Science.gov

Sample records for addition horizontal drilling

  1. Horizontal drilling developments

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, D.

    1997-05-01

    The advantages of horizontal drilling are discussed. Use of horizontal drilling has climbed in the past half decade as technology and familiarity offset higher costs with higher production rates and greater recoveries from new and existing wells. In essence, all types of horizontal wells expose a larger section of the reservoir to the wellbore with a resulting increase in flow rates. (A horizontal well may also be drilled to provide coning control or to intersect vertical fractures.) Thus, drilling horizontally, both onshore and offshore, reduces the number of wells necessary to develop a field.

  2. Horizontal drilling installs dutch waterline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    A 32-in. potable water line system, installed by Van Eijk Leidingen B.V. in Holland, was laid through an intensively cultivated vegetable gardening area, and designed to furnish additional irrigation water. Using a horizontally drilled 42-in. hole under the Maasdijk, though a difficult job, reduced the length by more than 3 miles.

  3. Horizontal drilling opportunities in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, J.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Horizontal drilling has become commonplace in certain parts of Texas. The Austin Chalk is the favorite target, especially where fracture systems are present. The activity has become so intense that leases are now costly or nearly impossible to find. This type of activity was prevalent during the late oil boom, but with vertical wells. So, the same areas that were drilled then are being redone with horizontal drilling. In the past few months, carbonates with little or no evidence of fracture systems are being drilled with some success. Because of the difficulty in lease acquisition, operators are turning their attention elsewhere. Even though horizontal drilling has been conducted limitedly in the Devonian black shales, the Appalachian basin is an area that calls for attention. In Ohio, there have been instances of discoveries of one-well fields in both the Trenton and Trempealeau formations. The initial production from these wells ranges from a few to hundreds of barrels of oil per day. The lack of success in offset wells has been attributed to the interpretation that the producing wells were serendipitously drilled into a limited fractured reservoir. In most cases, the producer is surrounded by clusters of dry holes. These Ohio wells and wells in one other area are studied using well data, spectral and sonic logs, aerial photographs, side-looking radar surveys, and other data. The results are presented on structure contour and lineament maps, and quantitative log interpretations. The maps show the interpretations of those areas of fracture systems that might be viable targets for horizontal drilling.

  4. Portable Horizontal-Drilling And Positioning Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smigocki, Edmund; Johnson, Clarence

    1988-01-01

    Portable horizontal-drilling and positioning device, constructed mainly of off-the-shelf components, accurately drills horizontal small holes in irregularly shaped objects. Holes precisely placed and drilled in objects that cannot be moved to shop area. New device provides three axes of movement while maintaining horizontal drilling.

  5. How to drill horizontal sections faster

    SciTech Connect

    Chaffin, M. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports that fewer trips, reduced slide time and lower drag during sliding have resulted from the application of downhole-adjustable stabilizers to horizontal drilling. Faster drilling times mean lower measurement while drilling (MWD) cost, and less wear on downhole equipment, motors and bits. These advantages combined with reduced drilling shocks have increased drilling rates and efficiency. Applying existing technology in new situations is an important way of reducing the cost of finding, exploring for and developing reserves. Engineers are responsible for using current technology to its fullest and developing new technology to reduce drilling expenses. Horizontal drilling was used in its early stages to develop the Austin chalk formation in Pearsall oil field more effectively. As procedures were generated to drill horizontal wells, Oryx drilling engineers began to develop new technology and investigate ways for existing technology to be used or altered to fit horizontal drilling programs. The new technology of downhole-adjustable stabilizers has been used successfully to further improve horizontal drilling efficiency.

  6. Recompletion by horizontal drilling pays off

    SciTech Connect

    Holifield, R.H.; Rehm, B.

    1989-03-01

    More than 20 wells have been recompleted in the Giddings field by drilling a new, horizontal interval from existing 5 1/2-in. cased wells for distances of 300 to 1,250 ft. Recompleting existing wells is much cheaper than drilling a new well. Plus, the new completions, overall, produce better. The horizontal wells are routinely profitable now, and pay out occurs in 3 to 24 months. During this program, the techniques for slim-hole- medium-radius, horizontal drilling in Giddings have been mastered and costs have dropped 75%. It is believed that this program may be the first (or among the first) continuing horizontal project drilled out of cased wells with repeatable profitability as opposed to projected viability.

  7. Horizontal drilling techniques at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkirson, J.P.; Smith, J.H.; Stagg, T.O.; Walters, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Three extended departure horizontal wells have been drilled and completed at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska by Standard Alaska Production Company. Horizontal slotted liner completions of 1575 feet (480 m), 1637 feet (499 m), and 1163 feet (354 m) were accomplished at an average vertical depth of 9000 feet (2743 m). Improvements in technology and operating procedures have resulted in a cost per foot reduction of 40% over the three well program. When compared to conventional completions, initial production data indicates rate benefits of 300% and a major increase in ultimate recovery. This paper discusses the development of the techniques used to drill horizontal wells at Prudhoe Bay and reviews the drilling operations for each well.

  8. Lubricating additive for drilling muds

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, A.; Brois, S. J.; Brownawell, D. W.; Walker, T. O.

    1985-01-01

    Aqueous drilling fluids containing a minor amount of an additive composition featuring oxazolines of C/sub 1/-C/sub 30/ alkylthioglycolic acid. Such fluids are especially useful where reduced torque drilling fluids are needed. Another embodiment of this invention relates to a method of drilling utilizing the above-described fluids.

  9. Elf cites 5 advantages of horizontal drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    ELF Aquitaine used horizontal drilling during a pilot test program to bring commercial production from its Rospo Mare oil discovery in the Adriatic, which would have been a costly disappointment if drilled by a conventional vertical well bore. Rospo Mare is a large reservoir containing a top column of highly viscous crude underlain by a water column. The company felt that a well bore that penetrated the reservoir vertically would bring early flooding of the oil column and yield only water. By penetrating the reservoir with a horizontal well drilled high in the oil column, the well successfully produced on numerous tests from Oct. 1982 until the end of the test program in 1983. Production was termed excellent, with productivity during tests reportedly reaching ca 15 times the rate produced from nearby vertical wells. However, ELF said the results usually average ca 5 times the usual rate of vertical wells.

  10. Horizontal drilling in shallow, geologically complex reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Venable, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project is to test the concept that multiple hydraulic fracturing from a directionally-drilled horizontal well, using the medium radius build rate method, can increase gas production sufficiently to justify economic viability over conventional stimulated vertical wells. The test well is located in Yuma County, Colorado, in a favorable area of established production to avoid exploration risks. This report presents: background information; project description which covers location selection/geologic considerations; and preliminary work plan. (AT)

  11. Horizontal drilling in shallow, geologically complex reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Venable, S.D.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of this project is to test the concept that multiple hydraulic fracturing from a directionally-drilled horizontal well, using the medium radius build rate method, can increase gas production sufficiently to justify economic viability over conventional stimulated vertical wells. The test well is located in Yuma County, Colorado, in a favorable area of established production to avoid exploration risks. This report presents: background information; project description which covers location selection/geologic considerations; and preliminary work plan. (AT)

  12. Geologic aspects of horizontal drilling in self-sourcing reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Illich, H.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Horizontal drilling techniques provide a way to exploit hydrocarbon reserves that are either noneconomic or only marginally economic using vertical drilling techniques. A significant fraction of these reserves is contained in reservoirs that are self-sourcing or in reservoirs that are closely associated with their resources. Most formations drilled as horizontal targets are self-sourcing. The Austin Chalk, Niobrara, Mesaverde, and Bakken are examples of horizontally drilled, self-sourcing reservoir systems. In formations like the Bakken or Austin Chalk, the close relationship between reservoir and source makes risks associated with migration and accumulation less important. Reservoirs of this kind can contain oil or gas and often have little or no associated water. They can be matrix-dominated reservoirs, dual-porosity reservoirs (Mesaverde), or fractured reservoirs (Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara). Fractured, self-sourcing reservoirs also can possess matrix characteristics that contribute increased recovery efficiency. Most reservoirs drilled horizontally possess matrix characteristics that contribute increased recovery efficiency. Most reservoirs drilled horizontally possess highly heterogeneous reservoir systems. Characterization of the style of reservoir heterogeneity in self-sourcing systems is important if the favorable properties of horizontally oriented bore holes are to be realized. Production data and rock mechanics considerations are important in horizontal drilling ventures. Examples of the use of these data for the purpose of defining reservoir characteristics are discussed. Knowledge of lateral changes in reservoir properties is essential if we are to recover known reserves efficiently.

  13. Horizontal directional drilling: a green and sustainable technology for site remediation.

    PubMed

    Lubrecht, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    Sustainability has become an important factor in the selection of remedies to clean up contaminated sites. Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) is a relatively new drilling technology that has been successfully adapted to site remediation. In addition to the benefits that HDD provides for the logistics of site cleanup, it also delivers sustainability advantages, compared to alternative construction methods.

  14. Borehole survey method and apparatus for drilling substantially horizontal boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Trowsdale, L.S.

    1982-11-30

    A borehole survey method and apparatus are claimed for use in drilling substantially horizontal boreholes through a mineral deposit wherein a dip accelerometer, a roll accelerometer assembly and a fluxgate are disposed near the drill bit, which is mounted on a bent sub, and connected to a surface computation and display unit by a cable which extends through the drill string. The dip angle of the borehole near the drill bit, the azimuth of the borehole near the drill bit and the roll angle or orientation of the bent sub are measured and selectively displayed at the surface while the drill string is in the borehole for utilization in guiding the drill bit through the mineral deposit along a predetermined path.

  15. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System and Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology Demonstration, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Myers, D.A.; Gardner, M.G.; Williamson, T.; Huffman, J.

    1999-06-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) system and Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) were successfully demonstrated at the Mock Tank Leak Simulation Site and the Drilling Technology Test Site, Hanford, Washington. The use of directional drilling offers an alternative to vertical drilling site characterization. Directional drilling can develop a borehole under a structure, such as a waste tank, from an angled entry and leveling off to horizontal at the desired depth. The EMWD system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The technology demonstration consisted of the development of one borehole under a mock waste tank at a depth of {approximately} {minus}8 m ({minus}27 ft.), following a predetermined drill path, tracking the drill path to within a radius of {approximately}1.5 m (5 ft.), and monitoring for zones of radiological activity using the EMWD system. The purpose of the second borehole was to demonstrate the capability of drilling to a depth of {approximately} {minus}21 m ({minus}70 ft.), the depth needed to obtain access under the Hanford waste tanks, and continue drilling horizontally. This report presents information on the HDD and EMWD technologies, demonstration design, results of the demonstrations, and lessons learned.

  16. Horizontal air drilling increases gas recovery in depleted zone

    SciTech Connect

    Elrod, J.P.

    1997-06-30

    Increased gas recoveries in depleted gas zones can be achieved through horizontal air drilling. In December 1995, OXY USA Inc. drilled the Pirkle 2, the first air-drilled horizontal well in the Carthage field of Texas. Targeting the Cretaceous Frost ``A`` zone of the lower Pettit limestone at 6,000 ft true vertical depth, the well established production in a 1,400 ft lateral section with a bottom hole pressure (BHP) of 185 psi. The initial BHP for the zone was 3,280 psi in 1942. As of April 27, 1997, the Pirkle 2 had produced 530 MMcf of gas at a rate of 1.1 MMcfd. Total cumulative gas production for the lower Pettit limestone in the Carthage field was 3.83 tcf as of January 1997. The paper discusses reservoir properties, abandonment pressure, minimizing well bore damage, drilling fluid selection, special equipment and modifications, compressors, BOPs, steering tools, drilling, completion, and production.

  17. Crosswell Imaging Technology & Advanced DSR Navigation for Horizontal Directional Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Stolarczyk

    2008-08-08

    The objective of Phase II is to develop and demonstrate real-time measurement-while-drilling (MWD) for guidance and navigation of drill strings during horizontal drilling operations applicable to both short and long holes. The end product of Phase II is a functional drill-string assembly outfitted with a commercial version of Drill String Radar (DSR). Project Objectives Develop and demonstrate a dual-phase methodology of in-seam drilling, imaging, and structure confirmation. This methodology, illustrated in Figure 1, includes: (1) Using RIM to image between drill holes for seam thickness estimates and in-seam structures detection. Completed, February 2005; and (2) Using DSR for real-time MWD guidance and navigation of drillstrings during horizontal drilling operations. Completed, November 2008. As of November 2008, the Phase II portion of Contract DE-FC26-04NT42085 is about 99% complete, including milestones and tasks original outlined as Phase II work. The one percent deficiency results from MSHA-related approvals which have yet to be granted (at the time of reporting). These approvals are pending and are do not negatively impact the scope of work or project objectives.

  18. Rotary Steerable Horizontal Directional Drilling: Red River Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherukupally, A.; Bergevin, M.; Jones, J.

    2011-12-01

    Sperry-Sun Drilling, a Halliburton company provides engineering solutions and sets new records for Horizontal and Vertical Displacement Drilling (HVDD). Halliburton Sperry Drilling, Casper, WY, allowed one student to participate in 12-week experiential learning program this summer as HVDD engineer. HVDD is the science of drilling non-vertical wells and can be differentiated into three main groups; Oilfield Directional Drilling (ODD), Utility Installation Directional Drilling (UIDD) and in-seam directional Drilling. Sperry-Sun prior experience with rotary drilling established a number of principles for the configuration of Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) that would be prone to drilling crooked hole [1]. Combining Measurement While Drilling survey tools (MWD tools) and BHA designs made HVDD possible. Geologists use the MWD survey data to determine the well placement in the stratigraphic sequence. Through the analysis of this data, an apparent dip of the formation can be calculated, and the bit is directed to stay in the target zone of production. Geological modeling assists in directing the well by creating a map of the target zone surface, an Isopach map. The Isopach map provides contour intervals and changes in formation dip. When the inclination of the formation changes the geologist informs the directional drillers to adjust the drill bits. HVDD provides Halliburton the opportunity to reach more production intervals in a given formation sequence [1]. The Down hole motors powered by fluid flow through the drill string create horsepower and rotation of the bit which enables the use of a bend element in the BHA to create the tilt necessary to deviate the wellbore from vertical displacement drilling path. The rotation of Down hole motors is influenced by temperature and aromatics found in water, oil and diesel based mud. The development of HVDD Rotary Steerable tools hold promise to have almost a complete automated process for drilling highly deviated production well

  19. Evaluation of target reservoirs for horizontal drilling: Lower Glen Rose Formation, South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Muncey, G.; Drimal, C.E. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    The primary objective of this project is to test the hypothesis that a horizontally drilled borehole can increase gas production sufficiently from the Lower Glen Rose Formation to provide an economic advantage over conventional vertical drilling. Additional objectives are to conduct detailed investigations of reservoir properties and completion methods. This paper presents preliminary results of a project, co-funded by PrimeEnergy and the United States Department of Energy (DOE), to assess the economic viability of horizontal drilling in the Lower Glen Rose Formation of Maverick County, Texas. This project is part of an ongoing DOE investigation of directional drilling in the development of tight gas resources within the United States. This paper builds on data presented in Muncey (1992) with data from two vertical tests of the Lower Glen Rose Formation, both drilled in 1993, and the analysis of approximately 20 line-miles of high-resolution seismic data recorded in 1992 and 1993.

  20. Drilling fluids in pipeline installation by horizontal directional drilling. A practical applications manual

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-31

    Drilling fluid plays a key role in the installation of a pipeline by horizontal directional drilling (HDD) and accounts for the majority of the associated environmental impact. An improper drilling fluid program can result in stuck pipe. Uncontrolled discharge of drilling fluid downhole can damage or undermine adjacent structures. The cost of drilling fluid involved with pipeline installation, particularly when disposal costs are considered, can be substantial. It is the objective of this manual to increase the level of sophistication involved with drilling fluids in pipeline installation and to present practical criteria to govern the use of drilling fluids in the HDD process. This will benefit drilling contractors and pipeline owners by reducing costs. Standardization of environmentally acceptable drilling fluid practices will also reduce permitting problems. This manual is meant for use by design engineers and drilling rig operators in designing, permitting, and installing drilled pipeline segments. It is not intended to be a detailed theoretical treatment of the subject of drilling fluids. Individuals interested in this are directed to the referenced texts and papers which support the manual.

  1. Horizontal drilling in the Austin Chalk: Stratigraphic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, C.O. Jr. ); Bobigian, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Horizontal drilling has renewed interest in the Austin chalk in south-central Texas. Large fields on opposite sides of the San Marcos arch Giddings to the northeast and Pearsall to the southwest were active with vertical drilling 10 years ago. Giddings' 4,500 Austin wells produced 209 million BO and 934 bcfg of gas through 1988; Pearsall's 1,440 wells produced 57 million BO and 35 bcfg of gas. Most vertical wells were completed, 20% were economic successes, 40% were marginal, 40% were uneconomic due to uneven areal distribution of near-vertical fractures and small faults, which provide reservoirs in otherwise tight chalk. Horizontal drilling, led by Amoco in Giddings and Oryx in Pearsall, enhances the chances of encountering the fractures by drilling perpendicular to the fracture trend. Horizontal drilling requires preselection of the stratigraphic horizon to be penetrated. One must understand the variable Austin stratigraphy to choose the zone with the most brittle character and best matrix porosity, both reduced by increased clay content. Chalk 130 ft thick on the San Marcos arch thickens to 600 to 800 ft in central Giddings field where middle marl separates lower and upper chalk Northeastward only lower chalk is preserved beneath a post-Austin submarine channel. The Austin thickens to 300-500 ft in Pearsall field where middle member ash beds separate lower and upper chalk inhibiting vertical reservoir communication. Locally, on the Pearsall arch, ash is missing, lower chalk thickens, and upper chalk thins.

  2. Demonstration of a utility industry horizontal drilling system: Horizontal well AMH-5 installation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development initiated an integrated demonstration of innovative technologies and systems for cleanup of VOCs in soils and groundwater at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1989. The overall goal of the program is demonstration of multiple technologies and systems in the fields of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation at a single test bed. Innovative technologies are compared to one another and to baseline technologies in terms of technical performance and cost effectiveness. Transfer of successfully demonstrated technologies and systems to DOE environmental restoration organizations, to other government agencies, and to industry is a critical part of the program. Directional drilling has been shown to be a successful technique for enhancing access to the subsurface, thus improving remediation systems, especially remediation systems which perform in situ. Demonstration of an innovative directional drilling system at the Integrated Demonstration Site at the SRS, was initiated in June of 1992. The directional drilling system was designed to install an in situ remediation system. The drilling system is an experimental compaction/dry drilling technique developed by Charles Machine Works (Ditch Witch{reg_sign}) of Perry, Oklahoma. A horizontal well was installed in the M Area of the SRS below and parallel to an abandoned tile process sewer line. The installation of the horizontal well was a two-part process. Part one consisted of drilling the borehole, and part two was the horizontal well completion.

  3. Rock characterization in reservoirs targeted for horizontal drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Skopec, R.A. )

    1993-12-01

    Achieving the maximum economic benefit from horizontal drilling requires thorough understanding of reservoir characteristics. The direct measurement of rock properties from oriented core is critical in horizontal-wellbore design. This paper outlines the measures and testing necessary to evaluate naturally fractured reservoirs effectively with field and laboratory technologies. Rock mechanical properties, fracture strike, and principal in-situ stress magnitudes and directions should be known before a horizontal wellbore is drilled. These data can then be used to maximize the intersection of natural fractures and to minimize the potential of borehole failure. In exploration wells, a vertical pilot hole must first be drilled. The zone of interest is cored, field tests are performed, laboratory testing is completed, and the reservoir is evaluated. With this information available, decisions can be made to optimize the borehole azimuth and well placement. The authors have used this approach to formation evaluation in several reservoirs where rock characterization is essential in the exploration and drilling program. 72 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Italian river crossing; Horizontal drilling meets pipeline project criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The River Piave flows out of the Italian Alps, crossing the Veneto farmlands on its way to the Adriatic Sea. It is an important commerce-carrying waterway. SNAM, the Italian state gas pipeline company, wanted to install a 22-in. pipeline across the Piave just north of Venice. The method chosen for crossing the river had to meet several important criteria. InArc had used its river crossing method on seven previous SNAM projects and recommended the Piave crossing should be drilled. This paper describes the use of this horizontal drilling method for this application.

  5. Economic feasibility of drilling horizontal wells in a shallow high permeability coalbed methane reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doghor, Kesiena Gavin

    Coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs have emerged as an important source of natural gas production. However, the choice of drilling configuration employed differs from basin to basin. The Powder River Basin coal seams shallow nature is believed to favor the current vertical well configuration. Horizontal well drilling in CBM reservoirs has been studied in deep and thick coal seams like the Appalachian and Cherokee Basins in USA, but little work has been done in shallow CBM reservoirs like those of the Powder River Basin. The objective of this thesis is to use a reservoir simulator and economic analysis to study the economic feasibility of drilling horizontal wells in shallow CBM reservoirs such as the CX field Monarch Coal seam of the Powder River Basin. A dual porosity reservoir model was built and historical production was matched. The resulting simulator was used to run different configurations of vertical and horizontal wells. Economic analysis was then performed on the simulated productions to determine the optimal drilling strategy. Additional cases of different permeability values and thicknesses were also considered. The results show that horizontal wells would not be economical when compared to vertical wells in shallow coal seams. The results of this work were based on current natural gas prices and drilling and operational cost.

  6. Horizontal well drilled into deep, hot Austin chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, D.; Johnson, M.; Godfrey, B.

    1995-04-03

    Bent-housing steerable downhole motors helped maintain course for a deep, hot, horizontal well in the Austin chalk. The Navasota Unit No. 1 was planned as a B zone, single downdip lateral, Austin chalk horizontal well with a maximum departure from vertical of 3,767 ft and a planned total depth (TD) of 17,342 ft measured depth (MD)/14,172 ft TVD. The Austin chalk was found significantly deeper in this well than planned, which resulted in an actual TD of 17,899 ft MD/14,993 ft TVD, the deepest (TVD) horizontal well in the Austin chalk to date. The well was spudded on August 6, 1994, and took 52 days to reach TD. The static bottom hole temperature was almost 350 F. The paper describes the well plan, drilling results, and the lateral section.

  7. Geophysical investigations in deep horizontal holes drilled ahead of tunnelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, R.D.; Cunningham, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Deep horizontal drill holes have been used since 1967 by the Defense Nuclear Agency as a primary exploration tool for siting nuclear events in tunnels at the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Geological Survey had developed geophysical logging techniques for obtaining resistivity and velocity in these holes, and to date 33 horizontal drill holes in excess of 300 m in depth have been successfully logged. The deepest hole was drilled to a horizontal depth of 1125 m. The purposes of the logging measurements are to define clay zones, because of the unstable ground conditions such zones can present to tunnelling, and to define zones of partially saturated rock, because of the attenuating effects such zones have on the shock wave generated by the nuclear detonation. Excessive attenuation is undesirable because the shock wave is used as a tunnel closure mechanism to contain debris and other undesirable explosion products. Measurements are made by pumping resistivity, sonic and geophone probes down the drill string and out of the bit into the open hole. Clay zones are defined by the electrical resistivity technique based on empirical data relating the magnitude of the resistivity measurement to qualitative clay content. Rock exhibiting resistivity of less than 20 ??-m is considered potentially unstable, and resistivities less than 10 ??-m indicate appreciable amounts of clay are present in the rock. Partially saturated rock zones are defined by the measurement of the rock sound speed. Zones in the rock which exhibit velocities less than 2450 m/sec are considered of potential concern. ?? 1980.

  8. Design guidelines and procedures for guided horizontal drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, M.J.; Kramer, S.R.; Pittard, G.T.; Mamoun, M.

    1996-08-01

    Jason Consultants International, Inc., under the sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute (GRI), has developed guidelines, procedures and software, which are described in this paper, for the installation of polyethylene gas pipe using guided horizontal drilling. Jason was aided in this development by two key subcontractors; Maurer Engineering who wrote the software and NICOR Technologies who reviewed the software and guidelines from a utility perspective. This program resulted in the development of commerically viable software for utilities, contractors, engineering firms, and others involved with the installation of pipes using guided horizontal drilling. The software is an interactive design tool that allows the user to enter ground elevation data, alignment information and pipe data. The software aides the engineer in designing a drill path and provides plan and profile views along with tabular data for pipe depth and surface profile. Finally, the software calculates installation loads and pipe stresses, compares these values against pipe manufacturer`s recommendations, and provides this information graphically and in tabular form. 5 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Horizontal drilling the Bakken Formation, Williston basin: A new approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lefever, J.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Horizontal drilling is an attractive new approach to exploration and development of the Mississippian/Devonian Bakken Formation in the southwestern part of North Dakota. This drilling technique increases the probability of success, the profit potential, the effective drainage area maximizing recoverable reserves, and the productivity by encountering more natural occurring fractures. The target formation, the Mississippian/Devonian Bakken, consists of three members in an overlapping relationship, a lower organic-rich black shale, a middle siltstone/limestone, and an upper organic-rich black shale. It attains a maximum thickness of 145 ft and thins to a feather edge along its depositional limit. Considered to be a major source rock for the Williston basin, the Bakken is usually overpressured where productive. Overpressuring is attributed to intense hydrocarbon generation. Reservoir properties are poor with core fluid porosities being generally 5% or less and permeabilities ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 md. The presence of natural fractures in the shale are necessary for production. Two types of fractures are associated with Bakken reservoirs: large vertical fractures (of tectonic origin) and microfractures (probably related to hydrocarbon generation). An economic comparison between horizontal and vertical wells show that well completion costs are approximately two times higher (average costs; $1,500,000 for a horizontal to $850,000 for a vertical) with average payout for horizontal wells projected to occur in half the time (1.5 yr instead of 3.4 yr). Projected production and reserves are considered to be 2 to 4 times greater from a horizontal well.

  10. Borehole Stability Analysis of Horizontal Drilling in Shale Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jun-Liang; Deng, Jin-Gen; Tan, Qiang; Yu, Bao-Hua; Jin, Xiao-Chun

    2013-09-01

    Serious wellbore instability occurs frequently during horizontal drilling in shale gas reservoirs. The conventional forecast model of in situ stresses is not suitable for wellbore stability analysis in laminated shale gas formations because of the inhomogeneous mechanical properties of shale. In this study, a new prediction method is developed to calculate the in situ stresses in shale formations. The pore pressure near the borehole is heterogeneous along both the radial and tangential directions due to the inhomogeneity in the mechanical properties and permeability. Therefore, the stress state around the wellbore will vary with time after the formation is drained. Besides, based on the experimental results, a failure criterion is verified and applied to determine the strength of Silurian shale in the Sichuan Basin, including the long-term strength of gas shale. Based on this work, horizontal well borehole stability is analyzed by the new in situ stress prediction model. Finally, the results show that the collapse pressure will be underestimated if the conventional model is used in shale gas reservoirs improperly. The collapse pressure of a horizontal well is maximum at dip angle of 45°. The critical mud weight should be increased constantly to prevent borehole collapse if the borehole is exposed for some time.

  11. Site selection, drilling, and completion of two horizontal wells in the Devonian Shales of West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Johnson, H.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents a summary of the geologic site selection studies, planning, drilling, completing, stimulating, and testing of two horizontal wells drilled in the Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin in West Virginia. Each horizontal well was designed and managed by BDM as the prime contractor to the Department of Energy. The first well was drilled with industry partner Cabot Oil and Gas Corporation in Putnam County, West Virginia. The second well was drilled with Consolidated Natural Gas Company in Calhoun County, West Virginia. This report summarizes four reports prepared by BDM which detail the site selection rationale and the drilling and completion operations of each well. Each horizontal well is currently producing commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. The successful application of horizontal well technology represent continued development of the technology for application to tight and unconventional natural gas resources of the United States. Continued technology development is expected to ultimately result in commercial horizontal well drilling activity by industry in the Appalachian Basin.

  12. The drilling of a horizontal well in a mature oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Rougeot, J.E.; Lauterbach, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents the drilling of a medium radius horizontal well in the Bartlesville Sand of the Flatrock Field, Osage County, Oklahoma by Rougeot Oil and Gas Corporation (Rougeot) of Sperry, Oklahoma. The report includes the rationale for selecting the particular site, the details of drilling the well, the production response, conclusions reached, and recommendations made for the future drilling of horizontal wells. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Petroleum engineering: Horizontal drilling. (Latest citations from the Georef database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning horizontal drilling technology for oil well production. Articles discuss techniques and problems associated with geologic formations such as chalk deposits, fractured rock systems, clastic rocks, sandstones, and karst areas. Citations address applications of horizontal drilling to petroleum exploration, extension of existing fields, enhanced oil recovery, targeted zone drilling, and geologically restrained petroleum reservoirs. (Contains a minimum of 123 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Horizontal drilling in the Lower Glen Rose Formation, Maverick County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Drimal, C.E.; Muncey, G.

    1992-10-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a project to assess the economic viability of horizontal drilling in the Lower Glen Rose Formation of Maverick County, Texas. This project is part of an ongoing Department of Energy investigation of directional drilling in the development of gas resources within the United States. The paper includes: project description; results covering geologic setting, reservoir engineering, and seismic surveys; and future work on drilling location selection, drilling, and well completion. (AT)

  15. Horizontal drilling in the Lower Glen Rose Formation, Maverick County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Drimal, C.E.; Muncey, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a project to assess the economic viability of horizontal drilling in the Lower Glen Rose Formation of Maverick County, Texas. This project is part of an ongoing Department of Energy investigation of directional drilling in the development of gas resources within the United States. The paper includes: project description; results covering geologic setting, reservoir engineering, and seismic surveys; and future work on drilling location selection, drilling, and well completion. (AT)

  16. Operators, service companies improve horizontal drilling accuracy offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, D.

    1996-04-01

    Continuing efforts to get more and better measurement and logging equipment closer to the bit improve accuracy in offshore drilling. Using current technology, both in measurement while drilling and logging while drilling, a target can consistently be hit within five vertical feet.

  17. Technology assessment of vertical and horizontal air drilling potential in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carden, R.S.

    1993-08-18

    The objective of the research was to assess the potential for vertical, directional and horizontal air drilling in the United States and to evaluate the current technology used in air drilling. To accomplish the task, the continental United States was divided into drilling regions and provinces. The map in Appendix A shows the divisions. Air drilling data were accumulated for as many provinces as possible. The data were used to define the potential problems associated with air drilling, to determine the limitations of air drilling and to analyze the relative economics of drilling with air versus drilling mud. While gathering the drilling data, operators, drilling contractors, air drilling contractors, and service companies were contacted. Their opinion as to the advantages and limitations of air drilling were discussed. Each was specifically asked if they thought air drilling could be expanded within the continental United States and where that expansion could take place. The well data were collected and placed in a data base. Over 165 records were collected. Once in the data base, the information was analyzed to determine the economics of air drilling and to determine the limiting factors associated with air drilling.

  18. Horizontal drilling results are mixed in Green River Basin Almond attempts

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Amoco Corp. and Texaco Exploration & Production Inc. have drilled horizontal Almond wells, but with differing degrees of success. The Almond is a tight, fractured gas formation with a history of production problems. Production and cost of well completion are described.

  19. Improved recovery using horizontal drilling in the Dundee Formation Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.B. III; Wood, J.R.; Huntoon, J.E.; Pennington, W.; Tester, C.; Taylor, E.

    1996-12-31

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate that oil production from selected fields in the Dundee Formation (Dev.) of Michigan can be substantially increased, perhaps restored to near--original production levels in some fields in Michigan, by utilizing horizontal drain wells. Devonian rocks have been the most prolific hydrocarbon producers of any system in the Michigan Basin. The Traverse, Dundee, and Lucas Formations have produced nearly all of the 525 Mbbls of oil and 150 Bcf of gas since the late 1920`s, 50% of the state`s oil and 7% of the state`s natural gas production. The Dundee Formation is Michigan`s all-time leader with 352 million barrels of oil and 42 billion cubic feet of gas. Crystal Field in Montcalm County, MI, selected as a field trial for this project is such a field. Analysis of production data for Crystal Field suggests that an additional 200,000 bbls of oil can be produced using 1 strategically located horizontal well. Total addition production from the Crystal Field could be as much as 6-8 Mbbls. Spin-offs from the technology developed in this project to other fields has the potential to increase Dundee production in Michigan by 35%, adding 80-100 Mbbls to the cumulative production. The approach combines proven, cost-effective horizontal drilling technology with modern reservoir characterization and management. A total of 30 Dundee fields will be characterized including the Crystal Field. Well logs, other well data, drilling, and production data and rock samples from the Dundee Fm. will be obtained, assembled, and input into digital databases designed for this project. Computer models describing the diagenetic, stratigraphic and thermal evolution of the Michigan Basin will be developed and applied to the Crystal Field reservoir. A post-mortem study is scheduled to monitor the effect of the horizontal well on Crystal Field production.

  20. Horizontal drilling potential of the Cane Creek Shale, Paradox Formation, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, C.D.; Chidsey, T.C. )

    1991-06-01

    The Cane Creek shale of the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation is a well-defined target for horizontal drilling. This unit is naturally fractures and consists of organic-rich marine shale with interbedded dolomitic siltstone and anhydrite. Six fields have produced oil from the Cane Creek shale in the Paradox basin fold-and-fault belt. The regional structural trend is north-northwest with productive fractures occurring along the crest and flanks of both the larger and more subtle smaller anticlines. The Long Canyon, Cane Creek, Bartlett Flat, and Shafer Canyon fields are located on large anticlines, while Lion Mesa and Wilson Canyon fields produce from subtle structural noses. The Cane Creek shale is similar to the highly productive Bakken Shale in the Williston basin. Both are (1) proven producers of high-gravity oil, (2) highly fractured organic-rich source rocks, (3) overpressured, (4) regionally extensive, and (5) solution-gas driven with little or no associated water. Even though all production from the Cane Creek shale has been from conventional vertical wells, the Long Canyon 1 well has produced nearly 1 million bbl of high-gravity, low-sulfur oil. Horizontal drilling may result in the development of new fields, enhance recovery in producing fields, and revive production in abandoned fields. In addition, several other regionally extensive organic-rich shale beds occur in the Paradox Formation. The Gothic and Chimney Rock shales for example, offer additional potential lying above the Cane Creek shale.

  1. Belden & Blake drills horizontal well as demonstration test in Clinton sand

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy chose Belden & Blake Corp. to demonstrate the feasibility of horizontal drilling in the Clinton sand. The test results revealed that the horizontal hole should produce about the same reserves as a vertical well, but it will produce them faster. A new bit with diamond inserts with beefed-up sides was utilized.

  2. New flame-cutting technique of vertical suspended pipe makes horizontal drilling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    New methods of pipe cutting are being used to manufacture flexible drill collars for horizontal drilling. The flexible collars start as 20-ft lengths of 3.25 in. OD mild steel pipe with a wall thickness of 0.75 in. Every 11 in. along the length of the pipe, a baseball stitch pattern (also called light bulb pattern) is cut into the pipe, producing flexibility by degrees. The first cut allows the pipe to bend slightly at the gap. Each new cut adds about 2/sup 0/ flexibility. The resulting drill collar performs radical changes in well direction. These collars can turn 90/sup 0/ in a 30-ft radius for deflection to horizontal. This drilling method is used for drilling lateral wells or drainholes. The collars are manufactured for Parliament Properties' new venture, Sidewinder Tool Co., Tulsa, by H and M Pipe Beveling Machine Co. Inc., Tulsa.

  3. A self propelled drilling system for hard-rock, horizontal and coiled tube drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Biglin, D.; Wassell, M.

    1997-12-31

    Several advancements are needed to improve the efficiency and reliability of both hard rock drilling and extended reach drilling. This paper will present a Self Propelled Drilling System (SPDS) which can grip the borehole wall in order to provide a stable platform for the application of weight on bit (WOB) and resisting the reactive torque created by the downhole drilling motor, bit and formation interaction. The system will also dampen the damaging effects of drill string vibration. This tool employs two hydraulically activated anchors (front and rear) to grip the borehole wall, and a two-way thrust mandrel to apply both the drilling force to the bit, and a retraction force to pull the drill string into the hole. Forward drilling motion will commence by sequencing the anchor pistons and thrust mandrel to allow the tool to walk in a stepping motion. The SPDS has a microprocessor to control valve timing, sensing and communication functions. An optional Measurement While Drilling (MWD) interface can provide two-way communication of critical operating parameters such as hydraulic pressure and piston location. This information can then be telemetered to the surface, or used downhole to autonomously control system parameters such as anchor and thrust force or damping characteristics.

  4. Installation loading and stress analysis involved with pipelines installed by horizontal directional drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Huey, D.P.; Hair, J.D.; McLeod, K.B.

    1996-08-01

    Pipelines installed by horizontal directional drilling (HDD) are subject to a combination of tension, blending, and external pressure. These installation loads, either individually or in combination, can be more severe than operational loads and may govern drilled path design or specification. This is particularly true as the state of the art in horizontal directional drilling is advanced to larger pipe diameters and longer drilled lengths. This paper presents methods for calculating installation loads, including pulling forces, and analyzing combined stresses in steel pipe during installation and operation. Pipe to soil frictional and fluidic drag forces are discussed. A method for analyzing the effect of bends on pulling force is presented. Methods of analysis are illustrated with example calculations. The paper results from work done under the sponsorship of the Pipeline Research Committee at the American Gas Association and is taken from an engineering design guide produced specifically for HDD pipeline installation. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Site selection, drilling, and completion of two horizontal wells in the Devonian Shales of West Virginia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Johnson, H.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents a summary of the geologic site selection studies, planning, drilling, completing, stimulating, and testing of two horizontal wells drilled in the Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin in West Virginia. Each horizontal well was designed and managed by BDM as the prime contractor to the Department of Energy. The first well was drilled with industry partner Cabot Oil and Gas Corporation in Putnam County, West Virginia. The second well was drilled with Consolidated Natural Gas Company in Calhoun County, West Virginia. This report summarizes four reports prepared by BDM which detail the site selection rationale and the drilling and completion operations of each well. Each horizontal well is currently producing commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. The successful application of horizontal well technology represent continued development of the technology for application to tight and unconventional natural gas resources of the United States. Continued technology development is expected to ultimately result in commercial horizontal well drilling activity by industry in the Appalachian Basin.

  6. Increased reserves through horizontal drilling in a mature waterflood, Long Beach unit, Wilmington Oil Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.H. )

    1996-01-01

    Ranger Zone development started in 1965. A waterflood was initiated from the start using a staggered line-drive pattern. Infill drilling in the early 1980s and again in the 1990s revealed bypassed oil in the upper Ranger Fo sand. Detailed studies of the aerial extent of the remaining oil resulted in drilling 17 horizontal wells to recover these reserves. The Fo target sand thickness is 20 to 50 feet. Well courses are between 10 and 15 feet below the top of the Fo with lengths varying from 800 to 1,000 feet. The success of the Fo drilling program has prompted expansion of horizontal drilling into thin-bedded sand units. Well lengths have increased to between 1,500 and 1,800 feet with structural trend used to advantage. Where needed, probes are designed to penetrate the target sand before setting intermediate casing. The drilling program has been extended into bilateral horizontal completions. Geosteering with MWD/GR and a 2 MHz dual propagation resistivity tool is used to the casing point. In the completion interval, only the MWD/GR tool is used and a drillpipe conveyed E-log is run afterward to confirm expected resistivities. Despite the many well penetrations in the Ranger Zone, structural control is only fair. Accuracy of MWD data is generally low and geosteering is done by TVD log correlation. With a recovery factor of over 30 percent in Ranger West, from approximately 800 wells drilled in the last 30 years, the horizontal drilling program targeting bypassed reserves has brought new life to this mature reservoir.

  7. Increased reserves through horizontal drilling in a mature waterflood, Long Beach unit, Wilmington Oil Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.H.

    1996-12-31

    Ranger Zone development started in 1965. A waterflood was initiated from the start using a staggered line-drive pattern. Infill drilling in the early 1980s and again in the 1990s revealed bypassed oil in the upper Ranger Fo sand. Detailed studies of the aerial extent of the remaining oil resulted in drilling 17 horizontal wells to recover these reserves. The Fo target sand thickness is 20 to 50 feet. Well courses are between 10 and 15 feet below the top of the Fo with lengths varying from 800 to 1,000 feet. The success of the Fo drilling program has prompted expansion of horizontal drilling into thin-bedded sand units. Well lengths have increased to between 1,500 and 1,800 feet with structural trend used to advantage. Where needed, probes are designed to penetrate the target sand before setting intermediate casing. The drilling program has been extended into bilateral horizontal completions. Geosteering with MWD/GR and a 2 MHz dual propagation resistivity tool is used to the casing point. In the completion interval, only the MWD/GR tool is used and a drillpipe conveyed E-log is run afterward to confirm expected resistivities. Despite the many well penetrations in the Ranger Zone, structural control is only fair. Accuracy of MWD data is generally low and geosteering is done by TVD log correlation. With a recovery factor of over 30 percent in Ranger West, from approximately 800 wells drilled in the last 30 years, the horizontal drilling program targeting bypassed reserves has brought new life to this mature reservoir.

  8. Productivity improvement by frontier horizontal drilling in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Schenato, A.

    1995-12-31

    Italian domestic activity on horizontal wells has been specially addressed to carbonate reservoir and specifically targeted to re-entry in existing wells. The speech will focus on the specific experience matured in frontier applications in Italy, from 1989 with the short radius drain holes in Sicily, throughout world record deep water short radius in the southern part of Adriatic sea and depth world record medium radius in a HP/HT reservoir in the Po Valley. Production results will be reported as well as the achieved technological aspects.

  9. Applicability of petroleum horizontal drilling technology to hazardous waste site characterization and remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Goranson, C.

    1992-09-01

    Horizontal wells have the potential to become an important tool for use in characterization, remediation and monitoring operations at hazardous waste disposal, chemical manufacturing, refining and other sites where subsurface pollution may develop from operations or spills. Subsurface pollution of groundwater aquifers can occur at these sites by leakage of surface disposal ponds, surface storage tanks, underground storage tanks (UST), subsurface pipelines or leakage from surface operations. Characterization and remediation of aquifers at or near these sites requires drilling operations that are typically shallow, less than 500-feet in depth. Due to the shallow nature of polluted aquifers, waste site subsurface geologic formations frequently consist of unconsolidated materials. Fractured, jointed and/or layered high compressive strength formations or compacted caliche type formations can also be encountered. Some formations are unsaturated and have pore spaces that are only partially filled with water. Completely saturated underpressured aquifers may be encountered in areas where the static ground water levels are well below the ground surface. Each of these subsurface conditions can complicate the drilling and completion of wells needed for monitoring, characterization and remediation activities. This report describes some of the equipment that is available from petroleum drilling operations that has direct application to groundwater characterization and remediation activities. A brief discussion of petroleum directional and horizontal well drilling methodologies is given to allow the reader to gain an understanding of the equipment needed to drill and complete horizontal wells. Equipment used in river crossing drilling technology is also discussed. The final portion of this report is a description of the drilling equipment available and how it can be applied to groundwater characterization and remediation activities.

  10. Horizontal slim-hole drilling with coiled tubing; An operator's experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, A.B. Jr.; Faahel, R.A.; Chaffin, M.G.; Pulis, K.H. )

    1992-10-01

    What is believed to be the first horizontal well drilled with directionally controlled coiled tubing recently was completed in the Austin Chalk formation. an existing well was sidetracked out of 4 1/2-in. casing with a conventional whipstock. an average build rate of 15[degrees]/100 ft was achieved in the curve, and a 1,458-ft vertical section was drilled with 2-in. coiled tubing, downhole mud motors, wireline steering tools, a mechanical downhole orienting tool, and 3 7/8-in. bits. This paper discusses the orienting and directional tools and techniques developed during this operation. It also describes improvements made for the second well.

