    2016-01-01

    Porokeratosis is a disorder of epidermal keratinization characterized clinically by a distinctive ridge-like border, and histologically by cornoid lamellae. The known clinical variants of porokeratosis are: classic porokeratosis of Mibelli, disseminated superficial (actinic) porokeratosis (DSAP), porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata, linear porokeratosis and punctate porokeratosis. In 1995, a seventh form was described as porokeratosis ptychotropica: a verrucous form resembling psoriasis involving the gluteal cleft presenting on the histological exam multiple cornoid lamellae. There are very few reports in the literature of this clinical variant. The present study describes the case of a healthy male presenting gluteal hyperkeratotic plaques for 22 years. He had been to several dermatologists, none of them had achieved a definitive diagnosis. We present a typical clinical presentation and its dermoscopy findings, in addition to histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27579746

  12. EBSD analysis of magnesium addition on inclusion formation in SS400 structural steel

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Sin-Jie; Su, Yen-Hao Frank; Lu, Muh-Jung; Kuo, Jui-Chao

    2013-08-15

    In this study, the effect of magnesium addition on the inclusion formation in SS400 steel was investigated. The experimental specimens with and without Mg addition treatment were compared. The microstructure was observed using optical microscopy after etching with 3% nital. The morphology and chemical composition of the inclusions were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry. The lattice structure and orientation of the inclusions were identified by electron backscattering diffraction. The average size of inclusions in SS400 was between 0.67 and 0.75 μm, and between 0.65 and 0.68 μm in SS400 + Mg. The 2 ppm Mg addition resulted in the oxide formation change from Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to MgO·Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and in the inclusion formation change from Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–MnS to MgO·Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–MnS. Moreover, a simple-phase MnS with an average grain size of 1 μm to 2 μm was observed in rod-like, globular, and polyhedron forms. - Highlights: • The effect of magnesium addition was investigated for SS400 steel. • 2 ppm Mg addition changes the inclusion formation from Al2O3-MnS to MgO·Al2O3-MnS. • MnS observed in inclusions exhibits rod-like, globular, and polyhedron forms.

  13. Histology-directed MALDI mass spectrometry for the diagnostic pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hark Kyun; Kim, In-Hoo

    2012-10-01

    With the advent of targeted agents, it has become clinically important to distinguish histologic types of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) using biopsy samples. We investigated whether direct tissue matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis on lipid may classify histology of NSCLCs. Twentyone pairs of frozen, resected NSCLCs were analyzed using histology-directed, MALDI MS. 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid/α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid were manually deposited on areas of each tissue section enriched in epithelial cells to identify lipid profiles, and mass spectra were acquired using a MALDI-time of flight instrument. Squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas, two major histologic types of NSCLC, were found to have different lipid profiles. Discriminatory lipids correctly classified the histology of 80.4% of independent NSCLC surgical tissue samples (41 out of 51) in validation set, suggesting that lipid profiles can classify NSCLCs according to the histologic type. We also found that protein and lipid MALDI MS profiles can classify 30 breast cancers according to the intrinsic subtypes. Immunohistochemistry-defined, luminal, HER2+, and triple-negative tumors demonstrated different protein and lipid profiles, as evidenced by cross validation P values < 0.01. Discriminatory proteins and lipids classified tumors according to the intrinsic subtype with median prediction accuracies of 80.0-81.3% in 100 random test sets. Potential advantages of this label-free approach may include small tissue requirement, relatively rapid procedure, and low reagent cost. Day-today variation of this technology is also acceptable, with the Pearson correlation of 0.95. Taken together, these results suggest the possible clinical utility of histology-directed, lipid and protein MALDI MS.

  14. One-dimensional analysis of thermal choking in case of heat addition in ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazato, Yoshiaki; Masuda, Mitsuharu; Matsuo, Kazuyasu; Kashitani, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Yutaka

    2000-09-01

    The thermal choking phenomenon is of great importance in an inlet isolator in dual-mode ram jet/scramjet combustor. In some cases the choked flow creates a pseudo-shock wave including a shock train in it at the engine inlet and causes large amounts of drag and radically reduces the performance of the engine at high flight Mach numbers. The present paper describes a one-dimensional flow model taking account of the upstream boundary-layer as well as heat addition by using a mass-weighted averaging technique. The simple relationships for the flow field in a constant area duct in which the effect of the upstream boundary-layer is considered but the effect of the wall friction in the duct can be neglected are presented. The results of the calculation such as the maximum heat addition when the thermal choking occurs, the downstream Mach number and the static pressure ratio are presented and examined in detail.

  15. [Analysis of constituents of ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives].

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Masuda, Aino; Sugimoto, Naoki; Yamagata, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2007-12-01

    The differences in the constituents of ten ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives in Japan (urushi wax, carnauba wax, candelilla wax, rice bran wax, shellac wax, jojoba wax, bees wax, Japan wax, montan wax, and lanolin) were investigated. Several kinds of gum bases showed characteristic TLC patterns of lipids. In addition, compositions of fatty acid and alcohol moieties of esters in the gum bases were analyzed by GC/MS after methanolysis and hydrolysis, respectively. The results indicated that the varieties of fatty acids and alcohols and their compositions were characteristic for each gum base. These results will be useful for identification and discrimination of the ester-type gum bases. PMID:18203503

  16. Analysis and Modeling of soil hydrology under different soil additives in artificial runoff plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruidisch, M.; Arnhold, S.; Kettering, J.; Huwe, B.; Kuzyakov, Y.; Ok, Y.; Tenhunen, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    The impact of monsoon events during June and July in the Korean project region Haean Basin, which is located in the northeastern part of South Korea plays a key role for erosion, leaching and groundwater pollution risk by agrochemicals. Therefore, the project investigates the main hydrological processes in agricultural soils under field and laboratory conditions on different scales (plot, hillslope and catchment). Soil hydrological parameters were analysed depending on different soil additives, which are known for prevention of soil erosion and nutrient loss as well as increasing of water infiltration, aggregate stability and soil fertility. Hence, synthetic water-soluble Polyacrylamides (PAM), Biochar (Black Carbon mixed with organic fertilizer), both PAM and Biochar were applied in runoff plots at three agricultural field sites. Additionally, as control a subplot was set up without any additives. The field sites were selected in areas with similar hillslope gradients and with emphasis on the dominant land management form of dryland farming in Haean, which is characterised by row planting and row covering by foil. Hydrological parameters like satured water conductivity, matrix potential and water content were analysed by infiltration experiments, continuous tensiometer measurements, time domain reflectometry as well as pressure plates to indentify characteristic water retention curves of each horizon. Weather data were observed by three weather stations next to the runoff plots. Measured data also provide the input data for modeling water transport in the unsatured zone in runoff plots with HYDRUS 1D/2D/3D and SWAT (Soil & Water Assessment Tool).

  17. Analysis of hydraulic fracturing additives by LC/Q-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E Michael

    2015-08-01

    The chemical additives used in fracturing fluids can be used as tracers of water contamination caused by hydraulic fracturing operations. For this purpose, a complete chemical characterization is necessary using advanced analytical techniques. Liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF-MS) was used to identify chemical additives present in flowback and produced waters. Accurate mass measurements of main ions and fragments were used to characterize the major components of fracking fluids. Sodium adducts turned out to be the main molecular adduct ions detected for some additives due to oxygen-rich structures. Among the classes of chemical components analyzed by mass spectrometry include gels (guar gum), biocides (glutaraldehyde and alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride), and surfactants (cocamidopropyl dimethylamines, cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaines, and cocamidopropyl derivatives). The capabilities of accurate mass and MS-MS fragmentation are explored for the unequivocal identification of these compounds. A special emphasis is given to the mass spectrometry elucidation approaches used to identify a major class of hydraulic fracturing compounds, surfactants. PMID:26044738

  18. Photothermal Multispectral Image Cytometry for Quantitative Histology of Nanoparticles and Micrometastasis in Intact, Stained and Laser Burned Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Shashkov, Evgeny V.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Hennings, Leah; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    There is a rapidly growing interest in the advanced analysis of histological data and the development of appropriate detection technologies, including mapping of nanoparticle distributions in tissue in nanomedicine applications. We evaluated photothermal (PT) scanning cytometry for color-coded imaging, spectral identification, and quantitative detection of individual nanoparticles and abnormal cells in histological samples with and without staining. Using this tool, individual carbon nanotubes, gold nanorods, and melanoma cells with intrinsic melanin markers were identified in unstained (e.g. sentinel lymph nodes) and conventionally-stained tissues. In addition, we introduced a spectral burning technique for histology through selective laser bleaching areas with nondesired absorption background and nanobubble-based PT signal amplification. The obtained data demonstrated the promise of PT cytometry in the analysis of low-absorption samples and mapping of various individual nanoparticles' distribution that would be impossible with existing assays. Comparison of PT cytometry and photoacoustic (PA) cytometry previously, developed by us, revealed that these methods supplement each other with a sensitivity advantage (up to 10-fold) of contactless PT technique in assessment of thin (≤100 μm) histological samples, while PA imaging provides characterization of thicker samples which, however, requires an acoustic contact with transducers. A potential of high-speed integrated PT–PA cytometry for rapid examination of both intact and stained heterogeneous tissues with high sensitivity at the zepromolar concentration level is further highlighted. PMID:20949577

  19. Subsonic flutter analysis addition to NASTRAN. [for use with CDC 6000 series digital computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Harder, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A subsonic flutter analysis capability has been developed for NASTRAN, and a developmental version of the program has been installed on the CDC 6000 series digital computers at the Langley Research Center. The flutter analysis is of the modal type, uses doublet lattice unsteady aerodynamic forces, and solves the flutter equations by using the k-method. Surface and one-dimensional spline functions are used to transform from the aerodynamic degrees of freedom to the structural degrees of freedom. Some preliminary applications of the method to a beamlike wing, a platelike wing, and a platelike wing with a folded tip are compared with existing experimental and analytical results.

  20. Different responses of soil respiration and its components to nitrogen addition among biomes: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lingyan; Zhou, Xuhui; Zhang, Baocheng; Lu, Meng; Luo, Yiqi; Liu, Lingli; Li, Bo

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic activities have increased nitrogen (N) deposition by threefold to fivefold over the last century, which may considerably affect soil respiration (Rs). Although numerous individual studies and a few meta-analyses have been conducted, it remains controversial as to how N addition affects Rs and its components [i.e., autotrophic (Ra) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh)]. To reconcile the difference, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of 295 published studies to examine the responses of Rs and its components to N addition in terrestrial ecosystems. We also assessed variations in their responses in relation to ecosystem types, environmental conditions, and experimental duration (DUR). Our results show that N addition significantly increased Rs by 2.0% across all biomes but decreased by 1.44% in forests and increased by 7.84% and 12.4% in grasslands and croplands, respectively (P < 0.05). The differences may largely result from diverse responses of Ra to N addition among biomes with more stimulation of Ra in croplands and grasslands compared with no significant change in forests. Rh exhibited a similar negative response to N addition among biomes except that in croplands, tropical and boreal forests. Methods of partitioning Rs did not induce significant differences in the responses of Ra or Rh to N addition, except that Ra from root exclusion and component integration methods exhibited the opposite responses in temperate forests. The response ratios (RR) of Rs to N addition were positively correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT), with being more significant when MAT was less than 15 °C, but negatively with DUR. In addition, the responses of Rs and its components to N addition largely resulted from the changes in root and microbial biomass and soil C content as indicated by correlation analysis. The response patterns of Rs to N addition as revealed in this study can be benchmarks for future modeling and experimental studies. PMID:24323545

  1. Single-stage application of a novel decellularized dermis for treatment-resistant lower limb ulcers: positive outcomes assessed by SIAscopy, laser perfusion, and 3D imaging, with sequential timed histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Nicholas S; Benatar, Brian; Baguneid, Mohamed; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2013-01-01

    We present results of an original clinical study investigating efficacy of a decellularized dermal skin substitute (DCD) as part of a one-stage therapeutic strategy for recalcitrant leg ulcers. Twenty patients with treatment-resistant ulcers underwent hydrosurgical debridement, after which DCD was applied and covered with negative pressure dressings for 1 week. Participants were reviewed on seven occasions over 6 months. 3D photography, full-field laser perfusion imaging, spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis, and sequential biopsies were used to monitor healing. Mean ulcer duration and surface area prior to DCD placement were 4.76 years (range 0.25-40 years) and 13.11 cm(2) (range 1.06-40.75 cm(2)), respectively. Seventy percent of ulcers were venous. Surface area decreased in all patients after treatment (range 23-100%). Mean reduction was 87% after 6 months, and 60% of patients healed completely. Wound bed hemoglobin flux increased significantly 6 weeks after treatment (p = 0.005). Histological and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed progressive DCD integration with colonization by host fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and neutrophils, resulting in fibroplasia, reepithelialisation, and angiogenesis, with correlating raised CD31, collagen I, and collagen III levels. Subgroup analysis showed differing cellular behavior depending on wound duration, with delayed angiogenesis, reduced collagen deposition, and smaller reductions in surface area in ulcers present for over 1 year. The stain intensities of immunohistochemical markers including fibronectin, collagen, and CD31 differed depending on depth from the wound surface and presence of intact epithelium. DCD safely produced significant improvement in treatment-resistant leg ulcers. With no requirement for hospital admission, anesthetic, or autogenic skin grafting, this treatment could be administered in hospital and community settings. PMID:24134424

  2. Exergy Analysis and Second Law Efficiency of a Regenerative Brayton Cycle with Isothermal Heat Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jubeh, Naser M.

    2005-09-01

    The effect of two heat additions, rather than one, in a gas turbine engine is analyzed from the second law of thermodynamics point of view. A regenerative Brayton cycle model is used for this study, and compared with other models of Brayton cycle. All fluid friction losses in the compressor and turbine are quantified by an isentropic efficiency term. The effect of pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, ambient temperature, altitude, and altitude with variable ambient temperature on irreversibility "exergy destroyed" and second law efficiency was investigated and compared for all models. The results are given graphically with the appropriate discussion and conclusion.

  3. Qualitative Analysis of Additives in Plastic Marine Debris and Its New Products.

    PubMed

    Rani, Manviri; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Jang, Mi; Al-Odaini, Najat Ahmed; Song, Young Kyong; Hong, Sang Hee

    2015-10-01

    Due to their formulation and/or processing, plastics contain additives and impurities that may leach out under conditions of use and accumulate in the environment. To evaluate their role as vectors of chemical contaminants in marine environment, plastic debris (n = 19) collected from coastal beaches along with new plastics (n = 25; same or same brand) bought from local markets were screened by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in full scan mode. Detected peaks were identified using NIST library in different polymers (polypropylene (PP) > polyethylene (PE) > PP + PE > polyethyl terephthalate > poly(acylene:styrene) with different use (food, fishery, and general use). A database on the presence of 231 different chemicals were grouped into hydrocarbons, ultra-violet (UV)-stabilizers, antioxidants, plasticizers, lubricants, intermediates, compounds for dyes and inks, flame retardants, etc. The UV326, UV327, UV328, UV320, UvinualMC80, irganox 1076, DEHP, antioxidant no 33, di-n-octylisophthalate, diisooctyl phthalate, hexanoic acid 2-ethyl-hexadecyl ester, and hydrocarbons were most frequently detected. Finding of toxic phthalates and UV stabilizers in those products having moisture contact (like bottles with short use) raised concern to humans and indicated their irregular use. The comparison between new and debris plastics clearly indicated the leaching and absorption of chemicals and supports our assumption of plastic as media for transferring these additives in marine environment. PMID:26329499

  4. Tolerance analysis of optical telescopes using coherent addition of wavefront errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    A near diffraction-limited telescope requires that tolerance analysis be done on the basis of system wavefront error. One method of analyzing the wavefront error is to represent the wavefront error function in terms of its Zernike polynomial expansion. A Ramsey-Korsch ray trace package, a computer program that simulates the tracing of rays through an optical telescope system, was expanded to include the Zernike polynomial expansion up through the fifth-order spherical term. An option to determine a 3 dimensional plot of the wavefront error function was also included in the Ramsey-Korsch package. Several assimulation runs were analyzed to determine the particular set of coefficients in the Zernike expansion that are effected by various errors such as tilt, decenter and despace. A 3 dimensional plot of each error up through the fifth-order spherical term was also included in the study. Tolerance analysis data are presented.

  5. Personality, work characteristics, and employee well-being: a longitudinal analysis of additive and moderating effects.

    PubMed

    Houkes, Inge; Janssen, Peter P M; de Jonge, Jan; Bakker, Arnold B

    2003-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal influence of personality (measured by the characteristics growth need strength, negative affectivity [NA], and upward striving) on 3 psychological outcomes (intrinsic work motivation, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention), using a pattern of specific relationships between work characteristics and these outcomes as a framework. The study hypotheses were tested in a multioccupational sample consisting of bank employees and teachers, using a 2-wave panel design with a 1-year time interval and structural equation modeling. NA had a cross-lagged direct and additive relationship with emotional exhaustion and also moderated the relationship between Time 1 workload and Time 2 emotional exhaustion. The authors concluded that NA may have multiple effects on emotional exhaustion that persist over time. PMID:12553527

  6. PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum author responses to request for additional information.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) submitted SAND Report SAND2009-5822 to NRC that documented the incorporation of plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. NRC responded with a Request for Additional Information (RAI), identifying information needed in connection with its review of the application. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide the authors responses to each RAI. SAND Report SAND2010-6106 containing the proposed changes to the Addendum is provided separately.

  7. The quantitative surface analysis of an antioxidant additive in a lubricant oil matrix by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Caitlyn; Reynolds, James C; Whitmarsh, Samuel; Lynch, Tom; Creaser, Colin S

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE Chemical additives are incorporated into commercial lubricant oils to modify the physical and chemical properties of the lubricant. The quantitative analysis of additives in oil-based lubricants deposited on a surface without extraction of the sample from the surface presents a challenge. The potential of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for the quantitative surface analysis of an oil additive in a complex oil lubricant matrix without sample extraction has been evaluated. METHODS The quantitative surface analysis of the antioxidant additive octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix was carried out by DESI-MS in the presence of 2-(pentyloxy)ethyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate as an internal standard. A quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with an in-house modified ion source enabling non-proximal DESI-MS was used for the analyses. RESULTS An eight-point calibration curve ranging from 1 to 80 µg/spot of octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix and in the presence of the internal standard was used to determine the quantitative response of the DESI-MS method. The sensitivity and repeatability of the technique were assessed by conducting replicate analyses at each concentration. The limit of detection was determined to be 11 ng/mm2 additive on spot with relative standard deviations in the range 3–14%. CONCLUSIONS The application of DESI-MS to the direct, quantitative surface analysis of a commercial lubricant additive in a native oil lubricant matrix is demonstrated. © 2013 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24097398

  8. Analysis of additives in dairy products by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Ling, Yun; Lin, Yuanhui; Chang, James; Chu, Xiaogang

    2014-04-01

    A new method combining QuEChERS with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap) was developed for the highly accurate and sensitive screening of 43 antioxidants, preservatives and synthetic sweeteners in dairy products. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation method for the determination of 42 different analytes in dairy products for the first time. After optimization, the maximum predicted recovery was 99.33% rate for aspartame under the optimized conditions of 10 mL acetionitrile, 1.52 g sodium acetate, 410 mg PSA and 404 mgC18. For the matrices studied, the recovery rates of the other 42 compounds ranged from 89.4% to 108.2%, with coefficient of variation <6.4%. UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap Mass full scan mode acquired full MS data was used to identify and quantify additives, and data-dependent scan mode obtained fragment ion spectra for confirmation. The mass accuracy typically obtained is routinely better than 1.5ppm, and only need to calibrate once a week. The 43 compounds behave dynamic in the range 0.001-1000 μg kg(-1) concentration, with correlation coefficient >0.999. The limits of detection for the analytes are in the range 0.0001-3.6 μg kg(-1). This method has been successfully applied on screening of antioxidants, preservatives and synthetic sweeteners in commercial dairy product samples, and it is very useful for fast screening of different food additives. PMID:24607030

  9. Compositional GC-FID analysis of the additives to PVC, focusing on the gaskets of lids for glass jars.

    PubMed

    Biedermann-Brem, Sandra; Biedermann, Maurus; Fiselier, Katell; Grob, Koni

    2005-12-01

    A gas chromatographic (FID) method is described which aims at the quantitative compositional analysis of the additives in plasticized PVC, particularly the plastisols used as gaskets for lids of glass jars. An extract of the PVC is analysed directly as well as after transesterification to ethyl esters. Transesterification enables the analysis of epoxidized soya bean and linseed oil (ESBO and ELO) as well as polyadipates. For most other additives, the shifts in the chromatogram resulting from transesterification is used to confirm the identifications made by direct analysis. In the gaskets of 69 lids from the European market used for packaging oily foods, a broad variety of plastisol compositions was found, many or possibly all of which do not comply with legal requirements. In 62% of these lids, ESBO was the principal plasticizer, whereas in 25% a phthalate had been used. PMID:16356892

  10. Grading of soft tissue sarcomas: from histological to molecular assessment.

    PubMed

    Neuville, Agnes; Chibon, Frédéric; Coindre, Jean-Michel

    2014-02-01

    Several histological grading systems for soft tissue sarcomas have been described since the early 1980s. Their main objective is to select patients for adjuvant chemotherapy. Two histological grading systems are used in daily practice, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the French Federation of Cancer Centers Sarcoma Group (FNCLCC) systems. They have been devised by combining histological parameters: number of mitoses per high-power field, the presence of necrosis, cellular and nuclear morphology and the degree of cellularity for the NCI grading; and tumour differentiation, mitotic index and extent of necrosis for the French system. Histological grading is far more appropriate to assess the risk of metastasis. However, several limitations prevent its use: grade cannot be applied to all histological types, its reproducibility is not perfect, a three-grade system generates an intermediate grade with undetermined prognosis, and finally the core needle biopsy, now widely used for the diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, is not the best sample to assess the grade. The development of molecular grading in addition to histological grading probably represents the next step. Molecular signatures based on quantitative evaluation of chromosomal complexity such as CINSARC (complexity index in sarcomas) appear as a strong independent predictive factor for metastasis in several types of sarcoma, and even in several other types of cancer. When they can be instituted in daily practice on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded material, molecular signatures will not only provide information on risk of metastasis, but also better understanding of cancer development, response or resistance to evaluated drugs, and potential targets for future treatments. PMID:24378389

  11. Comparative histology of pineal calcification.

    PubMed

    Vígh, B; Szél, A; Debreceni, K; Fejér, Z; Manzano e Silva, M J; Vígh-Teichmann, I

    1998-07-01

    The pineal organ (pineal gland, epiphysis cerebri) contains several calcified concretions called "brain sand" or acervuli (corpora arenacea). These concretions are conspicuous with imaging techniques and provide a useful landmark for orientation in the diagnosis of intracranial diseases. Predominantly composed of calcium and magnesium salts, corpora arenacea are numerous in old patients. In smaller number they can be present in children as well. The degree of calcification was associated to various diseases. However, the presence of calcified concretions seems not to reflect a specific pathological state. Corpora arenacea occur not only in the actual pineal tissue but also in the leptomeninges, in the habenular commissure and in the choroid plexus. Studies with the potassium pyroantimonate (PPA) method on the ultrastructural localization of free calcium ions in the human pineal, revealed the presence of calcium alongside the cell membranes, a finding that underlines the importance of membrane functions in the production of calcium deposits. Intrapineal corpora arenacea are characterized by a surface with globular structures. Meningeal acervuli that are present in the arachnoid cover of the organ, differ in structure from intrapineal ones and show a prominent concentric lamination of alternating dark and light lines. The electron-lucent lines contain more calcium than the dark ones. There is a correlation between the age of the subject and the number of layers in the largest acervuli. This suggests that the formation of these layers is connected to circannual changes in the calcium level of the organ. The histological organization of the human pineal is basically the same as that of mammalian experimental animals. Pineal concretions present in mammalian animal species are mainly of the meningeal type. Meningeal cells around acervuli contain active cytoplasmic organelles and exhibit alkaline phosphatase reaction in the rat and mink, an indication of a presumable

  12. Determination of 3D paleostress systems: An additional technique for basin analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, H.E.

    1988-08-01

    The present structure of the western Mediterranean has been largely determined by several phases of rifting and oceanic spreading which began during the Oligocene. The main rifting event took place during the middle Oligocene-earliest Miocene. This is indicated by structural, stratigraphic, metamorphic, and volcanic data. During this event Corsica and Sardinia drifted eastward from the previously amalgamated Iberian-European plate, and the Provencal and Algerian basins were developed. The plate movements related to the development of these basins have been reconstructed by using the orientation of the present plate boundaries, the strike of transform faults, the age and trend of magnetic anomalies, and paleomagnetic data. An additional approach is proposed, based on detailed field study of faults at specific locations on the continental plates. From fault-plane and slip-direction data the author can calculate the responsible 3D paleostress systems. These stress systems apparently can be used to reconstruct in detail the kinematics of the rifting and drifting processes on both a local and regional scale. The method is illustrated by the geodynamic evolution of Mallorca, Menorca, and the Gulf of Valencia.

  13. Temperature Profile and Imaging Analysis of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M.; Purtonen, T.; Piili, H.; Salminen, A.; Nyrhilä, O.

    Powder bed fusion is a laser additive manufacturing (LAM) technology which is used to manufacture parts layer-wise from powdered metallic materials. The technology has advanced vastly in the recent years and current systems can be used to manufacture functional parts for e.g. aerospace industry. The performance and accuracy of the systems have improved also, but certain difficulties in the powder fusion process are reducing the final quality of the parts. One of these is commonly known as the balling phenomenon. The aim of this study was to define some of the process characteristics in powder bed fusion by performing comparative studies with two different test setups. This was done by comparing measured temperature profiles and on-line photography of the process. The material used during the research was EOS PH1 stainless steel. Both of the test systems were equipped with 200 W single mode fiber lasers. The main result of the research was that some of the process instabilities are resulting from the energy input during the process.

  14. Factor analysis models for structuring covariance matrices of additive genetic effects: a Bayesian implementation

    PubMed Central

    de los Campos, Gustavo; Gianola, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Multivariate linear models are increasingly important in quantitative genetics. In high dimensional specifications, factor analysis (FA) may provide an avenue for structuring (co)variance matrices, thus reducing the number of parameters needed for describing (co)dispersion. We describe how FA can be used to model genetic effects in the context of a multivariate linear mixed model. An orthogonal common factor structure is used to model genetic effects under Gaussian assumption, so that the marginal likelihood is multivariate normal with a structured genetic (co)variance matrix. Under standard prior assumptions, all fully conditional distributions have closed form, and samples from the joint posterior distribution can be obtained via Gibbs sampling. The model and the algorithm developed for its Bayesian implementation were used to describe five repeated records of milk yield in dairy cattle, and a one common FA model was compared with a standard multiple trait model. The Bayesian Information Criterion favored the FA model. PMID:17897592

  15. Additive analysis of nano silicon under the influence of neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garibli, Aydan; Huseynov, Elchin; Garibov, Adil; Mehdiyeva, Ravan

    2016-04-01

    Nano silicon with 80m2g‑1 specific surface area, 100 nm size and 0.08 g/cm3 density has been irradiated continuously with neutrons (2 × 1013n ṡcm‑2s‑1) up to 20 h at various periods in TRIGA Mark II type research reactor. After the neutron irradiation, cooling time of the samples is taken approximately 360 h. It is found that the initial radioactivity of the irradiated samples changes within 0.1 kBq-3.1 GBq range. Definition of elements’ concentration is determined based on the activities formed in the relevant energy range. After the irradiation, the result of activity analysis carried out the element content of 1% mixture existing in nano Si which has been defined with radionuclides of the relevant element. Moreover, from activities of mixed radioisotopes, their amounts in percentage has been determined.

  16. Comparative Histology of Plasma Treated Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, Kyle

    2009-10-01

    Atmospheric plasmas applied in surgical settings have unique characteristics found in histological results from animal tissue studies. This is evident in both ex vivo bench tissue tests and in vivo fresh tissue. Examples of these histological features are presented as results of a comparative study between plasma treated, common medical argon coagulation, and electrosurgery.

  17. Protein-protein interaction analysis highlights additional loci of interest for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ragnedda, Giammario; Disanto, Giulio; Giovannoni, Gavin; Ebers, George C; Sotgiu, Stefano; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V

    2012-01-01

    Genetic factors play an important role in determining the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). The strongest genetic association in MS is located within the major histocompatibility complex class II region (MHC), but more than 50 MS loci of modest effect located outside the MHC have now been identified. However, the relative candidate genes that underlie these associations and their functions are largely unknown. We conducted a protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis of gene products coded in loci recently reported to be MS associated at the genome-wide significance level and in loci suggestive of MS association. Our aim was to identify which suggestive regions are more likely to be truly associated, which genes are mostly implicated in the PPI network and their expression profile. From three recent independent association studies, SNPs were considered and divided into significant and suggestive depending on the strength of the statistical association. Using the Disease Association Protein-Protein Link Evaluator tool we found that direct interactions among genetic products were significantly higher than expected by chance when considering both significant regions alone (p<0.0002) and significant plus suggestive (p<0.007). The number of genes involved in the network was 43. Of these, 23 were located within suggestive regions and many of them directly interacted with proteins coded within significant regions. These included genes such as SYK, IL-6, CSF2RB, FCLR3, EIF4EBP2 and CHST12. Using the gene portal BioGPS, we tested the expression of these genes in 24 different tissues and found the highest values among immune-related cells as compared to non-immune tissues (p<0.001). A gene ontology analysis confirmed the immune-related functions of these genes. In conclusion, loci currently suggestive of MS association interact with and have similar expression profiles and function as those significantly associated, highlighting the fact that more common variants remain to be

  18. Reproducibility of histologic classification of gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Palli, D.; Bianchi, S.; Cipriani, F.; Duca, P.; Amorosi, A.; Avellini, C.; Russo, A.; Saragoni, A.; Todde, P.; Valdes, E.

    1991-01-01

    A panel review of histologic specimens was carried out as part of a multi-centre case-control study of gastric cancer (GC) and diet. Comparisons of diagnoses of 100 GCs by six pathologists revealed agreement in histologic classification for about 70-80% of the cancers. Concordance was somewhat higher when using the Lauren rather than the Ming or World Health Organization classification systems. Histologic types from reading biopsy tissue agreed with those derived from surgical specimens for 65-75% of the 100 tumours. Intra-observer agreement in histologic classification, assessed by repeat readings up to 3 years apart by one pathologist, was 95%. The findings indicate that, although overall concordance was good, it is important to standardise diagnoses in multi-centre epidemiologic studies of GC by histologic type. PMID:2039701

  19. Possibilities of CT Scanning as Analysis Method in Laser Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karme, Aleksis; Kallonen, Aki; Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing is an established and constantly developing technique. Structural assessment should be a key component to ensure directed evolution towards higher level of manufacturing. The macroscopic properties of metallic structures are determined by their internal microscopic features, which are difficult to assess using conventional surface measuring methodologies. X-ray microtomography (CT) is a promising technique for three-dimensional non-destructive probing of internal composition and build of various materials. Aim of this study is to define the possibilities of using CT scanning as quality control method in LAM fabricated parts. Since the parts fabricated with LAM are very often used in high quality and accuracy demanding applications in various industries such as medical and aerospace, it is important to be able to define the accuracy of the build parts. The tubular stainless steel test specimens were 3D modelled, manufactured with a modified research AM equipment and imaged after manufacturing with a high-power, high-resolution CT scanner. 3D properties, such as surface texture and the amount and distribution of internal pores, were also evaluated in this study. Surface roughness was higher on the interior wall of the tube, and deviation from the model was systematically directed towards the central axis. Pore distribution showed clear organization and divided into two populations; one following the polygon model seams along both rims, and the other being associated with the concentric and equidistant movement path of the laser. Assessment of samples can enhance the fabrication by guiding the improvement of both modelling and manufacturing process.

  20. Mass analysis addition to the Differential Ion Flux Probe (DIFP) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H., Jr.; Jolley, Richard

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a technique to measure the characteristics of space plasmas under highly disturbed conditions; e.g., non-Maxwellian plasmas with strong drifting populations and plasmas contaminated by spacecraft outgassing. The approach, conducted in conjunction with current MSFC activities, is to extend the capabilities of the Differential Ion Flux Probe (DIFP) to include a high throughput mass measurement that does not require either high voltage or contamination sensitive devices such as channeltron electron multipliers or microchannel plates. This will significantly reduce the complexity and expense of instrument fabrication, testing, and integration of flight hardware compared to classical mass analyzers. The feasibility of the enhanced DIFP has been verified by using breadboard test models in a controlled plasma environment. The ability to manipulate particles through the instrument regardless of incident angle, energy, or ionic component has been amply demonstrated. The energy analysis mode is differential and leads directly to a time-of-flight mass measurement. With the new design, the DIFP will separate multiple ion streams and analyze each stream independently for ion flux intensity, velocity (including direction of motion), mass, and temperature (or energy distribution). In particular, such an instrument will be invaluable on follow-on electrodynamic TSS missions and, possibly, for environmental monitoring on the space station.