  11. Successful drilling of the first horizontal well in a mature field

    SciTech Connect

    Marruffo, I.; Achong, C.

    1996-08-01

    This paper discusses how the decision to drill the first horizontal well of a reservoir was taken, based on Production acceleration and the incremental economy of cash flow. The reservoir is located in the Guafita-Norto Field in Western Venezuela, contiguous to the La Yuca-Cano Limon Fields in Colombia. Guafita-Norte has 183 million stb of remaining oil reserves with 26 production wells on electrical submergible pumps. The STOIP of this under saturated reservoir (bubble point pressure is 36 psi) is 160 million stb with an initial GOR of 10 stf/stb, having a permeability between 1.5-12 darcies with a strong water drive, water coning and sanding problems due to fines migration. During 1995, it was decided to drill the first horizontal well in the reservoir based on a 3-D numerical simulation with radial flow (for water coning) and local grid refinement (for horizontal wells) coupled to an economic analysis. The simulation predetermines an initial production rate for a horizontal well 2.5 times greater than for a vertical one, and the incremental cash flow for the horizontal well is 4.5 MM$ larger for the vertical one in four (4) years, with a ROR of 200%. The horizontal well was drilled with oil-based mud to avoid hole collapse, and it was completed open hole with a single screen pack. The well is currently producing between 2000 and 3500 stb/d, clean, on natural flow. This study has clearly shown that the ultimate and decisive parameter to be weighed before undertaking this type of project, is the economic analysis, which must be performed as extensively as the technical analysis.

  12. Horizontal hole drilling increases recovery and production in a Pinnacle Reef

    SciTech Connect

    Bloy, G.; Davis, R. )

    1990-05-01

    In 1989, a horizontal hole was successfully drilled in northern Alberta through the Keg River G pool a Rainbow member limestone pinnacle reef. This pool has a 2.3 {times} 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} (14.5 {times} 10{sup 6} bbl) of original oil in place and has been on secondary solvent miscible flood for most of its production history. Production has decreased from 500 m{sup 3} of oil/day (3,145 bopd) to 150 m{sup 3} o/d (944 BOPD) from two wells. The production decline was due to high solvent coning. The pool became a candidate for a horizontal hole to improve recovery of its remaining reserves and to increase oil production rates by the reduction of solvent coning. Placement of the horizontal hole had to be as structurally low as possible, leaving little cellar oil unrecovered. Understanding facies distribution and their diagenesis within the reef was important in determining the hole placement. Thus pinnacle reef is composed of three stages of growth: (1) lower Middle Keg River mud mound, (2) upper Middle Keg River reef, and (3) upper Keg River shoal. Each stage is composed of a number of facies and represents the changes in depositional environment within the Rainbow basin. Dolomitization overprints the margin facies of stages 1 and 2. Each facies has unique reservoir characteristics, most importantly the mud mound lagoon facies has little vertical permeability. The horizontal hole was drilled 2 m above this facies. The hole was drilled 178 m horizontally through the reef, and openhole completed. Presently, the horizontal hole is capable of producing in excess of 400 m{sup 3} of oil/day (2,515 BOPD), with one-fifth the drawdown of a conventional vertical hole, and incremental oil recovery is estimated at 115,000 m{sup 3} (723,270 bbl) of oil.

  13. Method and apparatus for drilling horizontal holes in geological structures from a vertical bore

    DOEpatents

    Summers, David A.; Barker, Clark R.; Keith, H. Dean

    1982-01-01

    This invention is directed to a method and apparatus for drilling horizontal holes in geological strata from a vertical position. The geological structures intended to be penetrated in this fashion are coal seams, as for in situ gasification or methane drainage, or in oil-bearing strata for increasing the flow rate from a pre-existing well. Other possible uses for this device might be for use in the leaching of uranium ore from underground deposits or for introducing horizontal channels for water and steam injections.

  14. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives.

    PubMed

    Edwards, W C; Gregory, D G

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  15. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.C.; Gregory, D.G. )

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  16. APPLICATION OF WATER-JET HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNOLOGY TO DRILL AND ACIDIZE HORIZONTAL DRAIN HOLES, TEDBIT (SAN ANDRES) FIELD, GAINES COUNTY, TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael W. Rose

    2005-09-22

    The San Andres Formation is one of the major hydrocarbon-producing units in the Permian Basin, with multiple reservoirs contained within the dolomitized subtidal portions of upward shoaling carbonate shelf cycles. The test well is located in Tedbit (San Andres) Field in northeastern Gaines County, Texas, in an area of scattered San Andres production associated with local structural highs. Selected on the basis of geological and historical data, the Oil and Gas Properties Wood No. 1 well is considered to be typical of a large number of San Andres stripper wells in the Permian Basin. Thus, successful completion of horizontal drain holes in this well would demonstrate a widely applicable enhanced recovery technology. Water-jet horizontal drilling is an emerging technology with the potential to provide significant economic benefits in marginal wells. Forecast benefits include lower recompletion costs and improved hydrocarbon recoveries. The technology utilizes water under high pressure, conveyed through small-diameter coiled tubing, to jet horizontal drain holes into producing formations. Testing of this technology was conducted with inconclusive results. Paraffin sludge and mechanical problems were encountered in the wellbore, initially preventing the water-jet tool from reaching the kick-off point. After correcting these problems and attempting to cut a casing window with the water-jet milling assembly, lateral jetting was attempted without success.

  17. Paleokarst and fracture overprints in Mid-Continent carbonates in evaluation of horizontal drilling potential

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, R.D.; Shelton, J.W. ); Esteban, M. ); Wilson, J.L.

    1991-03-01

    The Mid-Continent region, especially in Oklahoma and Arkansas, contains thick Paleozoic carbonate sections that are dolomitic and karstic in character. These sections commonly exhibit strong structural overprints, including intense fracturing, due primarily to Pennsylvanian orogenies. Because of their rather wide association with source rocks, these carbonates are thought to represent good potential targets for horizontal drilling. The Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group, the Ordovician Viola Group, the Siluro-Devonian Hunton Group, and the Mississippian Limestone all contain zones that are locally productive. These stratigraphic units are either uniformly tight or they are heterogeneous with complex porosity profiles. In karst terranes both types commonly occur together; both require fracturing to increase porosity and permeability. Both youthful and mature stages of paleokarst are observed in the Arbuckle Group; the best porosity is developed in the youthful stage. These stages can develop microporous, planar porous, or macroporous types of reservoir geometry. All of these may be heterogeneous in nature, requiring fractures to interconnect porous intervals. Horizontal drilling is yet to be proved as a reliable method for increasing production efficiency in Mid-Continent carbonates. An evaluation of diagenetic history, especially karst processes, along with local and regional structural settings, may provide a key for improved understanding of the horizontal drilling potential in these carbonates.

  18. In-field fast calibration of FOG-based MWD IMU for horizontal drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoguo; Lu, Jiazhen; Xiao, Wenhua; Lin, Tie

    2015-03-01

    A fiber optic gyroscope (FOG)-based measuring-while-drilling (MWD) device for horizontal drilling is developed and an in-field fast calibration method of the MWD inertial measurement unit (IMU) is presented. The IMU consists of a FOG triad and a quartz accelerometer triad. An error model for the inertial sensors is established and 12 errors are confirmed as the main error sources for horizontal drilling after an analysis. A five-rotation-in-level-plane (5RILP) in-field fast calibration scheme for the main errors of the MWD IMU is illustrated. The scheme can be conveniently implemented on an almost level plane, such as a table plane, without any special external equipment. To solve the calibrated errors, a systematic approach based on specific force measurement observation is adopted. Observation equations of the IMU errors are derived according to the rotation sequence of the calibration scheme. Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method is effective even if there are 5° errors in level and 10° errors in heading. Calibration experiments using the developed FOG-based MWD equipment on a table plane confirm the validity of the proposed in-field calibration method. Inertial navigation tests show that the actual accuracy of the MWD IMU is greatly improved by 60.6% after in-field calibration.

  19. Geomechanics of horizontally-drilled, stress-sensitive, naturally-fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, D.J.; Brown, S.R.; Lorenz, J.C.; Olsson, W.A.; Teufel, L.W.; Warpinski, N.R.

    1994-09-01

    Horizontal drilling is a viable approach for accessing hydrocarbons in many types of naturally-fractured reservoirs. Cost-effective improvements in the technology to drill, complete, and produce horizontal wells in difficult geologic environments require a better understanding of the mechanical and fluid-flow behavior of these reservoirs with changes ineffective stress during their development and production history. In particular, improved understanding is needed for predicting borehole stability and reservoir response during pore pressure drawdown. To address these problems, a cooperative project between Oryx Energy Company and Sandia National Laboratories was undertaken to study the effects of rock properties, in situ stress, and changes in effective stress on the deformation and permeability of stress sensitive, naturally-fractured reservoirs. A low value for the proelastic parameter was found, implying that the reservoir should have a low sensitivity to declining pore pressure. A surprisingly diverse suite of fractures was identified from core. From the coring-induced fractures, it was plausible to conclude that the maximum principal stress was in the horizontal plane. Measurements on permeability of naturally fractured rock in a newly-developed experimental arrangement showed that slip on fractures is much more effective inchangingpcrtncability than is normal stress. The intermediate principal stress was found to have a strong effect, on the strength and ductility of the chalk, implying the need for a more sophisticated calculation of borehole stability.

  20. Demonstration of Eastman Christensen horizontal drilling system -- Integrated Demonstration Site, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    An innovative horizontal drilling system was used to install two horizontal wells as part of an integrated demonstration project at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina. The SRS is located in south-central South Carolina in the upper Coastal Plain physiographic province. The demonstration site is located near the A/M Area, and is currently known as the Integated Demonstration Site. The Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development initiated an integrated demonstration of innovative technologies for cleanup of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in soils and groundwater at the SRS in 1989. The overall goal of the program is to demonstrate, at a single location, multiple technologies in the fields of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation. Innovative technologies are compared to one another and to baseline technologies in terms of technical performance and cost effectiveness. Transfer of successfully demonstrated technologies and systems to DOE environmental restoration organizations, to other government agencies, and to industry is a critical part of the program.

  1. Demonstration of Eastman Christensen horizontal drilling system -- Integrated Demonstration Site, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    An innovative horizontal drilling system was used to install two horizontal wells as part of an integrated demonstration project at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina. The SRS is located in south-central South Carolina in the upper Coastal Plain physiographic province. The demonstration site is located near the A/M Area, and is currently known as the Integated Demonstration Site. The Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development initiated an integrated demonstration of innovative technologies for cleanup of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in soils and groundwater at the SRS in 1989. The overall goal of the program is to demonstrate, at a single location, multiple technologies in the fields of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation. Innovative technologies are compared to one another and to baseline technologies in terms of technical performance and cost effectiveness. Transfer of successfully demonstrated technologies and systems to DOE environmental restoration organizations, to other government agencies, and to industry is a critical part of the program.

  2. Replacing and Additive Horizontal Gene Transfer in Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang Chul; Rasmussen, Matthew D.; Hubisz, Melissa J.; Gronau, Ilan; Stanhope, Michael J.; Siepel, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The prominent role of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) in the evolution of bacteria is now well documented, but few studies have differentiated between evolutionary events that predominantly cause genes in one lineage to be replaced by homologs from another lineage (“replacing HGT”) and events that result in the addition of substantial new genomic material (“additive HGT”). Here in, we make use of the distinct phylogenetic signatures of replacing and additive HGTs in a genome-wide study of the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (SPY) and its close relatives S. dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDE) and S. dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae (SDD). Using recently developed statistical models and computational methods, we find evidence for abundant gene flow of both kinds within each of the SPY and SDE clades and of reduced levels of exchange between SPY and SDD. In addition, our analysis strongly supports a pronounced asymmetry in SPY–SDE gene flow, favoring the SPY-to-SDE direction. This finding is of particular interest in light of the recent increase in virulence of pathogenic SDE. We find much stronger evidence for SPY–SDE gene flow among replacing than among additive transfers, suggesting a primary influence from homologous recombination between co-occurring SPY and SDE cells in human hosts. Putative virulence genes are correlated with transfer events, but this correlation is found to be driven by additive, not replacing, HGTs. The genes affected by additive HGTs are enriched for functions having to do with transposition, recombination, and DNA integration, consistent with previous findings, whereas replacing HGTs seen to influence a more diverse set of genes. Additive transfers are also found to be associated with evidence of positive selection. These findings shed new light on the manner in which HGT has shaped pathogenic bacterial genomes. PMID:22617954

  3. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laura L.

    2001-04-19

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (40-80 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvania (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performances, and report associated validation activities.

  4. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laural L.

    2001-11-26

    The project's primary objective was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (4-8 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performance(s), and report associated validation activities.

  5. World's longest under-river pipeline uses a horizontal drilling technique

    SciTech Connect

    Baradat, R.

    1986-01-27

    Directional drilling proved the most reliable and efficient means of crossing Venezuela's Orinoco River with a thiro natural gas pipeline. The line is the world's longest under-river large-diameter pipeline. The crossing was part of a major effort during third quarter 1982 to guarantee a reliable supply of natural gas to the industrial zone of Guyana in the south of Venezuela. Corpoven had commissioned a new loop of the existing Anaco-Puerto Ordaz Gas-Pipeline System. This third crossing consisted mainly of laying a 22-in. (1.0-in w.t.) epoxy coated carbon steel pipeline from the north bank of the Orinoco River at the Macapaima Station to the Puerto Ordaz Station on the south bank. The length of the crossing was 1,327 M (4,550 ft), the world's longest large-diameter under-river pipeline crossing using horizontal directional drilling at the time. To satisfy natural-gas requirements of the growing industrial zone of Guyana, Corporacion Venezolana Del Petroled (C.V.P.) had built in 1969 227-km, 20-in. gas line from Anaco state of Anzoategui, to Puerto Ordaz, state of Bolivar, with a 172 MMCFD capacity. The run of the pipeline included a crossing of the Orinoco River. That first crossing was performed during the low water period of 1968-1969 by means of the jet system. Later, three expansions of the pipeline were made, the last one being the second Orinoco River crossing. With that crossing, the line reached the programmed capacity of 475 MMCFD.

  6. Performance and Economic Modeling of Horizontally Drilled Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Select California Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiryadinata, Steven

    Service life modeling was performed to gage the viability of unitary 3.5 kWt, ground-source terminal heat pumps (GTHP) employing horizontal directionally drilled geothermal heat exchangers (GHX) over air-source terminal heat pumps (PTHP) in hotels and motels and residential apartment building sectors in California's coastal and inland climates. Results suggest the GTHP can reduce hourly peak demand for the utility by 7%-25% compared to PTHP, depending on the climate and building type. The annual energy savings, which range from -1% to 5%, are highly dependent on the GTHP pump energy use relative to the energy savings attributed to the difference in ground and air temperatures (DeltaT). In mild climates with small ?T, the pump energy use may overcome any advantage to utilizing a GHX. The majority of total levelized cost savings - ranging from 0.18/ft2 to 0.3/ft 2 - are due to reduced maintenance and lifetime capital cost normally associated with geothermal heat pump systems. Without these reductions (not validated for the GTHP system studied), the GTHP technology does not appear to offer significant advantages over PTHP in the climate zones studied here. The GTHP levelized cost was most sensitive to variations in installed cost and in some cases, energy use (influenced by climate zone choice), which together highlights the importance of climate selection for installation, and the need for larger market penetration of ground-source systems in order to bring down installed costs as the technology matures.

  7. Evaluation of a new technique for removing horizontal wellbore damage attributable to drill-in filter cake

    SciTech Connect

    Beall, B.B.; Brannon, H.D.; O`Driscoll, K.

    1996-12-31

    Many horizontal and highly deviated wells are drilled using the {open_quote}drill-in fluids{close_quote} introduced in recent years. The drill-in fluids are typically comprised of either starch or cellulose polymers, xanthan polymer, and sized calcium carbonate or salt particulates. They were introduced to minimize the mud damage to the wellbore relative to that typically observed with conventional drilling muds. However, testing and experience have shown that insufficient degradation of the filter cakes resulting from even these {open_quote}clean{close_quote} drill-in fluids can significantly impede flow capacity at the wellbore wall. This reduced flow capacity can result in reduced well productivity or infectivity. Consequently, wellbore acid treatments are typically applied in attempts to remove or {open_quote}bypass{close_quote} the filter cake. The acid treatments are often only marginally successful, particularly when applied in extended length intervals. Extensive studies were conducted to develop laboratory procedures to better simulate and characterize the damage attributable to drill-in fluids. Various chemical systems were subsequently applied to evaluate the effectiveness of their relative filter-cake degradation capabilities. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that drill-in fluid filter cake can be effectively removed through the application of a newly developed technique incorporating an enzyme-based polymer degradation system. The data show that through utilization of this new technology, smaller, less costly treatments can be used to treat entire openhole intervals to zero-skin potential with dramatically improved treatment efficiency. Much smaller, lower concentration acid treatments can then be effectively applied to stimulate the interval. Surveys following the field application of the new system have shown not only increased flow, but also flow throughout entire length open- hole intervals.

  8. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    SciTech Connect

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2006-06-30

    drilled and lined through the problematic shale member without major stability problems. The top of the targeted Monterey was thought to be seen at the expected TVD of 10,000 ft where the 7-in. liner was set at a 60{sup o} hole angle. Significant oil and gas shows suggested the fractured interval anticipated at the heel location had been penetrated. A total of 2572 ft of 6{Delta}-in. near-horizontal interval was placed in the shale section, extending planned well length by approximately 470 ft. Very little hydrocarbon in-flow was observed from fractures along the productive interval. This may be a result of the well trajectory falling underneath the Monterey fractured zone. Hydrocarbon observations, cuttings analysis and gamma-ray response indicated additional fractured intervals were accessed along the last {+-}900 ft of well length. The well was completed with a 2 and 7/8-in. tubing string set in a production packer in preparation for flow and swab tests to be conducted later by a service rig. The planned well time was estimated as 39 days and overall cost as $2.4 million. The actual results are 66 days at a total cost of $3.4 million. Well productivity responses during subsequent flow and swabbing tests were negative. The well failed to inflow and only minor amounts (a few barrels) of light oil were recovered. The lack of production may suggest that actual sustainable reservoir pressure is far less than anticipated. Temblor attempted in July, 2006, to re-enter and clean out the well and run an Array Induction log (primarily for resistivity and correlation purposes), and an FMI log (for fracture detection). Application of surfactant in the length of the horizontal hole, and acid over the fracture zone at 10,236 was also planned. This attempt was not successful in that the clean out tools became stuck and had to be abandoned.

  9. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    SciTech Connect

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-09-29

    drilled and lined through the problematic shale member without major stability problems. The top of the targeted Monterey was thought to be seen at the expected TVD of 10,000 ft where the 7-in. liner was set at a 60{sup o} hole angle. Significant oil and gas shows suggested the fractured interval anticipated at the heel location had been penetrated. A total of 2572 ft of 6 1/8-in. near-horizontal interval was placed in the shale section, extending planned well length by approximately 470 ft. Very little hydrocarbon in-flow was observed from fractures along the productive interval. This may be a result of the well trajectory falling underneath the Monterey fractured zone. Hydrocarbon observations, cuttings analysis and gamma-ray response indicated additional fractured intervals were accessed along the last {+-}900 ft of well length. The well was completed with a 2 7/8-in. tubing string set in a production packer in preparation for flow and swab tests to be conducted later by a service rig. The planned well time was estimated as 39 days and overall cost as $2.4 million. The actual results are 66 days at a total cost of $3.4 million. Well productivity responses during subsequent flow and swabbing tests were negative. The well failed to inflow and only minor amounts (a few barrels) of light oil were recovered. The lack of production may suggest that actual sustainable reservoir pressure is far less than anticipated. Temblor is currently planning to re-enter and clean out the well and run an Array Induction log (primarily for resistivity and correlation purposes), and an FMI log (for fracture detection). Depending on the results of these logs, an acidizing or re-drill program will be planned.

  10. USE OF CUTTING-EDGE HORIZONTAL AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUBSURFACE SEISMIC TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE, DRILL AND PRODUCE RESERVOIRED OIL AND GAS FROM THE FRACTURED MONTEREY BELOW 10,000 FT IN THE SANTA MARIA BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-02-01

    curved sections were drilled and lined through the problematic shale member without major stability problems. The top of the targeted Monterey was thought to be seen at the expected TVD of 10,000 ft where the 7-in. liner was set at a 60{sup o} hole angle. Significant oil and gas shows suggested the fractured interval anticipated at the heel location had been penetrated. A total of 2572 ft of 6.-in. near-horizontal interval was placed in the shale section, extending planned well length by approximately 470 ft. Very little hydrocarbon in-flow was observed from fractures along the productive interval. This may be a result of the well trajectory falling underneath the Monterey fractured zone. Hydrocarbon observations, cuttings analysis and gamma-ray response indicated additional fractured intervals were accessed along the last {+-}900 ft of well length. The well was completed with a 2 7/8-in. tubing string set in a production packer in preparation for flow and swab tests to be conducted later by a service rig. The planned well time was estimated as 39 days and overall cost as $2.4 million. The actual results are 66 days at a total cost of $3.4 million. Well productivity responses during subsequent flow and swabbing tests were negative. The well failed to inflow and only minor amounts (a few barrels) of light oil were recovered. The lack of production may suggest that actual sustainable reservoir pressure is far less than anticipated. Temblor is currently investigating the costs and operational viability of re-entering the well and conducting an FMI (fracture detection) log and/or an acid stimulation. No final decision or detailed plans have been made regarding these potential interventions at this time.

  11. Horizontal drilling applications work in Texas Panhandle`s high permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1996-02-01

    Calculating permeability averages of vertical wells helps operators determine horizontal economics. The Texas panhandle has a large gas reservoir with high permeability and low pressures. A study was designed that could use existing data from vertical wells to establish the feasibility of horizontal wells in that location.

  12. Conversion of spent sulfite liquor into chromium lignosulfonates and its evaluation as a drilling fluid additive

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.M.; Yen, T.F.

    1986-01-01

    The chemistry of Indian spent sulfite liquor and methods to isolate sodium lignosulfonates from it have been discussed earlier. It has been observed experimentally that spent sulfite liquor as such is not an effective oil-well drilling fluid additive. Although its sodium lignosulfonate derivatives exhibited some effectivity, they were not thermostable. An effort has been made to further improve the performance characteristics and chemical nature of the sodium lignosulfonate by chromium metal ion complexing, employing conductometric titration method. The resulting chromium lignosulfonates possess better chemical properties, thermal stability, and effectivity as oil-well drilling fluid additive. Synthesis of metal ion lignosulfonates would save a considerable amount of foreign exchange in India and lead to ''import substitution'' in oil exploration. Experimental details of chromium metal ion complexing of sodium lignosulfonate, its chemistry, and its industrial application as oil-well drilling fluid additive have been discussed.

  13. Towards the design of new and improved drilling fluid additives using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard L; Greenwel, H Christopher; Suter, James L; Jarvis, Rebecca M; Coveney, Peter V

    2010-03-01

    During exploration for oil and gas, a technical drilling fluid is used to lubricate the drill bit, maintain hydrostatic pressure, transmit sensor readings, remove rock cuttings and inhibit swelling of unstable clay based reactive shale formations. Increasing environmental awareness and resulting legislation has led to the search for new, improved biodegradable drilling fluid components. In the case of additives for clay swelling inhibition, an understanding of how existing effective additives interact with clays must be gained to allow the design of improved molecules. Owing to the disordered nature and nanoscopic dimension of the interlayer pores of clay minerals, computer simulations have become an increasingly useful tool for studying clay-swelling inhibitor interactions. In this work we briefly review the history of the development of technical drilling fluids, the environmental impact of drilling fluids and the use of computer simulations to study the interactions between clay minerals and swelling inhibitors. We report on results from some recent large-scale molecular dynamics simulation studies on low molecular weight water-soluble macromolecular inhibitor molecules. The structure and interactions of poly(propylene oxide)-diamine, poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(ethylene oxide)-diacrylate inhibitor molecules with montmorillonite clay are studied.

  14. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Laura L.; Eby, David E.; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.

    2002-07-24

    This report covers research activities for the second half of the second project year (October 6, 2001, through April 5, 2002). This work includes description and analysis of cores, correlation of geophysical well logs, reservoir mapping, petrographic description of thin sections, cross plotting of permeability and porosity data, and development of horizontal drilling strategies for the Little Ute and Sleeping Ute fields in Montezuma County, Colorado. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative core, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells.

  15. Planning additional drilling campaign using two-space genetic algorithm: A game theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumral, Mustafa; Ozer, Umit

    2013-03-01

    Grade and tonnage are the most important technical uncertainties in mining ventures because of the use of estimations/simulations, which are mostly generated from drill data. Open pit mines are planned and designed on the basis of the blocks representing the entire orebody. Each block has different estimation/simulation variance reflecting uncertainty to some extent. The estimation/simulation realizations are submitted to mine production scheduling process. However, the use of a block model with varying estimation/simulation variances will lead to serious risk in the scheduling. In the medium of multiple simulations, the dispersion variances of blocks can be thought to regard technical uncertainties. However, the dispersion variance cannot handle uncertainty associated with varying estimation/simulation variances of blocks. This paper proposes an approach that generates the configuration of the best additional drilling campaign to generate more homogenous estimation/simulation variances of blocks. In other words, the objective is to find the best drilling configuration in such a way as to minimize grade uncertainty under budget constraint. Uncertainty measure of the optimization process in this paper is interpolation variance, which considers data locations and grades. The problem is expressed as a minmax problem, which focuses on finding the best worst-case performance i.e., minimizing interpolation variance of the block generating maximum interpolation variance. Since the optimization model requires computing the interpolation variances of blocks being simulated/estimated in each iteration, the problem cannot be solved by standard optimization tools. This motivates to use two-space genetic algorithm (GA) approach to solve the problem. The technique has two spaces: feasible drill hole configuration with minimization of interpolation variance and drill hole simulations with maximization of interpolation variance. Two-space interacts to find a minmax solution

  16. Selection of area and specific site for drilling a horizontal well in Calhoun County, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, T.K.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the data collection and analysis procedures used to establish criteria for geologic and engineering studies conducted by BDM to select a general area for more detailed study and a specific site for the drilling of a cooperative well with an industry partner, the Consolidated Natural Gas Development Company (CNGD). The results of detailed geologic studies are presented for two areas in Calhoun County, West Virginia, and one area along the Logan-Boone County line in West Virginia. The effects of Appalachian Basin tectonics and the Rome Trough Rift system were identified on seismic lines made available by (CNGD). These helped to identify and define the trapping mechanisms which had been effective in each area. Engineering analyses of past production histories provided data to support selection of target areas and then to select a specific site that met the project requirements for production, reservoir pressure, and risk. A final site was selected in Lee District at the southwestern margin of the Sand Ridge gas field based on the combination of a geologic trapping mechanism and reservoir pressures which were projected as 580 psi with a stress ratio of 0.53.

  17. Worldwide experience shows horizontal well success

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, H.; Bitto, R.

    1989-03-01

    The convergence of technology and experience has made horizontal drilling an important tool in increasing production and solving a variety of completion problems. Since the early 1980s, horizontal drilling has been used to improve production on more than 700 oil and gas wells throughout the world. Approximately 200 horizontal wells were drilled in 1988 alone. Interest in horizontal drilling has been accelerating rapidly as service companies have developed and offered new technology for drilling and producing horizontal wells. Simultaneously, oil companies have developed better methods for evaluating reservoirs for potential horizontal applications, while their production departments have gained experience at completing and producing them. To date, most horizontal wells have been drilled in the United States. A major application is to complete naturally fractured formations, such as the Austin chalk in Texas, the Bakken shale in the Williston basin, the Spraberry in West Texas and the Devonian shale in the Eastern states. In addition, many horizontal wells have been drilled to produce the Niagaran reefs and the irregular Antrim shale reservoirs in Michigan.

  18. Field Demonstration of Horizontal Infill Drilling Using Cost-effective Integrated Reservoir Modeling--Mississippian Carbonates, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Saibal Bhattacharya

    2005-08-31

    constraints afflicting mature Mississippian fields. A publicly accessible databank of representative petrophysical properties and relationships was developed to overcome the paucity of such data that is critical to modeling the storage and flow in these reservoirs. Studies in 3 Mississippian fields demonstrated that traditional reservoir models built by integrating log, core, DST, and production data from existing wells on 40-acre spacings are unable to delineate karst-induced compartments, thus making 3D-seismic data critical to characterize these fields. Special attribute analyses on 3D data were shown to delineate reservoir compartments and predict those with pay porosities. Further testing of these techniques is required to validate their applicability in other Mississippian reservoirs. This study shows that detailed reservoir characterization and simulation on geomodels developed by integrating wireline log, core, petrophysical, production and pressure, and 3D-seismic data enables better evaluation of a candidate field for horizontal infill applications. In addition to reservoir compartmentalization, two factors were found to control the economic viability of a horizontal infill well in a mature Mississippian field: (a) adequate reservoir pressure support, and (b) an average well spacing greater than 40-acres.

  19. Feasability of Optimizing Recovery and Reserves from a Mature and Geological Complex Multiple Turbidite Offshore California Reservoir Through the Drilling and Completion of a Trilateral Horizontal Well

    SciTech Connect

    Coombs, Steven F

    1996-10-29

    The main objective of this project is to devise an effective redevelopment strategy to combat producibility problems related to the Repetto turbidite sequences of the Carpinteria Field. The lack of adequate reservoir characterization, high-water cut production, and scaling problems have in the past contributed to the field's low productivity. To improve productivity and enhance recoverable reserves, the following specific goals are proposed: ° Develop an integrated database of all existing data from work done by the former ownership group. ° Expand reservoir drainage and reduce sand problems through horizontal well drilling and completion. ° Operate and validate reservoirs conceptual model by incorporating new data from the proposed trilateral well. ° Transfer methodologies employed in geologic modeling and drilling multilateral wells to other operators with similar reservoirs.

  20. Feasibility of Optimizing and Reserves from a Mature and Geological Complex Multiple Turbidite Offshore California Reservoir Through the Drilling and Completion of a Trilateral Horizontal Well.

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The main objective of this project is to devise an effective re- development strategy to combat producibility problems related to the Repetto turbidite sequences of the Carpinteria Field. The lack of adequate reservoir characterization, high-water cut production, and scaling problems have in the past contributed to the field`s low productivity. To improve productivity and enhance recoverable reserves, the following specific goals were proposed: (1) Develop an integrated database of all existing data from work done by the former ownership group. (2) Expand reservoir drainage and reduce sand problems through horizontal well drilling and completion. (3) Operate and validate reservoir`s conceptual model by incorporating new data from the proposed trilateral well. (4) Transfer methodologies employed in geologic modeling and drilling multilateral wells to other operators with similar reservoirs. Pacific Operators Offshore, Inc. with the cooperation of its team members; the University of Southern California; Schlumberger; Baker Oil Tools; Halliburton Energy Services and Coombs and Associates undertook a comprehensive study to reexamine the reservoir conditions leading to the cent field conditions and to devise methodologies to mitigate the producibility problems. A computer based data retrieval system was developed to convert hard copy documents containing production, well completion and well log data into easily accessible on-line format. To ascertain the geological framework of the reservoir, a thorough geological modeling and subsurface mapping of the Carpinteria field was developed. The model is now used to examine the continuity of the sands, characteristics of the sub-zones, nature of water influx and transition intervals in individual major sands. The geological model was then supplemented with a reservoir engineering study of spatial distribution of voidage in individual layers using the production statistics and pressure surveys. Efforts are continuing in

  1. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-12-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing, vertical, field wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the third project year (April 6 through October 5, 2002). This work included capillary pressure/mercury injection analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and pore casting on selected samples from Cherokee and Bug fields, Utah. The diagenetic fabrics and porosity types found at these fields are indicators of reservoir flow capacity, storage capacity, and potential for enhanced oil recovery via horizontal drilling. The reservoir quality of Cherokee and Bug fields has been affected by multiple generations of dissolution, anhydrite

  2. Proceedings of the drilling technology symposium 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, P.D.; Kastor, R.L. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of a symposium on drilling technology. Topics covered include: Improvement in rock bit performance; Coring the horizontal hole; Drill pipe failures; and Slim drill horizontal workover system.

  3. Soy Protein Isolate As Fluid Loss Additive in Bentonite-Water-Based Drilling Fluids.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Chun; Wu, Qinglin; Song, Kunlin; Lee, Sunyoung; Jin, Chunde; Ren, Suxia; Lei, Tingzhou

    2015-11-11

    Wellbore instability and formation collapse caused by lost circulation are vital issues during well excavation in the oil industry. This study reports the novel utilization of soy protein isolate (SPI) as fluid loss additive in bentonite-water based drilling fluids (BT-WDFs) and describes how its particle size and concentration influence on the filtration property of SPI/BT-WDFs. It was found that high pressure homogenization (HPH)-treated SPI had superior filtration property over that of native SPI due to the improved ability for the plugging pore throat. HPH treatment also caused a significant change in the surface characteristic of SPI, leading to a considerable surface interaction with BT in aqueous solution. The concentration of SPI had a significant impact on the dispersion state of SPI/BT mixtures in aquesous solution. At low SPI concentrations, strong aggregations were created, resulting in the formation of thick, loose, high-porosity and high-permeability filter cakes and high fluid loss. At high SPI concentrations, intercatlated/exfoliated structures were generated, resulting in the formation of thin, compact, low-porosity and low-permeability filter cakes and low fluid loss. The SPI/BT-WDFs exhibited superior filtration property than pure BT-WDFs at the same solid concentraion, demonstrating the potential utilization of SPI as an effective, renewable, and biodegradable fluid loss reducer in well excavation applications. PMID:26492498

  4. Soy Protein Isolate As Fluid Loss Additive in Bentonite-Water-Based Drilling Fluids.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Chun; Wu, Qinglin; Song, Kunlin; Lee, Sunyoung; Jin, Chunde; Ren, Suxia; Lei, Tingzhou

    2015-11-11

    Wellbore instability and formation collapse caused by lost circulation are vital issues during well excavation in the oil industry. This study reports the novel utilization of soy protein isolate (SPI) as fluid loss additive in bentonite-water based drilling fluids (BT-WDFs) and describes how its particle size and concentration influence on the filtration property of SPI/BT-WDFs. It was found that high pressure homogenization (HPH)-treated SPI had superior filtration property over that of native SPI due to the improved ability for the plugging pore throat. HPH treatment also caused a significant change in the surface characteristic of SPI, leading to a considerable surface interaction with BT in aqueous solution. The concentration of SPI had a significant impact on the dispersion state of SPI/BT mixtures in aquesous solution. At low SPI concentrations, strong aggregations were created, resulting in the formation of thick, loose, high-porosity and high-permeability filter cakes and high fluid loss. At high SPI concentrations, intercatlated/exfoliated structures were generated, resulting in the formation of thin, compact, low-porosity and low-permeability filter cakes and low fluid loss. The SPI/BT-WDFs exhibited superior filtration property than pure BT-WDFs at the same solid concentraion, demonstrating the potential utilization of SPI as an effective, renewable, and biodegradable fluid loss reducer in well excavation applications.

  5. Trends in hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010: data analysis and comparison to the literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is presently the primary stimulation technique for oil and gas production in low-permeability, unconventional reservoirs. Comprehensive, published, and publicly available information regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States is scarce. This national spatial and temporal analysis of data on nearly 1 million hydraulically fractured wells and 1.8 million fracturing treatment records from 1947 through 2010 (aggregated in Data Series 868) is used to identify hydraulic fracturing trends in drilling methods and use of proppants, treatment fluids, additives, and water in the United States. These trends are compared to the literature in an effort to establish a common understanding of the differences in drilling methods, treatment fluids, and chemical additives and of how the newer technology has affected the water use volumes and areal distribution of hydraulic fracturing. Historically, Texas has had the highest number of records of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells in the United States documented in the datasets described herein. Water-intensive horizontal/directional drilling has also increased from 6 percent of new hydraulically fractured wells drilled in the United States in 2000 to 42 percent of new wells drilled in 2010. Increases in horizontal drilling also coincided with the emergence of water-based “slick water” fracturing fluids. As such, the most current hydraulic fracturing materials and methods are notably different from those used in previous decades and have contributed to the development of previously inaccessible unconventional oil and gas production target areas, namely in shale and tight-sand reservoirs. Publicly available derivative datasets and locations developed from these analyses are described.

  6. IMPACTS OF DRILLING ADDITIVES ON DATA OBTAINED FROM HYDROGEOLOGIC CHARACTERIZATION WELLS AT LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personnel at the EPA Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) were requested by EPA Region 6 to evaluate the impacts of well drilling practices at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The focus of this review involved analysis of the impacts of bentonite- a...

  7. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Eby; Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-07-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the second half of the third project year (October 6, 2002, through April 5, 2003). The primary work included describing and mapping regional facies of the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Regional cross sections show the development of ''clean carbonate'' packages that contain all of the productive reservoir facies. These clean carbonates abruptly change laterally into thick anhydrite packages that filled several small intra-shelf basins in the upper Ismay zone. Examination of upper Ismay

  8. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-10-05

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the fourth project year (April 6 through October 5, 2003). The work included (1) analysis of well-test data and oil production from Cherokee and Bug fields, San Juan County, Utah, and (2) diagenetic evaluation of stable isotopes from the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Production ''sweet spots'' and potential horizontal drilling candidates were identified for Cherokee and Bug fields. In Cherokee field, the most productive wells are located in the thickest part of the mound

  9. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... corroborate the results of the horizontal Competitive Analysis Screen. The data must cover the two-year period... systems, to the extent data are publicly available. (1) Generation capacity. For each generating plant or...) Name of the plant or unit; (iii) Primary and secondary fuel-types; (iv) Nameplate capacity; (v)...

  10. Horizontal drilling in the Bakken Formation - The hunt for an elephant that never left the source system

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L. ); Le Fever, J. )

    1991-06-01

    New organic-geochemical studies show that bitumen extracted from the upper and lower shale members of the Mississippian Madison Group oils, and that the Bakken shales have contributed only a minor percentage of the conventionally produced oil in the Williston basin. Instead, organic-rich madison marls are an adequate source for the Madison oils. Also, few pathways exist for vertical migration of Bakken-generated oil to shallower Madison reservoirs. Vertical wells in older Bakken oil pools are perforated in one or all of the three units adjacent to the two Bakken shales but are not necessarily perforated in the Bakken shales. Rock-Eval analyses of 6- to 12-in. spaced core samples show that where Bakken shales are thermally mature, the three adjacent organic-poor units contain 10-20 times the hydrocarbons (HCs) they could have generated. Thus, Bakken-generated HCs appear to have moved into the three adjacent units, probably via fractures created by volume expansion of organic matter during HC generation in the Bakken shales. Bakken well histories reveal that unsuccessful Bakken wells appear due to questionable techniques during these operations and not a lack of fractures. If a large in-place resource base exists in the Bakken source system, its commercial recovery will depend on new exploration, drilling, completion, and production technologies and on how much of the generated oil is in fractures rather than dispersed throughout the rocks.

  11. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... role that entry could play in mitigating adverse competitive effects of the transaction; (3)...

  12. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... role that entry could play in mitigating adverse competitive effects of the transaction; (3)...

  13. Feasibility of Optimizing Recovery and Reserves from a Mature and Geological Complex Multiple Turbidite Offshore Calif. Reservoir through the Drilling and Completion of a Trilateral Horizontal Well, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific Operators Offshore, Inc.

    2001-04-04

    The intent of this project was to increase production and extend the economic life of this mature field through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and drilling technology, demonstrating the efficacy of these technologies to other small operators of aging fields. Two study periods were proposed; the first to include data assimilation and reservoir characterization and the second to drill the demonstration well. The initial study period showed that a single tri-lateral well would not be economically efficient in redevelopment of Carpinteria's multiple deep water turbidite sand reservoirs, and the study was amended to include the drilling of a series of horizontal redrills from existing surplus well bores on Pacific Operators' Platform Hogan.

  14. Simulation of uphill/downhill running on a level treadmill using additional horizontal force.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Philippe; Arnal, Pierrick J; Samozino, Pierre; Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoit

    2014-07-18

    Tilting treadmills allow a convenient study of biomechanics during uphill/downhill running, but they are not commonly available and there is even fewer tilting force-measuring treadmill. The aim of the present study was to compare uphill/downhill running on a treadmill (inclination of ± 8%) with running on a level treadmill using additional backward or forward pulling forces to simulate the effect of gravity. This comparison specifically focused on the energy cost of running, stride frequency (SF), electromyographic activity (EMG), leg and foot angles at foot strike, and ground impact shock. The main results are that SF, impact shock, and leg and foot angle parameters determined were very similar and significantly correlated between the two methods, the intercept and slope of the linear regression not differing significantly from zero and unity, respectively. The correlation of oxygen uptake (V̇O2) data between both methods was not significant during uphill running (r=0.42; P>0.05). V̇O2 data were correlated during downhill running (r=0.74; P<0.01) but there was a significant difference between the methods (bias=-2.51 ± 1.94 ml min(-1) kg(-1)). Linear regressions for EMG of vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, soleus and tibialis anterior were not different from the identity line but the systematic bias was elevated for this parameter. In conclusion, this method seems appropriate for the study of SF, leg and foot angle, impact shock parameters but is less applicable for physiological variables (EMG and energy cost) during uphill/downhill running when using a tilting force-measuring treadmill is not possible.

  15. Pathways of nitrobenzene degradation in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: Effect of intermittent aeration and glucose addition.

    PubMed

    Kirui, Wesley K; Wu, Shubiao; Kizito, Simon; Carvalho, Pedro N; Dong, Renjie

    2016-01-15

    Intermittent aeration and addition of glucose were applied to horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands in order to investigate the effect on pathways of nitrobenzene (NB) degradation and interactions with microbial nitrogen and sulphur transformations. The experiment was carried out in three phases A, B and C consisting of different NB loading and glucose dosing. For each phase, the effect of aeration was assessed by intermittently aerating one wetland and leaving one unaerated. Regardless of whether or not the wetland was aerated, at an influent NB concentration of 140 mg/L, both wetlands significantly reduced NB to less than 2 mg/L, a reduction efficiency of 98%. However, once the influent NB concentration was increased to 280 mg/L, the aerated wetland had a higher removal performance 82% compared to that of the unaerated wetland 71%. Addition of glucose further intensified the NB removal to 95% in the aerated wetlands and 92% in the unaerated. Aeration of wetlands enhanced NB degradation, but also resulted in higher NB volatilization of 6 mg m(-2) d(-1). The detected high concentration of sulphide 20-60 mg/L in the unaerated wetland gave a strong indication that NB may act as an electron donor to sulphate-reducing bacteria, but this should be further investigated. Aeration positively improved NB removal in constructed wetlands, but resulted in higher NB volatilization. Glucose addition induced co-metabolism to enhance NB degradation. PMID:26468606

  16. Pathways of nitrobenzene degradation in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: Effect of intermittent aeration and glucose addition.

    PubMed

    Kirui, Wesley K; Wu, Shubiao; Kizito, Simon; Carvalho, Pedro N; Dong, Renjie

    2016-01-15

    Intermittent aeration and addition of glucose were applied to horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands in order to investigate the effect on pathways of nitrobenzene (NB) degradation and interactions with microbial nitrogen and sulphur transformations. The experiment was carried out in three phases A, B and C consisting of different NB loading and glucose dosing. For each phase, the effect of aeration was assessed by intermittently aerating one wetland and leaving one unaerated. Regardless of whether or not the wetland was aerated, at an influent NB concentration of 140 mg/L, both wetlands significantly reduced NB to less than 2 mg/L, a reduction efficiency of 98%. However, once the influent NB concentration was increased to 280 mg/L, the aerated wetland had a higher removal performance 82% compared to that of the unaerated wetland 71%. Addition of glucose further intensified the NB removal to 95% in the aerated wetlands and 92% in the unaerated. Aeration of wetlands enhanced NB degradation, but also resulted in higher NB volatilization of 6 mg m(-2) d(-1). The detected high concentration of sulphide 20-60 mg/L in the unaerated wetland gave a strong indication that NB may act as an electron donor to sulphate-reducing bacteria, but this should be further investigated. Aeration positively improved NB removal in constructed wetlands, but resulted in higher NB volatilization. Glucose addition induced co-metabolism to enhance NB degradation.

  17. Graphene oxide as a high-performance fluid-loss-control additive in water-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Wilson, Kurt C; Lomeda, Jay R; Scorsone, Jason T; Patel, Arvind D; Friedheim, James E; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) performs well as a filtration additive in water-based drilling fluids at concentrations as low as 0.2 % (w/w) by carbon content. Standard American Petroleum Institute (API) filtration tests were conducted on pH-adjusted, aqueous dispersions of GO and xanthan gum. It was found that a combination of large-flake GO and powdered GO in a 3:1 ratio performed best in the API tests, allowing an average fluid loss of 6.1 mL over 30 min and leaving a filter cake ~20 μm thick. In comparison, a standard suspension (~12 g/L) of clays and polymers used in the oil industry gave an average fluid loss of 7.2 mL and a filter cake ~280 μm thick. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed the extreme pliability of well-exfoliated GO, as the pressure due to filtration crumpled single GO sheets, forcing them to slide through pores with diameters much smaller than the flake's flattened size. GO solutions also exhibited greater shear thinning and higher temperature stability compared to clay-based fluid-loss additives, demonstrating potential for high-temperature well applications.

  18. Graphene oxide as a high-performance fluid-loss-control additive in water-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Wilson, Kurt C; Lomeda, Jay R; Scorsone, Jason T; Patel, Arvind D; Friedheim, James E; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) performs well as a filtration additive in water-based drilling fluids at concentrations as low as 0.2 % (w/w) by carbon content. Standard American Petroleum Institute (API) filtration tests were conducted on pH-adjusted, aqueous dispersions of GO and xanthan gum. It was found that a combination of large-flake GO and powdered GO in a 3:1 ratio performed best in the API tests, allowing an average fluid loss of 6.1 mL over 30 min and leaving a filter cake ~20 μm thick. In comparison, a standard suspension (~12 g/L) of clays and polymers used in the oil industry gave an average fluid loss of 7.2 mL and a filter cake ~280 μm thick. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed the extreme pliability of well-exfoliated GO, as the pressure due to filtration crumpled single GO sheets, forcing them to slide through pores with diameters much smaller than the flake's flattened size. GO solutions also exhibited greater shear thinning and higher temperature stability compared to clay-based fluid-loss additives, demonstrating potential for high-temperature well applications. PMID:22136134

  19. The Synergism Between Heat and Mass Transfer Additive and Advanced Surfaces in Aqueous LiBr Horizontal Tube Absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.A.

    1999-03-24

    Experiments were conducted in a laboratory to investigate the absorption of water vapor into a falling-film of aqueous lithium bromide (LiBr). A mini-absorber test stand was used to test smooth tubes and a variety of advanced tube surfaces placed horizontally in a single-row bundle. The bundle had six copper tubes; each tube had an outside diameter of 15.9-mm and a length of 0.32-m. A unique feature of the stand is its ability to operate continuously and support testing of LiBr brine at mass fractions {ge} 0.62. The test stand can also support testing to study the effect of the failing film mass flow rate, the coolant mass flow rate, the coolant temperature, the absorber pressure and the tube spacing. Manufacturers of absorption chillers add small quantities of a heat and mass transfer additive to improve the performance of the absorbers. The additive causes surface stirring which enhances the transport of absorbate into the bulk of the film. Absorption may also be enhanced with advanced tube surfaces that mechanically induce secondary flows in the falling film without increasing the thickness of the film. Several tube geometry's were identified and tested with the intent of mixing the film and renewing the interface with fresh solution from the tube wall. Testing was completed on a smooth tube and several different externally enhanced tube surfaces. Experiments were conducted over the operating conditions of 6.5 mm Hg absorber pressure, coolant temperatures ranging from 20 to 35 C and LiBr mass fractions ranging from 0.60 through 0.62. Initially the effect of tube spacing was investigated for the smooth tube surface, tested with no heat and mass transfer additive. Test results showed the absorber load and the mass absorbed increased as the tube spacing increased because of the improved wetting of the tube bundle. However, tube spacing was not a critical factor if heat and mass transfer additive was active in the mini-absorber. The additive dramatically affected

  20. Drill, Baby, Drill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkhoff, Todd

    2009-01-01

    School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

  1. MMH fluids reduce formation damage in horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, L. ); Williamson, D. ); Haydel, S. )

    1994-02-01

    It has been more than 3 years since a mixed metal hydroxide fluid was used by Texaco to drill the Gulf of Mexico's first horizontal hole. Since, the fluid has been used to drill dozens of horizontal sections worldwide, including Australia, Indonesia, CIS, UAE, UK, and in North an South America. Due to Texaco's drilling success on the first Gulf of Mexico horizontal well in 1990, several horizontal wells were drilled in the Gulf's shallow gas sands. Fluids were weighted exclusively with ground marble. The marble, with measured grind size distributions similar to commercial barite, is used as a combination weighting and bridging material and is about 99% acid soluble. Completions were carried out by running a slotted liner, displacing the mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) fluid with calcium chloride brine, and running prepacked screens. Clean-up times where short and production rates equaled or exceeded expectations. Since the technique was relatively new, no comparisons could be made. One operator, however, achieved success during 18 months of production. During this period, the fluid was also used to drill a horizontal section through the Cardium Sandstone at Lodgepole in Alberta, Canada. The fluid out-performed other in return permeability tests on cores from the reservoir. Its performance was enhanced by addition of propylene glycol. High field production rates supported laboratory findings.

  2. Pioneering work, economic factors provide insights into Russian drilling technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddy, D.E.

    1998-07-06

    In Russia and America, individual ingenuity and economic forces have produced a variety of drilling technologies, resulting in the development of disparate drilling systems. Endeavors by the US Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Sandia Laboratories, and private industry have promoted exchanges of knowledge since the 1980s, and now that the barriers to technology transfer are being lifted, engineers from both countries have the opportunity to exchange knowledge and incorporate the best of both. The Russian drilling industry, like the Russian space program, has achieved tremendous success in implementing product and process innovations including the first directional (1940s), horizontal (1950s), and multilateral (1950s) wells. In addition, Russian engineers built the first turbodrills, electrodrills, novel drills (lasers, explosives), aluminum drill pipe, downhole electric submersible pumps, and mud hammers. This first part of a two-part series describes the achievements of Russian engineers in horizontal and multilateral drilling technologies followed by a discussion of the economic differences that led Russian and American drillers to develop dissimilar drilling systems. The second part describes a variety of innovative Russian technologies and provides details on the technical advantages they offer for the drilling process.

  3. Novel drilling technology and reduction in drilling costs

    SciTech Connect

    Enger, T.; Torvund, T.; Mikkelsen, J.

    1995-12-31

    Historically offshore drilling costs represent a large part of Norsk Hydro`s E and P investments. Thus a reduction in drilling costs is a major issue. Consequently an aggressive approach to drilling has taken place focusing upon: (1) Reduction in conventional drilling costs, both in exploration and production drilling. An ambitious program to reduce drilling costs by 50% has been introduced. The main improvement potentials include rapid drilling, improved contracts and more selective data gathering. (2) Drilling of long reach wells up to approximately 9 km to reduce the number of subsea wells and fixed platforms, and thus improving the total field economy. Norsk Hydro has also been aggressive in pursuing drilling techniques which could improve the total oil recovery. Horizontal drilling has made possible the development of the giant Troll oil field, even though the oil leg is only 0--26 m thick. Oil reserves in the order of up to 650 mill bbl will be recovered solely due to introduction of horizontal wells. Recently, offshore tests of techniques such as coiled tubing drilling and conventional slim hole drilling have been carried out. The aim is to qualify a concept which could enable them to use a light vessel for exploration drilling, and not the large semi submersible rigs presently used. Potential future savings could be substantial.

  4. Development and testing of underbalanced drilling products. Topical report, September 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, G.H., Jr; Maurer, W.C.; Liu, G.; Garkasi, A.Y.

    1995-09-01

    Underbalanced drilling is experiencing growth at a rate that rivals that of horizontal drilling in the mid-1980s. Problems remain, however, for applying underbalanced drilling in a wider range of geological settings and drilling environments. This report addresses the development and testing of two products designed to advance the application of underbalanced drilling techniques. A user-friendly foam fluid hydraulics model (FOAM) was developed for a PC Windows environment. The program predicts pressure and flow characteristics of foam fluids used in underbalanced drilling operations. FOAM is based on the best available mathematical models, and was validated through comparison to existing models, laboratory test well measurements, and field data. This model does not handle air or mist drilling where the foam quality is above 0.97. An incompressible drilling fluid was developed that utilizes lightweight solid additives (hollow glass spheres) to reduce the density of the mud to less than that of water. This fluid is designed for underbalanced drilling situations where compressible lightweight fluids are inadequate. In addition to development of these new products, an analysis was performed to determine the market potential of lightweight fluids, and a forecast of underbalanced drilling in the USA over the next decade was developed. This analysis indicated that up to 12,000 wells per year (i.e., 30 percent of all wells) will be drilled underbalanced in the USA within the next ten years.

  5. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Development through High-Resolution 3C3D Seismic and Horizontal Drilling: Eva South Marrow Sand Unit, Texas County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler,David M.; Miller, William A.; Wilson, Travis C.

    2002-03-11

    The Eva South Morrow Sand Unit is located in western Texas County, Oklahoma. The field produces from an upper Morrow sandstone, termed the Eva sandstone, deposited in a transgressive valley-fill sequence. The field is defined as a combination structural stratigraphic trap; the reservoir lies in a convex up -dip bend in the valley and is truncated on the west side by the Teepee Creek fault. Although the field has been a successful waterflood since 1993, reservoir heterogeneity and compartmentalization has impeded overall sweep efficiency. A 4.25 square mile high-resolution, three component three-dimensional (3C3D) seismic survey was acquired in order to improve reservoir characterization and pinpoint the optimal location of a new horizontal producing well, the ESU 13-H.

  6. Horizontal Devonian shale well, Columbia Natural Resources, Inc. 's, Pocohontas Development Corp. Well 21747, Martin County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Koziar, G.; Ahmad, M.M.; Friend, L.L.; Friend, M.L.; Rothman, E.M.; Stollar, R.L. )

    1991-05-01

    Columbia Gas and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully completed field work on a horizontally drilled Devonian shale well located in Martin County, Kentucky. The objective of this cofunded project is to assess the effectiveness and economic feasibility of applying horizontal drilling and hydraulically fracturing stimulation techniques to enhance the extraction of natural gas from the Devonian shale. The well is comprised of three segments: a conventional vertical section, an angle build section and a horizontal section. The well reached a measured depth (MD) of 6263 feet, 3810 feet true vertical depth (TVD), with a horizontal displacement of 2812 feet achieved in the desired direction of N10{degrees}W. Both air and foam were used as drilling fluids. The vertical, lateral and tangent sections were drilled using conventional rotary drilling methods. Downhole motors were used to build angle. A total combined final open flow of 3.1 MMcfd was measured from all zones. Total well expenditures are approximately $1,460,000. Of this amount, $700,000 is directly related to the research and learning curve experience aspects. It is projected that the same horizontal well could be drilled with existing technology for $700,000. If advanced can be made in MWD systems for air drilling environments, wells of this type could be drilled routinely for $500,000. It appears that application of horizontal drilling will result in at least acceleration of gas production and possibly the addition of recoverable reserves from the Devonian shale. Production data, necessary to validate this statement, are also required to determine the economics. As we gain experience and technology advances, cost reductions will occur; this will result in economic improvement.

  7. Horizontal Devonian shale well, Columbia Natural Resources, Inc.`s, Pocohontas Development Corp. Well 21747, Martin County, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koziar, G.; Ahmad, M.M.; Friend, L.L.; Friend, M.L.; Rothman, E.M.; Stollar, R.L.

    1991-05-01

    Columbia Gas and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully completed field work on a horizontally drilled Devonian shale well located in Martin County, Kentucky. The objective of this cofunded project is to assess the effectiveness and economic feasibility of applying horizontal drilling and hydraulically fracturing stimulation techniques to enhance the extraction of natural gas from the Devonian shale. The well is comprised of three segments: a conventional vertical section, an angle build section and a horizontal section. The well reached a measured depth (MD) of 6263 feet, 3810 feet true vertical depth (TVD), with a horizontal displacement of 2812 feet achieved in the desired direction of N10{degrees}W. Both air and foam were used as drilling fluids. The vertical, lateral and tangent sections were drilled using conventional rotary drilling methods. Downhole motors were used to build angle. A total combined final open flow of 3.1 MMcfd was measured from all zones. Total well expenditures are approximately $1,460,000. Of this amount, $700,000 is directly related to the research and learning curve experience aspects. It is projected that the same horizontal well could be drilled with existing technology for $700,000. If advanced can be made in MWD systems for air drilling environments, wells of this type could be drilled routinely for $500,000. It appears that application of horizontal drilling will result in at least acceleration of gas production and possibly the addition of recoverable reserves from the Devonian shale. Production data, necessary to validate this statement, are also required to determine the economics. As we gain experience and technology advances, cost reductions will occur; this will result in economic improvement.

  8. Longhole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes new drilling equipment used to drill blasting holes for underground mining operations. Although this method was originally designed for caving or stopping, it is now suitable for all highly mechanized mining operations. It describes the automated methods to monitor drilling progress, align drill holes, and handling of drill rods. It also gives some case examples of the use of this equipment showing the reduction in mining costs, increase in safety, and increase in productivity at an Australian gold mine.

  9. Drilling and completion specifications for CA series multilevel piezometers

    SciTech Connect

    Clawson, T.S.

    1986-08-01

    CX Series multilevel piezometer boreholes will provide information on hydraulic heads in the Rosalia, Sentinel Gap, Ginkgo, Rocky Coulee, Cohassett, Birkett, and Umtanum flow tops. The borehole sites will be located adjacent to the reference repository location. In addition, information from the boreholes will provide input data used to determine horizontal and vertical flow rates, and identify possible geologic structures. This specification includes details for drilling, piezometer design, hydrologic testing, and hydrochemical sampling of the boreholes. It includes drilling requirements, design, and installation procedures for the series piezometer nests, intervals selected for head monitoring and schedules for drilling and piezometer installation. Specific drilling and piezometer installation specifications for boreholes DC-24CX and DC-25CX are also included. 27 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC's existing electromagnetic (e-m) CABLELESS''{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  11. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC`s existing electromagnetic (e-m) ``CABLELESS``{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  12. Drilling successful from ROV Ventana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stakes, Debra S.; McFarlane, James A. R.; Holloway, G. Leon; Greene, H. Gary

    Cores of granite and deformed sediment from the walls of Monterey Canyon were successfully recovered from December 30 to 31, 1992, by Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Ventana using a small-diameter, double-barrel drill with a diamond bit. This HSTR (Holloway-Stakes-Tengdin-Rajcula) drill was developed to drill cores horizontally from sulfide/sulfate walls of active black smokers. The drill was first successfully used by the submersible Alvin in October 1991 to drill into massive sulfide chimneys, on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (Eos, June 30, 1992, p. 273), and it was subsequently used with equal success on the chalcopyrite-rich chimneys from 21°N and 9°N on the East Pacific Rise. The recent December dives, however, marked the first time that drilling has ever been attempted from the smaller ROV and the first time coring into the harder igneous rock substrate has been attempted.

  13. Microhole Drilling Tractor Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Western Well Tool

    2007-07-09

    In an effort to increase the U.S. energy reserves and lower costs for finding and retrieving oil, the USDOE created a solicitation to encourage industry to focus on means to operate in small diameter well-Microhole. Partially in response to this solicitation and because Western Well Tool's (WWT) corporate objective to develop small diameter coiled tubing drilling tractor, WWT responded to and was awarded a contract to design, prototype, shop test, and field demonstrate a Microhole Drilling Tractor (MDT). The benefit to the oil industry and the US consumer from the project is that with the MDT's ability to facilitate Coiled Tubing drilled wells to be 1000-3000 feet longer horizontally, US brown fields can be more efficiently exploited resulting in fewer wells, less environmental impact, greater and faster oil recovery, and lower drilling costs. Shortly after award of the contract, WWT was approached by a major oil company that strongly indicated that the specified size of a tractor of 3.0 inches diameter was inappropriate and that immediate applications for a 3.38-inch diameter tractor would substantially increase the usefulness of the tool to the oil industry. Based on this along with an understanding with the oil company to use the tractor in multiple field applications, WWT applied for and was granted a no-cost change-of-scope contract amendment to design, manufacture, assemble, shop test and field demonstrate a prototype a 3.38 inch diameter MDT. Utilizing existing WWT tractor technology and conforming to an industry developed specification for the tool, the Microhole Drilling Tractor was designed. Specific features of the MDT that increase it usefulness are: (1) Operation on differential pressure of the drilling fluid, (2) On-Off Capability, (3) Patented unique gripping elements (4) High strength and flexibility, (5) Compatibility to existing Coiled Tubing drilling equipment and operations. The ability to power the MDT with drilling fluid results in a highly

  14. Industry survey for horizontal wells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.D.; Kaback, D.S.; Denhan, M.E.; Watkins, D.

    1993-07-01

    An international survey of horizontal environmental wells was performed during May and June of 1993. The purpose of the survey was to provide the environmental industry with an inventory of horizontal environmental wells and information pertaining to the extent of the use of horizontal environmental wells, the variety of horizontal environmental well applications, the types of geologic and hydrogeologic conditions within which horizontal environmental wells have been installed, and the companies that perform horizontal environmental well installations. Other information, such as the cost of horizontal environmental well installations and the results of tests performed on the wells, is not complete but is provided as general information with the caveat that the information should not be used to compare drilling companies. The result of the survey is a catalogue of horizontal environmental wells that are categorized by the objective or use of the wells, the vertical depth of the wells, and the drilling company contracted to install the wells.

  15. 30 CFR 250.406 - What additional safety measures must I take when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow... when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow... producing wells or that has other hydrocarbon flow: (a) You must install an emergency shutdown station...

  16. 30 CFR 250.406 - What additional safety measures must I take when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow... hydrocarbon flow? You must take the following safety measures when you conduct drilling operations on a platform with producing wells or that has other hydrocarbon flow: (a) You must install an...

  17. 30 CFR 250.406 - What additional safety measures must I take when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow... when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow... producing wells or that has other hydrocarbon flow: (a) You must install an emergency shutdown station...

  18. 30 CFR 250.406 - What additional safety measures must I take when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow... when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow... producing wells or that has other hydrocarbon flow: (a) You must install an emergency shutdown station...

  19. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  20. Slim-hole casing program adapted to horizontal well

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, L. )

    1993-09-06

    A type of slim-hole well design reduced the cost of drilling a horizontal well in the southern North Sea. The basic slim-hole drilling and casing program was similar to that used in conventional directional wells in the field, but with slight modifications for drilling with logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools and running production liners. Nearly 2,600 ft were successfully drilled at over 80[degree] inclination in ARCO British Ltd.'s Pickerill A6 well, the first time in the southern North Sea that a horizontal well was drilled through the reservoir without first casting off the overlying evaporite sequence. The paper describes the well design, the pilot hole plan, the evaluation program for directional drilling, a horizontal sidetrack plan, its evaluation and drilling, hole conditions, liners, well completion, and results.

  1. Data regarding hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive, published, and publicly available data regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States are scarce. The objective of this data series is to publish data related to hydraulic fracturing in the public domain. The spreadsheets released with this data series contain derivative datasets aggregated temporally and spatially from the commercial and proprietary IHS database of U.S. oil and gas production and well data (IHS Energy, 2011). These datasets, served in 21 spreadsheets in Microsoft Excel (.xlsx) format, outline the geographical distributions of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells (including well drill-hole directions) as well as water volumes, proppants, treatment fluids, and additives used in hydraulic fracturing treatments in the United States from 1947 through 2010. This report also describes the data—extraction/aggregation processing steps, field names and descriptions, field types and sources. An associated scientific investigation report (Gallegos and Varela, 2014) provides a detailed analysis of the data presented in this data series and comparisons of the data and trends to the literature.

  2. Oil field slim hole drilling technology improving

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-23

    Recent advances in slim hole drilling technology have improved the application of this drilling technique to oil and gas exploration and development wells. These advancements include Optimization of slim hole drilling hydraulics, Application of a small particle weighing agent to improve well control and coring operations, Use of slim hole techniques to drill horizontal wells, Use of a new polycrystalline diamond compact cutter to allow economical re-entry of small diameter wells in hard rock. Slim hole continuous coring and drilling is becoming more accepted as a viable drilling method, especially as exploration budgets become smaller. Typical applications for slim hole equipment include drilling in frontier areas where logistics can be a problem and reentry operations in which the existing well has a small diameter. Typically, slim hole drilling operations use technology borrowed from the mining industry. The rigs are smaller and drill with much higher rotational speeds. Definitions of slim holes vary from a well with 90% drilled, with a diameter of less than 7 in. To a well with 70% drilled with less than 5 in. A goal of slim hole, however it is defined, is the drilling of a well with a diameter smaller than that used on conventional wells in the area. The reduced diameter helps cut rig time and cost and reduces the cost of the tubulars. Another goal of slim hole drilling is the ability to retrieve cores from the entire well during drilling.

  3. 46 CFR 199.250 - Drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drills. 199.250 Section 199.250 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.250 Drills. (a) An abandon-ship drill and a fire drill, as described in § 199.180, must be conducted on each passenger vessel...

  4. 46 CFR 199.250 - Drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drills. 199.250 Section 199.250 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.250 Drills. (a) An abandon-ship drill and a fire drill, as described in § 199.180, must be conducted on each passenger vessel...

  5. 46 CFR 199.250 - Drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drills. 199.250 Section 199.250 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.250 Drills. (a) An abandon-ship drill and a fire drill, as described in § 199.180, must be conducted on each passenger vessel...

  6. 46 CFR 199.250 - Drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drills. 199.250 Section 199.250 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.250 Drills. (a) An abandon-ship drill and a fire drill, as described in § 199.180, must be conducted on each passenger vessel...

  7. 46 CFR 199.250 - Drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drills. 199.250 Section 199.250 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.250 Drills. (a) An abandon-ship drill and a fire drill, as described in § 199.180, must be conducted on each passenger vessel...

  8. Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee formation using horizontal drains

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1996-04-30

    The principal objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and economic success of producing oil from abandoned or nearly abandoned fields in the Dundee Formation of Central Michigan using horizontal drilling technology. A site for a horizontal well was selected in Crystal Field, a nearly-abandoned Dundee oil field in Michigan. This field had produced over 8 million barrels of oil, mostly in the 1930`s and 1940`s. At the height of development, Crystal Field produced from 193 wells, but by 1995, only seven producing wells remained, each producing less than 10 bbls/day. A horizontal well was drilled as a field demonstration pilot, funded through this DOE project, and was immensely successful. Core and logs from the Dundee interval were recovered from a vertical borehole at the same surface location. The horizontal well was brought on production at a rate of 100 bbls/day and is probably capable of producing at a higher rate. `The addition of several horizontal wells, similar to the demonstration well, will likely add another 2 million bbls (or more) to the cumulative production of the field over the next few years. The presence of untapped oil in this Dundee field was dramatically demonstrated and the favorable economics were made clearly evident. Additional project work comprises characterization of 30 Dundee fields in Michigan to aid in determining appropriate candidates for development through horizontal drilling. Further quantification of reservoir parameters such as importance of fracturing, fracture density, and irregularity of the dolomitized surface at the top of the reservoir will help in designing the optimal strategy for horizontal drilling. Technical progress is presented for the following tasks: project management; reservoir characterization; data measurement and analysis; database management; geochemical and basin modeling; and technology transfer.

  9. Lockdown Drills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As a result of House Bill 1215, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school building in North Dakota must conduct a lockdown drill. While no timeframe, tracking or penalty was identified in the state law, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction (DPI) advocates annual drills, at a minimum, which…

  10. Disaster Drill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    Bus disaster drills have been held all over country for years. A drill in Blairsville, Pennsylvania, taught officials important lessons: (1) keep roster of students and stops in designated area on bus, and ensure emergency workers know where location; (2) send at least three school officials to accident scene; (3) provide school officials with…

  11. Status Report A Review of Slimhole Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Tao; Carroll, Herbert B.

    1994-09-01

    This 1994 report reviews the various applications of slimhole technology including for exploration in remote areas, low-cost development wells, reentering existing wells, and horizontal and multilateral drilling. Advantages of slimholes to regular holes are presented. Limitations and disadvantages of slimholes are also discussed. In 1994, slimhole drilling was still an ongoing development technology. (DJE 2005)

  12. Friction Reduction for Microhole CT Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Newman; Patrick Kelleher; Edward Smalley

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this 24 month project focused on improving microhole coiled tubing drilling bottom hole assembly (BHA) reliability and performance, while reducing the drilling cost and complexity associated with inclined/horizontal well sections. This was to be accomplished by eliminating the need for a downhole drilling tractor or other downhole coiled tubing (CT) friction mitigation techniques when drilling long (>2,000 ft.) of inclined/horizontal wellbore. The technical solution to be developed and evaluated in this project was based on vibrating the coiled tubing at surface to reduce the friction along the length of the downhole CT drillstring. The Phase 1 objective of this project centered on determining the optimum surface-applied vibration system design for downhole CT friction mitigation. Design of the system would be based on numerical modeling and laboratory testing of the CT friction mitigation achieved with various types of surface-applied vibration. A numerical model was developed to predict how far downhole the surface-applied vibration would travel. A vibration test fixture, simulating microhole CT drilling in a horizontal wellbore, was constructed and used to refine and validate the numerical model. Numerous tests, with varying surface-applied vibration parameters were evaluated in the vibration test fixture. The data indicated that as long as the axial force on the CT was less than the helical buckling load, axial vibration of the CT was effective at mitigating friction. However, surface-applied vibration only provided a small amount of friction mitigation as the helical buckling load on the CT was reached or exceeded. Since it would be impractical to assume that routine field operations be conducted at less than the helical buckling load of the CT, it was determined that this technical approach did not warrant the additional cost and maintenance issues that would be associated with the surface vibration equipment. As such, the project was

  13. Drilling reorganizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  14. Advanced Mud System for Microhole Coiled Tubing Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Oglesby

    2008-12-01

    An advanced mud system was designed and key components were built that augment a coiled tubing drilling (CTD) rig that is designed specifically to drill microholes (less than 4-inch diameter) with advanced drilling techniques. The mud system was tailored to the hydraulics of the hole geometries and rig characteristics required for microholes and is capable of mixing and circulating mud and removing solids while being self contained and having zero discharge capability. Key components of this system are two modified triplex mud pumps (High Pressure Slurry Pumps) for advanced Abrasive Slurry Jetting (ASJ) and a modified Gas-Liquid-Solid (GLS) Separator for well control, flow return and initial processing. The system developed also includes an additional component of an advanced version of ASJ which allows cutting through most all materials encountered in oil and gas wells including steel, cement, and all rock types. It includes new fluids and new ASJ nozzles. The jetting mechanism does not require rotation of the bottom hole assembly or drill string, which is essential for use with Coiled Tubing (CT). It also has low reactive forces acting on the CT and generates cuttings small enough to be easily cleaned from the well bore, which is important in horizontal drilling. These cutting and mud processing components and capabilities compliment the concepts put forth by DOE for microhole coiled tubing drilling (MHTCTD) and should help insure the reality of drilling small diameter holes quickly and inexpensively with a minimal environmental footprint and that is efficient, compact and portable. Other components (site liners, sump and transfer pumps, stacked shakers, filter membranes, etc.. ) of the overall mud system were identified as readily available in industry and will not be purchased until we are ready to drill a specific well.

  15. 30 CFR 250.406 - What additional safety measures must I take when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow... operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow? You must take the following... hydrocarbon flow: (a) You must install an emergency shutdown station near the driller's console; (b) You...

  16. Drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1984-01-10

    Polyethylene glycols in combination with at least one water-dispersible polymeric viscosifier comprising cellulose ethers, cellulose sulfate esters, polyacrylamides, guar gum, or heteropolysaccharides improve the water loss properties of water-based drilling fluids, particularly in hard brine environments.

  17. Production drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This paper is actually a composite of two papers dealing with automation and computerized control of underground mining equipment. The paper primarily discusses drills, haulage equipment, and tunneling machines. It compares performance and cost benefits of conventional equipment to the new automated methods. The company involved are iron ore mining companies in Scandinavia. The papers also discusses the different equipment using air power, water power, hydraulic power, and computer power. The different drill rigs are compared for performance and cost.

  18. Horizontal technology helps spark Louisiana`s Austin chalk trend

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1996-04-29

    A handful of companies paced by some of the most active operators in the US are pressing the limits of horizontal technology to ramp up Cretaceous Austin chalk exploration and development (E and D) across Louisiana. Companies find applications in Louisiana for lessons learned drilling horizontal wells to produce chalk intervals in Texas in Giddings, Pearsall, and Brookeland fields. Continuing advances in horizontal well technology are helping operators deal with deeper, hotter reservoirs in more complex geological settings that typify the chalk in Louisiana. Better horizontal drilling, completion, formation evaluation, and stimulation techniques have enabled operators to produce oil and gas from formations previously thought to be uneconomical. Most of the improved capabilities stem from better horizontal tools. Horizontal drilling breakthroughs include dual powered mud motors and retrievable whipstocks, key links in the ability to drill wells with more than one horizontal lateral. Better geosteering tools have enabled operators to maintain horizontal wellbores in desired intervals by signaling bit positions downhole while drilling. This paper reviews the technology and provides a historical perspective on the various drilling programs which have been completed in this trend. It also makes predictions on future drilling successes.

  19. The addition of stripes (a version of the 'horizontal-vertical illusion') increases foot clearance when crossing low-height obstacles.

    PubMed

    Foster, Richard J; Buckley, John G; Whitaker, David; Elliott, David B

    2016-07-01

    Trips over obstacles are one of the main causes of falling in older adults, with vision playing an important role in successful obstacle negotiation. We determined whether a horizontal-vertical illusion, superimposed onto low-height obstacles to create a perceived increase in obstacle height, increased foot clearances during obstacle negotiation thus reducing the likelihood of tripping. Eleven adults (mean ± 1 SD: age 27.3 ± 5.1 years) negotiated obstacles of varying heights (3, 5, 7 cm) with four different appearance conditions; two were obstacles with a horizontal-vertical illusion (vertical stripes of different thickness) superimposed on the front, one was a plain obstacle and the fourth a plain obstacle with a horizontal black line painted on the top edge. Foot clearance parameters were compared across conditions. Both illusions led to a significant increase in foot clearance when crossing the obstacle, compared to the plain condition, irrespective of obstacle height. Superimposing a horizontal-vertical illusion onto low-height obstacles can increase foot clearance, and its use on the floor section of a double-glazing door frame for example may reduce the incidence of tripping in the home. Practitioner Summary: Low-height obstacles such as the floor section of a double-glazing door frame are potential tripping hazards. In a gait lab-based study we found that a horizontal-vertical illusion superimposed onto low-height obstacles led to significantly higher foot clearances; indicating their potential as a useful safety measure. PMID:27626886

  20. The addition of stripes (a version of the 'horizontal-vertical illusion') increases foot clearance when crossing low-height obstacles.

    PubMed

    Foster, Richard J; Buckley, John G; Whitaker, David; Elliott, David B

    2016-07-01

    Trips over obstacles are one of the main causes of falling in older adults, with vision playing an important role in successful obstacle negotiation. We determined whether a horizontal-vertical illusion, superimposed onto low-height obstacles to create a perceived increase in obstacle height, increased foot clearances during obstacle negotiation thus reducing the likelihood of tripping. Eleven adults (mean ± 1 SD: age 27.3 ± 5.1 years) negotiated obstacles of varying heights (3, 5, 7 cm) with four different appearance conditions; two were obstacles with a horizontal-vertical illusion (vertical stripes of different thickness) superimposed on the front, one was a plain obstacle and the fourth a plain obstacle with a horizontal black line painted on the top edge. Foot clearance parameters were compared across conditions. Both illusions led to a significant increase in foot clearance when crossing the obstacle, compared to the plain condition, irrespective of obstacle height. Superimposing a horizontal-vertical illusion onto low-height obstacles can increase foot clearance, and its use on the floor section of a double-glazing door frame for example may reduce the incidence of tripping in the home. Practitioner Summary: Low-height obstacles such as the floor section of a double-glazing door frame are potential tripping hazards. In a gait lab-based study we found that a horizontal-vertical illusion superimposed onto low-height obstacles led to significantly higher foot clearances; indicating their potential as a useful safety measure.

  1. YPF uses horizontal reentry to aid thin bed production

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta, M.R.; Leiro, F.A.; Sesano, G.S.; Hill, D.

    1997-01-01

    Reentry and horizontal drilling/completion techniques have proven themselves useful in exploiting thin beds. A pilot horizontal reentry contracted by Yacimiento Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF) for a marginal well in its Lomita Sur field resulted in decreased water coning and production rates four times greater than expected. Further horizontal reentries in this thin-bed field are planned.

  2. Horizontal core acquisition and orientation for formation evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Skopec, R.A. ); Mann, M.M. ); Grier, S.P. )

    1992-03-01

    The increase in horizontal drilling activity has produced a need for improved coring technology. The development of a reliable horizontal (medium-radius) coring and orientation system has greatly improved the acquisition of information necessary for formation evaluation and reservoir engineering. This paper describes newly developed hardware and methods for obtaining horizontal core sections.

  3. State-of-the-art in coalbed methane drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Baltoiu, L.V.; Warren, B.K.; Natras, T.A.

    2008-09-15

    The production of methane from wet coalbeds is often associated with the production of significant amounts of water. While producing water is necessary to desorb the methane from the coal, the damage from the drilling fluids used is difficult to assess, because the gas production follows weeks to months after the well is drilled. Commonly asked questions include the following: What are the important parameters for drilling an organic reservoir rock that is both the source and the trap for the methane? Has the drilling fluid affected the gas production? Are the cleats plugged? Does the 'filtercake' have an impact on the flow of water and gas? Are stimulation techniques compatible with the drilling fluids used? This paper describes the development of a unique drilling fluid to drill coalbed methane wells with a special emphasis on horizontal applications. The fluid design incorporates products to match the delicate surface chemistry on the coal, a matting system to provide both borehole stability and minimize fluid losses to the cleats, and a breaker method of removing the matting system once drilling is completed. This paper also discusses how coal geology impacts drilling planning, drilling practices, the choice of drilling fluid, and completion/stimulation techniques for Upper Cretaceous Mannville-type coals drilled within the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. A focus on horizontal coalbed methane (CBM) wells is presented. Field results from three horizontal wells are discussed, two of which were drilled with the new drilling fluid system. The wells demonstrated exceptional stability in coal for lengths to 1000 m, controlled drilling rates and ease of running slotted liners. Methods for, and results of, placing the breaker in the horizontal wells are covered in depth.

  4. Near-Term Developments in Geothermal Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, James C.

    1989-03-21

    The DOE Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling geothermal wells. Current projects include: R & D in lost circulation control, high temperature instrumentation, underground imaging with a borehole radar insulated drill pipe development for high temperature formations, and new technology for data transmission through drill pipe that can potentially greatly improve data rates for measurement while drilling systems. In addition to this work, projects of the Geothermal Drilling Organization are managed. During 1988, GDO projects include developments in five areas: high temperature acoustic televiewer, pneumatic turbine, urethane foam for lost circulation control, geothermal drill pipe protectors, an improved rotary head seals.

  5. An Introduction to Deepwater Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Kenneth

    2011-04-01

    This presentation is an introduction to deepwater drilling, some of the nomenclature, processes, and ``how things work,'' including illustrations of several of the more complex and technically challenging operational situations encountered in deepwater drilling operations. Drilling and well construction activities are carried out in water depths from just a few feet, to over 10,000 feet. Subsurface pressures encountered may be as high as 35,000 psi, with temperatures over 500 degrees F. Some of the technical aspects of deep water drilling include: 1) locating the well 2) rig types 3) well types 4) rig components 5) drill bits, drill string assemblies, bottom-hole assemblies 6) inclined and horizontal well trajectories 7) anisotropic in-situ earth stresses and operationally induced stresses 8) anisotropic, non-linear, hysteretic, and time-dependent rock behavior 9) steady-state and transient fluid flow and formation pressures 10) complex static and dynamic temperature distributions 11) eccentric wellbore geometries 12) wellbore stability 13) lost circulation 14) formation pressure control 15) sea floor completions 16) robotic operations.

  6. Optimizing rotary drill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Schivley, G.P. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Data is presented showing Penetration Rate (PR) versus Force-on-the-Bit (FB) and Bit Angular Speed (N). Using this data, it is shown how FB and N each uniquely contribute to the PR for any particular drilling situation. This data represents many mining situations; including coal, copper, gold, iron ore and limestone quarrying. The important relationship between Penetration per Revolution (P/R) and the height of the cutting elements of the bit (CH) is discussed. Drill performance is then reviewed, considering the effect of FB and N on bit life. All this leads to recommendations for the operating values of FB and N for drilling situations where the rock is not highly abrasive and bit replacements are because of catastrophic failure of the bit cone bearings. The contribution of compressed air to the drilling process is discussed. It is suggested that if the air issuing from the bit jets is supersonic that may enhance the sweeping of the hole bottom. Also, it is shown that not just uphole air velocity is enough to provide adequate transport of the rock cuttings up the annulus of a drilled hole. In addition, air volume flow rate must be considered to assure there is adequate particle spacing so the mechanism of aerodynamic drag can effectively lift the cuttings up and out of the hole annulus.

  7. Ultrasonic rotary-hammer drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Kassab, Steve (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism for drilling or coring by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill includes a hammering section with a set of preload weights mounted atop a hammering actuator and an axial passage through the hammering section. In addition, a rotary section includes a motor coupled to a drive shaft that traverses the axial passage through the hammering section. A drill bit is coupled to the drive shaft for drilling by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill bit includes a fluted shaft leading to a distal crown cutter with teeth. The bit penetrates sampled media by repeated hammering action. In addition, the bit is rotated. As it rotates the fluted bit carries powdered cuttings helically upward along the side of the bit to the surface.

  8. Measuring the vertical permeability of horizontally- stratified sedimentary rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Novakowski, K.S.; Lapcevic, P.A. ); Reichart, T.M. )

    1993-03-01

    The vertical permeability of horizontally stratified rocks is usually assumed to be significantly less than the permeability of horizontal structural features such as bedding plane partings and sheeting structure. Consequently it is also assumed that this type of media provides suitable vertical barriers to the migration of both aqueous and non-aqueous phase groundwater contaminants. To investigate this assumption, a site adjacent to an inactive dolostone quarry was instrumented using nine boreholes drilled to a depth of approximately 25 m in a 30 x 30 m area. The area is immediately underlain by flat-lying thick-bedded dolostones of Middle-Silurian age. Six of the boreholes were drilled at angle of 45[degree] to intersect two vertical fracture sets oriented at 020[degree] and 110[degree] which were identified by mapping the fractures in the quarry. Detailed hydraulic tests (constant-head method) were conducted in each of the boreholes using a packer spacing of 0.5 m to determine the hydraulic properties of the individual horizontal and vertical fractures and fracture zones. In addition, four pumping tests were conducted in which a fracture zone in one of the vertical boreholes was shut-in and pumped and the hydraulic response was monitored in the observation boreholes using pressure transducer installed in 15 intervals isolated with multiple-packer strings. The results of the constant-head tests show that although the groundwater flow system in the dolostone is dominated by 3--4 horizontal fracture zones, the average permeability of the vertical fractures is only one order of magnitude less than the average permeability of the horizontal fractures. However, this aspect of the flow system is not detected using pumping tests, the results of which suggest that the average permeability is 3--4 orders of magnitude less in the vertical direction.

  9. Casing pull tests for directionally drilled environmental wells

    SciTech Connect

    Staller, G.E.; Wemple, R.P.; Layne, R.R.

    1994-11-01

    A series of tests to evaluate several types of environmental well casings have been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and it`s industrial partner, The Charles Machine Works, Inc. (CMW). A test bed was constructed at the CMW test range to model a typical shallow, horizontal, directionally drilled wellbore. Four different types of casings were pulled through this test bed. The loads required to pull the casings through the test bed and the condition of the casing material were documented during the pulling operations. An additional test was conducted to make a comparison of test bed vs actual wellbore casing pull loads. A directionally drilled well was emplaced by CMW to closely match the test bed. An instrumented casing was installed in the well and the pull loads recorded. The completed tests are reviewed and the results reported.

  10. The Oman Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2014-12-01

    With seed funds from the Sloan Foundation, the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) approved a proposal by 39 international proponents for scientific drilling in the Oman ophiolite. Via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid sampling, hydrological measurements, and microbiological sampling in a series of boreholes, we will address long-standing, unresolved questions regarding melt and solid transport in the mantle beneath oceanic spreading ridges, igneous accretion of oceanic crust, mass transfer between the oceans and the crust via hydrothermal alteration, and recycling of volatile components in subduction zones. We will undertake frontier exploration of subsurface weathering processes in mantle peridotite, including natural mechanisms of carbon dioxide uptake from surface waters and the atmosphere, and the nature of the subsurface biosphere. Societally relevant aspects include involvement and training of university students, including numerous students from Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Studies of natural mineral carbonation will contribute to design of engineered systems for geological carbon dioxide capture and storage. Studies of alteration will contribute to fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of reaction-driven cracking, which could enhance geothermal power generation and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. We hope to begin drilling in late 2015. Meanwhile, we are seeking an additional $2M to match the combined Sloan and ICDP funding from national and international funding agencies. Matching funds are needed for operational costs of drilling, geophysical logging, downhole fluid sampling, and core description. Information on becoming part of the named investigator pool is in Appendix 14 (page 70) of the ICDP proposal, available at https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/gpg/projects/icdp-workshop-oman-drilling-project. This formal process should begin at about the time of the 2014 Fall AGU Meeting. Meanwhile, potential

  11. Horizontal sidetrack taps reservoir sweet spots''

    SciTech Connect

    Wible, J.R. )

    1994-02-21

    Cutting a window at 85[degree] deviation allowed a sidetrack to pass through the high-resistivity sections in a Gulf of Mexico reservoir. Results from logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools indicated the original horizontal bore dropped too low in the reservoir, possibly leading to a low productivity well. The subsequent sidetrack successfully delivered the desired well bore, and the increased productivity justified the efforts in cutting a window in the horizontal section.

  12. Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee Formation using horizontal drains. Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The principal objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and economic success of producing oil from abandoned or nearly abandoned fields in the Dundee Formation of Central Michigan using horizontal drilling technology. A site for a horizontal well was selected in Crystal Field, a nearly-abandoned Dundee oil field in Michigan. This field had produced over 8 million barrels of oil, mostly in the 1930`s and 1940`s. At the height of development, Crystal Field produced from 193 wells, but by 1995, only seven producing wells remained, each producing less than 10 bbls/day. A horizontal well was drilled as a field demonstration pilot, funded through this DOE project, and was successful. It has produced over 37,000 bbls of oil as of December 31, 1996 at sustained rate of {approximately}100 bbls/day. At a nominal wellhead price of $20/bbl, this well has made about $750,000 and is still going strong. Two additional horizontal wells have just been completed and are on test. Core and logs from the Dundee interval were recovered from a vertical borehole at the same surface location. The horizontal well was brought on production at a rate of 100 bbls/day and is probably capable of producing at a higher rate. The addition of several horizontal wells, similar to the demonstration well, will likely add another 2 million bbls (or more) to the cumulative production of the field over the next few years. The presence of untapped oil in this Dundee field was dramatically demonstrated and the favorable economics were made clearly evident. If other abandoned Dundee fields are re-developed in a similar manner, the additional oil produced could exceed 80 million barrels. Horizontal drilling will likely revolutionize the development of old carbonate fields such as those in the Dundee of Michigan.