  1. Growth and analysis of C nanotubes on ceramic polymer-additives.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, S; Piperopoulos, E; Lanza, M; Milone, C

    2012-06-01

    C nanotubes are synthesized by catalytic route on ceramic supports (Al2O3, MgO and CaO), usually utilized for polymer reinforcing/flame-retardancy, aiming at nanotube-based hybrid preparation. Chemical vapor deposition is carried out in i-C4H10+H2 atmosphere over 17 wt% Fe-catalysts upon different conditions. In order to clarify the influence of support material, calcination (450 degrees C or 750 degrees C) and reduction temperature (500 degrees C or 600 degrees C) of the catalysts, and synthesis temperature (600 degrees C or 700 degrees C), catalysts utilized and nanotubes obtained are systematically investigated by the use of several analysis techniques (electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetry and Raman spectroscopy). The results obtained show that, in the considered range of variation, support material is the most influential parameter. The most catalytically active alumina supports allow achieving higher yields, but involve larger metallic inclusions and lower crystalline quality. Remaining supports behave oppositely. The reasons for such differences are discussed in the light of the current assessments on the nanotube growth and the results obtained are compared with those available in literature for similar catalysts. PMID:22905531

  2. Are histologic studies of adenotonsillectomy really necessary?

    PubMed

    Rebechi, Giseli; Pontes, Thiago Euênio; Braga, Elias Lobo; Matos, Willian Maduel; Rebechi, Fernando; Matsuyama, Cícero

    2013-10-01

    Introduction In most ear, nose, and throat services, it is routine to send the material extracted from tonsillectomy for histologic study to research malignancy, to analyze suspect material, or to provide medical-legal documentation. Recent studies have shown that this routine analysis is dispensable. Objective To evaluate the actual need and perform a cost-benefit analysis of routine histopathologic examination in tonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy. Methods A retrospective observational study evaluated the charts of patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy, tonsillectomy, or adenoidectomy from January 2008 to September 2009 at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology CEMA-SP. Costs of this test for the public health system were analyzed and the literature reviewed. Results We studied 281 patients between 2 and 22 years of age; 142 (50.5%) were male and 139 (49.5%) were female. Of the surgeries, 201 were adenotonsillectomies (71.5%), 41 were tonsillectomies (14.5%), and 39 were adenoidectomies (14%). The most common indication for surgery was recurrent infection (63.3%). None of study patients had clinical suspicion of malignancy. The tests showed a cost of R$20.03 per tonsil analyzed. Conclusion Routine histopathologic examination in patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy is dispensable and increases the cost of the surgeries. PMID:25992042

  3. Are Histologic Studies of Adenotonsillectomy Really Necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Rebechi, Giseli; Pontes, Thiago Euênio; Braga, Elias Lobo; Matos, Willian Maduel; Rebechi, Fernando; Matsuyama, Cícero

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In most ear, nose, and throat services, it is routine to send the material extracted from tonsillectomy for histologic study to research malignancy, to analyze suspect material, or to provide medical-legal documentation. Recent studies have shown that this routine analysis is dispensable. Objective To evaluate the actual need and perform a cost–benefit analysis of routine histopathologic examination in tonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy. Methods A retrospective observational study evaluated the charts of patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy, tonsillectomy, or adenoidectomy from January 2008 to September 2009 at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology CEMA-SP. Costs of this test for the public health system were analyzed and the literature reviewed. Results We studied 281 patients between 2 and 22 years of age; 142 (50.5%) were male and 139 (49.5%) were female. Of the surgeries, 201 were adenotonsillectomies (71.5%), 41 were tonsillectomies (14.5%), and 39 were adenoidectomies (14%). The most common indication for surgery was recurrent infection (63.3%). None of study patients had clinical suspicion of malignancy. The tests showed a cost of R$20.03 per tonsil analyzed. Conclusion Routine histopathologic examination in patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy is dispensable and increases the cost of the surgeries. PMID:25992042

  4. Histologic and temperature alterations induced by skin refrigerants.

    PubMed

    Dzubow, L M

    1985-05-01

    The histologic alterations induced by spray refrigerants independent of and in combination with dermabrasion were studied with the use of the domestic pig as a model. Tissue injury was found to be a function of spray duration and freeze intensity. Both preabrasion freezing and postabrasion refreezing could produce damage additive to that of mechanical planing. Skin surface and intradermal temperature variations during refrigeration were recorded. The possible implications of these findings as they pertain to clinical dermabrasion are discussed. PMID:4008684

  5. Net gain analysis, an addition to responder analysis--The case of antipsychotic treatment of acute mania.

    PubMed

    Welten, C C M; Koeter, M W J; Wohlfarth, T D; Storosum, J G; van den Brink, W; Gispen-de Wied, C C; Leufkens, H G M; Denys, D A J P

    2015-10-01

    Net Gain Analysis (NGA) is proposed as an alternative to Responders Analysis (RA) as a more comprehensive method to tap clinical relevance of the effect of treatment. NGA is the group difference in responders minus the group difference in deteriorators; while RA is the group difference in responders. We examined the performance of these two methods in a dataset consisting of individual patient data from 10 randomized controlled trials (N = 2666) of five different antipsychotics in patients with acute mania by comparing the rank ordering of the five compounds according to both systems (NGA and RA). The rank order did not differ between the 2 systems but the inferiority of one compound was revealed more evidently by the NGA in comparison to the RA. PMID:26164267

  6. Analysis of the effects of section 29 tax credits on reserve additions and production of gas from unconventional resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Federal tax credits for production of natural gas from unconventional resources can stimulate drilling and reserves additions at a relatively low cost to the Treasury. This report presents the results of an analysis of the effects of a proposed extension of the Section 29 alternative fuels production credit specifically for unconventional gas. ICF Resources estimated the net effect of the extension of the credit (the difference between development activity expected with the extension of the credit and that expected if the credit expires in December 1990 as scheduled). The analysis addressed the effect of tax credits on project economics and capital formation, drilling and reserve additions, production, impact on the US and regional economies, and the net public sector costs and incremental revenues. The analysis was based on explicit modeling of the three dominant unconventional gas resources: Tight sands, coalbed methane, and Devonian shales. It incorporated the most current data on resource size, typical well recoveries and economics, and anticipated activity of the major producers. Each resource was further disaggregated for analysis based on distinct resource characteristics, development practices, regional economics, and historical development patterns.

  7. EX VIVO CORRELATION OF ULTRASONOGRAPHIC SMALL INTESTINAL WALL LAYERING WITH HISTOLOGY IN DOGS.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Alexandre B; Granger, L Abbigail; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Kearney, Michael T; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2016-09-01

    Canine ultrasonographic intestinal layers have been reported to correlate with histological layering. However, discrepancies have been reported in people, and additional layers visualized. The aim of this method comparison study was to describe ex vivo canine small intestinal layering and correlate it with histology. Small intestinal samples of 12 adult dogs euthanized for reasons unrelated to gastrointestinal disease were resected immediately following euthanasia, pinned on a Petri dish, and transverse ultrasonographic images acquired in a water bath, using a high-frequency linear transducer. Transverse histological sections were obtained at the same level. Measurements of the intestinal layers were performed on the ultrasonographic and histological images. No significant statistical differences were noted between the ultrasonographic and histological measurements and strong to very strong (r > 0.7) positive correlation was observed for all layers, except for the serosa, which had a low moderate positive correlation (r = 0.479). In addition to the five established layers, a dual mucosal echogenicity was consistently observed, with seven samples presenting an additional inner mucosal severe hyperechogenicity. Histologically, this dual echogenicity was attributed to the intestinal villi (mildly echogenic) and lamina propria (hypoechoic). The additional inner mucosal severe hyperechogenicity observed in seven samples was attributed to mild-to-moderate lacteal dilation histologically. In 4/12 ileal samples, an additional hyperechoic mucosal line was also observed parallel to the submucosa, corresponding histologically to prominent Peyer's patches. Finally, a hyperechoic line was observed within the muscularis of all samples, corresponding histologically to the interface between the muscularis longitudinal and circular layers. PMID:27377194

  8. [Metal implant sensitivity: clinical and histological presentation].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, D; Letulé, V; Schneider, J J; Flaig, M J

    2016-05-01

    Metal implant sensitivity (intolerance) can cause pain, reduced mobility, loosening of the implant and skin rashes. Knowledge of differential diagnoses, histology and appropriate diagnostics are essential for proper diagnosis. To outline typical clinical signs and histology in metal-implant-associated skin lesions we present three exemplary patients from our implant allergy outpatient department and give an overview of the current literature regarding metal implant sensitivity. In patients with a negative patch test the lymphocyte transformation test may reveal metal sensitization. Even "pure" titanium alloys may contain traces of nickel. The histology of implant-associated skin reactions goes from teleangiectatic postimplantation erythema to eczema and vasculitis. Based on the synopsis of history, clinical picture, allergological testing and histology, metal implant sensitivity can be diagnosed more precisely. PMID:27090521

  9. Analysis of cell-to-bubble attachment in sparged bioreactors in the presence of cell-protecting additives.

    PubMed

    Michaels, J D; Nowak, J E; Mallik, A K; Koczo, K; Wasan, D T; Papoutsakis, E T

    1995-08-20

    To investigate the mechanisms of cell protection provided by medium additives against animal cell injury in sparged bioreactors, we have analyzed the effect of various additives on the cell-to-bubble attachment process using CHO cells in suspension. Cell-to-bubble attachment was examined using three experimental techniques: (1) cell-bubble induction time analysis (cell-to-bubble attachment times); (2) forming thin liquid films and observing the movement and location of cells in the thin films; and (3) foam flotation experiments. The induction times we measured for the various additives are as follows: no additive (50 to 500 ms), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP: 20 to 500 ms), polyethylene glycol (PEG: 200 to 1000 ms), 3% serum (500 to 1000 ms), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA: 2 to 10 s), Pluronic F68 (5 to 20 s), and Methocel (20 to 60 s). In the thin film formation experiments, cells in medium with either F68, PVA, or Methocel quickly flowed out of draining thin liquid films and entered the plateau border. When using media with no additive or with serum, the flow of cells out of the thin liquid film and film drainage were slower than for media containing Pluronic F68. PVA, or Methocel. With PVP and PEG, the thin film drainage was much slower and cells remained trapped in the film. For the foam flotation experiments, a separation factor (ratio of cell concentration in the foam catch to that in the bubble column) was determined for the various additives. In the order of increasing separation factors (i.e., increasing cell attachment to bubbles), the additives are as follows: Methocel, PVA, Pluronic F68, 3% serum, serum-free medium with no additives, PEG, and PVP. Based on the results of these three different cell-to-bubble attachment experiments, we have classified the cell-protecting additives into three groups: (1) Pluronic F68, PVA, and Methocel (reduced cell-to-bubble attachment); (2) PEG and PVP (high or increased cell-to-bubble attachment); and (3) FBS (reduced cell

  10. Meta-analysis of high-latitude nitrogen-addition and warming studies implies ecological mechanisms overlooked by land models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bouskill, N. J.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J. Y.

    2014-12-11

    Accurate representation of ecosystem processes in land models is crucial for reducing predictive uncertainty in energy and greenhouse gas feedbacks with the climate. Here we describe an observational and modeling meta-analysis approach to benchmark land models, and apply the method to the land model CLM4.5 with two versions of belowground biogeochemistry. We focused our analysis on the aboveground and belowground responses to warming and nitrogen addition in high-latitude ecosystems, and identified absent or poorly parameterized mechanisms in CLM4.5. While the two model versions predicted similar soil carbon stock trajectories following both warming and nitrogen addition, other predicted variables (e.g., belowgroundmore » respiration) differed from observations in both magnitude and direction, indicating that CLM4.5 has inadequate underlying mechanisms for representing high-latitude ecosystems. On the basis of observational synthesis, we attribute the model–observation differences to missing representations of microbial dynamics, aboveground and belowground coupling, and nutrient cycling, and we use the observational meta-analysis to discuss potential approaches to improving the current models. However, we also urge caution concerning the selection of data sets and experiments for meta-analysis. For example, the concentrations of nitrogen applied in the synthesized field experiments (average = 72 kg ha-1 yr-1) are many times higher than projected soil nitrogen concentrations (from nitrogen deposition and release during mineralization), which precludes a rigorous evaluation of the model responses to likely nitrogen perturbations. Overall, we demonstrate that elucidating ecological mechanisms via meta-analysis can identify deficiencies in ecosystem models and empirical experiments.« less

  11. Computer-aided Image Processing of Angiogenic Histological

    PubMed Central

    Sprindzuk, Matvey; Dmitruk, Alexander; Kovalev, Vassili; Bogush, Armen; Tuzikov, Alexander; Liakhovski, Victor; Fridman, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the questions regarding the image evaluation of angiogeneic histological samples, particularly the ovarian epithelial cancer. Review is focused on the principles of image analysis in the field of histology and pathology. The definition, classification, pathogenesis and angiogenesis regulation in the ovaries are also briefly discussed. It is hoped that the complex image analysis together with the patient’s clinical parameters will allow an acquiring of a clear pathogenic picture of the disease, extension of the differential diagnosis and become a useful tool for the evaluation of drug effects. The challenge of the assessment of angiogenesis activity is the heterogeneity of several objects: parameters derived from patient’s anamnesis as well as of pathology samples. The other unresolved problems are the subjectivity of the region of interest selection and performance of the whole slide scanning. Keywords Angiogenesis; Image processing; Microvessel density; Cancer; Pathology PMID:22481986

  12. Uncertainty analysis of the use of a retailer fidelity card scheme in the assessment of food additive intake.

    PubMed

    McNamara, C; Mehegan, J; O'Mahony, C; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tennant, D; Buck, N; Ehrlich, V; Sardi, M; Haldemann, Y; Nordmann, H; Jasti, P R

    2011-12-01

    The feasibility of using a retailer fidelity card scheme to estimate food additive intake was investigated in an earlier study. Fidelity card survey information was combined with information provided by the retailer on levels of the food colour Sunset Yellow (E110) in the foods to estimate a daily exposure to the additive in the Swiss population. As with any dietary exposure method the fidelity card scheme is subject to uncertainties and in this paper the impact of uncertainties associated with input variables including the amounts of food purchased, the levels of E110 in food, the proportion of food purchased at the retailer, the rate of fidelity card usage, the proportion of foods consumed outside of the home and bodyweights and with systematic uncertainties was assessed using a qualitative, deterministic and probabilistic approach. An analysis of the sensitivity of the results to each of the probabilistic inputs was also undertaken. The analysis identified the key factors responsible for uncertainty within the model and demonstrated how the application of some simple probabilistic approaches can be used quantitatively to assess uncertainty. PMID:21995790

  13. BFS Simulation and Experimental Analysis of the Effect of Ti Additions on the Structure of NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Ferrante,John; Garg, Anita; Honecy, Frank S.; Amador, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for alloy energetics is applied to the study of ternary additions to NiAl. A description of the method and its application to alloy design is given. Two different approaches are used in the analysis of the effect of Ti additions to NiAl. First, a thorough analytical study is performed, where the energy of formation, lattice parameter and bulk modulus are calculated for a large number of possible atomic distributions of Ni, Al and Ti. Substitutional site preference schemes and formation of precipitates are thus predicted and analyzed. The second approach used consists of the determination of temperature effects on the final results, as obtained by performing a number of large scale numerical simulations using the Monte Carlo-Metropolis procedure and BFS for the calculation of the energy at every step in the simulation. The results indicate a sharp preference of Ti for Al sites in Ni-rich NiAl alloys and the formation of ternary Heusler precipitates beyond the predicted solubility limit of 5 at. % Ti. Experimental analysis of three Ni-Al-Ti alloys confirms the theoretical predictions.

  14. Atomistic Simulations and Experimental Analysis of the Effect of Ti Additions on the Structure of NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Ferrante, John; Garg, Anita; Amador, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    The Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) semiempirical method for alloy energetics is applied to the study of ternary additions to NiAl alloys. A detailed description of the method and its application to alloy design is given. Two different approaches are used in the analysis of the effect of Ti additions to NiAl. First, a thorough analytical study is performed, where the energy of formation, lattice parameter and bulk modulus are calculated for hundreds of possible atomic distributions of Ni, Al and Ti. Substitutional site preference schemes and formation of precipitates are thus predicted and analyzed. The second approach used consists of the determination of temperature effects on the final results, as obtained by performing a number of large scale numerical simulations using the Monte Carlo - Metropolis procedure and BFS for the calculation of the energy at every step in the simulation. The results indicate a sharp preference of Ti for Al sites in Ni-rich NiAl alloys and the formation of ternary Heusler precipitates beyond the predicted solubility limit of 5 at. % Ti. Experimental analysis of three NiAl+Ti alloys confirms the theoretical predictions.

  15. Enhanced photo-fermentative H2 production using Rhodobacter sphaeroides by ethanol addition and analysis of soluble microbial products

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biological fermentation routes can provide an environmentally friendly way of producing H2 since they use renewable biomass as feedstock and proceed under ambient temperature and pressure. In particular, photo-fermentation has superior properties in terms of achieving high H2 yield through complete degradation of substrates. However, long-term H2 production data with stable performance is limited, and this data is essential for practical applications. In the present work, continuous photo-fermentative H2 production from lactate was attempted using the purple non-sulfur bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131. As a gradual drop in H2 production was observed, we attempted to add ethanol (0.2% v/v) to the medium. Results As continuous operation went on, H2 production was not sustained and showed a negligible H2 yield (< 0.5 mol H2/mol lactateadded) within two weeks. Electron balance analysis showed that the reason for the gradual drop in H2 production was ascribed to the increase in production of soluble microbial products (SMPs). To see the possible effect of ethanol addition, a batch test was first conducted. The presence of ethanol significantly increased the H2 yield from 1.15 to 2.20 mol H2/mol lactateadded, by suppressing the production of SMPs. The analysis of SMPs by size exclusion chromatography showed that, in the later period of fermentation, more than half of the low molecular weight SMPs (< 1 kDa) were consumed and used for H2 production when ethanol had been added, while the concentration of SMPs continuously increased in the absence of ethanol. It was found that the addition of ethanol facilitated the utilization of reducing power, resulting in an increase in the cellular levels of NAD+ and NADP+. In continuous operation, ethanol addition was effective, such that stable H2 production was attained with an H2 yield of 2.5 mol H2/mol lactateadded. Less than 15% of substrate electrons were used for SMP production, whereas 35% were used in

  16. Vertical chin augmentation with interpositional porous polyethylene implants: a histologic study in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Magro-Filho, O; Kallal, R; Rangel-Garcia Júnior, I; Magro-Ernica, N

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate histologically the tissue reaction in the chin after a vertical augmentation using interpositional porous polyethylene (PPE) implants in monkeys. Six monkeys (Cebus apella) underwent an anterior horizontal mandibular osteotomy with implantation of an interpositional PPE implant to increase the vertical height. The animals were sacrificed 5 months postoperatively. Histologic preparations were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The perimeter of the interface between the implant and the bone, the implant and the trabecular space, and the implant and the fibrous capsule were quantified using the NIH Image Analysis System (Image 1.60/PPC). In addition, the Tukey test was done. The study demonstrated that bone growth takes place within the pores of the implant; a fibrous capsule exists in some animals, where the implant has contact with the periosteum and mentalis muscle with few chronic inflammatory cells; and the 3 different tissues responded in statistically different manners. Perimeter analysis revealed 68.9% implant-bone contact, 22.9% implant-fibrous tissue contact, and 8.2% implant-trabecular space contact. PMID:10686842

  17. Addition to inhaled corticosteroids of leukotriene receptor antagonists versus theophylline for symptomatic asthma: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Kang, Ying-Bo; Wang, Li-Qing; Li, Yun; Luo, Yu-Wen; Zhu, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Background Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are widely used in combination with second controller medications in the management of asthma in adults and children. There lacks a systematic comparison between addition of leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) and theophylline to ICS. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the difference of the efficacy and safety profile of adding either LTRAs or theophylline to ICS in adults and children with symptomatic asthma. Methods Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published prior to November 2014 were acquired through systematically searching and selected based on the established inclusion criteria for publications. The data extracted from the included studies were further analyzed by a meta-analysis. Results We included eight RCTs, of which six recruited adults and two recruited children aged 5 to 14 years. The primary outcomes were changes in lung function from baseline, including forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF). Overall, addition of LTRAs led to significantly better morning PEF {mean difference (MD) 16.94 [95% confidence interval (CI): 11.49-22.39] L/min, P<0.01} and FEV1 [MD 0.09 (95% CI: 0.03-0.15) L, P=0.005] as compared to addition of theophylline. There were no differences between the two treatments in terms of evening PEF, adverse events, rescue medication use and asthma exacerbation. Conclusions The combination of LTRA and ICS leads to modestly greater improvement in lung function than the combination of theophylline and ICS in the treatment of symptomatic asthma. Long-term trials are required to assess the efficacy and safety of these two therapies. PMID:25973230

  18. Micro-CT and histological analysis of Ti6Al7Nb custom made implants with hydroxyapatite and SiO2-TiO2 coatings in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    ARMENCEA, GABRIEL; BERCE, CRISTIAN; ROTARU, HORATIU; BRAN, SIMION; LEORDEAN, DAN; COADA, CAMELIA; TODEA, MILICA; JULA, CAMELIA AUGUSTA; GHEBAN, DAN; BACIUT, GRIGORE; BACIUT, MIHAELA; CAMPIAN, RADU SEPTIMIU

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim Bone defect reconstruction in the maxillofacial area comes as a necessity after traumatic, oncological or congenital pathology. Custom made implant manufacturing, such as selective laser melting (SLM), is very helpful when bone reconstruction is needed. In the present study we assessed the osseointegration of custom made implants made of Ti6Al7Nb with two different coatings: SiO2-TiO2 and hydroxyapatite, by comparing the bone mineral density (BMD) measured on micro-CT and the histological mineralized bone surrounding the implants. Methods Custom made – cylindrical type – implants were produced by selective laser melting, coated with SiO2-TiO2 and hydroxyapatite and implanted in the rabbit femur. The animals (divided into 3 groups) were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 6 months and the implants were removed together with the surrounding bone. Bone mineral density and histological examination of the bone-implant surface was performed for each group. Results BMD and histological examination of the samples determined the quantity of mineralized bone at the implant site, showing a good percentage of mineralized bone for the coated implants at 1, 3 and 6 months. The measurements for the implants without coating showed a significant lower quantity of mineralized bone at 3 months compared with the implants with coating, and a good quantity of mineralized bone at 6 months, showing a process of demineralization followed by remineralization in the last month. The measurements of BMD showed similar results with the histological examination. Conclusions The use of micro-CT and the measurement of BMD are a reliable, minimally invasive and a quick method of osseointegration assessment. PMID:26609278

  19. Development of a computational high-throughput tool for the quantitative examination of dose-dependent histological features.

    PubMed

    Nault, Rance; Colbry, Dirk; Brandenberger, Christina; Harkema, Jack R; Zacharewski, Timothy R

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution digitalizing of histology slides facilitates the development of computational alternatives to manual quantitation of features of interest. We developed a MATLAB-based quantitative histological analysis tool (QuHAnT) for the high-throughput assessment of distinguishable histological features. QuHAnT validation was demonstrated by comparison with manual quantitation using liver sections from mice orally gavaged with sesame oil vehicle or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; 0.001-30 μg/kg) every 4 days for 28 days, which elicits hepatic steatosis with mild fibrosis. A quality control module of QuHAnT reduced the number of quantifiable Oil Red O (ORO)-stained images from 3,123 to 2,756. Increased ORO staining was measured at 10 and 30 μg/kg TCDD with a high correlation between manual and computational volume densities (Vv ), although the dynamic range of QuHAnT was 10-fold greater. Additionally, QuHAnT determined the size of each ORO vacuole, which could not be accurately quantitated by visual examination or manual point counting. PicroSirius Red quantitation demonstrated superior collagen deposition detection due to the ability to consider all images within each section. QuHAnT dramatically reduced analysis time and facilitated the comprehensive assessment of features improving accuracy and sensitivity and represents a complementary tool for tissue/cellular features that are difficult and tedious to assess via subjective or semiquantitative methods. PMID:25274660

  20. Development of a Computational High-Throughput Tool for the Quantitative Examination of Dose-Dependent Histological Features

    PubMed Central

    Nault, Rance; Colbry, Dirk; Brandenberger, Christina; Harkema, Jack R.; Zacharewski, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution digitalizing of histology slides facilitates the development of computational alternatives to manual quantitation of features of interest. We developed a MATLAB-based quantitative histological analysis tool (QuHAnT) for the high-throughput assessment of distinguishable histological features. QuHAnT validation was demonstrated by comparison with manual quantitation using liver sections from mice orally gavaged with sesame oil vehicle or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; 0.001–30 µg/kg) every 4 days for 28 days, which elicits hepatic steatosis with mild fibrosis. A quality control module of QuHAnT reduced the number of quantifiable Oil Red O (ORO)-stained images from 3,123 to 2,756. Increased ORO staining was measured at 10 and 30 µg/kg TCDD with a high correlation between manual and computational volume densities (Vv), although the dynamic range of QuHAnT was 10-fold greater. Additionally, QuHAnT determined the size of each ORO vacuole, which could not be accurately quantitated by visual examination or manual point counting. PicroSirius Red quantitation demonstrated superior collagen deposition detection due to the ability to consider all images within each section. QuHAnT dramatically reduced analysis time and facilitated the comprehensive assessment of features improving accuracy and sensitivity and represents a complementary tool for tissue/cellular features that are difficult and tedious to assess via subjective or semiquantitative methods. PMID:25274660

  1. Histological types of polypoid cutaneous melanoma II.

    PubMed

    Knezević, Fabijan; Duancić, Vjekoslav; Sitić, Sanda; Horvat-Knezević, Anica; Benković, Vesna; Ramić, Snjezana; Kostović, Kresimir; Ramljak, Vesna; Vrdoljak, Danko Velemir; Stanec, Mladen; Bozović, Angelina

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain which histological types of melanoma can clinically and morphologically appear as polypoid melanomas. In 645 cases of primary cutaneous melanoma we have analyzed criteria for diagnosis of polypoid cutaneous melanoma and afterwards we have analyzed growth phase in each polypoid melanoma, histological type of atypical melanocytes, the number of epidermal ridges which are occupied by atypical melanocytes, and distribution according to age, sex and location, as well as the disease free survival. According to the criteria for polypoid melanomas we have found 147 (22.8%) polypoid cutaneous melanomas. Analyzing the growth phases, histological types of atypical melanocytes and the number of affected epidermal ridges in the group of polypoid melanomas we have ascertained 2 (1.4%) ALMs, 4 (2.8%) LMMs, 42 (28.6%) SSMs and 99 (67.2%) NMs. Our conclusion is that polypoid cutaneous melanomas are morphological forms of various histological melanoma types (ALM, LMM, SSM and NM) and they can all display polypoid morphological form. Polypoid cutaneous melanomas are most often of nodular histological type. PMID:18217457

  2. [Gastritis from a histological point of view].

    PubMed

    Vieth, M; Stolte, M

    2006-06-01

    Since the rediscovery of spiral-shaped gastric bacteria in 1983 by Warren and Marshal numerous detailed facts have enlarged our knowledge base for a better understanding of gastritis. The WHO classified Helicobacter as a class 1 carcinogen. Helicobacter plays a role in many diseases of the upper GI tract (gastric and duodenal ulcer, MALT lymphoma, and gastric cancer). Knowledge of the interaction between bacterium and host led to an improvement of the diagnosis of gastritis. Unfortunately endoscopy, histology, and patient's symptoms do not correlate with each other. Therefore, gastritis is a purely histological diagnosis. A histological diagnosis always needs to be accompanied by an etiological cause of the inflammation. Only when this information is given a clinical consequence can be drawn from a histological diagnosis. In Germany the so-called ABCD scheme of gastritis is widely used (A: autoimmune gastritis, B: bacterial gastritis, C: chemical reactive gastritis, D: other forms of gastritis). At least two antrum and two corpus biopsies (matrix diagnostics) are necessary to reach representative tissue with an acceptable probability. If less than these four (minimal standard) biopsies are taken, the histological diagnosis will remain uncertain. PMID:16612608

  3. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  4. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  5. Could magnetic resonance provide in vivo histology?

    PubMed Central

    Dominietto, Marco; Rudin, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of a suspected tumor lesion faces two basic problems: detection and identification of the specific type of tumor. Radiological techniques are commonly used for the detection and localization of solid tumors. Prerequisite is a high intrinsic or enhanced contrast between normal and neoplastic tissue. Identification of the tumor type is still based on histological analysis. The result depends critically on the sampling sites, which given the inherent heterogeneity of tumors, constitutes a major limitation. Non-invasive in vivo imaging might overcome this limitation providing comprehensive three-dimensional morphological, physiological, and metabolic information as well as the possibility for longitudinal studies. In this context, magnetic resonance based techniques are quite attractive since offer at the same time high spatial resolution, unique soft tissue contrast, good temporal resolution to study dynamic processes and high chemical specificity. The goal of this paper is to review the role of magnetic resonance techniques in characterizing tumor tissue in vivo both at morphological and physiological levels. The first part of this review covers methods, which provide information on specific aspects of tumor phenotypes, considered as indicators of malignancy. These comprise measurements of the inflammatory status, neo-vascular physiology, acidosis, tumor oxygenation, and metabolism together with tissue morphology. Even if the spatial resolution is not sufficient to characterize the tumor phenotype at a cellular level, this multiparametric information might potentially be used for classification of tumors. The second part discusses mathematical tools, which allow characterizing tissue based on the acquired three-dimensional data set. In particular, methods addressing tumor heterogeneity will be highlighted. Finally, we address the potential and limitation of using MRI as a tool to provide in vivo tissue characterization. PMID:24454320

  6. Analysis of the constituents in jojoba wax used as a food additive by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Jin, Zhe-Long; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2005-10-01

    Jojoba wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive in Japan, and is obtained from jojoba oil with a characteristically high melting point. Although the constituents of jojoba oil have been reported, the quality of jojoba wax used as a food additive has not yet been clarified. In order to evaluate its quality as a food additive and to obtain basic information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in jojoba wax. LC/MS analysis of the jojoba wax showed six peaks with [M+H]+ ions in the range from m/z 533.6 to 673.7 at intervals of m/z 28. After isolation of the components of the four main peaks by preparative LC/MS, the fatty acid and long chain alcohol moieties of the wax esters were analyzed by methanolysis and hydrolysis, followed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main constituents in jojoba wax were various kinds of wax esters, namely eicosenyl octadecenoate (C20:1-C18:1) (1), eicosenyl eicosenoate (C20:1-C20:1) (II), docosenyl eicosenoate (C22:1-C20:1) (III), eicosenyl docosenoate (C20:1-C22:1) (IV) and tetracosenyl eiosenoate (C24:1-C20:1) (V). To confirm and quantify the wax esters in jojoba wax directly, LC/MS/MS analysis was performed. The product ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the wax esters were observed, and by using the product ions derived from the protonated molecular ions of wax esters the fatty acid moieties were identified by MRM analysis. The concentrations of the wax esters I, II and III, in jojoba wax were 5.5, 21.4 and 37.8%, respectively. In summary, we clarified the main constituents of jojoba wax and quantified the molecular species of the wax esters without hydrolysis by monitoring their product ions, using a LC/MS/MS system. PMID:16305174

  7. The International Histological Classification of Tumours*

    PubMed Central

    Sobin, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    This article reviews the development of the WHO project on the histological classification of tumours, which has included the establishment of several collaborating centres and has involved more than 300 pathologists in over 50 countries. The project has resulted in the publication, over the last 14 years, of 25 volumes in the first series of the International Histological Classification of Tumours (IHCT), each giving a classification of tumours specific to a certain site. The classifications are based primarily on the microscopic characteristics of the tumours and are concerned with morphologically identifiable cell types and histological patterns as seen by means of light microscopy and conventional staining techniques. The article also describes the relationship between IHCT and other classification and coding systems and assesses possible future developments that may result from new approaches to diagnosis. PMID:6978190

  8. Desmoplastic melanoma: an updated immunohistochemical analysis of 40 cases with a proposal for an additional panel of stains for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Jose A; Bonneau, Peter; Prieto, Victor; Sangueza, Martin; Mackinnon, Alexander; Suster, David; Bacchi, Carlos; Estrozi, Bruna; Kazakov, Dmitry; Kacerovska, Denisa; Falconieri, Giovanni; Suster, Saul

    2016-04-01

    Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is histologically characterized by a proliferation of spindle melanocytes dispersed in a collagenous stroma that can be mistaken for a variety of neoplasms. The purpose of this study was to analyze 40 cases of DM with a comprehensive panel of immunohistochemical markers (KBA.62, p16, Ezrin, WT-1, MITF-1, SOX-10, CD117, SOX-2, nestin, PNL2, p75, MART-1, gp100 and S100p) to obtain a more complete understanding of the potential use of these antibodies in the diagnosis of DM. We found that all cases of DM expressed p16, WT-1, SOX-10, nestin and S100p and 95% of cases expressed p75. There was variable expression with Ezrin, SOX-2, KBA.62, MART-1 and HMB-45. Most DMs did not express MITF-1, PNL2 and CD117. Conditions that may enter in the histologic differential diagnosis of DM, including dermal scars, fibromatosis and dermatofibromas were also studied. Nearly all control cases also stained positive for p16 but were negative for WT1, SOX10, nestin, p75 and S-100p, as well as for most of the other markers tested. We conclude that a panel of S-100p, WT1, SOX10, p75 and nestin may constitute the optimal panel with the most sensitive and specific combination of immunostain available for the diagnosis of DM. PMID:26661921

  9. Meta-analysis of high-latitude nitrogen-addition and warming studies imply ecological mechanisms overlooked by land models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bouskill, N. J.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.