  13. Geothermal well drilling manual at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez P., A.; Flores S., M.

    1982-08-10

    The objective of the drilling manual is to solve all problems directly related to drilling during the construction of a well. In this case, the topics dealt which are drilling fluids and hydraulics to be applied in the field to improve drilling progress, eliminate risks and achieve good well-completion. There are other topics that are applicable such as drill bits and the drilling string, which are closely linked to drilling progress. On this occasion drilling fluid and hydraulics programs are presented, in addition to a computing program for a Casio FX-502P calculator to be applied in the field to optimize hydraulics and in the analysis of hydraulics for development and exploration wells at their different intervals.

  14. Various horizontal technologies used to develop shallow gas sands in the Eugene Island area

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, T.; Mathis, D.E.; Hughes, B.

    1996-12-31

    In early 1996, Vastar Resources completed a three-well project in the Eugene Island area. These wells were drilled using various horizontal technologies to develop three thin (10-22 ft) shallow gas sands. (Target TVD for one well was only 1,060 ft.) One was an {open_quotes}extended reach{close_quotes} well with a vertical section of 7,450 ft. Economics of the project were optimized by {open_quotes}batch drilling{close_quotes}, that is, drilling to target depth on all wells prior to any horizontal drilling. Accurate geosteering was accomplished using near-bit MWD sensors integrated with a directional drilling motor. Before drilling, MWD resistivity models were created; these models were compared with real-time data to help identify proximity to the edges of the targets during horizontal drilling. To minimize risk, the wells were drilled to targets defined by offset well control, pilot holes, and seismic amplitude anomalies.

  15. Designer drilling increases recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Eck-Olsen, J.; Drevdal, K.E.

    1995-04-01

    Implementation of a new designer-well profile has resulted in increased recovery and production rates. The geologically complex Gullfaks field, located in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, required a new type of well profile to increase total recovery and production rates from Gullfaks A, B and C platforms. Advances in steerable technology and directional drilling performance enabled a 3-D horizontal, extended-reach well profile, now designated as a designer well, to penetrate multiple targets. This article presents the concept, implementation and conclusions drawn from designer well application. Gullfaks field, in Norwegian North Sea Block 34/10, is the first license ever run by a fully Norwegian joint venture corporation. The license group consists of Statoil (operator), Norsk Hydro and Saga Petroleum. The field currently produces more than 535,000 bopd from three main Jurassic reservoirs.

  16. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Douglas K.; Kuhns, Douglass J.; Wiersholm, Otto; Miller, Timothy A.

    1993-01-01

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  17. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.

    1993-03-02

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  18. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  19. A laboratory investigation of cementing horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.A.; Sabins, F.L. )

    1988-09-01

    Obtaining a successful cement job will remain one of the most important factors to the productive life of any well and will be especially critical for horizontal-well completions. Achieving a high mud-displacement efficiency under highly deviated or horizontal-well conditions requires that special attention be given to the many aspects of drilling/completion practices - e.g., drill-fluid systems and properties and casing and hole sizes - to obtain optimum mud displacement and cementing results. A study of factors affecting mud-displacement efficiency focused on cementing an ultralow-permeability formation that is being evaluated as a subject for horizontal completion. Realistic laboratory testing was conducted on a large-scale test model that has been used for many years to evaluate factors influencing drilling-fluid displacement efficiency. Factors evaluated for this study included influence of hold and pipe sizes, pipe centralization, displacement rates, and spacer systems. Findings from this study provided specific recommendations for low-permeability reservoirs that also can be applied to horizontally drilled wells. Various techniques for cementing horizonal wells will be discussed and general recommendations will be given.

  20. Shaft drilling rig

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.; Ajiro, S.

    1986-06-17

    A shaft drilling rig is described which consists of: a supporting structure for a drill string having a plurality of components for drilling a shaft into the earth by imparting a turning and thrust for drilling at least to a drill bit on the drill string, the drilling being down to a predetermined depth, and then a further drill string component having at least at the bottom end thereof an inner wall extending substantially in the axial direction of the component being newly added to the drill string for further drilling; means for receiving at least the bottom end of the further drill string component and for supporting it, and having a member with the outer circumference engageable with the inner wall of the further component, the receiving means supporting the further drill string component in a free standing position; means for supporting the receiving means and having a guiding device for guiding the receiving means between a position where the further drill string component is to be added to the drill string and a parking position spaced laterally of the drill string from the first mentioned position; and means for holding a lower part of the drill string which has been separated from the upper part of the drill string preparatory to adding the further drill string component so that the axis of the lower part is substantially aligned with the drilling direction.

  1. Remediation using nested, horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Desantis, P.J.; Andrilenas, J.S.; Cheng, S.; Esler, C.; Miller, R.S.; Lew, K.V.

    1995-11-01

    A pair of nested, horizontal wells (one for vapor extraction, one for groundwater extraction) were utilized to remediate a mixed aromatic volatile organic compound (AVOC) and halogenated volatile organic compound (HVOC) soil and groundwater plume. The project site is an operating gasoline service station located in Portland, Oregon. The site has low permeability soils, a thin unconfined aquifer, with a relatively steep groundwater gradient. Each of the nested horizontal wells was drilled using the continuous borehole directional drilling method. The wells are each 110 meters long employing 73 meters of pre-packed well screen. The groundwater extraction well was pumped via vacuum-enhanced methods utilizing a two-pump configuration to eliminate the need for installation of a pump within the horizontal well and to increase both flow and radius of influence in fine-grained soils. Two groundwater models, a 2D analytical model and a finite element model, were utilized to analyze the potential and actual performance of the well. Of the two models used, the finite element model has produced results closely matching the actual performance of the well. After one year of operation, both AVOCs and HVOCs concentrations have been reduced by between 70 to 100%. All but two downgradient site wells have met cleanup standards for AVOCs; all have met substantial compliance for HVOCs.

  2. Drilling equipment to shrink

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, S.

    2000-01-01

    Drilling systems under development will take significant costs out of the well construction process. From small coiled tubing (CT) drilling rigs for North Sea wells to microrigs for exploration wells in ultra-deepwater, development projects under way will radically cut the cost of exploratory holes. The paper describes an inexpensive offshore system, reeled systems drilling vessel, subsea drilling rig, cheap exploration drilling, laser drilling project, and high-pressure water jets.

  3. Drill user's manual. [drilling machine automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Instructions are given for using the DRILL computer program which converts data contained in an Interactive Computer Graphics System (IGDS) design file to production of a paper tape for driving a numerically controlled drilling machine.

  4. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.; Brown, Kyle M.; McGrath, Paul L.; Klein, Kerry J.; Cady, Ian W.; Lin, Justin Y.; Ramirez, Frank E.; Haberland, Matt

    2012-01-01

    This drill (see Figure 1) is the primary sample acquisition element of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that collects powdered samples from various types of rock (from clays to massive basalts) at depths up to 50 mm below the surface. A rotary-percussive sample acquisition device was developed with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. It is the first rover-based sample acquisition device to be flight-qualified (see Figure 2). This drill features an autonomous tool change-out on a mobile robot, and novel voice-coil-based percussion. The drill comprises seven subelements. Starting at the end of the drill, there is a bit assembly that cuts the rock and collects the sample. Supporting the bit is a subassembly comprising a chuck mechanism to engage and release the new and worn bits, respectively, and a spindle mechanism to rotate the bit. Just aft of that is a percussion mechanism, which generates hammer blows to break the rock and create the dynamic environment used to flow the powdered sample. These components are mounted to a translation mechanism, which provides linear motion and senses weight-on-bit with a force sensor. There is a passive-contact sensor/stabilizer mechanism that secures the drill fs position on the rock surface, and flex harness management hardware to provide the power and signals to the translating components. The drill housing serves as the primary structure of the turret, to which the additional tools and instruments are attached. The drill bit assembly (DBA) is a passive device that is rotated and hammered in order to cut rock (i.e. science targets) and collect the cuttings (powder) in a sample chamber until ready for transfer to the CHIMRA (Collection and Handling for Interior Martian Rock Analysis). The DBA consists of a 5/8-in. (.1.6- cm) commercial hammer drill bit whose shank has been turned down and machined with deep flutes designed for aggressive cutting removal. Surrounding the shank of the

  5. Establishing nuclear facility drill programs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of DOE Handbook, Establishing Nuclear Facility Drill Programs, is to provide DOE contractor organizations with guidance for development or modification of drill programs that both train on and evaluate facility training and procedures dealing with a variety of abnormal and emergency operating situations likely to occur at a facility. The handbook focuses on conducting drills as part of a training and qualification program (typically within a single facility), and is not intended to included responses of personnel beyond the site boundary, e.g. Local or State Emergency Management, Law Enforcement, etc. Each facility is expected to develop its own facility specific scenarios, and should not limit them to equipment failures but should include personnel injuries and other likely events. A well-developed and consistently administered drill program can effectively provide training and evaluation of facility operating personnel in controlling abnormal and emergency operating situations. To ensure the drills are meeting their intended purpose they should have evaluation criteria for evaluating the knowledge and skills of the facility operating personnel. Training and evaluation of staff skills and knowledge such as component and system interrelationship, reasoning and judgment, team interactions, and communications can be accomplished with drills. The appendices to this Handbook contain both models and additional guidance for establishing drill programs at the Department`s nuclear facilities.

  6. Improved oil recovery using horizontal wells at Elk Hills, California

    SciTech Connect

    Gangle, F.J.; Schultz, K.L.; McJannet, G.S.; Ezekwe, N.

    1995-03-01

    Eight horizontal wells have been drilled and completed in a steeply dipping Stevens sand reservoir in the Elk Hills field, Kern County, California. The subject reservoir, called the Stevens 26R, is a turbidite channel sand deposit one mile wide, three miles long, and one mile deep. Formation beds have a gross thickness up to 1,500 feet and dips as high as 60 degrees on the flanks. The original oil column of 1,810 feet has been pulled down to 200 feet by continual production since 1976. The reservoir management operating strategy has been full pressure maintenance by crestal gas injection since 1976. The steep dip of the formation makes gravity drainage the dominant drive mechanism. Additionally, improved recovery is coming from cycling dry gas through the large secondary gas cap region. The prudent placement of the horizontal wells above the oil/water contact promises to improve oil recovery and extend the operating life of the reservoir. Field results are given to compare the performance of the horizontal wells with the conventional wells. The horizontal wells produce at higher rates, lower draw downs, and lower gas/oil ratio which will extend the life of the project and result in higher recovery.

  7. Drilling side holes from a borehole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Machine takes long horizontal stratum samples from confines of 21 cm bore hole. Stacked interlocking half cylindrical shells mate to form rigid thrust tube. Drive shaft and core storage device is flexible and retractable. Entire machine fits in 10 meter length of steel tube. Machine could drill drainage or ventilation holes in coal mines, or provide important information for geological, oil, and geothermal surveys.

  8. Worldwide drilling: Drilling improves in eastern hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This paper provides forecast drilling information for oil and gas producing countries excluding the US. It provides a forecast on the number of wells expected to be drilled and contrasts that to actual figures of wells drilled during 1995. Major countries have narratives to explain the causes of any significant changes, including geopolitical and economic issues.

  9. Applications of horizontal well completions to gas-productive formations

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.E.; Peterson, R.E.; Middlebrook, M.I. ); Aslakson, J.K. )

    1993-08-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has initiated a project to determine the reservoir characteristics and appropriate horizontal well designs in various gas-productive formations. The goal of the project is to evaluate horizontal completions as a means of reducing unit production costs in comparison to vertical well-completion methods. Three gas-productive formations were evaluated in the initial phase of the project: the Mancos B on the Douglas Creek arch in northwestern Colorado; the Davis Sand in the Fort Worth basin; and the Barnett Shale, also in the Fort Worth basin. Geologic and engineering data from vertical wells were collected for each formation and used to strategically plan offset horizontal wells. Specifically, information was gathered to characterize the natural and induced fractures, model the reservoirs, and establish a production baseline for each reservoir. The next phase involved GRI participation in the drilling of the three offset horizontal wells with three independent producers. A 1500-ft horizontal section was air drilled across the Mancos B; a 2000-ft horizontal well was air drilled in the Davis sandstone; and a 2000-ft horizontal section was fluid drilled across the 300-ft-thick Barnett Shale. Each of the horizontal wells exhibit varying reservoir characteristics and associated gas production.

  10. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    DOEpatents

    Judzis, Arnis; Black, Alan D.; Green, Sidney J.; Robertson, Homer A.; Bland, Ronald G.; Curry, David Alexander; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  11. FY 1983 Funding for ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Proposed funding for scientific ocean drilling within the National Science Foundation (NSF) in fiscal 1983 totals $14 million, $6 million less than the current fiscal 1982 plan and about half of the original FY 1982 budget request of $26 million. However, there is more to these numbers than simple subtraction: Additional funding for scientific ocean drilling programs is on hold while decisions are being made about a future drilling program called Advanced Ocean Drilling (AOD).With the demise of the Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMDP) when industry withdrew its support (Eos, October 20, 1981, p. 705) and with the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) long ago scheduled to end in fiscal 1983, the future for scientific ocean drilling within NSF was uncertain. To steer ocean drilling toward scientific objectives for the decade, the Conference on Scientific Ocean Drilling (COSOD) (Eos, December 22, 1981, p. 1197) examined four ocean drilling options and decided that the Glomar Explorer, converted to the current capabilities of the DSDP mainstay Glomar Challenger (i.e., without riser and well-control technologies), would meet scientific objectives through the decade. In December, the National Research Council's Committee on Ocean Margin Drilling came to the identical conclusion in its interim report. Both of these decisions were based solely on scientific merit and did not consider costs.

  12. Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee formation using horizontal drains. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1996-01-29

    The principal objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and economic success of producing oil from abandoned or nearly abandoned fields in the Dundee Formation of Central Michigan using horizontal drilling technology. A site for a horizontal well was selected in Crystal Field, a nearly-abandoned Dundee oil field in Michigan. This field had produced over 8 million barrels of oil, mostly in the 1930`s and 1940`s. At the height of development, Crystal Field produced from 193 wells, but by 1995, only seven producing wells remained, each producing less than 10 bbls/day. A horizontal well was drilled as a field demonstration pilot, funded through this DOE project, and was immensely successful. Core and logs from the Dundee interval were recovered from a vertical borehole at the same surface location. The horizontal well was brought on production at a rate of 100 bbls/day and is probably capable of producing at a higher rate. The addition of several horizontal wells, similar to the demonstration well, will likely add another 2 million bbls (or more) to the cumulative production of the field over the next few years. The presence of untapped oil in this Dundee field was dramatically demonstrated and the favorable economics were made clearly evident. If other abandoned Dundee fields are re-developed in a similar manner, the additional oil produced domestically will probably be about 80 to 100 million bbls.

  13. Status of in-situ air stripping tests and proposed modifications: Horizontal wells AMH-1 and AMH-2 Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-08-01

    A project to drill and install two horizontal vapor extraction/air injection wells at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina, was performed in September and October of 1988. The project was performed to test the feasibility of horizontal drilling technologies in shallow unconsolidated sediments. Additional study to evaluate the effectiveness of in-situ air stripping of volatile organics from the ground water and unsaturated soils is planned. This status report contains (1) a short summary of the construction details of the two horizontal wells and (2) proposed modifications to the original program plan (Kaback and Looney 1988; Looney and Kaback, 1988). The modifications include added pressure monitoring and use of an inert tracer gas (helium) to better evaluate system performance. This paper contains sections that provide information requested by the South Carolina Department Health and Environmental Control as part of the underground injection well permitting process. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  15. Rotary blasthole drilling update

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

  16. Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; GLOWKA,DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY,BILLY JOE; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.

    1999-10-07

    A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional

  17. Geothermal drilling technology update

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories conducts a comprehensive geothermal drilling research program for the US Department of Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies. The program currently includes seven areas: lost circulation technology, hard-rock drill bit technology, high-temperature instrumentation, wireless data telemetry, slimhole drilling technology, Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO) projects, and drilling systems studies. This paper describes the current status of the projects under way in each of these program areas.

  18. Geothermal drilling research overview

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.

    1996-04-10

    Sandia conducts a comprehensive geothermal drilling research program for the US Department of Energy. The program currently consists of eight program areas: lost circulation technology; advanced synthetic-diamond drill bit technology, high-temperature logging technology; acoustic technology; slimhole drilling technology; drilling systems studies; Geothermal Drilling Organization projects; and geothermal heat pump technology. This paper provides justification and describes the projects underway in each program area.

  19. Reservoir visualization for geosteering of horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, I.D.; Baygun, B.; Frass, M.; Casco, R.

    1996-08-01

    Horizontal infill wells in the Lower Lagunillas reservoir of Bloque IV, Lake Maracaibo are being drilled in thin, oil-bearing zones that have been bypassed by gas. Steering the horizontal sections of these wells requires high resolution reservoir models that can be updated during drilling. An example from well VLD-1152 serves to illustrate how these models are generated and used. Resistivity images collected by wireline and logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools in the pilot well formed the basis of prejob, high resolution modeling of the formation properties. 3-D seismic data and data from an offset vertical seismic profile collected in the pilot well provided the structural model. During drilling information from cuttings and LWD tools was used to continuously update these models. After the well had been drilled, analysis of LWD resistivity images provided a detailed model of the relationship between the well trajectory and the dip of the formation. This information is used to improve interpretation of the LWD logs to provide a petrophysical evaluation of the well.

  20. Microwave drilling of bones.

    PubMed

    Eshet, Yael; Mann, Ronit Rachel; Anaton, Abby; Yacoby, Tomer; Gefen, Amit; Jerby, Eli

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of drilling in fresh wet bone tissue in vitro using the microwave drill method [Jerby et al, 2002], toward testing its applicability in orthopaedic surgery. The microwave drill uses a near-field focused energy (typically, power under approximately 200 W at 2.45-GHz frequency) in order to penetrate bone in a drilling speed of approximately 1 mm/s. The effect of microwave drilling on mechanical properties of whole ovine tibial and chicken femoral bones drilled in vitro was studied using three-point-bending strength and fatigue tests. Properties were compared to those of geometrically similar bones that were equivalently drilled using the currently accepted mechanical rotary drilling method. Strength of mid-shaft, elastic moduli, and cycles to failure in fatigue were statistically indistinguishable between specimen groups assigned for microwave and mechanical drilling. Carbonized margins around the microwave-drilled hole were approximately 15% the hole diameter. Optical and scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the microwave drill produces substantially smoother holes in cortical bone than those produced by a mechanical drill. The hot spot produced by the microwave drill has the potential for overcoming two major problems presently associated with mechanical drilling in cortical and trabecular bone during orthopaedic surgeries: formation of debris and rupture of bone vasculature during drilling.

  1. Energy week `96: Conference papers. Book 3: Drilling and production economics

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The papers of Section 1, Drilling Technology, relate to advanced materials for downhole tools, underbalanced drilling, horizontal drilling technology/new trajectory control device, horizontal drilling HP/HT well control, advances in drill bits, slim-hole drill bits and tubulars, novel/scientific drilling, and coiled tubing/slim-hole drilling/short radius. The topics of Section 2, Ocean Engineering, include marine pollution and diving equipment. Section 3, Petroleum Production Technology, relate to what`s new in regulations and standards in petroleum production. Papers in Section 4, Offshore and Arctic Operations, cover offshore platforms, floating production systems, offshore pipelines, offshore construction and installation, offshore facilities, and environmental and safety issues. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  2. Coiled tubing drilling: Real time MWD with dedicated powers to the BHA

    SciTech Connect

    Leismer, D.; Williams, B.; Pursell, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes and analyzes the development and ongoing field trials of a Real Time MWD Coiled Tubing Drilling System. The new system holds great promise for advancing the state of coiled tubing drilling for certain applications. The system is designed for through-tubing, short radius re-entry and drilling highly deviated wells as horizontal laterals to a geologic target with minimum wellbore tortuosity. Currently, 4-1/2-in production tubing is the smallest re-entry candidate. Real time MWD and Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) control is achieved by the use of a combination hydraulic and electric umbilical internal to the coiled tubing (CT), allowing continuous data collection and selective surface control of the BHA components. This communication line allows orientation in 10{degree} increments (or less) while drilling, applies weight-on-bit and operates a reusable circulating valve. In addition, the umbilical provides real-time monitoring of weight-on-bit, circulating pressures of the drilling fluid internal and external to the BHA, dedicated hydraulic system bottom hole pressure, downhole temperature and survey data from logging equipment.

  3. Comparative analysis of core drilling and rotary drilling in volcanic terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Trexler, D.T.; Wallace, R.H. Jr.

    1987-04-01

    Initially, the goal of this report is to compare and contrast penetration rates of rotary-mud drilling and core drilling in young volcanic terranes. It is widely recognized that areas containing an abundance of recent volcanic rocks are excellent targets for geothermal resources. Exploration programs depend heavily upon reliable subsurface information, because surface geophysical methods may be ineffective, inconclusive, or both. Past exploration drilling programs have mainly relied upon rotary-mud rigs for virtually all drilling activity. Core-drilling became popular several years ago, because it could deal effectively with two major problems encountered in young volcanic terranes: very hard, abrasive rock and extreme difficulty in controlling loss of circulation. In addition to overcoming these difficulties, core-drilling produced subsurface samples (core) that defined lithostratigraphy, structure and fractures far better than drill-chips. It seemed that the only negative aspect of core drilling was cost. The cost-per-foot may be two to three times higher than an ''initial quote'' for rotary drilling. In addition, penetration rates for comparable rock-types are often much lower for coring operations. This report also seeks to identify the extent of wireline core drilling (core-drilling using wireline retrieval) as a geothermal exploration tool. 25 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Drill wear monitoring in cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Staroveski, Tomislav; Brezak, Danko; Udiljak, Toma

    2015-06-01

    Medical drills are subject to intensive wear due to mechanical factors which occur during the bone drilling process, and potential thermal and chemical factors related to the sterilisation process. Intensive wear increases friction between the drill and the surrounding bone tissue, resulting in higher drilling temperatures and cutting forces. Therefore, the goal of this experimental research was to develop a drill wear classification model based on multi-sensor approach and artificial neural network algorithm. A required set of tool wear features were extracted from the following three types of signals: cutting forces, servomotor drive currents and acoustic emission. Their capacity to classify precisely one of three predefined drill wear levels has been established using a pattern recognition type of the Radial Basis Function Neural Network algorithm. Experiments were performed on a custom-made test bed system using fresh bovine bones and standard medical drills. Results have shown high classification success rate, together with the model robustness and insensitivity to variations of bone mechanical properties. Features extracted from acoustic emission and servomotor drive signals achieved the highest precision in drill wear level classification (92.8%), thus indicating their potential in the design of a new type of medical drilling machine with process monitoring capabilities.

  5. Drill wear monitoring in cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Staroveski, Tomislav; Brezak, Danko; Udiljak, Toma

    2015-06-01

    Medical drills are subject to intensive wear due to mechanical factors which occur during the bone drilling process, and potential thermal and chemical factors related to the sterilisation process. Intensive wear increases friction between the drill and the surrounding bone tissue, resulting in higher drilling temperatures and cutting forces. Therefore, the goal of this experimental research was to develop a drill wear classification model based on multi-sensor approach and artificial neural network algorithm. A required set of tool wear features were extracted from the following three types of signals: cutting forces, servomotor drive currents and acoustic emission. Their capacity to classify precisely one of three predefined drill wear levels has been established using a pattern recognition type of the Radial Basis Function Neural Network algorithm. Experiments were performed on a custom-made test bed system using fresh bovine bones and standard medical drills. Results have shown high classification success rate, together with the model robustness and insensitivity to variations of bone mechanical properties. Features extracted from acoustic emission and servomotor drive signals achieved the highest precision in drill wear level classification (92.8%), thus indicating their potential in the design of a new type of medical drilling machine with process monitoring capabilities. PMID:25922212

  6. Issues and Concerns in Robotic Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Exploration of the Martian subsurface will be essential in the search for life and water, given the desiccated and highly oxidized conditions on the surface. Discovery of these, at least in non-fossil form, is unlikely without drilling or other physical access to the subsurface. Hence subsurface access will be critical for both future in-situ science and Mars sample return. Drilling applications present many new challenges for diagnosis and control technology. Traditionally, diagnosis has concentrated on determining the internal state of a system, and detecting failures of system components. In the case of drilling applications, an additional challenge is to diagnose the interactions between the drill and its environment. This is necessary because particular observations of the drilling operation may be consistent with a number of possible problems, including faults in the equipment, but also changes in the material being drilled (for example, from rock to ice). The diagnosis of a particular observation may also depend on knowledge of geological formations previously encountered during drilling, and different remedial actions may be required for each diagnosis. Current 2009 Mars mission scenarios call for no more than 33 sols to be spent drilling. Yet they also call for a baseline of two 2m-deep holes in each of three target areas, for a total of six drilling operations. Using current levels of automation, it is estimated that 15-16 sols would be required to drill each hole. As a result of this, either the drilling part of the mission plan will need to be severely downscoped to no more than two holes total, or on-board automation and robotics must be increased in order to reduce the number of sols required per hole by removing ground control from the drilling control loop. This lecture will discuss salient issues and concerns of robotic drilling automation compares with other applications, and implementation constraints.

  7. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

    1988-06-20

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

  8. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.; Lundin, Ralph L.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

  9. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  10. Fracturing improvements enhance infill drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.J.; Gillstrom, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    The production history of a one thousand well field extension drilled in the early 1980`s showed that additional wells could not be drilled at current oil prices and oil recovery. Step out drilling and production history showed that an additional one hundred infill and development wells could be drilled if the recovery could be increased. Multiple production logs indicated the upper half of the zone was not open at the well bore. Thus, if the upper zone could be more effectively completed, the well recovery had the potential to be increased to a level where future development would be feasible. The low reservoir pressure and high permeability contrast requirements demanded that a much higher viscosity fluid system needed to be used that also had the ability to clean up easily. The nitrogen foam frac yielded these desired characteristics. Five infill wells were drilled in 1991 and 1993 utilizing a nitrogen foam frac system. Production from the wells has shown a projected ultimate recovery from the wells of approximately twice the original wells.

  11. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF UNDERBALANCED DRILLING PRODUCTS. Final Report, Oct 1995 - July 2001

    SciTech Connect

    William C. Maurer; William J. McDonald; Thomas E. Williams; John H. Cohen

    2001-07-01

    Underbalanced drilling is experiencing growth at a rate that rivals that of horizontal drilling in the mid-1980s and coiled-tubing drilling in the 1990s. Problems remain, however, for applying underbalanced drilling in a wider range of geological settings and drilling environments. This report addresses developments under this DOE project to develop products aimed at overcoming these problems. During Phase I of the DOE project, market analyses showed that up to 12,000 wells per year (i.e., 30% of all wells) will be drilled underbalanced in the U.S.A. within the next ten years. A user-friendly foam fluid hydraulics model (FOAM) was developed for a PC Windows environment during Phase I. FOAM predicts circulating pressures and flow characteristics of foam fluids used in underbalanced drilling operations. FOAM is based on the best available mathematical models, and was validated through comparison to existing models, laboratory test data and field data. This model does not handle two-phase flow or air and mist drilling where the foam quality is above 0.97. This FOAM model was greatly expanded during Phase II including adding an improved foam rheological model and a ''matching'' feature that allows the model to be field calibrated. During Phase I, a lightweight drilling fluid was developed that uses hollow glass spheres (HGS) to reduce the density of the mud to less than that of water. HGS fluids have several advantages over aerated fluids, including they are incompressible, they reduce corrosion and vibration problems, they allow the use of mud-pulse MWD tools, and they eliminate high compressor and nitrogen costs. Phase II tests showed that HGS significantly reduce formation damage with water-based drilling and completion fluids and thereby potentially can increase oil and gas production in wells drilled with water-based fluids. Extensive rheological testing was conducted with HGS drilling and completion fluids during Phase II. These tests showed that the HGS fluids

  12. Utilization of horizontal drainholes in developing multilayered reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, T.K.; Al Khatib, H.M.; Sultan, A.J.

    1995-10-01

    Drilling deviated wells in the Upper Zakum field did not allow to develop this field to its full potential. It is an offshore field, only a limited number of platforms are available. Therefore, it may become uneconomical to drill a large number of deviated wells for the full development of the reservoirs. Application of horizontal wells in this filed helped in redeveloping the reservoirs. Data were integrated form different petroleum engineering disciplines and analyzed to identify problems in the reservoirs. Horizontal wells played a vital role to resolve various problems faced in different parts of these heterogeneous reservoirs. This paper reviews the field development strategy which was further refined with time as more horizontal wells were drilled in this field. Performance of horizontal wells have been compared and evaluated with the deviated wells. A brief discussion on drilling, completion, and stimulation procedures used for horizontal wells has also been included. This study contributed to some extent in resolving reservoir problems ranging from enhancement of productivity index, development of reservoir flanks, and recovering un-swept oil from water flooded layers with the applications of horizontal wells.

  13. Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee Formation using horizontal drains. Annual report, March 1996--March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This Class II field project has demonstrated that economic quantities of hydrocarbons can be produced from abandoned or nearly abandoned fields in the Dundee Formation of Central Michigan using horizontal drilling technology. The site selected for the demonstration horizontal well was Crystal Field, a nearly abandoned Dundee oil field in Montcalm County, Michigan. This field had produced over 8 million barrels of oil, mostly in the 1930`s and 1940`s. At the height of development, Crystal Field produced from 193 wells, but by 1995, only seven producing wells remained, each producing less than 10 bbls/day. A horizontal well, the TOW 1-3, drilled as a field demonstration pilot was successful, producing at rate of 100 bbls of oil per day with a zero water cut. Although the well is capable of producing at a of 500+ bbls/day, the production rate is being kept low deliberately to try to prevent premature water coning. Cumulative production exceeded 50,000 bbls of oil by the end of April, 1997 and lead to the permitting and licensing of several dozen Dundee wells by project end. Twelve of these permits were for continued development of Crystal Field. Two long horizontal wells were drilled successfully in Crystal after the TOW 1-3, but were disappointing economically. Core and logs from the Dundee interval were recovered from a vertical borehole at the same surface location. The addition of several horizontal wells will likely add another 2 million bbls (or more) to the cumulative production of the field over the next few years. If other abandoned Dundee fields are re-developed in a similar manner, the additional oil produced could exceed 80 million barrels.

  14. Deep Sea Drilling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneps, Ansis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the goals of the ocean drilling under the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, which include sampling of the ocean crust at great depths and sampling of the sedimentary sequence of active and passive continental margins. (MLH)

  15. Plug and drill template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orella, S.

    1979-01-01

    Device installs plugs and then drills them after sandwich face sheets are in place. Template guides drill bit into center of each concealed plug thereby saving considerable time and fostering weight reduction with usage of smaller plugs.

  16. Hydromechanical drilling device

    DOEpatents

    Summers, David A.

    1978-01-01

    A hydromechanical drilling tool which combines a high pressure water jet drill with a conventional roller cone type of drilling bit. The high pressure jet serves as a tap drill for cutting a relatively small diameter hole in advance of the conventional bit. Auxiliary laterally projecting jets also serve to partially cut rock and to remove debris from in front of the bit teeth thereby reducing significantly the thrust loading for driving the bit.

  17. Drilling technique for crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, T.; Miyagawa, I.

    1977-01-01

    Hole-drilling technique uses special crystal driller in which drill bit rotates at fixed position at speed of 30 rpm while crystal slowly advances toward drill. Technique has been successfully applied to crystal of Rochell salt, Triglycine sulfate, and N-acetyglycine. Technique limits heat buildup and reduces strain on crystal.

  18. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  19. HydroPulse Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Kolle

    2004-04-01

    Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

  20. High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Kamalesh; Aaron, Dick; Macpherson, John

    2015-07-31

    Many countries around the world, including the USA, have untapped geothermal energy potential. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology is needed to economically utilize this resource. Temperatures in some EGS reservoirs can exceed 300°C. To effectively utilize EGS resources, an array of injector and production wells must be accurately placed in the formation fracture network. This requires a high temperature directional drilling system. Most commercial services for directional drilling systems are rated for 175°C while geothermal wells require operation at much higher temperatures. Two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) projects have been initiated to develop a 300°C capable directional drilling system, the first developing a drill bit, directional motor, and drilling fluid, and the second adding navigation and telemetry systems. This report is for the first project, “High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System, including drill bit, directional motor and drilling fluid, for enhanced geothermal systems,” award number DE-EE0002782. The drilling system consists of a drill bit, a directional motor, and drilling fluid. The DOE deliverables are three prototype drilling systems. We have developed three drilling motors; we have developed four roller-cone and five Kymera® bits; and finally, we have developed a 300°C stable drilling fluid, along with a lubricant additive for the metal-to-metal motor. Metal-to-metal directional motors require coatings to the rotor and stator for wear and corrosion resistance, and this coating research has been a significant part of the project. The drill bits performed well in the drill bit simulator test, and the complete drilling system has been tested drilling granite at Baker Hughes’ Experimental Test Facility in Oklahoma. The metal-to-metal motor was additionally subjected to a flow loop test in Baker Hughes’ Celle Technology Center in Germany, where it ran for more than 100

  1. Vale exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1996-06-01

    During April-May, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Trans-Pacific Geothermal Corporation, drilled a 5825{prime} exploratory slimhole (3.85 in. diameter) in the Vale Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Vale, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During drilling we performed several temperature logs, and after drilling was complete we performed injection tests, bailing from a zone isolated by a packer, and repeated temperature logs. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: 2714{prime} of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid records; numerous temperature logs; pressure shut-in data from injection tests; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Vale KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  2. Newberry exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1997-11-01

    During July--November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 feet exploratory slimhole (3.895 inch diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  3. New approaches to subglacial bedrock drilling technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talalay, Pavel; Sun, Youhong; Zhao, Yue; Xue, Jun; Chen, Chen; Markov, Alexey; Xu, Huiwen; Gong, Wenbin; Han, Wei; Zheng, Zhichuan; Cao, Pinlu; Wang, Rusheng; Zhang, Nan; Yu, Dahui; Fan, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Cheng; Han, Lili; Sysoev, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Drilling to bedrock of ice sheets and glaciers offers unique opportunities to research processes acting at the bed for paleo-climatic and paleo-environmental recording, basal sliding studies, subglacial geology and tectonics investigations, prospecting and exploration for minerals covered by ice. Retrieving bedrock samples under ice sheets and glaciers is a very difficult task. Drilling operations are complicated by extremely low temperature at the surface of, and within glaciers, and by glacier flow, the absence of roads and infrastructures, storms, winds, snowfalls, etc. In order to penetrate through the ice sheet or glacier up to the depth of at least 1000 m and to pierce the bedrock to the depth of several meters from ice - bedrock boundary the development activity already has been started in Polar Research Center at Jilin University, China. All drilling equipment (two 50-kW diesel generators, winch, control desk, fluid dumping station, etc.) is installed inside a movable sledge-mounted warm-keeping and wind-protecting drilling shelter that has dimensions of 8.8 ×2.8 × 3.0 m. Mast has two positions: horizontal for transportation and vertical working position (mast height is 12 m). Drilling shelter can be transported to the chosen site with crawler-tractor, aircraft or helicopter. In case of carriage by air the whole drilling shelter was designed to be disassembled into pieces "small" enough to ship by aircraft. Weight and sizes of each component has been minimized to lower the cost of transportation and to meet weight restrictions for transportation. Total weight of drilling equipment (without drilling fluid) is near 15 tons. Expected time of assembling and preparing for drilling is 2 weeks. If drilling shelter is transported with crawler-tractor (for example, in Antarctic traverses) all equipment is ready to start drilling immediately upon arrival to the site. To drill through ice and bedrock a new, modified version of the cable-suspended electromechanical

  4. Introduction to drilling research

    SciTech Connect

    Hamblin, J. )

    1993-01-01

    This paper is a brief introduction to research projects in the area of drilling technology. A technical panel, composed of representatives of geothermal operators, drilling contractors, and service companies, met in Albuquerque, and heard presentations on various drilling related projects which are ongoing or planned. These projects are fairly small scale, partially funded by DOE, administered through Sandia National Laboratory, and generally cooperative in nature between industry and the laboratory. The author briefly discusses the seven highest rated projects, both by the researchers and the conferees. They are: hard rock bits, slimhole drilling, memory logging tools, lost circulation, the Geothermal Drilling Organization, the Long Valley Exploratory Well, and acoustic telemetry.

  5. Surface control bent sub for directional drilling of petroleum wells

    DOEpatents

    Russell, Larry R.

    1986-01-01

    Directional drilling apparatus for incorporation in a drill string, wherein a lower apparatus section is angularly deviated from vertical by cam action and wherein rotational displacement of the angularly deviated apparatus section is overcome by additional cam action, the apparatus being operated by successive increases and decreases of internal drill string pressure.

  6. Operations Recognition at Drill-Rigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmael, B.; Fruhwirth, R.; Arnaout, A.; Thonhauser, G.

    2012-04-01

    those principal states dedicated neural network classifier were trained using the sensor data as input. As network architecture the completely connected perceptron was applied in combination with parallel learning. Automatic network growing was used to match the model complexity to the complexity of the particular classification problem and thus to prevent from over fitting. In addition forward selection method was used to identify the sensor data necessary to recognise the particular states. The approach was evaluated using real-time/real-world data and the results show that the proposed approach has the ability to classify drilling operations highly accurate. The performances of the classifiers were evaluated by cross-validation, the average correct classification rate was above 99%, for both, the training and the testing data sets.

  7. Horizontal exploitation of the Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk of south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, R.; Hand, L.; Dickerson, D.; Bird, S. )

    1990-05-01

    Horizontal drilling in the fractured Austin Chalk of south Texas has proven to be a viable technology for exploiting reserve opportunities in mature trends as well as in frontier areas. To date, the results of an interdisciplinary approach to the regional analysis of structure and stress regimes combined with studies of the depositional characteristics of the Austin Chalk and Eagleford Shale have been a success. Productive characteristics of the Austin Chalk indicate the influence of regional fractures on the preferential flow direction and partitioning in the Pearsall field area of the trend. Well bore orientation and inclination are designed such that multiple fracture swarms at several stratigraphic horizons are intersected with a single horizontal well bore. As a result of the greater frequency of fracture contacts with the well bore, there is a significant increase in the ultimate recovery of hydrocarbons in place. Conventional vertical drilling techniques are frequently ineffective at encountering these laterally partitioned fracture sets, resulting in lower volumes of recoverable hydrocarbons. Additionally, horizontal well bores may increase ultimate recovery of hydrocarbons by lowering the pressure gradient to the well bore and maximizing the reservoir energy.

  8. Horizontal principal stress orientation in the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) transect from borehole breakouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinverno, A.; Saito, S.; Vannucchi, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) drilled the Pacific margin of the Middle America Trench just north of where the Cocos Ridge enters the subduction zone, resulting in basal erosion of the upper plate. Here we report the orientations of the maximum horizontal principal stress (SHmax) from borehole breakouts detected by logging-while-drilling and wireline downhole measurements. All SHmax directions were estimated in the sediment cover of the margin, above the deeper rocks of the deformed margin wedge. We observe three overall SHmax orientations: NNE-SSW (25° azimuth) in the deepest interval drilled at the upper slope Site U1379; ENE-WSW (82°) in the rest of Site U1379 and in Site U1413, also drilled in the upper slope; and NNW-SSE (157°) in the mid-slope Site U1378. Our preferred interpretation is that the deepest interval of Site U1379 records the stress conditions in the underlying margin wedge, as SHmax is parallel to the direction of the Cocos-Caribbean plate convergence and of the compressional axes of plate boundary fault earthquakes. The variable SHmax directions observed elsewhere are likely due to the effect of a network of normal faults that subdivide the sediment cover into a number of independently deforming blocks. In addition, the observed SHmax directions may be influenced by the subducting Cocos Ridge, which acts as an indenter causing oblique deformation, and by the transition to seismogenic subduction along the plate boundary fault.

  9. Lateral drilling and completion technologies for shallow-shelf carbonates of the Red River and Ratcliffe Formations, Williston Basin. Topical report, July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Carrell, L.A.; George, R.D.; Gibbons, D.

    1998-07-01

    Luff Exploration Company (LEC) focused on involvement in technologies being developed utilizing horizontal drilling concepts to enhance oil-well productivity starting in 1992. Initial efforts were directed toward high-pressure lateral jetting techniques to be applied in existing vertical wells. After involvement in several failed field attempts with jetting technologies, emphasis shifted to application of emerging technologies for drilling short-radius lateral in existing wellbores and medium-radius technologies in new wells. These lateral drilling technologies were applied in the Mississippi Ratcliffe and Ordovician Red River formations at depths of 2,590 to 2,890 m in Richland County, MT; Bowman County, ND; and Harding County, SD. In theory, all of the horizontal drilling techniques explored in this project have merit for application fitting specific criteria. From a realistic point of view, the only relatively trouble-free, adequately-proven technology employed was the medium-radius steered motor/MWD technology. The slim-tool steered motor/MWD re-entry technology has been used extensively but appears to still be significantly in developmental stages. This technology will probably always be more troublesome than the technology used to drill new wells because the smaller diameter required for the tools contributes to both design and operational complexities. Although limited mechanical success has been achieved with some of the lateral jetting technologies and the Amoco tools, their predictability and reliability is unproven. Additionally, they appear to be limited to shallow depths and certain rock types. The Amoco technology probably has the most potential to be successfully developed for routinely reliable, field applications. A comparison of the various horizontal drilling technologies investigated is presented.

  10. ESP's placed in horizontal lateral increase production

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, A.; Wilson, B.L. ); Marshall, R. )

    1990-06-18

    By design, the electric submersible pump (ESP) is an effective method of lifting fluids from horizontal wells. But this ESP application does have unique installation and operating parameters that need to be considered. ESP's have been used for many years in directional wells. This application provides an experience base for understanding deflection limits on the unit. To avoid damaging the ESP, special equipment may be required in some horizontal installations. This paper discusses how several ESP's have been designed specifically for medium-radius wells. In these applications, the deeper pump setting provides for a significant increase in production rate. In general, to realize the full benefit of a horizontal installation, the ESP should be considered when planning, drilling, and completing the well.

  11. Successful horizontal completions require an integrated approach

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, B.; Smejkal, K.; Penberthy, W. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    While a perfect well completion may not exist, depleting a hydrocarbon resource at a sustained high rate--without a workover--is the ultimate goal. Unfortunately, many horizontal well completions fail to achieve this due to wellbore damage or loss of reservoir pressure. These conditions manifest themselves in reduced production rates, extended well life and reduced profitability. Standard completion techniques are not always compatible with each other for site specific well applications. The combination of two incompatible technologies or slight changes in a completion procedure may negatively impact productivity. Hence, the most successful horizontal completion results are obtained using a compatible integrated system approach--an approach that carefully combines the best completion tools and processes to deliver an undamaged well completed at the lowest possible cost. After studying the compatibilities of various drill-in fluids, screens, filter cakes and gravel packs, recommended procedures are presented for successfully completing horizontal wells.

  12. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  13. Can a surgeon drill accurately at a specified angle?

    PubMed Central

    Brioschi, Valentina; Cook, Jodie; Arthurs, Gareth I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether a surgeon can drill accurately a specified angle and whether surgeon experience, task repetition, drill bit size and perceived difficulty influence drilling angle accuracy. Methods The sample population consisted of final-year students (n=25), non-specialist veterinarians (n=22) and board-certified orthopaedic surgeons (n=8). Each participant drilled a hole twice in a horizontal oak plank at 30°, 45°, 60°, 80°, 85° and 90° angles with either a 2.5  or a 3.5 mm drill bit. Participants then rated the perceived difficulty to drill each angle. The true angle of each hole was measured using a digital goniometer. Results Greater drilling accuracy was achieved at angles closer to 90°. An error of ≤±4° was achieved by 84.5 per cent of participants drilling a 90° angle compared with approximately 20 per cent of participants drilling a 30–45° angle. There was no effect of surgeon experience, task repetition or drill bit size on the mean error for intended versus achieved angle. Increased perception of difficulty was associated with the more acute angles and decreased accuracy, but not experience level. Clinical significance This study shows that surgeon ability to drill accurately (within ±4° error) is limited, particularly at angles ≤60°. In situations where drill angle is critical, use of computer-assisted navigation or custom-made drill guides may be preferable. PMID:27547423

  14. Test drilling in basalts, Lalamilo area, South Kohala District, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teasdale, Warren E.

    1980-01-01

    Test drilling has determined that a downhole-percussion airhammer can be used effectively to drill basalts in Hawaii. When used in conjunction with a foam-type drilling fluid, the hammer-bit penetration rate was rapid. Continuous drill cuttings from the materials penetrated were obtained throughout the borehole except from extremely fractured or weathered basalt zones where circulation was lost or limited. Cementing of these zones as soon as encountered reduced problems of stuck tools, washouts, and loss of drill-cuttings. Supplies and logistics on the Hawaiian Islands, always a major concern, require that all anticipated drilling supplies, spare rig and tool parts, drilling muds and additives, foam, and miscellaneous hardware be on hand before starting to drill. If not, the resulting rig downtime is costly in both time and money. (USGS)

  15. Analyzing the dynamic behavior of downhole equipment during drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, J.A.; Caskey, B.C.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced geothermal drilling systems will require a bottom hole assembly (BHA) which utilizes sophisticated electronic and mechanical equipment to accomplish faster, more trouble free, smarter drilling. The bit-drill string/formation interaction during drilling imposes complex, intermittent dynamic loading on the downhole equipment. A finite element computer code, GEODYN, is being developed to allow analysis of the structural response of the downhole equipment during drilling and to simulate the drilling phenomena (i.e. penetration, direction, etc.). Phase 1 GEODYN, completed early in 1984, provides the capability to model the dynamic response of a polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit interacting with a non-homogeneous formation. Succeeding development phases will allow inclusion of stabilizers and, eventually, the entire drill string in addition to facilitating drill ahead simulation.

  16. Directional location of buried objects using three-component magnetic borehole data demonstrated for the case of a drill string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehmann, S.; Virgil, C.; Hördt, A.; Leven, M.

    2016-06-01

    One of the main applications of magnetic field measurements in boreholes is the detection of unexploded ordnance or buried utility structures like pipes or tiebacks. Even though the advantage of fully oriented magnetic vector measurements have long been recognized and could significantly reduce costs and risks, the tools used for those purposes typically measure only the total magnetic field, the vertical and horizontal components or gradients thereof. The Göttingen Bohrloch Magnetometer uses three fibre optic gyros to record its orientation and thus enables us to compute high-quality three-component magnetic vector data regardless of borehole orientation. The measurements described in this paper were run in the scientific borehole Cuxhaven Lüdingworth 1/1A, which was drilled as a part of the `Coastal Aquifer Test field' project to study the dynamics of the saltwater/freshwater interface. As the drill string got stuck during drilling of the first borehole, a second hole was drilled in the immediate vicinity. The drill string lies at a depth between 80 and 114 m at a distance of only 2.5 m southeast of the borehole used for the measurements, making it an ideal target to demonstrate the benefits of vector magnetic surveys. Although the theories to calculate magnetic fields of objects with different shapes is well established and do not need to be tested, they almost exclusively include approximations of the geometry. It is not obvious whether these approximations are suited to describe real data, or whether additional effects or refinements have to be considered. We use both a simplified monopole model and a cylinder model to fit the data and are able to determine the position of the drill string within a statistical error of approximately 10 cm. Additionally, we show that the location of the drill string could not have been determined by measurements of the total field or its horizontal and vertical component alone and that those methods would require the drilling

  17. Method of deep drilling

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, Stirling A.

    1984-01-01

    Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: (1) Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. (2) Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. (3) Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

  18. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.

    2010-01-01

    The Drill for the Mars Science Laboratory mission is a rotary-percussive sample acquisition device with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. The unique challenges associated with autonomous drilling from a mobile robot are addressed. A highly compressed development schedule dictated a modular design architecture that satisfies the functional and load requirements while allowing independent development and testing of the Drill subassemblies. The Drill consists of four actuated mechanisms: a spindle that rotates the bit, a chuck that releases and engages bits, a novel voice-coil-based percussion mechanism that hammers the bit, and a linear translation mechanism. The Drill has three passive mechanisms: a replaceable bit assembly that acquires and collects sample, a contact sensor / stabilizer mechanism, and, lastly a flex harness service loop. This paper describes the various mechanisms that makeup the Drill and discusses the solutions to their unique design and development challenges.

  19. Results from Testing of Two Rotary Percussive Drilling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriechbaum, Kristopher; Brown, Kyle; Cady, Ian; von der Heydt, Max; Klein, Kerry; Kulczycki, Eric; Okon, Avi

    2010-01-01

    The developmental test program for the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) rotary percussive drill examined the e ect of various drill input parameters on the drill pene- tration rate. Some of the input parameters tested were drill angle with respect to gravity and percussive impact energy. The suite of rocks tested ranged from a high strength basalt to soft Kaolinite clay. We developed a hole start routine to reduce high sideloads from bit walk. The ongoing development test program for the IMSAH (Integrated Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling) rotary percussive corer uses many of the same rocks as the MSL suite. An additional performance parameter is core integrity. The MSL development test drill and the IMSAH test drill use similar hardware to provide rotation and percussion. However, the MSL test drill uses external stabilizers, while the IMSAH test drill does not have external stabilization. In addition the IMSAH drill is a core drill, while the MSL drill uses a solid powdering bit. Results from the testing of these two related drilling systems is examined.

  20. Drilling cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  1. Remote drill bit loader

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A drill bit loader for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned.

  2. Remote drill bit loader

    DOEpatents

    Dokos, J.A.

    1997-12-30

    A drill bit loader is described for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned. 5 figs.

  3. Seismic Prediction While Drilling (SPWD): Seismic exploration ahead of the drill bit using phased array sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksch, Katrin; Giese, Rüdiger; Kopf, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    maximize the energy of the seismic source in order to reach a sufficient exploration range. The next step for focusing is to use the method of phased array. Dependent of the seismic wave velocities of the surrounding rock, the distance of the actuators to each other and the used frequencies the signal phases for each actuator can be determined. Since one year several measurements with the prototype have been realized under defined conditions at a test site in a mine. The test site consists of a rock block surrounded from three galleries with a dimension of about 100 by 200 meters. For testing the prototype two horizontal boreholes were drilled. They are directed to one of the gallery to get a strong reflector. The quality of the data of the borehole seismics in amplitude and frequency spectra show overall a good signal-to-noise ratio and correlate strongly with the fracture density along the borehole and are associated with a lower signal-to-noise ratio. Additionally, the geophones of the prototype show reflections from ahead and rearward in the seismic data. In particular, the reflections from the gallery ahead are used for the calibration of focusing. The direct seismic wave field indicates distinct compression and shear waves. The analysis of several seismic measurements with a focus on the direct seismic waves shows that the phased array technology explicit can influence the directional characteristics of the radiated seimic waves. The amplitudes of the seismic waves can be enhanced up to three times more in the desired direction and simultaneously be attenuated in the reverse direction. A major step for the directional investigation in boreholes has accomplished. But the focusing of the seismic waves has to be improved to maximize the energy in the desired direction in more measurements by calibrating the initiating seismic signals of the sources. A next step this year is the development of a wireline prototype for application in vertical boreholes with depths not

  4. Technologies for measurement while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Technology for measurement while drilling in the ocean margin drilling program is discussed. Mud pulse telemetry, hardwire telemetry, detection needs for well control, pressure measurements downhole while drilling, and continuous wave mud telemetry are considered. Data utilization from measurement while drilling in seismic calibrations, drilling efficiency measurements, directional control with regard to telemetry, and measurement while coring are also reviewed.

  5. Horizontal natural gas storage caverns and methods for producing same

    DOEpatents

    Russo, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    The invention provides caverns and methods for producing caverns in bedded salt deposits for the storage of materials that are not solvents for salt. The contemplated salt deposits are of the bedded, non-domed variety, more particularly salt found in layered formations that are sufficiently thick to enable the production of commercially usefully sized caverns completely encompassed by walls of salt of the formation. In a preferred method, a first bore hole is drilled into the salt formation and a cavity for receiving insolubles is leached from the salt formation. Thereafter, at a predetermined distance away from the first bore hole, a second bore hole is drilled towards the salt formation. As this drill approaches the salt, the drill assumes a slant approach and enters the salt and drills through it in a horizontal direction until it intersects the cavity for receiving insolubles. This produces a substantially horizontal conduit from which solvent is controlledly supplied to the surrounding salt formation, leaching the salt and producing a concentrated brine which is removed through the first bore hole. Insolubles are collected in the cavity for receiving insolubles. By controlledly supplying solvent, a horizontal cavern is produced with two bore holes extending therefrom.

  6. Reverse laser drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Thomas R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    This invention provides a method for laser drilling small diameter, closely-spaced, and accurately located holes in a body of material which is transparent or substantially transparent to the laser radiation employed whereby the holes are drilled through the thickness of the body from the surface opposite to that on which the laser beam impinges to the surface of laser beam impingement.

  7. Drilling Square Holes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Scott G.

    1993-01-01

    A Reuleaux triangle is constructed by drawing an arc connecting each pair of vertices of an equilateral triangle with radius equal to the side of the triangle. Investigates the application of drilling a square hole using a drill bit in the shape of a Reuleaux triangle. (MDH)

  8. Ultrasonic Drilling and Coring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1998-01-01

    A novel drilling and coring device, driven by a combination, of sonic and ultrasonic vibration, was developed. The device is applicable to soft and hard objects using low axial load and potentially operational under extreme conditions. The device has numerous potential planetary applications. Significant potential for commercialization in construction, demining, drilling and medical technologies.

  9. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Jill (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A self contained, mobile drilling and coring system was designed to operate on the Lunar surface and be controlled remotely from earth. The system uses SKITTER (Spatial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) as its foundation and produces Lunar core samples two meters long and fifty millimeters in diameter. The drill bit used for this is composed of 30 per carat diamonds in a sintered tungsten carbide matrix. To drill up to 50 m depths, the bit assembly will be attached to a drill string made from 2 m rods which will be carried in racks on SKITTER. Rotary power for drilling will be supplied by a Curvo-Synchronous motor. SKITTER is to support this system through a hexagonal shaped structure which will contain the drill motor and the power supply. A micro-coring drill will be used to remove a preliminary sample 5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long from the side of the core. This whole system is to be controlled from earth. This is carried out by a continuously monitoring PLC onboard the drill rig. A touch screen control console allows the operator on earth to monitor the progress of the operation and intervene if necessary.

  10. Horizontal wells improve recovery at the Elk Hills Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1995-11-01

    In 1988 the US Department of Energy and Bechtel implemented a program to slow production declines in the Elk Hills 26R pool sand of the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1. It was also hoped horizontal wells would increase the production rate, decrease gas production and extend economic life of the reservoir. The Stevens sand pool targeted for the project is a high-quality, sand-rich turbidite channel system encapsulated within Miocene Monterey siliceous shales, mudstones and associated sediments. The pool is about 3-miles long by 3/4-mile wide. The paper describes the specifications and drilling of the first four out of the 14 horizontal wells drilled at this facility. Horizontal drilling technology has completely altered the future of the 26R pool. In 1980 estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) from the sand was 211 million bbl. With the latest horizontal well drilling campaign, the pool is expected to pass that estimate in 1997 when oil production is forecasted to be at least 13,000 b/d. EUR form the 26R sand now is more than 250 million bbl, and even that estimate is being revised upward.

  11. Distributed downhole drilling network

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2006-11-21

    A high-speed downhole network providing real-time data from downhole components of a drilling strings includes a bottom-hole node interfacing to a bottom-hole assembly located proximate the bottom end of a drill string. A top-hole node is connected proximate the top end of the drill string. One or several intermediate nodes are located along the drill string between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. The intermediate nodes are configured to receive and transmit data packets transmitted between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. A communications link, integrated into the drill string, is used to operably connect the bottom-hole node, the intermediate nodes, and the top-hole node. In selected embodiments, a personal or other computer may be connected to the top-hole node, to analyze data received from the intermediate and bottom-hole nodes.

  12. Advanced drilling systems study.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

  13. Drill-motor holding fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartier, E. N.; Culp, L. N.

    1980-01-01

    Guide improves accuracy and reduces likelihood of bit breakage in drilling large work pieces. Drill motor is mounted on pipe that slides on furniture clamp. Drill is driven into work piece by turning furniture-clamp handle.

  14. Drill drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dressel, Michael O.

    1979-01-01

    A drill drive mechanism is especially adapted to provide both rotational drive and axial feed for a drill of substantial diameter such as may be used for drilling holes for roof bolts in mine shafts. The drill shaft is made with a helical pattern of scroll-like projections on its surface for removal of cuttings. The drill drive mechanism includes a plurality of sprockets carrying two chains of drive links which are arranged to interlock around the drill shaft with each drive link having depressions which mate with the scroll-like projections. As the chain links move upwardly or downwardly the surfaces of the depressions in the links mate with the scroll projections to move the shaft axially. Tangs on the drive links mate with notch surfaces between scroll projections to provide a means for rotating the shaft. Projections on the drive links mate together at the center to hold the drive links tightly around the drill shaft. The entire chain drive mechanism is rotated around the drill shaft axis by means of a hydraulic motor and gear drive to cause rotation of the drill shaft. This gear drive also connects with a differential gearset which is interconnected with a second gear. A second motor is connected to the spider shaft of the differential gearset to produce differential movement (speeds) at the output gears of the differential gearset. This differential in speed is utilized to drive said second gear at a speed different from the speed of said gear drive, this speed differential being utilized to drive said sprockets for axial movement of said drill shaft.

  15. Steamboat Hills exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, F.D.; Hickox, C.E.; Eaton, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    During July-September, 1993, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Far West Capital, drilled a 4000 feet exploratory slimhole (3.9 inch diameter) in the Steamboat Hills geothermal field near Reno, Nevada. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed four series of production and injection tests while taking downhole (pressure-temperature-spinner) and surface (wellhead pressure and temperature, flow rate) data. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: continuous core (with detailed log); borehole televiewer images of the wellbore`s upper 500 feet; daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; numerous temperature logs; and comparative data from production and injection wells in the same field. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  16. A Ship for Scientific Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, M. N. A.; MacTernan, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the history and development of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, focusing on the Glomar Challenger, drilling improvements, and international significance. Includes photographs, illustrations, and tables. (DC)

  17. IMPROVED MISCIBLE NITROGEN FLOOD PERFORMANCE UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL LATERALS IN A CLASS I RESERVOIR - EAST BINGER (MARCHAND) UNIT

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Sinner

    2003-01-31

    Implementation of the work program of Budget Period 2 of the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') DOE Project continues. Major development work planned for the project includes the drilling of three horizontal production and one vertical injection wells, the conversion of five wells from production to injection service, and the expansion of injection capacity at the nitrogen management facility. Other work items include initiation of project monitoring and continued reservoir simulation. EBU 74G-2, the injection well planned to support the production of EBU 64-3H, has been drilled. Completion was underway at the time of this report. EBU 64-3H was fracture-stimulated during the period, further increasing production from this new horizontal well. Drilling of the final two wells of the pilot project is planned for 2003. Both are planned as horizontal producing wells. Work also began on projects aimed at increasing injection in the pilot area. The project to add compression and increase injection capacity at the nitrogen management facility was initiated, with completion targeted for March 2003. Additional producer-to-injector conversions are expected to be implemented around the same time. The revised history match of the simulation model has been completed, and work has begun to evaluate options with forecast simulations. The quality of the history match is significantly improved over the prior match. The predicted distribution of remaining reserves in the field is significantly changed. Decisions on projects planned for implementation later in Budget Period 2 will be guided by new forecasts.

  18. Future generations of horizontal tools will make tighter turns and last longer

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, D.

    1995-10-01

    Operators want horizontal tools that turn tighter and last longer, and manufacturers are working to meet the need. An operator needs control of tools in the hole to drill a good horizontal well, and service and supply companies are trying to improve that control.

  19. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report. Volume 1: Site selection, drill plan preparation, drilling, logging, and coring operations

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Rapid and Quiet Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    This describes aspects of the rapid and quiet drill (RAQD), which is a prototype apparatus for drilling concrete or bricks. The design and basic principle of operation of the RAQD overlap, in several respects, with those of ultrasonic/ sonic drilling and coring apparatuses described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The main difference is that whereas the actuation scheme of the prior apparatuses is partly ultrasonic and partly sonic, the actuation scheme of the RAQD is purely ultrasonic. Hence, even though the RAQD generates considerable sound, it is characterized as quiet because most or all of the sound is above the frequency range of human hearing.

  1. New bits, motors improve economics of slim hole horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, S.; Felderhoff, F.; Fisher, K.

    1996-03-11

    The latest generation of small-diameter bits, combined with a new extended power section positive displacement motor (PDM), has improved the economics of slim hole drilling programs. As costs are driven down, redevelopment reserves are generated in the older, more established fields. New reserves result from increases in the ultimate recovery and accelerated production rates from the implementation of horizontal wells in reentry programs. This logic stimulated an entire development program for a Gulf of Mexico platform, which was performed without significant compromises in well bore geometry. The savings from this new-generation drilling system come from reducing the total number of trips required during the drilling phase. This paper reviews the design improvements of roller cone bits, PDC bits, and positive displacement motors for offshore directional drilling operations.

  2. 75 FR 10501 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of January 6, 2010 (75 FR 877). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... injury by reason of imports from China of drill pipe and drill collars, provided for in subheadings...

  3. 76 FR 11812 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Register on September 9, 2010 (75 FR 54912). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on January 5, 2011... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... of imports of drill pipe and drill collars from China, provided for in subheadings 7304.22,...

  4. Modified drill permits one-step drilling operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libertone, C.

    1966-01-01

    Drill with modified cutting faces permits one-step drilling operation without chatter upon contact and premature wear. The modification of the drill, which has the same diameter as that of the desired hole, consists of a groove across the bottom of each of the cutting faces of the drill flutes.

  5. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 1: Success of horizontal well technology, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume I of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA. and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA. and 88 in Canada. Operators responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  6. C-26A well sets new standard for ER horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, S.; Hovda, S.; Olsen, T.L.

    1995-11-01

    Well 30/6-C-26A in the Norwegian North Sea has a horizontal reach of 25,758 ft, which was briefly a new world record in extended reach drilling. The last 6,888 ft was drilled horizontally in the reservoir 20--26 ft vertically above the oil-water contact. The Oseberg field was discovered in 1979. To develop this giant (16.8 x 3.1 mile, 27 x 5 km) field, two platforms were placed 9.3 miles apart. To drain the oil between the platforms, two subsea wells were drilled and completed. The first horizontal well in the Oseberg field was drilled in 1992. Since then 17 horizontal wells have been successfully drilled and completed. The general trend during this period is that both the length of the horizontal reservoir section and the total depth for the wells have increased. New equipment and technology, as well as general field experience, played an important role when deciding to drill well C-26A. The paper describes well C-26A objectives, well bore stability, well path considerations, the casing program, hydraulics and hole cleaning and well completion.

  7. A new scientific drilling infrastructure in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosberg, J.-E.; Lorenz, H.

    2012-04-01

    A new scientific drilling infrastructure is currently under commissioning at Lund University in southern Sweden and is intended primarily for Swedish scientific drilling projects. However, it will be available to the scientific community and even industry when not occupied. The drill rig, a crawler mounted Atlas Copco CT20, was funded by the Swedish Research Council (VR) after an application by the Swedish scientific drilling community under the lead of Prof. Leif Bjelm, Lund University. As a national resource it is, together with support of the Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP) and the Swedish membership in ICDP, part of VR's commitment to scientific drilling. The Atlas Copco CT20 is a top modern, versatile diamond wireline core-drilling rig which can handle P, H and N sizes. It can operate on very small drill sites (500-800 m2) and, thus, leaves a minimal environmental footprint. The crawler makes the rig ideal for operations in remote locations. A total of only 3-4 truckloads is necessary for mobilization of the basic drilling equipment. Main technical specifications are: Depth capacity coring, based on vertical water filled hole: P-size to around 1050 m, hole size 123 mm and core size 85 mm. H-size to around 1600 m, hole size 96 mm and core size 63 mm. N-size to around 2500 m, hole size 76 mm and core size 48 mm. Weight: Complete rig including crawler, wet - 23500 kg Dimensions in (length, width, height) transport position: 11560 x 2500 x 3750 mm. Available in-hole equipment: Complete core retrieval system for PQ, HQ and NQ-sizes, including PHD, HRQ (V-Wall) and NRQ (V-Wall) drill rods covering the maximum drilling depth for each size (see rig depth capacity above). Both dual and triple tube for HQ and NQ-sizes. Casing advancers (PW, HW, NW and BW). Casing PWT, HWT, NW and BW. Bits and reamers. Additional equipment: Mud cleaning and mixing system. MWD-system (Measurements While Drilling). Cementing equipment. Fishing tools (Bowen Spear). Blow Out Preventer

  8. Ocean drilling ship chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Sedco/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and Sedco, Inc. Texas A&M will develop the design for scientific and laboratory spaces aboard the Sedco/BP 471 and will oversee the ship conversion. Testing and shakedown of the ship is scheduled for the coming autumn; the first scientific cruise is scheduled for next January.One year ago, the commercial drilling market sagged, opening up the option for leasing a commercial drill ship (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). Previously, the ship of choice had been the Glomar Explorer; rehabilitating the former CIA salvage ship would have been extremely expensive, however.

  9. Sub-Ocean Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) initialized a new phase of exploration last year, a 10 year effort jointly funded by NSF and several major oil companies, known as the Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMDP). The OMDP requires a ship with capabilities beyond existing drill ships; it must drill in 13,000 feet of water to a depth 20,000 feet below the ocean floor. To meet requirements, NSF is considering the conversion of the government-owned mining ship Glomar Explorer to a deep ocean drilling and coring vessel. Feasibility study performed by Donhaiser Marine, Inc. analyzed the ship's characteristics for suitability and evaluated conversion requirement. DMI utilized COSMIC's Ship Motion and Sea Load Computer program to perform analysis which could not be accomplished by other means. If approved for conversion, Glomar Explorer is expected to begin operations as a drillship in 1984.

  10. Deep-Sea Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stan M.

    1979-01-01

    Drilling during 1978 focused on three major geologic problems: the nature and origin of the oceanic crust, the nature and geologic history of the active continental margins, and the oceanic paleoenvironment. (Author/BB)

  11. Drill pipe protector development

    SciTech Connect

    Thomerson, C.; Kenne, R.; Wemple, R.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), formed in the early 1980s by the geothermal industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Division, sponsors specific development projects to advance the technologies used in geothermal exploration, drilling, and production phases. Individual GDO member companies can choose to participate in specific projects that are most beneficial to their industry segment. Sandia National Laboratories is the technical interface and contracting office for the DOE in these projects. Typical projects sponsored in the past have included a high temperature borehole televiewer, drill bits, muds/polymers, rotary head seals, and this project for drill pipe protectors. This report documents the development work of Regal International for high temperature geothermal pipe protectors.

  12. Drilling fluid filter

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Garner, Kory

    2007-01-23

    A drilling fluid filter for placement within a bore wall of a tubular drill string component comprises a perforated receptacle with an open end and a closed end. A hanger for engagement with the bore wall is mounted at the open end of the perforated receptacle. A mandrel is adjacent and attached to the open end of the perforated receptacle. A linkage connects the mandrel to the hanger. The linkage may be selected from the group consisting of struts, articulated struts and cams. The mandrel operates on the hanger through the linkage to engage and disengage the drilling fluid filter from the tubular drill string component. The mandrel may have a stationary portion comprising a first attachment to the open end of the perforated receptacle and a telescoping adjustable portion comprising a second attachment to the linkage. The mandrel may also comprise a top-hole interface for top-hole equipment.

  13. Drilling Productivity Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) new Drilling Productivity Report (DPR) takes a fresh look at oil and natural gas production, starting with an assessment of how and where drilling for hydrocarbons is taking place. The DPR uses recent data on the total number of drilling rigs in operation along with estimates of drilling productivity and estimated changes in production from existing oil and natural gas wells to provide estimated changes in oil and natural gas production for six key fields. EIA's approach does not distinguish between oil-directed rigs and gas-directed rigs because once a well is completed it may produce both oil and gas; more than half of the wells produce both.

  14. Subsurface drill string

    DOEpatents

    Casper, William L.; Clark, Don T.; Grover, Blair K.; Mathewson, Rodney O.; Seymour, Craig A.

    2008-10-07

    A drill string comprises a first drill string member having a male end; and a second drill string member having a female end configured to be joined to the male end of the first drill string member, the male end having a threaded portion including generally square threads, the male end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the threaded portion, and the male end further having a bearing surface, the female end having a female threaded portion having corresponding female threads, the female end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the female threaded portion, and the female end having a bearing surface. Installation methods, including methods of installing instrumented probes are also provided.

  15. The microwave drill.

    PubMed

    Jerby, E; Dikhtyar, V; Aktushev, O; Grosglick, U

    2002-10-18

    We present a drilling method that is based on the phenomenon of local hot spot generation by near-field microwave radiation. The microwave drill is implemented by a coaxial near-field radiator fed by a conventional microwave source. The near-field radiator induces the microwave energy into a small volume in the drilled material under its surface, and a hot spot evolves in a rapid thermal-runaway process. The center electrode of the coaxial radiator itself is then inserted into the softened material to form the hole. The method is applicable for drilling a variety of nonconductive materials. It does not require fast rotating parts, and its operation makes no dust or noise. PMID:12386331

  16. Dragging a floating horizontal cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Duck-Gyu; Kim, Ho-Young

    2010-11-01

    A cylinder immersed in a fluid stream experiences a drag, and it is well known that the drag coefficient is a function of the Reynolds number only. Here we study the force exerted on a long horizontal cylinder that is dragged perpendicular to its axis while floating on an air-water interface with a high Reynolds number. In addition to the flow-induced drag, the floating body is subjected to capillary forces along the contact line where the three phases of liquid/solid/gas meet. We first theoretically predict the meniscus profile around the horizontally moving cylinder assuming the potential flow, and show that the profile is in good agreement with that obtained experimentally. Then we compare our theoretical predictions and experimental measurement results for the drag coefficient of a floating horizontal cylinder that is given by a function of the Weber number and the Bond number. This study can help us to understand the horizontal motion of partially submerged objects at air-liquid interface, such as semi-aquatic insects and marine plants.

  17. Directional drilling pipelay

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, C.G.

    1987-10-20

    A method is described for laying a pipeline beneath a seabottom subject to ice gouging, comprising: forming a borehole with drilling means; gripping the inside of the borehole with at least one tractor; applying thrust from at least one tractor to propel the drilling means forward until a deep arcuate borehole is formed beneath the seabottom sufficiently deep to avoid ice gouging and inserting a pipeline into the borehole.

  18. Update on slimhole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories manages the US Department of Energy program for slimhole drilling. The principal objective of this program is to expand proven geothermal reserves through increased exploration made possible by lower-cost slimhole drilling. For this to be a valid exploration method, however, it is necessary to demonstrate that slimholes yield enough data to evaluate a geothermal reservoir, and that is the focus of Sandia`s current research.

  19. MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

    2010-01-23

    New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

  20. Innovations aid frontier offshore drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Hewlett, C.

    1986-04-14

    In the past 3 years, new water-depth records have been established for the drilling of exploration wells and for the installation of subsea completion systems. In addition, development of equipment for drilling and completing wells in harsh environments has been accelerating. Three significant systems, manufactured and installed during this time, have enabled the industry to expand its capabilities and extend its frontiers. The three developments, with the points that will be discussed, are: A riser system used in world-record water depth off the U.S. East Coast (major system components, computer analysis of flanged riser coupling, and modifications based on field input); A caisson drilling system installed off the East Coast of Canada designed for iceberg scouring conditions (design philosophy, unique design); Further riser system developments for deep-water and severe environmental conditions (design of riser tensioning ring that eliminates goosenecks and does not require removal of drape hoses when running/retrieving riser). Primary among the conclusions drawn from these and other developments is the solid technological base being developed for use in further extending industry hardware capabilities.

  1. Logging while drilling application in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Husband, F.J.; Palomo M., R.; Roca R., L.

    1994-12-31

    The commercial use of Logging While Drilling (LWD) technology in Latin America and the Caribbean has grown significantly in the last two years as national and international oil and gas companies implement more efficient systems to locate and extract hydrocarbons. This technology has been applied to optimize drilling projects as LWD measurements are now routinely used for improved log quality, geosteering into complex horizontal targets, insurance logging in difficult drilling environments, and where operating rig costs create a financial need. Case field applications are presented including drilling and logging depleted gas sands in high concentration LCM mud systems, 3-dimensional geosteering techniques, and time lapsed overlays for identification of moved fluids and wellbore stability. The examples and discussion that follow represent field experience utilizing Compensated Dual Resistivity (CDR) and Compensated Density Neutron (CDN) measurements to more efficiently find and produce oil and gas in Latin America.

  2. While drilling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mayes, James C.; Araya, Mario A.; Thorp, Richard Edward

    2007-02-20

    A while drilling system and method for determining downhole parameters is provided. The system includes a retrievable while drilling tool positionable in a downhole drilling tool, a sensor chassis and at least one sensor. The while drilling tool is positionable in the downhole drilling tool and has a first communication coupler at an end thereof. The sensor chassis is supported in the drilling tool. The sensor chassis has a second communication coupler at an end thereof for operative connection with the first communication coupler. The sensor is positioned in the chassis and is adapted to measure internal and/or external parameters of the drilling tool. The sensor is operatively connected to the while drilling tool via the communication coupler for communication therebetween. The sensor may be positioned in the while drilling tool and retrievable with the drilling tool. Preferably, the system is operable in high temperature and high pressure conditions.

  3. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large

  4. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

  5. The rock melting approach to drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, G.E.; Goff, S.J.; Rowley, J.C.; Neudecker, J.W. Jr.; Dreesen, D.S.; Winchester, W.

    1993-09-01

    During the early and mid-1970`s the Los Alamos National Laboratory demonstrated practical applications of drilling and coring using an electrically-heated graphite, tungsten, or molybdenum penetrator that melts a hole as it is slowly pushed through the rock or soil. The molten material consolidates into a rugged glass lining that prevents hole collapse; minimizes the potential for cross-flow, lost circulation, or the release of hazardous materials without casing operations; and produces no cuttings in porous or low density (<1.7 g/cc) formations. Because there are no drilling fluids required, the rock melting approach reduces waste handling, treatment and disposal. Drilling by rock melting has been demonstrated to depths up to 30 m in caliche, clay, alluvium, cobbles, sand, basalt, granite, and other materials. Penetrating large cobbles without debris removal was achieved by thermal stress fracturing and lateral extrusion of portions of the rock melt into the resulting cracks. Both horizontal and vertical holes in a variety of diameters were drilled in these materials using modular, self-contained field units that operate in remote areas. Because the penetrator does not need to rotate, steering by several simple approaches is considered quite feasible. Melting is ideal for obtaining core samples in alluvium and other poorly consolidated soils since the formed-in-place glass liner stabilizes the hole, encapsulates volatile or hazardous material, and recovers an undisturbed core. Because of the relatively low thermal conductivity of rock and soil materials, the heat-affected zone beyond the melt layer is very small, <1 inch thick. Los Alamos has begun to update the technology and this paper will report on the current status of applications and designs for improved drills.

  6. Compact drilling and sample system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Petercsak, Doug

    1998-01-01

    The Compact Drilling and Sample System (CDSS) was developed to drill into terrestrial, cometary, and asteroid material in a cryogenic, vacuum environment in order to acquire subsurface samples. Although drills were used by the Apollo astronauts some 20 years ago, this drill is a fraction of the mass and power and operates completely autonomously, able to drill, acquire, transport, dock, and release sample containers in science instruments. The CDSS has incorporated into its control system the ability to gather science data about the material being drilled by measuring drilling rate per force applied and torque. This drill will be able to optimize rotation and thrust in order to achieve the highest drilling rate possible in any given sample. The drill can be commanded to drill at a specified force, so that force imparted on the rover or lander is limited. This paper will discuss the cryo dc brush motors, carbide gears, cryogenic lubrication, quick-release interchangeable sampling drill bits, percussion drilling and the control system developed to achieve autonomous, cryogenic, vacuum, lightweight drilling.

  7. Sidetracking technology for coiled tubing drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Leising, L.J.; Hearn, D.D.; Rike, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    Coiled tubing (CT) drilling is a rapidly growing new technology that has been used for shallow new wells and reentry applications. A new market has evolved as being a major application for CT drilling. This market is through-tubing drilling. The lower cost of mobilization of a coiled tubing unit (CTU) to an offshore platform or Arctic wellsite vs. a rotary rig provides additional economic incentive. In addition, the ease of drilling 4-3/4-in. and smaller boreholes with CT is an advantage in a region which does not have an established practice of slimhole drilling. The remaining key enabling technology for viable through-tubing drilling is the ability to sidetrack in casing below the tubing tail. The three technologies (cement sidetracking, whipstock in cement, and through-tubing whipstock) that have been developed for sidetracking are described in this paper. A mathematical model of forces, penetration rates, and torques for window milling with the cement sidetracking technique is presented. Window milling has been a {open_quotes}seat of the pants{close_quotes} operation in the past, to the authors` knowledge, this is the first published work on the mechanics of window milling. The analysis has shed much light on the interaction between motor bending stiffness, motor bend angle, and allowable advance rates for {open_quotes}time drilling.{close_quotes} The results from several yard tests are presented, and indicate some of the problems associated with sidetracking. The photographs of the sectioned hole/window illustrate the ledges caused downhole from {open_quotes}minor{close_quotes} bottomhole assembly (BHA) changes. The cement sidetrack technique has been successfully applied many times in the field, and the results of one of these field applications is presented.

  8. Mars Drilling Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

  9. Drilling technology/GDO

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring two programs related to drilling technology. The first is aimed at development of technology that will lead to reduced costs of drilling, completion, and logging of geothermal wells. This program has the official title ''Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics.'' The second program is intended to share with private industry the cost of development of technology that will result in solutions to the near term geothermal well problems. This program is referred to as the ''Geothermal Drilling Organization''. The Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics Program was funded at $2.65M in FY85 and the GDO was funded at $1.0M in FY85. This paper details the past year's activities and accomplishments and projects the plans for FY86 for these two programs.

  10. Barriers to slimhole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, P.

    1994-03-01

    Over the years, interest in slimhole drilling has ebbed and flowed on about a 10-year cycle. But recent interest in slimhole has been different. There has been a more concerted effort to develop techniques embodying an engineered approach emphasizing state-of-the-art technology. Material strengths are being pushed to the limit to reduce size without loss of strength, integrity and reliability. As a result of this effort, slimhole wells have been drilled in a number of diverse areas, from frontier locations to mature provinces. In most applications, savings have been undeniable, ranging from 40% in remote areas to 10--15% in more mature provinces. Yet, despite the savings, and reduction in environmental impact, adoption of the technique has not met expectations. This article examines the issue by looking at barriers to slimhole drilling and suggesting possible solutions.

  11. ROPEC - ROtary PErcussive Coring Drill for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Philip; Spring, Justin; Zacny, Kris

    2014-01-01

    The ROtary Percussive Coring Drill is a light weight, flight-like, five-actuator drilling system prototype designed to acquire core material from rock targets for the purposes of Mars Sample Return. In addition to producing rock cores for sample caching, the ROPEC drill can be integrated with a number of end effectors to perform functions such as rock surface abrasion, dust and debris removal, powder and regolith acquisition, and viewing of potential cores prior to caching. The ROPEC drill and its suite of end effectors have been demonstrated with a five degree of freedom Robotic Arm mounted to a mobility system with a prototype sample cache and bit storage station.

  12. Lessons learned from installation of an environmental horizontal well

    SciTech Connect

    Oakley, D.B.; Nickelson, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    At Williams Air Force Base near Phoenix, Arizona, a Pilot Study/Demonstration Study is being performed to evaluate the effectiveness of horizontal vs vertical wells in remediating and containing a jet fuel contaminant plume. An early stage of this project included successful installation of the world`s longest, deepest environmental horizontal wells. The horizontal well was installed using river crossing technology developed for drilling boreholes and installing utility conduits under rivers. Boreholes over 5,000 ft long have been successfully installed using river crossing technology. However, these boreholes are typically shallower than 100 ft below land surface (BLS). Installation of the environmental horizontal well proved to be extremely challenging because of the depth (235 ft BLS), the length (2,500 ft) of the borehole, and the requirements dictated by well installation criteria. Two installation attempts failed before the successful installation.

  13. Demonstration of river crossing technology for installation of environmental horizontal wells: AMH-6 and AMH-7 installation report

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D. B.

    1993-07-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Technology Development initiated an integrated demonstration of innovative technologies and systems for cleanup of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soils and groundwater. This drilling project is part of the directional drilling task for the integrated technology demonstration at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One of the objectives of the drilling task is the demonstration of multiple drilling technologies. The technologies can then be compared and evaluated in terms of technical performance and cost effectiveness. Petroleum horizontal well technology and utility industry horizontal well technology have been previously demonstrated at the SRS. The petroleum industry directional drilling technology was demonstrated by Eastman Christensen Environmental Corporation (ECEC). ECEC directionally drilled and installed four horizontal wells in the M Area. Charles Machine Works, working with Sandia National Laboratory, demonstrated a utility industry directional drilling technology by installing one horizontal well in the M Area. The demonstration that is the subject of this report involved river crossing horizontal well technology for the installation of two M-Area Settling Basin soil gas extraction wells.

  14. New muds are specially tailored for deepwater drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, N.P.

    1998-04-01

    There are three things in life that are certain: death, taxes and encountering gumbo clay while drilling offshore Gulf of Mexico oil and gas fields. The concomitant torque and drag define the goals of offshore drilling fluid design. Additionally, some deepwater projects require hydrate suppression, resulting in a challenging list of barriers to drilling success confronting the aspiring engineer. Specially tailored water-base muds have been developed for deepwater drilling. Each DeepDrill{trademark} fluid is custom designed for the specific project, in accordance with the particular conditions and degree of difficulty that will be experienced. This family of engineered drilling fluids is based on New100N{trademark} polyol chemistry.

  15. Using an admittance algorithm for bone drilling procedures.

    PubMed

    Accini, Fernando; Díaz, Iñaki; Gil, Jorge Juan

    2016-01-01

    Bone drilling is a common procedure in many types of surgeries, including orthopedic, neurological and otologic surgeries. Several technologies and control algorithms have been developed to help the surgeon automatically stop the drill before it goes through the boundary of the tissue being drilled. However, most of them rely on thrust force and cutting torque to detect bone layer transitions which has many drawbacks that affect the reliability of the process. This paper describes in detail a bone-drilling algorithm based only on the position control of the drill bit that overcomes such problems and presents additional advantages. The implication of each component of the algorithm in the drilling procedure is analyzed and the efficacy of the algorithm is experimentally validated with two types of bones. PMID:26516110

  16. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

  17. Critique of Drilling Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hamblin, Jerry

    1992-03-24

    For a number of years the Department of Energy has been funding research to reduce the cost of drilling geothermal wells. Generally that research has been effective and helped to make geothermal energy economically attractive to developers. With the increased competition for the electrical market, geothermal energy needs every advantage it can acquire to allow it to continue as a viable force in the marketplace. In drilling related research, there is essentially continuous dialogue between industry and the national laboratories. Therefore, the projects presented in the Program Review are focused on subjects that were previously recommended or approved by industry.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRILLING FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Burnett

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the project has been to develop new types of drill-in fluids (DIFs) and completion fluids (CFs) for use in natural gas reservoirs. Phase 1 of the project was a 24-month study to develop the concept of advanced type of fluids usable in well completions. Phase 1 tested this concept and created a kinetic mathematical model to accurately track the fluid's behavior under downhole conditions. Phase 2 includes tests of the new materials and practices. Work includes the preparation of new materials and the deployment of the new fluids and new practices to the field. The project addresses the special problem of formation damage issues related to the use of CFs and DIFs in open hole horizontal well completions. The concept of a ''removable filtercake'' has, as its basis, a mechanism to initiate or trigger the removal process. Our approach to developing such a mechanism is to identify the components of the filtercake and measure the change in the characteristics of these components when certain cleanup (filtercake removal) techniques are employed.

  19. Well completion report on installation of horizontal wells for in-situ remediation tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Corey, J.C.; Wright, L.M.

    1989-08-01

    A project to drill and install two horizontal vapor extraction/air-injection wells at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina, was performed in September and October of 1988. This study was performed to test the feasibility of horizontal drilling technologies in unconsolidated sediments and to evaluate the effectiveness of in-situ air stripping of volatile organics from the ground water and unsaturated soils. A tremendous amount of knowledge was obtained during the drilling and installation of the two test wells. Factors of importance to be considered during design of another horizontal well drilling program follow. (1) Trips in and out of the borehole should be minimized to maintain hole stability. No reaming to enlarge the hole should be attempted. (2) Drilling fluid performance should be maximized by utilizing a low solids, low weight, moderate viscosity, high lubricity fluid. Interruption of drilling fluid circulation should be minimized. (3) Well materials should possess adequate flexibility to negotiate the curve. A flexible guide should be attached to the front of the well screen to guide the screen downhole. (4) Sands containing a minor amount of clay are recommended for completion targets, as better drilling control in the laterals was obtained in these sections.

  20. 13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L TO R)-LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  1. Drill Bits: Education and Outreach for Scientific Drilling Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prose, D. V.; Lamacchia, D. M.

    2007-12-01

    Drill Bits is a series of short, three- to five-minute videos that explore the research and capture the challenging nature of large scientific drilling projects occurring around the world. The drilling projects, conducted under the auspices of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), address fundamental earth science topics, including those of significant societal relevance such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and global climate change. The videos are filmed on location and aimed at nonscientific audiences. The purpose of the Drill Bits series is to provide scientific drilling organizations, scientists, and educators with a versatile tool to help educate the public, students, the media, and public officials about scientific drilling. The videos are designed to be viewed in multiple formats: on DVD; videotape; and science-related web sites, where they can be streamed or downloaded as video podcasts. Several Drill Bits videos will be screened, and their uses for outreach and education will be discussed.

  2. 31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL FLOOR FACING SOUTH. SHOWS EAST AND WEST BALCONIES, VEHICLE ENTRANCE AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR, THE CONCESSION STAND IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR AND THE FOUR WINDOWS IN THE SOUTH TRUSS SPACE. NOTE CRACKS IN THE UPPER RIGHT CORNER (WEST) OF THE SOUTH WALL. - Yakima National Guard Armory, 202 South Third Street, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  3. Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee Formation using horizontal drains, Quarterly technical report, 1/1/97--3/31/97

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-30

    interval were recovered from a vertical borehole at the same surface location. The addition of several horizontal wells will likely add another 2 million bbls (or more) to the cumulative production of the field over the next few years. If other abandoned Dundee fields are re-developed in a similar manner, the additional oil produced could exceed 80 million barrels. Additional project work involved the characterization of 28 other Dundee fields in Michigan to aid in determining appropriate additional candidates for development through horizontal drilling. Further quantification of reservoir parameters such as importance of fracturing, fracture density, and irregularity of the dolomitized surface at the top of the reservoir will help in designing the optimal strategy for horizontal drilling. The project was a cooperative venture involving the US Department of Energy, Michigan Technological University (MTU), Western Michigan University (WMU), and Terra Energy (now Cronus Development Co.) in Traverse City, MI.