    2014-08-18

    Accurate representation of ecosystem processes in land models is crucial for reducing predictive uncertainty in energy and greenhouse gas feedbacks with the atmosphere. Here we describe an observational and modeling meta-analysis approach to benchmark land models, and apply the method to the land model CLM4.5 with two versions of belowground biogeochemistry. We focused our analysis on the above and belowground high-latitude ecosystem responses to warming and nitrogen addition, and identified mechanisms absent, or poorly parameterized in CLM4.5. While the two model versions predicted similar trajectories for soil carbon stocks following both types of perturbation, other variables (e.g., belowground respiration) differedmore » from the observations in both magnitude and direction, indicating the underlying mechanisms are inadequate for representing high-latitude ecosystems. The observational synthesis attribute these differences to missing representations of microbial dynamics, characterization of above and belowground functional processes, and nutrient competition. We use the observational meta-analyses to discuss potential approaches to improving the current models (e.g., the inclusion of dynamic vegetation or different microbial functional guilds), however, we also raise a cautionary note on the selection of data sets and experiments to be included in a meta-analysis. For example, the concentrations of nitrogen applied in the synthesized field experiments (average =72 kg ha-1 yr-1) are many times higher than projected soil nitrogen concentrations (from nitrogen deposition and release during mineralization), which preclude a rigorous evaluation of the model responses to nitrogen perturbation. Overall, we demonstrate here that elucidating ecological mechanisms via meta-analysis can identify deficiencies in both ecosystem models and empirical experiments.« less

  10. Appendicitis in Dar es Salaam, histological pattern.

    PubMed

    Mbembati, N A; Lema, L E; Mwakyoma, H A; Ussiri, E V

    1996-03-01

    Histology of 378 appendicectomy specimens submitted to the Histopathology Department of Muhimbili Medical Centre from its surgical wards over a 10 year period (1985 to 1994) were reviewed. There were 185 cases (48.9 pc) of acute appendicitis, 101 cases (26.7 pc) of chronic appendicitis, 74 (19.6 pc) normal appendices and 13 cases (3.5 pc) schistosomal appendicitis. There were two cases of tuberculous appendicitis and two cases of mucocele of the appendix. Apart from the high frequency of chronic appendicitis the histological findings in this study compare well with findings reported from other studies. PMID:8653771

  11. Combined analysis of passive and active seismic measurements using additional geologic data for the determination of shallow subsurface structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstmann, Tobias; Brüstle, Andrea; Spies, Thomas; Schlittenhardt, Jörg; Schmidt, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    A detailed knowledge of subsurface structure is essential for geotechnical projects and local seismic hazard analyses. Passive seismic methods like microtremor measurements are widely used in geotechnical practice, but limitations and developments are still in focus of scientific discussion. The presentation outlines microtremor measurements in the context of microzonation in the scale of districts or small communities. H/V measurements are used to identify zones with similar underground properties. Subsequently a shear wave velocity (Vs) depth profile for each zone is determined by array measurements at selected sites. To reduce possible uncertainties in dispersion curve analyses of passive array measurements and ambiguities within the inversion process, we conducted an additional active seismic experiment and included available geological information. The presented work is realized in the framework of the research project MAGS2 ("Microseismic Activity of Geothermal Systems") and deals with the determination of seismic hazard analysis at sites near deep geothermal power plants in Germany. The measurements were conducted in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Bavarian molasses, where geothermal power plants are in operation. The results of the H/V- and array-measurements in the region of Landau (URG) are presented and compared to known geological-tectonic structures. The H/V measurements show several zones with similar H/V-curves which indicate homogenous underground properties. Additionally to the passive seismic measurements an active refraction experiment was performed and evaluated using the MASW method („Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves") to strengthen the determination of shear-wave-velocity depth profile. The dispersion curves for Rayleigh-waves of the active experiment support the Rayleigh-dispersion curves from passive measurements and therefore provide a valuable supplement. Furthermore, the Rayleigh-wave ellipticity was calculated to reduce

  12. Clinical, radiological, histological, and molecular characteristics of paediatric epithelioid glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Broniscer, Alberto; Tatevossian, Ruth G.; Sabin, Noah D.; Klimo, Paul; Dalton, James; Lee, Ryan; Gajjar, Amar; Ellison, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims A few case series in adults have described the characteristics of epithelioid glioblastoma (e-GB), one of the rarest variants of this cancer. We evaluated clinical, radiological, histological, and molecular characteristics in the largest series to date of paediatric e-GB. Methods Review of clinical characteristics and therapy, imaging studies, and histology was performed in patients younger than 22 years with e-GB seen at our institution over 15 years. Sequencing of hotspot mutations and FISH of relevant genes were undertaken. Results Median age at diagnosis of six patients was 7.6 years. Tumours originated in the cerebral cortex (n=2) or diencephalon (n=4). Three patients presented with acute, massive haemorrhage and three had leptomeningeal dissemination at diagnosis. Paediatric e-GB had the typical histological characteristics seen in adult tumours. Universal immunoreactivity for INI1 and lack of diverse protein expression were seen in all cases. One tumour had a chromosome 22q loss. Three tumours (50%) harboured a BRAF: p.V600E. One thalamic tumour had an H3F3A p.K27M. All patients received radiation therapy with (n=3) or without chemotherapy (n=3). All patients experienced tumour progression with a median survival of 169 days. One patient with non-metastatic disease had early leptomeningeal progression. Two patients had symptomatic tumour spread outside the central nervous system (CNS) through a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. One additional patient had widespread metastases outside the CNS identified at autopsy. Conclusions Paediatric e-GBs are rare cancers with an aggressive behaviour that share histological and genetic characteristics with their adult counterparts. BRAF inhibition is a potential treatment for these tumours. PMID:24127995

  13. Phlebotomy improves histology in chronic hepatitis C males with mild iron overload

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Massimo; Andorno, Silvano; Rossini, Angelo; Boldorini, Renzo; Bozzola, Cristina; Carmagnola, Stefania; Piano, Mario Del; Albano, Emanuele

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of mild iron depletion and the factors predictive for histological improvement following phlebotomy in Caucasians with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). METHODS: We investigated 28 CHC Caucasians with persistently elevated serum aminotransferase levels and non responders to, or unsuitable for, antiviral therapy who underwent mild iron depletion (ferritin ≤ 70 ng/mL) by long-term phlebotomy. Histological improvement, as defined by at least one point reduction in the staging score or, in case of unchanged stage, as at least two points reduction in the grading score (Knodell), was evaluated in two subsequent liver biopsies (before and at the end of phlebotomy, 48 ± 16 mo apart). RESULTS: Phlebotomy showed an excellent safety profile. Histological improvement occurred in 12/28 phlebotomized patients. Only males responded to phlebotomy. At univariate logistic analysis alcohol intake (P = 0.034), high histological grading (P = 0.01) and high hepatic iron concentration (HIC) (P = 0.04) before treatment were associated with histological improvement. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that in males high HIC was the only predictor of histological improvement following phlebotomy (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.94, P = 0.031). Accordingly, 12 out of 17 (70%) patients with HIC ≥ 20 μmol/g showed histological improvements at the second biopsy. CONCLUSION: Male CHC Caucasian non-responders to antiviral therapy with low-grade iron overload can benefit from mild iron depletion by long-term phlebotomy. PMID:20128028

  14. Additive Synergism between Asbestos and Smoking in Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ngamwong, Yuwadee; Tangamornsuksan, Wimonchat; Lohitnavy, Ornrat; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Scholfield, C. Norman; Reisfeld, Brad; Lohitnavy, Manupat

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and asbestos exposure are important risks for lung cancer. Several epidemiological studies have linked asbestos exposure and smoking to lung cancer. To reconcile and unify these results, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a quantitative estimate of the increased risk of lung cancer associated with asbestos exposure and cigarette smoking and to classify their interaction. Five electronic databases were searched from inception to May, 2015 for observational studies on lung cancer. All case-control (N = 10) and cohort (N = 7) studies were included in the analysis. We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs), relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model for the association of asbestos exposure and smoking with lung cancer. Lung cancer patients who were not exposed to asbestos and non-smoking (A-S-) were compared with; (i) asbestos-exposed and non-smoking (A+S-), (ii) non-exposure to asbestos and smoking (A-S+), and (iii) asbestos-exposed and smoking (A+S+). Our meta-analysis showed a significant difference in risk of developing lung cancer among asbestos exposed and/or smoking workers compared to controls (A-S-), odds ratios for the disease (95% CI) were (i) 1.70 (A+S-, 1.31–2.21), (ii) 5.65; (A-S+, 3.38–9.42), (iii) 8.70 (A+S+, 5.8–13.10). The additive interaction index of synergy was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.26–1.77) and the multiplicative index = 0.91 (95% CI = 0.63–1.30). Corresponding values for cohort studies were 1.11 (95% CI = 1.00–1.28) and 0.51 (95% CI = 0.31–0.85). Our results point to an additive synergism for lung cancer with co-exposure of asbestos and cigarette smoking. Assessments of industrial health risks should take smoking and other airborne health risks when setting occupational asbestos exposure limits. PMID:26274395

  15. Histological variability in fossil and recent alligatoroid osteoderms: systematic and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Burns, Michael E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Currie, Philip J

    2013-06-01

    Statements about morphological variation in extinct taxa often suffer from insufficient sampling that can be remedied by taking advantage of larger sample sizes provided by related, extant taxa. This analysis quantitatively and qualitatively examines histological and morphological variation of osteoderms from extant and extinct alligatoroid specimens. Statistically significant differences were correlated with changes in osteoderm size and shape. These differences are independent of position on the body, taxonomy, or evolution. Histological variation in alligatoroid osteoderms is due to morphological constraints on the elements themselves, and not taxonomic differences. This has implications for the recognition of histological characters in the osteoderms of extinct archosaur groups that lack extant representatives. PMID:23381912

  16. Histology. Notes for Students of Animal Husbandry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Charles J.; Reed, Josephine E.

    This document approaches the subject of Histology by way of simple independent unicellular organisms through the lower levels of cell organization and specialization to a detailed study of the highly complex tissues of vertebrate animals. Emphasis is placed on structure, but function is explained in some detail. The relationships between tissues…

  17. Histological/biological characterization of decellularized bovine jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Li, Wu; Liu, Wei-Yong; Yi, Ding-Hua; Yu, Shi-Qiang; Jin, Zhen-Xiao

    2007-04-01

    Several deficiencies in currently available right ventricular valved conduits make them problematic for use in infants and children. A solution would be to develop a tissue-engineered valved conduit containing autologous cells. A method was devised to produce a decellularized bovine matrix scaffold for developing a tissue-engineered right ventricular valved conduit. Fresh bovine jugular veins were treated with sodium deoxycholate and Triton X-100. The major structural proteins of the fresh and decellularized jugular venous valves and vessel walls were detected by histological methods. Thickness, water absorption rate, water maintenance rate, disruption strength, and extensibility were determined. Circumferential and radial specimens of valves and vessel walls were subjected to tensile testing. Histological analysis showed that no cell fragments were retained within the decellularized matrix scaffold and the major structural proteins had been retained intact. There were no significant differences in thickness, rates of absorption and maintenance of water, disruption strength, and extensibility between the decellularized and fresh veins. It was concluded that this treatment can successfully remove cellular components while maintaining the major structural components and the histological and biological properties of bovine jugular veins. PMID:17387188

  18. Meniscal allograft sterilisation: effect on biomechanical and histological properties.

    PubMed

    Bui, David; Lovric, Vedran; Oliver, Rema; Bertollo, Nicky; Broe, David; Walsh, William R

    2015-09-01

    Sterilisation of allografts are a crucial step in ensuring safety and viability. Current sterilisation standards such as 25 kGy gamma irradiation (γ) can have adverse effects on the ultrastructure and biomechanical properties of allograft tissue. Supercritical CO2 (SCCO2) technology, represents an improved sterilisation process that potentially preserves tissue properties. This study aimed to test the effect of SCCO2 sterilisation on the biomechanical and histological properties of the meniscus and compare this to the current standard of γ. Thirty-two 18-month old ovine menisci were randomly assigned into three groups for sterilisation (SCCO2, γ and control). After treatment, biomechanical indentation testing (stiffness and stress relaxation) or histological analysis [percentage of void, cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) per slide] was undertaken. Both SCCO2 and gamma groups displayed an increase in stiffness and stress relaxation as compared to control, however, this difference was lesser in samples treated with SCCO2. No significant histological quantitative differences were detected between SCCO2 and control specimens. Gamma-treated samples demonstrated a significant increase in void and decrease in ECM. Interestingly, both treatment groups demonstrated a decreasing mean void and increasing ECM percentage when analysed from outer to inner zones. No significant differences were detected in all-endpoints when analysed by section. SCCO2 sterilisation represents a potential feasible alternative to existing sterilization techniques such as γ. PMID:25589449

  19. Effects of a homeopathic complex in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) on performance, sexual proportion and histology.

    PubMed

    Valentim-Zabott, M; Vargas, L; Ribeiro, R P R; Piau, R; Torres, M B A; Rönnau, M; Souza, J C

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the homeopathic complex Homeopatila RS (REAL Homeopathy, Brazil), in the performance, sexual proportion and gills and liver histology of the Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus L.). 4,800 post-larvae were treated for 45 days, in 12 tanks (500 L), in a closed environment, with density of 400 larvae per tank. Three treatments were given: alcohol 30%, negative control (C); hormonal, positive control, 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (H); homeopathic, Homeopatila RS, in ethanol (HH), with four replications. Mean values for length, weight, liver somatic index, condition factor, survival rate, average values of histological alterations and sexual proportion were determined. Analysis revealed significant differences (p<0.05) in growth, survival rate, liver somatic index and average values of hepatic histological alterations between treatments. It was concluded that the addition of Homeopatila RS to the diet of Nile tilapias, during the phase of gonadal differentiation, did not induce any alteration in the sexual proportion. Homeopathically treated fish were significantly smaller, but had significantly greater survival than the other two groups, there was no significant difference in final total biomass. The homeopathically treated fish had a lower liver/somatic index with less hepatic lipid inclusions than the other groups. PMID:19371567

  20. Histology and Long-term Stability of Diced Cartilage Graft for Revision Rhinoplasty in a Cleft Patient

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Susie I.; Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting; Chen, Jyh-Ping; Ueng, Shir-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Diced cartilage graft wrapped in Surgicel or fascia has been widely reported in the literature. Pure diced cartilage graft without the use of a “sleeve,” on the contrary, is not as commonly reported. This could be due to concerns of graft dispersion, palpability, or visibility. In this case report, histologic findings of a pure diced cartilage graft placed 4½ years ago are reported. In addition, advantages and disadvantages of this technique are discussed in detail. Two pieces of the diced cartilage graft placed 4½ years prior were excised and sent for histologic analysis during a revision procedure. The microscopic examination reveals several small blocks of mature hyaline cartilage embedded in dense fibrous connective tissue with widely scattered small vascular channels. The cartilage is vital with scattered chondrocytes within their lacunae. Histology of the diced cartilage graft demonstrated viability and stability of the graft 4½ years after insertion. This case report also suggests that pure diced cartilage graft can provide reliable volume augmentation of nasal dorsum in cleft rhinoplasty. PMID:27482502

  1. Genome-wide meta-analysis of maize heterosis reveals the potential role of additive gene expression at pericentromeric loci

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The identification of QTL involved in heterosis formation is one approach to unravel the not yet fully understood genetic basis of heterosis - the improved agronomic performance of hybrid F1 plants compared to their inbred parents. The identification of candidate genes underlying a QTL is important both for developing markers and determining the molecular genetic basis of a trait, but remains difficult owing to the large number of genes often contained within individual QTL. To address this problem in heterosis analysis, we applied a meta-analysis strategy for grain yield (GY) of Zea mays L. as example, incorporating QTL-, hybrid field-, and parental gene expression data. Results For the identification of genes underlying known heterotic QTL, we made use of tight associations between gene expression pattern and the trait of interest, identified by correlation analyses. Using this approach genes strongly associated with heterosis for GY were discovered to be clustered in pericentromeric regions of the complex maize genome. This suggests that expression differences of sequences in recombination-suppressed regions are important in the establishment of heterosis for GY in F1 hybrids and also in the conservation of heterosis for GY across genotypes. Importantly functional analysis of heterosis-associated genes from these genomic regions revealed over-representation of a number of functional classes, identifying key processes contributing to heterosis for GY. Based on the finding that the majority of the analyzed heterosis-associated genes were addtitively expressed, we propose a model referring to the influence of cis-regulatory variation on heterosis for GY by the compensation of fixed detrimental expression levels in parents. Conclusions The study highlights the utility of a meta-analysis approach that integrates phenotypic and multi-level molecular data to unravel complex traits in plants. It provides prospects for the identification of genes relevant for

  2. Lifetime effectiveness of mifamurtide addition to chemotherapy in nonmetastatic and metastatic osteosarcoma: a Markov process model analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Jun Ah; Han, Euna; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2015-09-01

    The mortality and progression rates in osteosarcoma differ depending on the presence of metastasis. A decision model would be useful for estimating long-term effectiveness of treatment with limited clinical trial data. The aim of this study was to explore the lifetime effectiveness of the addition of mifamurtide to chemotherapy for patients with metastatic and nonmetastatic osteosarcoma. The target population was osteosarcoma patients with or without metastasis. A Markov process model was used, whose time horizon was lifetime with a starting age of 13 years. There were five health states: disease-free (DF), recurrence, post-recurrence disease-free, post-recurrence disease-progression, and death. Transition probabilities of the starting state, DF, were calculated from the INT-0133 clinical trials for chemotherapy with and without mifamurtide. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) increased upon addition of mifamurtide to chemotherapy by 10.5 % (10.13 and 9.17 QALY with and without mifamurtide, respectively) and 45.2 % (7.23 and 4.98 QALY with and without mifamurtide, respectively) relative to the lifetime effectiveness of chemotherapy in nonmetastatic and metastatic osteosarcoma, respectively. Life-years gained (LYG) increased by 10.1 % (13.10 LYG with mifamurtide and 11.90 LYG without mifamurtide) in nonmetastatic patients and 42.2 % (9.43 LYG with mifamurtide and 6.63 LYG without mifamurtide) in metastatic osteosarcoma patients. The Markov model analysis showed that chemotherapy with mifamurtide improved the lifetime effectiveness compared to chemotherapy alone in both nonmetastatic and metastatic osteosarcoma. Relative effectiveness of the therapy was higher in metastatic than nonmetastatic osteosarcoma over lifetime. However, absolute lifetime effectiveness was higher in nonmetastatic than metastatic osteosarcoma. PMID:25835978

  3. How to interpret a small increase in AUC with an additional risk prediction marker: Decision analysis comes through

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Stuart G.; Schuit, Ewoud; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Pencina, Michael J.; Vickers, Andew; Moons, Karel G. M.; Mol, Ben W.J.; Lindeman, Karen S.

    2014-01-01

    An important question in the evaluation of an additional risk prediction marker is how to interpret a small increase in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Many researchers believe that a change in AUC is a poor metric because it increases only slightly with the addition of a marker with a large odds ratio. Because it is not possible on purely statistical grounds to choose between the odds ratio and AUC, we invoke decision analysis, which incorporates costs and benefits. For example a timely estimate of the risk of later non-elective operative delivery can help a woman in labor decide if she wants an early elective cesarean section to avoid greater complications from possible later non-elective operative delivery. A basic risk prediction model for later non-elective operative delivery involves only antepartum markers. Because adding intrapartum markers to this risk prediction model increases AUC by 0.02, we questioned whether this small improvement is worthwhile. A key decision-analytic quantity is the risk threshold, here the risk of later non-elective operative delivery at which a patient would be indifferent between an early elective cesarean section and usual care. For a range of risk thresholds, we found that an increase in the net benefit of risk prediction requires collecting intrapartum marker data on 68 to 124 women for every correct prediction of later non-elective operative delivery. Because data collection is non-invasive, this test tradeoff of 68 to 124 is clinically acceptable, indicating the value of adding intrapartum markers to the risk prediction model. PMID:24825728

  4. Addition of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist for luteal phase support in in-vitro fertilization: an analysis of 2739 cycles

    PubMed Central

    Şimşek, Erhan; Kılıçdağ, Esra Bulgan; Aytaç, Pınar Çağlar; Çoban, Gonca; Şimşek, Seda Yüksel; Çok, Tayfun; Haydardedeoğlu, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    Objective Luteal phase is defective in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, and many regimens were tried for the very best luteal phase support (LPS). Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist use, which was administered as an adjunct to the luteal phase support in IVF cycles, was suggested to improve pregnancy outcome measures in certain randomized studies. We analyzed the effects of addition of GnRH agonist to standard progesterone luteal support on pregnancy outcome measures, particularly the live birth rates. Material and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study, including 2739 IVF cycles. Long GnRH agonist and antagonist stimulation IVF cycles with cleavage-stage embryo transfer were included. Cycles were divided into two groups: Group A included cycles with single-dose GnRH agonist plus progesterone LPS and Group B included progesterone only LPS. Live birth rates were the primary outcome measures of the analysis. Miscarriage rates and multiple pregnancy rates were the secondary outcome measures. Results Live birth rates were not statistically different in GnRH agonist plus progesterone (Group A) and progesterone only (Group B) groups in both the long agonist and antagonist stimulation arms (40.8%/41.2% and 32.8%/34.4%, p<0.05 respectively). Moreover, pregnancy rates, implantation rates, and miscarriage rates were found to be similar between groups. Multiple pregnancy rates in antagonist cycles were significantly higher in Group A than those in Group B (12.0% and 6.9%, respectively). Conclusion A beneficial effect of a single dose of GnRH agonist administration as a luteal phase supporting agent is yet to be determined because of the wide heterogeneity of data present in literature. Well-designed randomized clinical studies are required to clarify any effect of luteal GnRH agonist addition on pregnancy outcome measures with different doses, timing, and administration routes of GnRH agonists. PMID:26097392

  5. Effective dose of dental CBCT—a meta analysis of published data and additional data for nine CBCT units

    PubMed Central

    Timothy, R; Walker, C; Hunter, R; Benavides, E; Samuelson, D B; Scheske, M J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This article analyses dose measurement and effective dose estimation of dental CBCT examinations. Challenges to accurate calculation of dose are discussed and the use of dose–height product (DHP) as an alternative to dose–area product (DAP) is explored. Methods: The English literature on effective dose was reviewed. Data from these studies together with additional data for nine CBCT units were analysed. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and paired analysis are used to characterize the data. Results: PubMed and EMBASE searches yielded 519 and 743 publications, respectively, which were reduced to 20 following review. Reported adult effective doses for any protocol ranged from 46 to 1073 µSv for large fields of view (FOVs), 9–560 µSv for medium FOVs and 5–652 µSv for small FOVs. Child effective doses from any protocol ranged from 13 to 769 µSv for large or medium FOVs and 7–521 µSv for small FOVs. Effective doses from standard or default exposure protocols were available for 167 adult and 52 child exposures. Mean adult effective doses grouped by FOV size were 212 µSv (large), 177 µSv (medium) and 84 µSv (small). Mean child doses were 175 µSv (combined large and medium) and 103 µSv (small). Large differences were seen between different CBCT units. Additional low-dose and high-definition protocols available for many units extend the range of doses. DHP was found to reduce average absolute error for calculation of dose by 45% in comparison with DAP. Conclusions: Large exposure ranges make CBCT doses difficult to generalize. Use of DHP as a metric for estimating effective dose warrants further investigation. PMID:25224586

  6. Understanding Child Stunting in India: A Comprehensive Analysis of Socio-Economic, Nutritional and Environmental Determinants Using Additive Quantile Regression

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, Nora; Burns, Jacob; Hothorn, Torsten; Rehfuess, Eva A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most attempts to address undernutrition, responsible for one third of global child deaths, have fallen behind expectations. This suggests that the assumptions underlying current modelling and intervention practices should be revisited. Objective We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of child stunting in India, and explored whether the established focus on linear effects of single risks is appropriate. Design Using cross-sectional data for children aged 0–24 months from the Indian National Family Health Survey for 2005/2006, we populated an evidence-based diagram of immediate, intermediate and underlying determinants of stunting. We modelled linear, non-linear, spatial and age-varying effects of these determinants using additive quantile regression for four quantiles of the Z-score of standardized height-for-age and logistic regression for stunting and severe stunting. Results At least one variable within each of eleven groups of determinants was significantly associated with height-for-age in the 35% Z-score quantile regression. The non-modifiable risk factors child age and sex, and the protective factors household wealth, maternal education and BMI showed the largest effects. Being a twin or multiple birth was associated with dramatically decreased height-for-age. Maternal age, maternal BMI, birth order and number of antenatal visits influenced child stunting in non-linear ways. Findings across the four quantile and two logistic regression models were largely comparable. Conclusions Our analysis confirms the multifactorial nature of child stunting. It emphasizes the need to pursue a systems-based approach and to consider non-linear effects, and suggests that differential effects across the height-for-age distribution do not play a major role. PMID:24223839

  7. A pathway-based analysis provides additional support for an immune-related genetic susceptibility to Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Holmans, Peter; Moskvina, Valentina; Jones, Lesley; Sharma, Manu; Vedernikov, Alexey; Buchel, Finja; Sadd, Mohamad; Bras, Jose M.; Bettella, Francesco; Nicolaou, Nayia; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Mittag, Florian; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Schulte, Claudia; Durr, Alexandra; Guerreiro, Rita; Hernandez, Dena; Brice, Alexis; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Majamaa, Kari; Gasser, Thomas; Heutink, Peter; Wood, Nicholas W.; Martinez, Maria; Singleton, Andrew B.; Nalls, Michael A.; Hardy, John; Morris, Huw R.; Williams, Nigel M.; Arepalli, Sampath; Barker, Roger; Barrett, Jeffrey; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Berendse, Henk W.; Berg, Daniela; Bhatia, Kailash; de Bie, Rob M.A.; Biffi, Alessandro; Bloem, Bas; Brice, Alexis; Bochdanovits, Zoltan; Bonin, Michael; Bras, Jose M.; Brockmann, Kathrin; Brooks, Janet; Burn, David J.; Charlesworth, Gavin; Chen, Honglei; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Chong, Sean; Clarke, Carl E.; Cookson, Mark R.; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Corvol, Jen-Christophe; Counsell, Carl; Damier, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean Francois; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Deuschl, Günther; Dexter, David T.; van Dijk, Karin D.; Dillman, Allissa; Durif, Frank; Durr, Alexandra; Edkins, Sarah; Evans, Jonathan R.; Foltynie, Thomas; Gao, Jianjun; Gardner, Michelle; Gasser, Thomas; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Goate, Alison; Gray, Emma; Guerreiro, Rita; Gústafsson, Ómar; Hardy, John; Harris, Clare; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heutink, Peter; van Hilten, Jacobus J.; Hofman, Albert; Hollenbeck, Albert; Holmans, Peter; Holton, Janice; Hu, Michele; Huber, Heiko; Hudson, Gavin; Hunt, Sarah E.; Huttenlocher, Johanna; Illig, Thomas; Langford, Cordelia; Lees, Andrew; Lesage, Suzanne; Lichtner, Peter; Limousin, Patricia; Lopez, Grisel; Lorenz, Delia; Martinez, Maria; McNeill, Alisdair; Moorby, Catriona; Moore, Matthew; Morris, Huw; Morrison, Karen E.; Moskvina, Valentina; Mudanohwo, Ese; Nalls, Michael A.; Pearson, Justin; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Pétursson, Hjörvar; Plagnol, Vincent; Pollak, Pierre; Post, Bart; Potter, Simon; Ravina, Bernard; Revesz, Tamas; Riess, Olaf; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rizzu, Patrizia; Ryten, Mina; Saad, Mohamad; Sawcer, Stephen; Schapira, Anthony; Scheffer, Hans; Sharma, Manu; Shaw, Karen; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Shoulson, Ira; Schulte, Claudia; Sidransky, Ellen; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Singleton, Andrew B.; Smith, Colin; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Stefánsson, Kári; Steinberg, Stacy; Stockton, Joanna D.; Sveinbjornsdottir, Sigurlaug; Talbot, Kevin; Tanner, Carlie M.; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Tison, François; Trabzuni, Daniah; Traynor, Bryan J.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Velseboer, Daan; Vidailhet, Marie; Walker, Robert; van de Warrenburg, Bart; Wickremaratchi, Mirdhu; Williams, Nigel; Williams-Gray, Caroline H.; Winder-Rhodes, Sophie; Wood, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease affecting 1–2% in people >60 and 3–4% in people >80. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have now implicated significant evidence for association in at least 18 genomic regions. We have studied a large PD-meta analysis and identified a significant excess of SNPs (P < 1 × 10−16) that are associated with PD but fall short of the genome-wide significance threshold. This result was independent of variants at the 18 previously implicated regions and implies the presence of additional polygenic risk alleles. To understand how these loci increase risk of PD, we applied a pathway-based analysis, testing for biological functions that were significantly enriched for genes containing variants associated with PD. Analysing two independent GWA studies, we identified that both had a significant excess in the number of functional categories enriched for PD-associated genes (minimum P = 0.014 and P = 0.006, respectively). Moreover, 58 categories were significantly enriched for associated genes in both GWA studies (P < 0.001), implicating genes involved in the ‘regulation of leucocyte/lymphocyte activity’ and also ‘cytokine-mediated signalling’ as conferring an increased susceptibility to PD. These results were unaltered by the exclusion of all 178 genes that were present at the 18 genomic regions previously reported to be strongly associated with PD (including the HLA locus). Our findings, therefore, provide independent support to the strong association signal at the HLA locus and imply that the immune-related genetic susceptibility to PD is likely to be more widespread in the genome than previously appreciated. PMID:23223016

  8. Fat tissue histological study at NIR laser treatment of the skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, Irina Y.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Matveeva, Olga V.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.

    2011-07-01

    Histological slices of skin samples with the subcutaneous adipose tissue after laser irradiation at different doses are analyzed. These data may be used at carrying out of the analysis of histological slices of skin samples with the subcutaneous adipose tissue after photodynamic therapy. The obtained data are important for safe layer-by-layer dosimetry of laser irradiation used in the treatment of obesity and cellulite.

  9. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  10. Using Molecular Phenotyping to Guide Improvements in the Histologic Diagnosis of T Cell-Mediated Rejection.

    PubMed

    Reeve, J; Chang, J; Salazar, I D R; Lopez, M Merino; Halloran, P F

    2016-04-01

    Recognition that some lesions typical of T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) also occur in antibody-mediated rejection requires revision of the histologic TCMR definition. To guide this process, we assessed the relative importance of various lesions and the performance of new histology diagnostic algorithms, using molecular TCMR scores as histology-independent estimates of true TCMR. In 703 indication biopsies, random forest analysis and logistic regression indicated that interstitial infiltrate (i-lesions) and tubulitis (t-lesions) were the key histologic predictors of molecular TCMR, with arteritis (v-lesions) having less importance. Histology predicted molecular TCMR more accurately when diagnoses were assigned by strictly applying the Banff rules to the lesion scores and redefining isolated v-lesion TCMR. This improved prediction from area under the curve (AUC) 0.70 with existing rules to AUC 0.80. Further improvements were achieved by introducing more categories to reflect inflammation (AUC 0.84), by summing the lesion scores (AUC 0.85) and by logistic regression (AUC 0.90). We concluded that histologic assessment of TCMR can be improved by placing more emphasis on i- and t-lesions and incorporating new algorithms for diagnosis. Nevertheless, some discrepancies between histologic and molecular diagnoses persist, partially due to the inherent nonspecificity of i- and t-lesions, and molecular methods will be required to help resolve these cases. PMID:26730747

  11. Histologic Evaluation of Human Alveolar Sockets Treated With an Artificial Bone Substitute Material

    PubMed Central

    Wakimoto, Mari; Ueno, Takaaki; Hirata, Azumi; Iida, Seiji; Aghaloo, Tara; Moy, Peter K.

    2012-01-01

    This study involved a histologic, enzyme histologic, immunohistologic, and three-dimensional microstructure evaluating the extent of osteogenesis and repair in the human alveolar extraction socket achievable with an artificial bone substitute. After tooth extraction in 7 patients, extraction sockets were filled with Mastergraft (15% hydroxyapatite, 85% β-tricalcium phosphate complex). Radio-micrographs and histologic examinations were performed on samples obtained during dental implant placement procedure. On micro– computed tomography, new bone was observed in all collected samples, and osteogenesis was observed to have taken place around the artificial bone substitute. Histologically, active osteogenesis was found throughout the region observed. Addition of new bone around the Mastergraft was observed, and osteoblast-like cells were present. Cells that had partially invaded the artificial bone included tartrate-resistant acid phosphate–positive and CD34-positive cells. These findings indicate that the Mastergraft artificial bone induced osteogenesis in the jawbone and seemed effective for repairing bone defects. PMID:21415629

  12. An Alkaline Protease from Bacillus pumilus MP 27: Functional Analysis of Its Binding Model toward Its Applications As Detergent Additive

    PubMed Central

    Baweja, Mehak; Tiwari, Rameshwar; Singh, Puneet K.; Nain, Lata; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    A proteolytic strain of Bacillus pumilus MP 27 was isolated from water samples of Southern ocean produced alkaline protease. Since protease production need expensive ingredients, an economically viable process was developed by using low cost carbon source, wheat straw, supplemented with peptone. This protease was active within temperature ranges 10–70°C at pH 9. This process was optimized by response surface methodology using a Box Bekhman design by Design Expert 7.0 software that increased the protease activity to 776.5 U/ml. Moreover, the enzyme was extremely stable at a broad range of temperature and pH retaining 69% of its activity at 50°C and 70% at pH 11. The enzyme exhibited excellent compatibility with surfactants and commercial detergents, showing 87% stability with triton X-100 and 100% stability with Tide commercial detergent. The results of the wash performance analysis demonstrated considerably good de-staining at 50 and 4°C with low supplementation (109 U/ml). Molecular modeling of the protease revealed the presence of serine proteases, subtilase family and serine active site and further docking supported the association of catalytic site with the various substrates. Certainly, such protease can be considered as a good detergent additive in detergent industry with a possibility to remove the stains effectively even in a cold wash. PMID:27536284

  13. An Alkaline Protease from Bacillus pumilus MP 27: Functional Analysis of Its Binding Model toward Its Applications As Detergent Additive.