  4. Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

    The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

  5. Developers set drilling pace

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, R.

    1981-01-01

    Thums four man-made islands each have a rock perimeter - 160,000 tons of granite - and an inner core of 900,000 yards of hydraulically placed dredged-sand fill. Because of the shallow depths of Long Beach Harbor, islands were constructed instead of installing conventional drilling and production platforms. The majority of drilling rigs and their equipment - casing racks and mud tanks - are mounted on steel rails and moved by hydraulic jacks at a rate of 3/4 ft/min. Each island has a central plant supplying mud and kill fluid services. Logging and perforating are performed by conventional land-based equipment. Many of THUMS' wells are drilled at exceedingly high angles to reach reserves beneath the harbor or Long Beach's downtown area. All but six or seven of the more than 800 wells are deviated, at angles ranging from 0 to 80/degree/, with an average deviation of 65 to 70/degree/. Each well has an S-curve well program and is assigned a 100-ft cylindrical diameter course. A simulated drilling program is fed into a computer to make sure the proposed course does not come within 25 ft of any other well bore. Production procedures are outlined along with a discussion of auxiliary equipment.

  6. Proposed Drill Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Proposed drill sites for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or deep resource confirmation wells. Temperature gradient contours based on shallow TG program and faults interpreted from seismic reflection survey are shown, as are two faults interpreted by seismic contractor Optim but not by Oski Energy, LLC.

  7. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered. PMID:17843766

  8. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

  9. Combination drilling and skiving tool

    DOEpatents

    Stone, William J.

    1989-01-01

    A combination drilling and skiving tool including a longitudinally extending hollow skiving sleeve slidably and concentrically mounted on a right-handed twist drill. Dogs or pawls provided on the internal periphery of the skiving sleeve engage with the helical grooves of the drill. During a clockwise rotation of the tool, the drill moves downwardly and the sleeve translates upwardly, so that the drill performs a drilling operation on a workpiece. On the other hand, the drill moves upwardly and the sleeve translates downwardly, when the tool is rotated in a counter-clockwise direction, and the sleeve performs a skiving operation. The drilling and skiving operations are separate, independent and exclusive of each other.

  10. Stroke Drills for Swimming Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Peter J.

    1982-01-01

    Stroke drills to be used by swimming instructors to teach four competitive swim strokes are described. The drills include: one arm swims; (2) alternative kicks; (3) fist swims; and (4) catch-up strokes. (JN)

  11. Horizontal carbon nanotube alignment.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew T; Cientanni, Vito; Milne, William I

    2016-09-21

    The production of horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes offers a rapid means of realizing a myriad of self-assembled near-atom-scale technologies - from novel photonic crystals to nanoscale transistors. The ability to reproducibly align anisotropic nanostructures has huge technological value. Here we review the present state-of-the-art in horizontal carbon nanotube alignment. For both in and ex situ approaches, we quantitatively assess the reported linear packing densities alongside the degree of alignment possible for each of these core methodologies. PMID:27546174

  12. Horizontal carbon nanotube alignment.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew T; Cientanni, Vito; Milne, William I

    2016-09-21

    The production of horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes offers a rapid means of realizing a myriad of self-assembled near-atom-scale technologies - from novel photonic crystals to nanoscale transistors. The ability to reproducibly align anisotropic nanostructures has huge technological value. Here we review the present state-of-the-art in horizontal carbon nanotube alignment. For both in and ex situ approaches, we quantitatively assess the reported linear packing densities alongside the degree of alignment possible for each of these core methodologies.

  13. Horizontal Advanced Tensiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2004-06-22

    An horizontal advanced tensiometer is described that allows the monitoring of the water pressure of soil positions, particularly beneath objects or materials that inhibit the use of previous monitoring wells. The tensiometer includes a porous cup, a pressure transducer (with an attached gasket device), an adaptive chamber, at least one outer guide tube which allows access to the desired horizontal position, a transducer wire, a data logger and preferably an inner guide tube and a specialized joint which provides pressure on the inner guide tube to maintain the seal between the gasket of the transducer and the adaptive chamber.

  14. Diamond-Cutter Drill Bits

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Geothermal Energy Program Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies Diamond-Cutter Drill Bits Diamond-cutter drill bits cut through tough rock quicker, reducing the cost of drilling for energy resources The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contributed markedly to the geothermal, oil, and gas industries through the development of the advanced polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bit. Introduced in the 1970s by General Electric Company (GE), the PDC bit uses thin, diamond layers bonded to t

  15. Hunt energy sets Texas drilling record

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, D.; Rogers, W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes how, in addition to being the fourth deepest ever drilled, a Texas well became the deepest successful completion ever achieved, with production casing run to 29,668 ft. Topics include prespud planning and well completion. Completion work involving perforating, displacing, and running tubing was accomplished with a drilling rig. Christmas tree and 15,000-psi wellhead were built to Class 3 critical service specifications and witnessed with third-party inspection. Tubing tree and choke will be protected by a special high-temperature inhibitor program which will inject inhibitor down the annulus and recapture it on the surface.

  16. The Foinaven field: Facing the new frontier drilling challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, G.; Jenkins, M.; Cameron, C.; Reed, H.

    1996-02-01

    The opening up of the West of Shetland province presents a new range of challenges and opportunities from those encountered in nearby North Sea oil fields. Drilling and operational problems have to be faced in an even harsher and more remote environment -- the nearest landfall is the Shetland Islands, 100 miles to the east, but seas are from the Atlantic with a significantly larger and longer swell. The results can be seen in the progress that has been made in the 21 months of well construction activities, from exploration drilling to the laying of subsea hardware production systems. Nineteen exploration wells have been drilled; three Foinaven development wells have been completed with Christmas trees on and tested; nine further conductors have been set on the Foinaven drill sites, with intermediate casings run and installed in three of those; and two appraisal wells have been successfully completed with extended well tests. But in this period of intense activity several lessons can be learned for the oil industry worldwide. This paper reviews the engineering problems and materials selection associated with this development. It includes information on bit selection, hole stability, drilling challenges, drilling fluids, tool reliability, coring equipment, horizontal methods, and well testing and completion.

  17. Growth in the measurement-while-drilling sector continues

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, G.T. )

    1991-09-16

    This book reports that the measurement while drilling (MWD) market is showing some of the most impressive growth in the oil field. Tremendous improvements in the reliability and capability of MWD tools have spurred the expansion of this market. During 1990, the worldwide MWD market expanded by 48%, rising from $250 million in 1989 to $370 million in 1990. The MWD market should expand 15-20% to exceed $430 million in 1991. Although an expansion of 15-20% is considered good, further growth will be impeded by the slowdown of drilling in the Gulf of Mexico. Total market growth should return to greater than 20% per year in 1992 and 1993. MWD technology is in the midst of a rapid adaptation phase, led by expansion of formation evaluation and other logs and by international expansion in long-reach directional and horizontal drilling. The formation evaluation-while- drilling market will have minimal impact on the size and growth of the wire line market. Customers will increasingly employ teams which include drilling and petrophysics personnel to make MWD purchase decisions. Integration of performance drilling systems including all bottom hole components will accelerate because of increases in automation and the need for cost reduction.

  18. Accuracy of a direct drill-guiding system with minimal tolerance of surgical instruments used for implant surgery: a prospective clinical study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE A recently introduced direct drill-guiding implant surgery system features minimal tolerance of surgical instruments in the metal sleeve by using shank-modified drills and a sleeve-incorporated stereolithographic guide template. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of this new guided surgery system in partially edentulous patients using geometric analyses. MATERIALS AND METHODS For the study, 21 implants were placed in 11 consecutive patients using the direct drill-guiding implant surgery system. The stereolithographic surgical guide was fabricated using cone-beam computed tomography, digital scanning, computer-aided design and computer-assisted manufacturing, and additive manufacturing processes. After surgery, the positional and angular deviations between planned and placed implants were measured at the abutment level using implant-planning software. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare the deviations (α=.05). RESULTS The mean horizontal deviations were 0.593 mm (SD 0.238) mesiodistally and 0.691 mm (SD 0.344) buccolingually. The mean vertical deviation was 0.925 mm (SD 0.376) occlusogingivally. The vertical deviation was significantly larger than the horizontal deviation (P=.018). The mean angular deviation was 2.024 degrees (SD 0.942) mesiodistally and 2.390 degrees (SD 1.142) buccolingually. CONCLUSION The direct drill-guiding implant surgery system demonstrates high accuracy in placing implants. Use of the drill shank as the guiding component is an effective way for reducing tolerance. PMID:27350855

  19. Drilling Precise Orifices and Slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, C. W.; Seidler, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Reaction control thrustor injector requires precisely machined orifices and slots. Tooling setup consists of rotary table, numerical control system and torque sensitive drill press. Components used to drill oxidizer orifices. Electric discharge machine drills fuel-feed orifices. Device automates production of identical parts so several are completed in less time than previously.

  20. Pros and cons of hydraulic drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using hydraulic drilling are discussed. The low maintenance, energy efficiency, drilling speeds, and operating costs are the main advantages of the hydraulic drills. The economics and maintenance of air drills are also compared.

  1. Modified Cobalt Drills With Oil Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, E.; Richardson, D.

    1986-01-01

    Oil forced through drill shanks to lubricate cutting edges. Drill bits cooled and lubricated by oil forced through drill shanks and out holes adjacent to bits. This cooling technique increases drillbit life and allows increased drill feed rates.

  2. Evaluation of an air drilling cuttings containment system

    SciTech Connect

    Westmoreland, J.

    1994-04-01

    Drilling at hazardous waste sites for environmental remediation or monitoring requires containment of all drilling fluids and cuttings to protect personnel and the environment. At many sites, air drilling techniques have advantages over other drilling methods, requiring effective filtering and containment of the return air/cuttings stream. A study of. current containment methods indicated improvements could be made in the filtering of radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, and in equipment like alarms, instrumentation or pressure safety features. Sandia National Laboratories, Dept. 61 11 Environmental Drilling Projects Group, initiated this work to address these concerns. A look at the industry showed that asbestos abatement equipment could be adapted for containment and filtration of air drilling returns. An industry manufacturer was selected to build a prototype machine. The machine was leased and put through a six-month testing and evaluation period at Sandia National Laboratories. Various materials were vacuumed and filtered with the machine during this time. In addition, it was used in an actual air drive drilling operation. Results of these tests indicate that the vacuum/filter unit will meet or exceed our drilling requirements. This vacuum/filter unit could be employed at a hazardous waste site or any site where drilling operations require cuttings and air containment.

  3. Formation damage effects on horizontal-well flow efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Renard, G.; Dupuy, J.M. )

    1991-07-01

    Wellbore damage commonly is accounted for by an apparent skin factor. A better relative index for determining the efficiency with which a well has been drilled and completed is the flow efficiency, the ration of a well's actual PI to ideal PI. The flow efficiency of horizontal wells is derived assuming steady-state flow of an incompressible fluid in a homogeneous, anisotropic medium. A comparison between the flow efficiencies of vertical and horizontal wells indicates that permeability reduction around the wellbore is less detrimental to horizontal wells. This paper shows that the effect of damage around a horizontal wellbore is reduced slightly by increasing the well length. Conversely, if the vertical permeability is less than the horizontal permeability, the anisotropy ratio, {radical} k{sub H}/k{sub V}, magnifies the influence of formation damage near the horizontal wellbore. Examples of flow efficiency calculations assuming a formation damage or a formation collapse around a liner in poorly consolidated formations are provided for horizontal and vertical wells.

  4. Reaching 1 m deep on Mars: the Icebreaker drill.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Paulsen, G; McKay, C P; Glass, B; Davé, A; Davila, A F; Marinova, M; Mellerowicz, B; Heldmann, J; Stoker, C; Cabrol, N; Hedlund, M; Craft, J

    2013-12-01

    The future exploration of Mars will require access to the subsurface, along with acquisition of samples for scientific analysis and ground-truthing of water ice and mineral reserves for in situ resource utilization. The Icebreaker drill is an integral part of the Icebreaker mission concept to search for life in ice-rich regions on Mars. Since the mission targets Mars Special Regions as defined by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the drill has to meet the appropriate cleanliness standards as requested by NASA's Planetary Protection Office. In addition, the Icebreaker mission carries life-detection instruments; and in turn, the drill and sample delivery system have to meet stringent contamination requirements to prevent false positives. This paper reports on the development and testing of the Icebreaker drill, a 1 m class rotary-percussive drill and triple redundant sample delivery system. The drill acquires subsurface samples in short, approximately 10 cm bites, which makes the sampling system robust and prevents thawing and phase changes in the target materials. Autonomous drilling, sample acquisition, and sample transfer have been successfully demonstrated in Mars analog environments in the Arctic and the Antarctic Dry Valleys, as well as in a Mars environmental chamber. In all environments, the drill has been shown to perform at the "1-1-100-100" level; that is, it drilled to 1 m depth in approximately 1 hour with less than 100 N weight on bit and approximately 100 W of power. The drilled substrate varied and included pure ice, ice-rich regolith with and without rocks and with and without 2% perchlorate, and whole rocks. The drill is currently at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. The next-generation Icebreaker drill weighs 10 kg, which is representative of the flightlike model at TRL 5/6.

  5. Reaching 1 m deep on Mars: the Icebreaker drill.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Paulsen, G; McKay, C P; Glass, B; Davé, A; Davila, A F; Marinova, M; Mellerowicz, B; Heldmann, J; Stoker, C; Cabrol, N; Hedlund, M; Craft, J

    2013-12-01

    The future exploration of Mars will require access to the subsurface, along with acquisition of samples for scientific analysis and ground-truthing of water ice and mineral reserves for in situ resource utilization. The Icebreaker drill is an integral part of the Icebreaker mission concept to search for life in ice-rich regions on Mars. Since the mission targets Mars Special Regions as defined by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the drill has to meet the appropriate cleanliness standards as requested by NASA's Planetary Protection Office. In addition, the Icebreaker mission carries life-detection instruments; and in turn, the drill and sample delivery system have to meet stringent contamination requirements to prevent false positives. This paper reports on the development and testing of the Icebreaker drill, a 1 m class rotary-percussive drill and triple redundant sample delivery system. The drill acquires subsurface samples in short, approximately 10 cm bites, which makes the sampling system robust and prevents thawing and phase changes in the target materials. Autonomous drilling, sample acquisition, and sample transfer have been successfully demonstrated in Mars analog environments in the Arctic and the Antarctic Dry Valleys, as well as in a Mars environmental chamber. In all environments, the drill has been shown to perform at the "1-1-100-100" level; that is, it drilled to 1 m depth in approximately 1 hour with less than 100 N weight on bit and approximately 100 W of power. The drilled substrate varied and included pure ice, ice-rich regolith with and without rocks and with and without 2% perchlorate, and whole rocks. The drill is currently at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. The next-generation Icebreaker drill weighs 10 kg, which is representative of the flightlike model at TRL 5/6. PMID:24303959

  6. Cleanup/stimulation of a horizontal wellbore using propellants

    SciTech Connect

    Rougeot, J.E.; Lauterbach, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the stimulation/cleanup of a horizontal well bore (Wilson 25) using propellants. The Wilson 25 is a Bartlesville Sand well located in the Flatrock Field, Osage County, Oklahoma. The Wilson 25 was drilled to determine if horizontal drilling could be used as a means to economically recover primary oil that had been left in place in a mostly abandoned oil field because of the adverse effects of water coning. Pump testing of the Wilson 25 horizontal well bore before cleanup or stimulation produced 6 barrels of oil and .84 barrels of water per day. The high percentage of daily oil production to total daily fluid production indicated that the horizontal well bore had accessed potentially economical oil reserves if the fluid production rate could be increased by performing a cleanup/stimulation treatment. Propellants were selected as an inexpensive means to stimulate and cleanup the near well bore area in a uniform manner. The ignition of a propellant creates a large volume of gas which penetrates the formation, creating numerous short cracks through which hydrocarbons can travel into the well bore. More conventional stimulation/cleanup techniques were either significantly more expensive, less likely to treat uniformly, or could not be confined to the near well bore area. Three different propellant torpedo designs were tested with a total of 304' of horizontal well bore being shot and producible. The initial test shot caused 400' of the horizontal well bore to become plugged off, and subsequently it could not be production tested. The second and third test shots were production tested, with the oil production being increased 458% and 349%, respectively, on a per foot basis. The Wilson 25 results indicate that a propellant shot treatment is an economically viable means to cleanup/stimulate a horizontal well bore.

  7. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  8. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  9. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  10. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  11. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  12. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  13. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  14. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  15. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  16. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  17. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  18. Drilling techniques for osteochondritis dissecans.

    PubMed

    Heyworth, Benton E; Edmonds, Eric W; Murnaghan, M Lucas; Kocher, Mininder S

    2014-04-01

    Although the advanced stages of osteochondritis dissecans remain challenging to treat, most early-stage lesions in skeletally immature patients, if managed appropriately, can be stimulated to heal. For stable lesions that do not demonstrate adequate healing with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, weight-bearing protection, or bracing, drilling of the subchondral bone has emerged as the gold standard of management. Several techniques of drilling exist, including transarticular drilling, retroarticular drilling, and notch drilling. Although each technique has been shown to be effective in small retrospective studies, higher-powered prospective comparative studies are needed to better elucidate their relative advantages and disadvantages.

  19. Wintertime Air Quality Impacts from Oil and Natural Gas Drilling Operations in the Bakken Formation Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evanoski-Cole, Ashley; Sive, Barkley; Zhou, Yong; Prenni, Anthony; Schurman, Misha; Day, Derek; Sullivan, Amy; Li, Yi; Hand, Jenny; Gebhart, Kristi; Schichtel, Bret; Collett, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    Oil and natural gas extraction has dramatically increased in the last decade in the United States due to the increased use of unconventional drilling techniques which include horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. The impact of these drilling activities on local and regional air quality in oil and gas basins across the country are still relatively unknown, especially in recently developed basins such as the Bakken shale formation. This study is the first to conduct a comprehensive characterization of the regional air quality in the Bakken region. The Bakken shale formation, part of the Williston basin, is located in North Dakota and Montana in the United States and Saskatchewan and Manitoba in Canada. Oil and gas drilling operations can impact air quality in a variety of ways, including the generation of atmospheric particulate matter (PM), hazardous air pollutants, ozone, and greenhouse gas emissions. During the winter especially, PM formation can be enhanced and meteorological conditions can favor increased concentrations of PM and other pollutants. In this study, ground-based measurements throughout the Bakken region in North Dakota and Montana were collected over two consecutive winters to gain regional trends of air quality impacts from the oil and gas drilling activities. Additionally, one field site had a comprehensive suite of instrumentation operating at high time resolution to gain detailed characterization of the atmospheric composition. Measurements included organic carbon and black carbon concentrations in PM, the characterization of inorganic PM, inorganic gases, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), precipitation and meteorology. These elevated PM episodes were further investigated using the local meteorological conditions and regional transport patterns. Episodes of elevated concentrations of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide were also detected. The VOC concentrations were analyzed and specific VOCs that are known oil and gas tracers were used

  20. Records set, drilling calculation refined in Dutch pipeline crossings

    SciTech Connect

    Spiekhout, J.; Gorter, J.; Hartlief )

    1993-01-04

    This paper reports on horizontal drilling for pipeline installation which made significant progress in The Netherlands in 1991 with establishment of two diameter records and development of a simplified design calculation method. The records were established in two natural gas pipeline projects by N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen. In companion, waterway-crossing projects, installation of two 48-in. gas lines by directional drilling set a record for diameter-to-length ratio. Also, directional drilling for a 36-in. pipeline crossing established a record for entry and exit angles for such large-diameter pipe. Precise location was particularly important in this second project because a pipeline bundle (12-in. insulated oil pipeline, 10-in. chloride pipeline, 12-in. nitrogen pipeline) was installed to run parallel over part of the distance.

  1. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  2. Drilling mud dispersants

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, P. A.; Brase, I. E.

    1985-05-21

    Dispersants useful in aqueous drilling mud formulations employed in the drilling of subterranean wells where high temperature and high pressure environments are encountered are disclosed. The dispersants, when used in amounts of about 0.1 to 25 ppb provide muds containing colloidal material suspended in an aqueous medium with improved high temperature and high pressure stability. The dispersants are water soluble sulfonated vinyl toluene-maleic anhydride copolymers which have a molar ratio of vinyl toluene to maleic anhydride of about 1:1 to less than about 2:1, a molecular weight of 1,000 to 25,000 and at least about 0.7 sulfonic acid groups per vinyl toluene unit.

  3. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, H.D.; Meyers, J.A.; Yost, A.B. II

    1998-12-31

    By increasing penetration rates and bit life, especially in hard formations, the use of down-hole air hammers in the oil field has significantly reduced drilling costs in the Northeast US and West Texas. Unfortunately, drilling by this percussion method has been limited mostly to straight hole applications. This paper presents a new concept of a percussion drilling tool which performs both the function of a down-hole hammer as well as that of a down-hole motor. Such a drilling tool, being introduced here as Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), eliminates the necessity to rotate the drill string and, consequently, enables the use of down-hole air hammers to drill directional wells.

  4. Drilling forces in high-curvature wellbores: A comparison of analytical model results with MWD data

    SciTech Connect

    Rocheleau, D.N.; Zhao, M.

    1997-07-01

    Horizontal drilling is commonly used to reach lateral targets in oil and gas reservoirs. A method is presented which predicts the drilling forces encountered while tripping-in and tripping-out of high-curvature wellbores during horizontal and extended reach drilling. The method is based on modeling the drillstring as a set of continuous beams using Timoshenko beam theory. The paper first describes how the drillstring is modeled; it then develops the analytical equations of the model and outlines a computer implementation of these equations. Lastly, the results predicted by the analytical model are compared with actual field results based on measurement while drilling (MWD) data obtained from high-curvature wellbores in the Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Development of advanced drilling, completion, and stimulation systems for minimum formation damage and improved efficiency: A program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, A.W.; Yost, A.B. II

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Natural Gas Resource and Extraction Program consists of industry/government co-sponsored research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) projects, which focus on gas recovery from both conventional and nonconventional resources. The current focus of the Project is on the development of underbalanced drilling technology and minimum formation damage stimulation technology concurrently with the appropriate completion hardware to improve the economics of domestic natural gas field development. Ongoing drilling technology projects to be discussed include development of an electromagnetic measurement while drilling system for directional and horizontal drilling in underbalanced drilling applications and the development of a steerable air percussion drilling system for hard formation drilling and improved penetration rates. Ongoing stimulation technology projects to be discussed include introduction of carbon dioxide/sand fracturing technology for minimal formation damage.

  6. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  7. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  8. Design, implementation, and completion of a horizontal tight gas wellbore - case study: Green River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, R.L.; Evans, L.W.; Anderson, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    In September, 1993 Amoco Production Company began drilling the Champlin 254B No. 2H, a horizontal well test located near the Wamsutter Arch, southwestem Wyoming. The Champlin 254B No. 2H was designed to confirm a fractured reservoir concept and to test the economic viability of a horizontal wellbore in the Almond fm.. The wellbore was designed to determine real-time, the fracture direction and the optimum horizontal leg direction within the confines of the drilling permit. A deviated pilot hole was drilled to optimize our ability to cross vertical natural fractures. MWD gamma-ray, oriented core, a vertical seismic profile, Formation Microimager, and a robust suite of electric logs were obtained to gain information on the presence and orientation of fractures before kickoff for the horizontal leg. Electromagnetic goniometry was used onsite to orient fractures in core. Log and core data were consistent and a wellbore trajectory of due South was chosen. A two thousand foot horizontal wellbore was drilled, 1700 feet of which is in the upper Almond formation productive zone. MWD gamma-ray, three 30` cores, Formation Microscanner logs, and a density-neutron log were obtained in the horizontal hole. This wellbore was completed open-hole with a stabilized gas rate of 1 mmcfd. In May, 1994 a portion of the original wellbore collapsed and a replacement horizontal leg was drilled. Oil-based mud and rotary BOP`s were utilized to minimize damage and invasion to the reservoir. Reservoir pressures encountered in the redrill indicate that depletion along the original wellbore had begun. The redrill was completed open-hole with a pre-perforated (every third joint) 5 1/2 inches liner and also stabilized at a rate of 1 mmcfd.

  9. Horizontally mounted solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. H. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Solar energy is collected by using a vertical deflector assembly, a stationary reflector and a horizontally mounted solar collector. The deflector assembly contains a plurality of vanes which change the direction of the solar energy to the vertical, while constantly keeping the same side of the deflector facing the sun. The vertical rays are then reflected off the stationary reflector and are then absorbed by the collector.

  10. Slim-hole horizontal well improves gas storage field deliverability

    SciTech Connect

    Gredell, M.E.; Benson, M.A.

    1995-12-11

    A slim-hole horizontal well in a gas storage field, drilled with a 2,000-ft lateral section under a city, initially produced about four times more than a nearby offset vertical well. The ability of the well to cycle gas efficiently from the area under the city will be determined by monitoring the future performance of the well and field. The objectives and conditions of this project were ideal for a slim-hole horizontal well, and the results suggest the potential for more horizontal slim-hole wells in other gas storage applications. The slim-hole well design helped lower total costs. Among the technical and operational issues addressed on this horizontal well project were prediction of well performance and benefits, environmental and safety concerns of drilling in an urban area, optimizing well design parameters, protecting the integrity of the storage zone, and geosteering in a thin reservoir. The paper describes the reservoir, field development, feasibility studies, well location, well plan, radius, the lateral section, well completion, and results.

  11. Drill bit assembly for releasably retaining a drill bit cutter

    DOEpatents

    Glowka, David A.; Raymond, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A drill bit assembly is provided for releasably retaining a polycrystalline diamond compact drill bit cutter. Two adjacent cavities formed in a drill bit body house, respectively, the disc-shaped drill bit cutter and a wedge-shaped cutter lock element with a removable fastener. The cutter lock element engages one flat surface of the cutter to retain the cutter in its cavity. The drill bit assembly thus enables the cutter to be locked against axial and/or rotational movement while still providing for easy removal of a worn or damaged cutter. The ability to adjust and replace cutters in the field reduces the effect of wear, helps maintains performance and improves drilling efficiency.

  12. Slimhole Drilling, Logging, and Completion Technology - An Update

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; JACOBSON,RONALD D.

    1999-10-07

    Using slim holes (diameter < 15 cm) for geothermal exploration and small-scale power production can produce significant cost savings compared to conventional rotary-drilling methods. In addition, data obtained from slim holes can be used to lower the risks and costs associated with the drilling and completion of large-diameter geothermal wells. As a prime contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Sandia National Laboratories has worked with industry since 1992 to develop and promote drilling, testing, and logging technology for slim holes. This paper describes the current status of work done both in-house and contracted to industry. It focuses on drilling technology, case histories of slimhole drilling projects, data collection and rig instrumentation, and high-temperature logging tools.

  13. Gulf Canada moves ahead with unique drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.D.

    1982-12-01

    Describes a system developed for Gulf's Beaufort Sea exploration program, which consists of a mobile arctic caisson (MAC), conical drilling unit (CDU), 2 icebreakers, and 2 supply boats, all designed for heavy ice conditions. The MAC will operate in water depths between 60 and 110 ft, while the CDU is destined for deeper waters. The CDU, a circular barge with a special ice-deflecting hull, has a main hull angle sloping at 31 degrees to deflect ice downward. The MAC will replace conventional artificial islands. The 2 icebreakers' primary function is to manage the ice surrounding the drilling units, protecting the drilling system and providing an escort to new well sites. In addition to moving bulk materials and equipment from the northern supply base to the drilling units, the vessels will help in anchoring or setting the drilling units.

  14. Integrated approach towards the application of horizontal wells to improve waterflooding performance. [Quarterly report], July 1--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, B.G.

    1993-12-31

    The overall purpose of the proposed project is to improve secondary recovery performance of a marginal oil field through the use of a horizontal injection well. The location and direction of the well will be selected based on the detailed reservoir description using integrated approach. To accomplish the goals of the project, it is divided into two stages. In Stage 1, we will select part of the Glenn Pool field (William B. Self Unit), and collect additional reservoir data by conducting cross bore hole tomography surveys and formation microscanner logs through newly drilled well. In addition, we will also utilize analogous outcrop data. By combining the state of the art data with conventional core and log data, we will develop a detailed reservoir description based on integrated approach. After conducting extensive reservoir simulation studies, we will select a location and direction of a horizontal injection well. The well will be drilled based on optimized design, and the field performance will be monitored for at least six months. If the performance is encouraging, we will enter into second budget period of the project. If continued, the second budget period of the project will involve selection of part of the same reservoir (Berryhill Unit - Tract 7), development of reservoir description using only conventional data, simulation of flow performance using developed reservoir description, selection of a location and direction of a horizontal injection well, and implementation of the well followed by monitoring of reservoir performance. This report is divided into three sections. In the first section, we discuss the preliminary results based on the cross bore hole seismic surveys. In the second section, we discuss the geological description of the Self Unit. In the last section, we present petrophysical properties description of the reservoir followed by the flow simulation results.

  15. Method for detecting drilling events from measuremt while drilling sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bible, M.; Lesage, M., Falconer, I.

    1989-10-31

    This patent describes a method for determining subsurface conditions encountered by a drill bit while drilling a borehole. It comprises: during the drilling process, determining rate of penetration and generation a signal indicative thereof; during the drilling process, determining downhole torque and generating a signal indicative thereof; in response to signals indicative of rate of penetration and downhole torque, generating an indication of the occurrence of a subsurface condition selected from the group comprising high formation porosity, a damaged bit bearing and the development of an undergauge bit.

  16. Analyses of operational times and technical aspects of the Salton Sea scientific drilling project: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The Deep Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (DSSSDP) was conducted in Imperial County of California at the Southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Emphasis was on the acquisition of scientific data for the evaluation of the geological environment encountered during the drilling of the well. The scientific data acquisition activities consisted of coring, running of numerous downhole logs and tools in support of defining the geologic environment and conducting two full scale flow tests primarily to obtain pristine fluid samples. In addition, drill cuttings, gases and drilling fluid chemistry measurements were obtained from the drilling fluid returns concurrent with drilling and coring operations. The well was drilled to 10,564 feet. This report describes the field portions of the project and presents an analysis of the time spent on the various activities associated with the normal drilling operations, scientific data gathering operations and the three major downhole problem activities - lost circulation, directional control and fishing.

  17. Sandia's Geothermal Advanced Drill Rig Instrumentation Assists Critical Oil and Gas Drilling Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Staller, George E.; Whitlow, Gary

    1999-04-27

    about 30 days. Several other Sandia instruments being developed for geothermal drilling are also being evaluated during this operation, Successful performance of these instruments on this important drilling job will reinforce our efforts to commercialize this technology for the geothermal and oil and gas drilling industries. Sandia's Rolling Float Meter was developed through the Lost Circulation Technology Program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies. It monitors drilling fluid returns to rapidly detect loss of circulation during geothermal drilling. Lost circulation is particularly prevalent in geothermal wells, and can add as much as 10% to the total cost of drilling the well. Consequently, rapid detection and treatment of lost circulation is necessary for cost- effective geothermal drilling. Sandia has been evaluating and demonstrating the capabilities of the RFM to the geothermal industry for several years. In addition to lost circulation, the RFM is also useful for accurately detecting well kicks. Contacts have been made with mud logging companies that are involved with both geothermal and oil and gas drilling operations.

  18. Drilling and general petroleum engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Forty-nine papers are included in the Drilling and General Petroleum Engineering Volume of the SPE Annual Conference and Exhibition proceedings. The conference was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, September 25-28, 1994. The papers cover such topics as: extended reach well drilling, development of marginal satellite fields, slim hole drilling, pressure loss predictions, models for cuttings transport, ester-based drilling fluid systems, borehole stability, cementing, operations, bit failures, roller core bits, well tracking techniques, nitrogen drilling systems, plug failures, drill bit and drillstring dynamics, slim hole vibrations, reserve estimates, enhanced recovery methods, waste disposal, and engineering salary trends. A separate abstract and indexing was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Apparatus in a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Dahlgren, Scott; Hall, Jr., Tracy H.; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2007-07-17

    An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable spirally welded metal tube is disposed within the drill pipe intermediate the ends thereof and terminating adjacent to the ends of the drill pipe. The conformable metal tube substantially conforms to the continuous inside surface of the metal tube. The metal tube may comprise a non-uniform section which is expanded to conform to the inside surface of the drill pipe. The non-uniform section may comprise protrusions selected from the group consisting of convolutions, corrugations, flutes, and dimples. The non-uniform section extends generally longitudinally along the length of the tube.

  20. Advances in drilling covered at conference in Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Recent advances in drilling technology include new applications for various polymer-based drilling fluids, an analytical evaluation of certain gas control additives for light cement slurries, the use of a new wellhead connector, and the development of a unique completion tool for slim hole wells. This paper reports on these topics which were covered in several papers prepared for the Offshore South East Asia 9th Conference and Exhibition held Dec. 1-4, 1992, in Singapore. Drilling fluids formulated with partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide were used successfully and economically to control well bore problems in a development drilling program in southeast Asia. Another paper presented results on the use of various cationic and anionic materials to control shale stability problems common to areas offshore western Australia. Another paper presented results of an evaluation of five common additives used to control gas migration problems in light-weight cements. In addition to these fluid topics, recent mechanical developments were covered.

  1. High temperature drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Stong, R.E.; Walinsky, S.W.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid suitable for high-temperature use. This fluid is composed of a water base. Clay is suspended in the base and from about 0.01-25 pounds per barrel total composition of a hydrolyzed terpolymer of maleic anhydride, styrene and a third monomer selected from acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylic acid and metacrylic acid. The molar ratio of maleic anhydride to styrene to the third monomer is from about 30:10:60 to 50:40:10, and the alkali metal, ammonium and lower aliphatic amine salts thereof, the weight-average molecular weight of the hydrolyzed terpolymer is from about 500-10,000.

  2. Portable rapid and quiet drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mireca (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Chang, Zenshea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A hand-held drilling device, and method for drilling using the device, has a housing, a transducer within the housing, with the transducer effectively operating at ultrasonic frequencies, a rotating motor component within the housing and rigid cutting end-effector rotationally connected to the rotating motor component and vibrationally connected to the transducer. The hand-held drilling device of the present invention operates at a noise level of from about 50 decibels or less.

  3. The thermal spallation drilling process

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Holes can be produced in very hard rock more easily and less expensively by thermal spallation than by conventional means. This drilling process has been used for producing blast holes in the taconite iron mines and for quarrying granite. It is potentially valuable for drilling holes in very hard rock for the exploitation of geothermal energy and the storage of various commodities. However, investigation and development of the thermal spallation drilling process is proceeding slowly.

  4. MWD aids vital drilling decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Fontenot, J.E.; Rao, M.V.

    1988-03-14

    Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD) sensors can supply much of the critical downhole information needed in a systems approach to improving drilling efficiency. The author looks at some areas where MWD information has helped to improve drilling efficiency. To date, most use of MWD has been for directional survey, pressure prediction, and formation evaluation. As MWD systems become more reliable and cost effective, their applications will expand.

  5. Horizontal branch evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rood, R. T.; Crocker, D. A.

    In 1973 the outstanding problems confronting the theory of horizontal-branch (HB) evolution were the second-parameter problem and the Oosterhoff effect. Despite significant progress, particularly in the observations and in the observation/theory interface, they remain as the outstanding problems of 1988. The Oosterhoff effect is now discussed primarily in the guise of the Sandage period-shift effect. The morphology of the HB seems more complicated than ever. Many clusters show bimodal distributions along the HB. Here these are tentatively considered to be manifestations of the second parameter problem.

  6. Transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R; Fox, Joe R

    2006-05-30

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. The transmission element may include an annular housing forming a trough, an electrical conductor disposed within the trough, and an MCEI material disposed between the annular housing and the electrical conductor.

  7. Apparatus for washing drill cuttings

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, W. G.

    1985-10-15

    An apparatus for cleansing a stream of drilling fluid fouled drill cuttings having a housing divided into a plurality of compartments each designed to retain cleansing fluid. A spinning force is imparted into the incoming fouled drill cuttings in an inlet chamber wherein cleansing fluid is intimately mixed with the fouled drill cuttings. A decanting chamber removes liberated drilling fluid from the cuttings and disposes of such drilling fluid from the apparatus via a drain trough assembly. The underflow from the decanter is passed through a solids concentrating assembly wherein the coarse solids are deposited in a concentrating assembly bottoms chamber wherein the settled drill cuttings are removed from the apparatus. The overhead stream from the solids concentrating assembly is driected to a second decanter for removal of any remaining drilling fluid and fine drill cuttings entrained therein from the apparatus via the drain trough assembly. The remaining fluid in the concentrating assembly bottoms chamber is recirculated to the second decanting chamber and the inlet chamber.

  8. Lunar drill and test apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norrington, David W.; Ardoin, Didier C.; Alexander, Stephen G.; Rowland, Philip N.; Vastakis, Frank N.; Linsey, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    The design of an experimental lunar drill and a facility to test the drill under simulated lunar conditions is described. The drill utilizes a polycrystalline diamond compact drag bit and an auger to mechanically remove cuttings from the hole. The drill will be tested in a vacuum chamber and powered through a vacuum seal by a drive mechanism located above the chamber. A general description of the design is provided followed by a detailed description and analysis of each component. Recommendations for the further development of the design are included.

  9. Field Testing of Environmentally Friendly Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    David Burnett

    2009-05-31

    The Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program addresses new low-impact technology that reduces the footprint of drilling activities, integrates light weight drilling rigs with reduced emission engine packages, addresses on-site waste management, optimizes the systems to fit the needs of a specific development sites and provides stewardship of the environment. In addition, the program includes industry, the public, environmental organizations, and elected officials in a collaboration that addresses concerns on development of unconventional natural gas resources in environmentally sensitive areas. The EFD program provides the fundamentals to result in greater access, reasonable regulatory controls, lower development cost and reduction of the environmental footprint associated with operations for unconventional natural gas. Industry Sponsors have supported the program with significant financial and technical support. This final report compendium is organized into segments corresponding directly with the DOE approved scope of work for the term 2005-2009 (10 Sections). Each specific project is defined by (a) its goals, (b) its deliverable, and (c) its future direction. A web site has been established that contains all of these detailed engineering reports produced with their efforts. The goals of the project are to (1) identify critical enabling technologies for a prototype low-impact drilling system, (2) test the prototype systems in field laboratories, and (3) demonstrate the advanced technology to show how these practices would benefit the environment.

  10. Horizontal baffle for nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rylatt, John A.

    1978-01-01

    A horizontal baffle disposed in the annulus defined between the core barrel and the thermal liner of a nuclear reactor thereby physically separating the outlet region of the core from the annular area below the horizontal baffle. The horizontal baffle prevents hot coolant that has passed through the reactor core from thermally damaging apparatus located in the annulus below the horizontal baffle by utilizing the thermally induced bowing of the horizontal baffle to enhance sealing while accommodating lateral motion of the baffle base plate.

  11. Drilling the ``perfect'' well

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-01

    In northeastern British Columbia, near Fort St. John, Calahoo Petroleum is chasing the elusive finger channels of a vast alluvial fan formed by runoff from the Rocky Mountains. The Cadomin formation is a thin, shallow, tight Cretaceous sandstore lying about 1,150m below the surface and loaded with gas at virgin pressure. Reserves are estimated at 3 Bcf per section. The formation is extremely fragile, and subject to damage if drilled improperly. Pores are lined with a thin layer of kaolinite, which when invaded will flocculate and clog pore throats, reducing permeability is estimated at 1 to 2 md, and wells that strike a channel can produce up to 3 MMcf/d of gas. Miss the sweet spot in the channel, and the best one can hope for is 0.5 md and 0.5 MMcf/d of gas. Finding the channels is a real challenge. There are only a few 2D spec seismic lines criss-crossing the play, few offset wells to correlate and a blanket of shallow coal seams above the Cadomin that tunes the seismic image and makes interpretation difficult. The combination of limited formation data and drilling challenges presents a complex set of problems. The paper discusses these challenges and what Calahoo is doing to meet them using a multidisciplinary team approach.

  12. Spills, drills, and accountability

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    NRDC seeks preventive approaches to oil pollution on U.S. coasts. The recent oil spills in Spain and Scotland have highlighted a fact too easy to forget in a society that uses petroleum every minute of every day: oil is profoundly toxic. One tiny drop on a bald eagle`s egg has been known to kill the embryo inside. Every activity involving oil-drilling for it, piping it, shipping it-poses risks that must be taken with utmost caution. Moreover, oil production is highly polluting. It emits substantial air pollution, such as nitrogen oxides that can form smog and acid rain. The wells bring up great quantities of toxic waste: solids, liquids and sludges often contaminated by oil, toxic metals, or even radioactivity. This article examines the following topics focusing on oil pollution control and prevention in coastal regions of the USA: alternate energy sources and accountability of pollutor; ban on offshore drilling as exemplified by the energy policy act; tanker free zones; accurate damage evaluations. Policy of the National Resource Defence Council is articulated.

  13. 75 FR 54912 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where... specified in II (C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  14. 78 FR 59972 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... FR 68036 (Nov. 8, 2002). In accordance with sections 201.16(c) and 207.3 of the Commission's rules... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... from China. For further information concerning the conduct of this proceeding and rules of...

  15. Horizontal SPINning of transposons.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Clément; Pace, John K; Feschotte, Cédric

    2009-01-01

    The term 'horizontal transfer (HT)' refers to the transfer of genetic material between two reproductively isolated organisms. HT is thought to occur rarely in eukaryotes compared to vertical inheritance, the transmission of DNA from parent to offspring. In a recent study we have provided evidence that a family of DNA transposons, called SPACE INVADERS or SPIN, independently invaded horizontally the genome of seven distantly related tetrapod species and subsequently amplified to high copy number in each of them. This discovery calls for further investigations to better characterize the extent to which genomes have been shaped through HT events. In this addendum, we briefly discuss some general issues regarding the study of HT and further speculate on the sequence of events that could explain the current taxonomic distribution of SPIN. We propose that the presence of SPIN in the opossum (Monodelphis domestica), a taxon endemic to South America, reflects a transoceanic HT event that occurred from Old to New World, between 46 and 15 million years ago.

  16. Ultrasonic/Sonic Rotary-Hammer Drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kassab, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic/sonic rotary-hammer drill (USRoHD) is a recent addition to the collection of apparatuses based on ultrasonic/sonic drill corer (USDC). As described below, the USRoHD has several features, not present in a basic USDC, that increase efficiency and provide some redundancy against partial failure. USDCs and related apparatuses were conceived for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. They have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, lowpower, piezoelectrically driven jackhammer in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. A basic USDC includes a piezoelectric stack, an ultrasonic transducer horn connected to the stack, a free mass ( free in the sense that it can bounce axially a short distance between hard stops on the horn and the bit), and a tool bit. The piezoelectric stack creates ultrasonic vibrations that are mechanically amplified by the horn. The bouncing of the free mass between the hard stops generates the sonic vibrations. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that unlike in conventional twist drilling, little applied axial force is needed to make the apparatus advance into the material of interest. There are numerous potential applications for USDCs and related apparatuses in geological exploration on Earth and on remote planets. In early USDC experiments, it was observed that accumulation of cuttings in a drilled hole causes the rate of penetration of the USDC to decrease steeply with depth, and that the rate of penetration can be increased by removing the cuttings. The USRoHD concept provides for

  17. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  18. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  19. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  20. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  1. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  2. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  3. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  4. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  5. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1605 - Drilling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling requirements. 250.1605 Section 250... Operations § 250.1605 Drilling requirements. (a) Lessees of OCS sulphur leases shall conduct drilling... this part, as appropriate. (b) Fitness of drilling unit. (1) Drilling units shall be capable...

  7. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  8. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  9. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  10. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  11. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  12. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  13. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  14. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  15. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  16. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  17. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  18. Activity plan: Directional drilling and environmental measurements while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.A.

    1998-07-16

    This activity plan describes the testing of directional drilling combined with environmental measurements while drilling at two Hanford Site locations. A cold test is to be conducted at the 105A Mock Tank Leak Facility in the 200 East Area. A hot test is proposed to be run at the 216-B-8 tile field north of the 241-B Tank Farm in 200 East Area. Criteria to judge the success, partial success or failure of various aspects of the test are included. The TWRS program is assessing the potential for use of directional drilling because of an identified need to interrogate the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tanks. Because every precaution must be taken to assure that investigation activities do not violate the integrity of the tanks, control of the drill bit and ability to follow a predetermined drill path are of utmost importance and are being tested.

  19. Drilling fluids waste minimization and stabilization using polymer technology

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.F.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to address environmental issues associated with generated waste through drilling. Polymers have been proven to be extremely effective in the waste reduction in drilling closed system without the use of solids control equipment with shale shakers optional and the stabilization of drilling discharges using additional polymer technology. The objective is to demonstrate that with the proper use of polymers, waste can be reduced and stabilized without an increase in volume and with a very cost effective method. The result is that the environment will be enhanced while reducing risks and costs.

  20. Middle East: Output expansions boost drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Iraqi exports may return to the market in limited fashion, but none of the region`s producers seems particularly concerned. They believe that global oil demand is rising fast enough to justify their additions to productive capacity. The paper discusses exploration, drilling and development, and production in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the Neutral Zone, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Oman, Iran, Iraq, Yemen, Qatar, Syria, Turkey, and Sharjah. The paper also briefly mentions activities in Bahrain, Israel, Jordan, and Ras al Khaimah.

  1. Promising pneumatic punchers for borehole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Lipin

    2005-03-15

    The state of borehole drilling by downhole pneumatic punchers and their potential use in open and underground mining as well as in exploration for reliable sampling are analyzed. Performance specification is presented for the new-generation pneumatic punchers equipped with a pin tool, effectively operating at a compressed-air pressure of 0.5-0.7 MPa, and with an additional extended exhaust from the power stroke chamber during working cycle.

  2. Production waters, recycled completion fluids may harm polymer drilling-mud systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, B. III

    1986-07-01

    Makeup water for drilling muds may contain elements which can adversely affect drilling-mud properties. This frequently occurs when mixing water from unidentified or unusual sources are used. This article examines some of the problems which may occur, and discusses precautions which may be taken to minimize the trouble and expense which could result from use the of ''bad'' makeup water. This work focuses primarily on production waters, and fluids used in completion procedures which are later used as mixing water for drilling muds. Problems associated with these waters include bacterial degradation of drilling-mud additive, and possible incompatibility between completion chemicals and some polymers used in drilling fluids.

  3. Benthic foraminiferal responses to operational drill cutting discharge in the SW Barents Sea - a case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aagaard-Sørensen, Steffen; Junttila, Juho; Dijkstra, Noortje

    2016-04-01

    Petroleum related exploration activities started in the Barents Sea 1980, reaching 97 exploration wells drilled per January 2013. The biggest operational discharge from drilling operations in the Barents Sea is the release of drill cuttings (crushed seabed and/or bedrock) and water based drilling muds including the commonly used weighing material barite (BaSO4). Barium (Ba), a constituent of barite, does not degrade and can be used to evaluate dispersion and accumulation of drill waste. The environmental impact associated with exploration drilling within the Goliat Field, SW Barents Sea in 2006 was evaluated via a multiproxy investigation of local sediments. The sediments were retrieved in November 2014 at ~350 meters water depth and coring sites were selected at distances of 5, 30, 60, 125 and 250 meters from the drill hole in the eastward downstream direction. The dispersion pattern of drill waste was estimated via measurements of sediment parameters including grain size distribution and water content in addition to heavy metal and total organic carbon contents. The environmental impact was evaluated via micro faunal analysis based on benthic foraminiferal (marine shell bearing protists) fauna composition and concentration changes. Observing the sediment parameters, most notably Ba levels, reveals that dispersion of drill waste was limited to <125 meters from the drill site with drill waste thicknesses decreasing downstream. The abruptness and quantity of drill waste sedimentation initially smothered the foraminiferal fauna at ≤ 30 meters from the drill site, while at a distance of 60 meters, the fauna seemingly survived and bioturbation persisted. Analysis of the live (Nov 2014) foraminiferal fauna reveals a natural species composition at all distances from the drill site within the top sediments (0-5 cm core depth). Furthermore, the fossil foraminiferal fauna composition found within post-impacted top sediment sections, particularly in the cores situated at

  4. Rock Drilling Performance Evaluation by an Energy Dissipation Based Rock Brittleness Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, H.; Taheri, A.; Chanda, E. K.

    2016-08-01

    To reliably estimate drilling performance both tool-rock interaction laws along with a proper rock brittleness index are required to be implemented. In this study, the performance of a single polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutter cutting and different drilling methods including PDC rotary drilling, roller-cone rotary drilling and percussive drilling were investigated. To investigate drilling performance by rock strength properties, laboratory PDC cutting tests were performed on different rocks to obtain cutting parameters. In addition, results of laboratory and field drilling on different rocks found elsewhere in literature were used. Laboratory and field cutting and drilling test results were coupled with values of a new rock brittleness index proposed herein and developed based on energy dissipation withdrawn from the complete stress-strain curve in uniaxial compression. To quantify cutting and drilling performance, the intrinsic specific energy in rotary-cutting action, i.e. the energy consumed in pure cutting action, and drilling penetration rate values in percussive action were used. The results show that the new energy-based brittleness index successfully describes the performance of different cutting and drilling methods and therefore is relevant to assess drilling performance for engineering applications.

  5. Horizontal axis windmill

    SciTech Connect

    Mundhenke, I.W.

    1984-05-22

    A base frame supports a horizontal shaft having one or more wind driven members secured thereon. Each of the wind driven members includes a shaft of light-weight framing and plurality of elongated longitudinally extending light-weight vanes having wind engaging surfaces. The vanes have a wind driving position on one side of the shaft and a return position of the other, and light-weight wind deflectors disposed at the front of the frame protecting the return position of the vanes from the wind. The wind deflectors are angularly adjustable whereby the deflected wind flowing off the longitudinal edges thereof is selectively directed against the vane surfaces in their driving position. The shaft has an output for operating a selected driven apparatus such as a generator. The base frame is rotatably supported on a pivot for selected adjustment relative to the wind.

  6. HORIZONTAL BOILING REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1958-11-18

    Reactors of the boiling water type are described wherein water serves both as the moderator and coolant. The reactor system consists essentially of a horizontal pressure vessel divided into two compartments by a weir, a thermal neutronic reactor core having vertical coolant passages and designed to use water as a moderator-coolant posltioned in one compartment, means for removing live steam from the other compartment and means for conveying feed-water and water from the steam compartment to the reactor compartment. The system further includes auxiliary apparatus to utilize the steam for driving a turbine and returning the condensate to the feed-water inlet of the reactor. The entire system is designed so that the reactor is self-regulating and has self-limiting power and self-limiting pressure features.

  7. Horizontally shaken impact pendulums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, T. J.; Xu, Y.; Sidhu, H.

    2016-03-01

    We consider two pendulum masses attached to the same pivot point and which interact with each other through Hertzian impacts. We show that this splitting of the mass leads to an instability in the conservative case, in which initially synchronized large amplitude motion may evolve into out-of-phase (impacting) motion. We then study in detail the response of the impacting masses in the presence of damping and driving through horizontal shaking of the pivot point. We find that synchronized modes are usually accompanied by small amplitude quasi-periodic, or even chaotic, impacts and a number of multi-period solutions may appear in the bifurcation diagram. We reveal the existence and stability of a number of impact modes and scan the frequency response of the system to a series of initial conditions to identify which modes may be more easily generated in experiment.

  8. Horizontal-well technology for enhanced recovery in very mature, depletion-drive gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, A.W.; Davis, F.A.; Elrod, J.P.; Rhodes, S.L. Jr.; Singh, S.P.

    1998-02-01

    Horizontal-well technology has been applied successfully to exploit reservoirs with thin beds, low-permeability zones, and natural fractures and in high-cost areas and zones with water coming. Horizontal technology has been used to enhance ultimate gas recovery in a very mature, low-pressure zone in the lower Pettit horizon at Carthage field, Panola County, Texas. The Pirkle-2 well was drilled to test the concept that a horizontal well could enhance ultimate recovery by lowering the final abandonment pressure in a very mature, depletion-drive gas reservoir. Many of the older lower Pettit wells have been abandoned because production rates dropped to less than 60 mcf/D. These wells usually produced from thinner pay intervals in the field. Drilling wells to the deeper Cotton Valley sands during the past 20 years has furnished new log information about the Pettit zone and has significantly increased the understanding about this formation. In Oxy U.S.A. Inc.`s portion of the field, several recent replacement wells drilled in thicker pay sections resulted in a substantial improvement in well deliverabilities over that in the older wells. This discovery is what led to the idea of drilling a horizontal well to improve ultimate gas recovery.

  9. OM300 Direction Drilling Module

    DOE Data Explorer

    MacGugan, Doug

    2013-08-22

    OM300 – Geothermal Direction Drilling Navigation Tool: Design and produce a prototype directional drilling navigation tool capable of high temperature operation in geothermal drilling Accuracies of 0.1° Inclination and Tool Face, 0.5° Azimuth Environmental Ruggedness typical of existing oil/gas drilling Multiple Selectable Sensor Ranges High accuracy for navigation, low bandwidth High G-range & bandwidth for Stick-Slip and Chirp detection Selectable serial data communications Reduce cost of drilling in high temperature Geothermal reservoirs Innovative aspects of project Honeywell MEMS* Vibrating Beam Accelerometers (VBA) APS Flux-gate Magnetometers Honeywell Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) High-temperature electronics Rugged High-temperature capable package and assembly process

  10. Advances in core drilling technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, G.

    Some notable technical advances in drill design were reported at the meeting, held in Canada August 30-September 1, 1982, at the University of Calgary. Chief amongst these was a battery powered, computer assisted electromechanical core drill which has recently been used by the Danes in Greenland to continuously core to the base of the ice sheet at 2038 m. This is the deepest coring operation so far on the Greenland ice sheet. (The record for deep glacier drilling is held by the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory for the continuous coring through 2164 m of ice to bedrock at Byrd Station, Antarctica, in 1968). In early 1982, a current Soviet core drilling operation was reported to be at a depth of 2000 m at Vostok station, Antarctica, where the total ice thickness is about 4000 m; the goal of core drilling the entire ice thickness there could be achieved before the end of 1983.

  11. Jack-up rig for marine drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, S. R.

    1981-05-26

    This invention relates to a mobile drilling platform of the jack -up type equipped with a special system which allows the said drilling platform to work as a drilling derrick and alternatively as a hoisting crane rig for marine service.

  12. Horizontal well application in QGPC - Qatar, Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Jubralla, A.F.; Al-Omran, J.; Al-Omran, S.

    1995-08-01

    As with many other areas in the world, the application of horizontal well technology in Qatar has changed the {open_quotes}old time{close_quotes} reservoir development philosophy and approach. QGPC`s first experience with this technology was for increased injectivity in an upper Jurassic reservoir which is comprised by alternating high and low permeable layers. The first well drilled in 1990 offshore was an extreme success and the application was justified for fieldwide implementation. Huge costs were saved as a result. This was followed by 2 horizontal wells for increased productivity in a typically tight (< 5 mD) chalky limestone of Cretaceous age. A fourth offshore well drilled in a thin (30 ft) and tight (10-100 mD) Jurassic dolomite overlaying a stack of relatively thick (25-70 ft) and {open_quotes}Watered Out{close_quotes} grain and grain-packstones, (500-4500 mD) indicated another viable and successful application. A similar approach in the Onshore Dukhan field has been adopted for another Upper Jurassic reservoir. The reservoir is 80 ft thick and is being developed by vertical wells. However, permeability contrast between the upper and lower cycles had caused preferential production and hence injection across the lower cycles, leaving the upper cycles effectively undrained. Horizontal wells have resulted in productivity and injectivity improvements by a factor 3 to 5 that of vertical wells. Therefore a field wide development scheme is being implemented. 3D seismic and the imaging tools, such as the FMS, reconciled with horizontal cores have assisted in understanding the lateral variation and the macro and micro architectural and structural details of these reservoirs. Such tools are essential for the optimum design of horizontal wells.

  13. Large hole rotary drill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, J.L.; Calder, P.N.

    1996-12-31

    Large hole rotary drilling is one of the most common methods of producing blastholes in open pit mining. Large hole drilling generally refers to diameters from 9 to 17 inch (229 to 432 mm), however a considerable amount of rotary drilling is done in diameters from 6{1/2} to 9 inch (165 to 229 mm). These smaller diameters are especially prevalent in gold mining and quarrying. Rotary drills are major mining machines having substantial capital cost. Drill bit costs can also be high, depending on the bit type and formation being drilled. To keep unit costs low the drills must perform at a high productivity level. The most important factor in rotary drilling is the penetration rate. This paper discusses the factors affecting penetration rate. An empirical factor in rotary drilling is the penetration rate. This paper discusses the factors affecting penetration rate. An empirical factor is given for calculating the penetration rate based on rock strength, pulldown weight and the RPM. The importance of using modern drill performance monitoring systems to calibrate the penetration equation for specific rock formations is discussed. Adequate air delivered to the bottom of the hole is very important to achieving maximum penetration rates. If there is insufficient bailing velocity cuttings will not be transported from the bottom of the hole rapidly enough and the penetration rate is very likely to decrease. An expression for the balancing air velocity is given. The amount by which the air velocity must exceed the balancing velocity for effective operation is discussed. The effect of altitude on compressor size is also provided.

  14. Lunar drill footplate and casing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maassen, Erik C.; Hendrix, Thomas H.; Morrison, Eddie W.; Phillips, Rodrick B.; Le, Vu Quang; Works, Bruce A.

    1989-01-01

    To prevent hole collapse during lunar drilling operations, a casing has been devised of a graphite reinforced polyimide composite which will be able to withstand the lunar environment. Additionally, this casing will be inserted into the ground in segments two meters long which will penetrate the regolith simultaneously with the auger. The vertical action of the mobile platform will provide a downward force to the casing string through a special adaptor, giving the casing the needed impetus to sink the anticipated depth of ten meters. Casing segments will be connected with a simple snap arrangement. Excess casing will be cut off by a cylindrical cutting tool which will also transport the excess casing away from the hole. A footplate will be incorporated to grasp the auger rod string during rod segment additions or removals. The footplate grasping mechanism will consist of a set of vice-like arms, one end of each bearing threaded to a common power screw. The power screw will be threaded such that one end's thread pitch opposes that of the other end. The weight of the auger and rod string will be transmitted through the arms to the power screw and absorbed by a set of three ball bearing assemblies. The power screw will be driven by a one-half horsepower brushless motor actuated by radio control. The footplate will rest on four short legs and be anchored with pins that are an integral part of each leg.

  15. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  16. In vitro assessment of aiming bias in the frontal plane during orthopaedic drilling procedures.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, T; Heller, J; Farrell, M

    2015-04-18

    Drilling trials were performed using drilling boards incorporating pairs of 22 mm polyethylene tubes mounted horizontally. The tubes were premarked with 20, 0.5 mm deep notches along the centre of their upper surface representing the starting point for each drilling trial. Volunteers were instructed to drill 20 straight holes across the tube until they penetrated both walls. Kirschner wires were inserted through each of the drill holes until they made indentations into the base board. Deviation of each mark from mid-line was measured using digital callipers. The measured values were used to calculate deviation angles to the left (negative values) or right (positive values). Trials were performed with the drill and guide held in the surgeon's line-of-sight (LOS) and with 300 mm offset (OFF). A systematic error (aiming bias) was identified in all individuals. Overall, left-hander's drilling action was skewed to the left and right-hander's drilling action was skewed to the right. Using LOS technique, mean overall bias was 2.3° (range 0°-7.7°) to the left for left-handers and 1.5(o) (range 0.3°-3.1°) to the right for right-handers. Surprisingly, aiming bias was greater for LOS than for OFF, although the difference for this comparison was not statistically significant.

  17. A synopsis of environmental horizontal wells at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, M.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-07-01

    Seven horizontal wells for environmental remediation were installed at the Savannah River Site as part of an Integrated Demonstration Project sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development. The wells were used to demonstrate innovative remediation systems for the clean up of chlorinated organic solvent contamination in groundwater and the vadose zone. The wells were installed in four demonstrations of different horizontal drilling technologies. A short-radius petroleum industry technology, a modified petroleum industry technology (using a down-hole motor), a utility industry technology, and a river crossing technology were demonstrated. The goals of the demonstrations were to show the utility of horizontal wells in environmental remediation and further development of the technology required to install these wells. From the first demonstration in 1988 to the latest in 1991, there was significant evolution in horizontal drilling technology. The main technical challenges in the first demonstration were directional control during drilling and borehole instability. Through advancement of the technology these problems were overcome and did not affect the last demonstration. Those considering the use of horizontal wells for environmental remediation will benefit from the knowledge gained from these demonstrations.

  18. MWD tools improve drilling performance

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.D.

    1986-02-01

    Downhole measurement while drilling technology is changing the way many wells are drilled. The capability to understand what is occurring at the drill bit as it actually happens is improving drilling performance, safety, and ultimately cost effectiveness. MWD evolved because of the need to acquire real-time data at the well site. The technology was not developed by vendors as simply an ''add-on'' tool - something an operator didn't realize he needed. MWD, with state-of-the-art, rugged, electronic downhole tools, is the closest thing the petroleum industry has to aerospace engineering. The constraints placed on MWD tools are greater than any other downhole tool-including wireline electric logs - because they are in the hole for long durations, operating under severe hole conditions. MWD tools were first used to monitor directional drilling operations on a real-time basis, More recently vendors have developed formation capabilities for MWD. Tools capable of measuring other drilling parameters such as weight on bit and downhole torque and pressure are also available. MWD technology continues to advance rapidly as the second and third generation of tools and equipment are introduced. Improvements are coming in many areas, but the biggest change will be in the development of new surface equipment to analyze retrieved data. For several years, MWD has been providing a reliable and accurate stream of real-time data from downhole. New software packages for surface equipment will allow the data to be analyzed in new ways to improve drilling efficiencies.

  19. Vibration excitation and energy transfer during ultrasonically assisted drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babitsky, V. I.; Astashev, V. K.; Meadows, A.

    2007-12-01

    Successful application of ultrasonically assisted drilling needs dynamic matching of the transducer with the drill bit considered as a continuous system loaded by the nonlinear processing load. When using standard tools this leads to the compatible choice of the transducer and accurate matching of the transducer and tool. The principal dynamical features of this matching are considered. Optimal position of excitation cross section of the drill bit, which depends on the relationship between elasto-dissipative characteristics of the transducer, the drill bit and the work load, is found in general analytical form. The optimal matching preserves the resonant tuning of the transducer and compensates the additional energy losses in the drill bit and processing. This produces also an amplification of vibration amplitude. The effect is achieved through the generation and maintenance of a nonlinear resonant mode of vibration and by active matching of the oscillating system with the dynamic loads imposed by the cutting process with the help of the intelligent electronic feedback circuitry. A prototype of an ultrasonic drilling system has been designed, manufactured. and tested. Improvements of machining characteristics due to superposition of ultrasonic vibration are demonstrated. Substantial improvements in the cutting performance of drill bits lead to benefits in drilling performance, which include faster penetration rates, reduction of tool wear, improvements in the surface finish, roundness and straightness of holes and, in ductile materials, the reduction or even complete elimination of burrs on both the entrance and exit faces of plates. The reduction in the reactive force experienced also causes greatly reduced deformation when drilling through thin, flexible plates and helps to alleviate delamination hazard.

  20. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 2: Applications overview, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume 1 of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA and 88 in Canada. Operators` responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  1. Statistical Analysis for Subjective and Objective Evaluations of Dental Drill Sounds.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomomi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Ebisu, Shigeyuki; Hayashi, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    The sound produced by a dental air turbine handpiece (dental drill) can markedly influence the sound environment in a dental clinic. Indeed, many patients report that the sound of a dental drill elicits an unpleasant feeling. Although several manufacturers have attempted to reduce the sound pressure levels produced by dental drills during idling based on ISO 14457, the sound emitted by such drills under active drilling conditions may negatively influence the dental clinic sound environment. The physical metrics related to the unpleasant impressions associated with dental drill sounds have not been determined. In the present study, psychological measurements of dental drill sounds were conducted with the aim of facilitating improvement of the sound environment at dental clinics. Specifically, we examined the impressions elicited by the sounds of 12 types of dental drills in idling and drilling conditions using a semantic differential. The analysis revealed that the impressions of dental drill sounds varied considerably between idling and drilling conditions and among the examined drills. This finding suggests that measuring the sound of a dental drill in idling conditions alone may be insufficient for evaluating the effects of the sound. We related the results of the psychological evaluations to those of measurements of the physical metrics of equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure levels (LAeq) and sharpness. Factor analysis indicated that impressions of the dental drill sounds consisted of two factors: "metallic and unpleasant" and "powerful". LAeq had a strong relationship with "powerful impression", calculated sharpness was positively related to "metallic impression", and "unpleasant impression" was predicted by the combination of both LAeq and calculated sharpness. The present analyses indicate that, in addition to a reduction in sound pressure level, refining the frequency components of dental drill sounds is important for creating a comfortable sound

  2. Statistical Analysis for Subjective and Objective Evaluations of Dental Drill Sounds.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomomi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Ebisu, Shigeyuki; Hayashi, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    The sound produced by a dental air turbine handpiece (dental drill) can markedly influence the sound environment in a dental clinic. Indeed, many patients report that the sound of a dental drill elicits an unpleasant feeling. Although several manufacturers have attempted to reduce the sound pressure levels produced by dental drills during idling based on ISO 14457, the sound emitted by such drills under active drilling conditions may negatively influence the dental clinic sound environment. The physical metrics related to the unpleasant impressions associated with dental drill sounds have not been determined. In the present study, psychological measurements of dental drill sounds were conducted with the aim of facilitating improvement of the sound environment at dental clinics. Specifically, we examined the impressions elicited by the sounds of 12 types of dental drills in idling and drilling conditions using a semantic differential. The analysis revealed that the impressions of dental drill sounds varied considerably between idling and drilling conditions and among the examined drills. This finding suggests that measuring the sound of a dental drill in idling conditions alone may be insufficient for evaluating the effects of the sound. We related the results of the psychological evaluations to those of measurements of the physical metrics of equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure levels (LAeq) and sharpness. Factor analysis indicated that impressions of the dental drill sounds consisted of two factors: "metallic and unpleasant" and "powerful". LAeq had a strong relationship with "powerful impression", calculated sharpness was positively related to "metallic impression", and "unpleasant impression" was predicted by the combination of both LAeq and calculated sharpness. The present analyses indicate that, in addition to a reduction in sound pressure level, refining the frequency components of dental drill sounds is important for creating a comfortable sound

  3. Statistical Analysis for Subjective and Objective Evaluations of Dental Drill Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Tomomi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Ebisu, Shigeyuki; Hayashi, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    The sound produced by a dental air turbine handpiece (dental drill) can markedly influence the sound environment in a dental clinic. Indeed, many patients report that the sound of a dental drill elicits an unpleasant feeling. Although several manufacturers have attempted to reduce the sound pressure levels produced by dental drills during idling based on ISO 14457, the sound emitted by such drills under active drilling conditions may negatively influence the dental clinic sound environment. The physical metrics related to the unpleasant impressions associated with dental drill sounds have not been determined. In the present study, psychological measurements of dental drill sounds were conducted with the aim of facilitating improvement of the sound environment at dental clinics. Specifically, we examined the impressions elicited by the sounds of 12 types of dental drills in idling and drilling conditions using a semantic differential. The analysis revealed that the impressions of dental drill sounds varied considerably between idling and drilling conditions and among the examined drills. This finding suggests that measuring the sound of a dental drill in idling conditions alone may be insufficient for evaluating the effects of the sound. We related the results of the psychological evaluations to those of measurements of the physical metrics of equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure levels (LAeq) and sharpness. Factor analysis indicated that impressions of the dental drill sounds consisted of two factors: “metallic and unpleasant” and “powerful”. LAeq had a strong relationship with “powerful impression”, calculated sharpness was positively related to “metallic impression”, and “unpleasant impression” was predicted by the combination of both LAeq and calculated sharpness. The present analyses indicate that, in addition to a reduction in sound pressure level, refining the frequency components of dental drill sounds is important for creating

  4. Drilling tools for continuous offshore operations

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfgat, M.Y.; Surkov, D.V.; Buyanovsky, I.N.

    1995-12-31

    Offshore drilling tools are still the object of improvement aimed in achieving maximum production or scientific effect of minimum costs. One of perspective ways of improving offshore scientific drilling indices is utilization of drilling systems which provide continuous hole penetration without pulling out the drill string aboard of drill vessel for bit replacement. The report presents specific features of the drilling tools supplying Complete Coring System (CCS) operations. CCS can provide continuous coring and drilling as well as logging in any geological profiles from the soft to very hard formations. One of the basic principles in coring is slimhole pilot drilling, thus giving many advantages. Development of drilling tools for CCS is based upon vast experience in designing drilling tools, including the retractable bits. In perspective CCS can be applied in stratigraphic and scientific drilling in deep water, especially in complicated geological conditions.

  5. Artic ice and drilling structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sodhl, D.S.

    1985-04-01

    The sea ice in the southern Beaufort Sea is examined and subdivided into three zones: the fast ice zone, the seasonal pack-ice zone, an the polar pack ice zone. Each zone requires its own type of system. Existing floating drilling systems include ice-strengthened drill ships, conical drilling systems, and floating ice platforms in deep-water land-fast ice. The development of hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic presents great challenges to engineers, since the structures are required to operate safely under various conditions. Significant progress has yet to be made in understanding the behavior of ice.

  6. Inferring horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Ravenhall, Matt; Škunca, Nives; Lassalle, Florent; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2015-05-01

    Horizontal or Lateral Gene Transfer (HGT or LGT) is the transmission of portions of genomic DNA between organisms through a process decoupled from vertical inheritance. In the presence of HGT events, different fragments of the genome are the result of different evolutionary histories. This can therefore complicate the investigations of evolutionary relatedness of lineages and species. Also, as HGT can bring into genomes radically different genotypes from distant lineages, or even new genes bearing new functions, it is a major source of phenotypic innovation and a mechanism of niche adaptation. For example, of particular relevance to human health is the lateral transfer of antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity determinants, leading to the emergence of pathogenic lineages. Computational identification of HGT events relies upon the investigation of sequence composition or evolutionary history of genes. Sequence composition-based ("parametric") methods search for deviations from the genomic average, whereas evolutionary history-based ("phylogenetic") approaches identify genes whose evolutionary history significantly differs from that of the host species. The evaluation and benchmarking of HGT inference methods typically rely upon simulated genomes, for which the true history is known. On real data, different methods tend to infer different HGT events, and as a result it can be difficult to ascertain all but simple and clear-cut HGT events. PMID:26020646

  7. Inferring Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lassalle, Florent; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal or Lateral Gene Transfer (HGT or LGT) is the transmission of portions of genomic DNA between organisms through a process decoupled from vertical inheritance. In the presence of HGT events, different fragments of the genome are the result of different evolutionary histories. This can therefore complicate the investigations of evolutionary relatedness of lineages and species. Also, as HGT can bring into genomes radically different genotypes from distant lineages, or even new genes bearing new functions, it is a major source of phenotypic innovation and a mechanism of niche adaptation. For example, of particular relevance to human health is the lateral transfer of antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity determinants, leading to the emergence of pathogenic lineages [1]. Computational identification of HGT events relies upon the investigation of sequence composition or evolutionary history of genes. Sequence composition-based ("parametric") methods search for deviations from the genomic average, whereas evolutionary history-based ("phylogenetic") approaches identify genes whose evolutionary history significantly differs from that of the host species. The evaluation and benchmarking of HGT inference methods typically rely upon simulated genomes, for which the true history is known. On real data, different methods tend to infer different HGT events, and as a result it can be difficult to ascertain all but simple and clear-cut HGT events. PMID:26020646

  8. Effective dust control systems on concrete dowel drilling machinery.

    PubMed

    Echt, Alan S; Sanderson, Wayne T; Mead, Kenneth R; Feng, H Amy; Farwick, Daniel R; Farwick, Dawn Ramsey

    2016-09-01

    Rotary-type percussion dowel drilling machines, which drill horizontal holes in concrete pavement, have been documented to produce respirable crystalline silica concentrations above recommended exposure criteria. This places operators at potential risk for developing health effects from exposure. United States manufacturers of these machines offer optional dust control systems. The effectiveness of the dust control systems to reduce respirable dust concentrations on two types of drilling machines was evaluated under controlled conditions with the machines operating inside large tent structures in an effort to eliminate secondary exposure sources not related to the dowel-drilling operation. Area air samples were collected at breathing zone height at three locations around each machine. Through equal numbers of sampling rounds with the control systems randomly selected to be on or off, the control systems were found to significantly reduce respirable dust concentrations from a geometric mean of 54 mg per cubic meter to 3.0 mg per cubic meter on one machine and 57 mg per cubic meter to 5.3 mg per cubic meter on the other machine. This research shows that the dust control systems can dramatically reduce respirable dust concentrations by over 90% under controlled conditions. However, these systems need to be evaluated under actual work conditions to determine their effectiveness in reducing worker exposures to crystalline silica below hazardous levels.

  9. Effective dust control systems on concrete dowel drilling machinery.

    PubMed

    Echt, Alan S; Sanderson, Wayne T; Mead, Kenneth R; Feng, H Amy; Farwick, Daniel R; Farwick, Dawn Ramsey

    2016-09-01

    Rotary-type percussion dowel drilling machines, which drill horizontal holes in concrete pavement, have been documented to produce respirable crystalline silica concentrations above recommended exposure criteria. This places operators at potential risk for developing health effects from exposure. United States manufacturers of these machines offer optional dust control systems. The effectiveness of the dust control systems to reduce respirable dust concentrations on two types of drilling machines was evaluated under controlled conditions with the machines operating inside large tent structures in an effort to eliminate secondary exposure sources not related to the dowel-drilling operation. Area air samples were collected at breathing zone height at three locations around each machine. Through equal numbers of sampling rounds with the control systems randomly selected to be on or off, the control systems were found to significantly reduce respirable dust concentrations from a geometric mean of 54 mg per cubic meter to 3.0 mg per cubic meter on one machine and 57 mg per cubic meter to 5.3 mg per cubic meter on the other machine. This research shows that the dust control systems can dramatically reduce respirable dust concentrations by over 90% under controlled conditions. However, these systems need to be evaluated under actual work conditions to determine their effectiveness in reducing worker exposures to crystalline silica below hazardous levels. PMID:27074062

  10. Modular island drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmore, Sh. B.

    1985-04-16

    A gravity-type offshore structure, useful as an offshore drilling platform, e.g., is provided for use in ice-covered waters such as offshore of the Alaskan and Canadian North Slope. The structure is composed of a plurality of floatable and controllably ballastable modules, each of which can be fully submerged. The modules are stackable by selective ballasting and deballasting operations in a suitable sequence to define a mobile offshore structure. The structure is assemblable adjacent a site of use and is floatable after assembly to, from and between successive sites of use. At each site of use the assembled structure is ballasted by sea water to be supported by the sea floor and to have sufficient deadweight, in combination with its support by the sea floor, to stand against ice loads urging the structure laterally of the site. Major ones of the modules preferably are constructed of reinforced concrete arranged within the modules in a honeycomb cellular fashion. A reinforced concrete armor belt is removably installed around the structure at its on-site load waterline. The structure is useful in a range of water depths. The armor belt is mountable to the structure at a number of different elevations on the structure to suit differing on-site load waterline locations. Individual modules can be used with other modules of the same or different size in a series of offshore structures individually useful in a characteristic range of water depths.

  11. Understanding Horizontal Governance. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Horizontal governance is an umbrella term that covers a range of approaches to policy development, service delivery issues, and management practices. A horizontal initiative may take place across levels of government, across boundaries between units of a single department or agency or among multiple departments or agencies, or across public,…

  12. Spreading and deposition of drill cuttings in the Barents Sea - Plans of the Barents Sea drill cuttings research initiative (BARCUT) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junttila, Juho; Aagaard Sørensen, Steffen; Dijkstra, Noortje

    2016-04-01

    The increasing petroleum exploration activity in the Barents Sea will lead to increased release of drill cuttings onto the ocean bottom in the future. Drilling mud consists of both drilling fluid with contaminants and fine sediments. This increasing discharge of drill cuttings provides a need for further knowledge of ocean current transportation of both contaminants and fine sediment particles (clay and silt), their impact on microfauna and the prediction of their accumulation areas. The main object is to study the current status of the sediments and microfauna exposed to different types of drill cuttings in the proximity of drilled exploration wells. Detailed objectives are: 1) To identify the main physical and geochemical characteristics of the sediments near the drilled wells including main areas for drill cutting accumulation and the influence of ocean currents on sediments and drill cuttings; 2) To identify the influence of drill cutting discharge on benthic foraminifera; 3) Monitoring and prediction of future spreading, accumulation and distribution of drill cutting related pollutants. We have conducted two field sampling campaigns, and in total visited seven drilling sites, ranging in age from recently drilled (in 2015) to nearly 30 years since abandonment. In this project, we study mainly push cores taken with a remote operated underwater vehicle (ROV) in the close proximity of exploration wells in the SW Barents Sea. We will determine the modern sedimentation rates based on the ²¹°Pb dating method. We analyze sediment grain-size, heavy metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents. Additionally analysis on benthic foraminifera, smectite clay minerals and the total organic carbon (TOC) content will be performed.

  13. DOE HIGH-POWER SLIM-HOLE DRILLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. William C. Maurer; John H. Cohen; J. Chris Hetmaniak; Curtis Leitko

    1999-09-01

    This project used a systems approach to improve slim-hole drilling performance. A high power mud motor, having a double-length power section, and hybrid PDC/TSP drill bit were developed to deliver maximum horsepower to the rock while providing a long life down hole. This high-power slim-hole drilling system drills much faster than conventional slim-hole motor and bit combinations and holds significant potential to reduce slim-hole drilling costs. The oil and gas industries have been faced with downward price pressures since the 1980s. These pressures are not expected to be relieved in the near future. To maintain profitability, companies have had to find ways to reduce the costs of producing oil and gas. Drilling is one of the more costly operations in the production process. One method to reduce costs of drilling is to use smaller more mobile equipment. Slim holes have been drilled in the past using this principle. These wells can save money not only from the use of smaller drilling equipment, but also from reduced tubular costs. Stepping down even one casing size results in significant savings. However, slim holes have not found wide spread use for three reasons. First, until recently, the price of oil has been high so there were no forces to move the industry in this direction. Second, small roller bits and motors were not very reliable and they drilled slowly, removing much of the economic benefit. The third and final reason was the misconception that large holes were needed everywhere to deliver the desired production. Several factors have changed that will encourage the use of slim holes. The industry now favors any method of reducing the costs of producing oil and gas. In addition, the industry now understands that large holes are not always needed. Gas, in particular, can have high production rates in smaller holes. New materials now make it possible to manufacture improved bits and motors that drill for long periods at high rates. All that remains is to

  14. Geothermal drilling in Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez A., Bernardo

    1982-08-10

    The number of characteristics of the different wells that have been drilled in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field to date enable one to summarize the basic factors in the applied technology, draw some conclusions, improve systems and procedures, and define some problems that have not yet been satisfactorily solved, although the existing solution is the best now available. For all practical purposes, the 100 wells drilled in the three areas or blocks into which the Cerro Prieto field has been divided have been completed. Both exploratory and production wells have been drilled; problems of partial or total lack of control have made it necessary to abandon some of these wells, since they were unsafe to keep in production or even to be used for observation and/or study. The wells and their type, the type of constructed wells and the accumulative meters that have been drilled for such wells are summarized.

  15. Simulation of Martian Bedrock Drilling

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts NASA's Mars rover Curiosity drilling a hole tocollect a rock-powder sample at a target site called "John Klein."Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech› Curiosity's mission site › ...

  16. Performance of drill string hardfacings

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, J.S.; Bolton, J.

    1984-06-01

    Drill string hardfacings are composites of steel and tungsten carbide applied by welding techniques. This paper discusses the important variables involved and gives experimental results for casing wear and abrasive wear resistance.

  17. Toroidal coupled measurements while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.C.

    1983-02-01

    When drilling a well, data from downhole is currently brought to the surface primarily by mud pulse or wireline systems. This paper describes a unique system to accomplish this data transmission through the use of Electro-Magnetics (EM).

  18. Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The figure depicts a portable, hand-held power drill with its attached power-supply unit, in which ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, are used to store energy. This ultra capacitor-powered drill is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy-consuming devices in optimal configurations.

  19. 30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jet drills. 56.7801 Section 56.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with— (a) A system...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1009 - Drill; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill; operation. 77.1009 Section 77.1009... Control § 77.1009 Drill; operation. (a) While in operation drills shall be attended at all times. (b) Men shall not drill from positions that hinder their access to the control levers, or from insecure...

  1. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  2. 30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jet drills. 56.7801 Section 56.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with— (a) A system...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1009 - Drill; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill; operation. 77.1009 Section 77.1009... Control § 77.1009 Drill; operation. (a) While in operation drills shall be attended at all times. (b) Men shall not drill from positions that hinder their access to the control levers, or from insecure...

  4. 30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jet drills. 57.7801 Section 57.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with: (a)...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1009 - Drill; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill; operation. 77.1009 Section 77.1009... Control § 77.1009 Drill; operation. (a) While in operation drills shall be attended at all times. (b) Men shall not drill from positions that hinder their access to the control levers, or from insecure...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1009 - Drill; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill; operation. 77.1009 Section 77.1009... Control § 77.1009 Drill; operation. (a) While in operation drills shall be attended at all times. (b) Men shall not drill from positions that hinder their access to the control levers, or from insecure...

  7. 30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jet drills. 56.7801 Section 56.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with— (a) A system...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1009 - Drill; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill; operation. 77.1009 Section 77.1009... Control § 77.1009 Drill; operation. (a) While in operation drills shall be attended at all times. (b) Men shall not drill from positions that hinder their access to the control levers, or from insecure...

  9. 30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jet drills. 56.7801 Section 56.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with— (a) A system...

  10. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  11. 30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jet drills. 57.7801 Section 57.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with: (a)...

  12. 30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jet drills. 56.7801 Section 56.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with— (a) A system...

  13. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  14. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  15. 30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jet drills. 57.7801 Section 57.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with: (a)...

  16. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  17. 30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jet drills. 57.7801 Section 57.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with: (a)...

  18. 30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jet drills. 57.7801 Section 57.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with: (a)...

  19. Adjustable drill bar replaces complex jigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coventry, J. H.

    1970-01-01

    Adjustable drill bar incorporates a micrometer screw which, when used in conjunction with standard gage blocks, provides rapid method of drill hole location and reduces time and skill requirements for precision drilling on large surfaces. Device picks up oddly dimensioned tool hole points and acts as sine drill bar.

  20. Deep drilling for geothermal energy in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2016-04-01

    There is a societal request to find renewable CO2-free energy resources. One of the biggest such resources is provided by geothermal energy. In addition to shallow ground heat already extensively used in Finland, deep geothermal energy provides an alternative so far not exploited. Temperatures are high at depth, but the challenge is, how to mine the heat? In this presentation, the geological and geophysical conditions for deep geothermal energy production in Finland are discussed as well as challenges for drilling and conditions at depth for geothermal energy production. Finland is located on ancient bedrock with much lower temperatures than geologically younger volcanically and tectonically active areas. In order to reach sufficiently high temperatures drilling to depths of several kilometres are needed. Further, mining of the heat with, e.g., the principle of Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) requires high hydraulic conductivity for efficient circulation of fluid in natural or artificial fractures of the rock. There are many issues that must be solved and/or improved: Drilling technology, the EGS concept, rock stress and hydraulic fracturing, scale formation, induced seismicity and ground movements, possible microbial activity, etc. An industry-funded pilot project currently in progress in southern Finland is shortly introduced.

  1. Four rigs refurbished for West Africa drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-10

    In April and May 1990, Shell Petroleum Development Co. of Nigeria Ltd. awarded Noble Drilling West Africa Inc. four separate contracts to drill oil and gas wells in the inland waterways of Nigeria. The contracted rigs included a shallow water jack up, the NN-1, and three posted barges, the Gene Rosser, the Chuck Syring, and the Lewis Dugger. The jack up was built in 1978, and the three posted barges are 1980s vintage. Three of the rigs have been idle for a number of years. The Shell Nigeria contracts required major modifications to the rigs before putting them into international service. Noble replaced or refurbished all major pieces of equipment in the drilling, power, and service systems on the rigs. Rig crews serviced all other equipment. A significant amount of general service piping and electrical wiring was replaced. Each rig also required additional motor control centers to support the new drilling and mud processing equipment. Alfa-Laval waste-heat water desalination plants and new sewage treatment units were installed on all four rigs. Because of the tidal variances and high silt conditions expected in the African waterways, all engine cooling systems were converted from heat exchangers to radiators. Rotary tables were made common on all rigs at 37 1/2 in. Noble had all traveling equipment completely inspected and modified as necessary. Strict attention was paid to certification and documentation of all equipment. Safety upgrades conformed to both Shell and Noble standards. Fire and gas detection systems were installed throughout each rig. Water and foam deluge systems were installed in the wellhead areas, and new foam systems and monitors were installed on the helldecks.

  2. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    DOEpatents

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2010-07-27

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  3. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    DOEpatents

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2008-06-24

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  4. Geothermal drilling research in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.; Maish, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    The high cost of drilling and completing geothermal wells is an impediment to the development of this resource. The Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE), is conducting an R and D program directed at reducing well costs through improvements in geothermal drilling and completion technology. This program includes R and D activities in high temperature drilling hardware, drilling fluids, lost circulation control methods, completion technology, and advanced drilling systems. An overview of the program is presented.

  5. "Push back" technique: A simple method to remove broken drill bit from the proximal femur.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Devendra K; Sharma, Siddhartha

    2015-11-18

    Broken drill bits can be difficult to remove from the proximal femur and may necessitate additional surgical exploration or special instrumentation. We present a simple technique to remove a broken drill bit that does not require any special instrumentation and can be accomplished through the existing incision. This technique is useful for those cases where the length of the broken drill bit is greater than the diameter of the bone.

  6. Ocean drilling program: Recent results and future drilling plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, P.D.; Francis, T.J.G.; Baldauf, J.G.; Allan, J.F.; Heise, E.A.; Seymour, J.C. )

    1993-02-01

    The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has completed 48 internationally-staffed expeditions of scientific ocean drilling in search of answers relating to the evolution of passive and active continental margins, evolution of oceanic crust, origin and evolution of marine sedimentary sequences, and paleoceanography. During the past year of drilling operations, ODP expeditions cored Cretaceous reef-bearing guyots of the Western Pacific, with the objective of using them as monitors of relative sea-level changes and thereby of the combined effects of the tectonic subsidence (and uplift) history of the seamounts and of global fluctuations of sea level (Legs 143 and 144); studied high-resolution variations of surface and deep-water circulation and chemistry during the Neogene, the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic history of atmospheric circulation, ocean chemistry, and continental climate, and the age and nature of the seafloor in the North Pacific (Leg 145); studied the relationship between fluid flow and tectonics in the accretionary wedge formed at the Cascadia convergent plate boundary off Vancouver and Oregon (Leg 146); drilled in Hess Deep to understand igneous, tectonic and metamorphic evolution of fast spreading oceanic crust and to understand the processes of rifting in young ocean crust (Leg 147); and continued efforts at Hole 504B at 2,000 mbsf, the deepest hole they have beneath seafloor (Leg 148). After Leg 148 (March 1993), the JOIDES Resolution will commence an Atlantic Ocean drilling campaign.