    PubMed

    Baweja, Mehak; Tiwari, Rameshwar; Singh, Puneet K; Nain, Lata; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    A proteolytic strain of Bacillus pumilus MP 27 was isolated from water samples of Southern ocean produced alkaline protease. Since protease production need expensive ingredients, an economically viable process was developed by using low cost carbon source, wheat straw, supplemented with peptone. This protease was active within temperature ranges 10-70°C at pH 9. This process was optimized by response surface methodology using a Box Bekhman design by Design Expert 7.0 software that increased the protease activity to 776.5 U/ml. Moreover, the enzyme was extremely stable at a broad range of temperature and pH retaining 69% of its activity at 50°C and 70% at pH 11. The enzyme exhibited excellent compatibility with surfactants and commercial detergents, showing 87% stability with triton X-100 and 100% stability with Tide commercial detergent. The results of the wash performance analysis demonstrated considerably good de-staining at 50 and 4°C with low supplementation (109 U/ml). Molecular modeling of the protease revealed the presence of serine proteases, subtilase family and serine active site and further docking supported the association of catalytic site with the various substrates. Certainly, such protease can be considered as a good detergent additive in detergent industry with a possibility to remove the stains effectively even in a cold wash. PMID:27536284

  14. Histological changes of kidney in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Pourghasem, Mohsen; Shafi, Hamid; Babazadeh, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of chronic renal disorders and end-stage kidney disease in developed countries. It is the major cause of dialysis and transplantation. Failure in renal function causes wide disorders in the body. Diabetes results in wide range of alterations in the renal tissue. It is believed that early histological changes in diabetic nephropathy are detectable 2 years after diabetes is diagnosed. The glomerular alterations are the most important lesions in the diabetic nephropathy (DN). The Renal Pathology Society provides a new pathological classification for the detection of histopathology of DN. It divides diabetic nephropathy into four hierarchical glomerular lesions. Alloxan or streptozotocin induced diabetic rat is the one most widely used specie to study DN. Histological changes in the rat DN closely resemble the human disease and the most information of this review was obtained through the study of rat DN. All cell types of the kidney such as mesangial cells, podocytes and tubulointerstitial cells are liable to be affected in the event of DN. Severity of renal lesions is associated to the clinical aspect of renal outcome, but the aim of this article was only to review the histological changes of kidney in diabetes mellitus. PMID:26644877

  15. Addition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors to sulphonylureas and risk of hypoglycaemia: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Nicholas; Arnaud, Mickael; Robinson, Philip; Raschi, Emanuel; De Ponti, Fabrizio; Bégaud, Bernard; Pariente, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the risk of hypoglycaemia associated with the concomitant use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and sulphonylureas compared with placebo and sulphonylureas. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, ISI Web of Science, SCOPUS, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and clinicaltrial.gov were searched without any language restriction. Study selection Placebo controlled randomised trials comprising at least 50 participants with type 2 diabetes treated with DPP-4 inhibitors and sulphonylureas. Review methods Risk of bias in each trial was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. The risk ratio of hypoglycaemia with 95% confidence intervals was computed for each study and then pooled using fixed effect models (Mantel Haenszel method) or random effect models, when appropriate. Subgroup analyses were also performed (eg, dose of DPP-4 inhibitors). The number needed to harm (NNH) was estimated according to treatment duration. Results 10 studies were included, representing a total of 6546 participants (4020 received DPP-4 inhibitors plus sulphonylureas, 2526 placebo plus sulphonylureas). The risk ratio of hypoglycaemia was 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.29 to 1.80). The NNH was 17 (95% confidence interval 11 to 30) for a treatment duration of six months or less, 15 (9 to 26) for 6.1 to 12 months, and 8 (5 to 15) for more than one year. In subgroup analysis, no difference was found between full and low doses of DPP-4 inhibitors: the risk ratio related to full dose DPP-4 inhibitors was 1.66 (1.34 to 2.06), whereas the increased risk ratio related to low dose DPP-4 inhibitors did not reach statistical significance (1.33, 0.92 to 1.94). Conclusions Addition of DPP-4 inhibitors to sulphonylurea to treat people with type 2 diabetes is associated with a 50% increased risk of hypoglycaemia and to one excess case of hypoglycaemia for every 17 patients in the first six months of treatment. This

  16. Ionic liquids as mobile phase additives for the high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in water samples.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2008-12-01

    In this work, four ionic liquids differing in the length of the alkyl chain on the imidazolium cation and one ionic liquid containing tetraethylammonium, all with the same counterion, (i.e. 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIm-BF(4)), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIm-BF(4)), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (HMIm-BF(4)), 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (MOIm-BF(4)), and tetraethylammonium tetrafluroborate (Et(4)N-BF(4))) were tested as mobile phase additives for HPLC separation of a group of seven basic fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics for human and veterinary use (i.e. fleroxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, and difloxacin) using a conventional reversed-phase Nova-Pak C(18) column. Fluorescence detection was used. Among the ionic liquids selected, use of BMIm-BF(4) enabled effective separation of these compounds with relatively low analysis time (14 min). The best separation was achieved by isocratic elution at 1 mL min(-1) with 5 mmol L(-1) BMIm-BF(4) and 10 mmol L(-1) ammonium acetate at pH 3.0 with 13% (v/v) acetonitrile. Limits of detection (LODs) for fluorescence detection were in the range 0.5-11 microg L(-1). The method was tested by analyzing several water samples after the optimization of a suitable solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using Oasis HLB cartridges. Mean recovery values were above 84% for all analytes with LODs in the range 1-29 ng L(-1). PMID:18854988

  17. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  18. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  19. Study of the skin anatomy with high-frequency (22 MHz) ultrasonography and histological correlation*

    PubMed Central

    Barcaui, Elisa de Oliveira; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; Piñeiro-Maceira, Juan; Barcaui, Carlos Baptista; Moraes, Heleno

    2015-01-01

    The present essay is aimed at getting the radiologist familiar with the basic histological skin structure, allowing for a better correlation with sonographic findings. A high-frequency (22 MHz) ultrasonography apparatus was utilized in the present study. The histological analysis was performed after the skin specimens fixation with formalin, inclusion in paraffin blocks and subsequent staining with hematoxylin-eosin. The authors present a literature review showing the relationship between sonographic and histological findings in normal cutaneous tissue, and discuss the technique for a better performance of the sonographic scan. High-frequency ultrasonography is an excellent tool for the diagnosis of different skin conditions. However, as this method is operator-dependent, it is crucial to understand the normal skin structure as well as the correlation between histological and sonographic findings. PMID:26543285

  20. Analysis on Soil Seed Bank Diversity Characteristics and Its Relation with Soil Physical and Chemical Properties after Substrate Addition

    PubMed Central

    He, Mengxuan; Lv, Lingyue; Li, Hongyuan; Meng, Weiqing; Zhao, Na

    2016-01-01

    Aims Considered as an essential measure in the application of soil seed bank (SSB) projects, the mixing of substrate and surface soil can effectively improve soil condition. This research is aimed at exploring the diversity characteristics of SSBs and the relationships between SSBs and soil properties. Methods Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was adopted to describe the ordination of SSBs on soil properties’ gradients; multiple linear regressions were adopted to analyze the relationship between average growth height and soil properties, density and soil properties. Results Experimental groups of mixed substrate (the mixture of organic and inorganic substrates) had high diversity indexes, especially the Shannon-Wiener Index compared with those of single substrate. Meanwhile, a higher number of species and increased density were also noted in those of mixed substrate. The best test group, No.16, had the highest diversity indexes with a Shannon-Wiener of 1.898, Simpson of 0.633 and Pielou of 0.717, and also showed the highest density of 14000 germinants /m2 and 21 species. In addition, an improvement of the soil’s chemical and physical properties was noted when the substrates were mixed. The mixed substrate of turfy soil and perlite could effectively enhance the soil moisture content, whilst a mixed substrate of rice husk carbon and vermiculite could improve the content of available potassium (AK) and phosphorus (AP) and strengthen soil fertility. The germinated plants also reflected obvious regularities of ordination on soil factor gradients. Three distinct cluster groups were presented, of which the first cluster was distributed in an area with a relatively higher content of AK and AP; the second cluster was distributed at places with relatively higher soil moisture content; and the third cluster of plants didn’t show any obvious relationship with soil physical and chemical properties. Through CCA analysis, AK and AP were considered the most important

  1. Method for discriminating synchronous multiple lung cancers of the same histological type

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xudong; Tian, Long; Fan, Jun; Lai, Yutian; Li, Shuangjiang; Che, Guowei; Huang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With the development of imaging technology, an increasing number of synchronous multiple lung cancers (SMLCs) have been diagnosed in recent years. Patients with >1 tumor are diagnosed with either synchronous multiple primary lung cancers (SMPLCs) or other primary tumors and metastases. Clinical guidelines, histological characteristics, and molecular diagnostics have been used to discriminate SMPLCs from other multiple lung cancers. However, there is still ambiguity in the diagnosis of SMPLCs of the same histological type. We enrolled 24 patients with the same histological type of SMLCs and assessed their status using established clinical guidelines, comprehensive histological subtyping, and molecular analysis. The sum value of the differential microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles (ΔΔCt) with matched tumors was evaluated to discriminate SMPLCs of the same histological type from metastases. Twelve patients with lymph node metastases were included for comparison, and the sum value of the ΔΔCt of 5 miRNAs between primary tumors and lymph node metastases was <9. Patients definitively diagnosed with SMPLCs by integrated analysis were also classified as SMPLCs by miRNA analysis; 6 patients showed conflicting diagnoses by integrated and miRNA analysis and 14 were given the same classification. Analysis of miRNA expression profiles is considered to be a useful tool for discriminating SMPLCs from intrapulmonary metastases. PMID:27495091

  2. Detection of sarcocystis parasites in retail beef: a regional survey combining histological and genetic detection methods.

    PubMed

    Pritt, Bobbi; Trainer, Thomas; Simmons-Arnold, Linda; Evans, Mark; Dunams, Detiger; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2008-10-01

    Sarcocystis spp. are parasitic protists acquired when undercooked, cyst-laden meat is consumed. While both Sarcocystis hominis and S. cruzi encyst in beef, only S. hominis is pathogenic to humans. In this study, we used histological methods and novel molecular techniques to determine the regional prevalence and identity of Sarcocystis spp. in retail beef. Of 110 samples, 60 supported amplification of parasite rRNA by PCR. All 41 sequenced representatives were identified as S. cruzi. To compare detection methods, 48 samples were then examined in parallel by histology and PCR, and 16 and 26 samples, respectively, were positive. Five samples positive by initial histologic sections were not amplified by PCR. Fifteen PCR-positive samples did not contain sarcocysts on initial histologic section, but additional sections from these samples revealed sarcocysts in an additional 12 samples. When combined, histology with additional sections and PCR detected 31 positive specimens of the 48 total specimens. We found no evidence of human pathogen S. hominis and confirm that cattle pathogen S. cruzi is highly prevalent in this regional sample. PCR assays may increase the detection sensitivity of Sarcocystis spp. and contribute diagnostic precision. PMID:18939769

  3. Histologic characterization of the cat middle ear: in sickness and in health.

    PubMed

    Sula, M M; Njaa, B L; Payton, M E

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish microscopic normal in the middle ear of the cat while concurrently characterizing gross and microscopic lesions reflecting spontaneous otitis media. Both ears from 50 cats were examined grossly and processed for histologic examination of the external, middle, and internal ear on a single slide. Gross lesions of the middle ear were present in 14 of 100 (14%) and included turbid fluid, frank pus, hemorrhage, and fibrous thickening of the auricular mucoperiosteum. Histologically, 48 of 100 (48%) ears had evidence of ongoing or previous inflammatory middle ear disease, including proteinaceous fluid; vascular ectasia; expansion of the auricular mucoperiosteum by neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages; cholesterol clefts; hemorrhage; fibrin; granulation tissue; membranous pseudo-glands; fibrosis; proliferation and/or osteolysis of the tympanic and septum bullae. Histologic lesions were identified in 34 of 100 ears (34%) lacking gross evidence of disease. Ears were classified histologically as either normal (52/100 [52%]) or diseased (48/100 [48%]). Diseased ears were further classified as mild to moderate (37/100 [37%]) or severely (11/100 [11%]) affected. Internal ear involvement was present in 11 of 100 (11%) ears. Histologic evidence of middle ear disease in cats is far greater than gross lesions or clinical literature suggests; further investigation and correlation of clinical and histologic disease are warranted. With minimal additional preparation, diagnostic specimens may be readily prepared and evaluated for this integral sensing organ. PMID:24280942

  4. Distinct patterns of peritumoral histological findings in subtypes of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Saito, Michihiro; Imada, Hiroki; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Sata, Naohiro; Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Maetani, Iruru; Fukushima, Noriyoshi

    2015-10-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are primary pancreatic neoplasms that can act as precursors to invasive adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The peritumoral stroma has been increasingly recognized to play an important role in many types of tumors. Therefore, to investigate the clinicopathological significance of the peritumoral stroma in IPMNs, we examined the histological features of the peritumoral stroma in each subtype and histological grade of IPMNs. Eighty-two patients with IPMN, who underwent surgical resection, were reviewed clinicopathologically. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (86 lesions in total) were histologically subclassified into gastric (n = 51), intestinal (n = 22), pancreatobiliary (n = 11), and oncocytic (n = 2) subtypes. Peritumoral histological features between the gastric and intestinal subtypes were evaluated by each histological grade. The results showed that subepithelial edema and inflammatory cell infiltration were more commonly observed in the gastric subtype (74% and 79%, respectively) than in the intestinal subtype (12% and 25%, respectively) of low-grade IPMNs. On the other hand, mucus lakes were more commonly observed in the intestinal subtype (100%) than in the gastric subtype (0%) of high-grade IPMNs. In addition, pancreatobiliary subtype IPMNs tended to exhibit acute inflammation such as neutrophil predominance. This study showed that peritumoral histological features differed among subtypes of IPMNs from low-grade tumors. These differences suggest the possibility that each subtype of IPMNs has a distinct mechanism from an early stage of tumor progression, which is reflected in the properties of the peritumoral stroma. PMID:26265194

  5. Real-time histology in liver disease using multiphoton microscopy with fluorescence lifetime imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haolu; Liang, Xiaowen; Mohammed, Yousuf H.; Thomas, James A.; Bridle, Kim R.; Thorling, Camilla A.; Grice, Jeffrey E.; Xu, Zhi Ping; Liu, Xin; Crawford, Darrell H. G.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional histology with light microscopy is essential in the diagnosis of most liver diseases. Recently, a concept of real-time histology with optical biopsy has been advocated. In this study, live mice livers (normal, with fibrosis, steatosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and ischemia-reperfusion injury) were imaged by MPM-FLIM for stain-free real-time histology. The acquired MPM-FLIM images were compared with conventional histological images. MPM-FLIM imaged subsurface cellular and subcellular histopathological hallmarks of live liver in mice models at high resolution. Additional information such as distribution of stellate cell associated autofluorescence and fluorescence lifetime changes was also gathered by MPM-FLIM simultaneously, which cannot be obtained from conventional histology. MPM-FLIM could simultaneously image and quantify the cellular morphology and microenvironment of live livers without conventional biopsy or fluorescent dyes. We anticipate that in the near future MPM-FLIM will be evaluated from bench to bedside, leading to real-time histology and dynamic monitoring of human liver diseases. PMID:25798303

  6. Routine histologic examination for the diagnosis of onychomycosis: an evaluation of sensitivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Machler, B C; Kirsner, R S; Elgart, G W

    1998-04-01

    Clinical differentiation of dermatophyte infection from dystrophic changes due to psoriasis may be challenging. Typically, potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparations, fungal culture, and occasionally, nail unit biopsy specimens are utilized to help differentiate between the two. These tests are often time-consuming and may yield false-negative results. Increasing regulation of the office laboratory has caused some physicians to forgo this testing, which was previously routine. We investigated the utility of routine histologic examination of nail clippings in differentiating onychomycosis from psoriatic onychodystrophy. Twenty-three distal nail clipping specimens (twelve specimens from patients with onychodystrophy of unknown cause and eleven control specimens from nails with known cause) were evaluated by routine histology and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. Of the dystrophic cases, four were demonstrated to be onychomycosis by the presence of hyphae on histologic evaluation and by culture, whereas only three of these cases yielded positive results on KOH examination. Eight cases of onychodystrophy were due to psoriasis. Yeast forms were detected on one case of psoriatic onychodystrophy that demonstrated yeast growth on culture. In our study, routine histologic examination with PAS staining was equal to culture and superior to KOH preparation in leading to the correct diagnosis of dermatophyte infection. In addition, the diagnosis of psoriasis of the nail plate was detected accurately by routine histologic examination. Routine histologic examination with PAS staining is a rapid, simple, and reliable test in the evaluation of onychodystrophy. PMID:9564595

  7. Free Radical Addition Polymerization Kinetics without Steady-State Approximations: A Numerical Analysis for the Polymer, Physical, or Advanced Organic Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iler, H. Darrell; Brown, Amber; Landis, Amanda; Schimke, Greg; Peters, George

    2014-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the free radical addition polymerization system is described that provides those teaching polymer, physical, or advanced organic chemistry courses the opportunity to introduce students to numerical methods in the context of a simple but mathematically stiff chemical kinetic system. Numerical analysis can lead students to an…

  8. The histological aspects of fillers complications.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Ute S; Clerici, Thierry J

    2004-12-01

    The histological aspects of resorbable heterologous fillers (bovine collagen, acid hyaluronique), autologous fillers (lipofilling, dermis-fat graft), biodegradable fillers (New-Fill), and permanent fillers (silicone, Artecoll, Evolution, Aquamid, DermaLive, DermaDeep, Bioplastique, Paraffin) are described. This article relates the morphological aspect of these materials, the normal tissue reaction after injection, and its chronological evolution as the morphological aspects from the different side effects, more frequently observed for the permanent fillers. They mainly consist of granulomatous reactions which may appear long after injection. PMID:15745233

  9. The Toxic Effects of Cigarette Additives. Philip Morris' Project Mix Reconsidered: An Analysis of Documents Released through Litigation

    PubMed Central

    Wertz, Marcia S.; Kyriss, Thomas; Paranjape, Suman; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2009, the promulgation of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco regulation focused attention on cigarette flavor additives. The tobacco industry had prepared for this eventuality by initiating a research program focusing on additive toxicity. The objective of this study was to analyze Philip Morris' Project MIX as a case study of tobacco industry scientific research being positioned strategically to prevent anticipated tobacco control regulations. Methods and Findings We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents to identify internal strategies for research on cigarette additives and reanalyzed tobacco industry peer-reviewed published results of this research. We focused on the key group of studies conducted by Phillip Morris in a coordinated effort known as “Project MIX.” Documents showed that Project MIX subsumed the study of various combinations of 333 cigarette additives. In addition to multiple internal reports, this work also led to four peer-reviewed publications (published in 2001). These papers concluded that there was no evidence of substantial toxicity attributable to the cigarette additives studied. Internal documents revealed post hoc changes in analytical protocols after initial statistical findings indicated an additive-associated increase in cigarette toxicity as well as increased total particulate matter (TPM) concentrations in additive-modified cigarette smoke. By expressing the data adjusted by TPM concentration, the published papers obscured this underlying toxicity and particulate increase. The animal toxicology results were based on a small number of rats in each experiment, raising the possibility that the failure to detect statistically significant changes in the end points was due to underpowering the experiments rather than lack of a real effect. Conclusion The case study of Project MIX shows tobacco industry scientific research on the use of cigarette additives cannot be taken at face value. The

  10. Evaluation of virtual microscopy in medical histology teaching.

    PubMed

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Histology stands as a major discipline in the life science curricula, and the practice of teaching it is based on theoretical didactic strategies along with practical training. Traditionally, students achieve practical competence in this subject by learning optical microscopy. Today, students can use newer information and communication technologies in the study of digital microscopic images. A virtual microscopy program was recently introduced at Ghent University. Since little empirical evidence is available concerning the impact of virtual microscopy (VM) versus optical microscopy (OM) on the acquisition of histology knowledge, this study was set up in the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. A pretest-post test and cross-over design was adopted. In the first phase, the experiment yielded two groups in a total population of 199 students, Group 1 performing the practical sessions with OM versus Group 2 performing the same sessions with VM. In the second phase, the research subjects switched conditions. The prior knowledge level of all research subjects was assessed with a pretest. Knowledge acquisition was measured with a post test after each phase (T1 and T2). Analysis of covariance was carried out to study the differential gain in knowledge at T1 and T2, considering the possible differences in prior knowledge at the start of the study. The results pointed to non-significant differences at T1 and at T2. This supports the assumption that the acquisition of the histology knowledge is independent of the microscopy representation mode (VM versus OM) of the learning material. The conclusion that VM is equivalent to OM offers new directions in view of ongoing innovations in medical education technology. PMID:23463716

  11. Enhanced L-lactic acid production in Lactobacillus paracasei by exogenous proline addition based on comparative metabolite profiling analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiwei; Wang, Yonghong; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated cell physiological and metabolic responses of Lactobacillus paracasei to osmotic stresses. Both cellular fatty acid composition and metabolite profiling were responded by increasing unsaturated and epoxy-fatty acid proportions, as well as accumulating some specific intracellular metabolites. Simultaneously, metabolite profiling was adopted to rationally and systematically discover potential osmoprotectants. Consequently, exogenous addition of proline or aspartate was validated to be a feasible and efficacious approach to improve cell growth under hyperosmotic stress in shake flasks. Particularly, with 5-L cultivation system, L-lactic acid concentration increased from 108 to 150 g/L during the following 16-h fermentation in 2 g/L proline addition group, while it only increased from 110 to 140 g/L in no proline addition group. Moreover, glucose consumption rate with proline addition reached 3.49 g/L/h during this phase, 35.8 % higher than that with no proline addition. However, extreme high osmotic pressure would significantly limit the osmoprotection of proline, and the osmolality threshold for L. paracasei was approximately 3600 mOsm/kg. It was suggested that proline principally played a role as a compatible solute accumulated in the cell for hyperosmotic preservation. The strategies of exploiting osmotic protectant with metabolite profiling and enhancing L-lactic acid production by osmoprotectant addition would be potential to provide a new insight for other microorganisms and organic acids production. PMID:26658821

  12. A silver-stain modification of standard histological slide preparation for use in anthropology analyses.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Deborrah C; Pace, Eric D

    2015-03-01

    The traditional histology method typically employed by forensic anthropologists involves plastic embedding of undecalcified bone. The embedded sample is then cut by a diamond blade saw and ground to the required thickness of ~50-100 microns using a grinder. There are several limitations to this method: Cement lines may be blurred; depth-of-field artifacts may result from viewing thick sections; and medicolegal offices with limited budgets may not be able to invest in additional equipment or training for this method. A silver nitrate stain modification of the standard histology preparation technique of decalcified bone is presented. The benefits of this technique are that: Cement lines are viewed clearly; no depth-of-field artifacts are present; and because this is a modification of the standard technique used by histology laboratories typically employed by medicolegal offices, no additional equipment or training is required. PMID:25583347

  13. Basal cell carcinoma: clues to its presence in histologic sections when the initial slide is nondiagnostic.

    PubMed

    Haupt, H M; Stern, J B; Dilaimy, M S

    2000-09-01

    Initial sections of skin biopsies may not be diagnostic of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Are there histologic predictors of BCC that should prompt deeper sections? Ninety-four cases in which the clinical diagnosis was BCC or "rule-out BCC," and the initial histologic slides were nondiagnostic, were submitted for deeper sections on three additional slides. Of the 94 cases, 50 (53%) demonstrated BCC on deeper sections. This relatively high incidence suggests that deeper sections should be taken in all cases of clinically suspected BCCs unless alternate histologic findings adequately account for the clinical lesion. The results of this study suggest that additional sections are more likely to yield BCC when the initial nondiagnostic slide demonstrates focal epidermal atypia, equivocal adnexae, stromal fibrosis, empty dermal space, and microcalcifications, criteria which may be useful in determining the need to do deeper sections in cases in which BCC is not clinically suspected. PMID:10976705

  14. Histological and immunohistochemical studies on primary intracranial canine histiocytic sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Thongtharb, Atigan; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James Kenn; Kagawa, Yumiko; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma is a progressive and fatal malignant neoplasm that mainly occurs in middle- to old-aged dogs. This study describes clinicopathological, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of intracranial histiocytic sarcomas in 23 dogs. Magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography of the brains revealed that the tumors mainly located in the cerebrum, particularly the frontal lobe. Seizure was a predominant clinical sign in most of the cases. Histologically, the tumor cells were morphologically classified into round/polygonal- and spindle-shaped cell types. There was a significant association between tumor cell types and hemophagocytic activity (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in other clinicopathological parameters and mitotic index between the 2 types. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were strongly positive for HLA-DR, Iba-1 and CD204 in all the 23 cases, for iNOS in 20, for CD163 in 17, for CD208 (DC-LAMP) in 9, for lysozyme in 8 and for S100 in 5 cases. In addition, the Ki67-proliferative index showed range of 0.50-64.33% (Average 26.60 ± 3.81%). These observations suggest that canine primary intracranial histiocytic sarcomas tend to exhibit both dendritic cell and macrophage phenotypes of histiocytic differentiation. PMID:26668164

  15. Histological healing in inflammatory bowel disease: A still unfulfilled promise

    PubMed Central

    Villanacci, Vincenzo; Antonelli, Elisabetta; Geboes, Karel; Casella, Giovanni; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is traditionally based on several drugs, including salicylates, corticosteroids, and antibiotics; in addition, the therapeutic armamentarium has considerably evolved with the advent of newer, effective therapeutic measures (such as the biological agents) that are able to improve in a considerable manner both the clinical and endoscopic variables. Thus, mucosal healing, at least considered from an endoscopic point of view, is today regarded as the ultimate endpoint for treatment of these conditions. However, it is also increasingly clear that endoscopic healing is not necessarily paralleled by histological healing; There are few doubts that the latter should be considered as a true, objective healing and the ultimate goal to reach when treating patients with IBD. Unfortunately, and surprisingly, only a few, incomplete, and somewhat conflicting data exist on this topic, especially because there is still the need to standardize both histological assessment and the severity grading of these disorders; Issues that have not been yet been resolved for clinical practice and therapeutic trials. Hopefully, with the help of an increased awareness on the clinical researchers’ side, and the availability of dedicated pathologists on the other side, this matter will be effectively faced and resolved in the near future. PMID:23467585

  16. Histological and immunohistochemical studies on primary intracranial canine histiocytic sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    THONGTHARB, Atigan; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; CHAMBERS, James Kenn; KAGAWA, Yumiko; NAKAYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma is a progressive and fatal malignant neoplasm that mainly occurs in middle- to old-aged dogs. This study describes clinicopathological, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of intracranial histiocytic sarcomas in 23 dogs. Magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography of the brains revealed that the tumors mainly located in the cerebrum, particularly the frontal lobe. Seizure was a predominant clinical sign in most of the cases. Histologically, the tumor cells were morphologically classified into round/polygonal- and spindle-shaped cell types. There was a significant association between tumor cell types and hemophagocytic activity (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in other clinicopathological parameters and mitotic index between the 2 types. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were strongly positive for HLA-DR, Iba-1 and CD204 in all the 23 cases, for iNOS in 20, for CD163 in 17, for CD208 (DC-LAMP) in 9, for lysozyme in 8 and for S100 in 5 cases. In addition, the Ki67-proliferative index showed range of 0.50–64.33% (Average 26.60 ± 3.81%). These observations suggest that canine primary intracranial histiocytic sarcomas tend to exhibit both dendritic cell and macrophage phenotypes of histiocytic differentiation. PMID:26668164

  17. The Impact of Histologic Variants on FSGS Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Meliambro, Kristin; Campbell, Kirk N.

    2014-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most common glomerular disease leading to end-stage renal disease. The clinical course is highly variable with disparate responses to therapeutic intervention and rates of progression. Histologic variant subtype has been commonly used as a prognostic and therapeutic guide in the clinical management of FSGS. The tip lesion is widely considered to portend the most favorable prognosis and to be the most responsive to steroid therapy. Conversely, the collapsing lesion, more prevalent in patients of African descent, is associated with steroid resistance and higher risk of disease progression. In the 10 years since the Columbia classification system for FSGS was published, some retrospective and one prospective study explored the impact of histologic variants at the time of biopsy on FSGS outcomes. The results largely validate its clinical predictive value with respect to treatment response, though its utility in cases recurring after kidney transplantation is still unknown. Sampling and interpretation errors are additional sources of caution. More research is needed to fully define reproducible prognostic and therapeutic markers for this polymorphic disorder.

  18. Are Histological Findings of Thulium Laser Vapo-Enucleation Versus Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Comparable?

    PubMed

    Carmignani, Luca; Macchi, Alberto; Ratti, Dario; Finkelberg, Elisabetta; Casellato, Stefano; Bozzini, Giorgio; Maruccia, Serena; Marenghi, Carlo; Picozzi, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    We investigated if an adequate histological diagnosis can be made from tissue after Thulium laser vapo-enucleation of the prostate (ThuVEP) and whether it is comparable to transurethral prostate resection (TURP) tissue findings in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. We analyzed 350 ThuLEP and 100 matched TURP tissue specimens from patients who underwent one of the two procedures between January 2009 and June 2014. Thulium Laser Enucleation of Prostate (ThuVEP) was combined with mechanical morcellation of the resected lobe. Each histological specimen was reviewed by two pathologists. Preoperative prostate ultrasound volume, total serum prostatic specific antigen and postoperative tissue weight were evaluated. Microscopic histological diagnosis was assessed by standard histological techniques and immunohistochemical evaluation. Patients were comparable in terms of age and preoperative total serum prostate specific antigen. Incidental adenocarcinoma and high grade PIN of the prostate were diagnosed in a comparable percent of specimens in the 2 groups (2.5 % in the ThuVEP group versus 3 % in the TURP group). Tissue thermal artifacts induced by the Thulium laser are mostly due to coagulation as that of the conventional monopolar diathermy in TURP. Tissue quality was maintained in the ThuVEP histological specimens. Tissue maintain histological characteristics and proprieties without modification for successive immunoistochemical analysis. The pathologist ability to detect incidental prostate cancer and PIN was maintained even if there is a quoted of vaporized tissue. PMID:25862670

  19. Molecular histology in skin appendage morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Widelitz, R B; Jiang, T X; Noveen, A; Ting-Berreth, S A; Yin, E; Jung, H S; Chuong, C M

    1997-08-15

    Classical histological studies have demonstrated the cellular organization of skin appendages and helped us appreciate the intricate structures and function of skin appendages. At this juncture, questions can be directed to determine how these cellular organizations are achieved. How do cells rearrange themselves to form the complex cyto-architecture of skin appendages? What are the molecular bases of the morphogenesis and histogenesis of skin appendages? Recently, many new molecules expressed in a spatial and temporal specific manner during the formation of skin appendages were identified by molecular biological approaches. In this review, novel molecular techniques that are useful in skin appendage research are discussed. The distribution of exemplary molecules from different categories including growth factors, intracellular signaling molecules, homeobox genes, adhesion molecules, and extracellular matrix molecules are summarized in a diagram using feather and hair as models. We hope that these results will serve as the ground work for completing the molecular mapping of skin appendages which will refine and re-define our understanding of the developmental process beyond relying on morphological criteria. We also hope that the listed protocols will help those who are interested in this venture. This new molecular histology of skin appendages is the foundation for forming new hypotheses on how molecules are mechanistically involved in skin appendage development and for designing experiments to test them. This may also lead to the modulation of healing and regeneration processes in future treatment modalities. PMID:9297695

  20. Local binary patterns for stromal area removal in histology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomari, Raja S.; Ghosh, Subarna; Chaudhary, Vipin; Al-Kadi, Omar

    2012-03-01

    Nuclei counting in epithelial cells is an indication for tumor proliferation rate which is useful to rank tumors and select an appropriate treatment schedule for the patient. However, due to the high interand intra- observer variability in nuclei counting, pathologists seek a deterministic proliferation rate estimate. Histology tissue contains epithelial and stromal cells. However, nuclei counting is clinically restricted to epithelial cells because stromal cells do not become cancerous themselves since they remain genetically normal. Counting nuclei existing within the stromal tissue is one of the major causes of the proliferation rate non-deterministic estimation. Digitally removing stromal tissue will eliminate a major cause in pathologist counting variability and bring the clinical pathologist a major step closer toward a deterministic proliferation rate estimation. To that end, we propose a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for eliminating stromal cells from digital histology images based on the local binary patterns, entropy measurement, and statistical analysis. We validate our CAD system on a set of fifty Ki-67-stained histology images. Ki-67-stained histology images are among the clinically approved methods for proliferation rate estimation. To test our CAD system, we prove that the manual proliferation rate estimation performed by the expert pathologist does not change before and after stromal removal. Thus, stromal removal does not affect the expert pathologist estimation clinical decision. Hence, the successful elimination of the stromal area highly reduces the false positive nuclei which are the major confusing cause for the less experienced pathologists and thus accounts for the non-determinism in the proliferation rate estimation. Our experimental setting shows statistical insignificance (paired student t-test shows ρ = 0.74) in the manual nuclei counting before and after our automated stromal removal. This means that the clinical decision of

  1. Reservoir analysis study: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: Phase 3 report, Recommended additional reservoir engineering analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    The basis for completion of the Phase III tasks above were the reports of Phases I and II and the associated backup material. The Phase II report was reviewed to identify the major uncertainties in all of the reserve assignments. In addition to the Proved, Probable and Possible reserves of Phase II, ''potential reserves'' or those associated with a greater degree of risk than the Possible reserves included in the Phase II report, were also identified based on the work performed by Bergeson through the Phase II reporting date. Thirty-three specific studies were identified to address the major Phase II reserve uncertainties or these potential reserves. These studies are listed in Table 1 and are grouped by the Elk Hills pool designation. The basis and need for each study are elaborated in the discussion which follows. Where possible, the need for the study was quantified by associating the study with a particular reserve estimate which would be clarified by the analysis. This reserve value was either the Probable or Possible reserves which were being studied, the potential reserves that were identified, or simply the uncertainty inherent in the proved reserves as identified in the study purpose. The costs associated with performing the study are also shown in Table 1 and were estimated based on Bergeson's knowledge of the Elk Hills reservoirs and data base following Phases I and II, as well as the company's experience in performing similar studies in other fields. The cost estimates are considered reasonable for general budgeting purposes, but may require refinement prior to actual initiation of these studies. This is particularly true for studies involving field testing to obtain additional log, core or test information as the cost of such items is not considered in this report. 51 figs., 46 tabs.

  2. Classification of Histological Images Based on the Stationary Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, M. Z.; Neves, L.; Duarte, S. C.; Duarte, Y. A. S.; Ramos Batista, V.

    2015-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are of many distinct types, and different classification systems make it difficult to diagnose them correctly. Many of these systems classify lymphomas only based on what they look like under a microscope. In 2008 the World Health Organisation (WHO) introduced the most recent system, which also considers the chromosome features of the lymphoma cells and the presence of certain proteins on their surface. The WHO system is the one that we apply in this work. Herewith we present an automatic method to classify histological images of three types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Our method is based on the Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT), and it consists of three steps: 1) extracting sub-bands from the histological image through SWT, 2) applying Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to clean noise and select the most relevant information, 3) classifying it by the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. The kernel types Linear, RBF and Polynomial were evaluated with our method applied to 210 images of lymphoma from the National Institute on Aging. We concluded that the following combination led to the most relevant results: detail sub-band, ANOVA and SVM with Linear and RBF kernels.

  3. Effect of Pregnancy on Vocal Cord Histology: An Animal Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Köybaşı Şanal, Serap; Biçer, Yusuf Özgür; Kükner, Aysel; Tezcan, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Voice may be affected during the period of pregnancy, especially in the third trimester. However, the exact mechanisms leading to the phonatory changes have not yet uncovered. Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the possible histological changes in the vocal cords of the pregnant rats in three separate trimesters. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: Twenty-five Wistar-Albino female rats were divided into four groups: control group, pregnancy day 7 (Group 1), pregnancy day 14 (Group 2) and pregnancy day 20 (Group 3). The laryngeal specimens were obtained under general anesthesia. Histological assessment was performed using Hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue. A stereological analysis of vocal cord tissue was performed using a NIS-Elements D32 Imaging Software. Results: Lamina propria was observed to be edematous, and the lamina propria area was thickened starting from the second trimester. Glycosaminoglycans were observed to increase in the second trimester. Although none was encountered in the control, mast cells were observed in the lamina propria layer of the vocal cord starting in the muscular layer in the first trimester proceed to the subepithelial region as degranulated just before term. The covering epithelium remained unchanged throughout pregnancy. Conclusion: Lamina propria thickening may be attributed to both edema and increased glycosaminoglycans. The presence of mast cells in the cordal tissue may induce edema during pregnancy in rats. PMID:27606142

  4. Consequence analysis of a NaOH solution spray release during addition to waste tank. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J.; Lancing, L.C.

    1997-07-08

    Toxicological consequences are presented for three postulated accidents involving caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) addition to a waste tank to adjust the tank waste pH. These are spray from the skid mounted delivery system, spray from a cargo tank truck, and rupture of a cargo tank truck. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated.

  5. The Job Demands-Resources Model: An Analysis of Additive and Joint Effects of Demands and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Qiao; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Taris, Toon W.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the additive, synergistic, and moderating effects of job demands and job resources on well-being (burnout and work engagement) and organizational outcomes, as specified by the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. A survey was conducted among two Chinese samples: 625 blue collar workers and 761 health professionals. A…

  6. Family, Neighborhood, and Peer Characteristics as Predictors of Child Adjustment: A Longitudinal Analysis of Additive and Mediation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Michael M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Moilanen, Kristin L.; Hitchings, Julia E.; Ingoldsby, Erin M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test direct, additive, and mediation models involving family, neighborhood, and peer factors in relation to emerging antisocial behavior and social skills. Neighborhood danger, maternal depressive symptoms, and supportive parenting were assessed in early childhood. Peer group acceptance was measured in middle…

  7. Evaluation of five additional enhancements to the building loads analysis and system thermodynamics (BLAST) program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    The Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) energy analysis computer program has undergone a multiyear enhancement program based on feedback and priorities of the BLAST users' group. This project was conducted to evaluate the convenience and applicability of the following BLAST enhancements: Air-to-Air Heat Pump; Expanded Baseboard Heat Options; Report Writer; Thermal Comfort Model. Ice Storage Model; Evaluation responses indicate that the enhancements satisfied users' needs for advanced building energy analysis tools. Although the evaluations revealed program bugs and the lack of documentation in some areas, the programs were easy to install and use. The bugs have been removed and the documentation expanded in the BLAST Users Reference. It is recommended that the enhancements be distributed with future updates and releases of the BLAST program.... BLAST, Enhancements, Energy efficient, Comfort analysis, Technology Transfer Test Bed(T3B).

  8. Are We Throwing Histology out with the Microscope? A Look at Histology from the Physician's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Rebecca L.

    2009-01-01

    A trend in medical schools across the United States is the refurbishing of histology laboratories with digital microscopy systems. Although such systems may reduce curricular time, they do not teach basic microscope skills, and students who learn solely with these systems may be less prepared for their practices or specialties, particularly in…

  9. Signet ring cell histology is associated with unique clinical features but does not affect gastric cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Theuer, C P; Nastanski, F; Brewster, W R; Butler, J A; Anton-Culver, H

    1999-10-01

    Signet ring cell histology is found in 3 to 39 per cent of gastric cancer cases and has been reported to be a feature of poor prognosis, although this issue has not been rigorously examined. The objective of this study was to determine those demographic and clinical variables associated with signet ring cell histology and to determine the effect of signet ring cell histology on survival using multivariate analyses. We studied a historical cohort of consecutive cases of gastric cancer reported to the population-based California Cancer Registries of Orange, San Diego, and Imperial Counties from 1984 through 1994. Factors associated with signet ring cell histology were assessed using chi2 and logistic regression. Life tables were constructed to assess unadjusted survival and survival differences in patient subgroups. Multivariate survival was determined using a Cox proportional hazards model. Of 3020 patients, 464 (15%) had signet ring cell histology. Patients with signet ring cell histology were more likely to be younger than 50 years (odds ratio (OR) = 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-3.5), less likely to be male (OR = 0.49; 95% CI = 0.37-0.66), and more likely to have tumors of the distal stomach (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4-3.0). Signet ring cell histology did not adversely affect unadjusted overall survival, race-stratified survival, or stage-stratified survival. Multivariate analysis indicated that patients with signet ring cell histology had an insignificant increased risk of dying (relative risk = 1.027; P>0.10) in comparison with patients without signet ring cell histology. Patients with signet ring cell histology were more likely to be young women and to have tumors of the distal stomach. Signet ring cell histology did not impact survival in our group of largely advanced gastric cancer cases. PMID:10515534

  10. Extraction site preservation using new graft material that combines mineralized and demineralized allograft bone: a case series report with histology.

    PubMed

    Holtzclaw, Dan

    2014-02-01

    This retrospective case series reports on the use of a new allograft bone product composed of a 70 to 30 ratio of mineralized to demineralized cortical bone particles to preserve the alveolar ridge dimensions of patients requiring tooth extraction with plans for future dental implant placement. Ten patients received atraumatic tooth extractions with subsequent placement of the blended bone allograft. All sites were covered with a single layer of amnion-chorion, which was intentionally left exposed. After an average healing time of 14 weeks, the surgical sites were accessed for placement of dental implants. Prior to implant placement, trephine core samples were taken for histologic analysis. Dental implants were successfully placed in all previously grafted surgical sites; no sites required any additional bone augmentation. Histologic analysis of trephined bone core samples revealed bone compositions similar to those described in previously published site preservation studies. The results of this case series suggest that blended bone allograft containing a 70 to 30 ratio of mineralized to demineralized cortical bone particles can be successfully used to facilitate future placement of dental implants with as little as 14 weeks of healing. PMID:24571560

  11. One-dimensional analysis of unsteady flows due to supercritical heat addition in high speed condensing steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, N. A.; Hasini, H.; Yusoff, M. Z.

    2013-06-01

    Unsteadiness in supersonic flow in nozzles can be generated by the release of heat due to spontaneous condensation. The heat released is termed "supercritical" and may be responsible for turbine blades failure in turbine cascade as it causes a supersonic flow to decelerate. When the Mach number is reduced to unity, the flow can no longer sustain the additional heat and becomes unstable. This paper aims to numerically investigate the unsteadiness caused by supercritical heat addition in one-dimensional condensing flows. The governing equations for mass, momentum and energy, coupled with the equations describing the wetness fraction and droplet growth are integrated and solved iteratively to reveal the final solution. Comparison is made with well-established experimental and numerical solution done by previous researchers that shows similar phenomena.

  12. Genome-Centric Analysis of Microbial Populations Enriched by Hydraulic Fracture Fluid Additives in a Coal Bed Methane Production Well.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Steven J; Evans, Paul N; Parks, Donovan H; Golding, Suzanne D; Tyson, Gene W

    2016-01-01

    Coal bed methane (CBM) is generated primarily through the microbial degradation of coal. Despite a limited understanding of the microorganisms responsible for this process, there is significant interest in developing methods to stimulate additional methane production from CBM wells. Physical techniques including hydraulic fracture stimulation are commonly applied to CBM wells, however the effects of specific additives contained in hydraulic fracture fluids on native CBM microbial communities are poorly understood. Here, metagenomic sequencing was applied to the formation waters of a hydraulically fractured and several non-fractured CBM production wells to determine the effect of this stimulation technique on the in-situ microbial community. The hydraulically fractured well was dominated by two microbial populations belonging to the class Phycisphaerae (within phylum Planctomycetes) and candidate phylum Aminicenantes. Populations from these phyla were absent or present at extremely low abundance in non-fractured CBM wells. Detailed metabolic reconstruction of near-complete genomes from these populations showed that their high relative abundance in the hydraulically fractured CBM well could be explained by the introduction of additional carbon sources, electron acceptors, and biocides contained in the hydraulic fracture fluid. PMID:27375557

  13. Genome-Centric Analysis of Microbial Populations Enriched by Hydraulic Fracture Fluid Additives in a Coal Bed Methane Production Well

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Steven J.; Evans, Paul N.; Parks, Donovan H.; Golding, Suzanne D.; Tyson, Gene W.

    2016-01-01

    Coal bed methane (CBM) is generated primarily through the microbial degradation of coal. Despite a limited understanding of the microorganisms responsible for this process, there is significant interest in developing methods to stimulate additional methane production from CBM wells. Physical techniques including hydraulic fracture stimulation are commonly applied to CBM wells, however the effects of specific additives contained in hydraulic fracture fluids on native CBM microbial communities are poorly understood. Here, metagenomic sequencing was applied to the formation waters of a hydraulically fractured and several non-fractured CBM production wells to determine the effect of this stimulation technique on the in-situ microbial community. The hydraulically fractured well was dominated by two microbial populations belonging to the class Phycisphaerae (within phylum Planctomycetes) and candidate phylum Aminicenantes. Populations from these phyla were absent or present at extremely low abundance in non-fractured CBM wells. Detailed metabolic reconstruction of near-complete genomes from these populations showed that their high relative abundance in the hydraulically fractured CBM well could be explained by the introduction of additional carbon sources, electron acceptors, and biocides contained in the hydraulic fracture fluid. PMID:27375557

  14. Additional Value of CH₄ Measurement in a Combined (13)C/H₂ Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H₂) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined (13)C/H₂ lactose breath test that measures breath (13)CO₂ as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H₂ and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 (13)C/H₂ lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH₄ in addition to H₂ and (13)CO₂. Based on the (13)C/H₂ breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH₄ further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H₂-excretion were found to excrete CH₄. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH₄-concentrations has an added value to the (13)C/H₂ breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  15. Rheumatoid neuropathy: a histological and electrophysiological study

    PubMed Central

    Weller, R. O.; Bruckner, F. E.; Chamberlain, M. Anne

    1970-01-01

    Peripheral nerves in five patients with rheumatoid neuropathy were examined electrophysiologically and by sural nerve biopsy. There was close correlation between the clinical severity of the disease and the degree of nerve damage found histologically and by EMG. Group 1 patients with a mild distal sensory neuropathy showed varying degrees of axonal degeneration in the large myelinated fibres and some segmental demyelination. Group 2 patients with a severe, rapidly progressive sensori-motor neuropathy had extensive loss of myelinated fibres. In one case all the large fibres had degenerated. The second case had lost both large and small myelinated fibres together with many of the non-myelinated axons. The major nerve damage in both groups appeared to be axonal degeneration but some segmental demyelination was detected. Occlusive vascular disease in the vasa nervorum was considered to be the major cause of the nerve damage. Images PMID:4320255

  16. The Histological Slides and Drawings of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lopez, Pablo; Garcia-Marin, Virginia; Freire, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Ramón y Cajal's studies in the field of neuroscience provoked a radical change in the course of its history. For this reason he is considered as the father of modern neuroscience. Some of his original preparations are housed at the Cajal Museum (Cajal Institute, CSIC, Madrid, Spain). In this article, we catalogue and analyse more than 4,500 of Cajal's histological preparations, the same preparations he used during his scientific career. Furthermore, we catalogued Cajal's original correspondence, both manuscripts and personal letters, drawings and plates. This is the first time anyone has compiled an account of Cajal's enormous scientific production, offering some curious insights into his work and his legacy. PMID:20339483

  17. Combination genetic signature stratifies lower-grade gliomas better than histological grade

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Shi, Zhifeng; Chen, Liang; Chung, Nellie Yuk-Fei; Liu, Joseph Shu-Ming; Li, Kay Ka-Wai; Chan, Danny Tat-Ming; Poon, Wai Sang; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Liangfu; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2015-01-01

    We studied if combination genetic signature potentially stratifies lower-grade gliomas better than histology by investigating 214 lower-grade gliomas for IDH1/2 and TERTp mutations, 1p/19q codeletion and EGFR amplification as to their impact on prognostication. Prognostic association of grading was independent of other prognostic variables including age, histological type, IDH1/2, 1p/19q and TERTp status. No single marker, including IDH1/2, superseded grading in prognostication, indicating grading was still a very important tool. Prognosis was most favorable in 31.7% of patients with IDH1/2 mutation and either 1p/19q codeletion or TERTp mutation (IDHmut-OT), intermediate in 45.8% of patients with IDH1/2 mutation only (IDHmut) and 16.9% of patients without any of the alterations (IDHwt), and poorest in 5.6% of patients with wild-type IDH1/2 and either TERTp mutation or EGFR amplification (IDHwt-ET). Our results suggested not all IDH1/2 wild-type lower-grade gliomas are aggressive and additional biomarkers are required to identify glioblastoma-equivalent tumors. Multivariate analysis revealed independent prognostic values of grading and genetic signature. Grade II IDHwt-ET gliomas exhibited shorter survival than IDH1/2 mutated grade III gliomas, suggesting combination genetic signature potentially superseded grading in prognostication. In summary, biomarker-based stratification is useful in the diagnosis and prognostication of lower-grade gliomas, and should be used together with grading. PMID:26369702

  18. Additional photoelectric observations and analysis of the variability of the beta Cephei stars 12 and 16 Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarzebowski, T.; Jerzykiewicz, M.; Rios Herrera, M.; Rios Berumen, M.

    1980-04-01

    We present photoelectric observations of two Cephei variables - 12 and 16 Lacertae- made in 1977 in the Observatory of Zacatecas. The results of a frequency analysis made with these data and with the data obtained in the same year at the San Pedro Martir, Chiran and Bialkow Observatories are also given.

  19. Efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo Implementation of Bayesian Analysis of Additive and Dominance Genetic Variances in Noninbred Pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Waldmann, Patrik; Hallander, Jon; Hoti, Fabian; Sillanpää, Mikko J.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and fast computation of quantitative genetic variance parameters is of great importance in both natural and breeding populations. For experimental designs with complex relationship structures it can be important to include both additive and dominance variance components in the statistical model. In this study, we introduce a Bayesian Gibbs sampling approach for estimation of additive and dominance genetic variances in the traditional infinitesimal model. The method can handle general pedigrees without inbreeding. To optimize between computational time and good mixing of the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) chains, we used a hybrid Gibbs sampler that combines a single site and a blocked Gibbs sampler. The speed of the hybrid sampler and the mixing of the single-site sampler were further improved by the use of pretransformed variables. Two traits (height and trunk diameter) from a previously published diallel progeny test of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and two large simulated data sets with different levels of dominance variance were analyzed. We also performed Bayesian model comparison on the basis of the posterior predictive loss approach. Results showed that models with both additive and dominance components had the best fit for both height and diameter and for the simulated data with high dominance. For the simulated data with low dominance, we needed an informative prior to avoid the dominance variance component becoming overestimated. The narrow-sense heritability estimates in the Scots pine data were lower compared to the earlier results, which is not surprising because the level of dominance variance was rather high, especially for diameter. In general, the hybrid sampler was considerably faster than the blocked sampler and displayed better mixing properties than the single-site sampler. PMID:18558655

  20. Efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation of Bayesian analysis of additive and dominance genetic variances in noninbred pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Waldmann, Patrik; Hallander, Jon; Hoti, Fabian; Sillanpää, Mikko J

    2008-06-01

    Accurate and fast computation of quantitative genetic variance parameters is of great importance in both natural and breeding populations. For experimental designs with complex relationship structures it can be important to include both additive and dominance variance components in the statistical model. In this study, we introduce a Bayesian Gibbs sampling approach for estimation of additive and dominance genetic variances in the traditional infinitesimal model. The method can handle general pedigrees without inbreeding. To optimize between computational time and good mixing of the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) chains, we used a hybrid Gibbs sampler that combines a single site and a blocked Gibbs sampler. The speed of the hybrid sampler and the mixing of the single-site sampler were further improved by the use of pretransformed variables. Two traits (height and trunk diameter) from a previously published diallel progeny test of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and two large simulated data sets with different levels of dominance variance were analyzed. We also performed Bayesian model comparison on the basis of the posterior predictive loss approach. Results showed that models with both additive and dominance components had the best fit for both height and diameter and for the simulated data with high dominance. For the simulated data with low dominance, we needed an informative prior to avoid the dominance variance component becoming overestimated. The narrow-sense heritability estimates in the Scots pine data were lower compared to the earlier results, which is not surprising because the level of dominance variance was rather high, especially for diameter. In general, the hybrid sampler was considerably faster than the blocked sampler and displayed better mixing properties than the single-site sampler. PMID:18558655

  1. Effects of chemical mechanical planarization slurry additives on the agglomeration of alumina nanoparticles II: aggregation rate analysis.

    PubMed

    Brahma, Neil; Talbot, Jan B

    2014-04-01

    The aggregation rate and mechanism of 150 nm alumina particles in 1mM KNO3 with various additives used in chemical mechanical planarization of copper were investigated. The pH of each suspension was ∼8 such that the aggregation rate was slow enough to be measured and analyzed over ∼120 min. In general, an initial exponential growth was observed for most suspensions indicating reaction-limited aggregation. After aggregate sizes increase to >500 nm, the rate followed a power law suggesting diffusion-limited aggregation. Stability ratios and fractal dimension numbers were also calculated to further elucidate the aggregation mechanism. PMID:24491325

  2. Assessing direct analysis in real-time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for the rapid identification of additives in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, L K; Noonan, G O; Begley, T H

    2009-12-01

    The ambient ionization technique direct analysis in real time (DART) was characterized and evaluated for the screening of food packaging for the presence of packaging additives using a benchtop mass spectrometer (MS). Approximate optimum conditions were determined for 13 common food-packaging additives, including plasticizers, anti-oxidants, colorants, grease-proofers, and ultraviolet light stabilizers. Method sensitivity and linearity were evaluated using solutions and characterized polymer samples. Additionally, the response of a model additive (di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate) was examined across a range of sample positions, DART, and MS conditions (temperature, voltage and helium flow). Under optimal conditions, molecular ion (M+H+) was the major ion for most additives. Additive responses were highly sensitive to sample and DART source orientation, as well as to DART flow rates, temperatures, and MS inlet voltages, respectively. DART-MS response was neither consistently linear nor quantitative in this setting, and sensitivity varied by additive. All additives studied were rapidly identified in multiple food-packaging materials by DART-MS/MS, suggesting this technique can be used to screen food packaging rapidly. However, method sensitivity and quantitation requires further study and improvement. PMID:19753496

  3. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of dipeptides in protein hydrolysate by a TNBS derivatization-aided standard addition method.

    PubMed

    Hanh, Vu Thi; Kobayashi, Yutaro; Maebuchi, Motohiro; Nakamori, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Matsui, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish, through a standard addition method, a convenient quantification assay for dipeptides (GY, YG, SY, YS, and IY) in soybean hydrolysate using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) derivatization-aided LC-TOF-MS. Soybean hydrolysate samples (25.0 mg mL(-1)) spiked with target standards were subjected to TNBS derivatization. Under the optimal LC-MS conditions, five target dipeptides derivatized with TNBS were successfully detected. Examination of the standard addition curves, with a correlation coefficient of r(2) > 0.979, provided a reliable quantification of the target dipeptides, GY, YG, SY, YS, and IY, in soybean hydrolysate to be 424 ± 20, 184 ± 9, 2188 ± 199, 327 ± 16, and 2211 ± 133 μg g(-1) of hydrolysate, respectively. The proposed LC-MS assay is a reliable and convenient assay method, with no interference from matrix effects in hydrolysate, and with no requirement for the use of an isotope labeled internal standard. PMID:26212980

  4. Benign neck masses showing restricted diffusion: Is there a histological basis for discordant behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Das, Abanti; Bhalla, Ashu S; Sharma, Raju; Kumar, Atin; Sharma, Meher; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Thakar, Alok; Sharma, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) evolved as a complementary tool to morphologic imaging by offering additional functional information about lesions. Although the technique utilizes movement of water molecules to characterize biological tissues in terms of their cellularity, there are other factors related to the histological constitution of lesions which can have a significant bearing on DWI. Benign lesions with atypical histology including presence of lymphoid stroma, inherently increased cellularity or abundant extracellular collagen can impede movement of water molecules similar to malignant tissues and thereby, show restricted diffusion. Knowledge of these atypical entities while interpreting DWI in clinical practice can avoid potential misdiagnosis. This review aims to present an imaging spectrum of such benign neck masses which, owing to their distinct histology, can show discordant behavior on DWI. PMID:26981226

  5. Classification of lung cancer histology by gold nanoparticle sensors

    PubMed Central

    Barash, Orna; Peled, Nir; Tisch, Ulrike; Bunn, Paul A.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Haick, Hossam

    2016-01-01

    We propose a nanomedical device for the classification of lung cancer (LC) histology. The device profiles volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of (subtypes of) LC cells, using gold nanoparticle (GNP) sensors that are suitable for detecting LC-specific patterns of VOC profiles, as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Analyzing the GNP sensing signals by support vector machine allowed significant discrimination between (i) LC and healthy cells; (ii) small cell LC and non–small cell LC; and between (iii) two subtypes of non–small cell LC: adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The discriminative power of the GNP sensors was then linked with the chemical nature and composition of the headspace VOCs of each LC state. These proof-of-concept findings could totally revolutionize LC screening and diagnosis, and might eventually allow early and differential diagnosis of LC subtypes with detectable or unreachable lung nodules. PMID:22033081

  6. Histological determination of the human origin of bone fragments.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Cristina; Porta, David; Gibelli, Daniele; Gamba, Corrado

    2009-05-01

    A frequently encountered task in the forensic scenario is verification of the human origin of severely degraded fragments of bone. In these cases histological methods which consider osteon size and morphology can prove to be useful. The authors in the present study verify the applicability of published algorithms to flat and subadult bones from human, dog, cat, cow, rabbit, sheep, pig, chicken, quail, and turkey samples. Metric analysis was performed on 2031 Haversian canals. Analyses carried out on human samples confirmed a success rate of around 70% on long adult bones; however the percentage of wrong answers was particularly high in the case of newborns and older subadults as well as on flat bones in general. Results therefore suggest that such regression equations should be limited only to bone fragments from long adult bones. PMID:19298464

  7. Analysis of contingency tables based on generalised median polish with power transformations and non-additive models.

    PubMed

    Klawonn, Frank; Jayaram, Balasubramaniam; Crull, Katja; Kukita, Akiko; Pessler, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Contingency tables are a very common basis for the investigation of effects of different treatments or influences on a disease or the health state of patients. Many journals put a strong emphasis on p-values to support the validity of results. Therefore, even small contingency tables are analysed by techniques like t-test or ANOVA. Both these concepts are based on normality assumptions for the underlying data. For larger data sets, this assumption is not so critical, since the underlying statistics are based on sums of (independent) random variables which can be assumed to follow approximately a normal distribution, at least for a larger number of summands. But for smaller data sets, the normality assumption can often not be justified. Robust methods like the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney-U test or the Kruskal-Wallis test do not lead to statistically significant p-values for small samples. Median polish is a robust alternative to analyse contingency tables providing much more insight than just a p-value. Median polish is a technique that provides more information than just a p-value. It explains the contingency table in terms of an overall effect, row and columns effects and residuals. The underlying model for median polish is an additive model which is sometimes too restrictive. In this paper, we propose two related approach to generalise median polish. A power transformation can be applied to the values in the table, so that better results for median polish can be achieved. We propose a graphical method how to find a suitable power transformation. If the original data should be preserved, one can apply other transformations - based on so-called additive generators - that have an inverse transformation. In this way, median polish can be applied to the original data, but based on a non-additive model. The non-linearity of such a model can also be visualised to better understand the joint effects of rows and columns in a contingency table. PMID:25825662

  8. Pre-Restoration Habitat Use by Chinook Salmon in the Nisqually Estuary Using Otolith Analysis: An Additional Year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind-Null, Angie; Larsen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 stocks in the Puget Sound evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). Preservation and extensive restoration of the Nisqually delta ecosystem is currently taking place to assist in recovery of the stock as juvenile Fall Chinook salmon are dependent upon the estuary. A pre-restoration baseline that includes characterization of life history types, estuary residence times, growth rates, and habitat use is needed to evaluate the potential response of hatchery and natural origin Chinook salmon to restoration efforts and determine restoration success. Otolith analysis was selected to examine Chinook salmon life history, growth, and residence in the Nisqually Estuary. Previously funded work on wild samples collected in 2004 established the growth rate and length of residence associated with various habitats. The purpose of the current study is to build on the previous work by incorporating otolith microstructure analysis from 2005 (second sampling year), to verify findings from 2004, and to evaluate between-year variation in otolith microstructure. Our results from this second year of analysis indicated no inter-annual variation in the appearance of the tidal delta check (TDCK) and delta-flats check (DFCK). However, a new life history type (fry migrant) was observed on samples collected in 2005. Fish caught in the tidal delta regardless of capture date spent an average of 17 days in the tidal delta. There was a corresponding increase in growth rate as the fish migrated from freshwater (FW) to tidal delta to nearshore (NS) habitats. Fish grew 33 percent faster in the tidal delta than in FW habitat and slightly faster (14 percent) in the delta flats (DF) habitat compared to the tidal delta.

  9. Histological and histomorphometric study using an ultrasonic crestal sinus grafting procedure. A multicenter case study

    PubMed Central

    Wainwright, Marcel; Pérez-Dorao, Beatriz; Serrera-Figallo, María-Angeles; Gutierrez-Perez, José-Luis; Troedhan, Angelo; Kurrek, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hydrodynamic ultrasonic driven transcrestal sinus grafting procedure (Intralift ®, Acteon Company, Bordeaux, France) and the use of a bovine high temperature sintered grafting material in sinus sites with less than 5 mm remaining bone height with no additional autogenous bone in order to create a sufficient recipient site for implants. Material and Methods 12 patients (16 sinus) in this multicenter case study were included. Using a crestal approach, bone under the sinus was prepared with ultrasonic tips until the Schneiderian membrane was reached. With a trumpet shaped instrument, the Schneiderian membrane was elevated. In the new created subantral space a high temperature sintered bovine grafting material was introduced (Bego Oss, BEGO Implant Systems GmbH & Co. KG, Bremen, Germany). After 6 months biopsies were taken with a trephine bur and histologies were generated following histomorphometric analysis. Results The results showed new vital bone in average of 33.4% ± 17.05%, and 43.6% ± 16.70 of bone substitute material. No signs of abnormal inflammation were observed. Conclusions This procedure (Intralift ®) allows, using a bovine material with no additional autogenous bone, new bone formation in the sinus in order to allow place implant subantraly. Key words:Bone regeneration, sinus, intralift ®, xenogenic bone graft PMID:26946203

  10. Clinical, Radiographic, and Histologic Evaluation of Maxillary Sinus Lift Procedure Using a Highly Purified Xenogenic Graft (Laddec®)

    PubMed Central

    Belleggia, Fabrizio; Ippoliti, Stefano; DeVilliers, Patrica; Stefanelli, Luigi Vito; Di Carlo, Stefano; Pompa, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, radiographic and histologic results when a highly purified xenogenic bone (Laddec®) was used as grafting material in maxillary sinuses. Material and Methods In fifteen patients requiring unilateral maxillary sinus augmentation, the grafting procedure was performed with Laddec®. Forty-two implants were installed after a 6 month healing period. The height of the augmented sinus was measured radiographically immediately after augmentation and postoperatively up to 36 months. At the time of implant placement, a bone core was harvested in each patient for histological examination. Results The cumulative implant survival rate was 97.6%. The original height was 3.65 (SD 0.7) mm and the augmented sinus height was 13.8 (SD 1.4) mm after the surgery. The reduced height of grafted xenogenic material (RDL) at the implant insertion was 0.83 (SD 0.38) mm, and at the final postoperative visit was 0.91 (SD 0.25) mm, showing no significant correlation with the follow-up periods by Spearman’s test (P = 0.118). In addition, no significant difference in the RDL was observed according to the site of implantation (P = 0.682). The mean implant marginal bone loss was 0.38 (SD 0.24) mm. Histological analysis showed the bone cores were composed of 64.72 (SD 3.44)% newly formed bone, 17.41 (SD 2.02)% connective tissue, 16.93 (SD 2.83)% residual graft particles, and 0.94 (SD 0.11)% inflammatory cells. Conclusions According to our data, the highly purified xenogenic bone (Laddec®), used as graft material in the sinus lift procedure, may create adequate bone volume, and appropriate osseointegration of dental implants. PMID:27099697

  11. Glutathione peroxidase 1 expression, malondialdehyde levels and histological alterations in the liver of Acrossocheilus fasciatus exposed to cadmium chloride.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Di; Sheng, Zhang; Wang, You-Fa; Han, Ying-Li; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jun-Quan

    2016-03-10

    Cadmium (Cd) is known as a widespread pollutant in aquatic environment. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is attributed to Cd exposure, which may affect the growth, development and physiological metabolism of aquatic organisms. In response to these unfavorable damages, antioxidant systems have been developed to protect against oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of glutathione peroxidase 1 genes (GPx-1a and GPx-1b) in the liver of Acrossocheilus fasciatus after Cd administration. Total RNA extraction, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) were performed in order to clone the A. fasciatus GPx-1a and GPx-1b full-length cDNA sequences and partial fragment of β-actin cDNA from the liver for the first time. Tissue-specific expression analysis proved that GPx-1 genes were widely expressed in the liver, kidney, gill, testis, muscle, spleen, heart and brain. The changes of GPx-1 mRNA and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver treated with Cd were measured. In addition, the acute toxic effects of Cd on the microstructure of the liver were studied using light microscopy. These results suggest that GPx-1, MDA and liver histology which represent molecular, biochemical and histological levels, can be used as potential biomarkers to monitor Cd pollution. The overall findings also highlight the potential use of those three bio-indicators combined together as a multi-level tool (molecular, biochemical and histological levels) when monitoring Cd contamination and other possible exogenetic pollutants in aquatic environment. PMID:26707212

  12. Histology of salmonid testes during maturation.

    PubMed

    Dziewulska, Katarzyna; Domagała, Józef

    2003-03-01

    The commonly applied classification systems of fish gonad maturity divide the maturation process into certain stages. However, the scales do not entirely reflect the continuity of the maturation process. Based on light microscope observations, the paper describes a comprehensive pattern of testicular transformations during maturation. The study was carried out on precocious underyearling and 1-year-old males of sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta L.), 1-year-old males of salmon (Salmo salar L.), and males of brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario L.) aged from 7 months to 4 years. A total of 821 gonads collected during all seasons of the year were examined. The fish were fixed in Bouin's fluid. Histological slides of the mid-part of the gonad were made using the standard paraffin technique. The 3-6 microm sections were stained with Heidenhain haematoxylin. Histological changes of testes during maturation were similar in the three species studied. Immature and resting gonads contained type A spermatogonia in lobules only. The appearance of cystic structures containing type B spermatogonia in the lobules signalled the beginning of the sexual cycle in male gonads. Type B spermatogonia underwent synchronous mitotic divisions resulting in an increase in the total number of spermatogonia. As the spermatogenesis continued, the gonads showed a gradual increase in the number of cysts containing cells at all the spermatogenetic stages: type B spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa. The well-formed spermatozoa were released to the lobule lumen once the Sertoli cells and spermatozoa connections broke up and the cyst disappeared. This was a continuous process observed throughout the spawning season. The spermatozoa were moved to the efferent duct. While some of the germ cells were completing spermatogenesis, the lobules contained less and less cysts with type B spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, and spermatids; eventually all

  13. Technological and Traditional Drawing Approaches Encourage Active Engagement in Histology Classes for Science Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogdell, Barbara; Torsney, Ben; Stewart, Katherine; Smith, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    In order to promote more active engagement of science undergraduates in histology practical classes some technology-based innovations were introduced. First, an interactive pre-lab tutorial was set up using an electronic handset voting system, where guidance on tissue analysis was given. Second, a web-based resource where students could access…

  14. Extraction of DNA from small sections of frozen tissue with simultaneous histological examination.

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, F E; Hall, P A; Young, B D

    1988-01-01

    Though analysis of small sections of biopsy material by molecular techniques permits increased sensitivity, it also requires accurate histological examination of the tissue in order to reduce sampling error. A technique for the extraction of DNA from small sections of frozen biopsy material with simultaneous histological examination from adjacent sections is described that may enhance the accuracy of characterisation of the tissue, particularly where there is focal variation. The quality of the DNA obtained enables a full range of molecular studies to be carried out. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:3192737

  15. Bayesian spatiotemporal analysis of zero-inflated biological population density data by a delta-normal spatiotemporal additive model.

    PubMed

    Arcuti, Simona; Pollice, Alessio; Ribecco, Nunziata; D'Onghia, Gianfranco

    2016-03-01

    We evaluate the spatiotemporal changes in the density of a particular species of crustacean known as deep-water rose shrimp, Parapenaeus longirostris, based on biological sample data collected during trawl surveys carried out from 1995 to 2006 as part of the international project MEDITS (MEDiterranean International Trawl Surveys). As is the case for many biological variables, density data are continuous and characterized by unusually large amounts of zeros, accompanied by a skewed distribution of the remaining values. Here we analyze the normalized density data by a Bayesian delta-normal semiparametric additive model including the effects of covariates, using penalized regression with low-rank thin-plate splines for nonlinear spatial and temporal effects. Modeling the zero and nonzero values by two joint processes, as we propose in this work, allows to obtain great flexibility and easily handling of complex likelihood functions, avoiding inaccurate statistical inferences due to misclassification of the high proportion of exact zeros in the model. Bayesian model estimation is obtained by Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations, suitably specifying the complex likelihood function of the zero-inflated density data. The study highlights relevant nonlinear spatial and temporal effects and the influence of the annual Mediterranean oscillations index and of the sea surface temperature on the distribution of the deep-water rose shrimp density. PMID:26418888

  16. Spectroscopic analysis of porphyrin compounds irradiated with visible light in chloroform with addition of β-myrcene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena; Gladysz-Plaska, Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    The behaviour of two porphyrins, 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine (H2TPP) and 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H, 23H-porphine (H2TPyP), as well as their Zn(II) complexes (ZnTPP and ZnTPyP), have been studied analysing their absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra in chloroform with addition of β-myrcene. After irradiation with visible light the free-base porphyrins have been converted to the form of dication on account of hydrochloric acid generated as a result of chloroform decomposition induced by β-myrcene. Whereas in case of their Zn(II) complexes the mechanism of action is more complicated, leading presumably to the formation of the aggregated metalloporphyrin species with chloride ions playing the bridging role. The pseudo-first-order rate constants of the absorption quenching process were calculated for all the systems examined, with respect to the porphyrin concentration. The most effective irradiation was observed in case of H2TPP porphyrin.

  17. Design and analysis of a piezoelectric material based touch screen with additional pressure and its acceleration measurement functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xiang-Cheng; Liu, Jia-Yi; Gao, Ren-Long; Chang, Jie; Li, Long-Tu

    2013-12-01

    Touch screens are becoming more and more prevalent in everyday environments due to their convenience and humanized operation. In this paper, a piezoelectric material based touch screen is developed and investigated. Piezoelectric ceramics arrayed under the touch panel at the edges or corners are used as tactile sensors to measure the touch positioning point similarly to conventional touch screens. However, additional touch pressure and its acceleration performance can also be obtained to obtain a higher-level human-machine interface. The piezoelectric ceramics can also be added to a traditional touch screen structure, or they can be used independently to construct a novel touch screen with a high light transmittance approach to a transparent glass. The piezoelectric ceramics were processed from PZT piezoelectric ceramic powder into a round or rectangular shape. According to the varied touch position and physical press strength of a finger, or even a gloved hand or fingernail, the piezoelectric tactile sensors will have different output voltage responses. By calculating the ratio of different piezoelectric tactile sensors’ responses and summing up all piezoelectric tactile sensors’ output voltages, the touch point position, touch pressure and touch force acceleration can be detected. A prototype of such a touch screen is manufactured and its position accuracy, touch pressure and response speed are measured in detail. The experimental results show that the prototype has many advantages such as high light transmittance, low energy cost and high durability.

  18. Performance analysis for time-frequency MUSIC algorithm in presence of both additive noise and array calibration errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodja, Mohamed; Belouchrani, Adel; Abed-Meraim, Karim

    2012-12-01

    This article deals with the application of Spatial Time-Frequency Distribution (STFD) to the direction finding problem using the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC)algorithm. A comparative performance analysis is performed for the method under consideration with respect to that using data covariance matrix when the received array signals are subject to calibration errors in a non-stationary environment. An unified analytical expression of the Direction Of Arrival (DOA) error estimation is derived for both methods. Numerical results show the effect of the parameters intervening in the derived expression on the algorithm performance. It is particularly observed that for low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and high Signal to sensor Perturbation Ratio (SPR) the STFD method gives better performance, while for high SNR and for the same SPR both methods give similar performance.

  19. The Addition of Noncondensable Gases into RELAP5-3D for Analysis of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    C. B. Davis; C. H. Oh

    2003-08-01

    Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide have been added to the RELAP5-3D computer code as noncondensable gases to support analysis of high temperature gas-cooled reactors. Models of these gases are required to simulate the effects of air ingress on graphite oxidation following a loss-of-coolant accident. Correlations were developed for specific internal energy, thermal conductivity, and viscosity for each gas at temperatures up to 3000 K. The existing model for internal energy (a quadratic function of temperature) was not sufficiently accurate at these high temperatures and was replaced by a more general, fourth-order polynomial. The maximum deviation between the correlations and the underlying data was 2.2% for the specific internal energy and 7% for the specific heat capacity at constant volume. The maximum deviation in the transport properties was 4% for oxygen and carbon monoxide and 12% for carbon dioxide.

  20. Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Tailoring Resection to Histologic Subtype.

    PubMed

    Cable, Matthew G; Randall, R Lor

    2016-10-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas comprise tumors originating from mesenchymal or connective tissue. Histologic grade is integral to prognosis. Because sarcoma management is multimodal, histologic subtype should inform optimum treatment. Appropriate biopsy and communication between surgeon and pathologist can help ensure a correct diagnosis. Treatment often involves surgical excision with wide margins and adjuvant radiotherapy. There is no consensus on what constitutes an adequate margin for histologic subtypes. An appreciation of how histology corresponds with tumor biology and surgical anatomic constraints is needed for management of this disease. Even with the surgical goal of wide resection being obtained, many patients do not outlive their disease. PMID:27591492

  1. Can endoscopic atrophy predict histological atrophy? Historical study in United Kingdom and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Shin; Gotoda, Takuji; Yoshida, Shigeaki; Oda, Ichiro; Kondo, Hitoshi; Gatta, Luigi; Naylor, Greg; Dixon, Michael; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Axon, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the diagnostic concordance between endoscopic and histological atrophy in the United Kingdom and Japan. METHODS: Using published data, a total of 252 patients, 126 in the United Kingdom and 126 in Japan, aged 20 to 80 years, were evaluated. The extent of endoscopic atrophy was classified into five subgroups according to a modified Kimura-Takemoto classification system and was compared with histological findings of atrophy at five biopsy sites according to the updated Sydney system. RESULTS: The strength of agreement of the extent of atrophy between histology and visual endoscopic inspection showed good reproducibility, with a weighted kappa value of 0.76 (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that three factors were associated with decreased concordance: Japanese ethnicity [odds ratio (OR) 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11-0.43], older age (OR = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.16-0.66) and endoscopic atrophy (OR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.03-0.36). The strength of agreement between endoscopic and histological atrophy, assessed by cancer risk-oriented grading, was reproducible, with a kappa value of 0.81 (95%CI: 0.75-0.87). Only nine patients (3.6%) were endoscopically underdiagnosed with antral predominant rather than extensive atrophy and were considered false negatives. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic grading can predict histological atrophy with few false negatives, indicating that precancerous conditions can be identified during screening endoscopy, particularly in patients in western countries. PMID:26673849

  2. Immunohistochemical expression of p53 and its clinicopathological correlation with modified Anneroth's histological grading system

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Kajal V; Chalishazar, Monali; Dave, Vishal R; Panja, Pritam; Singh, Manisha; Modi, Tapan G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an epithelial neoplasm generally beginning as focal overgrowth of altered stem cells near the basement membrane, moving upward and laterally, replacing the normal epithelium. Histopathological grading has been used for many decades in an attempt to predict the clinical behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma. In the present study, Forty biopsies were studied for histological grading and p53 expression. The p53 expression was studied in relation to clinical parameters such as age, sex of patient and site of tumors. Relation between histological grade of malignancy and p53 protein expression was analysed. All cases were classified according to Anneroth's histological malignancy grading system (1987). Materials and Methods: 40 cases of OSCC were assessed for clinical parameters, Anneroth's histological grading and immunohistochemically stained with p53 protien. Statistical Analysis: The results obtained were analyzed using Spearman's Co-relation. Observations and Results: The positive expression of p53 was found in 62% of carcinomas studied. Positivity of p53 showed correlation with histological grade of malignancy and with individual parameters like degree of keratinization, nuclear polymorphism, number of mitoses and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration while showed a negative correlation with pattern of invasion. Conclusion: Our study showed a significant correlation between parameters of tumor cell population, lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and p53 expression. A significant association between high grade of malignancy and p53 overexpression and insignificant correlation of p53 with age, sex of the patient and site of the tumor was found. PMID:27194859

  3. Comparing histology and gonadosomatic index for determining spawning condition of small-bodied riverine fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, S.K.; Rabeni, C.F.; Papoulias, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    We compared gonadosomatic index (GSI) and histological analysis of ovaries for identifying reproductive periods of fishes to determine the validity of using GSI in future studies. Four small-bodied riverine species were examined in our comparison of the two methods. Mean GSI was significantly different between all histological stages for suckermouth minnow and red shiner. Mean GSI was significantly different between most stages for slenderhead darter; whereas stages 3 and 6 were not significantly different, the time period when these stages are present would allow fisheries biologists to distinguish between the two stages. Mean GSI was not significantly different for many histological stages in stonecat. Difficulties in distinguishing between histological stages and GSI associated with stonecat illustrate potential problems obtaining appropriate sample sizes from species that move to alternative habitats to spawn. We suggest that GSI would be a useful tool in identifying mature ovaries in many small-bodied, multiple-spawning fishes. This information could be combined with data from histology during mature periods to pinpoint specific spawning events. ?? 2007 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  4. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology vs. the Postoperative Histology - the Continuing Need for Multi-Disciplinary Approach?

    PubMed

    Gill, G; Kalyanasundaram, K; Varughese, G; Wilson, P; Varadhan, L

    2016-07-01

    We set out to investigate the concordance rates that were observed between fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA) compared with that of the post operative histology obtained for thyroid nodules over an 8 year period at a large university hospital.A retrospective analysis of 355 cases was conducted; patients operated for hyperthyroidism were excluded for the purposes of this study. We identified malignancy in a total of 101 cases (28%) The chance of malignancy with 2 Thy1 specimens was 5% in this study and 9% was observed in those with a Thy 2 FNA. On the converse, 7% of patient had malignant cytology on FNA though post-operative histology turned out to be benign.This therefore highlights the potential for discordance between thyroid FNA cytology and post-operative histology in the assessment of any thyroid nodule and thus reinforcing the need for a multidisciplinary approach in the assessment of all thyroid nodules. PMID:27223871

  5. In Vivo Mouse Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Model Based on a New Histological Classification

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Takashi; Sudo, Hideki; Iwasaki, Koji; Tsujimoto, Takeru; Ito, Yoichi M.; Iwasaki, Norimasa

    2016-01-01

    Although human intervertebral disc degeneration can lead to several spinal diseases, its pathogenesis remains unclear. This study aimed to create a new histological classification applicable to an in vivo mouse intervertebral disc degeneration model induced by needle puncture. One hundred six mice were operated and the L4/5 intervertebral disc was punctured with a 35- or 33-gauge needle. Micro-computed tomography scanning was performed, and the punctured region was confirmed. Evaluation was performed by using magnetic resonance imaging and histology by employing our classification scoring system. Our histological classification scores correlated well with the findings of magnetic resonance imaging and could detect degenerative progression, irrespective of the punctured region. However, the magnetic resonance imaging analysis revealed that there was no significant degenerative intervertebral disc change between the ventrally punctured and non-punctured control groups. To induce significant degeneration in the lumbar intervertebral discs, the central or dorsal region should be punctured instead of the ventral region. PMID:27482708

  6. Analysis of the Diversity of Substrate Utilisation of Soil Bacteria Exposed to Cd and Earthworm Activity Using Generalised Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Muñiz, Selene; Lacarta, Juan; Pata, María P.; Jiménez, Juan José; Navarro, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Biolog EcoPlates™ can be used to measure the carbon substrate utilisation patterns of microbial communities. This method results in a community-level physiological profile (CLPP), which yields a very large amount of data that may be difficult to interpret. In this work, we explore a combination of statistical techniques (particularly the use of generalised additive models [GAMs]) to improve the exploitation of CLPP data. The strength of GAMs lies in their ability to address highly non-linear relationships between the response and the set of explanatory variables. We studied the impact of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny 1826) and cadmium (Cd) on the CLPP of soil bacteria. The results indicated that both Cd and earthworms modified the CLPP. GAMs were used to assess time-course changes in the diversity of substrate utilisation (DSU) using the Shannon-Wiener index. GAMs revealed significant differences for all treatments (compared to control -S-). The Cd exposed microbial community presented very high metabolic capacities on a few substrata, resulting in an initial acute decrease of DSU (i.e. intense utilization of a few carbon substrata). After 54 h, and over the next 43 h the increase of the DSU suggest that other taxa, less dominant, reached high numbers in the wells containing sources that are less suitable for the Cd-tolerant taxa. Earthworms were a much more determining factor in explaining time course changes in DSU than Cd. Accordingly, Ew and EwCd soils presented similar trends, regardless the presence of Cd. Moreover, both treatments presented similar number of bacteria and higher than Cd-treated soils. This experimental approach, based on the use of DSU and GAMs allowed for a global and statistically relevant interpretation of the changes in carbon source utilisation, highlighting the key role of earthworms on the protection of microbial communities against the Cd. PMID:24416339

  7. Spermatogenesis in Leptodactylus chaquensis. Histological study.

    PubMed

    Iruzubieta Villagra, Ana Lucrecia; Cisint, Susana Beatriz; Crespo, Claudia Alejandra; Medina, Marcela Fátima; Ramos, Inés; Fernández, Silvia Nélida

    2014-08-01

    The organization and the histological characteristics of Leptodactylus chaquensis testis throughout the reproductive cycle were analyzed in the presented study. Gonads of adult males, processed with routine techniques for optical microscopy, revealed that during the reproductive period the seminiferous tubules were characterized by presentation of a large number of cysts, germ cells at the same maturation stage supported by Sertoli cells. All the germ line cells were also present in the postreproductive period and maintained their morphological characteristics. Primary spermatogonia were large-sized cells found isolated or in small groups. The rest of the cells of the germ line formed cysts. Secondary spermatogonia showed morphological characteristics similar to their predecessors, although they were smaller. Primary and secondary spermatocytes showed images of the different stages of the first and second meiotic division respectively. One finding was the presence of intercytoplasmic bridges between the secondary spermatocytes. Primary spermatids were rounded cells with an acrosomal vesicle associated with the nucleus and had cysts that were characterized by large intercellular spaces. Secondary spermatids were elongated cells with a well defined acrosome, which in the spermatozoa had the shape of an arrowhead. Another peculiar characteristic of this species was the fusion of the walls of the seminiferous tubule with the efferent duct that formed a path for spermatozoa during spermiation. The presence in the seminiferous tubules of all stages of the spermatogenic line during the two periods of the cycle studied indicated that Leptodactylus chaquensis had a potentially continuous reproductive cycle. PMID:23171585

  8. Histological investigations on the Tyrolean Ice Man.

    PubMed

    Hess, M W; Klima, G; Pfaller, K; Künzel, K H; Gaber, O

    1998-08-01

    The 5,200-year-old Tyrolean Ice Man discovered in 1991 in the Otztal Alps is the world's most ancient known human glacier mummy. Histological investigation was aimed at 1) optimizing specimen preparation and 2) documenting the preservation state of (sub)cellular components. Minute pieces of frozen tissue were removed endoscopically from rib bone and cartilage, major blood vessels, oral cavity and alimentary tract, liver, spleen, diaphragm, respiratory system, femoral muscle and nerve, sympathetic trunk, brain, and skin. Double fixation with glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide and embedding in Epon/Araldite epoxy resins proved to be the method of choice for both light and transmission electron microscopy combined with classical histochemistry. In particular, mild evacuation of the desiccated tissue was determined to be essential to ensure homogeneous infiltration with fixatives and resins; as a result, sections of excellent quality could be obtained with any kind of sample. With regard to the preservation degree of (sub)cellular components, distinct tissue-specific patterns were observed. There were highly intact skeletal and connective tissues proper, however, most interestingly, there were remarkably intact nervous tissue components as well. By contrast, epithelial, muscle, and reticular connective tissues as well as blood had generally disintegrated due to autolysis, freeze/thaw damage, and adipocere formation. For a tentative interpretation of these patterns, we considered general aspects of cryopreservation, such as physicochemical properties of subcellular constituents and tissue physiology. PMID:9712480

  9. Meta-analysis of gene–environment-wide association scans accounting for education level identifies additional loci for refractive error

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qiao; Verhoeven, Virginie J. M.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Barathi, Veluchamy A.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Höhn, René; Vitart, Veronique; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Yamashiro, Kenji; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lu, Yi; Haller, Toomas; Xie, Jing; Delcourt, Cécile; Pirastu, Mario; Wedenoja, Juho; Gharahkhani, Puya; Venturini, Cristina; Miyake, Masahiro; Hewitt, Alex W.; Guo, Xiaobo; Mazur, Johanna; Huffman, Jenifer E.; Williams, Katie M.; Polasek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Vatavuk, Zoran; Wilson, James F.; Joshi, Peter K.; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M.; Simpson, Claire L.; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Igo, Robert P.; Mirshahi, Alireza; Cougnard-Gregoire, Audrey; Bellenguez, Céline; Blettner, Maria; Raitakari, Olli; Kähönen, Mika; Seppala, Ilkka; Zeller, Tanja; Meitinger, Thomas; Ried, Janina S.; Gieger, Christian; Portas, Laura; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Amin, Najaf; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Xu; Tai-Hui Boh, Eileen; Ikram, M. Kamran; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Gupta, Preeti; Tan, Vincent; Zhou, Lei; Ho, Candice E. H.; Lim, Wan'e; Beuerman, Roger W.; Siantar, Rosalynn; Tai, E-Shyong; Vithana, Eranga; Mihailov, Evelin; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Hayward, Caroline; Luben, Robert N.; Foster, Paul J.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Hoi-Suen; Mitchell, Paul; Metspalu, Andres; Aung, Tin; Young, Terri L.; He, Mingguang; Pärssinen, Olavi; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Jin Wang, Jie; Williams, Cathy; Jonas, Jost B.; Teo, Yik-Ying; Mackey, David A.; Oexle, Konrad; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Paterson, Andrew D.; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Wong, Tien-Yin; Baird, Paul N.; Stambolian, Dwight; Wilson, Joan E. Bailey; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Hammond, Christopher J.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Kemp, John P.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Smith, George Davey; Craig, Jamie E.; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Fogarty, Rhys D.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Chew, Emily; Janmahasatian, Sarayut; Martin, Nicholas G.; MacGregor, Stuart; Xu, Liang; Schache, Maria; Nangia, Vinay; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Wright, Alan F.; Fondran, Jeremy R.; Lass, Jonathan H.; Feng, Sheng; Zhao, Jing Hua; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick J.; Rantanen, Taina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Li Jia; Tam, Pancy O.; Jhanji, Vishal; Young, Alvin L.; Döring, Angela; Raffel, Leslie J.; Cotch, Mary-Frances; Li, Xiaohui; Yip, Shea Ping; Yap, Maurice K.H.; Biino, Ginevra; Vaccargiu, Simona; Fossarello, Maurizio; Fleck, Brian; Yazar, Seyhan; Tideman, Jan Willem L.; Tedja, Milly; Deangelis, Margaret M.; Morrison, Margaux; Farrer, Lindsay; Zhou, Xiangtian; Chen, Wei; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Meguro, Akira; Mäkelä, Kari Matti

    2016-01-01

    Myopia is the most common human eye disorder and it results from complex genetic and environmental causes. The rapidly increasing prevalence of myopia poses a major public health challenge. Here, the CREAM consortium performs a joint meta-analysis to test single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) main effects and SNP × education interaction effects on refractive error in 40,036 adults from 25 studies of European ancestry and 10,315 adults from 9 studies of Asian ancestry. In European ancestry individuals, we identify six novel loci (FAM150B-ACP1, LINC00340, FBN1, DIS3L-MAP2K1, ARID2-SNAT1 and SLC14A2) associated with refractive error. In Asian populations, three genome-wide significant loci AREG, GABRR1 and PDE10A also exhibit strong interactions with education (P<8.5 × 10−5), whereas the interactions are less evident in Europeans. The discovery of these loci represents an important advance in understanding how gene and environment interactions contribute to the heterogeneity of myopia. PMID:27020472

  10. Theoretical study of the molecular force field and vibration analysis of the hydrogen cyanide addition compound with boron tribromide.

    PubMed

    Hase, Y

    2010-01-01

    An extensive HF, MP2, B3LYP and CCSD study of the molecular structure, force field and normal vibrations has been carried out for the hydrogen cyanide compound with boron tribromide. Most of the calculations agree that the HCN-BBr(3) molecule belongs to C(3v) point group and has a N-B length of 1.55-1.70 A and a N-B-Br angle of 103-105 degrees. These calculations also have estimated the missing low-wavenumber fundamentals in the 190 (nu(5)), 150 (nu(9)) and 105 cm(-1) (nu(10)) regions, instead of the supposed fundamentals at 207, 188 and 150 cm(-1), respectively, based on the combination bands. The quantum chemical force constants, by the B3LYP/6-31G and CCSD/3-21G calculations, have been adjusted by the scaling factors to reproduce the fundamentals in the literature [3] to include the bands below 200 cm(-1) proposed in this study. Normal coordinate analysis using the scaled force constants has been performed to interpret the molecular vibrations of four isotopic molecules, HCN-(10)BBr(3), HCN-(11)BBr(3), DCN-(10)BBr(3) and DCN-(11)BBr(3). PMID:19955013

  11. Theoretical study of the molecular force field and vibration analysis of the hydrogen cyanide addition compound with boron tribromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, Y.

    2010-01-01

    An extensive HF, MP2, B3LYP and CCSD study of the molecular structure, force field and normal vibrations has been carried out for the hydrogen cyanide compound with boron tribromide. Most of the calculations agree that the HCN-BBr 3 molecule belongs to C3v point group and has a N-B length of 1.55-1.70 Å and a N-B-Br angle of 103-105°. These calculations also have estimated the missing low-wavenumber fundamentals in the 190 ( ν5), 150 ( ν9) and 105 cm -1 ( ν10) regions, instead of the supposed fundamentals at 207, 188 and 150 cm -1, respectively, based on the combination bands. The quantum chemical force constants, by the B3LYP/6-31G and CCSD/3-21G calculations, have been adjusted by the scaling factors to reproduce the fundamentals in the literature [3] to include the bands below 200 cm -1 proposed in this study. Normal coordinate analysis using the scaled force constants has been performed to interpret the molecular vibrations of four isotopic molecules, HCN- 10BBr 3, HCN- 11BBr 3, DCN- 10BBr 3 and DCN- 11BBr 3.

  12. Meta-analysis of gene-environment-wide association scans accounting for education level identifies additional loci for refractive error.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qiao; Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Wojciechowski, Robert; Barathi, Veluchamy A; Hysi, Pirro G; Guggenheim, Jeremy A; Höhn, René; Vitart, Veronique; Khawaja, Anthony P; Yamashiro, Kenji; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lu, Yi; Haller, Toomas; Xie, Jing; Delcourt, Cécile; Pirastu, Mario; Wedenoja, Juho; Gharahkhani, Puya; Venturini, Cristina; Miyake, Masahiro; Hewitt, Alex W; Guo, Xiaobo; Mazur, Johanna; Huffman, Jenifer E; Williams, Katie M; Polasek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Vatavuk, Zoran; Wilson, James F; Joshi, Peter K; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M; Simpson, Claire L; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Igo, Robert P; Mirshahi, Alireza; Cougnard-Gregoire, Audrey; Bellenguez, Céline; Blettner, Maria; Raitakari, Olli; Kähönen, Mika; Seppala, Ilkka; Zeller, Tanja; Meitinger, Thomas; Ried, Janina S; Gieger, Christian; Portas, Laura; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Amin, Najaf; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Vingerling, Johannes R; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Xu; Tai-Hui Boh, Eileen; Ikram, M Kamran; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Gupta, Preeti; Tan, Vincent; Zhou, Lei; Ho, Candice E H; Lim, Wan'e; Beuerman, Roger W; Siantar, Rosalynn; Tai, E-Shyong; Vithana, Eranga; Mihailov, Evelin; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Hayward, Caroline; Luben, Robert N; Foster, Paul J; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Hoi-Suen; Mitchell, Paul; Metspalu, Andres; Aung, Tin; Young, Terri L; He, Mingguang; Pärssinen, Olavi; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Jin Wang, Jie; Williams, Cathy; Jonas, Jost B; Teo, Yik-Ying; Mackey, David A; Oexle, Konrad; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Paterson, Andrew D; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Wong, Tien-Yin; Baird, Paul N; Stambolian, Dwight; Wilson, Joan E Bailey; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Hammond, Christopher J; Klaver, Caroline C W; Saw, Seang-Mei; Rahi, Jugnoo S; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Kemp, John P; Timpson, Nicholas J; Smith, George Davey; Craig, Jamie E; Burdon, Kathryn P; Fogarty, Rhys D; Iyengar, Sudha K; Chew, Emily; Janmahasatian, Sarayut; Martin, Nicholas G; MacGregor, Stuart; Xu, Liang; Schache, Maria; Nangia, Vinay; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Wright, Alan F; Fondran, Jeremy R; Lass, Jonathan H; Feng, Sheng; Zhao, Jing Hua; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick J; Rantanen, Taina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Li Jia; Tam, Pancy O; Jhanji, Vishal; Young, Alvin L; Döring, Angela; Raffel, Leslie J; Cotch, Mary-Frances; Li, Xiaohui; Yip, Shea Ping; Yap, Maurice K H; Biino, Ginevra; Vaccargiu, Simona; Fossarello, Maurizio; Fleck, Brian; Yazar, Seyhan; Tideman, Jan Willem L; Tedja, Milly; Deangelis, Margaret M; Morrison, Margaux; Farrer, Lindsay; Zhou, Xiangtian; Chen, Wei; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Meguro, Akira; Mäkelä, Kari Matti

    2016-01-01

    Myopia is the most common human eye disorder and it results from complex genetic and environmental causes. The rapidly increasing prevalence of myopia poses a major public health challenge. Here, the CREAM consortium performs a joint meta-analysis to test single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) main effects and SNP × education interaction effects on refractive error in 40,036 adults from 25 studies of European ancestry and 10,315 adults from 9 studies of Asian ancestry. In European ancestry individuals, we identify six novel loci (FAM150B-ACP1, LINC00340, FBN1, DIS3L-MAP2K1, ARID2-SNAT1 and SLC14A2) associated with refractive error. In Asian populations, three genome-wide significant loci AREG, GABRR1 and PDE10A also exhibit strong interactions with education (P<8.5 × 10(-5)), whereas the interactions are less evident in Europeans. The discovery of these loci represents an important advance in understanding how gene and environment interactions contribute to the heterogeneity of myopia. PMID:27020472

  13. Well-to-Wheels analysis of landfill gas-based pathways and their addition to the GREET model.

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-30

    Today, approximately 300 million standard cubic ft/day (mmscfd) of natural gas and 1600 MW of electricity are produced from the decomposition of organic waste at 519 U.S. landfills (EPA 2010a). Since landfill gas (LFG) is a renewable resource, this energy is considered renewable. When used as a vehicle fuel, compressed natural gas (CNG) produced from LFG consumes up to 185,000 Btu of fossil fuel and generates from 1.5 to 18.4 kg of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) emissions per million Btu of fuel on a 'well-to-wheel' (WTW) basis. This compares with approximately 1.1 million Btu and 78.2 kg of CO{sub 2}e per million Btu for CNG from fossil natural gas and 1.2 million Btu and 97.5 kg of CO{sub 2}e per million Btu for petroleum gasoline. Because of the additional energy required for liquefaction, LFG-based liquefied natural gas (LNG) requires more fossil fuel (222,000-227,000 Btu/million Btu WTW) and generates more GHG emissions (approximately 22 kg CO{sub 2}e /MM Btu WTW) if grid electricity is used for the liquefaction process. However, if some of the LFG is used to generate electricity for gas cleanup and liquefaction (or compression, in the case of CNG), vehicle fuel produced from LFG can have no fossil fuel input and only minimal GHG emissions (1.5-7.7 kg CO{sub 2}e /MM Btu) on a WTW basis. Thus, LFG-based natural gas can be one of the lowest GHG-emitting fuels for light- or heavy-duty vehicles. This report discusses the size and scope of biomethane resources from landfills and the pathways by which those resources can be turned into and utilized as vehicle fuel. It includes characterizations of the LFG stream and the processes used to convert low-Btu LFG into high-Btu renewable natural gas (RNG); documents the conversion efficiencies and losses of those processes, the choice of processes modeled in GREET, and other assumptions used to construct GREET pathways; and presents GREET results by pathway stage. GREET estimates of well-to-pump (WTP), pump

  14. Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae kap108Δ Mutants upon Addition of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Kenneth D.; Larson, Nathaniel; Kahn, Jonathan; Tkachev, Dmitry; Ay, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Protein transport between the nucleus and cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is tightly regulated, providing a mechanism for controlling intracellular localization of proteins, and regulating gene expression. In this study, we have investigated the importance of nucleocytoplasmic transport mediated by the karyopherin Kap108 in regulating cellular responses to oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We carried out microarray analyses on wild-type and kap108 mutant cells grown under normal conditions, shortly after introduction of oxidative stress, after 1 hr of oxidative stress, and 1 hr after oxidative stress was removed. We observe more than 500 genes that undergo a 40% or greater change in differential expression between wild-type and kap108Δ cells under at least one of these conditions. Genes undergoing changes in expression can be categorized in two general groups: 1) those that are differentially expressed between wild-type and kap108Δ cells, no matter the oxidative stress conditions; and 2) those that have patterns of response dependent upon both the absence of Kap108, and introduction or removal of oxidative stress. Gene ontology analysis reveals that, among the genes whose expression is reduced in the absence of Kap108 are those involved in stress response and intracellular transport, while those overexpressed are largely involved in mating and pheromone response. We also identified 25 clusters of genes that undergo similar patterns of change in gene expression when oxidative stresses are added and subsequently removed, including genes involved in stress response, oxidation–reduction processing, iron homeostasis, ascospore wall assembly, transmembrane transport, and cell fusion during mating. These data suggest that Kap108 is important for regulating expression of genes involved in a variety of specific cell functions. PMID:26888869

  15. Histological Assessment of PAXgene Tissue Fixation and Stabilization Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Kap, Marcel; Smedts, Frank; Oosterhuis, Wolter; Winther, Rosa; Christensen, Nanna; Reischauer, Bilge; Viertler, Christian; Groelz, Daniel; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Zatloukal, Kurt; Langer, Rupert; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Bodo, Koppany; de Jong, Bas; Oelmuller, Uwe; Riegman, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Within SPIDIA, an EC FP7 project aimed to improve pre analytic procedures, the PAXgene Tissue System (PAXgene), was designed to improve tissue quality for parallel molecular and morphological analysis. Within the SPIDIA project promising results were found in both genomic and proteomic experiments with PAXgene-fixed and paraffin embedded tissue derived biomolecules. But, for this technology to be accepted for use in both clinical and basic research, it is essential that its adequacy for preserving morphology and antigenicity is validated relative to formalin fixation. It is our aim to assess the suitability of PAXgene tissue fixation for (immuno)histological methods. Normal human tissue specimens (n = 70) were collected and divided into equal parts for fixation either with formalin or PAXgene. Sections of the obtained paraffin-embedded tissue were cut and stained. Morphological aspects of PAXgene-fixed tissue were described and also scored relative to formalin-fixed tissue. Performance of PAXgene-fixed tissue in immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization assays was also assessed relative to the corresponding formalin-fixed tissues. Morphology of PAXgene-fixed paraffin embedded tissue was well preserved and deemed adequate for diagnostics in most cases. Some antigens in PAXgene-fixed and paraffin embedded sections were detectable without the need for antigen retrieval, while others were detected using standard, formalin fixation based, immunohistochemistry protocols. Comparable results were obtained with in situ hybridization and histochemical stains. Basically all assessed histological techniques were found to be applicable to PAXgene-fixed and paraffin embedded tissue. In general results obtained with PAXgene-fixed tissue are comparable to those of formalin-fixed tissue. Compromises made in morphology can be called minor compared to the advantages in the molecular pathology possibilities. PMID:22110732

  16. Adequate histologic sectioning of prostate needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, David G; Kahane, Hillel

    2013-08-01

    No standard method exists for sampling prostate needle biopsies, although most reports claim to embed 3 cores per block and obtain 3 slices from each block. This study was undertaken to determine the extent of histologic sectioning necessary for optimal examination of prostate biopsies. We prospectively compared the impact on cancer yield of submitting 1 biopsy core per cassette (biopsies from January 2010) with 3 cores per cassette (biopsies from August 2010) from a large national reference laboratory. Between 6 and 12 slices were obtained with the former 1-core method, resulting in 3 to 6 slices being placed on each of 2 slides; for the latter 3-core method, a limit of 6 slices was obtained, resulting in 3 slices being place on each of 2 slides. A total of 6708 sets of 12 to 18 core biopsies were studied, including 3509 biopsy sets from the 1-biopsy-core-per-cassette group (January 2010) and 3199 biopsy sets from the 3-biopsy-cores-percassette group (August 2010). The yield of diagnoses was classified as benign, atypical small acinar proliferation, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer and was similar with the 2 methods: 46.2%, 8.2%, 4.5%, and 41.1% and 46.7%, 6.3%, 4.4%, and 42.6%, respectively (P = .02). Submission of 1 core or 3 cores per cassette had no effect on the yield of atypical small acinar proliferation, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or cancer in prostate needle biopsies. Consequently, we recommend submission of 3 cores per cassette to minimize labor and cost of processing. PMID:23764163

  17. Lip enhancement: surgical alternatives and histologic aspects.

    PubMed

    Niechajev, I

    2000-03-01

    This study included 66 consecutive patients, 58 women and 8 men, who underwent 86 surgical procedures on the lips during 1989-1998. Lip enlargement was performed in 59 patients, and lip reduction was performed in 7 patients. Indications were purely aesthetic in 61 cases and reconstructive in 5 cases. The following surgical techniques were used for lip augmentation: implantation of crystal silicone, polyacrylamide hydrogel, Gore-Tex tubes, autologous fat, and dermis-fat graft. A new instrument originally designed by the author, the dermis-fat graft passer, significantly speeded up and facilitated execution of the latter procedure. Other operations included V-Y plasty, lip lifting by buffalo horn excision, lip lengthening by frenulum plasty, and lip reduction by wavy tangential excision. Eighty-six percent of patients could be followed up; the mean length of follow-up was 4.2 years. Use of silicone microparticles (Bioplastique) was abandoned because of the tendency for lumping. Polyacrylamide gel is promising because of its ease of use, and Gore-Tex tubes are promising because of their ability to create and accentuate the Cupid's bow form for the upper lip. However, these products are new, and follow-up studies with longer observation times are needed to reach definite conclusions. Of these studied methods, autologous fat transplant was found to be particularly useful for enlargement and restoration in cases of age-related atrophy of the lips and perioral tissues. Dermis-fat grafting was the most efficient, versatile, and reliable method of lip enlargement. Long-term survival of transplanted autologous tissues was confirmed by histologic studies of biopsy specimens. PMID:10724279

  18. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis of Thinopyrum chromatin in a wheat-Th. intermedium partial amphiploid and six derived chromosome addition lines

    PubMed

    Chen; Conner; Laroche; Ji; Armstrong; Fedak

    1999-12-01

    The genomic origin of alien chromosomes present in a wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAF46 (2n = 8x = 56) and six derived chromosome addition lines were analyzed by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using S genomic DNA from Pseudoroegneria strigosa (2n = 2x = 14, SS) as a probe. The GISH analysis clearly showed that the chromosome complement of the partial amphiploid TAF46 consists of an entire wheat genome plus one synthetic genome consisting of a mixture of six S genome chromosomes and eight J (=E) genome chromosomes derived from Th. intermedium (2n = 6x = 42, JJJ(s)J(s)SS). There were no Js genome chromosomes present in TAF46. The J genome chromosomes present in TAF46 displayed a unique GISH hybridization pattern with the S genomic DNA probe, in which S genome DNA strongly hybridized at the terminal regions and weakly hybridized over the remaining parts of the chromosomes. This provides a diagnostic marker for distinguishing J genome chromosomes from Js or S genome or wheat ABD genome chromosomes. The genomic origin of the alien chromosomes present in the six derived chromosome addition lines were identified by their characteristic GISH hybridization patterns with S genomic DNA probe. GISH analysis showed that addition lines L1, L2, L3, and L5 carried one pair of J genome chromosomes, while addition lines L4 and L7 each carried one pair of S genome chromosomes. GISH patterns detected by the S genome probe on addition line of L1 were identical to those of the J genome chromosomes present in the partial amphiploid TAF46, suggesting that these chromosomes were not structurally altered when they were transferred from TAF46 to addition lines. PMID:10659790

  19. Histologic remission: the ultimate therapeutic goal in ulcerative colitis?

    PubMed

    Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Bressenot, Aude; Kampman, Wendy

    2014-06-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease of the mucosal layer, and activity of the disease is assumed to be related to mucosal appearance. Mucosal healing has emerged as a major therapeutic goal in UC. Whether mucosal healing should be the ultimate therapeutic goal in these patients is unknown. Even when endoscopy suggests mucosal healing, evidence of histologic activity has been observed. Histologic healing requires complete recovery of the colonic mucosa, with absence of inflammation or structural changes. Histologic improvements have been linked with improved clinical outcomes, such as a reduced risk of relapse and need for surgery/hospitalization and a reduced risk of developing cancer. Hence, there is a rationale for aiming for histologic remission in UC. Numerous methods of classification of histologic activity in UC have been proposed, although only some of these are widely used. We review the current definitions of histologic remission, the range of scoring systems most commonly used, and the evidence of histologic improvement that is available from the latest therapies for UC. We also highlight questions that will require careful consideration if histologic remission is to become more widely used as an end point in clinical trials and a treatment goal in clinical practice. PMID:23911875

  20. Promoting Rapid Learning in the Histology Laboratory by Integrating Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Vonnie

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the results of incorporating technology in the histology laboratory by using high-resolution video-imaging equipment (VIE). The study sought to determine if (1) the VIE would allow students to more easily and rapidly find histological structures over more conventional methods, and (2) if they could find the structures with the…

  1. Bowenoid papulosis: clinical and histological study of eight cases.

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, E; Vilata, J J; Sanchez, J L; Lloret, A; Fortea, J M

    1987-01-01

    Eight cases of bowenoid papulosis are reported. The clinical diagnoses were confirmed by histology. In one case an immunoperoxidase method showed the presence of papillomavirus antigen in the nucleus of the most superficial epidermal cells. We consider bowenoid papulosis to be a condition with specific features that distinguish it clinically and histologically from carcinoma in situ and condylomata acuminata. Images PMID:3034760

  2. Dermoscopy of Grover's disease: Variability according to histological subtype.

    PubMed

    Errichetti, Enzo; De Francesco, Vincenzo; Pegolo, Enrico; Stinco, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Distinguishing Grover's disease from other papular dermatoses is often a troublesome task. According to two relatively recent case reports, dermoscopy may be useful in assisting the diagnosis of such a disorder by showing a peculiar pattern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermoscopic features of Grover's disease in a larger series of patients and correlate dermoscopy with histopathological findings. Seven patients with histopathologically confirmed Grover's disease were included in the study, with three of them displaying a Darier-like histology and the remaining four cases having a spongiotic histological pattern. The results of our study suggest that Grover's disease may display different features according to the histological subtype, with a central star-shaped/branched polygonal/roundish-oval brownish area surrounded by a whitish halo being characteristic of the Darier-like histological subtype and whitish scales over a reddish-yellowish background being characteristic of the spongiotic histological subtype. PMID:26892381

  3. Histological Study of Fresh Versus Frozen Semitendinous Muscle Tendon Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Bitar, Alexandre Carneiro; Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara; Croci, Alberto Tesconi; Pereira, João Alberto Ramos Maradei; França Bisneto, Edgard N.; Giovani, Arlete Mazzini Miranda; Oliveira, Claudia Regina G. C. M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to histologically analyze allografts from cadaveric semitendinous muscle after cryopreservation at −80°C in comparison to a control group kept at only −4°C to test the hypothesis that the histological characteristics of the tissue are maintained when the tendons are kept at lower temperatures. METHODS: In a tissue bank, 10 semitendinous tendons from 10 cadavers were frozen at −80ºC as a storage method for tissue preservation. They were kept frozen for 40 days, and then a histological study was carried out. Another 10 tendon samples were analyzed while still “fresh”. RESULTS: There was no histological difference between the fresh and frozen samples in relation to seven variables. CONCLUSIONS: Semitendinous muscle tendon allografts can be submitted to cryopreservation at −80ºC without suffering histological modifications. PMID:20360921

  4. Zonal T2* and T1Gd assessment of knee joint cartilage in various histological grades of cartilage degeneration: an observational in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bittersohl, Bernd; Hosalkar, Harish S; Miese, Falk R; Schibensky, Jonas; König, Dietmar P; Herten, Monika; Antoch, Gerald; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Zilkens, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Accurate assessment of cartilage status is increasingly becoming important to clinicians for offering joint preservation surgeries versus joint replacements. The goal of this study was to evaluate the validity of three-dimensional (3D), gradient-echo (GRE)-based T2* and T1Gd mapping for the assessment of various histological severities of degeneration in knee joint cartilage with potential implications for clinical management. Methods MRI and histological assessment were conducted in 36 ex vivo lateral femoral condyle specimens. The MRI protocol included a 3D GRE multiecho data image combination sequence in order to assess the T2* decay, a 3D double-echo steady-state sequence for assessment of cartilage morphology, and a dual flip angle 3D GRE sequence with volumetric interpolated breathhold examination for the T1Gd assessment. The histological sample analysis was performed according to the Mankin system. The data were then analysed statistically and correlated. Results We observed a significant decrease in the T2* and T1Gd values with increasing grades of cartilage degeneration (p<0.001) and a moderate correlation between T2* (r=0.514)/T1Gd (r=0.556) and the histological grading of cartilage degeneration (p<0.001). In addition, we noted a zonal variation in the T2* and T1Gd values reflecting characteristic zonal differences in the biochemical composition of hyaline cartilage. Conclusions This study outlines the potential of GRE-based T2* and T1Gd mapping to identify various grades of cartilage damage. Early changes in specific zones may assist clinicians in identifying methods of early intervention involving the targeted joint preservation approach versus moving forward with unicompartmental, bicompartmental or tricompartmental joint replacement procedures. Trial registration number DRKS00000729. PMID:25667150

  5. Three-dimensional histology: tools and application to quantitative assessment of cell-type distribution in rabbit heart

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Rebecca A.B.; Lee, Peter; Casero, Ramón; Garny, Alan; Siedlecka, Urszula; Schneider, Jürgen E.; Kohl, Peter; Grau, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Aims Cardiac histo-anatomical organization is a major determinant of function. Changes in tissue structure are a relevant factor in normal and disease development, and form targets of therapeutic interventions. The purpose of this study was to test tools aimed to allow quantitative assessment of cell-type distribution from large histology and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI) based datasets. Methods and results Rabbit heart fixation during cardioplegic arrest and MRI were followed by serial sectioning of the whole heart and light-microscopic imaging of trichrome-stained tissue. Segmentation techniques developed specifically for this project were applied to segment myocardial tissue in the MRI and histology datasets. In addition, histology slices were segmented into myocytes, connective tissue, and undefined. A bounding surface, containing the whole heart, was established for both MRI and histology. Volumes contained in the bounding surface (called ‘anatomical volume’), as well as that identified as containing any of the above tissue categories (called ‘morphological volume’), were calculated. The anatomical volume was 7.8 cm3 in MRI, and this reduced to 4.9 cm3 after histological processing, representing an ‘anatomical’ shrinkage by 37.2%. The morphological volume decreased by 48% between MRI and histology, highlighting the presence of additional tissue-level shrinkage (e.g. an increase in interstitial cleft space). The ratio of pixels classified as containing myocytes to pixels identified as non-myocytes was roughly 6:1 (61.6 vs. 9.8%; the remaining fraction of 28.6% was ‘undefined’). Conclusion Qualitative and quantitative differentiation between myocytes and connective tissue, using state-of-the-art high-resolution serial histology techniques, allows identification of cell-type distribution in whole-heart datasets. Comparison with MRI illustrates a pronounced reduction in anatomical and morphological volumes during histology processing. PMID

  6. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape. PMID:27610363

  7. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Da-Long; Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape. PMID:27610363

  8. The histologic features of intratubular germ cell neoplasia and its correlation with tumor behavior

    PubMed Central

    Basiri, Abbas; Movahhed, Saeed; Parvin, Mahmood; Salimi, Maziar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the prevalence of intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) in patients with concurrent testis tumor and its correlation with histologic features and serum tumor markers. Materials and Methods From 2003 to 2015, 179 patients underwent radical orchiectomy due to testicular mass. Tissue specimens were evaluated by an expert uro-pathologist using immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, in addition to light microscopy, to identify presence of ITGCN. Patients' demographic characteristics, histologic subtypes, pathologic stage of tumor and serum tumor markers were gathered and analyzed. Results Eighty-five out of 179 patients (47.5%) had concomitant ITGCN according to IHC staining. There was not statistically significant difference in histologic type, histologic components, cryptorchidism, and lymphovascular invasion between the 2 groups (p=0.151, p=0.11, p=0.233, p=0.413, and p=0.14, respectively). The prevalence of ITGCN was significantly higher in patients with stage T2 and T3 of tumor than those with stage T1. Elevated serum alpha feto protein level is much common in patients with ITGCN (p<0.001). Conclusions The prevalence of concurrent ITGCN in our region is lower than previous data from western countries. ITGCN is more common in higher tumor stages and is accompanied with elevated serum alpha feto protein levels before surgery. Presence of ITGCN in adjacent tissue may suggest a negative cancer behavior. PMID:27195317

  9. Histology, imaging and new diagnostic work-flows in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, John; Yagi, Yukako

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Since their introduction in 1999, fully automated, high speed, high-resolution whole slide imaging devices have become increasing more reliable, fast and capable. While by no means perfect, these devices have evolved to a point where one can consider placing them in a pre-diagnostic role in a clinical histology lab. Methods At the Massachusetts General Hospital, we are running a pilot study placing high end WSI devices in our main clinical histology lab (after the cover slipper and before slides are sent to the pathologist) to examine the requirement for both the machine and the laboratory. Results Placing WSI systems in the clinical lab stresses the system in terms of reliability and throughput. Significantly however, success requires significant modification to the lab workflow. It is likely laboratories need to move from manual, large batch processes to increasingly automated, continuous flow (or mini-batch) processes orchestrated by the LIS using bar coding to track and direct slides, and incorporating the decision to image into the specimen type and the histology orders. Furthermore, image quality, capture speed and reliability are functions of the quality of the histology presented to the WSI devices. Conclusion Imaging in pathology does not begin in a WSI robot but in the grossing room and in the histology lab. As more and more imaging devices are placed in histology lab, the inter-relationships histology and pathology imaging will become increasing understood. PMID:18673502

  10. Dental students' evaluations of an interactive histology software.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Cristian; Rubí, Rafael; Donoso, Manuel; Uribe, Sergio

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed dental students' evaluations of a new Interactive Histology Software (IHS) developed by the authors and compared students' assessment of the extent to which this new software, as well as other histology teaching methods, supported their learning. The IHS is a computer-based tool for histology learning that presents high-resolution images of histology basics as well as specific oral histologies at different magnifications and with text labels. Survey data were collected from 204 first-year dental students at the Universidad Austral de Chile. The survey consisted of questions for the respondents to evaluate the characteristics of the IHS and the contribution of various teaching methods to their histology learning. The response rate was 85 percent. Student evaluations were positive for the design, usability, and theoretical-practical integration of the IHS, and the students reported they would recommend the method to future students. The students continued to value traditional teaching methods for histological lab work and did not think this new technology would replace traditional methods. With respect to the contribution of each teaching method to students' learning, no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found for an evaluation of IHS, light microscopy, and slide presentations. However, these student assessments were significantly more positive than the evaluations of other digital or printed materials. Overall, the students evaluated the IHS very positively in terms of method quality and contribution to their learning; they also evaluated use of light microscopy and teacher slide presentations positively. PMID:23144485

  11. Histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings in human blast lung injury.

    PubMed

    Tsokos, Michael; Paulsen, Friedrich; Petri, Susan; Madea, Burkhard; Puschel, Klaus; Turk, Elisabeth E

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this autopsy-based study was to investigate the pathology of human blast lung injury using histology, Fat Red 7B staining, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy on lung specimens from eight medicolegal autopsy cases of fatal close-range detonations of chemical explosives. The micromorphologic equivalents of human blast lung injury can be summarized as follows: diffuse alveolar overdistension, circumscribed interstitial hemorrhages showing a cufflike pattern around pulmonary vessels, venous air embolism, bone marrow embolism, and pulmonary fat embolism. Hemorrhages within the lung parenchyma that were present in this study in blast victims without coexisting blunt or penetrating chest trauma must be regarded as potentially life-threatening intrapulmonary bleeding sites in survivors. In addition, the potential clinical importance of the presence of massive pulmonary fat embolism, which has, to the best of our knowledge, not been described previously in human blast lung injury, must be emphasized because pulmonary fat embolism may be a leading cause of the rapid respiratory deterioration with progressive hypoxia and development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in blast victims who survive. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that air embolism presenting in blast victims is not a mere ventilation-induced artifact. PMID:12842857

  12. The atlas of mouse development eHistology resource.

    PubMed

    Graham, Elizabeth; Moss, Julie; Burton, Nick; Roochun, Yogmatee; Armit, Chris; Richardson, Lorna; Baldock, Richard

    2015-06-01

    The Atlas of Mouse Development by Professor Mathew Kaufman is an essential text for understanding mouse developmental anatomy. This definitive and authoritative atlas is still in production and is essential for any biologist working with the mouse embryo, although the last revision dates back to 1994. Here, we announce the eHistology online resource that provides free access to high-resolution colour images digitized from the original histological sections (www.emouseatlas.org/emap/eHistology/index.php) used by Kaufman for the Atlas. The images are provided with the original annotations and plate numbering of the paper atlas and enable viewing the material to cellular resolution. PMID:26015534

  13. Restricted access chiral stationary phase synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization for direct analysis of biological samples by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Song, Wen-Jun; Wei, Ji-Ping; Wang, Su-Ying; Wang, Huai-Song

    2014-06-17

    Novel hydrophilic microparticles containing β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) were prepared via one-pot synthesis using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) precipitation polymerization, a "controlled/living" radical polymerization technique. The polymerization was initiated by hydrophilic macromolecular chain-transfer agent [poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), PHEMA]. The hydrophilic PHEMA on the surface of microparticles can well improve their surface hydrophilicity and lead to their biological compatibility. As chiral restricted access material (RAM), the hydrophilic microparticles can be used for determination of enantiomers in biological samples with direct injection via HPLC analysis. PMID:24890695

  14. PD-L1 expression is associated with massive lymphocyte infiltration and histology in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongwu; Lai, Yumei; Sun, Li; Zhang, Xiaotian; Liu, Ruping; Feng, Guoshuang; Zhou, Lixin; Jia, Lin; Huang, Xiaozheng; Kang, Qiang; Lin, Dongmei; Gao, Jing; Shen, Lin

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism of carcinogenesis of gastric cancer (GC) is still unclear now. This study aimed to explore the correlations among PD-L1, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, lymphocyte infiltration, HER2 expression, HER2 gene status, histology, and other clinicopathological factors in GC. A total of 44 GC patients with massive lymphocyte infiltration (GC-MLI) and 93 GC patients without massive lymphocyte infiltration were involved in this study. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to test the expression levels of PD-L1 and HER2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used on HER2-positive cases with a score of 2+ to test the HER2 gene status. EBV-encoded RNA was used to test for EBV infection. In univariate analysis, PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with GC-MLI (P<.001), lower age (P=.019), EBV infection (P<.001), lower HER2 expression (P=.011), and diffuse/mixed type of histology (P=.022). EBV-encoded RNA-positive cases were significantly associated with GC-MLI (P<.001), lower age (P=.016), diffuse/mixed type of histology (P=.011), and lower HER2 expression (P=.032). In the multivariate logistic regression model, GC-MLI and the diffuse/mixed type histology were identified as 2 independent factors that affected PD-L1 expression (P<.001). Furthermore, PD-L1-positive cases have worse overall survival than do PD-L1-negative cases (P=.011). These results suggest that massive lymphocyte infiltration and the diffuse/mixed type histology of GC should be taken into consideration to select the appropriate patients for PD-L1 inhibitory treatment in the future. PMID:27260946

  15. Hyperspectral Imaging for Cancer Surgical Margin Delineation: Registration of Hyperspectral and Histological Images

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guolan; Halig, Luma; Wang, Dongsheng; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2014-01-01

    The determination of tumor margins during surgical resection remains a challenging task. A complete removal of malignant tissue and conservation of healthy tissue is important for the preservation of organ function, patient satisfaction, and quality of life. Visual inspection and palpation is not sufficient for discriminating between malignant and normal tissue types. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology has the potential to noninvasively delineate surgical tumor margin and can be used as an intra-operative visual aid tool. Since histological images provide the ground truth of cancer margins, it is necessary to warp the cancer regions in ex vivo histological images back to in vivo hyperspectral images in order to validate the tumor margins detected by HSI and to optimize the imaging parameters. In this paper, principal component analysis (PCA) is utilized to extract the principle component bands of the HSI images, which is then used to register HSI images with the corresponding histological image. Affine registration is chosen to model the global transformation. A B-spline free form deformation (FFD) method is used to model the local non-rigid deformation. Registration experiment was performed on animal hyperspectral and histological images. Experimental results from animals demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral imaging method for cancer margin detection. PMID:25328640

  16. Hyperspectral imaging for cancer surgical margin delineation: registration of hyperspectral and histological images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guolan; Halig, Luma; Wang, Dongsheng; Chen, Zhuo G.; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    The determination of tumor margins during surgical resection remains a challenging task. A complete removal of malignant tissue and conservation of healthy tissue is important for the preservation of organ function, patient satisfaction, and quality of life. Visual inspection and palpation is not sufficient for discriminating between malignant and normal tissue types. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology has the potential to noninvasively delineate surgical tumor margin and can be used as an intra-operative visual aid tool. Since histological images provide the ground truth of cancer margins, it is necessary to warp the cancer regions in ex vivo histological images back to in vivo hyperspectral images in order to validate the tumor margins detected by HSI and to optimize the imaging parameters. In this paper, principal component analysis (PCA) is utilized to extract the principle component bands of the HSI images, which is then used to register HSI images with the corresponding histological image. Affine registration is chosen to model the global transformation. A B-spline free form deformation (FFD) method is used to model the local non-rigid deformation. Registration experiment was performed on animal hyperspectral and histological images. Experimental results from animals demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral imaging method for cancer margin detection.

  17. Endometrial biopsy in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. II. Correlations between histological criteria.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, B N; Miller, R B; Martin, S W; Etherington, W G; Buckrell, B C

    1991-01-01

    Endometrial biopsies were taken for histological assessment from 97 cows which calved in a commercial dairy herd between April and August 1984. The main objectives of this study were to analyze the interrelationships among histological criteria and to identify a shortlist of histological parameters to be included in subsequent analysis of associations with results of bacteriological culture, clinical findings and reproductive performance. Epithelial height and segmented cell counts were highly correlated within biopsy, between horns and between days. Subjective assessment of inflammation in the epithelium and/or stratum compactum generally identified biopsies which had any inflammation present. Cows which had inflammation in a biopsy from day 26 were likely to show inflammatory changes at day 40. Quantitative and subjective assessments of gland number, dilation and fibrosis were highly correlated. There was a positive association between the number of cross sections and the diameter of glands, and both of these criteria were negatively correlated with fibrosis and inflammatory changes. There may be different functional significance of the same histological finding at a different number of days postpartum. PMID:1884296

  18. Hyperspectral Imaging for Cancer Surgical Margin Delineation: Registration of Hyperspectral and Histological Images.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guolan; Halig, Luma; Wang, Dongsheng; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-12

    The determination of tumor margins during surgical resection remains a challenging task. A complete removal of malignant tissue and conservation of healthy tissue is important for the preservation of organ function, patient satisfaction, and quality of life. Visual inspection and palpation is not sufficient for discriminating between malignant and normal tissue types. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology has the potential to noninvasively delineate surgical tumor margin and can be used as an intra-operative visual aid tool. Since histological images provide the ground truth of cancer margins, it is necessary to warp the cancer regions in ex vivo histological images back to in vivo hyperspectral images in order to validate the tumor margins detected by HSI and to optimize the imaging parameters. In this paper, principal component analysis (PCA) is utilized to extract the principle component bands of the HSI images, which is then used to register HSI images with the corresponding histological image. Affine registration is chosen to model the global transformation. A B-spline free form deformation (FFD) method is used to model the local non-rigid deformation. Registration experiment was performed on animal hyperspectral and histological images. Experimental results from animals demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral imaging method for cancer margin detection. PMID:25328640

  19. OOGENESIS AND OVARIAN HISTOLOGY OF THE AMERICAN ALLIGATOR ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although folliculogenesis and oogenesis have been observed in numerous reptiles, these phenomena have not been described in detail in a crocodilian. Oogenesis and histological features of the adult ovary of Alligator mississippiensis are described. Using a complex process, the ov...

  20. PREPARATION OF WHOLE SMALL FISH FOR HISTOLOGICAL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicologic pathology, which is primarily concerned with chemically-induced structural changes in cells or tissues, depends on the proper histological processing of test specimens. In fishes, histopathological examination is widely recognized as a reliable method for disease diag...

  1. The enlightenments from ITMIG Consensus on WHO histological classification of thymoma and thymic carcinoma: refined definitions, histological criteria, and reporting

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Fang, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) histological classification of the thymoma and thymic carcinoma (TC) has been criticized for poor interobserver reproducibility or inconsistencies in the routine pathological diagnosis. The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) panel achieved an agreement to maintain the widely accepted WHO framework but to refine historic definitions and histological criteria, and further introduce some new terms with the aim to improve interobserver reproducibility. This review addresses the enlightenments we can get from the ITMIG consensus on the WHO histological classification of the thymoma and TC, which may be helpful for most pathologists. PMID:27114842

  2. NOTE: Validation of optical coherence tomography in vivo using cryostat histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambichler, T.; Moussa, G.; Regeniter, P.; Kasseck, C.; Hofmann, M. R.; Bechara, F. G.; Sand, M.; Altmeyer, P.; Hoffmann, K.

    2007-03-01

    We aimed to validate for the first time optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of epidermal thickness (ET) using cryopreparation for histology. OCT assessments of ET were performed on healthy skin using the algorithms as follows: first, peak-to-valley analysis of the A-scan (ET-OCT-V), second, line-traced image analysis of the B-scan (ET-OCT-IA). Histology was performed using cryostat sections which were also evaluated using the image analysis (ET-Histo). We selected 114 samples, including B-scans and corresponding histology, for method comparison between ET-OCT-IA and ET-Histo. Forty-two A-scans were available for method comparison between ET-OCT-V and ET-Histo. Bland and Altman plots revealed a marked bias with wide 95% limits of agreement for ET-OCT-V versus ET-Histo. Comparison of ET-OCT-IA versus ET-Histo revealed only a slight bias and narrow 95% limits of agreement. A-scan analysis for ET determination is linked to significant limitations and lacks agreement with histology. By contrast, we observed satisfactory agreement between ET-OCT-IA and ET-Histo indicating that both methods can be utilized interchangeably. OCT using the line-traced image analysis of the B-scan appears to be a valid and relatively practicable method for the determination of ET in vivo. Furthermore, the comparisons with the in vivo OCT profiles demonstrate that cryostat sectioning provides a better preservation of relative and absolute dimensions of skin layers than paraffin embedding.

  3. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy-related histologic changes in radical cystectomy: assessment accuracy and prediction of response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui Jun; Solanki, Shraddha; Traboulsi, Samer; Kassouf, Wassim; Brimo, Fadi

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the spectrum of histologic changes associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and compared them with those resulting from transurethral resection (TUR). Twenty-five patients who received NAC were divided based on both their preoperative clinical/radiographic findings (clinical stage, hydronephrosis, palpable mass) and the cystectomy (RC) findings into NAC respondents (advanced clinical stage and addition, 14 patients who received TUR alone and had histologic features was assessed: fibrosis/myofibroblastic reaction, hyalinization in the bladder wall, inflammatory reaction, calcification, foreign-body giant cells, necrosis, sheets of foamy macrophages, and fibrosis/hyalinization/necrosis in the lymph nodes (LNs). Overall, there was a significant histologic overlap between all groups. However, patients who received NAC had a significantly higher likelihood of showing hyalinization and less giant cells and inflammatory reaction than did those who received TUR only. Moreover, the only significantly different histologic features in NAC respondents versus TUR respondents were hyalinization and LN changes, with those 2 features in 25% and 0% of the possible NAC respondents group, respectively. Lastly, there was no significant difference in the possible NAC respondent group in comparison to the TUR-only arm. It appears that TUR and NAC result in overlapping histologic changes. In cases with no/minimal residual disease on RC, it is difficult to attribute the changes to NAC effect only, except if (1) hyalinization of the bladder wall or LN changes are present, or (2) if the preoperative clinical stage was beyond what could be resected by TUR. PMID:27321168

  4. Quantitative Mapping of Trimethyltin Injury in the Rat Brain Using Magnetic Resonance Histology

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, G. Allan; Calabrese, Evan; Little, Peter B.; Hedlund, Laurence; Qi, Yi; Badea, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The growing exposure to chemicals in our environment and the increasing concern over their impact on health have elevated the need for new methods for surveying the detrimental effects of these compounds. Today’s gold standard for assessing the effects of toxicants on the brain is based on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained histology, sometimes accompanied by special stains or immunohistochemistry for neural processes and myelin. This approach is time-consuming and is usually limited to a fraction of the total brain volume. We demonstrate that magnetic resonance histology (MRH) can be used for quantitatively assessing the effects of central nervous system toxicants in rat models. We show that subtle and sparse changes to brain structure can be detected using magnetic resonance histology, and correspond to some of the locations in which lesions are found by traditional pathological examination. We report for the first time diffusion tensor image-based detection of changes in white matter regions, including fimbria and corpus callosum, in the brains of rats exposed to 8 mg/Kg and 12 mg/Kg trimethyltin. Besides detecting brain-wide changes, magnetic resonance histology provides a quantitative assessment of dose-dependent effects. These effects can be found in different magnetic resonance contrast mechanisms, providing multivariate biomarkers for the same spatial location. In this study, deformation-based morphometry detected areas where previous studies have detected cell loss, while voxel-wise analyses of diffusion tensor parameters revealed microstructural changes due to such things as cellular swelling, apoptosis, and inflammation. Magnetic resonance histology brings a valuable addition to pathology with the ability to generate brain-wide quantitative parametric maps for markers of toxic insults in the rodent brain. PMID:24631313

  5. Radiation and Smoking Effects on Lung Cancer Incidence by Histological Types Among Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2014-01-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1–4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3–1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0–1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses. PMID:22862780

  6. Radiation and smoking effects on lung cancer incidence by histological types among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2012-09-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1-4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3-1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0-1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses. PMID:22862780

  7. [Hemocytes of Calliphora vicina larvae. I. Histological analysis].

    PubMed

    Tulin, D V; Chaga, O Iu

    2003-01-01

    The rational classification of blood cells of a blowfly Calliphora vicina larva has been worked out basing on the studies of hemocyte morphology and their dynamics while ageing. Eight morphological cell types can be found during the third age in larva's hemolymph. Hemocytes of type I (prohemocytes) are undifferentiated cells, and, probably, serve as cambial elements of hemocytes of other types. Hemocytes of types II (thrombocytoids), III (cell platelets), IV, and V (early- and late post-thrombocytoids) possibly correspond to consecutive stages of a certain differentiation pattern. Hemocytes of types VI (filopodocytes), VII (crystal cells), and VIII (histolysocytes) posses a number of specific features and represent three independent cell lines. The existence of four independent cell lines in C. vicina hemolymph supports the polygenetic conception of hematopoiesis in insects. We compared our classification with other existing classifications of C. vicina larva blood cells, and proposed a new nomenclature of these cells. The existence of cells with crystal inclusions (type VII hemocytes) in C. vicina larva hemolymph has been shown for the first time. Data on two generations of blood cells during larval development of C. vicina were obtained. Hemocytes of types II, VI and VII belong to the first generation. These cells disappear completely at the stage of empty-poropped larva, when hemocytes of the second generation i.e. those of types III and VIII, appear in the hemolymph. PMID:14989169

  8. Radiologic and histologic presentation of male mammary myofibroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Omar, Lena A; Rojanapremsuk, Theera; Saluja, Karan; Merchant, Kanwal A; Sharma, Pooja B

    2016-07-01

    Mammary myofibroblastoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that typically presents in older men and women. Less commonly, these benign tumors may also occur in soft tissues located outside of the breast, in which case they are referred to as mammary-type myofibroblastomas. The histologic composition of this benign spindle cell tumor can be markedly varied. We present a case of a large mammary myofibroblastoma in a male patient and discuss the typical imaging and histologic makeup of these tumors. PMID:27365886

  9. Radiologic and histologic presentation of male mammary myofibroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Rojanapremsuk, Theera; Saluja, Karan; Merchant, Kanwal A.; Sharma, Pooja B.

    2016-01-01

    Mammary myofibroblastoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that typically presents in older men and women. Less commonly, these benign tumors may also occur in soft tissues located outside of the breast, in which case they are referred to as mammary-type myofibroblastomas. The histologic composition of this benign spindle cell tumor can be markedly varied. We present a case of a large mammary myofibroblastoma in a male patient and discuss the typical imaging and histologic makeup of these tumors. PMID:27365886

  10. Efficacy of the Additional Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy to Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Patients with Locoregionally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: a Bayesian Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Pei; Guo, Rui; Liu, Na; Liu, Xu; Mao, Yan-Ping; Tang, Ling-Long; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Due to the lack of studies, it remains unclear whether the additional neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is superior to CCRT alone for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The main objective of this Bayesian network meta-analysis was to determine the efficacy of NACT+CCRT as compared with CCRT alone. Methods: We comprehensively searched databases and extracted data from randomized controlled trials involving NPC patients who received NACT+CCRT, CCRT, NACT+radiotherapy (RT), or RT. Overall survival (OS) with hazard ratio (HR), and locoregional recurrence rate (LRR) and distant metastasis rate (DMR) with relative risks (RRs), were concerned. Results: Nine trials involving 1988 patients were analyzed. In the network meta-analysis, there was significant benefit of NACT+CCRT over CCRT for DMR (RR=0.54, 95% credible interval [CrI]=0.27-0.94). However, NACT+CCRT had a tendency to worsen locoregional control significantly as compared with CCRT (RR =1.71, 95%CrI =0.94-2.84), and no significant improvement in OS was found (HR =0.73, 95%CrI=0.40-1.23). Conclusions: NACT+CCRT is associated with reduced distant failure as compared with CCRT alone, and whether the additional NACT can improve survival for locoregionally advanced NPC should be further explored. Optimizing regimens and identifying patients at high risk of metastasis may enhance the efficacy of NACT+CCRT. PMID:26284140

  11. Mutation analysis of TMC1 identifies four new mutations and suggests an additional deafness gene at locus DFNA36-DFNB7/11

    PubMed Central

    Hilgert, Nele; Alasti, Fatemeh; Dieltjens, Nele; Pawlik, Barbara; Wollnik, Bernd; Uyguner, Oya; Delmaghani, Sedigheh; Weil, Dominique; Petit, Christine; Danis, Evi; Yang, Tao; Pandelia, Efthimia; Petersen, Michael B.; Goossens, Dirk; Favero, Jurgen Del; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Smith, Richard JH; Van Camp, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is the most frequent sensorineural disorder, affecting 1 in 1000 newborns. In more than half of these babies, the hearing loss is inherited. Hereditary hearing loss is a very heterogeneous trait, with about 100 gene localizations and 44 gene identifications for nonsyndromic hearing loss. TMC1 has been identified as the disease-causing gene for autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss at the DFNA36 and DFNB7/11 loci, respectively. To date, two dominant and 18 recessive TMC1 mutations have been reported as the cause of hearing loss in 34 families. In this report, we describe linkage to DFNA36 and DFNB7/11 in one family with dominant and 10 families with recessive nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. In addition, mutation analysis of TMC1 was performed in 51 familial Turkish patients with autosomal recessive hearing loss. TMC1 mutations were identified in seven of the families segregating recessive hearing loss. The pathogenic variants we found included two known mutations, c.100C>T and c.1165C>T, and four new mutations, c.2350C>T, c.776+1G>A, c.767_768del and c.1166G>A. The absence of TMC1 mutations in the remaining six linked families implies the presence of mutations outside the coding region of this gene, or alternatively, at least one additional deafness-causing gene in this region. The analysis of copy number variations in TMC1 as well as DNA sequencing of 15 additional candidate genes did not reveal any proven pathogenic changes, leaving both hypotheses open. PMID:18616530

  12. Steroids Versus Steroids Plus Additional Agent in Frontline Treatment of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Armin; DiPersio, John F; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Colditz, Graham A; Weisdorf, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Despite extensive research in the last few decades, progress in treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), a common complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), has been limited and steroids continue to be the standard frontline treatment. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have failed to find a beneficial effect of escalating immunosuppression using additional agents. Considering the small number of RCTs, limited sample sizes, and frequent early termination because of anticipated futility, we conducted a systematic review and an aggregate data meta-analysis to explore whether a true efficacy signal has been missed because of the limitations of individual RCTs. Seven reports met our inclusion criteria. The control arm in all studies was 2 mg/kg/day prednisone (or equivalent). The additional agent(s) used in the experimental arm(s) were higher-dose steroids, antithymocyte globulin, infliximab, anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody (daclizumab and BT563), CD5-specific immunotoxin, and mycophenolate mofetil. Random effects meta-analysis revealed no efficacy signal in pooled response rates at various times points. Overall survival at 100 days was significantly worse in the experimental arm (relative risk [RR], .83; 95% confidence interval [CI], .74 to .94; P = .004, data from 3 studies) and showed a similar trend (albeit not statistically significantly) at 1 year as well (RR, .86; 95% CI, .68 to 1.09; P = .21, data from 5 studies). In conclusion, these results argue against the value of augmented generic immunosuppression beyond steroids for frontline treatment of aGVHD and emphasize the importance of developing alternative strategies. Novel forms of immunomodulation and targeted therapies against non-immune-related pathways may enhance the efficacy of steroids in this setting, and early predictive and prognostic biomarkers can help identify the subgroup of patients who would likely need treatments other than (or in addition to

  13. Lung adenocarcinoma with giant cyst formation showing a variety of histologic patterns: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Lung cancer with large cyst formation is relatively rare. This is a case report of a patient with lung cystic adenocarcinoma with multiple histologic patterns. This type of lung adenocarcinoma is believed to be the first reported case in English language medical literature. Case presentation A 60-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to hospital complaining of dyspnea and died of respiratory failure. She had been suffering from lung cancer with pleural effusion for five years. Autopsy analysis revealed lung adenocarcinoma with large cyst formation showing a variety of histologic patterns. Conclusions Autopsy analysis of this atypical case of lung cancer may provide insight and lead to a better understanding of the heterogeneity and clonal expansion of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:21108775

  14. Hindlimb Suspension (HLS) in Rodents for the Study of Intracranial Pressure, Molecular and Histologic Changes in the Eye, and CSF Production Regulation and Resorption: A Status Report of Two Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theriot, C. A.; Taibbi, G.; Vizzeri, G.; Parsons-Wingerter, P.; Chevez-Barrios, P.; Rivera, A.; Zanello, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    This status report corresponds to two studies tied to an animal experiment being executed at the University of California Davis (Charles Fuller's laboratory). The animal protocol uses the well-documented rat hindlimb suspension (HLS) model, to examine the relationship between cephalic fluid shifts and the regulation of intracranial (ICP) and intraocular (IOP) pressures as well as visual system structure and function. Long Evans rats are subjected to HLS durations of 7, 14, 28 and 90 days. Subgroups of the 90-day animals are studied for recovery periods of 7, 14, 28 or 90 days. All HLS subjects have age-matched cage controls. Various animal cohorts are planned for this study: young males, young females and old males. In addition to the live measures (ICP by telemetry, IOP and retinal parameters by optical coherence tomography) which are shared with the Fuller study, the specific outcomes for this study include: -Gene expression analysis of the retina -Histologic analysis - Analysis of the microvasculature of retina flat mounts by NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) Software. To date, the young male and female cohorts are being completed. Due to the need to keep technical variation to a minimum, the histologic and genomic analyses have been delayed until all samples from each cohort are available and can be processed in a single batch per cohort. The samples received so far correspond to young males sacrificed at 7,14, 28 and 90 days of HLS and at 90 days of recovery; and from young females sacrificed at 7, 14 and 28 of HLS. A complementary study titled: "A gene expression and histologic approach to the study of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production and outflow in hindlimb suspended rats" seeks to study the molecular components of CSF production and outflow modulation as a result of HLS, bringing a molecular and histologic approach to investigate genome wide expression changes in the arachnoid villi and choroid plexus of HLS rats compared to rats in normal

  15. Primary adenocarcinoma of the lung - histological subtypes and outcome after surgery, using the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Oskarsdottir, Gudrun Nina; Bjornsson, Johannes; Jonsson, Steinn; Isaksson, Helgi J; Gudbjartsson, Tomas

    2016-05-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological type of lung carcinoma. Recently the histologic classification of adenocarcinomas in the lung was modified to better reflect biologic properties and prognosis. We reviewed the histology of all primary lung adenocarcinomas operated on in Iceland during a 20-year period and assessed the impact of histology on survival. This nationwide study included 285 patients (mean age 67 years, 57% female), who underwent resection in Iceland from 1991 to 2010. Tumors were reclassified according to the current IASLC/ATS/ERS classification system. Overall survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis used to evaluate prognostic factors of overall mortality. Acinar predominant adenocarcinoma was the most common histological subtype (46%) followed by solid-predominant (SPA) with mucin production comprised (23%). Non-invasive carcinomas were rare. A difference in survival between the histological adenocarcinoma subtypes was not seen (p = 0.32) and multivariate analysis showed that advanced stage and age predicted worse outcome, but histologic subtyping of adenocarcinoma did not. In this nation-wide study there was not a statistical difference in survival according to adenocarcinoma subtypes and the histological subtype did not predict mortality. Preinvasive and minimally invasive adenocarcinomas were rare. PMID:26957057

  16. The performance improvement of automatic classification among obstructive lung diseases on the basis of the features of shape analysis, in addition to texture analysis at HRCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngjoo; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, JuneGoo; Kang, Suk Ho

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed novel shape features to improve classification performance of differentiating obstructive lung diseases, based on HRCT (High Resolution Computerized Tomography) images. The images were selected from HRCT images, obtained from 82 subjects. For each image, two experienced radiologists selected rectangular ROIs with various sizes (16x16, 32x32, and 64x64 pixels), representing each disease or normal lung parenchyma. Besides thirteen textural features, we employed additional seven shape features; cluster shape features, and Top-hat transform features. To evaluate the contribution of shape features for differentiation of obstructive lung diseases, several experiments were conducted with two different types of classifiers and various ROI sizes. For automated classification, the Bayesian classifier and support vector machine (SVM) were implemented. To assess the performance and cross-validation of the system, 5-folding method was used. In comparison to employing only textural features, adding shape features yields significant enhancement of overall sensitivity(5.9, 5.4, 4.4% in the Bayesian and 9.0, 7.3, 5.3% in the SVM), in the order of ROI size 16x16, 32x32, 64x64 pixels, respectively (t-test, p<0.01). Moreover, this enhancement was largely due to the improvement on class-specific sensitivity of mild centrilobular emphysema and bronchiolitis obliterans which are most hard to differentiate for radiologists. According to these experimental results, adding shape features to conventional texture features is much useful to improve classification performance of obstructive lung diseases in both Bayesian and SVM classifiers.

  17. Barrett's esophagus. Correlation between mucin histochemistry, flow cytometry, and histologic diagnosis for predicting increased cancer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Haggitt, R. C.; Reid, B. J.; Rabinovitch, P. S.; Rubin, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    A predominance of sulfated mucin in the nongoblet columnar cells of Barrett's specialized metaplastic epithelium has been postulated to be a form of mild dysplasia and to indicate an increased risk of adenocarcinoma. Flow cytometry for the analysis of nuclear DNA content and cell cycle parameters has also been postulated to be an objective aid in the diagnosis of dysplasia and carcinoma in Barrett's esophagus. The authors investigated the relationship among sulfated mucin, flow cytometric data, and histologic diagnosis in each of 152 biopsies from 42 patients who had Barrett's specialized metaplastic epithelium. Sulfated mucin, as detected by the high iron diamine-Alcian blue stain, was present in biopsies from 8 of 11 (73%) patients with the histologic diagnosis of dysplasia or carcinoma, in 7 of 9 (78%) patients whose biopsies were indefinite for dysplasia, and in 12 of 22 (55%) patients whose biopsies were negative for dysplasia (P = 0.37). Sulfated mucins predominated in 9%, 22%, and 9% of the patients, respectively (P = 0.56). Abnormal flow cytometry (aneuploidy or increased G2/tetraploid fraction) was found in all patients with the histologic diagnosis of dysplasia or carcinoma, in 3 of 9 (33%) indefinite for dysplasia, and in 1 of 22 (5%) negative for dysplasia (P = less than 0.0001). Neither the presence nor the predominance of sulfated mucin in the specialized metaplastic epithelium of Barrett's esophagus has sufficiently high sensitivity or specificity for dysplasia or carcinoma to be of value in managing patients. Abnormal flow cytometry shows excellent correlation with the histologic diagnosis of dysplasia and carcinoma; it detects a subset of patients whose biopsies are histologically indefinite or negative for dysplasia, but who have flow cytometric abnormalities similar to those otherwise seen only in dysplasia and carcinoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3354644

  18. Histological Validity and Clinical Evidence for Use of Fractional Lasers for Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Sardana, Kabir; Garg, Vijay K; Arora, Pooja; Khurana, Nita

    2012-01-01

    Though fractional lasers are widely used for acne scars, very little clinical or histological data based on the objective clinical assessment or the depth of penetration of lasers on in vivo facial tissue are available. The depth probably is the most important aspect that predicts the improvement in acne scars but the studies on histology have little uniformity in terms of substrate (tissue) used, processing and stains used. The variability of the laser setting (dose, pulses and density) makes comparison of the studies difficult. It is easier to compare the end results, histological depth and clinical results. We analysed all the published clinical and histological studies on fractional lasers in acne scars and analysed the data, both clinical and histological, by statistical software to decipher their significance. On statistical analysis, the depth was found to be variable with the 1550-nm lasers achieving a depth of 679 μm versus 10,600 nm (895 μm) and 2940 nm (837 μm) lasers. The mean depth of penetration (in μm) in relation to the energy used, in millijoules (mj), varies depending on the laser studied. This was statistically found to be 12.9–28.5 for Er:glass, 3–54.38 for Er:YAG and 6.28–53.66 for CO2. The subjective clinical improvement was a modest 46%. The lack of objective evaluation of clinical improvement and scar-specific assessment with the lack of appropriate in vivo studies is a case for combining conventional modalities like subcision, punch excision and needling with fractional lasers to achieve optimal results. PMID:23060702

  19. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Quantification in Determining the Histological Diagnosis of Malignant Liver Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Drevelegas, Konstantinos; Nikiforaki, Katerina; Constantinides, Manolis; Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Papalavrentios, Lavrentios; Stoikou, Ioanna; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Pitsiou, Georgia; Pataka, Athanasia; Organtzis, John; Papadaki, Eleni; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Kioumis, Ioannis; Kouskouras, Constantinos; Akriviadis, Evaggelos; Drevelegas, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Diffusion Weighted Imaging is an established diagnostic tool for accurate differential diagnosis between benign and malignant liver lesions. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of Histogram Analysis of ADC quantification in determining the histological diagnosis as well as the grade of malignant liver tumours. To our knowledge, there is no study evaluating the role of Histogram Analysis of ADC quantification in determining the histological diagnosis as well as the grade of malignant liver tumours. Methods: During five years, 115 patients with known liver lesions underwent Diffusion Weighted Imaging in 3Tesla MR scanner prior to core needle biopsy. Histogram analyses of ADC in regions of interest were drawn and were correlated with biopsy histological diagnosis and grading. Results: Histogram analysis of ADC values shows that 5th and 30th percentile parameters have statistically significant potency of discrimination between primary and secondary lesions groups (p values 0.0036 and 0.0125 respectively). Skewness of the histogram can help discriminate between good and poor differentiated (p value 0.17). Discrimination between primary malignancy site in metastases failed for the present number of patients in each subgroup. Conclusion: Statistical parameters reflecting the shape of the left side of the ADC histogram can be useful for discriminating between primary and secondary lesions and also between well differentiated versus moderate or poor. For the secondary malignancies, they failed to predict the original site of tumour. PMID:27076855

  20. Subarachnoid midazolam: histologic study in rats and report of its effect on chronic pain in humans.

    PubMed

    Schoeffler, P; Auroy, P; Bazin, J E; Taxi, J; Woda, A

    1991-01-01

    Subarachnoid administration via a catheter of a water-soluble benzodiazepine, midazolam, was tested in the control of cancer pain. First, the lack of its toxicity during constant subarachnoid administration (50 micrograms per day) was assessed in the rat. After 15 days of treatment, a histologic examination of the spinal cord revealed the same amount of fibrosis, infiltration, and deformation in the control group (n = 14), which had received only saline, as in the test group (n = 18), treated with subarachnoid midazolam. Therefore, the histologic changes observed in the spinal cord probably are related to the presence of the catheter. After these results, a mixture of 2 mg midazolam and a variable dose of subarachnoid morphine was injected in two patients presenting chronic neoplastic pain resistant to high doses of morphine. In these two cases, the addition of midazolam appeared to be effective in controlling intractable neoplastic pain. PMID:1772817

  1. Diagnostic criteria for selenium toxicosis in aquatic birds: histologic lesions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, D.E.; Albers, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Chronic selenium toxicosis was induced in 1-year-old male mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) by feeding selenium, as seleno-DL-methionine, in amounts of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 parts per million (ppm) to five groups of 21 ducks each for 16 wk during March to July 1988. All mallards in the 80 ppm group, three in the 40 ppm group, and one in the 20 ppm group died. Histologic lesions in mallards that died of selenosis were hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration progressing to centrolobular and panlobular necrosis, nephrosis, apoptosis of pancreatic exocrine cells, hypermaturity and avascularity of contour feathers of the head with atrophy of feather follicles, lymphocytic necrosis and atrophy of lymphoid organs (spleen, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and lumbar lymph nodes), and severe atrophy and degeneration of fat. Histologic lesions in surviving mallards in the 40 ppm group, which had tissue residues of selenium comparable to mallards that died, were fewer and much milder than mallards that died; lesions consisted of atrophy of lymphoid tissue, hyalinogranular swelling of hepatocytes, atrophy of seminiferous tubules, and senescence of feathers. No significant histologic lesions were detected in euthanized mallards in the 0, 10 and 20 ppm groups. Based on tissue residues and histologic findings, primarily in the liver, there was a threshold of selenium accumulation above which pathophysiologic changes were rapid and fatal. Pathognomonic histologic lesions of fatal and nonfatal selenosis were not detected. Criteria for diagnosis of fatal selenosis in aquatic birds include consistent histologic lesions in the liver, kidneys, and organs of the immune system. Although histologic changes were present in cases of chronic non-fatal selenosis, these were inconsistent. Consistent features of fatal and non-fatal chronic selenosis were marked weight loss and elevated concentrations of selenium in organs.

  2. Meta-analysis on Methane Mitigating Properties of Saponin-rich Sources in the Rumen: Influence of Addition Levels and Plant Sources.

    PubMed

    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Wina, Elizabeth; Takahashi, Junichi

    2014-10-01

    Saponins have been considered as promising natural substances for mitigating methane emissions from ruminants. However, studies reported that addition of saponin-rich sources often arrived at contrasting results, i.e. either it decreased methane or it did not. The aim of the present study was to assess ruminal methane emissions through a meta-analytical approach of integrating related studies from published papers which described various levels of different saponin-rich sources being added to ruminant feed. A database was constructed from published literature reporting the addition of saponin-rich sources at various levels and then monitoring ruminal methane emissions in vitro. Accordingly, levels of saponin-rich source additions as well as different saponin sources were specified in the database. Apart from methane, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in the database, i.e. organic matter digestibility, gas production, pH, ammonia concentration, short-chain fatty acid profiles and protozoal count. A total of 23 studies comprised of 89 data points met the inclusion criteria. The data obtained were subsequently subjected to a statistical meta-analysis based on mixed model methodology. Accordingly, different studies were treated as random effects whereas levels of saponin-rich source additions or different saponin sources were considered as fixed effects. Model statistics used were p-value and root mean square error. Results showed that an addition of increasing levels of a saponin-rich source decreased methane emission per unit of substrate incubated as well as per unit of total gas produced (p<0.05). There was a decrease in acetate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) and an increase in propionate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) with increasing levels of saponin. Log protozoal count decreased (p<0.05) at higher saponin levels. Comparing between different saponin-rich sources, all saponin sources, i.e. quillaja, tea and yucca saponins

  3. Meta-analysis on Methane Mitigating Properties of Saponin-rich Sources in the Rumen: Influence of Addition Levels and Plant Sources

    PubMed Central

    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Wina, Elizabeth; Takahashi, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Saponins have been considered as promising natural substances for mitigating methane emissions from ruminants. However, studies reported that addition of saponin-rich sources often arrived at contrasting results, i.e. either it decreased methane or it did not. The aim of the present study was to assess ruminal methane emissions through a meta-analytical approach of integrating related studies from published papers which described various levels of different saponin-rich sources being added to ruminant feed. A database was constructed from published literature reporting the addition of saponin-rich sources at various levels and then monitoring ruminal methane emissions in vitro. Accordingly, levels of saponin-rich source additions as well as different saponin sources were specified in the database. Apart from methane, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in the database, i.e. organic matter digestibility, gas production, pH, ammonia concentration, short-chain fatty acid profiles and protozoal count. A total of 23 studies comprised of 89 data points met the inclusion criteria. The data obtained were subsequently subjected to a statistical meta-analysis based on mixed model methodology. Accordingly, different studies were treated as random effects whereas levels of saponin-rich source additions or different saponin sources were considered as fixed effects. Model statistics used were p-value and root mean square error. Results showed that an addition of increasing levels of a saponin-rich source decreased methane emission per unit of substrate incubated as well as per unit of total gas produced (p<0.05). There was a decrease in acetate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) and an increase in propionate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) with increasing levels of saponin. Log protozoal count decreased (p<0.05) at higher saponin levels. Comparing between different saponin-rich sources, all saponin sources, i.e. quillaja, tea and yucca saponins

  4. Effect of storage media and storage time on histological and ultrastructural changes in cat epididymal cells.

    PubMed

    Tittarelli, C M; Jurado, S B; Nuñez-Favre, R; Bonaura, M C; de la Sota, R L; Stornelli, M A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the histological and ultrastructural changes in cat epididymides (n = 22) stored at 4 °C in two different media [saline solution (SAL) or tris-egg yolk (TEY)]. Our hypothesis was that epididymides stored in TEY would have delayed epithelial cell autolysis. Four epididymides were fixed and processed immediately, and the remaining 18 epididymides were stored at 4 °C in SAL or TEY for 24, 48 or 72 h. In histological sections, the nuclear features and stereocilia morphology were scored from 0 to 3. Ultrastructurally, nuclear chromatin and stereocilia morphology were scored from 0 to 3. In addition, using transmission electron microscopy nuclear number, nuclear area, mitochondrial number and mitochondrial area were recorded. In the histological study, parameters changed with time and media (p < 0.01). A significant effect of time was observed (p < 0.01), and the morphological changes were greatest when the storage time increased. Morphological changes were higher in SAL compared with TEY (p < 0.01). In the ultrastructural study, nuclear chromatin and stereocilia morphology decreased with time and media as in the histological study (p < 0.01). In addition, nuclear number and nuclear area changed with time (p < 0.004; p < 0.001) but not with media. Conversely, mitochondrial number and mitochondrial area did not change with media or time (p > 0.05). In conclusion, these results show that TEY preserved epididymal epithelial cells better than SAL; this finding could help improve sperm quality of stored epididymides. PMID:23279519

  5. 2D Raman correlation analysis of formation mechanism of passivating film on overcharged LiCoO2 electrode with additive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yeonju; Shin, Su Hyun; Lee, Sung Man; Kim, Sung Phil; Choi, Hyun Chul; Jung, Young Mee

    2014-07-01

    The effect of vinylene carbonate (VC) as solid electrolyte interface (SEI)-forming additive on the electrochemical performance of the LiCoO2 cathode was investigated by galvanostatic charge-discharge testing as well as Raman and 2D correlation spectroscopy. It was found that VC-containing electrolyte has a positive effect on capacity fading. An analysis of the 2D Raman correlation spectra suggested that even though the same SEI components (i.e., Co3O4 and Li2O) are produced on the cathode surface, the electrochemical reaction kinetics in the cathode/electrolyte interface differ according to the non-use or use of VC: in the latter case, formation of the SEI components is delayed.

  6. Mapping the nasal airways: using histology to enhance CT-based three-dimensional reconstruction in Nycticebus.

    PubMed

    Deleon, Valerie Burke; Smith, Timothy D

    2014-11-01

    Three-dimensional reconstructions of imaging data are an increasingly common approach for studying anatomical structure. However, certain aspects of anatomy, including microscopic structure and differentiating tissue types, continue to benefit from traditional histological analyses. We present here a detailed methodology for combining data from microCT and histological imaging to create 3D virtual reconstructions for visualization and further analyses. We used this approach to study the distribution of olfactory mucosa on ethmoturbinal I of an adult pygmy slow loris, Nycticebus pygmaeus. MicroCT imaging of the specimen was followed by processing, embedding, and sectioning for histological analysis. We identified corresponding features in the CT and histological data, and used these to reconstruct the plane of section in the CT volume. The CT volume was then digitally re-sliced, such that orthogonal sections of the CT image corresponded to histological sections. Histological images were annotated for the features of interest (in this case, the contour of soft tissue on ethmoturbinal I and the extent of olfactory mucosa), and annotations were transferred to binary masks in the CT volume. These masks were combined with density-based surface reconstructions of the skull to create an enhanced 3D virtual reconstruction, in which the bony surfaces are coded for mucosal function. We identified a series of issues that may be raised in this approach, for example, deformation related to histological processing, and we make recommendations for addressing these issues. This method provides an evidence-based approach to 3D visualization and analysis of microscopic features in an anatomic context. PMID:25312369

  7. Photopneumatic Technology in Acne Treatment and Skin Rejuvenation: Histological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Omi, Tokuya

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent reports indicate that a variety of light-based devices have been used for acne treatment and skin rejuvenation. A new technology combining intense pulsed light with negative pressure, photopneumatic technology, has recently attracted interest. The present study assessed acne treatment and skin rejuvenation with this novel approach Subjects and Methods: Acne, 450 nm tip. Five Japanese volunteers (1 male, 4 female; mean age 28.6 yr; skin type III) with mild to moderate/moderate active acne participated. The face was treated with 2 sessions, 2 weeks apart. Biopsies were obtained immediately after the first session and 1 week after the second session, and routinely processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rejuvenation, profusion tip with topical preparation. In 5 Japanese volunteers (3 male, 2 female; mean age 37.6 yr, skin type III), the volar aspect of both forearms was treated with the 530 nm head at P6 (around 12 J/cm2). The left arm was then treated with a pre-infused profusion tip and vacuum only. Four sessions were given, 14-day intervals. Biopsies were taken from both arms 2 weeks after the 2nd session and 3 weeks after the 4th session. One-half of each biopsy was assessed with histo-and immunohistochemistry, and the other with TEM. Results Acne trial: A combination of physical extraction of comedones, mild photothermal damage of the follicle and damage to identified bacilli was noted post-treatment, with macroscopic improvement of the skin. Rejuvenation with profusion: Significant morphological and immunohistochemical differences were seen between the control and profusion-treated arms at the first assessment. These differences became less significant at the 2nd assessment. Conclusions Macroscopically and histologically, photopneumatic technology improved acne lesions, suggesting a synergistic effect between the components of the technology. In skin rejuvenation, the profusion therapy accelerated the regenerative

  8. Oral isotretinoin in photoaging: objective histological evidence of efficacy and durability*

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Bruna Souza Felix; Azulay, David Rubem; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Mandarim-De-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Cuzzi, Tullia; Azulay, Mônica Manela

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The off-label use of oral isotretinoin in photoaging is a therapeutic tool that has been used by dermatologists. There are few studies to corroborate its effectiveness and durability. OBJECTIVES To assess, both clinically and histologically, the changes caused by the use of oral isotretinoin in skin photoaging as well as the duration of the effects. METHODS 20 female patients, aged 45-50 years, with phototypes II-VI, none of whom had experienced menopause, were treated with 20mg oral isotretinoin, 3 days a week, for 12 weeks. They underwent clinical analysis and skin biopsies in the pre-auricular region, while histologic cuts enabled assessment of the solar elastosis level and morphologic analysis. RESULTS Clinically, patients, as well as the researching and the assessor physicians, noticed improvement in skin quality. One patient presented severe solar elastosis, 11 manifested the moderate form, while 8 presented the discreet type. According to histological analysis, 65% of the patients revealed alteration in the distribution and thickness of the elastic fibers, which can be interpreted as a histological improvement, while 60% showed an increase in collagen density. We observed an increase in collagen density, from 51.2% to 57.4%, (p=0.004). At the end of the 12-week follow-up period, this density decreased to 54.7% (p=0.050). There was an increase in the density of elastic fibers, from 26.5% to 31.3%, (p=0.02), which had dropped to 27.5% at the end of the 12-week follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS The study confirmed the role of oral isotretinoin in remodeling the extracellular matrix against photoaging, as well as its durability after 12 weeks, especially when we consider collagen fibers. PMID:26375216

  9. A topical fluorescent analogue for virtual hematoxylin and eosin histology in point-of-care ex vivo microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfer, Katherine; Sholl, Andrew; Miller, Christopher; Brown, J. Quincy

    2015-07-01

    Histological assessment of freshly removed tissue specimens requires accurate and fast analysis in clinical procedures such as diagnostic biopsy and surgical tumor resection. Current histological assessment methods are either time-consuming or damage the tissue beyond the ability to re-analyze post-procedure. We demonstrate a novel dual-stain fluorescent analogue to brightfield Hematoxylin and Eosin for in-procedure histopathology that is both time-efficient and preserves the analyzed tissue for later analysis. H&E-like images are created from the combination of DRAQ5 and Eosin applied to human prostate tissue and animal muscle tissue under confocal microscopy. D&E images are pseduocolored to match H&E coloring, showing near-identical features to brightfield H&E of the same tissue. The histological accuracy, short staining time, and tissue preservation aspects of this dual-stain technique demonstrates its potential to be adopted for use in point-of-care pathology.

  10. Atypical fibroxanthoma: a histological and immunohistochemical review of 171 cases.

    PubMed

    Beer, Trevor W; Drury, Paul; Heenan, Peter J

    2010-08-01

    The clinical and histological features of 171 atypical fibroxanthomas (AFX) from a single institution in Western Australia are outlined. This area experiences high levels of solar radiation, and all assessable biopsies showed solar elastosis. Patients were aged between 41 and 97 years (median age 74), with 76% of tumors occurring in men (male to female ratio approximately 3 to 1). Most tumors were small, with a median diameter of 10 mm and a range of 4-35 mm. Only 5% exceeded 20 mm in diameter. Most AFX were well-circumscribed dermal lesions, with limited invasion of subcutis in a minority. Histological variants identified included keloidal (n = 8), clear cell (n = 3), and granular cell (n = 3), plaque like (n = 4), and myxoid (n = 1). Bland cytological appearances (spindle cell nonpleomorphic AFX) were noted in 5 tumors, with osteoclast-like giant cells in 2. Features suggesting regression were present in 22 cases. Two cases recurred locally, none metastasized. No tumors expressed melanocytic or epithelial markers. Seventy-four percent of cases expressed smooth muscle actin, typically strongly and diffusely. No AFX stained with desmin. Only 1 of 50 cases was CD117 positive. In conclusion, AFX may show a wide range of histological appearances, and a panel of immunohistochemical markers is essential to make the correct diagnosis. Histological mimics, such as poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, must be carefully excluded. Specific diagnosis is important because there seems to be a very low risk of recurrence or metastasis despite the frequently alarming histology. PMID:20526171

  11. Histological Stains: A Literature Review and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Alturkistani, Hani A; Tashkandi, Faris M; Mohammedsaleh, Zuhair M

    2016-01-01

    The history of histology indicates that there have been significant changes in the techniques used for histological staining through chemical, molecular biology assays and immunological techniques, collectively referred to as histochemistry. Early histologists used the readily available chemicals to prepare tissues for microscopic studies; these laboratory chemicals were potassium dichromate, alcohol and the mercuric chloride to harden cellular tissues. Staining techniques used were carmine, silver nitrate, Giemsa, Trichrome Stains, Gram Stain and Hematoxylin among others. The purpose of this research was to assess past and current literature reviews, as well as case studies, with the aim of informing ways in which histological stains have been improved in the modern age. Results from the literature review has indicated that there has been an improvement in histopathology and histotechnology in stains used. There has been a rising need for efficient, accurate and less complex staining procedures. Many stain procedures are still in use today, and many others have been replaced with new immunostaining, molecular, non-culture and other advanced staining techniques. Some staining methods have been abandoned because the chemicals required have been medically proven to be toxic. The case studies indicated that in modern histology a combination of different stain techniques are used to enhance the effectiveness of the staining process. Currently, improved histological stains, have been modified and combined with other stains to improve their effectiveness. PMID:26493433

  12. Market surveillance on non-halal additives incorporated in surimi based products using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-southern hybridization analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravindran, S.; Sahilah, A. M.; Aminah, A.

    2014-09-01

    Halal surveillance on halal ingredients incorporated in surimi based products were studied using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-southern hybridization on chip analysis. The primers used in this technique were targeted on mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequence which able to differentiate 7 type (beef, chicken, duck, goat, buffalo, lamb and pork) of species on a single chip. 17 (n = 17*3) different brands of surimi-based product were purchased randomly from Selangor local market in January 2013. Of 17 brands, 3 (n = 3*3) brands were positive for chicken DNA, 1 (n = 1*3) brand was positive for goat DNA, and the remainder 13 brands (n = 13*3) have no DNA species detected. The sensitivity of PCR-southern hybridization primers to detect each meat species was 0.1 ng. In the present study, it is evidence that PCR-Southern Hybridization analysis offered a reliable result due to its highly specific and sensitive properties in detecting non-halal additive such as plasma protein incorporation in surimi-based product.