  7. Force and torque modelling of drilling simulation for orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    MacAvelia, Troy; Ghasempoor, Ahmad; Janabi-Sharifi, Farrokh

    2014-01-01

    The advent of haptic simulation systems for orthopaedic surgery procedures has provided surgeons with an excellent tool for training and preoperative planning purposes. This is especially true for procedures involving the drilling of bone, which require a great amount of adroitness and experience due to difficulties arising from vibration and drill bit breakage. One of the potential difficulties with the drilling of bone is the lack of consistent material evacuation from the drill's flutes as the material tends to clog. This clogging leads to significant increases in force and torque experienced by the surgeon. Clogging was observed for feed rates greater than 0.5 mm/s and spindle speeds less than 2500 rpm. The drilling simulation systems that have been created to date do not address the issue of drill flute clogging. This paper presents force and torque prediction models that account for this phenomenon. The two coefficients of friction required by these models were determined via a set of calibration experiments. The accuracy of both models was evaluated by an additional set of validation experiments resulting in average R² regression correlation values of 0.9546 and 0.9209 for the force and torque prediction models, respectively. The resulting models can be adopted by haptic simulation systems to provide a more realistic tactile output. PMID:23167723

  8. Drill stem steels for use in geothermal environments

    SciTech Connect

    Salzbrenner, R.

    1980-01-01

    Steels which are used in drill stem for conventional drilling have been selected primarily to satisfy certain static strength requirements and cost considerations. As the environments in which drilling is performed become more severe (e.g., in geothermal fluids) additional considerations must be given to the design of alloys which are resistant to general corrosion, stress corrosion, and corrosion fatigue. General design considerations for steel alloys which should provide an enhanced resistance to geothermal drilling operations are presented. These considerations include discussion of the chemistry and metallurgical substructure, and how their variation affects the mechanical and corrosion properties of steel used for drill stem applications. A duplex ferritic-martensitic steel has an advantageous combination of compositional and microstructural features which should lead to improved chemical resistance (particularly to hydrogen sulfide) as well as provide a good combination of strength and toughness properties. This duplex steel is based on the iron-2.0 weight percent silicon-0.1 weight percent carbon system, and offers the potential of enhanced performance in geothermal drilling as well as low alloy cost.

  9. Mineral resources: Research objectives for continental scientific drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The importance of a scientific drilling program to study mineralized hydrothermal systems has been emphasized in numerous workshops and symposia. To some degree the present report, prepared by the Panel on Mineral Resources of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee, both reinforces and expands upon earlier recommendations. The report of the Los Alamos workshop, Continental Scientific Drilling Program, placed a major emphasis on maximizing the industry and government, supplementing these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purposes. Although the present report notes the importance of opportunities for scientific investigations added on to current, mission-oriented drilling activities, the Panel on Mineral Resources recognized that such opportunities are limited and thus focused on holes dedicated to broad scientific objectives. In the present report, the panel has developed a program that will provide answers to many scientific questions that have existed for almost 100 years concerning mineralized hydrothermal systems. The committee notes that research drilling may lead to results in addition to those anticipated, results that will provide new directions and ideas of equal or greater value that those basic ones originally posed. 58 refs.

  10. Waste and cost reduction using dual wall reverse circulation drilling with multi-level groundwater sampling for contaminant plume delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Smuin, D.R.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes the drilling and sampling methods used to delineate a groundwater contaminant plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) during the Groundwater Monitoring IV characterization. The project was unique in that it relied upon dual wall reverse circulation drilling instead of the traditional hollow stem auger method. The Groundwater Monitoring program sought to characterize the boundaries, both vertically and horizontally, of the northeast plume which contains both {sup 99}Tc and trichloroethene. This paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the drilling method used by investigators.

  11. Lateral Drilling and Completion Technologies for Shallow-Shelf Carbonates of the Red River and Ratcliffe Formations, Williston Basin

    SciTech Connect

    David Gibbons; Larry A. Carrell; Richard D. George

    1997-07-31

    Luff Exploration Company (LEC) focused on involvement in technologies being developed utilizing horizontal drilling concepts to enhance oil- well productivity starting in 1992. Initial efforts were directed toward high-pressure lateral jetting techniques to be applied in existing vertical wells. After involvement in several failed field attempts with jetting technologies, emphasis shifted to application of emerging technologies for drilling short-radius laterals in existing wellbores and medium-radius technologies in new wells. These lateral drilling technologies were applied in the Mississippi Ratcliffe and Ordovician Red River formations at depths of 2590 to 2890 m (8500 to 9500 ft) in Richland Co., MT; Bowman Co., ND; and Harding Co., SD.

  12. Horizontal and Vertical Line Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Pat

    2003-01-01

    Presents an art lesson in which students learn about the artist Piet Mondrian and create their own abstract artworks. Focuses on geometric shapes using horizontal and vertical lines. Includes background information about the artist. (CMK)

  13. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A CO2 FLOOD UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL INJECTION WELLS IN A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE APPROACHING WATERFLOOD DEPLETION

    SciTech Connect

    K.J. Harpole; Ed G. Durrett; Susan Snow; J.S. Bles; Carlon Robertson; C.D. Caldwell; D.J. Harms; R.L. King; B.A. Baldwin; D. Wegener; M. Navarrette

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO{sub 2} horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields. The Unit was a mature waterflood with water cut exceeding 95%. Oil must be mobilized through the use of a miscible or near-miscible fluid to recover significant additional reserves. Also, because the unit was relatively small, it did not have the benefit of economies of scale inherent in normal larger scale projects. Thus, new and innovative methods were required to reduce investment and operating costs. Two primary methods used to accomplish improved economics were use of reservoir characterization to restrict the flood to the higher quality rock in the unit and use of horizontal injection wells to cut investment and operating costs. The project consisted of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. In this phase Reservoir Analysis, Characterization Tasks and Advanced Technology Definition Tasks were completed. Completion enabled the project to be designed, evaluated, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation submitted to working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consisted of the implementation and execution of the project in the field. Phase II was completed in July 2001. Performance monitoring, during Phase II, by mid 1998 identified the majority of producing wells which under performed their anticipated withdrawal rates. Newly drilled and re-activated wells had lower offtake rates than originally forecasted. As a result of poor offtake, higher reservoir pressure was a concern

  14. Berengario's drill: origin and inspiration.

    PubMed

    Chorney, Michael A; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2014-04-01

    Craniotomies are among the oldest neurosurgical procedures, as evidenced by early human skulls discovered with holes in the calvaria. Though devices change, the principles to safely transgress the skull are identical. Modern neurosurgeons regularly use electric power drills in the operating theater; however, nonelectric trephining instruments remain trusted by professionals in certain emergent settings in the rare instance that an electric drill is unavailable. Until the late Middle Ages, innovation in craniotomy instrumentation remained stunted without much documented redesign. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's (c. 1457-1530 CE) text Tractatus de Fractura Calvae sive Cranei depicts a drill previously unseen in a medical volume. Written in 1518 CE, the book was motivated by defeat over the course of Lorenzo II de'Medici's medical care. Berengario's interchangeable bit with a compound brace ("vertibulum"), known today as the Hudson brace, symbolizes a pivotal device in neurosurgery and medical tool design. This drill permitted surgeons to stock multiple bits, perform the craniotomy faster, and decrease equipment costs during a period of increased incidence of cranial fractures, and thus the need for craniotomies, which was attributable to the introduction of gunpowder. The inspiration stemmed from a school of thought growing within a population of physicians trained as mathematicians, engineers, and astrologers prior to entering the medical profession. Berengario may have been the first to record the use of such a unique drill, but whether he invented this instrument or merely adapted its use for the craniotomy remains clouded.

  15. Berengario's drill: origin and inspiration.

    PubMed

    Chorney, Michael A; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2014-04-01

    Craniotomies are among the oldest neurosurgical procedures, as evidenced by early human skulls discovered with holes in the calvaria. Though devices change, the principles to safely transgress the skull are identical. Modern neurosurgeons regularly use electric power drills in the operating theater; however, nonelectric trephining instruments remain trusted by professionals in certain emergent settings in the rare instance that an electric drill is unavailable. Until the late Middle Ages, innovation in craniotomy instrumentation remained stunted without much documented redesign. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's (c. 1457-1530 CE) text Tractatus de Fractura Calvae sive Cranei depicts a drill previously unseen in a medical volume. Written in 1518 CE, the book was motivated by defeat over the course of Lorenzo II de'Medici's medical care. Berengario's interchangeable bit with a compound brace ("vertibulum"), known today as the Hudson brace, symbolizes a pivotal device in neurosurgery and medical tool design. This drill permitted surgeons to stock multiple bits, perform the craniotomy faster, and decrease equipment costs during a period of increased incidence of cranial fractures, and thus the need for craniotomies, which was attributable to the introduction of gunpowder. The inspiration stemmed from a school of thought growing within a population of physicians trained as mathematicians, engineers, and astrologers prior to entering the medical profession. Berengario may have been the first to record the use of such a unique drill, but whether he invented this instrument or merely adapted its use for the craniotomy remains clouded. PMID:24684339

  16. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; McInnes, Ian D.; Massey, John V.

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  17. DAME: planetary-prototype drilling automation.

    PubMed

    Glass, B; Cannon, H; Branson, M; Hanagud, S; Paulsen, G

    2008-06-01

    We describe results from the Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project, including those of the summer 2006 tests from an Arctic analog site. The drill hardware is a hardened, evolved version of the Advanced Deep Drill by Honeybee Robotics. DAME has developed diagnostic and executive software for hands-off surface operations of the evolved version of this drill. The DAME drill automation tested from 2004 through 2006 included adaptively controlled drilling operations and the downhole diagnosis of drilling faults. It also included dynamic recovery capabilities when unexpected failures or drilling conditions were discovered. DAME has developed and tested drill automation software and hardware under stressful operating conditions during its Arctic field testing campaigns at a Mars analog site.

  18. Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project. High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbank, Brian D.; Smith, Nicole

    2015-06-10

    The Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project – High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling ran from January 29, 2010 to September 30, 2013. During Phase 1 of the project, collection of all geophysical surveys was completed as outlined in the Statement of Project Objectives. In addition, a 5000-foot full sized exploration well was drilled by Ormat, and preexisting drilling data was discovered for multiple temperature gradient wells within the project area. Three dimensional modeling and interpretation of results from the geophysical surveys and drilling data gave confidence to move to the project into Phase 2 drilling. Geological and geophysical survey interpretations combined with existing downhole temperature data provided an ideal target for the first slim-hole drilled as the first task in Phase 2. Slim-hole 35-34 was drilled in September 2011 and tested temperature, lithology, and permeability along the primary range-bounding fault zone near its intersection with buried northwest-trending faults that have been identified using geophysical methods. Following analysis of the results of the first slim-hole 35-34, the second slim hole was not drilled and subsequent project tasks, including flowing differential self-potential (FDSP) surveys that were designed to detail the affect of production and injection on water flow in the shallow aquifer, were not completed. NGP sold the Crump project to Ormat in August 2014, afterwards, there was insufficient time and interest from Ormat available to complete the project objectives. NGP was unable to continue managing the award for a project they did not own due to liability issues and Novation of the award was not a viable option due to federal award timelines. NGP submitted a request to mutually terminate the award on February 18, 2015. The results of all of the technical surveys and drilling are included in this report. Fault interpretations from surface geology, aeromag

  19. Framework for a comparative environmental assessment of drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.

    1998-11-01

    During the drilling of an oil or gas well, drilling fluid (or mud) is used to maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. In response to effluent limitation guidelines promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for discharge of drilling wastes offshore, alternatives to water and oil-based muds have been developed. These synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are more efficient than water-based muds (WBMs) for drilling difficult and complex formation intervals and have lower toxicity and smaller environmental impacts than diesel or conventional mineral oil-based muds (OBMs). A third category of drilling fluids, derived from petroleum and called enhanced mineral oils (EMOs), also have these advantages over the traditionally used OBMs and WBMs. EPA recognizes that SBMs and EMOs are new classes of drilling fluids, but their regulatory status is unclear. To address this uncertainty, EPA is following an innovative presumptive rulemaking process that will develop final regulations for SBM discharges offshore in less than three years. This report develops a framework for a comparative risk assessment for the discharge of SBMs and EMOs, to help support a risk-based, integrated approach to regulatory decision making. The framework will help identify potential impacts and benefits associated with the use of SBMs, EMOs, WBMs, and OBMs; identify areas where additional data are needed; and support early decision-making in the absence of complete data. As additional data becomes available, the framework can support a full quantitative comparative assessment. Detailed data are provided to support a comparative assessment in the areas of occupational and public health impacts.

  20. Infrared Spectral Observations While Drilling into a Frozen Lunar Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Thompson, Sarah; Cook, Amanda; Kleinhenz, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Past and continuing observations indicate an enrichment of volatile materials in lunar polar regions. While these volatiles may be located near the surface, access to them will likely require subsurface sampling, during which it is desirable to monitor the volatile content. In a simulation of such activities, a multilayer lunar simulant was prepared with differing water content, and placed inside a thermal vacuum chamber at Glenn Research Center (GRC). The soil profile was cooled using liquid nitrogen. In addition to the soil, a drill and infrared (IR) spectrometer (1600-3400 nm) were also located in the GRC chamber. We report the spectral observations obtained during a sequence where the drill was repeatedly inserted and extracted, to different depths, at the same location. We observe an overall increase in the spectral signature of water ice over the duration of the test. Additionally, we observe variations in the water ice spectral signature as the drill encounters different layers.

  1. Slimhole drilling for geothermal exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1994-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories manages the US Department of Energy program for slimhole drilling. The principal objective of this program is to expand proven geothermal reserves through increased exploration, made possible by lower-cost slimhole drilling. For this to be a valid exploration method, however, it is necessary to demonstrate that slimholes yield enough data to evaluate a geothermal reservoir, and that is the focus of Sandia`s current research. Sandia negotiated an agreement with Far West Capital, which operates the Steamboat Hills geothermal field, to drill and test an exploratory slimhole on their lease. The principal objectives for the slimhole were development of slimhole testing methods, comparison of slimhole data with that from adjacent production-size wells, and definition of possible higher-temperature production zones lying deeper than the existing wells.

  2. Research provides clues to hydrate formation and drilling-hazard solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Szczepanski, R.; Edmonds, B.; Brown, N.; Hamilton, T.

    1998-03-09

    Hydrate formation is a growing safety concern for offshore drilling programs, but, despite extensive laboratory research, pragmatic information is still lacking. Formation of hydrates in drilling fluids during a shut-in is the most likely hydrate-associated hazard in deep-water drilling, although the number of documented incidents is small. In addition to the known naturally forming hydrates, laboratory experiments have also identified heavier hydrocarbons found in oil and gas condensate systems and a new hydrate structure. These two factors may increase the range from which hydrate formation can occur. The paper discusses safety concerns, hydrate structures, modeling hydrates, hydrate stability, naturally occurring hydrates, techniques for drilling hydrates, hydrate formation while drilling, drilling fluids and hydrates, and completion fluids.

  3. Influence of the drilling mud formulation process on the bacterial communities in thermogenic natural gas wells of the Barnett Shale.

    PubMed

    Struchtemeyer, Christopher G; Davis, James P; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2011-07-01

    The Barnett Shale in north central Texas contains natural gas generated by high temperatures (120 to 150°C) during the Mississippian Period (300 to 350 million years ago). In spite of the thermogenic origin of this gas, biogenic sulfide production and microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed at several natural gas wells in this formation. It was hypothesized that microorganisms in drilling muds were responsible for these deleterious effects. Here we collected drilling water and drilling mud samples from seven wells in the Barnett Shale during the drilling process. Using quantitative real-time PCR and microbial enumerations, we show that the addition of mud components to drilling water increased total bacterial numbers, as well as the numbers of culturable aerobic heterotrophs, acid producers, and sulfate reducers. The addition of sterile drilling muds to microcosms that contained drilling water stimulated sulfide production. Pyrosequencing-based phylogenetic surveys of the microbial communities in drilling waters and drilling muds showed a marked transition from typical freshwater communities to less diverse communities dominated by Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria. The community shifts observed reflected changes in temperature, pH, oxygen availability, and concentrations of sulfate, sulfonate, and carbon additives associated with the mud formulation process. Finally, several of the phylotypes observed in drilling muds belonged to lineages that were thought to be indigenous to marine and terrestrial fossil fuel formations. Our results suggest a possible alternative exogenous origin of such phylotypes via enrichment and introduction to oil and natural gas reservoirs during the drilling process.

  4. Influence of the drilling mud formulation process on the bacterial communities in thermogenic natural gas wells of the Barnett Shale.

    PubMed

    Struchtemeyer, Christopher G; Davis, James P; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2011-07-01

    The Barnett Shale in north central Texas contains natural gas generated by high temperatures (120 to 150°C) during the Mississippian Period (300 to 350 million years ago). In spite of the thermogenic origin of this gas, biogenic sulfide production and microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed at several natural gas wells in this formation. It was hypothesized that microorganisms in drilling muds were responsible for these deleterious effects. Here we collected drilling water and drilling mud samples from seven wells in the Barnett Shale during the drilling process. Using quantitative real-time PCR and microbial enumerations, we show that the addition of mud components to drilling water increased total bacterial numbers, as well as the numbers of culturable aerobic heterotrophs, acid producers, and sulfate reducers. The addition of sterile drilling muds to microcosms that contained drilling water stimulated sulfide production. Pyrosequencing-based phylogenetic surveys of the microbial communities in drilling waters and drilling muds showed a marked transition from typical freshwater communities to less diverse communities dominated by Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria. The community shifts observed reflected changes in temperature, pH, oxygen availability, and concentrations of sulfate, sulfonate, and carbon additives associated with the mud formulation process. Finally, several of the phylotypes observed in drilling muds belonged to lineages that were thought to be indigenous to marine and terrestrial fossil fuel formations. Our results suggest a possible alternative exogenous origin of such phylotypes via enrichment and introduction to oil and natural gas reservoirs during the drilling process. PMID:21602366

  5. Directional drilling and earth curvature

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, H.S.; Wilson, H.F.

    2000-03-01

    This paper provides a review of current practices for calculating directional drilling placement in the light of modern extended-reach applications. The review highlights the potential for gross errors in the application of geodetic reference information and errors inherent in the calculation method. Both types of error are quantified theoretically and illustrated with a real example. The authors borrow established land surveying calculation methods to develop a revised best practice for directional drilling. For the elimination of gross errors they prescribe increased awareness and a more disciplined approach to the handling of positional data.

  6. Drilling's value stressed at hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A Senate subcommittee recently heard testimony from government, university, and industry geoscientists in support of a bill that would formalize the planning and coordination of continental scientific drilling. Among the reasons given in favor of the bill by the 13 witnesses at the July 24, 1986, hearing were the possible benefits of a continental drilling program for our understanding of the history of the earth's crust, the origins of mineral and energy resources, the mechanisms of earthquakes and volcanos, and the migration of toxic wastes. The hearing was held by the Subcommittee on Natural Resources Development and Production, chaired by Sen. John W. Warner (R-Va.).

  7. Abrasive drill for resilient materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Resilient materials normally present problem in obtaining accurate and uniform hole size and position. Tool is fabricated from stiff metal rod such as tungsten or carbon steel that has diameter slightly smaller than required hole. Piercing/centering point is ground on one end of rod. Rod is then plasma-sprayed (flame-sprayed) with suitable hard abrasive coating. High-speed, slow-feed operation of tool is necessary for accurate holes, and this can be done with drill press, hard drill, or similar machines.

  8. Active Suppression of Drilling System Vibrations For Deep Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, David W.; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Buerger, Stephen; Mesh, Mikhail; Radigan, William Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic stability of deep drillstrings is challenged by an inability to impart controllability with ever-changing conditions introduced by geology, depth, structural dynamic properties and operating conditions. A multi-organizational LDRD project team at Sandia National Laboratories successfully demonstrated advanced technologies for mitigating drillstring vibrations to improve the reliability of drilling systems used for construction of deep, high-value wells. Using computational modeling and dynamic substructuring techniques, the benefit of controllable actuators at discrete locations in the drillstring is determined. Prototype downhole tools were developed and evaluated in laboratory test fixtures simulating the structural dynamic response of a deep drillstring. A laboratory-based drilling applicability demonstration was conducted to demonstrate the benefit available from deployment of an autonomous, downhole tool with self-actuation capabilities in response to the dynamic response of the host drillstring. A concept is presented for a prototype drilling tool based upon the technical advances. The technology described herein is the subject of U.S. Patent Application No. 62219481, entitled "DRILLING SYSTEM VIBRATION SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS AND METHODS", filed September 16, 2015.

  9. Pattern Drill. ZE-Diskussion. (Pattern Drill. ZE [Zielsprache Englisch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielsprache Englisch, 1976

    1976-01-01

    This "Zielsprache Englisch" Discussion consists of 8 articles on pattern drill. They will be found under the authors' names: Freudenstein, R.; Gutschow, H.; Hill, L. A.; Mugglestone, P.; Piepho, H-E; Raasch, A.; Schmitz, A.; Schrand, H. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  10. Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee Formation (Devonian) of the Michigan Basin using horizontal drains. Final report, April 28, 1994--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.; Pennington, W.D.

    1998-09-01

    Total hydrocarbon production in the Michigan Basin has surpassed 1 billion barrels (Bbbls) and total unrecovered reserves are estimated at 1--2 BBbls. However, hydrocarbon production in Michigan has fallen from 35 MMbbls/yr in 1979 to about 10 MMbbls/yr in 1996. In an effort to slow this decline, a field demonstration project designed around using a horizontal well to recover bypassed oil was designed and carried out at Crystal Field in Montcalm County, MI. The project had two goals: to test the viability of using horizontal wells to recover bypassed oil from the Dundee Formation, and to characterize additional Dundee reservoirs (29) that are look alikes to the Crystal Field. As much as 85 percent of the oil known to exist in the Dundee Formation in the Michigan Basin remains in the ground as bypassed oil. Early production techniques in the 137 fields were poor, and the Dundee was at risk of being abandoned, leaving millions of barrels of oil behind. Crystal Field in Montcalm County, Michigan is a good example of a worn out field. Crystal Field was once a prolific producer which had been reduced to a handful of wells, the best of which produced only 5 barrels per day. The demonstration well drilled as a result of this project, however, has brought new life to the Crystal Field. Horizontal drilling is one of the most promising technologies available for oil production. The new well was completed successfully in October of 1995 and has been producing 100 barrels of oil per day, 20 times better than the best conventional well in the field.

  11. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... addition: (1) If natural means provide adequate ventilation, then a mechanical ventilation system is not... mechanical ventilation system may be hazardous, then you must maintain the drilling fluid-handling area at a...) Alarms that activate when the mechanical ventilation system fails. Other Drilling Requirements...

  12. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... addition: (1) If natural means provide adequate ventilation, then a mechanical ventilation system is not... mechanical ventilation system may be hazardous, then you must maintain the drilling fluid-handling area at a...) Alarms that activate when the mechanical ventilation system fails. Other Drilling Requirements...

  13. Application of Ester based Drilling Fluid for Shale Gas Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauki, Arina; Safwan Zazarli Shah, Mohamad; Bakar, Wan Zairani Wan

    2015-05-01

    Water based mud is the most commonly used mud in drilling operation. However, it is ineffective when dealing with water-sensitive shale that can lead to shale hydration, consequently wellbore instability is compromised. The alternative way to deal with this kind of shale is using synthetic-based mud (SBM) or oil-based mud (OBM). OBM is the best option in terms of technical requirement. Nevertheless, it is toxic and will create environmental problems when it is discharged to onshore or offshore environment. SBM is safer than the OBM. The aim of this research is to formulate a drilling mud system that can carry out its essential functions for shale gas drilling to avoid borehole instability. Ester based SBM has been chosen for the mud formulation. The ester used is methyl-ester C12-C14 derived from palm oil. The best formulation of ester-based drilling fluid was selected by manipulating the oil-water ratio content in the mud which are 70/30, 80/20 and 90/10 respectively. The feasibility of using this mud for shale gas drilling was investigated by measuring the rheological properties, shale reactivity and toxicity of the mud and the results were compared with a few types of OBM and WBM. The best rheological performance can be seen at 80/20 oil-water ratio of ester based mud. The findings revealed that the rheological performance of ester based mud is comparable with the excellent performance of sarapar based OBM and about 80% better than the WBM in terms of fluid loss. Apart from that, it is less toxic than other types of OBM which can maintain 60% prawn's survival even after 96 hours exposure in 100,000 ppm of mud concentration in artificial seawater.

  14. Drilling to Supercritical Conditions: the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Saito, S.

    2001-05-01

    Geothermal wells produce mixtures of water and steam in the range 200-350 C, however the high cost of drilling and completing these wells relative to the cost of oil and gas wells is a hindrance to the geothermal industry worldwide. Rather than trying only to reduce this cost, the Icelandic Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is trying the approach of increasing the power output per well. Funded by a consortium of energy companies in Iceland, the IDDP plans to drill a series of boreholes, to depths greater than 4 to 5 km. The aim is to produce hydrothermal fluids systems at temperatures of 400-500 C, and to investigate the technical and economic aspects of producing supercritical fluids for use in power generation and other energy intensive processes, such as mineral recovery. The first phase feasibility and site selection study began in March 2001 and drilling of the first deep well is expected to begin in 2003. The IDDP faces difficult technical challenges to drill, complete, sample and maintain wells under hot, and potentially acid, conditions. However the IDDP also presents the opportunity to investigate very high-temperature hydrothermal regimes that have rarely been available for direct study. It will address important scientific issues, ranging from the coupling of magmatic and hydrothermal systems, supercritical phenomena, the transition from brittle to ductile behavior at relatively shallow depths, to land based analogues of submarine hot springs, the black smokers of the mid-ocean ridges. Fortunately, the IDDP industrial consortium is willing, or even anxious, to integrate its engineering activities with scientific investigations. The consortium will seek international participation by scientists and engineers to formulate a strategy to achieve both the engineering and scientific goals of the IDDP.

  15. Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications.

  16. Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications. PMID:18598141

  17. Improved Miscible Nitrogen Flood Performance Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Laterals in a Class I Reservoir - East Binger (Marchand) Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Sinner

    2006-06-30

    The reservoir characterization and investigation of the benefits of horizontal wells in the East Binger Unit miscible nitrogen flood as been completed. A significant work program was implemented from 2002 to 2005 in an effort to reduce gas cycling and economically increase ultimate oil recovery. Horizontal and vertical infill wells were drilled and existing producers were converted to injection. Due to successful infill drilling based on the improved flow characterization, more drilling was done than originally planned, and further drilling will occur after the project is completed. Through the drilling of wells and reservoir characterization work, it was determined that poor areal sweep efficiency is the primary factor causing nitrogen cycling and limiting oil recovery. This is in contrast to the perception prior to the initiation of development, which was that gravity segregation was causing poor vertical sweep efficiency. Although not true of all infill wells, most were drilled in areas with little sweep and came online producing gas with much lower nitrogen contents than previously drilled wells in the field and in the pilot area. Seven vertical and three horizontal wells were drilled in the pilot area throughout the project. As previously reported, the benefits of horizontal drilling were found to be insufficient to justify their increased cost. Nitrogen recycle, defined as nitrogen production as a percentage of injection, decreased from 72% prior to initiation of the project to about 25% before rising back to a current rate of 40%. Injection into the pilot area, despite being limited at times by problems in the Air Separation Unit of the Nitrogen Management Facility, increased 60% over levels prior to the project. Meanwhile, gas production and nitrogen content of produced gas both decreased.

  18. Articulating Support for Horizontal Resistive Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundo, Daniel; Schaffner, Grant; Bentley, Jason; Loehr, James A.

    2005-01-01

    also affords a capability for horizontal motion, and acts as the point of attachment of a load that is provided for squat and heel-raise exercises. The device is compatible with any resistive-exercise machine that provides bilateral loading via a moving cable or other mechanical linkage. The hip-translation and shoulder-translation and -rotation degrees of freedom of the supports can be locked individually or in combination in order to support the subject as necessary for exercises other than the standing squat. If necessary, for such exercises, the load can be applied directly to the subject by use of various attachments. In addition to the aforementioned heel raise, such exercises include the upright row, leg press, curls, extension of the triceps, front raise, lateral raise, and rear raise.

  19. Effects of implant drill wear, irrigation, and drill materials on heat generation in osteotomy sites.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ki-Tae; Kim, Min-Ho; Kim, Hae-Young; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Yang, Jae-Ho; Yeo, In-Sung

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of drill wear on bone temperature during osteotomy preparation with 3 types of drills and compared heat production between drills. The drills used in this study were titanium nitride-coated metal, tungsten carbide carbon-coated metal, and zirconia ceramic drills. An osteotomy 11 mm in depth was formed in bovine scapular bone following the manufacturer's recommended drill sequences. Drilling was performed without irrigation and repeated 20 times; temperature was measured every 5 times. Next, 200 rounds of drilling during irrigation were performed for each drill, with temperature change monitored until round 200. Analysis of variance statistics were used for analyses of the measured data. Drilling without irrigation showed significant thermal increase at all time points compared to drilling with irrigation (P < .001). No significant difference was found between drill materials. Under irrigation, the frequency of previous drilling had minimal effects on thermal change. The repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed major thermal change at the initial time point (P < .0001), and the multiple comparison tests revealed a significant difference in temperature between the initial drills that had been used 50 or fewer times and those that had been used more than 50 times, irrespective of the drill material. The results of this study indicate that the initial drill should be changed in osteotomy preparation with irrigation after they have been used 50 times. Irrigation may be a more critical factor for the control of temperature elevation than is the drill material.

  20. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must...

  1. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must...

  2. Utility company installs first Hudson River drilled crossing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Directionally drilling a natural gas pipe line under the Hudson River called for innovative installation techniques including an elevated pullback over a heavily traveled commuter railroad. The 3,700-ft crossing was installed for Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corp. as part of an 11-mi system to supply natural gas from the Iroquois Gas Transmission System to the utility company's Roseton Generating Station. It represents the first horizontal drilled pipe line installation of the Hudson River and the longest drilled crossing in the US Northeast. At the point of installation, the line was designed to contend with an existing glacial till geology, the river crossing, eight electric cables near the right-of-way and the high-speed Metro North Railroad on the east side of the river. Through the interconnection with Iroquois, the utility receives up to 100 MMcfd of natural gas at 750 psig. Total cost of the new system was about $13.1 million with nearly $3.2 million dedicated to the crossing. This paper describes the installation procedures used in this project.

  3. Data Acquisition and Processing with a Three-Component Borehole Magnetometer in the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgil, C.; Ehmann, S.; Hoerdt, A.; Leven, M.; Steveling, E.

    2011-12-01

    Three-component borehole magnetics provides important additional information compared with total field or horizontal and vertical measurements. The "Göttinger Bohrloch Magnetometer" (GBM) is capable of recording the vector of magnetic field along with the orientation of the tool using fibre-optic gyros. The GBM was successfully applied in the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole (OKU R2500), Finland in September 2008. The aim of this project was the understanding of the ore formation process in the Outokumpu mining region. Using the high precision gyro data, we can compute the vector of the magnetic anomaly with respect to the Earth's reference frame North, East and Downwards. Based on the comparison of several logs, the estimated precision is 0.75 ° in azimuthal direction and 0.2 ° in inclination. The vector information of the magnetic anomalies was used to compute models of the magnetized rock units of the environment of the borehole via numerical simulations. By differentiating between short scale (wavelength < 10 m) and long scale (wavelength > 10 m) magnetic anomalies, we developed two different models. The first concerns the drilled-through Outokumpu-assemblage in the direct vicinity (< 50 m) of the borehole. Here, we could identify a tilted layer and related the dip and dip-azimuth with the direction of fracture zones, obtained from televiewer data. The second model concerns the geological structure of the surrounding (< 1 km) of the drill site. By joint interpretation with seismic profiles we were able to link the seismic reflectivity with magnetic properties. This yields an estimate of the mineralogy for rock units away from the borehole path, which were not cored. The orientation information provided by the GBM was also used to compute the borehole path with an accuracy better than 5 m at a logging depth of 1440 m.

  4. MATLAB-based algorithm to estimate depths of isolated thin dike-like sources using higher-order horizontal derivatives of magnetic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Yunus Levent

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an easy-to-use open source computer algorithm (code) for estimating the depths of isolated single thin dike-like source bodies by using numerical second-, third-, and fourth-order horizontal derivatives computed from observed magnetic anomalies. The approach does not require a priori information and uses some filters of successive graticule spacings. The computed higher-order horizontal derivative datasets are used to solve nonlinear equations for depth determination. The solutions are independent from the magnetization and ambient field directions. The practical usability of the developed code, designed in MATLAB R2012b (MathWorks Inc.), was successfully examined using some synthetic simulations with and without noise. The algorithm was then used to estimate the depths of some ore bodies buried in different regions (USA, Sweden, and Canada). Real data tests clearly indicated that the obtained depths are in good agreement with those of previous studies and drilling information. Additionally, a state-of-the-art inversion scheme based on particle swarm optimization produced comparable results to those of the higher-order horizontal derivative analyses in both synthetic and real anomaly cases. Accordingly, the proposed code is verified to be useful in interpreting isolated single thin dike-like magnetized bodies and may be an alternative processing technique. The open source code can be easily modified and adapted to suit the benefits of other researchers.

  5. MATLAB-based algorithm to estimate depths of isolated thin dike-like sources using higher-order horizontal derivatives of magnetic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Yunus Levent

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an easy-to-use open source computer algorithm (code) for estimating the depths of isolated single thin dike-like source bodies by using numerical second-, third-, and fourth-order horizontal derivatives computed from observed magnetic anomalies. The approach does not require a priori information and uses some filters of successive graticule spacings. The computed higher-order horizontal derivative datasets are used to solve nonlinear equations for depth determination. The solutions are independent from the magnetization and ambient field directions. The practical usability of the developed code, designed in MATLAB R2012b (MathWorks Inc.), was successfully examined using some synthetic simulations with and without noise. The algorithm was then used to estimate the depths of some ore bodies buried in different regions (USA, Sweden, and Canada). Real data tests clearly indicated that the obtained depths are in good agreement with those of previous studies and drilling information. Additionally, a state-of-the-art inversion scheme based on particle swarm optimization produced comparable results to those of the higher-order horizontal derivative analyses in both synthetic and real anomaly cases. Accordingly, the proposed code is verified to be useful in interpreting isolated single thin dike-like magnetized bodies and may be an alternative processing technique. The open source code can be easily modified and adapted to suit the benefits of other researchers. PMID:27610303

  6. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sass, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP) was the first large-scale drilling project undertaken by the U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The objectives of the SSSDP were (1) to drill a deep well into the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in the Imperial Valley of California, (2) to retrieve a high percentage of core and cuttings along the entire depth of the well, (3) to obtain a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs, (4) to conduct flow tests at two depths (and to take fluid samples therefrom), and (5) to carry out several downhole experiments. These activities enabled the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active hydrothermal system driven by a molten-rock heat source. The SSSDP exceeded its target depth of 10,000 feet, and a comprehensive set of cuttings, cores, and downhole logs was obtained. Two flow tests at different depths were successfully completed. Hydrologic connection between the different producing horizons, however, made the data from the deeper test difficult to interpret. Temperature logging by the Geological Survey and Sandia National Laboratories to establish the equilibrium profile continued until August of 1987. The SSSDP provides a model for scientific cooperation among government agencies, universities, and private industry.

  7. Geothermal Drilling in Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, B. D.; Garcia, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    To date, 71 geothermal wells have been drilled in Cerro Prieto. The activity has been divided into several stages, and, in each stage, attempts have been made to correct deficiencies that were gradually detected. Some of these problems have been solved; others, such as those pertaining to well casing, cement, and cementing jobs, have persisted. The procedures for well completion--the most important aspect for the success of a well--that were based on conventional oil well criteria have been improved to meet the conditions of the geothermal reservoir. Several technical aspects that have improved should be further optimized, even though the resolutions are considered to be reasonably satisfactory. Particular attention has been given to the development of a high-temperature drilling fluid capable of being used in drilling through lost circulation zones. Conventional oil well drilling techniques have been used except where hole-sloughing is a problem. Sulfonate lignitic mud systems have been used with good results. When temperatures exceed 300 C (572 F), it has been necessary to use an organic polymer to stabilize the mud properties.

  8. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP) was the first large-scale drilling project undertaken by the U.S Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The objectives of the SSSDP were (1) to drill a deep well into the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in the Imperial Valley of California, (2) to retrieve a high percentage of core and cuttings along the entire depth of the well, (3) to obtain a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs, (4) to conduct flow tests at two depths  (and to take fluid samples therefrom), and (5) to carry out several downhole experiments. These activites enabled the U.S Geological Survey and cooperating agencies to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active hydrothermal system driven by a molten-rock heat source. This program, orginally conceived by Wilfred A. Elders, professor of geology at the University of California at Riverside, was coordinated under an inter-agency accord among the Geological Survey, the U.S Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation. 

  9. Do You Know the Drill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascopella, Angela

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses one of the best defenses against a violent threat in schools -- practicing emergency and lockdown drills. In some buildings, classroom doors lack locks and exterior doors are old. Other buildings have public announcement systems that do not work well throughout a school building, or that lack speakers in restrooms. Still…

  10. Adjustable-Angle Drill Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Adjustable angular drill block accurately transfers hole patterns from mating surfaces not normal to each other. Block applicable to transfer of nonperpendicular holes in mating contoured assemblies in aircraft industry. Also useful in general manufacturing to transfer mating installation holes to irregular and angular surfaces.

  11. Side hole drilling in boreholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for use in a borehole or other restricted space to bore a side hole into the strata surrounding the borehole, including a flexible shaft with a drill at its end, and two trains of sheathing members that can be progressively locked together into a rigid structure around the flexible shaft as it is directed sidewardly into the strata.

  12. Drilling on midway atoll, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ladd, H.S.; Tracey, J.I., Jr.; Gross, M.G.

    1967-01-01

    Two holes drilled through reef sediments into basalt have established a geologic section through the Miocene. Midway was built above the sea by flows that were weathered and partially truncated in pre-Miocene time. After submergence, volcanic clays were reworked and covered by limestones. Overall submergence was interrupted at least twice by emergence. The limestones have been leached, recrystallized, and partially dolomitized.

  13. Direct Observation of Rhyolite Magma by Drilling: The Proposed Krafla Magma Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Sigmundsson, F.; Papale, P.; Markusson, S.; Loughlin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Remarkably, drilling in Landsvirkjun Co.'s geothermal field in Krafla Caldera, Iceland has encountered rhyolite magma or hypersolidus rhyolite at 2.1-2.5 km depth in 3 wells distributed over 3.5 km2, including Iceland Deep Drilling Program's IDDP-1 (Mortensen, 2012). Krafla's most recent rifting and eruption (basalt) episode was 1975-1984; deformation since that time has been simple decay. Apparently rhyolite magma was either emplaced during that episode without itself erupting or quietly evolved in situ within 2-3 decades. Analysis of drill cuttings containing quenched melt from IDDP-1 yielded unprecedented petrologic data (Zierenberg et al, 2012). But interpreting active processes of heat and mass transfer requires knowing spatial variations in physical and chemical characteristics at the margin of the magma body, and that requires retrieving core - a not-inconceivable task. Core quenched in situ in melt up to 1150oC was recovered from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii by the Magma Energy Project >30 years ago. The site from which IDDP-1 was drilled, and perhaps IDDP-1 itself, may be available to attempt the first-ever coring of rhyolite magma, now proposed as the Krafla Magma Drilling Project (KMDP). KMDP would also include geophysical and geochemical experiments to measure the response of the magma/hydrothermal system to fluid injection and flow tests. Fundamental results will reveal the behavior of magma in the upper crust and coupling between magma and the hydrothermal system. Extreme, sustained thermal power output during flow tests of IDDP-1 suggests operation of a Kilauea-Iki-like freeze-fracture-flow boundary propagating into the magma and mining its latent heat of crystallization (Carrigan et al, EGU, 2014). Such an ultra-hot Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) might be developable beneath this and other magma-heated conventional hydrothermal systems. Additionally, intra-caldera intrusions like Krafla's are believed to produce the unrest that is so troubling in

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS & HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit-fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all major preparations for the high pressure drilling campaign. Baker Hughes encountered difficulties in providing additional pumping capacity before TerraTek's scheduled relocation to another facility, thus the program was delayed further to accommodate the full testing program.

  15. Acoustic data transmission through a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1988-04-21

    Acoustical signals are transmitted through a drill string by canceling upward moving acoustical noise and by preconditioning the data in recognition of the comb filter impedance characteristics of the drill string. 5 figs.

  16. PDC bits find applications in Oklahoma drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Offenbacher, L.A.; McDermaid, J.D.; Patterson, C.R.

    1983-02-01

    Drilling in Oklahoma is difficult by any standards. Polycrystalline diamond cutter (PDC) bits, with proven success drilling soft, homogenous formations common in the North Sea and U.S. Gulf Coast regions, have found some significant ''spot'' applications in Oklahoma. Applications qualified by bit design and application development over the past two (2) years include slim hole drilling in the deep Anadarko Basin, deviation control in Southern Oklahoma, drilling on mud motors, drilling in oil base mud, drilling cement, sidetracking, coring and some rotary drilling in larger hole sizes. PDC bits are formation sensitive, and care must be taken in selecting where to run them in Oklahoma. Most of the successful runs have been in water base mud drilling hard shales and soft, unconsolidated sands and lime, although bit life is often extended in oil-base muds.

  17. Transportation of Oyster Drills by Horseshoe "Crabs".

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, C L

    1962-07-01

    Horseshoe "crabs" (Limulus polyphemus) collected in New Haven Harbor, Long Island Sound, had large numbers of oyster drills attached to them. Since these animals migrate long distances, they may be important distributors of oyster drills.

  18. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Glenn J.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint. Small gaps limit horizontal displacement of components during a seismic occurrence and therefore reduce dynamic loadings on the free lower end. The reactor vessel and reactor guard vessel use thicker section roll-forged rings welded between the vessel straight shell sections and the bottom hemispherical head sections. The inside of the reactor guard vessel ring forging contains local vertical dovetail slots and upper ledge pockets to mount and retain field fitted and installed blocks. As an option, the horizontal displacement of the reactor vessel core support cone can be limited by including shop fitted/installed local blocks in opposing alignment with the reactor vessel forged ring. Beams embedded in the wall of the reactor building protrude into apertures in the thermal insulation shell adjacent the reactor guard vessel ring and have motion limit blocks attached thereto to provide to a predetermined clearance between the blocks and reactor guard vessel ring.

  19. Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Arnis Judzis; Alan Black; Homer Robertson

    2006-03-01

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the ultra-high rotary speed drilling system is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm--usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress to date on the program entitled ''Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling'' for the period starting 1 October 2004 through 30 September 2005. Additionally, research activity from 1 October 2005 through 28 February 2006 is included in this report: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance. (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments. Some difficulties continue in obtaining ultra-high speed motors. Improvements have been made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs have been provided to vendors for production. A more consistent product is required to minimize the differences in bit performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program has been

  20. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from <0.5 °C to nearly 13 °C. The difference between drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury.