Science.gov

Sample records for addition increased numbers

  1. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  2. Pre- and post-experimental manipulation assessments confirm the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes.

    PubMed

    Cuatianquiz Lima, Cecilia; Macías Garcia, Constantino

    2016-01-01

    Secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds breed in holes that they do not excavate themselves. This is possible where there are large trees whose size and age permit the digging of holes by primary excavators and only rarely happens in forest plantations, where we expected a deficit of both breeding holes and SCN species. We assessed whether the availability of tree cavities influenced the number of SCNs in two temperate forest types, and evaluated the change in number of SCNs after adding nest boxes. First, we counted all cavities within each of our 25-m radius sampling points in mature and young forest plots during 2009. We then added nest boxes at standardised locations during 2010 and 2011 and conducted fortnightly bird counts (January-October 2009-2011). In 2011 we added two extra plots of each forest type, where we also conducted bird counts. Prior to adding nest boxes, counts revealed more SCNs in mature than in young forest. Following the addition of nest boxes, the number of SCNs increased significantly in the points with nest boxes in both types of forest. Counts in 2011 confirmed the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes. Given the likely benefits associated with a richer bird community we propose that, as is routinely done in some countries, forest management programs preserve old tree stumps and add nest boxes to forest plantations in order to increase bird numbers and bird community diversity.

  3. Pre- and post-experimental manipulation assessments confirm the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes

    PubMed Central

    Cuatianquiz Lima, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds breed in holes that they do not excavate themselves. This is possible where there are large trees whose size and age permit the digging of holes by primary excavators and only rarely happens in forest plantations, where we expected a deficit of both breeding holes and SCN species. We assessed whether the availability of tree cavities influenced the number of SCNs in two temperate forest types, and evaluated the change in number of SCNs after adding nest boxes. First, we counted all cavities within each of our 25-m radius sampling points in mature and young forest plots during 2009. We then added nest boxes at standardised locations during 2010 and 2011 and conducted fortnightly bird counts (January–October 2009–2011). In 2011 we added two extra plots of each forest type, where we also conducted bird counts. Prior to adding nest boxes, counts revealed more SCNs in mature than in young forest. Following the addition of nest boxes, the number of SCNs increased significantly in the points with nest boxes in both types of forest. Counts in 2011 confirmed the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes. Given the likely benefits associated with a richer bird community we propose that, as is routinely done in some countries, forest management programs preserve old tree stumps and add nest boxes to forest plantations in order to increase bird numbers and bird community diversity. PMID:26998410

  4. Addition of CpG ODN to recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoProtein A conjugates of AMA1 and Pfs25 greatly increases the number of responders.

    PubMed

    Qian, Feng; Rausch, Kelly M; Muratova, Olga; Zhou, Hong; Song, Guanhong; Diouf, Ababacar; Lambert, Lynn; Narum, David L; Wu, Yimin; Saul, Allan; Miller, Louis H; Long, Carole A; Mullen, Gregory E D

    2008-05-12

    Both the blood-stage protein apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and the 25-kDa sexual-stage protein (Pfs25) of Plasmodium falciparum are two leading candidates in malarial vaccine development. We have previously demonstrated that conjugation of these malarial antigens to recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoProtein A (rEPA) significantly increased the mean-specific functional antibody responses in mice; however, some mice responded poorly and were unable to demonstrate a functional response. We hypothesized that the immunogenicities of these two malarial antigens could be further enhanced by the inclusion of a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide in the formulation. Mice were immunized with either rEPA-conjugated or unconjugated AMA1 and Pfs25 formulated on Alhydrogel with or without the addition of CPG 7909. Mice received the formulations on days 0 and 28, and mouse sera were collected on day 42. ELISA analyses on these sera showed that the addition of CPG 7909 to AMA1-rEPA and Pfs25-rEPA formulated on Alhydrogel induced significantly higher mean antibody titers than the formulations without CPG 7909, and led to a mixed Th1/Th2 response as demonstrated by the production of mouse IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses. The presence of CPG 7909 in the formulations of both conjugated antigens greatly increased the proportion of responders with antibody titers sufficient to inhibit blood-stage parasite growth in vitro or block transmission of sexual-stage parasites to mosquitoes. The results obtained in this study indicate the potential use of a combination strategy to increase the number of responders to malarial antigens in humans.

  5. Co-addition of manure increases the dissipation rates of tylosin A and the numbers of resistance genes in laboratory incubation experiments.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yong-De; Liao, Xin-Di; Liang, Juan-Boo; Xin, Wen; Wu, Yin-Bao

    2015-09-15

    The behavior of veterinary antibiotics in the soil is commonly studied using the following methods to add antibiotics to the soil: (A) adding manure collected from animals fed a diet that includes antibiotics; (B) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics; and (C) the direct addition of antibiotics. However, most studies have only used methods (B) and (C) in their research, and few studies have simultaneously compared the different antibiotic addition methods. This study used tylosin A (TYLA) as a model antibiotic to compare the effects of these three commonly used antibiotic addition methods on the dissipation rates of TYLA and the numbers of resistance genes in laboratory incubation experiments. The results showed that the three treatment methods produced similar TYLA degradation trends; however, there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the TYLA degradation half-life (t1/2) among the three methods. The half-life of TYLA degradation in treatments A, B and C was 2.44 ± 0.04, 1.21 ± 0.03 and 5.13 ± 0.11 days, respectively. The presence of manure resulted in a higher electrical conductivity (EC), higher relative abundance of Citrobacter amalonaticus, higher macrolide resistant gene (ermB, ermF and ermT) count and lower ecological toxicity in the soil, which could partially explain the higher TYLA degradation rate in the treatments containing manure. The higher degradation rate of TYLA in treatment B when compared to treatment A could be due to the lower concentrations of tylosin B (TYLB) and tylosin D (TYLD). The main route for veterinary antibiotics to enter the soil is via the manure of animals that have been administered antibiotics. Therefore, the more appropriate method to study the degradation and ecotoxicity of antibiotic residues in the soil is by using manure from animals fed/administered the particular antibiotic rather than by adding the antibiotic directly to the soil.

  6. Analysis of Additive Random Number Generators.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    linear congruential generators yn*\\* ayn+bmo,iPa- The simplest example of a sequence satisfying (1.1) with *> I is the Fibonacci sequence with p - 2...However, the Fibonacci sequence is not a suitable random number generator because successive triples are very poorly distributed in three...number generator should have small discrepancy. Definition 2.1 can be extended naturally to define discrepancy for sequences of points yn lying in

  7. Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Sara Safari; Rashidi, Alimorad; Aghabozorg, Hamid Reza; Moradi, Leila

    2010-03-01

    The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as useful additives for increasing the octane number. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing amide groups have a high reactivity and can react with many chemicals. These compounds can be solubilized in gasoline to increase the octane number. In this study, using octadecylamine and dodecylamine, CNTs were amidated and the amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes were added to gasoline. Research octane number analysis showed that these additives increase octane number of the desired samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetry analyses (TGA) were used for characterization of the prepared functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  8. Teaching and Learning Fraction Addition on Number Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izsak, Andrew; Tillema, Erik; Tunc-Pekkan, Zelha

    2008-01-01

    We present a case study of teaching and learning fraction addition on number lines in one sixth-grade classroom that used the Connected Mathematics Project Bits and Pieces II materials. Our main research questions were (1) What were the primary cognitive structures through which the teacher and students interpreted the lessons? and (2) Were the…

  9. Increasing numbers of migrants challenge policymakers worldwide.

    PubMed

    Martin, P

    1996-05-01

    International migration has increased greatly in the 1990s. In the mid-1990s there were about 125 million migrants (about 2% of the world's population) not living in their country of birth or citizenship. There are 2-4 million new migrants each year. The global migrant population is concentrated in only a few countries. In many Middle Eastern countries, foreign workers make up most of the labor force (60-90%). Africa and western Asia have more than 50% of all 27 million refugees and displaced persons. Germany, France, the UK, the US, Italy, Japan, and Canada have about 33% of the migrant population. Newly arriving immigrants make up a large percentage of annual population growth in industrialized countries with low birth rates (100% in Germany and about 33% in the US). Major migration flows are from Mexico, Central America, and Asia to the US; from North Africa and eastern Europe to western Europe; and from the Philippines and India to the Middle East. Two US legalization programs contributed to a resurgence in immigration in the early 1990s. Many of the world's top economic powers are very concerned about immigration. Economic growth can cut down on economic migration. Many specialists think that freer trade, more foreign investment, and, in some cases, aid can spark economic growth. Many residents of countries receiving migrants want immigration curtailed. Many industrial democracies handle difficult migration issues by making trade-offs, particularly combine stricter immigration controls with more assistance to integrate new immigrants and liberalize trade so countries can export goods instead of people.

  10. Fuzzy Number Addition with the Application of Horizontal Membership Functions

    PubMed Central

    Piegat, Andrzej; Pluciński, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents addition of fuzzy numbers realised with the application of the multidimensional RDM arithmetic and horizontal membership functions (MFs). Fuzzy arithmetic (FA) is a very difficult task because operations should be performed here on multidimensional information granules. Instead, a lot of FA methods use α-cuts in connection with 1-dimensional classical interval arithmetic that operates not on multidimensional granules but on 1-dimensional intervals. Such approach causes difficulties in calculations and is a reason for arithmetical paradoxes. The multidimensional approach allows for removing drawbacks and weaknesses of FA. It is possible thanks to the application of horizontal membership functions which considerably facilitate calculations because now uncertain values can be inserted directly into equations without using the extension principle. The paper shows how the addition operation can be realised on independent fuzzy numbers and on partly or fully dependent fuzzy numbers with taking into account the order relation and how to solve equations, which can be a difficult task for 1-dimensional FAs. PMID:26199953

  11. In Brief: Refugee numbers could increase due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-05-01

    Climate change could push the number of refugees globally to more than one billion by 2050, according to a new report from the British charity Christian Aid. Currently, there are about 155 million `internally displaced persons' worldwide, driven from their homes due to conflict, ethnic persecution, or natural disasters. The addition of climate change and growing population numbers could exacerbate these ongoing problems. In the report, Mali is presented as a case study where ongoing climate change is forcing farmers to find other ways to feed their families; one result is an increased number of people attempting to migrate to Europe. The report calls on rich nations to devote US$100 billion each year to help poor people adapt to changing weather patterns. The report, ``Human tide: the real migration crisis,'' is available at http://www.christian-aid.org.uk/indepth/705caweekreport/

  12. Increased osmolality of breast milk with therapeutic additives

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, L; Bokiniec, R; King, C; Weaver, G; Edwards, A

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the changes in the osmolality of expressed breast milk (EBM) after the addition of seven additives and four proprietary fortifiers commonly used during neonatal intensive care. Methods: The osmolality of 5 ml EBM was measured with increasing doses of 6% NaCl, caffeine, sodium ironedetate, folic acid, and multivitamin drops. Sodium acid phosphate and chloral hydrate were added to 8 ml EBM, and the fortifiers were added to standard volumes of EBM. Dose-effect curves were plotted, and the volume of milk that must be added to the above additives to maintain osmolality below 400 mOsm/kg was calculated. Results: The osmolality of the pure additives ranged from 242 to 951 mOsm/kg. There was a significant increase in the osmolality of EBM with increasing doses of all additives except caffeine. The osmolality of EBM with many additives in clinically used dosages potentially exceeded 400 mOsm/kg. The greatest increase occurred with sodium ironedetate syrup, where the osmolality of EBM increased to 951.57 (25.36) mOsm/kg. Proprietary fortifiers increased the osmolality of EBM to a maximum of 395 mOsm/kg. Conclusion: Routine additives can significantly increase the osmolality of EBM to levels that exceed current guidelines for premature infant feeding. A simple guide for clinical use is presented, which indicates the amount of milk required as diluent if hyperosmolality is to be avoided. PMID:15499144

  13. On the Quasi-Extended Addition for Exploded Real Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szalay, István

    2008-01-01

    In teaching primary teacher trainees, an awareness of the characteristic features, especially commutativity and associativity of basic operations play an important role. Owing to a deeply set automatism rooted in their primary and secondary education, teacher trainees think that such characteristics of addition are so trivial that they do not need…

  14. Nonlinear responses in salt marsh functioning to increased nitrogen addition.

    PubMed

    Vivanco, Lucía; Irvine, Irina C; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2015-04-01

    Salt marshes provide storm protection to shorelines, sequester carbon (C), and mitigate coastal eutrophication. These valuable coastal ecosystems are confronted with increasing nitrogen (N) inputs from anthropogenic sources, such as agricultural runoff, wastewater, and atmospheric deposition. To inform predictions of salt marsh functioning and sustainability in the future, we characterized the response of a variety of plant, microbial, and sediment responses to a seven-level gradient of N addition in three Californian salt marshes after 7 and 14 months of N addition. The marshes showed variable responses to the experimental N gradient that can be grouped as neutral (root biomass, sediment respiration, potential carbon mineralization, and potential net nitrification), linear (increasing methane flux, decreasing potential net N mineralization, and increasing sediment inorganic N), and nonlinear (saturating aboveground plant biomass and leaf N content, and exponentially increasing sediment inorganic and organic N). The three salt marshes showed quantitative differences in most ecosystem properties and processes rates; however, the form of the response curves to N addition were generally consistent across the three marshes, indicating that the responses observed may be applicable to other marshes in the region. Only for sediment properties (inorganic and organic N pool) did the shape of the response differ significantly between marshes. Overall, the study suggests salt marshes are limited in their ability to sequester C and N with future increases in N, even without further losses in marsh area.

  15. Acute peripheral vestibular deficit increases redundancy in random number generation.

    PubMed

    Moser, Ivan; Vibert, Dominique; Caversaccio, Marco D; Mast, Fred W

    2017-02-01

    Unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit leads to broad cognitive difficulties and biases in spatial orientation. More specifically, vestibular patients typically show a spatial bias toward their affected ear in the subjective visual vertical, head and trunk orientation, fall tendency, and walking trajectory. By means of a random number generation task, we set out to investigate how an acute peripheral vestibular deficit affects the mental representation of numbers in space. Furthermore, the random number generation task allowed us to test if patients with peripheral vestibular deficit show evidence of impaired executive functions while keeping the head straight and while performing active head turns. Previous research using galvanic vestibular stimulation in healthy people has shown no effects on number space, but revealed increased redundancy of the generated numbers. Other studies reported a spatial bias in number representation during active and passive head turns. In this experiment, we tested 43 patients with acute vestibular neuritis (18 patients with left-sided and 25 with right-sided vestibular deficit) and 28 age-matched healthy controls. We found no bias in number space in patients with peripheral vestibular deficit but showed increased redundancy in patients during active head turns. Patients showed worse performance in generating sequences of random numbers, which indicates a deficit in the updating component of executive functions. We argue that RNG is a promising candidate for a time- and cost-effective assessment of executive functions in patients suffering from a peripheral vestibular deficit.

  16. Increasing arsenic sorption on red mud by phosphogypsum addition.

    PubMed

    Lopes, G; Guilherme, L R G; Costa, E T S; Curi, N; Penha, H G V

    2013-11-15

    Mining by-products have been tested as adsorbents for arsenic in order to reduce As bioavailability. This study evaluated a red mud (RM) treated with or without phosphogypsum (G) in order to improve its As retention. Red mud and G samples and their mixtures were chemically and mineralogically characterized to gather information concerning their composition, which is key for a better understanding of the adsorbent properties. Phosphogypsum was added to RM in the following proportions: 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 25% by weight. These mixtures were subjected to As adsorption and desorption and tested for their maximum adsorption capacity of As (AsMAC). Arsenic adsorption increased upon increasing the proportion of G added to RM. The AsMAC at pure RM reached 909 mg kg(-1), whereas the 75%-RM+25%-G mixture sorbed up to 3333 mg kg(-1) of As, i.e., a 3.5-fold increase in AsMAC. Using G in mixtures with RM increases the efficiency of As adsorption due to the presence of Ca(2+), which alters the charge balance of the adsorbent, leading to the formation of ternary complexes. Addition of G to RM is thus a promising technique to improve As retention, while providing additional value to both by-products, G and RM.

  17. The Coexistence of Hypertension and Ovariectomy Additively Increases Cardiac Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Yuan; Cheng, Yu-Jung; Hu, Jun; Chu, Li-Xi; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Kao, Chung-Lan; Lin, Tzer-Bin; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Yang, Ai-Lun; Lee, Shin-Da

    2016-12-06

    To investigate whether the coexistence of hypertension and ovariectomy will increase cardiac Fas receptor and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathways, histopathological analysis, the TUNEL assay and Western blotting were performed on the excised hearts from three groups of female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), which were divided into a sham-operated group (SHR-Sham), bilaterally ovariectomized group (SHR-OVX) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). Compared with the WKY group, the SHR-Sham group exhibited decreased protein levels of ERα, ERβ, p-Akt/Akt, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p-Bad and decreased further in the SHR-OVX group, as well as protein levels of t-Bid, Bak, Bad, Bax, cytochrome c, activated caspase-9 and activated caspase-3 (mitochondria-dependent apoptosis) increased in the SHR-Sham group and increased further in the SHR-OVX group. Compared with the WKY group, protein levels of Fas ligand, TNF-α, Fas death receptors, TNFR1, FADD and activated caspase-8 (Fas receptor-dependent apoptosis) increased in the SHR-Sham group, but did not increase in the SHR-OVX group, except Fas ligand and TNF-α. The coexistence of hypertension and ovariectomy attenuated the estrogen receptor survival pathway and appeared to additively increase the cardiac mitochondria-dependent, but not the Fas receptor-dependent apoptosis pathway, which might provide one possible mechanism for the development of cardiac abnormalities in hypertensive postmenopausal women.

  18. The Coexistence of Hypertension and Ovariectomy Additively Increases Cardiac Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Yuan; Cheng, Yu-Jung; Hu, Jun; Chu, Li-Xi; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Kao, Chung-Lan; Lin, Tzer-Bin; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Yang, Ai-Lun; Lee, Shin-Da

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether the coexistence of hypertension and ovariectomy will increase cardiac Fas receptor and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathways, histopathological analysis, the TUNEL assay and Western blotting were performed on the excised hearts from three groups of female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), which were divided into a sham-operated group (SHR-Sham), bilaterally ovariectomized group (SHR-OVX) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). Compared with the WKY group, the SHR-Sham group exhibited decreased protein levels of ERα, ERβ, p-Akt/Akt, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p-Bad and decreased further in the SHR-OVX group, as well as protein levels of t-Bid, Bak, Bad, Bax, cytochrome c, activated caspase-9 and activated caspase-3 (mitochondria-dependent apoptosis) increased in the SHR-Sham group and increased further in the SHR-OVX group. Compared with the WKY group, protein levels of Fas ligand, TNF-α, Fas death receptors, TNFR1, FADD and activated caspase-8 (Fas receptor-dependent apoptosis) increased in the SHR-Sham group, but did not increase in the SHR-OVX group, except Fas ligand and TNF-α. The coexistence of hypertension and ovariectomy attenuated the estrogen receptor survival pathway and appeared to additively increase the cardiac mitochondria-dependent, but not the Fas receptor-dependent apoptosis pathway, which might provide one possible mechanism for the development of cardiac abnormalities in hypertensive postmenopausal women. PMID:27929425

  19. Increasing the Effective Number of Neutrinos with Decaying Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nakayama, Kazunori; Senami, Masato; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2007-11-20

    We present a model of decaying particles to increase the effective number of neutrinos N{sub {nu}} after big bang nucleosynthesis but before the structure formation begins. We point out that our scenario solves the discrepancy between the constraints on N{sub {nu}} from these two epochs, As an example, we consider saxion decay into two axions.

  20. [Increase in the number of operations for undescended testis].

    PubMed

    Mandat, K; Swietochowski, A; Wieczorkiewicz, B; Gubała, M

    1992-04-01

    In recent years the frequency of operations for cryptorchism has been increasing, as evidence by operation protocols of boys qualified for treatment and operated on by the same surgeon in certain years. The principles of qualification for surgical treatment was evaluated on the basis of testicle position during and after the operation, testicle size, presence of inguinal hernia sac or patent vaginal peritoneal processes. It was found that the increase in the number of these operations in the hospital was not due to changes of these principles. Possible causes of increased frequency of these operations are discussed.

  1. ADOPTION OF MELD SCORE INCREASES THE NUMBER OF LIVER TRANSPLANT

    PubMed Central

    NACIF, Lucas Souto; ANDRAUS, Wellington; MARTINO, Rodrigo Bronze; SANTOS, Vinicius Rocha; PINHEIRO, Rafael Soares; HADDAD, Luciana BP; D'ALBUQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Liver transplantation is performed at large transplant centers worldwide as a therapeutic intervention for patients with end-stage liver diseases. Aim To analyze the outcomes and incidence of liver transplantation performed at the University of São Paulo and to compare those with the State of São Paulo before and after adoption of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. Method Evaluation of the number of liver transplantations before and after adoption of the MELD score. Mean values and standard deviations were used to analyze normally distributed variables. The incidence results were compared with those of the State of São Paulo. Results There was a high prevalence of male patients, with a predominance of middle-aged. The main indication for liver transplantation was hepatitis C cirrhosis. The mean and median survival rates and overall survival over ten and five years were similar between the groups (p>0.05). The MELD score increased over the course of the study period for patients who underwent liver transplantation (p>0.05). There were an increased number of liver transplants after adoption of the MELD score at this institution and in the State of São Paulo (p<0.001). Conclusion The adoption of the MELD score led to increase the number of liver transplants performed in São Paulo. PMID:25184772

  2. Multivariate meta-analysis with an increasing number of parameters.

    PubMed

    Boca, Simina M; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Sampson, Joshua N

    2017-02-14

    Meta-analysis can average estimates of multiple parameters, such as a treatment's effect on multiple outcomes, across studies. Univariate meta-analysis (UVMA) considers each parameter individually, while multivariate meta-analysis (MVMA) considers the parameters jointly and accounts for the correlation between their estimates. The performance of MVMA and UVMA has been extensively compared in scenarios with two parameters. Our objective is to compare the performance of MVMA and UVMA as the number of parameters, p, increases. Specifically, we show that (i) for fixed-effect (FE) meta-analysis, the benefit from using MVMA can substantially increase as p increases; (ii) for random effects (RE) meta-analysis, the benefit from MVMA can increase as p increases, but the potential improvement is modest in the presence of high between-study variability and the actual improvement is further reduced by the need to estimate an increasingly large between study covariance matrix; and (iii) when there is little to no between-study variability, the loss of efficiency due to choosing RE MVMA over FE MVMA increases as p increases. We demonstrate these three features through theory, simulation, and a meta-analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  3. Patient organizations in Finland: increasing numbers and great variation

    PubMed Central

    Toiviainen, Hanna K.; Vuorenkoski, Lauri H.; Hemminki, Elina K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective  There is very little research on patient organizations (POs), even though their numbers and influence seem to be increasing. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment, membership, size, organization, decision making and basic funding of national POs in Finland. Setting and participants  National POs (n = 130) were identified from their umbrella organizations and by Internet searches. Data were collected from POs’ web pages (87% of POs had one), Finland’s Slot Machine Association (RAY, an important public financier of POs), a relevant survey done by a local TV‐company, and interviews and written materials of POs. Results and conclusions  Some current national POs were established around the turn of the 19th century. The rate of establishment of new POs increased from the 1970s and particularly in the 1990s when POs were characterized by increasing specialization. POs focused on different patient groups and diseases and were founded by philanthropists, physicians, patients, parents and the drug industry. Members could be patients, patient relatives, health‐care professionals and organizations. POs widely varied in memberships (20–145 000, in 2002) and in number of paid personnel (0–1395, in 2002), organizational structure and decision making. Interest groups and financiers were often represented in decision‐making organs. Activities included mutual support and service production, and, increasingly, informing and lobbying. POs had wide domestic and international co‐operation and networking. Drug industry marketing was visible on PO web pages. Budget sizes varied (4000–15 million euros, in 2001). The main public financier was RAY. The old national POs were large and part of national social and health care, but newer ones were often established for mutual support and lobbying. National POs are not uniform but characterized by great variation. The number of national POs is increasing suggesting tighter

  4. Lignin modification leads to increased nodule numbers in alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Bhattarai, Kishor; Pislariu, Catalina I; Nakashima, Jin; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Udvardi, Michael K; Monteros, Maria J; Dixon, Richard A

    2014-03-01

    Reduction of lignin levels in the forage legume alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by down-regulation of the monolignol biosynthetic enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl coenzyme A:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) results in strongly increased digestibility and processing ability of lignocellulose. However, these modifications are often also associated with dwarfing and other changes in plant growth. Given the importance of nitrogen fixation for legume growth, we evaluated the impact of constitutively targeted lignin modification on the belowground organs (roots and nodules) of alfalfa plants. HCT down-regulated alfalfa plants exhibit a striking reduction in root growth accompanied by an unexpected increase in nodule numbers when grown in the greenhouse or in the field. This phenotype is associated with increased levels of gibberellins and certain flavonoid compounds in roots. Although HCT down-regulation reduced biomass yields in both the greenhouse and field experiments, the impact on the allocation of nitrogen to shoots or roots was minimal. It is unlikely, therefore, that the altered growth phenotype of reduced-lignin alfalfa is a direct result of changes in nodulation or nitrogen fixation efficiency. Furthermore, HCT down-regulation has no measurable effect on carbon allocation to roots in either greenhouse or 3-year field trials.

  5. Numbers of women faculty in the geosciences increasing, but slowly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, C. J.

    2001-12-01

    Why are there so few women faculty in the geosciences, while there are large numbers of women undergraduate and graduate students? According to National Science Foundation (NSF) estimates for 1995 in the Earth, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences, women made up 34% of the bachelor's degrees awarded, 35% of the graduate students enrolled, and 22% of the doctorates granted. Yet progress has been slower in achieving adequate representation of women geoscientists in academia, where women represent only 12% of the overall faculty. This talk will present the results of a survey I conducted on the status of women faculty at the 20 top-ranked geology programs, which was originally published as a feature article in Eos [Wolfe, 1999]. Data from the 1997 AGI Directory of Geoscience Departments were used to compare the numbers of women faculty at different departments, as well as to consider the distribution of men and women faculty by year of Ph.D. Strong inequities were found to exist between the individual departments. The percentages of women in the departments ranged from 0% to as high as 23%, and 37% of the departments had either one woman faculty member or none. Histograms of the faculty sorted by year of Ph.D. showed that clear generational differences existed between the sets of men and women faculty. Thirty-nine percent of the men obtained their Ph.D. prior to 1970, whereas only 3% of the women obtained their Ph.D. before this date. The majority of women faculty members (64%) received their Ph.D. after 1980, but a minority of men (31%) received their degrees after 1980. In the 1960s and 1970s, the geosciences expanded and departments employed a high percentage of recent Ph.D.s, but hiring of young faculty decreased in the 1980s and 1990s. In contrast, the numbers of women graduate students only began to rise after 1970, and thus the quantity of women Ph.D.s increased as the number of young hires decreased. Two problems appeared evident from this study using 1997 data

  6. Chromosome numbers in three species groups of freshwater flatworms increase with increasing latitude.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Sven; Zeuss, Dirk; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Polyploidy in combination with parthenogenesis offers advantages for plasticity and the evolution of a broad ecological tolerance of species. Therefore, a positive correlation between the level of ploidy and increasing latitude as a surrogate for environmental harshness has been suggested. Such a positive correlation is well documented for plants, but examples for animals are still rare. Species of flatworms (Platyhelminthes) are widely distributed, show a remarkably wide range of chromosome numbers, and offer therefore good model systems to study the geographical distribution of chromosome numbers. We analyzed published data on counts of chromosome numbers and geographical information of three flatworm "species" (Phagocata vitta, Polycelis felina and Crenobia alpina) sampled across Europe (220 populations). We used the mean chromosome number across individuals of a population as a proxy for the level of ploidy within populations, and we tested for relationships of this variable with latitude, mode of reproduction (sexual, asexual or both) and environmental variables (annual mean temperature, mean diurnal temperature range, mean precipitation and net primary production). The mean chromosome numbers of all three species increased with latitude and decreased with mean annual temperature. For two species, chromosome number also decreased with mean precipitation and net primary production. Furthermore, high chromosome numbers within species were accompanied with a loss of sexual reproduction. The variation of chromosome numbers within individuals of two of the three species increased with latitude. Our results support the hypothesis that polyploid lineages are able to cope with harsh climatic conditions at high latitudes. Furthermore, we propose that asexual reproduction in populations with high levels of polyploidization stabilizes hybridization events. Chromosomal irregularities within individuals tend to become more frequent at the extreme environments of high

  7. The large lungs of elite swimmers: an increased alveolar number?

    PubMed

    Armour, J; Donnelly, P M; Bye, P T

    1993-02-01

    chest depth, but by developing physically wider chests, containing an increased number of alveoli, rather than alveoli of increased size. However, in this cross-sectional study, hereditary factors cannot be ruled out, although we believe them to be less likely.

  8. Number Words in Young Children's Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Addition, Subtraction and Inversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canobi, Katherine H.; Bethune, Narelle E.

    2008-01-01

    Three studies addressed children's arithmetic. First, 50 3- to 5-year-olds judged physical demonstrations of addition, subtraction and inversion, with and without number words. Second, 20 3- to 4-year-olds made equivalence judgments of additions and subtractions. Third, 60 4- to 6-year-olds solved addition, subtraction and inversion problems that…

  9. Strategies of Pre-Service Primary School Teachers for Solving Addition Problems with Negative Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Rut; Bruno, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the strategies used by pre-service primary school teachers for solving simple addition problems involving negative numbers. The findings reveal six different strategies that depend on the difficulty of the problem and, in particular, on the unknown quantity. We note that students use negative numbers in those problems they find…

  10. Developing Prospective Teachers' Understanding of Addition and Subtraction with Whole Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, George J.

    2014-01-01

    This study was situated in a semester-long classroom teaching experiment examining prospective teachers' understanding of number concepts and operations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the learning goals, tasks, and tools used to cultivate prospective teachers' understanding of addition and subtraction with whole numbers. Research…

  11. The Role of Number Words in Preschoolers' Addition Concepts and Problem-Solving Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Pooja; Canobi, Katherine Helen

    2010-01-01

    Preschoolers' conceptual understanding and procedural skills were examined so as to explore the role of number-words and concept-procedure interactions in their additional knowledge. Eighteen three- to four-year-olds and 24 four- to five-year-olds judged commutativity and associativity principles and solved two-term problems involving number words…

  12. Enteropathy of coeliac disease in adults: increased number of enterochromaffin cells the duodenal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Sjölund, K; Alumets, J; Berg, N O; Håkanson, R; Sundler, F

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-nine adult patients with coeliac disease and 39 patients with a normal duodenal morphology were studied with respect to the 5-ht containing enterochromaffin cells. Their number in duodenal biopsies was assessed by fluorescence histochemistry and they were examined by immunohistochemistry for peptides known or believed to occur in enterochromaffin cells. Antisera used were raised against substance P, motilin, and leu-enkephalin. In addition, the concentration of 5-HT was determined chemically. In adult coeliac disease there was a significant increase in the number of duodenal enterochromaffin cells compared with the control group. The concentration of 5-HT in the duodenal mucosa was also greatly increased. Substance P was found in a minority population of enterochromaffin cells. These cells were very few and did not increase in number in coeliac disease. Motilin cells were distinct from enterochromaffin cells. No enkephalin immunoreactive cells were found in the biopsies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7056495

  13. Representational Flexibility and Problem-Solving Ability in Fraction and Decimal Number Addition: A Structural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deliyianni, Eleni; Gagatsis, Athanasios; Elia, Iliada; Panaoura, Areti

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to propose and validate a structural model in fraction and decimal number addition, which is founded primarily on a synthesis of major theoretical approaches in the field of representations in Mathematics and also on previous research on the learning of fractions and decimals. The study was conducted among 1,701 primary…

  14. No evidence that chronic nitrogen additions increase photosynthesis in mature sugar maple forests.

    PubMed

    Talhelm, A F; Pregitzer, K S; Burton, A J

    2011-10-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition can increase forest growth. Because N deposition commonly increases foliar N concentrations, it is thought that this increase in forest growth is a consequence of enhanced leaf-level photosynthesis. However, tests of this mechanism have been infrequent, and increases in photosynthesis have not been consistently observed in mature forests subject to chronic N deposition. In four mature northern hardwood forests in the north-central United States, chronic N additions (30 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) as NaNO3 for 14 years) have increased aboveground growth but have not affected canopy leaf biomass or leaf area index. In order to understand the mechanism behind the increases in growth, we hypothesized that the NO3(-) additions increased foliar N concentrations and leaf-level photosynthesis in the dominant species in these forests (sugar maple, Acer saccharum). The NO3(-) additions significantly increased foliar N. However, there was no significant difference between the ambient and +NO3(-) treatments in two seasons (2006-2007) of instantaneous measurements of photosynthesis from either canopy towers or excised branches. In measurements on excised branches, photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (micromol CO2 s(-1) g(-1) N) was significantly decreased (-13%) by NO3(-) additions. Furthermore, we found no consistent NO3(-) effect across all sites in either current foliage or leaf litter collected annually throughout the study (1993-2007) and analyzed for delta 13C and delta 18O, isotopes that can be used together to integrate changes in photosynthesis over time. We observed a small but significant NO3(-) effect on the average area and mass of individual leaves from the excised branches, but these differences varied by site and were countered by changes in leaf number. These photosynthesis and leaf area data together suggest that NO3(-) additions have not stimulated photosynthesis. There is no evidence that nutrient deficiencies have developed at

  15. Number line estimation and mental addition: examining the potential roles of language and education.

    PubMed

    Laski, Elida V; Yu, Qingyi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relative importance of language and education to the development of numerical knowledge. Consistent with previous research suggesting that counting systems that transparently reflect the base-10 system facilitate an understanding of numerical concepts, Chinese and Chinese American kindergartners' and second graders' number line estimation (0-100 and 0-1000) was 1 to 2 years more advanced than that of American children tested in previous studies. However, Chinese children performed better than their Chinese American peers, who were fluent in Chinese but had been educated in America, at kindergarten on 0-100 number lines, at second grade on 0-1000 number lines, and at both time points on complex addition problems. Overall, the pattern of findings suggests that educational approach may have a greater influence on numerical development than the linguistic structure of the counting system. The findings also demonstrate that, despite generating accurate estimates of numerical magnitude on 0-100 number lines earlier, it still takes Chinese children approximately 2 years to demonstrate accurate estimates on 0-1000 number lines, which raises questions about how to promote the mapping of knowledge across numerical scales.

  16. Nutrient additions in pristine Patagonian Sphagnum bog vegetation: can phosphorus addition alleviate (the effects of) increased nitrogen loads.

    PubMed

    Fritz, C; van Dijk, G; Smolders, A J P; Pancotto, V A; Elzenga, T J T M; Roelofs, J G M; Grootjans, A P

    2012-05-01

    Sphagnum-bog ecosystems have a limited capability to retain carbon and nutrients when subjected to increased nitrogen (N) deposition. Although it has been proposed that phosphorus (P) can dilute negative effects of nitrogen by increasing biomass production of Sphagnum mosses, it is still unclear whether P-addition can alleviate physiological N-stress in Sphagnum plants. A 3-year fertilisation experiment was conducted in lawns of a pristine Sphagnum magellanicum bog in Patagonia, where competing vascular plants were practically absent. Background wet deposition of nitrogen was low (≈ 0.1-0.2 g · N · m(-2) · year(-1)). Nitrogen (4 g · N · m(-2) · year(-1)) and phosphorus (1 g · P · m(-2) · year(-1)) were applied, separately and in combination, six times during the growing season. P-addition substantially increased biomass production of Sphagnum. Nitrogen and phosphorus changed the morphology of Sphagnum mosses by enhancing height increment, but lowering moss stem density. In contrast to expectations, phosphorus failed to alleviate physiological stress imposed by excess nitrogen (e.g. amino acid accumulation, N-saturation and decline in photosynthetic rates). We conclude that despite improving growth conditions by P-addition, Sphagnum-bog ecosystems remain highly susceptible to nitrogen additions. Increased susceptibility to desiccation by nutrients may even worsen the negative effects of excess nitrogen especially in windy climates like in Patagonia.

  17. Interaction of temperature and an environmental stressor: Moina macrocopa responds with increased body size, increased lifespan, and increased offspring numbers slightly above its temperature optimum.

    PubMed

    Engert, Antonia; Chakrabarti, Shumon; Saul, Nadine; Bittner, Michal; Menzel, Ralph; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2013-02-01

    For organisms, temperature is one of the most important environmental factors and gains increasing importance due to global warming, since increasing temperatures may pose organisms close to their environmental tolerance limits and, thus, they may become more vulnerable to environmental stressors. We analyzed the temperature-dependence of the water-soluble antioxidant capacity of the cladoceran Moina macrocopa and evaluated its life trait variables with temperature (15, 20, 25, 30°C) and humic substance (HS) concentrations (0, 0.18, 0.36, 0.90, 1.79 mM DOC) as stressors. Temperatures below and above the apparent optimum (20°C) reduced the antioxidative capacity. Additions of HSs increased body length, but decreased mean lifespan at 15 and 20°C. There was no clear HS-effect on offspring numbers at 15, 20, and 30°C. At 25°C with increasing HS-concentration, lifespan was extended and offspring numbers increased tremendously, reaching 250% of the control. Although the applied HS preparation possesses estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities, a xenohormone mechanism does not seem plausible for the reproductive increase, because comparable effects did not occur at other temperatures. A more convincing explanation appears to be the mitohormesis hypothesis which states that a certain increase of reactive oxygen production leads to improved health and longevity and, with Moina, also to increased offspring numbers. Our results suggest that at least with the eurythermic M. macrocopa, a temperature above the optimum can be beneficial for several life trait variables, even when combined with a chemical stressor. Temperatures approximately 10°C above its optimum appear to adversely affect the lifespan and reproduction of M. macrocopa. This indicates that this cladoceran species seems to be able to utilize temperature as an ecological resource in a range slightly above its thermal optimum.

  18. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  19. The world-wide increase in tuberculosis: how demographic changes, HIV infection and increasing numbers in poverty are increasing tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Peter D O

    2003-01-01

    After more than a century of decline, in the mid 1980s tuberculosis began to increase in some developed countries. Health care workers were then forced to look to the developing world, where they found tuberculosis to be out of control, in many countries. It is now appreciated that tuberculosis is not only increasing globally but is likely to do so beyond the next decade for three principal reasons. First, demographically as the expected population increase will be greatest in areas of the world where tuberculosis is most prevalent, particularly middle Africa and South Asia. Secondly, the increase of HIV, which renders the host uniquely susceptible to tuberculosis, is occurring in the same areas of the world and is already causing an increase in tuberculosis case rates of up to tenfold. Thirdly, as more and more people are forced to live in poverty, where poor nutrition and crowded conditions lead to the spread of tuberculosis, the disease risk will be compounded. Sound medical management, particularly the use of the five components of directly observed therapy, will relieve the situation. But until world conditions of poverty and HIV spread are addressed, it is unlikely that tuberculosis can be controlled.

  20. Pyk2 Regulates Megakaryocyte-Induced Increases in Osteoblast Number and Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ying-Hua; Hooker, R. Adam; Nguyen, Khanh; Gerard-O’Riley, Rita; Waning, David L.; Chitteti, Brahmananda R.; Meijome, Tomas E.; Chua, Hui Lin; Plett, Artur P.; Orschell, Christie M.; Srour, Edward F.; Mayo, Lindsey D.; Pavalko, Fredrick M.; Bruzzaniti, Angela; Kacena, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical evidence from megakaryocyte (MK) related diseases suggest that MKs play a significant role in maintaining bone homeostasis. Findings from our laboratories reveal that MKs significantly increase osteoblast (OB) number through direct MK-OB contact and the activation of integrins. We therefore examined the role of Pyk2, a tyrosine kinase known to be regulated downstream of integrins, in the MK-mediated enhancement of OBs. When OBs were co-cultured with MKs, total Pyk2 levels in OBs were significantly enhanced primarily due to increased Pyk2 gene transcription. Additionally, p53 and Mdm2 were both decreased in OBs upon MK stimulation, which would be permissive of cell cycle entry. We then demonstrated that OB number was markedly reduced when Pyk2−/− OBs, as opposed to wild-type (WT) OBs, were co-cultured with MKs. We also determined that MKs inhibit OB differentiation in the presence and absence of Pyk2 expression. Finally, given that MK replete spleen cells from GATA-1 deficient mice can robustly stimulate OB proliferation and bone formation in WT mice, we adoptively transferred spleen cells from these mice into Pyk2−/− recipient mice. Importantly, GATA-1 deficient spleen cells failed to stimulate an increase in bone formation in Pyk2−/− mice, suggesting in vivo the important role of Pyk2 in the MK-induced increase in bone volume. Further understanding of the signaling pathways involved in the MK-mediated enhancement of OB number and bone formation will facilitate the development of novel anabolic therapies to treat bone loss diseases. PMID:23362087

  1. Teaching Rational Number Addition Using Video Games: The Effects of Instructional Variation. CRESST Report 808

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vendlinski, Terry P.; Chung, Greg K. W. K.; Binning, Kevin R.; Buschang, Rebecca E.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the meaning of rational numbers and how to perform mathematical operations with those numbers seems to be a perennial problem in the United States for both adults and children. Based on previous work, we hypothesized that giving students more time to practice using rational numbers in an environment that enticed them to apply their…

  2. Increasing the Number of Homegrown STEM Majors: What Works and What Doesn't

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidel, Jack; Ali, Hesham; Corbett, Bernadette; Liu, Jenny; Morrison, Brad; O'Connor, Michele; Richter-Egger, Dana; Ryan, Carey

    2011-01-01

    University of Nebraska-Omaha (UNO) and Metropolitan Community College (MCC) have recently completed a five-year NSF STEP project to increase the number of homegrown STEM graduates. The overall project has been quite successful, and the numbers of degrees granted has increased. However, some strategies have worked much better than others. Among the…

  3. Possible introgression of the VRTN mutation increasing vertebral number, carcass length and teat number from Chinese pigs into European pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Huang, Lusheng; Yang, Ming; Fan, Yin; Li, Lin; Fang, Shaoming; Deng, Wenjiang; Cui, Leilei; Zhang, Zhen; Ai, Huashui; Wu, Zhenfang; Gao, Jun; Ren, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vertnin (VRTN) variants have been associated with the number of thoracic vertebrae in European pigs, but the association has not been evidenced in Chinese indigenous pigs. In this study, we first performed a genome-wide association study in Chinese Erhualian pigs using one VRTN candidate causative mutation and the Illumina Porcine 60K SNP Beadchips. The VRTN mutation is significantly associated with thoracic vertebral number in this population. We further show that the VRTN mutation has pleiotropic and desirable effects on teat number and carcass (body) length across four diverse populations, including Erhualian, White Duroc × Erhualian F2 population, Duroc and Landrace pigs. No association was observed between VRTN genotype and growth and fatness traits in these populations. Therefore, testing for the VRTN mutation in pig breeding schemes would not only increase the number of vertebrae and nipples, but also enlarge body size without undesirable effects on growth and fatness traits, consequently improving pork production. Further, by using whole-genome sequence data, we show that the VRTN mutation was possibly introgressed from Chinese pigs into European pigs. Our results provide another example showing that introgressed Chinese genes greatly contributed to the development and production of modern European pig breeds. PMID:26781738

  4. Increased Night Temperature Negatively Affects Grain Yield, Biomass and Grain Number in Chilean Quinoa

    PubMed Central

    Lesjak, Jurka; Calderini, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa high nutritive value increases interest worldwide, especially as a crop that could potentially feature in different cropping systems, however, climate change, particularly rising temperatures, challenges this and other crop species. Currently, only limited knowledge exists regarding the grain yield and other key traits response to higher temperatures of this crop, especially to increased night temperatures. In this context, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased night temperature on quinoa yield, grain number, individual grain weight and processes involved in crop growth under the environmental conditions (control treatment) and night thermal increase at two phases: flowering (T1) and grain filling (T2) in southern Chile. A commercial genotype, Regalona, and a quinoa accession (Cod. BO5, N°191, grain bank from Semillas Baer, hereby referred to as Accession) were used, due to their adaptability to Southern Chilean conditions and contrasting grain yield potential, grain weight and size of plants. Temperature was increased ≈4°C above the ambient from 8 pm until 9 am the next morning. Control treatments reached a high grain yield (600 and 397 g m-2, i.e., Regalona and Accession). Temperature increase reduced grain yield by 31% under T1 treatment and 12% when under T2 in Regalona and 23 and 26% in Accession, respectively. Aboveground biomass was negatively affected by the thermal treatments and a positive linear association was found between grain yield and aboveground biomass across treatments. By contrast, the harvest index was unaffected either by genotype, or by thermal treatments. Grain number was significantly affected between treatments and this key trait was linearly associated with grain yield. On the other hand, grain weight showed a narrow range of variation across treatments. Additionally, leaf area index was not affected, but significant differences were found in SPAD values at the end of T1 treatment, compared

  5. A study of vertebra number in pigs confirms the effect of vertnin and reveals additional QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Formation of the vertebral column is a critical developmental stage in mammals that is strictly controlled in most species. The pig is quite unique as considerable variation exists in number of thoracic vertebra as well as number of lumbar vertebra. At least two genes have been identified that affec...

  6. Addition goes where the big numbers are: evidence for a reversed operational momentum effect.

    PubMed

    Pinhas, Michal; Shaki, Samuel; Fischer, Martin H

    2015-08-01

    Number processing evokes spatial biases, both when dealing with single digits and in more complex mental calculations. Here we investigated whether these two biases have a common origin, by examining their flexibility. Participants pointed to the locations of arithmetic results on a visually presented line with an inverted, right-to-left number arrangement. We found directionally opposite spatial biases for mental arithmetic and for a parity task administered both before and after the arithmetic task. We discuss implications of this dissociation in our results for the task-dependent cognitive representation of numbers.

  7. The Number of Foreign Scholars at U.S. Institutions Increased Slightly in 1995-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desruisseaux, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Foreign scholars at United States research universities increased by 2.3% in 1995-96, after two years of decline. A large majority are doing research; others are teaching. Almost 42% came from Asia, with the largest number from China. The number from Russia rose 84%. Most are in the medical, physical, or life sciences and engineering, and are…

  8. Issues 2016: Will Free Tuition Increase the Number of College Graduates? Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden, Max

    2016-01-01

    To increase the number of graduates, a growing number of pundits and politicians favor providing free tuition for students attending public colleges and universities. This proposal is flawed. Affordability is not the main obstacle to getting a degree. There is also a risk that a tuition-free system for public institutions would leave them solely…

  9. Increased pfmdr1 copy number in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Suriname.

    PubMed

    Labadie-Bracho, Mergiory; Adhin, Malti R

    2013-07-01

    Amplification of the pfmdr1 gene is associated with clinical failures and reduced in vivo and in vitro sensitivity to both mefloquine and artemether-lumefantrine in South-East Asia. Several African countries have reported the absence or very low prevalence of increased copy number, whilst South American reports are limited to Peru without and Venezuela with increased pfmdr1 multiplication. The relative pfmdr1 copy numbers were assessed in 68 isolates from Suriname collected from different endemic villages (2005) and from mining areas (2009). 11% of the isolates harbour multiple copies of the pfmdr1 gene. Isolates originating from mining areas do not yet display a higher tendency for increased copy number and no significant differences could be registered within a time span of 4 years, but the mere presence of increased copy number warrants caution and should be considered as an early warning sign for emerging drug resistance in Suriname and South America.

  10. A study of vertebra number in pigs confirms the association of vertnin and reveals additional QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Formation of the vertebral column is a critical developmental stage in mammals. The strict control of this process has resulted in little variation in number of vertebrae across mammalian species and no variation within most mammalian species. The pig is quite unique as considerable vari...

  11. Operational Momentum in Large-Number Addition and Subtraction by 9-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrink, Koleen; Wynn, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies on nonsymbolic arithmetic have illustrated that under conditions that prevent exact calculation, adults display a systematic tendency to overestimate the answers to addition problems and underestimate the answers to subtraction problems. It has been suggested that this "operational momentum" results from exposure to a…

  12. THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS SOIL ADDITIVES. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. IT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF MODULES DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDY DATA. SECTIONS ARE (1) PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ALTERATION OF SOIL WITH CHEMICAL ADDITIVES, (2) TERMINOLOGY AND COMPUTATIONS, (3)…

  13. Utilizing a Collaborative Cross Number Puzzle Game to Develop the Computing Ability of Addition and Subtraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yen-Hua; Looi, Chee-Kit; Lin, Chiu-Pin; Shao, Yin-Juan; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2012-01-01

    While addition and subtraction is a key mathematical skill for young children, a typical activity for them in classrooms involves doing repetitive arithmetic calculation exercises. In this study, we explore a collaborative way for students to learn these skills in a technology-enabled way with wireless computers. Two classes, comprising a total of…

  14. Pre-fermentation addition of grape tannin increases the varietal thiols content in wine.

    PubMed

    Larcher, Roberto; Tonidandel, Loris; Román Villegas, Tomás; Nardin, Tiziana; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Nicolini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The recent finding that grape tannin may contain significant amount of S-glutathionylated (GSH-3MH) and S-cysteinylated (Cys-3MH) precursors of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, characteristic of Sauvignon blanc wines, offers new opportunities for enhancing the tropical aroma in fermented beverages. In this study this new hypothesis was investigated: Müller Thurgau (17 samples) and Sauvignon blanc (15 samples) grapes were fermented with and without addition of a selected grape tannin. As expected, the tannin-added juices were higher in precursors, and they produced wines with increased free thiols. Preliminary informal sensory tests confirmed that in particular the Sauvignon wines produced with the tannin addition were often richer with increased "fruity/green" notes than the corresponding reference wines. This outcome confirms that grape tannin addition prior to fermentation can fortify the level of these compounds.

  15. Aggregation of Cricket Activity in Response to Resource Addition Increases Local Diversity.

    PubMed

    Szinwelski, Neucir; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Solar, Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2015-01-01

    Crickets are often found feeding on fallen fruits among forest litter. Fruits and other sugar-rich resources are not homogeneously distributed, nor are they always available. We therefore expect that crickets dwelling in forest litter have a limited supply of sugar-rich resource, and will perceive this and displace towards resource-supplemented sites. Here we evaluate how sugar availability affects cricket species richness and abundance in old-growth Atlantic forest by spraying sugarcane syrup on leaf litter, simulating increasing availability, and collecting crickets via pitfall trapping. We found an asymptotic positive association between resource addition and species richness, and an interaction between resource addition and species identity on cricket abundance, which indicates differential effects of resource addition among cricket species. Our results indicate that 12 of the 13 cricket species present in forest litter are maintained at low densities by resource scarcity; this highlights sugar-rich resource as a short-term driver of litter cricket community structure in tropical forests. When resource was experimentally increased, species richness increased due to behavioral displacement. We present evidence that the density of many species is limited by resource scarcity and, when resources are added, behavioral displacement promotes increased species packing and alters species composition. Further, our findings have technical applicability for increasing sampling efficiency of local cricket diversity in studies aiming to estimate species richness, but with no regard to local environmental drivers or species-abundance characteristics.

  16. Increased rainfall variability and N addition accelerate litter decomposition in a restored prairie.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition and projected increases in rainfall variability (the frequency of drought and heavy rainfall events) are expected to strongly influence ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition. However, how these two global change factors interact to influence litter decomposition is largely unknown. I examined how increased rainfall variability and nitrogen addition affected mass and nitrogen loss of litter from two tallgrass prairie species, Schizachyrium scoparium and Solidago canadensis, and isolated the effects of each during plant growth and during litter decomposition. I increased rainfall variability by consolidating ambient rainfall into larger events and simulated chronic nitrogen deposition using a slow-release urea fertilizer. S. scoparium litter decay was more strongly regulated by the treatments applied during plant growth than by those applied during decomposition. During plant growth, increased rainfall variability resulted in S. scoparium litter that subsequently decomposed more slowly and immobilized more nitrogen than litter grown under ambient conditions, whereas nitrogen addition during plant growth accelerated subsequent mass loss of S. scoparium litter. In contrast, S. canadensis litter mass and N losses were enhanced under either N addition or increased rainfall variability both during plant growth and during decomposition. These results suggest that ongoing changes in rainfall variability and nitrogen availability are accelerating nutrient cycling in tallgrass prairies through their combined effects on litter quality, environmental conditions, and plant community composition.

  17. Are Special Education Teachers Prepared to Teach the Increasing Number of Students Diagnosed with Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loiacono, Vito; Allen, Barton

    2008-01-01

    In America, the number of children diagnosed with autism has increased to 1 out of every 150. The current trend in special education appears to support integrated education. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is recognized by many as a very effective instructional methodology in teaching children with autism. Parents are increasingly requesting that…

  18. Increasing the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms used in genomic evaluations of dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small increase in the accuracy of genomic evaluations of dairy cattle was achieved by increasing the number of SNP used to 61,013. All the 45,195 SNP used previously were retained, and 15,818 SNP were selected from higher density genotyping chips if the magnitude of the SNP effect was among the to...

  19. Vitellogenin-RNAi and ovariectomy each increase lifespan, increase protein storage, and decrease feeding, but are not additive in grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Tetlak, Alicia G; Burnett, Jacob B; Hahn, Daniel A; Hatle, John D

    2015-12-01

    Reduced reproduction has been shown to increase lifespan in many animals, yet the mechanisms behind this trade-off are unclear. We addressed this question by combining two distinct, direct means of life-extension via reduced reproduction, to test whether they were additive. In the lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera, ovariectomized (OVX) individuals had a ~20% increase in lifespan and a doubling of storage relative to controls (Sham operated). Similarly, young female grasshoppers treated with RNAi against vitellogenin (the precursor to egg yolk protein) had increased fat body mass and halted ovarian growth. In this study, we compared VgRNAi to two control groups that do not reduce reproduction, namely buffer injection (Buffer) and injection with RNAi against a hexameric storage protein (Hex90RNAi). Each injection treatment was tested with and without ovariectomy. Hence, we tested feeding, storage, and lifespans in six groups: OVX and Buffer, OVX and Hex90RNAi, OVX and VgRNAi, Sham and Buffer, Sham and Hex90RNAi, and Sham and VgRNAi. Ovariectomized grasshoppers and VgRNAi grasshoppers each had similar reductions in feeding (~40%), increases in protein storage in the hemolymph (150-300%), and extensions in lifespan (13-21%). Ovariectomized grasshoppers had higher vitellogenin protein levels than did VgRNAi grasshoppers. Last but not least, when ovariectomy and VgRNAi were applied together, there was no greater effect on feeding, protein storage, or longevity. Hence, feeding regulation, and protein storage in insects, may be conserved components of life-extension via reduced reproduction.

  20. An Inventory of Methods for the Assessment of Additive Increased Addictiveness of Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Kienhuis, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarettes and other forms of tobacco contain the addictive drug nicotine. Other components, either naturally occurring in tobacco or additives that are intentionally added during the manufacturing process, may add to the addictiveness of tobacco products. As such, these components can make cigarette smokers more easily and heavily dependent. Efforts to regulate tobacco product dependence are emerging globally. Additives that increase tobacco dependence will be prohibited under the new European Tobacco Product Directive. Objective: This article provides guidelines and recommendations for developing a regulatory strategy for assessment of increase in tobacco dependence due to additives. Relevant scientific literature is summarized and criteria and experimental studies that can define increased dependence of tobacco products are described. Conclusions: Natural tobacco smoke is a very complex matrix of components, therefore analysis of the contribution of an additive or a combination of additives to the level of dependence on this product is challenging. We propose to combine different type of studies analyzing overall tobacco product dependence potential and the functioning of additives in relation to nicotine. By using a combination of techniques, changes associated with nicotine dependence such as behavioral, physiological, and neurochemical alterations can be examined to provide sufficient information. Research needs and knowledge gaps will be discussed and recommendations will be made to translate current knowledge into legislation. As such, this article aids in implementation of the Tobacco Product Directive, as well as help enable regulators and researchers worldwide to develop standards to reduce dependence on tobacco products. Implications: This article provides an overall view on how to assess tobacco product constituents for their potential contribution to use and dependence. It provides guidelines that help enable regulators worldwide to

  1. Soil nutrient additions increase invertebrate herbivore abundances, but not herbivory, across three grassland systems.

    PubMed

    La Pierre, Kimberly J; Smith, Melinda D

    2016-02-01

    Resource availability may influence invertebrate communities, with important consequences for ecosystem function, such as biomass production. We assessed: (1) the effects of experimental soil nutrient additions on invertebrate abundances and feeding rates and (2) the resultant changes in the effects of invertebrates on aboveground plant biomass at three grassland sites spanning the North American Central Plains, across which plant tissue chemistry and biomass vary. Invertebrate communities and rates of herbivory were sampled within a long-term nutrient-addition experiment established at each site along the broad Central Plains precipitation gradient. Additionally, the effects of invertebrates on aboveground plant biomass were determined under ambient and elevated nutrient conditions. At the more mesic sites, invertebrate herbivore abundances increased and their per capita rate of herbivory decreased with nutrient additions. In contrast, at the semi-arid site where plant biomass is low and plant nutrient concentrations are high, invertebrate herbivore abundances did not vary and per capita rates of herbivory increased with nutrient additions. No change in the effect of invertebrate herbivores on aboveground plant biomass was observed at any of the sites. In sum, nutrient additions induced shifts in both plant biomass and leaf nutrient content, which altered invertebrate abundances and feeding rate. However, due to the inverse relationship between changes in herbivore abundance and per capita rates of herbivory, nutrient additions did not alter the effect of invertebrates on aboveground biomass. Overall, we suggest that this inverse response of herbivore abundance and per capita feeding rate may buffer ecosystems against changes in invertebrate damage in response to fluctuations in nutrient levels.

  2. Influence of additive effective atomic number on alpha-oxide radiolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Doroshenko, V.N.; Entinzon, I.R.; Meleshevich, A.P.

    1988-07-01

    If a monomer or polymer is irradiated in the presence of a filler or on an inorganic substrate, one has to determine how the phase boundaries affect the reaction rates in the organic components. We have restricted consideration to the approximate relation between the additional absorbed energy taken up by the monomer or oligomer f/sub ECH/(P) and P for a composite based on epichlorohydrin (ECH) on /sup 60/Co /gamma/ irradiation. We determined the polymer yield (conversion /chi/ in %) in the ECH-SiO/sub 2/ and ECH-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ systems containing 1-50% oxide.

  3. Nitrogen fertilizer increases spikelet number per panicle by enhancing cytokinin synthesis in rice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chengqiang; You, Juan; Chen, Lin; Wang, Shaohua; Ding, Yanfeng

    2014-02-01

    Flower number per panicle is one of the most important traits in rice productivity determination. The number of flowers is established in the early stages of panicle development. Nitrogen fertilizer application before panicle initiation is well known to increase flower number. Nitrogen increases cytokinin (CKs) biosynthesis in plants, and CKs have very similar effects as nitrogen fertilizer on panicle branching. The effects of nitrogen fertilizer on panicle branching may be mediated by CKs, in which accumulation in the inflorescence meristem can regulate panicle development, resulting in increased numbers of flowers and branches. Adenosine phosphate-isopentenyltransferase (IPT) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of CKs biosynthesis. We analyzed the effect of nitrogen fertilizer (urea) on the expression of OsIPT genes (OsIPTs). The results showed that OsIPTs were markedly increased, and CKs accumulated in panicle when nitrogen fertilizer was applied. CKs biosynthesis in the roots and leaves was not up-regulated by nitrogen. These results suggest that nitrogen fertilizer enhances local CKs synthesis to increase flower numbers in the panicles of rice. Localized CKs biosynthesis is an important response to nitrogen.

  4. Nandrolone decanoate increases satellite cell numbers in the chicken pectoralis muscle.

    PubMed

    Allouh, Mohammed Z; Rosser, Benjamin W C

    2010-02-01

    The anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate has minimal androgenic effects and, thus, is widely used to induce muscle hypertrophy in both patients and athletes. Although increases in satellite cell numbers and satellite cells giving rise to new myonuclei are associated with hypertrophy in many experimental models, the relationship between nandrolone and satellite cells is poorly understood. Here we test the hypothesis that nandrolone administration is associated with an increase in satellite cell numbers in muscle. Nandrolone was injected at weekly intervals for four weeks into the right pectoralis muscle of female white leghorn chickens aged 63 days post hatch. Age/size/sex matched control birds received saline injections. The contralateral pectoralis was excised for study from each control and nandrolone treated bird. An antibody against Pax7 and immunocytochemical techniques were used to identify satellite cells. Nandrolone significantly increased mean pectoralis mass by approximately 22%, and mean fiber diameter by about 24%. All satellite cell indices that were quantified increased significantly in chicken pectoralis with administration of nandrolone. Nandrolone injected birds had on average higher satellite cell frequencies (#SC nuclei/all nuclei within basal lamina), number of satellite cells per millimeter of fiber, and satellite cell concentrations (closer together). Myonuclei were further apart (less concentrated) in nandrolone injected muscle. However, an overall increase in myonuclear numbers was revealed by a significantly greater mean number of myonuclei per millimeter of fiber in nandrolone injected muscle. Our results suggest that satellite cells may be key cellular vectors for nandrolone induced muscle fiber hypertrophy.

  5. Insulin analog with additional disulfide bond has increased stability and preserved activity

    PubMed Central

    Vinther, Tine N; Norrman, Mathias; Ribel, Ulla; Huus, Kasper; Schlein, Morten; Steensgaard, Dorte B; Pedersen, Thomas Å; Pettersson, Ingrid; Ludvigsen, Svend; Kjeldsen, Thomas; Jensen, Knud J; Hubálek, František

    2013-01-01

    Insulin is a key hormone controlling glucose homeostasis. All known vertebrate insulin analogs have a classical structure with three 100% conserved disulfide bonds that are essential for structural stability and thus the function of insulin. It might be hypothesized that an additional disulfide bond may enhance insulin structural stability which would be highly desirable in a pharmaceutical use. To address this hypothesis, we designed insulin with an additional interchain disulfide bond in positions A10/B4 based on Cα-Cα distances, solvent exposure, and side-chain orientation in human insulin (HI) structure. This insulin analog had increased affinity for the insulin receptor and apparently augmented glucodynamic potency in a normal rat model compared with HI. Addition of the disulfide bond also resulted in a 34.6°C increase in melting temperature and prevented insulin fibril formation under high physical stress even though the C-terminus of the B-chain thought to be directly involved in fibril formation was not modified. Importantly, this analog was capable of forming hexamer upon Zn addition as typical for wild-type insulin and its crystal structure showed only minor deviations from the classical insulin structure. Furthermore, the additional disulfide bond prevented this insulin analog from adopting the R-state conformation and thus showing that the R-state conformation is not a prerequisite for binding to insulin receptor as previously suggested. In summary, this is the first example of an insulin analog featuring a fourth disulfide bond with increased structural stability and retained function. PMID:23281053

  6. Strength in numbers: Combining neck vibration and prism adaptation produces additive therapeutic effects in unilateral neglect

    PubMed Central

    Saevarsson, Styrmir; Kristjánsson, Árni; Halsband, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Unilateral neglect is a multifaceted disorder. Many authors have, for this reason, speculated that the best treatment for neglect will involve combinations of different therapeutic techniques. Two well known interventions, neck vibration (NV) and prism adaptation (PA), have often been considered to be among the most effective treatments for neglect. Here, two experiments were performed to explore possible additive benefits when these interventions are used in combination to treat chronic neglect. Both experimental groups received NV for 20 minutes, while the second group received simultaneous PA. The effects of treatment were measured with a time-restricted and feedback-based visual search task, which has previously been found to abolish the beneficial effects of PA, and with standard neglect tests. Baseline and intervention measures were performed on separate days. Findings for both groups indicated improved visual search following intervention, but the patients that underwent the combined intervention (NVPA) showed clear improvements on visual search based paper and pencil neglect tests unlike the NV-only group. Overall, our results suggest that PA strengthens the effects of NV and that feedback-based tasks do not abolish beneficial effects of PA, when NV is applied simultaneously. The results support the view that the most effective treatment for neglect will involve the combination of different treatments. PMID:20503132

  7. Testosterone replacement therapy can increase circulating endothelial progenitor cell number in men with late onset hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Liao, C-H; Wu, Y-N; Lin, F-Y; Tsai, W-K; Liu, S-P; Chiang, H-S

    2013-07-01

    Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are bone marrow-derived cells required for endothelial repair. A low EPC number can be considered as an independent predictor of endothelial dysfunction and future cardiovascular events. Recent evidence shows that patients with hypogonadal symptoms without other confounding risk factors have a low number of circulating progenitor cells (PCs) and EPCs, thus highlighting the role of testosterone in the proliferation and differentiation of EPCs. Here, we investigate if testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) can increase circulating EPC number in men with late onset hypogonadism. Forty-six men (age range, 40-73 years; mean age, 58.3 years) with hypogonadal symptoms were recruited, and 29 men with serum total testosterone (TT) levels less than 350 ng/dL received TRT using transdermal testosterone gel (Androgel; 1% testosterone at 5 g/day) for 12 months. Circulating EPC numbers (per 100 000 monocytes) were calculated using flow cytometry. There was no significant association between serum TT levels and the number of circulating EPCs before TRT. Compared with the number of mean circulating EPCs at baseline (9.5 ± 6.2), the number was significantly higher after 3 months (16.6 ± 11.1, p = 0.027), 6 months (20.3 ± 15.3, p = 0.006) and 12 months (27.2 ± 15.5, p = 0.017) of TRT. Thus, we conclude that serum TT levels before TRT are not significantly associated with the number of circulating EPCs in men with late onset hypogonadism. However, TRT can increase the number of circulating EPCs, which implies the benefit of TRT on endothelial function in hypogonadal men.

  8. Vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) outcomes associated with increasing number of prior VBACs.

    PubMed

    Stamilio, David M; Shanks, Anthony

    2008-05-01

    Evaluation of: Mercer BM, Gilbert S, Landon MB et al., for the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal medicine Units Network: Labor outcomes with increasing number of prior vaginal births after cesarean delivery. Obstet. Gynecol. 111(2), 285-291 (2008). From a prospective US multicenter cohort of 45,988 patients with a singleton gestation and a prior cesarean, 13,532 women that elected to attempt a vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) were selected for this secondary analysis. This study was conducted to estimate the success rates and risks of an attempted VBAC according to the number of previously successful VBAC attempts. Outcomes evaluated included VBAC success, maternal major morbidity (e.g., uterine rupture and surgical complications), neonatal morbidity (e.g., intensive care nursery admission and acidemia) and maternal and neonatal death. The VBAC success rate rose incrementally from 63.3 to 91.6% in patients that had from zero to four or more prior successful VBACs. Uterine rupture and peripartum risks decreased by 50% after the initial successful VBAC and did not increase with increasing prior VBAC number. Neonatal morbidity did not increase with increasing VBAC number.

  9. Nonlinear response of soil respiration to increasing nitrogen additions in a Tibetan alpine steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yunfeng; Li, Fei; Zhou, Guoying; Fang, Kai; Zhang, Dianye; Li, Changbin; Yang, Guibiao; Wang, Guanqin; Wang, Jun; Mohammat, Anwar; Yang, Yuanhe

    2017-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) availability is a key regulator of carbon (C) cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Anthropogenic N input, such as N deposition and fertilization, increases N availability in soil, which has important implications for an ecosystem’s C storage and loss. Soil respiration (Rs), which is the second largest C flux from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere, plays an important role in terrestrial C cycles. The direction and magnitude of the responses of Rs and its components to N addition have been widely evaluated, but it remains unclear how these processes change across multiple N addition levels. Here we conducted a two-year field experiment to examine the changes of Rs and its autotrophic respiration (Ra) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) components along a gradient of eight N levels (0, 1 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32 g m‑2 yr‑1) in a Tibetan alpine steppe, and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the relative contributions of biotic and abiotic variables and their direct and indirect pathways regulating the Ra and Rh. Our results indicated that both Rs and Ra exhibited first increasing and then subsequent decreasing trends at the threshold of 8 g N m‑2 yr‑1. In contrast, the Rh declined linearly with the N addition rate continuously increasing. SEM analysis revealed that, among various environmental factors, soil temperature was the most important one modulating Rs, which not only had a direct effect on the two Rs components, but also indirectly regulated the Ra and Rh via root and microbial biomass. These findings suggest that the nonlinear response patterns of Rs should be considered for better predicting terrestrial C balance, given that anthropogenic N input to the terrestrial ecosystems is increasing continuously.

  10. Green Manure Addition to Soil Increases Grain Zinc Concentration in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A.; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H.; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg−1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg−1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg−1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)−1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)−1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  11. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  12. Increased Mechanical Properties Through the Addition of Zr to GRCop-84

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2011-01-01

    GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb) has shown exceptional mechanical properties above 932 F (773 K). However, its properties below 932 F (773 K) are inferior to precipitation strengthened alloys such as Cu-Cr, Cu-Zr and Cu-Cr-Zr when they are in the fully aged, hard-drawn condition. It has been noted that the addition of small amounts of Zr, typically 0.1 wt.% to 0.5 wt.%, can greatly enhance the mechanical properties of copper-based alloys. Limited testing was conducted upon GRCop-84 with an addition of 0.4 wt.% Zr to determine its tensile, creep and low cycle fatigue (LCF) properties. Very large increases in strength (up to 68%) and ductility (up to 123%) were observed at both room temperature and 932 F (773 K). Creep properties at 932 F (773 K) demonstrated more than an order of magnitude decrease in the creep rate relative to unmodified GRCop-84 with a corresponding order of magnitude increase in creep life. Limited LCF testing showed that the modified alloy had a comparable LCF life at room temperature, but it was capable of sustaining a much higher load. While more testing and composition optimization are required, the addition of Zr to GRCop-84 has shown clear benefits to mechanical properties.

  13. Increased leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number is associated with oral premalignant lesions: an epidemiology study.

    PubMed

    He, Yonggang; Gong, Yilei; Gu, Jian; Lee, J Jack; Lippman, Scott M; Wu, Xifeng

    2014-08-01

    Although changes in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) have been linked to increased susceptibility to several cancers, the relationship between the mtDNA copy number in PBLs and the risk of cancer precursors has not been investigated. In this study, we measured the relative mtDNA copy number in PBLs of 143 patients with histologically confirmed oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) and of 357 healthy controls that were frequency-matched to patients according to age, sex and race. OPL patients had a significantly higher mtDNA copy number than the controls (1.36 ± 0.74 versus 1.11 ± 0.32; P < 0.001). In analyses stratified by sex, race, alcohol consumption and smoking status, the mtDNA copy number was higher in the OPL patients than in the controls in all the strata. Using the median mtDNA copy number in the control group as a cutoff, we found that individuals with a high mtDNA copy number had significantly higher risk of having OPLs than individuals with a low mtDNA copy number (adjusted odds ratio, 1.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-3.05, P = 0.004). Analysis of the joint effect of alcohol consumption and smoking revealed even greater risk for OPLs. Our results suggest that high mtDNA copy number in PBLs is significantly associated with having OPLs. To our knowledge, this is the first epidemiologic study to show that the mtDNA copy number may indicate the risk of cancer precursors.

  14. The Use of Heavy Gas for Increased Reynolds Numbers in Transonic Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, J. B.; Anderson, W. K.; Murthy, A. V.

    1998-01-01

    The use of a high molecular weight test gas to increase the Reynolds number range of transonic wind tunnels is explored. Modifications to a small transonic wind tunnel are described and the real gas properties of the example heavy gas (sulfur hexafluoride) are discussed. Sulfur hexafluoride is shown to increase the test Reynolds number by a factor of more than 2 over air at the same Mach number. Experimental and computational pressure distributions on an advanced supercritical airfoil configuration at Mach 0.7 in both sulfur hexafluoride and nitrogen are presented. Transonic similarity theory is shown to be partially successful in transforming the heavy gas results to equivalent nitrogen (air) results, provided the correct definition of gamma is used.

  15. Storage conditions affecting increase in falling number of soft red winter wheat grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Falling number (FN) of wheat grain, a measure of preharvest sprouting, tends to increase during storage; however, grain and storage conditions that impact FN changes are poorly understood. Wheat grain samples of varying FN from several cultivars were obtained by malting, by incubating wheat stalks,...

  16. Notalgia paresthetica with a significant increase in the number of intradermal nerves.

    PubMed

    Inaloz, H Serhat; Kirtak, Necmettin; Erguven, H Gulcin; Karakok, Metin; Inaloz, Serap S

    2002-11-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is an isolated mononeuropathy involving the skin over or near the scapula. The cause remains unknown. We histologically observed a significant increase in the number of dermal nerves in a case of notalgia paresthetica. Immunohistochemical examination using a neural marker, S-100, positively stained the nerves. Interestingly, a biopsy from perilesional skin also showed an abnormal nerve proliferation.

  17. Increasing the Number of STEM Graduates: Insights from the U.S. STEM Education & Modeling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business-Higher Education Forum (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Business-Higher Education Forum's (BHEF's) Securing America's Leadership in STEM Initiative has broken new ground in addressing one of the nation's most critical challenges--increasing the number of students who are interested in and pursue careers in science, technology, engineering or mathematics, the so-called "STEM" fields. The…

  18. Increasing the Number of Feminist Scientists: Why Feminist Aims Are Not Served by the Underdetermination Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intemann, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    Recent feminist philosophers of science have argued that feminist values can contribute to rational decisions about which scientific theories to accept. On this view, increasing the number of feminist scientists is important for ensuring rational and objective theory acceptance. The Underdetermination Thesis has played a key role in arguments for…

  19. The Michigan Model Pilot: Increasing the Number of Female Administrators in Michigan Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    The Michigan Model provides a 3-year plan for school districts to increase the number of women in administration. Nineteen objectives address six key role groups--three external to the school district (professional educational organizations, local community groups, and parent/community members) and three internal to the district…

  20. Consolidation of silicon nitride without additives. [for gas turbine engine efficiency increase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikora, P. F.; Yeh, H. C.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ceramics for gas turbine engine construction might make it possible to increase engine efficiency by raising operational temperatures to values beyond those which can be tolerated by metallic alloys. The most promising ceramics being investigated in this connection are Si3N4 and SiC. A description is presented of a study which had the objective to produce dense Si3N4. The two most common methods of consolidating Si3N4 currently being used include hot pressing and reaction sintering. The feasibility was explored of producing a sound, dense Si3N4 body without additives by means of conventional gas hot isostatic pressing techniques and an uncommon hydraulic hot isostatic pressing technique. It was found that Si3N4 can be densified without additions to a density which exceeds 95% of the theoretical value

  1. Decreasing sleep requirement with increasing numbers of neurons as a driver for bigger brains and bodies in mammalian evolution

    PubMed Central

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Mammals sleep between 3 and 20 h d−1, but what regulates daily sleep requirement is unknown. While mammalian evolution has been characterized by a tendency towards larger bodies and brains, sustaining larger bodies and brains requires increasing hours of feeding per day, which is incompatible with a large sleep requirement. Mammalian evolution, therefore, must involve mechanisms that tie increasing body and brain size to decreasing sleep requirements. Here I show that daily sleep requirement decreases across mammalian species and in rat postnatal development with a decreasing ratio between cortical neuronal density and surface area, which presumably causes sleep-inducing metabolites to accumulate more slowly in the parenchyma. Because addition of neurons to the non-primate cortex in mammalian evolution decreases this ratio, I propose that increasing numbers of cortical neurons led to decreased sleep requirement in evolution that allowed for more hours of feeding and increased body mass, which would then facilitate further increases in numbers of brain neurons through a larger caloric intake per hour. Coupling of increasing numbers of neurons to decreasing sleep requirement and increasing hours of feeding thus may have not only allowed but also driven the trend of increasing brain and body mass in mammalian evolution. PMID:26400745

  2. Decreasing sleep requirement with increasing numbers of neurons as a driver for bigger brains and bodies in mammalian evolution.

    PubMed

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2015-10-07

    Mammals sleep between 3 and 20 h d(-1), but what regulates daily sleep requirement is unknown. While mammalian evolution has been characterized by a tendency towards larger bodies and brains, sustaining larger bodies and brains requires increasing hours of feeding per day, which is incompatible with a large sleep requirement. Mammalian evolution, therefore, must involve mechanisms that tie increasing body and brain size to decreasing sleep requirements. Here I show that daily sleep requirement decreases across mammalian species and in rat postnatal development with a decreasing ratio between cortical neuronal density and surface area, which presumably causes sleep-inducing metabolites to accumulate more slowly in the parenchyma. Because addition of neurons to the non-primate cortex in mammalian evolution decreases this ratio, I propose that increasing numbers of cortical neurons led to decreased sleep requirement in evolution that allowed for more hours of feeding and increased body mass, which would then facilitate further increases in numbers of brain neurons through a larger caloric intake per hour. Coupling of increasing numbers of neurons to decreasing sleep requirement and increasing hours of feeding thus may have not only allowed but also driven the trend of increasing brain and body mass in mammalian evolution.

  3. Digital templating in total hip arthroplasty: Additional anteroposterior hip view increases the accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Stigler, Sophia K; Müller, Franz J; Pfaud, Sebastian; Zellner, Michael; Füchtmeier, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    AIM To analyze planning total hip arthroplasty (THA) with an additional anteroposterior hip view may increases the accuracy of preoperative planning in THA. METHODS We conducted prospective digital planning in 100 consecutive patients: 50 of these procedures were planned using pelvic overview only (first group), and the other 50 procedures were planned using pelvic overview plus antero-posterior (a.p.) hip view (second group). The planning and the procedure of each patient were performed exclusively by the senior surgeon. Fifty procedures with retrospective analogues planning were used as the control group (group zero). After the procedure, the planning was compared with the eventually implanted components (cup and stem). For statistic analysis the χ2 test was used for nominal variables and the t test was used for a comparison of continuous variables. RESULTS Preoperative planning with an additional a.p. hip view (second group) significantly increased the exact component correlation when compared to pelvic overview only (first group) for both the acetabular cup and the femoral stem (76% cup and 66% stem vs 54% cup and 32% stem). When considering planning ± 1 size, the accuracy in the second group was 96% (48 of 50 patients) for the cup and 94% for the stem (47 of 50 patients). In the analogue control group (group zero), an exact correlation was observed in only 1/3 of the cases. CONCLUSION Digital THA planning performed by the operating surgeon and based on additional a.p. hip view significantly increases the correlation between preoperative planning and eventual implant sizes. PMID:28144576

  4. Effect of dietary soybean oil addition on the odd-numbered and branched-chain fatty acids in rabbit meat.

    PubMed

    Papadomichelakis, George; Karagiannidou, Areti; Anastasopoulos, Vasilios; Fegeros, Konstantinos

    2010-10-01

    The effect of dietary soybean oil (SO) inclusion (20g/kg) on the odd-numbered (ONFA) and branched-chain (BCFA) fatty acids (FA) of two muscles, differing in fatness (Longissimus lumborum and Biceps femoris), was studied in 24 New ZealandxCalifornian rabbits. The increased muscle fatness in Biceps femoris (P<0.001) was related to higher saturated (P<0.01) and monounsaturated (P<0.01) fatty acids. Intramuscular ONFA and BCFA contents were not affected, but their proportions were reduced (P<0.01 and P<0.001) by SO addition, suggesting a dilution effect of the dietary polyunsaturates accumulated in both muscles, except for 17:0i which decreased only in Longissimus lumborum due to significant (P<0.05) soybean oilxmuscle interaction. The higher (P<0.05) BCFA contents and the FA profile in Biceps femoris were not affected by fatness, indicating an association with other muscle properties. The present study supplies new information on ONFA and BCFA in rabbit meat.

  5. Soil carbon sequestration in prairie grasslands increased by chronic nitrogen addition.

    PubMed

    Fornara, Dario A; Tilman, David

    2012-09-01

    Human-induced increases in nitrogen (N) deposition are common across many terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Greater N availability not only reduces biological diversity, but also affects the biogeochemical coupling of carbon (C) and N cycles in soil ecosystems. Soils are the largest active terrestrial C pool and N deposition effects on soil C sequestration or release could have global importance. Here, we show that 27 years of chronic N additions to prairie grasslands increased C sequestration in mineral soils and that a potential mechanism responsible for this C accrual was an N-induced increase in root mass. Greater soil C sequestration followed a dramatic shift in plant community composition from native-species-rich C4 grasslands to naturalized-species-rich C3 grasslands, which, despite lower soil C gains per unit of N added, still acted as soil C sinks. Since both high plant diversity and elevated N deposition may increase soil C sequestration, but N deposition also decreases plant diversity, more research is needed to address the long-term implications for soil C storage of these two factors. Finally, because exotic C3 grasses often come to dominate N-enriched grasslands, it is important to determine if such N-dependent soil C sequestration occurs across C3 grasslands in other regions worldwide.

  6. Increased risk of delayed cerebral ischemia in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with additional intracerebral hematoma.

    PubMed

    Platz, Johannes; Güresir, Erdem; Wagner, Marlies; Seifert, Volker; Konczalla, Juergen

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) has a major impact on the outcome of patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to assess the influence of an additional intracerebral hematoma (ICH) on the occurrence of DCI. METHODS The authors conducted a single-center retrospective analysis of cases of SAH involving patients treated between 2006 and 2011. Patients who died or were transferred to another institution within 10 days after SAH without the occurrence of DCI were excluded from the analysis. RESULTS Additional ICH was present in 123 (24.4%) of 504 included patients (66.7% female). ICH was classified as frontal in 72 patients, temporal in 24, and perisylvian in 27. DCI occurred in 183 patients (36.3%). A total of 59 (32.2%) of these 183 patients presented with additional ICH, compared with 64 (19.9%) of the 321 without DCI (p = 0.002). In addition, DCI was detected significantly more frequently in patients with higher World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grades. The authors compared the original and modified Fisher Scales with respect to the occurrence of DCI. The modified Fisher Scale (mFS) was superior to the original Fisher Scale (oFS) in predicting DCI. Furthermore, they suggest a new classification based on the mFS, which demonstrates the impact of additional ICH on the occurrence of DCI. After the different scales were corrected for age, sex, WFNS score, and aneurysm site, the oFS no longer was predictive for the occurrence of DCI, while the new scale demonstrated a superior capacity for prediction as compared with the mFS. CONCLUSIONS Additional ICH was associated with an increased risk of DCI in this study. Furthermore, adding the presence or absence of ICH to the mFS improved the identification of patients at the highest risk for the development of DCI. Thus, a simple adjustment of the mFS might help to identify patients at high risk for DCI.

  7. Activating HSP72 in rodent skeletal muscle increases mitochondrial number and oxidative capacity and decreases insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Henstridge, Darren C; Bruce, Clinton R; Drew, Brian G; Tory, Kálmán; Kolonics, Attila; Estevez, Emma; Chung, Jason; Watson, Nadine; Gardner, Timothy; Lee-Young, Robert S; Connor, Timothy; Watt, Matthew J; Carpenter, Kevin; Hargreaves, Mark; McGee, Sean L; Hevener, Andrea L; Febbraio, Mark A

    2014-06-01

    Induction of heat shock protein (HSP)72 protects against obesity-induced insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that HSP72 plays a pivotal role in increasing skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and oxidative metabolism. Mice overexpressing HSP72 in skeletal muscle (HSP72Tg) and control wild-type (WT) mice were fed either a chow or high-fat diet (HFD). Despite a similar energy intake when HSP72Tg mice were compared with WT mice, the HFD increased body weight, intramuscular lipid accumulation (triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol but not ceramide), and severe glucose intolerance in WT mice alone. Whole-body VO2, fatty acid oxidation, and endurance running capacity were markedly increased in HSP72Tg mice. Moreover, HSP72Tg mice exhibited an increase in mitochondrial number. In addition, the HSP72 coinducer BGP-15, currently in human clinical trials for type 2 diabetes, also increased mitochondrial number and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Together, these data identify a novel role for activation of HSP72 in skeletal muscle. Thus, the increased oxidative metabolism associated with activation of HSP72 has potential clinical implications not only for type 2 diabetes but also for other disorders where mitochondrial function is compromised.

  8. Activating HSP72 in Rodent Skeletal Muscle Increases Mitochondrial Number and Oxidative Capacity and Decreases Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Henstridge, Darren C.; Bruce, Clinton R.; Drew, Brian G.; Tory, Kálmán; Kolonics, Attila; Estevez, Emma; Chung, Jason; Watson, Nadine; Gardner, Timothy; Lee-Young, Robert S.; Connor, Timothy; Watt, Matthew J.; Carpenter, Kevin; Hargreaves, Mark; McGee, Sean L.; Hevener, Andrea L.; Febbraio, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Induction of heat shock protein (HSP)72 protects against obesity-induced insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that HSP72 plays a pivotal role in increasing skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and oxidative metabolism. Mice overexpressing HSP72 in skeletal muscle (HSP72Tg) and control wild-type (WT) mice were fed either a chow or high-fat diet (HFD). Despite a similar energy intake when HSP72Tg mice were compared with WT mice, the HFD increased body weight, intramuscular lipid accumulation (triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol but not ceramide), and severe glucose intolerance in WT mice alone. Whole-body VO2, fatty acid oxidation, and endurance running capacity were markedly increased in HSP72Tg mice. Moreover, HSP72Tg mice exhibited an increase in mitochondrial number. In addition, the HSP72 coinducer BGP-15, currently in human clinical trials for type 2 diabetes, also increased mitochondrial number and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Together, these data identify a novel role for activation of HSP72 in skeletal muscle. Thus, the increased oxidative metabolism associated with activation of HSP72 has potential clinical implications not only for type 2 diabetes but also for other disorders where mitochondrial function is compromised. PMID:24430435

  9. Increased loss of soil-derived carbon in response to litter addition and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamer, C.; Krull, E. S.; Sanderman, J.; Farrell, M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to predict the response of soil organic matter (SOM) to increasing temperatures, a mechanistic understanding of the interactions between OM quality, OM availability, and microbial community structure and function is needed. We used short-term incubations of 13C enriched (20 atom%) fresh and pre-incubated eucalyptus leaf litter in an Australian woodland soil to determine changes in allocation of C to various OM pools, as dictated by microbial activity, in response to temperature and substrate quality. The quantity and isotopic composition of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and dissolved organic C (DOC) were measured along with the quantity of dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen at four destructive time points. The quantity and isotopic composition of respired CO2 was measured throughout the incubation. Although the temperature sensitivities of the two litters were similar (despite different chemical compositions), soil-C was significantly more temperature sensitive than litter-C. We also observed negative priming of soil-C in the fresh litter treatment and positive priming of soil-C in the pre-incubated litter treatment relative to the control (no litter addition). The extent of positive priming in the pre-incubated litter treatment also increased significantly with temperature. The quantity of soil-derived DOC was consistent between both litter treatments and the control, confirming that differences in soil-C availability were not controlling the observed differences in soil-C mineralization. In contrast, dissolved N was significantly higher in the pre-incubated litter treatment and increased with temperature, suggesting enhanced SOM decomposition in the pre-incubated litter treatment resulted in greater N cycling, production, or destabilization from SOM. The pre-incubated litter treatment also had greater proportions of PLFA that predominately cycled soil-derived OM (gram-positive bacteria), and increased in response to elevated temperature

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid profiles with increasing number of cerebral microbleeds in a continuum of cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Granberg, Tobias; Martola, Juha; Li, Xiaozhen; Shams, Mana; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Cavallin, Lena; Aspelin, Peter; Kristoffersen-Wiberg, Maria; Wahlund, Lars-Olof

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are hypothesised to have an important yet unknown role in the dementia disease pathology. In this study we analysed increasing number of CMBs and their independent associations with routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a continuum of cognitive impairment. A total of 1039 patients undergoing dementia investigation were analysed and underwent lumbar puncture, and an MRI scan. CSF samples were analysed for amyloid β (Aβ) 42, total tau (T-tau), tau phosphorylated at threonine 18 (P-tau) and CSF/serum albumin ratios. Increasing number of CMBs were independently associated with low Aβ42 levels, in the whole cohort, Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment (p < 0.05). CSF/serum albumin ratios were high with multiple CMBs (p < 0.001), reflecting accompanying blood–brain barrier dysfunction. T-tau and P-tau levels were lower in Alzheimer’s patients with multiple CMBs when compared to zero CMBs, but did not change in the rest of the cohort. White matter hyperintensities were associated with low Aβ42 in the whole cohort and Alzheimer’s disease (p < 0.05). Aβ42 is the routine CSF-biomarker mainly associated with CMBs in cognitive impairment, and there is an accumulative effect with increasing number of CMBs. PMID:26661151

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid profiles with increasing number of cerebral microbleeds in a continuum of cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Shams, Sara; Granberg, Tobias; Martola, Juha; Li, Xiaozhen; Shams, Mana; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Cavallin, Lena; Aspelin, Peter; Kristoffersen-Wiberg, Maria; Wahlund, Lars-Olof

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are hypothesised to have an important yet unknown role in the dementia disease pathology. In this study we analysed increasing number of CMBs and their independent associations with routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a continuum of cognitive impairment. A total of 1039 patients undergoing dementia investigation were analysed and underwent lumbar puncture, and an MRI scan. CSF samples were analysed for amyloid β (Aβ) 42, total tau (T-tau), tau phosphorylated at threonine 18 (P-tau) and CSF/serum albumin ratios. Increasing number of CMBs were independently associated with low Aβ42 levels, in the whole cohort, Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment (p < 0.05). CSF/serum albumin ratios were high with multiple CMBs (p < 0.001), reflecting accompanying blood-brain barrier dysfunction. T-tau and P-tau levels were lower in Alzheimer's patients with multiple CMBs when compared to zero CMBs, but did not change in the rest of the cohort. White matter hyperintensities were associated with low Aβ42 in the whole cohort and Alzheimer's disease (p < 0.05). Aβ42 is the routine CSF-biomarker mainly associated with CMBs in cognitive impairment, and there is an accumulative effect with increasing number of CMBs.

  12. Anaerobic Codigestion of Sludge: Addition of Butcher's Fat Waste as a Cosubstrate for Increasing Biogas Production.

    PubMed

    Martínez, E J; Gil, M V; Fernandez, C; Rosas, J G; Gómez, X

    2016-01-01

    Fat waste discarded from butcheries was used as a cosubstrate in the anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge (SS). The process was evaluated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The codigestion was successfully attained despite some inhibitory stages initially present that had their origin in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and adsorption of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). The addition of a fat waste improved digestion stability and increased biogas yields thanks to the higher organic loading rate (OLR) applied to the reactors. However, thermophilic digestion was characterized by an effluent of poor quality and high VFA content. Results from spectroscopic analysis suggested the adsorption of lipid components onto the anaerobic biomass, thus disturbing the complete degradation of substrate during the treatment. The formation of fatty aggregates in the thermophilic reactor prevented process failure by avoiding the exposure of biomass to the toxic effect of high LCFA concentrations.

  13. Artificial Warming and Rain Addition Increase Phenol Oxidase Activity in Arctic Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H.; Seo, J.; Jang, I.; Lee, Y. K.

    2014-12-01

    Artic tundra is one of the largest carbon stocks, of which amount is estimated up to 1,600 Pg. Global climate change models predict surface temperature rise and higher precipitation during summer in Arctic regions, raising concerns about faster decomposition of organic carbon and consequent releases of CO2, CH4 and DOC. Microorganisms are directly involved in decomposition process by releasing various extracellular enzymes. In particular, phenol oxidase was noted to play a key role because it is related to dynamics of highly recalcitrant carbon, which often represents a rate-limiting step of overall decomposition. In this study, we monitored phenol oxidase activity, hydrolases (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, N-acetylglucosaminidase and aminopeptidase), microbial abundance (qPCR) and chemical properties (δ13C and δ15N signatures) of tundra soils exposed to artificial warming and rain addition, by employing a passive chamber method in Cambridge Bay, Canada. Warming and rain addition combinedly increased phenol oxidase activity while no such changes were discernible for other hydrolases. Stable isotope signature indicates that warming induced water stress to the ecosystem and that nitrogen availability may be enhanced, which is partially responsible for the changes in enzyme activities. A short-term warming (2 years) may not accelerate mineralization of easily decomposable carbon, but may affect phenol oxidase which has the longer-term influence on recalcitrant carbon.

  14. Non-additive increases in sediment stability are generated by macroinvertebrate species interactions in laboratory streams.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Lindsey K; Cardinale, Bradley J; Sklar, Leonard S

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that biological structures such as plant roots can have large impacts on landscape morphodynamics, and that physical models that do not incorporate biology can generate qualitatively incorrect predictions of sediment transport. However, work to date has focused almost entirely on the impacts of single, usually dominant, species. Here we ask whether multiple, coexisting species of hydropsychid caddisfly larvae have different impacts on sediment mobility compared to single-species systems due to competitive interactions and niche differences. We manipulated the presence of two common species of net-spinning caddisfly (Ceratopsyche oslari, Arctopsyche californica) in laboratory mesocosms and measured how their silk filtration nets influence the critical shear stress required to initiate sediment grain motion when they were in monoculture versus polyculture. We found that critical shear stress increases non-additively in polycultures where species were allowed to interact. Critical shear stress was 26% higher in multi-species assemblages compared to the average single-species monoculture, and 21% greater than levels of stability achieved by the species having the largest impact on sediment motion in monoculture. Supplementary behavioral experiments suggest the non-additive increase in critical shear stress may have occurred as competition among species led to shifts in the spatial distribution of the two populations and complementary habitat use. To explore the implications of these results for field conditions, we used results from the laboratory study to parameterize a common model of sediment transport. We then used this model to estimate potential bed movement in a natural stream for which we had measurements of channel geometry, grain size, and daily discharge. Although this extrapolation is speculative, it illustrates that multi-species impacts could be sufficiently large to reduce bedload sediment flux over annual time scales in

  15. Non-Additive Increases in Sediment Stability Are Generated by Macroinvertebrate Species Interactions in Laboratory Streams

    PubMed Central

    Albertson, Lindsey K.; Cardinale, Bradley J.; Sklar, Leonard S.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that biological structures such as plant roots can have large impacts on landscape morphodynamics, and that physical models that do not incorporate biology can generate qualitatively incorrect predictions of sediment transport. However, work to date has focused almost entirely on the impacts of single, usually dominant, species. Here we ask whether multiple, coexisting species of hydropsychid caddisfly larvae have different impacts on sediment mobility compared to single-species systems due to competitive interactions and niche differences. We manipulated the presence of two common species of net-spinning caddisfly (Ceratopsyche oslari, Arctopsyche californica) in laboratory mesocosms and measured how their silk filtration nets influence the critical shear stress required to initiate sediment grain motion when they were in monoculture versus polyculture. We found that critical shear stress increases non-additively in polycultures where species were allowed to interact. Critical shear stress was 26% higher in multi-species assemblages compared to the average single-species monoculture, and 21% greater than levels of stability achieved by the species having the largest impact on sediment motion in monoculture. Supplementary behavioral experiments suggest the non-additive increase in critical shear stress may have occurred as competition among species led to shifts in the spatial distribution of the two populations and complementary habitat use. To explore the implications of these results for field conditions, we used results from the laboratory study to parameterize a common model of sediment transport. We then used this model to estimate potential bed movement in a natural stream for which we had measurements of channel geometry, grain size, and daily discharge. Although this extrapolation is speculative, it illustrates that multi-species impacts could be sufficiently large to reduce bedload sediment flux over annual time scales in

  16. Changes in blindness prevalence over 16 years in Malawi: reduced prevalence but increased numbers of blind

    PubMed Central

    Courtright, P; Hoeshcmann, A; Metcalfe, N; Chirambo, M; Noertjojo, K; Barrows, J; Katz, J

    2003-01-01

    Background/aims: In the coming two decades significant increases in the burden of blindness are anticipated unless concerted efforts are made to improve eye care in developing countries. Evidence of changing prevalence rates or numbers of blind people are few. The change in blindness prevalence and the number of blind people in an adult population of Malawi was measured over a 16 year period. Methods: In 1999 a population based survey of blindness in adults (age 50+) was conducted in Chikwawa district of Malawi. Visual acuity and cause of vision loss were recorded for each eye independently. Blindness was defined as presenting better eye vision of <6/60. Findings from a 1983 survey of blindness in the same district (using similar methods) were re-analysed to be comparable with the survey conducted in 1999. Results: Among 1630 enumerated adults 89% were examined. The age adjusted prevalence of blindness in the adult population was 5.4% and more common in women than men. In each age group the prevalence of blindness was lower in 1999 than in 1983; the overall reduction in blindness was 31%. During this period the 50+ population in Malawi increased almost twofold. Extrapolating the Chikwawa district data to the Malawi population reveals that the number of blind people has increased by 24%; the increase is primarily because of the large increase in the size of the most elderly group, aged 70 and above. Conclusion: The majority of blind people in Chikwawa (1983 and 1999) are in the age group 70 and over. This group has had the largest proportional increase in population size in this time. Services in this population have improved in the intervening 16 years and yet there was still an increase in the number of blind people. There was little change in excess blindness in women, suggesting that the same barriers that prevented utilisation of services in 1983 probably persist in 1999. Efforts to reach the most elderly and to reach women are needed to lead to a reduction in

  17. Japanese children's numerical competencies: age- and schooling-related influences on the development of number concepts and addition skills.

    PubMed

    Naito, M; Miura, H

    2001-03-01

    Using a cutoff design (J. Bisanz, F. J. Morrison, & M. Dunn, 1995) to separate school-related influences from those that are age related, the study investigated the development of number concepts and addition skills in Japanese children. Three groups of kindergarten and 1st grade children who differed in age and/or school experiences completed tasks on their numerical competencies 1 and 6 months after school entrance. Children's use of addition strategies, rather than their solution accuracy, changed primarily as a function of schooling, not age. Children's Base 10 number concepts improved with the amount of schooling, as well as with other social and age-related factors. Results suggest that schooling is an important determinant in developing Japanese-speaking children's numerical competencies, which were not explained solely by their language characteristics or by age-related factors.

  18. Angiogenesis after stroke is correlated with increased numbers of macrophages: the clean-up hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Manoonkitiwongsa, P S; Jackson-Friedman, C; McMillan, P J; Schultz, R L; Lyden, P D

    2001-10-01

    Brain cells manufacture and secrete angiogenic peptides after focal cerebral ischemia, but the purpose of this angiogenic response is unknown. Because the maximum possible regional cerebral blood flow is determined by the quantity of microvessels in each unit volume, it is possible that angiogenic peptides are secreted to generate new collateral channels; other possibilities include neuroprotection, recovery/regeneration, and removal of necrotic debris. If the brain attempts to create new collaterals, microvessel density should increase significantly after ischemia. Conversely, if angiogenic-signaling molecules serve some other purpose, microvessel densities may increase slightly or not at all. To clarify, the authors measured microvessel densities with quantitative morphometry. Left middle cerebral arteries of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were occluded with intraluminal nylon suture for 4 hours followed by 7, 14, 19, or 30 days of reperfusion. Controls received no surgery or suture occlusion. Changes in microvessel density and macrophage numbers were measured by light microscopic morphometry using semiautomated stereologic methods. Microvessel density increased only in the ischemic margin adjacent to areas of pannecrosis and was always associated with increased numbers of macrophages. Ischemic brain areas without macrophages displayed no vascularity changes compared with normal animals. These data suggest that ischemia-induced microvessels are formed to facilitate macrophage infiltration and removal of necrotic brain.

  19. Extreme Wildlife Declines and Concurrent Increase in Livestock Numbers in Kenya: What Are the Causes?

    PubMed Central

    Ogutu, Joseph O.; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Said, Mohamed Y.; Ojwang, Gordon O.; Njino, Lucy W.; Kifugo, Shem C.; Wargute, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence of escalating wildlife losses worldwide. Extreme wildlife losses have recently been documented for large parts of Africa, including western, Central and Eastern Africa. Here, we report extreme declines in wildlife and contemporaneous increase in livestock numbers in Kenya rangelands between 1977 and 2016. Our analysis uses systematic aerial monitoring survey data collected in rangelands that collectively cover 88% of Kenya’s land surface. Our results show that wildlife numbers declined on average by 68% between 1977 and 2016. The magnitude of decline varied among species but was most extreme (72–88%) and now severely threatens the population viability and persistence of warthog, lesser kudu, Thomson’s gazelle, eland, oryx, topi, hartebeest, impala, Grevy’s zebra and waterbuck in Kenya’s rangelands. The declines were widespread and occurred in most of the 21 rangeland counties. Likewise to wildlife, cattle numbers decreased (25.2%) but numbers of sheep and goats (76.3%), camels (13.1%) and donkeys (6.7%) evidently increased in the same period. As a result, livestock biomass was 8.1 times greater than that of wildlife in 2011–2013 compared to 3.5 times in 1977–1980. Most of Kenya’s wildlife (ca. 30%) occurred in Narok County alone. The proportion of the total “national” wildlife population found in each county increased between 1977 and 2016 substantially only in Taita Taveta and Laikipia but marginally in Garissa and Wajir counties, largely reflecting greater wildlife losses elsewhere. The declines raise very grave concerns about the future of wildlife, the effectiveness of wildlife conservation policies, strategies and practices in Kenya. Causes of the wildlife declines include exponential human population growth, increasing livestock numbers, declining rainfall and a striking rise in temperatures but the fundamental cause seems to be policy, institutional and market failures. Accordingly, we thoroughly evaluate

  20. Pollution from China increases cloud droplet number, suppresses rain over the East China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Bennartz, Ralph; Fan, Jiwen; Rausch, J; Leung, Lai-Yung R; Heidinger, Andrew K

    2011-05-18

    Rapid economic growth over the last 30 years in China has led to a significant increase in aerosol loading, which is mainly due to the increased emissions of its precursors such as SO2 and NOx. Here we show that these changes significantly affect wintertime clouds and precipitation over the East China Sea downwind of major emission sources. Satellite observations show an increase of cloud droplet number concentration from less than 200 cm-3 in the 1980s to more than 300 cm-3 in 2005. In the same time period, precipitation frequency reported by voluntary ship observers was reduced from more than 30% to less than 20% of the time. A back trajectory analysis showed the pollution in the investigation area to originate from the Shanghai-Nanjing and Jinan industrial areas. A model sensitivity study was performed, isolating the effects of changes in emissions of the aerosol precursors SO2 and NOx on clouds and precipitation using a state-of-the-art mesocale model including chemistry and aerosol indirect effects. Similar changes in cloud droplet number concentration over the East China Sea were obtained when the current industrial emissions in China were reduced to the 1980s levels. Simulated changes in precipitation were somewhat smaller than the observed changes but still significant. Citation: Bennartz, R., J. Fan, J. Rausch, L. R. Leung, and A. K. Heidinger (2011), Pollution from China increases cloud droplet number, suppresses rain over the East China Sea, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L09704, doi:10.1029/ 2011GL047235.

  1. Silicon addition to hydroxyapatite increases nanoscale electrostatic, van der Waals, and adhesive interactions.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Jennifer; Dean, Delphine; Patel, Nelesh; Botelho, Claudia; Best, Serena; Santos, José D; Lopes, Maria A; Bonfield, William; Ortiz, Christine

    2006-08-01

    The normal intersurface forces between nanosized probe tips functionalized with COO(-)-terminated alkanethiol self-assembling monolayers and dense, polycrystalline silicon-substituted synthetic hydroxyapatite (SiHA) and phase pure hydroxyapatite (HA) were measured via a nanomechanical technique called chemically specific high-resolution force spectroscopy. A significantly larger van der Waals interaction was observed for the SiHA compared to HA; Hamaker constants (A) were found to be A(SiHA) = 35 +/- 27 zJ and A(HA) = 13 +/- 12 zJ. Using the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek approximation, which assumes linear additivity of the electrostatic double layer and van der Waals components, and the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann surface charge model for electrostatic double-layer forces, the surface charge per unit area, sigma (C/m(2)), was calculated as a function of position for specific nanosized areas within individual grains. SiHA was observed to be more negatively charged than HA with sigma(SiHA) = -0.024 +/- 0.013 C/m(2), two times greater than sigma(HA) = -0.011 +/- 0.006 C/m(2). Additionally, SiHA was found to have increased surface adhesion (0.7 +/- 0.3 nN) compared to HA (0.5 +/- 0.3 nN). The characterization of the nanoscale variations in surface forces of SiHA and HA will enable an improved understanding of the initial stages of bone-biomaterial bonding.

  2. Increases in the amounts of Vibrio spp. in oysters upon addition of exogenous bacteria.

    PubMed

    Froelich, Brett; Oliver, James

    2013-09-01

    The bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus is found naturally in brackish coastal waters but can be greatly concentrated by filter-feeding organisms such as shellfish. Numerous experiments in which exogenous V. vulnificus cells are added to oysters in an attempt to measure uptake and depuration have been performed. In nearly all cases, results have shown that laboratory-grown bacteria are rapidly taken up by the oysters but ultimately eliminated, while naturally present Vibrio populations in oysters are resistant to depuration. In this study, oysters harvested during winter months, with low culturable Vibrio concentrations, were incubated in aquaria supplemented with strains of V. vulnificus that were either genotypically or phenotypically distinct from the background bacteria. These exogenous cells were eliminated from the oysters, as previously seen, but other vibrios already inhabiting the oysters responded to the V. vulnificus inoculum by rapidly increasing in number and maintaining a large stable population. The presence of such an oyster-adapted Vibrio population would be expected to prevent colonization by exogenous V. vulnificus cells, thus explaining the rapid depuration of these added bacteria.

  3. Increasing the number of female primary school teachers in African countries: Effects, barriers and policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, Caitlin S.; Klees, Steven J.; Stromquist, Nelly P.; Lin, Jing; Choti, Truphena; Corneilse, Carol

    2014-12-01

    Girls' education has been a high development priority for decades. While some progress has been made, girls are often still at a great disadvantage, especially in developing countries, and most especially in African countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, less than half of primary school teachers and only a quarter of secondary school teachers are women, and enrolment figures for girls are low. One common policy prescription is to increase the number of women teachers, especially in the many countries where teaching remains a predominantly male profession. This policy prescription needs to be backed by more evidence in order to significantly increase and improve its effective implementation. The available research seems to suggest that girls are more likely to enrol in schools where there are female teachers. Moreover, increasing the number of trained teachers in sub-Saharan Africa depends on more girls completing their school education. To date, however, there has been no comprehensive literature review analysing the effects of being taught by women teachers on girls' educational experience. This paper aims to make a start on filling this gap by examining the evidence on the effects in primary schools, especially in African countries. It also identifies and examines the barriers women face in becoming and staying teachers, and considers policies to remedy their situation.

  4. f Number Increase of a High-Intensity Green Laser Beam in a Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobble, J. A.; Johnson, R. P.; Mason, R. J.

    1997-11-01

    Earlier(J. A. Cobble, R. P. Johnson, R. J. Mason, Phys. Plasmas 6, 3006 (1997).), we studied the increase in f number of a high-intensity, 1054-nm laser beam passing through a low density, preformed plasma, i. e., an exploding foil. We have extended this work to 527-nm light. Again we find an increase in the f number of the probe beam. Near field imaging of the transmitted green beam shows a factor of four reduction in beam divergence at 8 percent of the critical density. The change is less for lower densities, and the beam compression corresponds to the critical power dropping below the laser power (0.6 TW) as the density increases. The density is estimated from the spectra of stimulated Raman back scatter and from modeling of the target plasma with LASNEX. A CCD camera and a spectrometer with a 200-nm bandwidth were used to record the backscattered spectra. *Work performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy.

  5. Increased Mach Number Capability for the NASA Glenn 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, J. W.; Saunders, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations and wind tunnel testing were conducted to explore the operation of the Abe Silverstein Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center at test section Mach numbers above the current limit of Mach 3.5. An increased Mach number would enhance the capability for testing of supersonic and hypersonic propulsion systems. The focus of the explorations was on understanding the flow within the second throat of the tunnel, which is downstream of the test section and is where the supersonic flow decelerates to subsonic flow. Methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were applied to provide details of the shock boundary layer structure and to estimate losses in total pressure. The CFD simulations indicated that the tunnel could be operated up to Mach 4.0 if the minimum width of the second throat was made smaller than that used for previous operation of the tunnel. Wind tunnel testing was able to confirm such operation of the tunnel at Mach 3.6 and 3.7 before a hydraulic failure caused a stop to the testing. CFD simulations performed after the wind tunnel testing showed good agreement with test data consisting of static pressures along the ceiling of the second throat. The CFD analyses showed increased shockwave boundary layer interactions, which was also observed as increased unsteadiness of dynamic pressures collected in the wind tunnel testing.

  6. Increased Mach Number Capability for the NASA Glenn 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John; Saunders, John

    2014-01-01

    Computational simulations and wind tunnel testing were conducted to explore the operation of the Abe Silverstein Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center at test section Mach numbers above the current limit of Mach 3.5. An increased Mach number would enhance the capability for testing of supersonic and hypersonic propulsion systems. The focus of the explorations was on understanding the flow within the second throat of the tunnel, which is downstream of the test section and is where the supersonic flow decelerates to subsonic flow. Methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were applied to provide details of the shock boundary layer structure and to estimate losses in total pressure. The CFD simulations indicated that the tunnel could be operated up to Mach 4.0 if the minimum width of the second throat was made smaller than that used for previous operation of the tunnel. Wind tunnel testing was able to confirm such operation of the tunnel at Mach 3.6 and 3.7 before a hydraulic failure caused a stop to the testing. CFD simulations performed after the wind tunnel testing showed good agreement with test data consisting of static pressures along the ceiling of the second throat. The CFD analyses showed increased shockwave boundary layer interactions, which was also observed as increased unsteadiness of dynamic pressures collected in the wind tunnel testing.

  7. Pollution from China increases cloud droplet number, suppresses rain over the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennartz, Ralf; Fan, Jiwen; Rausch, John; Leung, L. Ruby; Heidinger, Andrew K.

    2011-05-01

    Rapid economic growth over the last 30 years in China has led to a significant increase in aerosol loading, which is mainly due to the increased emissions of its precursors such as SO2 and NOx. Here we show that these changes significantly affect wintertime clouds and precipitation over the East China Sea downwind of major emission sources. Satellite observations show an increase of cloud droplet number concentration from less than 200 cm-3 in the 1980s to more than 300 cm-3 in 2005. In the same time period, precipitation frequency reported by voluntary ship observers was reduced from more than 30% to less than 20% of the time. A back trajectory analysis showed the pollution in the investigation area to originate from the Shanghai-Nanjing and Jinan industrial areas. A model sensitivity study was performed, isolating the effects of changes in emissions of the aerosol precursors SO2 and NOx on clouds and precipitation using a state-of-the-art mesocale model including chemistry and aerosol indirect effects. Similar changes in cloud droplet number concentration over the East China Sea were obtained when the current industrial emissions in China were reduced to the 1980s levels. Simulated changes in precipitation were somewhat smaller than the observed changes but still significant.

  8. The response of soil organic matter decomposition and carbon cycling to temperature increase and nitrogen addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, I.; Kang, M.; Choi, J.

    2012-12-01

    Global warming caused by greenhouse effects has raised the worldwide air temperature by 1.4~5.8°C from the pre-industrial level. It has been known that the enhanced air temperature leads to increase the rate of soil organic matter decomposition. The enhanced soil organic matter decomposition could increase the emission of GHG (Green House Gas-mostly CO2, CH4) from the terrestrial ecosystem. GHG emission from the decomposition of soil organic matter can be affected by N deposition. N deposition of Asia has significantly grown from 1000mg N m2yr-1 to 2000mg N m2yr-1during the period of 1990s. It is expected that large area of South and East Asia will receive as large as 5000mg N m2yr-1of nitrogen in the future. Therefore, it is interesting to investigate the effects of global change factors, such as elevated temperature and N deposition on GHG emission from the terrestrial ecosystem. Growth chamber experiments were conducted under the enhanced air temperature and N addition (controlled at 10°C(30°C), 20°C(40°C) from ambient air temperature 18°C/23°C(day/night)) and GHG(CH4,CO2)was measured using gas chromatograph. Since combined changes in temperature and N deposition are sensitive to litter quantity and quality, especially C:N ratio of organic material, we select three sites with different C:N ratio (rice paddy, forest, wetland) in the southern part of Han river in Korea. Our results show that, for the case of rice paddy and forest, CO2 flux at 30°C was higher than at 40°C. However, wetland soil produces higher CO2 flux at 40°C than at 30°C. While CH4 flux was not detected at 30°C for all of three soils, only wetland soil produced CH4 flux at 40°C. Every flux under the condition of N addition was higher than that of N limitation. The GHG fluxes clearly related to the temperature, N concentration difference and soil types. Long term laboratory experiments are needed in three different soil types to determine how different soil type affects GHG by

  9. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  10. BDNF Enhances Quantal Neurotransmitter Release and Increases the Number of Docked Vesicles at the Active Zones of Hippocampal Excitatory Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, William J.; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas D.

    2009-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is emerging as a key mediator of activity-dependent modifications of synaptic strength in the CNS. We investigated the hypothesis that BDNF enhances quantal neurotransmitter release by modulating the distribution of synaptic vesicles within presynaptic terminals using organotypic slice cultures of postnatal rat hippocampus. BDNF specifically increased the number of docked vesicles at the active zone of excitatory synapses on CA1 dendritic spines, with only a small increase in active zone size. In agreement with the hypothesis that an increased docked vesicle density enhances quantal neurotransmitter release, BDNF increased the frequency, but not the amplitude, of AMPA receptor-mediated miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices. Synapse number, independently estimated from dendritic spine density and electron microscopy measurements, was also increased after BDNF treatment, indicating that the actions of BNDF on mEPSC frequency can be partially attributed to an increased synaptic density. Our results further suggest that all these actions were mediated via tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) receptor activation, established by inhibition of plasma membrane tyrosine kinases with K-252a. These results provide additional evidence of a fundamental role of the BDNF–TrkB signaling cascade in synaptic transmission, as well as in cellular models of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. PMID:11404410

  11. Cholecystokinin facilitates glutamate release by increasing the number of readily releasable vesicles and releasing probability.

    PubMed

    Deng, Pan-Yue; Xiao, Zhaoyang; Jha, Archana; Ramonet, David; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Leitges, Michael; Shin, Hee-Sup; Porter, James E; Geiger, Jonathan D; Lei, Saobo

    2010-04-14

    Cholecystokinin (CCK), a neuropeptide originally discovered in the gastrointestinal tract, is abundantly distributed in the mammalian brains including the hippocampus. Whereas CCK has been shown to increase glutamate concentration in the perfusate of hippocampal slices and in purified rat hippocampal synaptosomes, the cellular and molecular mechanisms whereby CCK modulates glutamatergic function remain unexplored. Here, we examined the effects of CCK on glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus using whole-cell recordings from hippocampal slices. Application of CCK increased AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs at perforant path-dentate gyrus granule cell, CA3-CA3 and Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses without effects at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. CCK-induced increases in AMPA EPSCs were mediated by CCK-2 receptors and were not modulated developmentally and transcriptionally. CCK reduced the coefficient of variation and paired-pulse ratio of AMPA EPSCs suggesting that CCK facilitates presynaptic glutamate release. CCK increased the release probability and the number of readily releasable vesicles with no effects on the rate of recovery from vesicle depletion. CCK-mediated increases in glutamate release required the functions of phospholipase C, intracellular Ca(2+) release and protein kinase Cgamma. CCK released endogenously from hippocampal interneurons facilitated glutamatergic transmission. Our results provide a cellular and molecular mechanism to explain the roles of CCK in the brain.

  12. Increasing number of databases searched in systematic reviews and meta-analyses between 1994 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Michael T.; McDiarmid, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine whether the number of bibliographic databases used to search the health sciences literature in individual systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) changed over a twenty-year period related to the official 1995 launch of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). Methods Ovid MEDLINE was searched using a modified version of a strategy developed by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network to identify SRs and MAs. Records from 3 milestone years were searched: the year immediately preceding (1994) and 1 (2004) and 2 (2014) decades following the CDSR launch. Records were sorted with randomization software. Abstracts or full texts of the records were examined to identify database usage until 100 relevant records were identified from each of the 3 years. Results The mean and median number of bibliographic databases searched in 1994, 2004, and 2014 were 1.62 and 1, 3.34 and 3, and 3.73 and 4, respectively. Studies that searched only 1 database decreased over the 3 milestone years (60% in 1994, 28% in 2004, and 10% in 2014). Conclusions The number of bibliographic databases searched in individual SRs and MAs increased from 1994 to 2014. PMID:27822149

  13. Increase in number of helminth species from Dutch red foxes over a 35-year period

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is host to a community of zoonotic and other helminth species. Tracking their community structure and dynamics over decades is one way to monitor the long term risk of parasitic infectious diseases relevant to public and veterinary health. Methods We identified 17 helminth species from 136 foxes by mucosal scraping, centrifugal sedimentation/flotation and the washing and sieving technique. We applied rarefaction analysis to our samples and compared the resulting curve to the helminth community reported in literature 35 years ago. Results Fox helminth species significantly increased in number in the last 35 years (p-value <0.025). Toxascaris leonina, Mesocestoides litteratus, Trichuris vulpis and Angiostrongylus vasorum are four new veterinary-relevant species. The zoonotic fox tapeworm (E. multilocularis) was found outside the previously described endemic regions in the Netherlands. Conclusions Helminth fauna in Dutch red foxes increased in biodiversity over the last three decades. PMID:24708710

  14. Increased number of whistles of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, arising from interaction with people.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Junko; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2007-02-01

    The acoustic mode is the most reasonable means for social animals such as dolphins to maintain contact in the underwater habitat, and has been developed since they moved to the sea. This study investigates variations in dolphin vocalizations under the following conditions in a captive environment: 1) before feeding (Pre-feeding), 2) during feeding (Feeding), 3) during free time without the presence of people (Free), 4) during interaction with people located upon a float (Float), 5) during interaction with people in the water (Water). During the experiments, a total of 2642 whistles were extracted from sonogram data using a spectrogram. About 44% of the total whistles were observed during Pre-feeding (1171/2642), and the number recorded during Free, when people were absent, was the smallest. The acoustic contours of dolphin whistles differed in different situations: convex, wave, and trill whistles were made repeatedly during Pre-feeding, thereby being more common at this time than at other times. The situation of Feeding saw an increased number of Upsweeps, which might be related to the use of echolocation. The lower frequencies were recorded during Pre-feeding, reflecting the emotion related to the dolphin's hunger. The results of this study indicate that dolphins increase their vocalization during interaction with people, suggesting that interactions with dolphins provide an effective treatment for human health problems, which is discussed with a reference article in this study. Vocal data obtained during contact with humans might serve as an important index for the dolphin-assisted therapy.

  15. Cleavage-like cell division and explosive increase in cell number of neonatal gonocytes.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Noce, Toshiaki; Yamashina, Shohei

    2004-02-01

    Based on previous conventional quantitative observations of rat testes, it was proposed that large numbers of gonocytes degenerate after birth and this notion was widely accepted. However, many studies show that neonatal gonocytes display high levels of mitotic activity. In order to resolve the apparent contradiction of increased mitotic activity in gonocytes despite a decrease in their numbers at the neonate stage, quantitative analysis using a marker of suitably higher resolution is required. It has been shown that the vasa protein could be used as a marker of germ cells. In this study, quantitative changes in gonocytes were re-examined using a germ-cell-specific marker in order to delineate more clearly the process of development from gonocytes to spermatogonia after birth. The vasa-positive cells, which correspond to gonocytes and spermatogonia, increased exponentially after birth. This observation suggests that all gonocyte divide actively after birth and do not degenerate as previously believed. Surprisingly, the cell volume of gonocytes decreased during their division. The largest population size was 2000-4000 micro3 at day 2, 1000-2000 micro3 at day 4 and 500-1000 micro3 at day 6. This finding suggests that gonocytes divide in a similar way to cleavage, which can be considered a special mode of fertilized eggs. Judging from the growth of seminiferous tubules and the degree of volume reduction, 60% of the contribution rate is estimated to be due to ordinal cell growth, and 40% due to volume reduction as in cleavage of a fertilized egg. This unique cleavage-like division may contribute to the supply of large numbers of spermatogonia.

  16. Does maternal exposure to artificial food coloring additives increase oxidative stress in the skin of rats?

    PubMed

    Başak, K; Başak, P Y; Doğuç, D K; Aylak, F; Oğuztüzün, S; Bozer, B M; Gültekin, F

    2016-11-16

    Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) metabolize and detoxify carcinogens, drugs, environmental pollutants, and reactive oxygen species. Changes of GST expression in tissues and gene mutations have been reported in association with many neoplastic skin diseases and dermatoses. Widely used artificial food coloring additives (AFCAs) also reported to effect primarily behavioral and cognitive function and cause neoplastic diseases and several inflammatory skin diseases. We aimed to identify the changes in expression of GSTs, CYP1A1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in rat skin which were maternally exposed AFCAs. A rat model was designed to evaluate the effects of maternal exposure of AFCAs on skin in rats. "No observable adverse effect levels" of commonly used AFCAs as a mixture were given to female rats before and during gestation. Immunohistochemical expression of GSTs, CYP1A1, and VEGF was evaluated in their offspring. CYP1A1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP), glutathione S-transferase alpha (GSTA), glutathione S-transferase mu (GSTM), glutathione S-transferase theta (GSTT), and VEGF were expressed by epidermal keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, sebaceous glands, hair follicle, and subcutaneous striated muscle in the normal skin. CYP1A1, GSTA, and GSTT were expressed at all microanatomical sites of skin in varying degrees. The expressions of CYP1A1, GSTA, GSTT, and VEGF were decreased significantly, while GSTM expression on sebaceous gland and hair follicle was increased. Maternal exposure of AFCAs apparently effects expression of the CYP1A1, GSTs, and VEGF in the skin. This prominent change of expressions might play role in neoplastic and nonneoplastic skin diseases.

  17. Three distinct cell populations express extracellular matrix proteins and increase in number during skeletal muscle fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Mark A; Mukund, Kavitha; Subramaniam, Shankar; Brenner, David; Lieber, Richard L

    2017-02-01

    Tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) provides structural support and creates unique environments for resident cells (Bateman JF, Boot-Handford RP, Lamandé SR. Nat Rev Genet 10: 173-183, 2009; Kjaer M. Physiol Rev 84: 649-98, 2004). However, the identities of cells responsible for creating specific ECM components have not been determined. In striated muscle, the identity of these cells becomes important in disease when ECM changes result in fibrosis and subsequent increased tissue stiffness and dysfunction. Here we describe a novel approach to isolate and identify cells that maintain the ECM in both healthy and fibrotic muscle. Using a collagen I reporter mouse, we show that there are three distinct cell populations that express collagen I in both healthy and fibrotic skeletal muscle. Interestingly, the number of collagen I-expressing cells in all three cell populations increases proportionally in fibrotic muscle, indicating that all cell types participate in the fibrosis process. Furthermore, while some profibrotic ECM and ECM-associated genes are significantly upregulated in fibrotic muscle, the fibrillar collagen gene expression profile is not qualitatively altered. This suggests that muscle fibrosis in this model results from an increased number of collagen I-expressing cells and not the initiation of a specific fibrotic collagen gene expression program. Finally, in fibrotic muscle, we show that these collagen I-expressing cell populations differentially express distinct ECM proteins-fibroblasts express the fibrillar components of ECM, fibro/adipogenic progenitors cells differentially express basal laminar proteins, and skeletal muscle progenitor cells differentially express genes important for the satellite cell.

  18. Increasing numbers of bird species result from taxonomic progress, not taxonomic inflation

    PubMed Central

    Sangster, George

    2009-01-01

    The impact and significance of modern taxonomy on other fields in biology have been subjects of much debate. It has been proposed that increasing numbers of vertebrate species are largely owing to ‘taxonomic inflation’. According to this hypothesis, newly recognized species result from reinterpretations of species limits based on phylogenetic species concepts (PSCs) rather than from new discoveries. Here, I examine 747 proposals to change the taxonomic rank of birds in the period 1950–2007. The trend to recognize more species of birds started at least two decades before the introduction of PSCs. Most (84.6%) newly recognized species were supported by new taxonomic data. Proposals to recognize more species resulted from application of all six major taxonomic criteria. Many newly recognized species (63.4%) were not based exclusively on PSC-based criteria (diagnosability, monophyly and exclusive coalescence of gene trees). Therefore, this study finds no empirical support for the idea that the increase in species is primarily epistemological rather than data-driven. This study shows that previous claims about the causes and effects of taxonomic inflation lack empirical support. I argue that a more appropriate term for the increase in species is ‘taxonomic progress’. PMID:19520805

  19. Increasing numbers of bird species result from taxonomic progress, not taxonomic inflation.

    PubMed

    Sangster, George

    2009-09-07

    The impact and significance of modern taxonomy on other fields in biology have been subjects of much debate. It has been proposed that increasing numbers of vertebrate species are largely owing to 'taxonomic inflation'. According to this hypothesis, newly recognized species result from reinterpretations of species limits based on phylogenetic species concepts (PSCs) rather than from new discoveries. Here, I examine 747 proposals to change the taxonomic rank of birds in the period 1950-2007. The trend to recognize more species of birds started at least two decades before the introduction of PSCs. Most (84.6%) newly recognized species were supported by new taxonomic data. Proposals to recognize more species resulted from application of all six major taxonomic criteria. Many newly recognized species (63.4%) were not based exclusively on PSC-based criteria (diagnosability, monophyly and exclusive coalescence of gene trees). Therefore, this study finds no empirical support for the idea that the increase in species is primarily epistemological rather than data-driven. This study shows that previous claims about the causes and effects of taxonomic inflation lack empirical support. I argue that a more appropriate term for the increase in species is 'taxonomic progress'.

  20. Early postnatal administration of growth hormone increases tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neuron numbers in Ames dwarf mice.

    PubMed

    Khodr, Christina E; Clark, Sara; Bokov, Alex F; Richardson, Arlan; Strong, Randy; Hurley, David L; Phelps, Carol J

    2010-07-01

    Hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons secrete dopamine, which inhibits pituitary prolactin (PRL) secretion. PRL has demonstrated neurotrophic effects on TIDA neuron development in PRL-, GH-, and TSH-deficient Ames (df/df) and Snell (dw/dw) dwarf mice. However, both PRL and PRL receptor knockout mice exhibit normal-sized TIDA neuron numbers, implying GH and/or TSH influence TIDA neuron development. The current study investigated the effect of porcine (p) GH on TIDA neuron development in Ames dwarf hypothalamus. Normal (DF/df) and dwarf mice were treated daily with pGH or saline beginning at 3 d of age for a period of 42 d. After treatment, brains were analyzed using catecholamine histofluorescence, tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunocytochemistry to detect BrdU incorporation. DF/df males and df/df treated with pGH experienced increased (P numbers than df/df, regardless of treatment. TIDA neuron number in pGH-treated df/df was greater (P

  1. Irisin Increased the Number and Improved the Function of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Diabetes Mellitus Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinxiang; Song, Mingbao; Zhou, Fang; Fu, Dagan; Ruan, Guangping; Zhu, Xiangqing; Bai, Yinyin; Huang, Lan; Pang, Rongqing; Kang, Huali

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) was found to be associated with vascular complications in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Previous studies found that regular exercise could improve the function of EPCs in DM patients, but the underling mechanism was unclear. Irisin, a newly identified myokine, was induced by exercise and has been demonstrated to mediate some of the positive effects of exercise. In this study, we hypothesize that irisin may have direct effects on EPC function in DM mice. These data showed for the first time that irisin increased the number of EPCs in peripheral blood of DM mice and improved the function of EPCs derived from DM mice bone marrow. The mechanism for the effect of irisin is related to the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway. Furthermore, irisin was demonstrated to improve endothelial repair in DM mice that received EPC transplants after carotid artery injury. The results of this study indicate a novel effect of irisin in regulating the number and function of EPCs via the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway, suggesting a potential for the administration of exogenous irisin as a succedaneum to improve EPC function in diabetic patients who fail to achieve such improvements through regular exercise. PMID:27002278

  2. Progesterone increases dopamine neurone number in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Díaz, N F; Díaz-Martínez, N E; Velasco, I; Camacho-Arroyo, I

    2009-08-01

    Progesterone participates in the regulation of several functions in mammals, including brain differentiation and dopaminergic transmission, but the role of progesterone in dopaminergic cell differentiation is unknown. We investigated the effects of progesterone on dopaminergic differentiation of embryonic stem cells using a five-stage protocol. Cells were incubated with different progesterone concentrations during the proliferation (stage 4) or differentiation (stage 5) phases. Progesterone added at 1, 10 and 100 nm during stage 4 increased the number of dopamine neurones at stage 5 by 72%, 80% and 62%, respectively, compared to the control group. The administration of progesterone at stage 5 did not induce significant changes in the number of dopamine neurones. These actions were not mediated by the activation of intracellular progesterone receptors because RU 486 did not block the positive effects of progesterone on differentiation to dopaminergic neurones. The results obtained suggest that progesterone should prove useful with respect to producing higher proportions of dopamine neurones from embryonic stem cells in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  3. Amylase addition increases starch ruminal digestion in first-lactation cows fed high and low starch diets.

    PubMed

    Nozière, P; Steinberg, W; Silberberg, M; Morgavi, D P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an exogenous amylase preparation on digestion of low- and high-starch diets in dairy cattle. Rumen and total-tract nutrient digestibility were measured in a 4×4 Latin square design with 28-d periods using 4 first-lactation cows cannulated at the rumen and duodenum. Corn silage-based diets had 20 or 30% starch, attained by changing the composition of concentrate, with or without addition of an exogenous amylase preparation. Effects of the enzyme additive were observed on ruminal digestibility but not at the total-tract level. Ruminal digestibility of starch increased from 75% in control to 81% with amylase supplementation. This difference in ruminal starch digestion was compensated postruminally, so that the total-tract digestibility of starch was almost complete and did not differ between treatments. The amylase supplement also increased the true ruminal digestibility of organic matter but did not affect microbial N flow to the duodenum. Amylase supplement reduced the proportion of acetate and butyrate and increased that of propionate, particularly in the high-starch diet, where it tended to increase the concentration of total volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Other effects were a higher amylase activity in the solid-associated microbial community and a tendency for lower numbers of protozoa. In contrast, we observed no changes in intake, production, dry matter and fiber (neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber) digestibility, or ruminal digestion, and no or small changes on selected fibrolytic and amylolytic bacteria and on the microbial community in general. We conclude that the exogenous amylase improved starch digestion in the rumen in first-lactation cows with moderate intake and production levels.

  4. The number of PML nuclear bodies increases in early S phase by a fission mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dellaire, Graham; Ching, Reagan W; Dehghani, Hesam; Ren, Ying; Bazett-Jones, David P

    2006-03-15

    Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies have been implicated in a variety of cellular processes including apoptosis, tumour suppression, anti-viral response, DNA repair and transcriptional regulation. PML nuclear bodies are both positionally and structurally stable over extended periods of interphase. As demonstrated in this study, the structural stability is lost as cells enter S phase, evidenced both by distortions in shape and by fission and fusion events. At the end of this period of structural instability, the number of PML nuclear bodies has increased by a factor of twofold. Association of the fission products with chromatin implies that the PML nuclear bodies respond to changes in chromatin organisation or topology, and thus could play a role in monitoring genome integrity during DNA synthesis or in the continued maintenance of functional chromosomal domains prior to mitosis.

  5. The increasing number of women with postgraduate qualifications in physics in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitarra, Silvana; Niebeskikwiat, Dario; Paredes, Cecilia; Ayala, Paola

    2013-03-01

    Although the social reality in Ecuador is similar to that in most Latin American countries, support for research in fundamental and applied sciences has gained in importance in the last few years. An Ecuadorian team participated for the first time in the IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics in 2005, when no woman in the country had yet earned a postgraduate degree. By the 2011 ICWIP Conference, the number of women with PhD degrees had increased five times, whereas the trend for men remained the same. This paper gives an overview on how the Ecuadorian research community has started to work together on a national initiative to improve the human and infrastructure capacity to develop science and technology, with support from the government and the science-related ministries.

  6. Increasing shrub abundance and N addition in Arctic tundra affect leaf and root litter decomposition differently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaren, J.; van de Weg, M. J.; Shaver, G. R.; Gough, L.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in global climate have resulted in a ';greening' of the Arctic as the abundance of deciduous shrub species increases. Consequently, not only the living plant community, but also the litter composition changes, which in turn can affect carbon turnover patterns in the Arctic. We examined effects of changing litter composition (both root and leaf litter) on decomposition rates with a litter bag study, and specifically focused on the impact of deciduous shrub Betula nana litter on litter decomposition from two evergreen shrubs (Ledum palustre, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and one graminoid (Eriophorum vaginatum) species. Additionally, we investigated how decomposition was affected by nutrient availability by placing the litterbags in an ambient and a fertilized moist acidic tundra environment. Measurements were carried out seasonally over 2 years (after snow melt, mid-growing season, end growing season). We measured litter mass loss over time, as well as the respiration rates (standardized for temperature and moisture) and temperature sensitivity of litter respiration at the time of harvesting the litter bags. For leaves, Betula litter decomposed faster than the other three species, with Eriophorum leaves decomposing the slowest. This pattern was observed for both mass loss and litter respiration rates, although the differences in respiration became smaller over time. Surprisingly, combining Betula with any other species resulted in slower overall weight loss rates than would be predicted based on monoculture weight loss rates. This contrasted with litter respiration at the time of sampling, which showed a positive mixing effect of adding Betula leaf liter to the other species. Apparently, during the first winter months (September - May) Betula litter decomposition is negatively affected by mixing the species and this legacy can still be observed in the total mass loss results later in the year. For root litter there were fewer effects of species identity on root

  7. Increased FGF19 copy number is frequently detected in hepatocellular carcinoma with a complete response after sorafenib treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ishizaki, Morihiko; Matsushima, Hideyuki; De Velasco, Marco A.; Matsui, Kosuke; Iida, Hiroya; Kitade, Hiroaki; Kwon, A-Hon; Nagano, Hiroaki; Wada, Hiroshi; Haji, Seiji; Tsukamoto, Tadashi; Kanazawa, Akishige; Takeda, Yutaka; Takemura, Shigekazu; Kubo, Shoji; Nishio, Kazuto

    2016-01-01

    The multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib is clinically approved for the treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We previously reported that fibroblast growth factor 3 and 4 (FGF3/FGF4) amplification is a predictor of a response to sorafenib. This study aims to analyze the relationship between FGF-FGF receptor (FGFR) genetic alterations and the response to sorafenib. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from HCC patients who had achieved a complete response (CR, N=6) or non-CR (N=39) to sorafenib were collected and were examined for FGF-FGFR gene alterations using next generation sequencing and copy number assay. FGFR mutations were detected in 5 of 45 (11.1%) cases. There was no significant association between FGFR mutation status and the response to sorafenib. We detected no increase in the FGF3/FGF4 copy number in CR cases. An FGF19 copy number gain was detected more frequently among CR cases (2/6, 33.3%) than among non-CR cases (2/39, 5.1%) (P = 0.024, Chi-squared test). In conclusion, a copy number gain for FGF19 may be a predictor of a response to sorafenib, in addition to FGF3/FGF4 amplification. PMID:27384874

  8. Increased FGF19 copy number is frequently detected in hepatocellular carcinoma with a complete response after sorafenib treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaibori, Masaki; Sakai, Kazuko; Ishizaki, Morihiko; Matsushima, Hideyuki; De Velasco, Marco A; Matsui, Kosuke; Iida, Hiroya; Kitade, Hiroaki; Kwon, A-Hon; Nagano, Hiroaki; Wada, Hiroshi; Haji, Seiji; Tsukamoto, Tadashi; Kanazawa, Akishige; Takeda, Yutaka; Takemura, Shigekazu; Kubo, Shoji; Nishio, Kazuto

    2016-08-02

    The multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib is clinically approved for the treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We previously reported that fibroblast growth factor 3 and 4 (FGF3/FGF4) amplification is a predictor of a response to sorafenib. This study aims to analyze the relationship between FGF-FGF receptor (FGFR) genetic alterations and the response to sorafenib. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from HCC patients who had achieved a complete response (CR, N=6) or non-CR (N=39) to sorafenib were collected and were examined for FGF-FGFR gene alterations using next generation sequencing and copy number assay. FGFR mutations were detected in 5 of 45 (11.1%) cases. There was no significant association between FGFR mutation status and the response to sorafenib. We detected no increase in the FGF3/FGF4 copy number in CR cases. An FGF19 copy number gain was detected more frequently among CR cases (2/6, 33.3%) than among non-CR cases (2/39, 5.1%) (P = 0.024, Chi-squared test). In conclusion, a copy number gain for FGF19 may be a predictor of a response to sorafenib, in addition to FGF3/FGF4 amplification.

  9. Infants' detection of increasing numerical order comes before detection of decreasing number.

    PubMed

    de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Addabbo, Margaret; Nava, Elena; Croci, Emanuela; Girelli, Luisa; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2017-01-01

    Ordinality is a fundamental aspect of numerical cognition. However, preverbal infants' ability to represent numerical order is poorly understood. In the present study we extended the evidence provided by Macchi Cassia, Picozzi, Girelli, and de Hevia (2012), showing that 4-month-old infants detect ordinal relationships within size-based sequences, to numerical sequences. In three experiments, we showed that at 4months of age infants fail to represent increasing and decreasing numerical order when numerosities differ by a 1:2 ratio (Experiment 1), but they succeed when numerosities differ by a 1:3 ratio (Experiments 2 and 3). Critically, infants showed the same behavioral signature (i.e., asymmetry) described by Macchi Cassia et al. for discrimination of ordinal changes in area: they succeed at detecting increasing but not decreasing order (Experiments 2 and 3). These results support the idea of a common (or at least parallel) development of ordinal representation for the two quantitative dimensions of size and number. Moreover, the finding that the asymmetry signature, previously reported for size-based sequences, extends to numerosity, points to the existence of a common constraint in ordinal magnitude processing in the first months of life. The present findings are discussed in the context of possible evolutionary and developmental sources of the ordinal asymmetry, as well as their implication for other related cognitive abilities.

  10. Increased number of orexin/hypocretin neurons with high and prolonged external stress-induced depression.

    PubMed

    Jalewa, Jaishree; Wong-Lin, KongFatt; McGinnity, T Martin; Prasad, Girijesh; Hölscher, Christian

    2014-10-01

    It has been found that dysregulation in the orexin/hypocretin (Ox/HCRT) neuropeptide system in the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) is known to affect sleep disorder, depression and motor activities. However, to date there is no common agreement regarding the resulting specific changes induced in the Ox system. In this study, we inject corticosterone to produce stress-induced depressed mice and investigate the Ox neuronal and corresponding behavioural changes. Different doses (10, 20, 50mg/kgbw) of corticosterone were injected in adult mice, and then were tested in the open field test, forced swim test, tail suspension test, elevated plus maze test and motor activity measurements to validate the depressed animal model. Significant dose-dependent behavioural changes were observed in correlation with the doses of corticosterone. The effect is most significant and robust in the high 50mg/kgbw dose group five weeks after injection. Interestingly, we found on average a reduction in motor activity during the 12-hour dark phase (awake) of the depressed mice and no significant change during the light phase (asleep). Finally, using confocal microscopy, immunofluorescence (IF) analysis shows a significant increase (∼20%) in the number of Ox neurons in the LHA of the depressed mice as compared to the age-matched controls. This study suggests that an increase in Ox neuronal signaling may be functionally linked to high and prolonged external stress-induced depression.

  11. BIIL 284 reduces neutrophils numbers but increases P. aeruginosa bacteraemia and inflammation in mouse lungs

    PubMed Central

    Döring, Gerd; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Paroni, Moira; Aktürk, Firdevs-Fatma; Cigana, Cristina; Schmidt, Annika; Gilpin, Deirdre; Heyder, Susanne; Born, Torsten; Smaczny, Christina; Kohlhäufl, Martin; Wagner, Thomas O. F.; Loebinger, Michael R.; Bilton, Diana; Tunney, Michael M.; Elborn, J. Stuart; Pier, Gerald B.; Konstan, Michael W.; Ulrich, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Background A clinical study to investigate the leukotriene B4 (LTB4)-receptor antagonist BIIL 284 in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients was prematurely terminated due to a significantly increased risk of adverse pulmonary events. We aimed to establish the effect of BIIL284 in models of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, thereby contributing to a better understanding of what could have led to adverse pulmonary events in CF patients. Methods P. aeruginosa DNA in the blood of CF patients during and after acute pulmonary exacerbations and in stable patients with non-CF bronchiectasis (NCFB) and healthy individuals was assessed by PCR. The effect of BIIL 284 treatment was tested in an agar beads murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection. Bacterial count and inflammation were evaluated in lung and other organs. Result Most CF patients (98%) and all patients with NCFB and healthy individuals had negative P. aeruginosa DNA in their blood. Similarly, the P. aeruginosa-infected mice showed bacterial counts in the lung but not blood or spleen. BIIL 284 treatment decreased pulmonary neutrophils and increased P. aeruginosa numbers in mouse lungs leading to significantly higher bacteremia rates and lung inflammation compared to placebo treated animals. Conclusions Decreased airway neutrophils induced lung proliferation and severe bacteraemia in a murine model of P. aeruginosa lung infection. These data suggest that caution should be taken when administering anti-inflammatory compounds to patients with bacterial infections. PMID:24183915

  12. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes Containing Flame Retardant Additives for Increased Safety Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Smith, Kiah A. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick Charles (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of Li-ion electrolytes containing flame retardant additives that have delivered good performance over a wide temperature range, good cycle life characteristics, and improved safety characteristics, namely, reduced flammability. In one embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a fluorinated co-solvent, a flame retardant additive, and a lithium salt. In another embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film forming agent, and a lithium salt.

  13. Additives increasing antioxidant activity of sesamol in soybean oil at frying temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesamol has drawn a considerable interest as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants due to its excellent radical scavenging ability at room temperature, low cost and additional health-promoting benefits. However, when it was evaluated for its antioxidant activity in soybean oil at frying temperatu...

  14. Dietary Enterococcus faecalis LAB31 improves growth performance, reduces diarrhea, and increases fecal Lactobacillus number of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuanliang; Dun, Yaohao; Li, Shenao; Zhang, Dongxiao; Peng, Nan; Zhao, Shumiao; Liang, Yunxiang

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been shown to enhance performance of weaned piglets. However, few studies have reported the addition of LAB Enterococcus faecalis as alternatives to growth promoting antibiotics for weaned piglets. This study evaluated the effects of dietary E. faecalis LAB31 on the growth performance, diarrhea incidence, blood parameters, fecal bacterial and Lactobacillus communities in weaned piglets. A total of 360 piglets weaned at 26 ± 2 days of age were randomly allotted to 5 groups (20 pens, with 4 pens for each group) for a trial of 28 days: group N (negative control, without antibiotics or probiotics); group P (Neomycin sulfate, 100 mg/kg feed); groups L, M and H (supplemented with E. faecalis LAB31 0.5×109, 1.0×109, and 2.5×109 CFU/kg feed, respectively). Average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency were found to be higher in group H than in group N, and showed significant differences between group H and group P (P0 < 0.05). Furthermore, groups H and P had a lower diarrhea index than the other three groups (P0 < 0.05). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the application of probiotics to the diet changed the bacterial community, with a higher bacterial diversity in group M than in the other four groups. Real-time PCR revealed that the relative number of Lactobacillus increased by addition of probiotics, and was higher in group H than in group N (P0 < 0.05). However, group-specific PCR-DGGE showed no obvious difference among the five groups in Lactobacillus composition and diversity. Therefore, the dietary addition of E. faecalis LAB31 can improve growth performance, reduce diarrhea, and increase the relative number of Lactobacillus in feces of weaned piglets.

  15. Dietary Enterococcus faecalis LAB31 Improves Growth Performance, Reduces Diarrhea, and Increases Fecal Lactobacillus Number of Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuanliang; Dun, Yaohao; Li, Shenao; Zhang, Dongxiao; Peng, Nan; Zhao, Shumiao; Liang, Yunxiang

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been shown to enhance performance of weaned piglets. However, few studies have reported the addition of LAB Enterococcus faecalis as alternatives to growth promoting antibiotics for weaned piglets. This study evaluated the effects of dietary E. faecalis LAB31 on the growth performance, diarrhea incidence, blood parameters, fecal bacterial and Lactobacillus communities in weaned piglets. A total of 360 piglets weaned at 26 ± 2 days of age were randomly allotted to 5 groups (20 pens, with 4 pens for each group) for a trial of 28 days: group N (negative control, without antibiotics or probiotics); group P (Neomycin sulfate, 100 mg/kg feed); groups L, M and H (supplemented with E. faecalis LAB31 0.5×109, 1.0×109, and 2.5×109 CFU/kg feed, respectively). Average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency were found to be higher in group H than in group N, and showed significant differences between group H and group P (P0 < 0.05). Furthermore, groups H and P had a lower diarrhea index than the other three groups (P0 < 0.05). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the application of probiotics to the diet changed the bacterial community, with a higher bacterial diversity in group M than in the other four groups. Real-time PCR revealed that the relative number of Lactobacillus increased by addition of probiotics, and was higher in group H than in group N (P0 < 0.05). However, group-specific PCR-DGGE showed no obvious difference among the five groups in Lactobacillus composition and diversity. Therefore, the dietary addition of E. faecalis LAB31 can improve growth performance, reduce diarrhea, and increase the relative number of Lactobacillus in feces of weaned piglets. PMID:25617897

  16. Increased Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Occupations Associated with Low-Dose Benzene Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Dioni, Laura; Hoxha, Mirjam; Bollati, Valentina; Albetti, Benedetta; Byun, Hyang-Min; Bonzini, Matteo; Fustinoni, Silvia; Cocco, Pierluigi; Satta, Giannina; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Cipolla, Massimo; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Background: Benzene is an established leukemogen at high exposure levels. Although low-level benzene exposure is widespread and may induce oxidative damage, no mechanistic biomarkers are available to detect biological dysfunction at low doses. Objectives: Our goals were to determine in a large multicenter cross-sectional study whether low-level benzene is associated with increased blood mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn, a biological oxidative response to mitochondrial DNA damage and dysfunction) and to explore potential links between mtDNAcn and leukemia-related epigenetic markers. Methods: We measured blood relative mtDNAcn by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 341 individuals selected from various occupational groups with low-level benzene exposures (> 100 times lower than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration/European Union standards) and 178 referents from three Italian cities (Genoa, Milan, Cagliari). Results: In each city, benzene-exposed participants showed higher mtDNAcn than referents: mtDNAcn was 0.90 relative units in Genoa bus drivers and 0.75 in referents (p = 0.019); 0.90 in Milan gas station attendants, 1.10 in police officers, and 0.75 in referents (p-trend = 0.008); 1.63 in Cagliari petrochemical plant workers, 1.25 in referents close to the plant, and 0.90 in referents farther from the plant (p-trend = 0.046). Using covariate-adjusted regression models, we estimated that an interquartile range increase in personal airborne benzene was associated with percent increases in mtDNAcn equal to 10.5% in Genoa (p = 0.014), 8.2% (p = 0.008) in Milan, 7.5% in Cagliari (p = 0.22), and 10.3% in all cities combined (p < 0.001). Using methylation data available for the Milan participants, we found that mtDNAcn was associated with LINE-1 hypomethylation (–2.41%; p = 0.007) and p15 hypermethylation (+15.95%, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Blood MtDNAcn was increased in persons exposed to low benzene levels, potentially reflecting mitochondrial

  17. Increasing thermomagnetic stability of composite superconductors with additives of extremely-large-heat-capacity substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keilin, V. E.; Kovalev, I. A.; Kruglov, S. L.; Lupanov, D. É.; Shcherbakov, V. I.

    2008-05-01

    We have studied the thermomagnetic stability (with respect to magnetic flux disturbances) of composite superconductors screened by additives of rare earth compounds possessing extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures. Three tubular composite structures have been manufactured and studied with respect to screening of the central region from variations of an external magnetic field. The effect of large-heat-capacity substances (LHCSs) was evaluated by measuring a jump in the magnetic flux in response to the rate of variation (ramp) of the external magnetic field. It is established that the adiabatic criterion of stability (magnetic-flux jump field) in the sample structures containing LHCSs significantly increases—by 20% for HoCu2 intermetallic compound and 31% for Gd2O2S ceramics—as compared to the control structure free of such additives.

  18. The Effects of Increasing the Number of Taxa on Inferences of Molecular Convergence

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Matthew W.; Hahn, Yoonsoo

    2017-01-01

    Convergent evolution provides insight into the link between phenotype and genotype. Recently, large-scale comparative studies of convergent evolution have become possible, but researchers are still trying to determine the best way to design these types of analyses. One aspect of molecular convergence studies that has not yet been investigated is how taxonomic sample size affects inferences of molecular convergence. Here we show that increased sample size decreases the amount of inferred molecular convergence associated with the three convergent transitions to a marine environment in mammals. The sampling of more taxa—both with and without the convergent phenotype—reveals that alleles associated only with marine mammals in small datasets are actually more widespread, or are not shared by all marine species. The sampling of more taxa also allows finer resolution of ancestral substitutions, revealing that they are not in fact on lineages leading to solely marine species. We revisit a previous study on marine mammals and find that only 7 of the reported 43 genes with convergent substitutions still show signs of convergence with a larger number of background species. However, four of those seven genes also showed signs of positive selection in the original analysis and may still be good candidates for adaptive convergence. Though our study is framed around the convergence of marine mammals, we expect our conclusions on taxonomic sampling are generalizable to any study of molecular convergence. PMID:28057728

  19. Pushing the Photon Limit: Nanoantennas Increase Maximal Photon Stream and Total Photon Number.

    PubMed

    Wientjes, Emilie; Renger, Jan; Cogdell, Richard; van Hulst, Niek F

    2016-05-05

    Nanoantennas are well-known for their effective role in fluorescence enhancement, both in excitation and emission. Enhancements of 3-4 orders of magnitude have been reported. Yet in practice, the photon emission is limited by saturation due to the time that a molecule spends in singlet and especially triplet excited states. The maximal photon stream restricts the attainable enhancement. Furthermore, the total number of photons emitted is limited by photobleaching. The limited brightness and observation time are a drawback for applications, especially in biology. Here we challenge this photon limit, showing that nanoantennas can actually increase both saturation intensity and photostability. So far, this limit-shifting role of nanoantennas has hardly been explored. Specifically, we demonstrate that single light-harvesting complexes, under saturating excitation conditions, show over a 50-fold antenna-enhanced photon emission stream, with 10-fold more total photons, up to 10(8) detected photons, before photobleaching. This work shows yet another facet of the great potential of nanoantennas in the world of single-molecule biology.

  20. Increase number of mitochondrion-like organelle in symptomatic Blastocystis subtype 3 due to metronidazole treatment.

    PubMed

    Raman, Kalyani; Kumar, Suresh; Chye, Tan Tian

    2016-01-01

    Blastocystis sp., an intestinal organism is known to cause diarrhea with metronidazole regarded as the first line of treatment despite reports of its resistance. The conflicting reports of variation in drug treatment have been ascribed to subtype differences. The present study evaluated in vitro responses due to metronidazole on ST3 isolated from three symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, respectively. Symptomatic isolates were obtained from clinical patients who showed symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal bloating. Asymptomatic isolates from a stool survey carried out in a rural area. These patients had no other pathogens other than Blastocystis. Ultrastructural studies using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed drug-treated ST3 from symptomatic patients were irregular and amoebic with surface showing high-convoluted folding when treated with metronidazole. These organisms had higher number of mitochondrion-like organelle (MLO) with prominent cristae. However, the drug-treated ST3 from asymptomatic persons remained spherical in shape. Asymptomatic ST3 showed increase in the size of its central body with the MLO located at the periphery.

  1. Broadening of divertor heat flux profile with increasing number of ELM filaments in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J.-W.; Maingi, R.; Canik, J. M.; Gan, K. F.; Gray, T. K.; McLean, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) represent a challenge to future fusion devices, owing to cyclical high peak heat fluxes on divertor plasma facing surfaces. One ameliorating factor has been that the heat flux characteristic profile width has been observed to broaden with the size of the ELM, as compared with the inter-ELM heat flux profile. In contrast, the heat flux profile has been observed to narrow during ELMs under certain conditions in NSTX. Here we show that the ELM heat flux profile width increases with the number of filamentary striations observed, i.e. profile narrowing is observed with zero or very few striations. Because NSTX often lies on the long wavelength current-driven mode side of ideal MHD instabilities, few filamentary structures can be expected under many conditions. ITER is also projected to lie on the current driven low-n stability boundary, and therefore detailed projections of the unstable modes expected in ITER and the heat flux driven in ensuing filamentary structures is needed.

  2. Broadening of divertor heat flux profile with increasing number of ELM filaments in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, J. -W.; Maingi, R.; Canik, J. M.; Gan, K. F.; Gray, T. K.; McLean, A. G.

    2014-11-13

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) represent a challenge to future fusion devices, owing to cyclical high peak heat fluxes on divertor plasma facing surfaces. One ameliorating factor has been that the heat flux characteristic profile width has been observed to broaden with the size of the ELM, as compared with the inter-ELM heat flux profile. In contrast, the heat flux profile has been observed to narrow during ELMs under certain conditions in NSTX. Here we show that the ELM heat flux profile width increases with the number of filamentary striations observed, i.e., profile narrowing is observed with zero or very few striations. Because NSTX often lies on the long wavelength current-driven mode side of ideal MHD instabilities, few filamentary structures can be expected under many conditions. Lastly, ITER is also projected to lie on the current driven low-n stability boundary, and therefore detailed projections of the unstable modes expected in ITER and the heat flux driven in ensuing filamentary structures is needed.

  3. Pushing the Photon Limit: Nanoantennas Increase Maximal Photon Stream and Total Photon Number

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nanoantennas are well-known for their effective role in fluorescence enhancement, both in excitation and emission. Enhancements of 3–4 orders of magnitude have been reported. Yet in practice, the photon emission is limited by saturation due to the time that a molecule spends in singlet and especially triplet excited states. The maximal photon stream restricts the attainable enhancement. Furthermore, the total number of photons emitted is limited by photobleaching. The limited brightness and observation time are a drawback for applications, especially in biology. Here we challenge this photon limit, showing that nanoantennas can actually increase both saturation intensity and photostability. So far, this limit-shifting role of nanoantennas has hardly been explored. Specifically, we demonstrate that single light-harvesting complexes, under saturating excitation conditions, show over a 50-fold antenna-enhanced photon emission stream, with 10-fold more total photons, up to 108 detected photons, before photobleaching. This work shows yet another facet of the great potential of nanoantennas in the world of single-molecule biology. PMID:27082249

  4. Broadening of divertor heat flux profile with increasing number of ELM filaments in NSTX

    DOE PAGES

    Ahn, J. -W.; Maingi, R.; Canik, J. M.; ...

    2014-11-13

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) represent a challenge to future fusion devices, owing to cyclical high peak heat fluxes on divertor plasma facing surfaces. One ameliorating factor has been that the heat flux characteristic profile width has been observed to broaden with the size of the ELM, as compared with the inter-ELM heat flux profile. In contrast, the heat flux profile has been observed to narrow during ELMs under certain conditions in NSTX. Here we show that the ELM heat flux profile width increases with the number of filamentary striations observed, i.e., profile narrowing is observed with zero or very fewmore » striations. Because NSTX often lies on the long wavelength current-driven mode side of ideal MHD instabilities, few filamentary structures can be expected under many conditions. Lastly, ITER is also projected to lie on the current driven low-n stability boundary, and therefore detailed projections of the unstable modes expected in ITER and the heat flux driven in ensuing filamentary structures is needed.« less

  5. Warming-induced increase in aerosol number concentration likely to moderate climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paasonen, Pauli; Asmi, Ari; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kajos, Maija K.; Äijälä, Mikko; Junninen, Heikki; Holst, Thomas; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Arneth, Almut; Birmili, Wolfram; van der Gon, Hugo Denier; Hamed, Amar; Hoffer, András; Laakso, Lauri; Laaksonen, Ari; Richard Leaitch, W.; Plass-Dülmer, Christian; Pryor, Sara C.; Räisänen, Petri; Swietlicki, Erik; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku

    2013-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles influence the climate system directly by scattering and absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. Apart from black carbon aerosol, aerosols cause a negative radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and substantially mitigate the warming caused by greenhouse gases. In the future, tightening of controls on anthropogenic aerosol and precursor vapour emissions to achieve higher air quality may weaken this beneficial effect. Natural aerosols, too, might affect future warming. Here we analyse long-term observations of concentrations and compositions of aerosol particles and their biogenic precursor vapours in continental mid- and high-latitude environments. We use measurements of particle number size distribution together with boundary layer heights derived from reanalysis data to show that the boundary layer burden of cloud condensation nuclei increases exponentially with temperature. Our results confirm a negative feedback mechanism between the continental biosphere, aerosols and climate: aerosol cooling effects are strengthened by rising biogenic organic vapour emissions in response to warming, which in turn enhance condensation on particles and their growth to the size of cloud condensation nuclei. This natural growth mechanism produces roughly 50% of particles at the size of cloud condensation nuclei across Europe. We conclude that biosphere-atmosphere interactions are crucial for aerosol climate effects and can significantly influence the effects of anthropogenic aerosol emission controls, both on climate and air quality.

  6. Use of chemical additives with steam injection to increase oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, L.L.

    1984-09-01

    Surfactants and certain inorganic bases have been evaluated as possible chemical additives to improve performance of steamfloods. Special emphasis was given to chemicals which would reduce the residual oil saturation in regions flooded by hot water below the steam zone. Problems considered were the effect of prolonged exposure to steam temperature on the stability of petroleum sulfonates, the effect of temperature on surfactant adsorption and the effect of temperature on interfacial tensions. Methods were developed for measuring quantitatively the thermal stability of the aryl sulfonate class of surfactant. This class includes the petroleum sulfonates. The best of the surfactants evaluated in this study had marginal stability for use with steamfloods. The surfactants in combination with elevated temperatures do reduce residual oil saturations. Data are presented on the temperature effects on interfacial tensions and on adsorption. Certain inorganic chemicals which give high pH are effective and inexpensive but hydroxyl ions react with silica in the reservoir. This reaction is accentuated at higher temperatures. Data show that the pH of the injected hot water with caustic decreases with contact time. The experiments did not permit determining if an equilibrium pH would be obtained which would be high enough to be effective in recovering oil. Core floods showed that pH's in excess of 12 would be required to reduce residual oil saturations if sodium hydroxide was the injected chemical. The addition of surfactants with caustic or the use of sodium carbonate may permit recovery of oil at lower pH's. A reservoir simulator is being developed to predict performance of steamfloods with chemical additives. This has been completed for simple linear floods but is being extended to three dimensions and to more complicated flooding operations. 31 references, 43 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Small-plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance is enhanced by increases in plasmid copy number and bacterial fitness.

    PubMed

    San Millan, Alvaro; Santos-Lopez, Alfonso; Ortega-Huedo, Rafael; Bernabe-Balas, Cristina; Kennedy, Sean P; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Plasmids play a key role in the horizontal spread of antibiotic resistance determinants among bacterial pathogens. When an antibiotic resistance plasmid arrives in a new bacterial host, it produces a fitness cost, causing a competitive disadvantage for the plasmid-bearing bacterium in the absence of antibiotics. On the other hand, in the presence of antibiotics, the plasmid promotes the survival of the clone. The adaptations experienced by plasmid and bacterium in the presence of antibiotics during the first generations of coexistence will be crucial for the progress of the infection and the maintenance of plasmid-mediated resistance once the treatment is over. Here we developed a model system using the human pathogen Haemophilus influenzae carrying the small plasmid pB1000 conferring resistance to β-lactam antibiotics to investigate host and plasmid adaptations in the course of a simulated ampicillin therapy. Our results proved that plasmid-bearing clones compensated for the fitness disadvantage during the first 100 generations of plasmid-host adaptation. In addition, ampicillin treatment was associated with an increase in pB1000 copy number. The augmentation in both bacterial fitness and plasmid copy number gave rise to H. influenzae populations with higher ampicillin resistance levels. In conclusion, we show here that the modulations in bacterial fitness and plasmid copy number help a plasmid-bearing bacterium to adapt during antibiotic therapy, promoting both the survival of the host and the spread of the plasmid.

  8. Circulating progenitor cells in hypertensive subjects: Effectiveness of a treatment with olmesartan in improving cell number and miR profile in addition to expected pharmacological effects

    PubMed Central

    Aragona, Caterina Oriana; Cairo, Valentina; Scuruchi, Michele; Lo Gullo, Alberto; D’Ascola, Angela; Alibrandi, Angela; Loddo, Saverio; Quartuccio, Sebastiano; Morace, Carmela; Mormina, Enricomaria; Basile, Giorgio; Saitta, Antonino; Imbalzano, Egidio

    2017-01-01

    CD34+ circulating progenitor cells (CD34+CPCs) are a population of multipotent cells which can delay the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in conditions of increased CV risk. MicroRNAs (miRs) 221 and 222 modulate different genes regulating angiogenesis and inflammation; moreover, miR221/22 have beenshown to participate in differentiation and proliferation of CD34+CPCs, inhibiting cell migration and homing. miR221/222 in CD34+CPCs from hypertensive subjects are also increased and associated with CD34+cell number and reactive oxygen species (ROS). We evaluated CD34+CPC number, intracellular miR221/222 and ROS levels, arterial stiffness (AS)and echocardiography indices at baseline (T0).Then, after a six-month treatment with olmesartan, 20 mg/day (T1), in 57 hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and with no additional risk factor for CVD, and in 29 healthy controls (baseline),fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), glucose and lipid profiles were also evaluated.At T1, blood pressure values, CRP and fibrinogen levels, ROS and miR221/222 were significantly decreased (all p <0.001), as were AS indices and LV mass index (p<0.001), while cell number was increased (p<0.001). Olmesartan is effective in reducing miR and ROS levels in CD34+CPCs from hypertensive subjects, as well as in increasing CD34+CPC number, providing multilevel CV protection, in addition to its expected pharmacological effects. PMID:28301500

  9. [Increasing number of teenagers with alcohol intoxication admitted to hospital: result of successful treatment approach rather than an increasing problem].

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Admissions of adolescents with acute alcohol intoxication to Dutch hospitals have been increasing since 2003. This trend has been attributed mainly to changes in drinking practices of adolescents. However, research shows a declining trend in binge drinking among Dutch teenagers. It is argued that the rise in admissions is primarily the result of a successful intervention initiated around 2003 by the Dutch Paediatric Surveillance Centre (NSCK), which has raised awareness of the problems related to underage drinking and has led the public to call for medical attention for a comatose youngster more rapidly. The rhetorical presentation of adolescent drinking as a growing problem runs the risk of inflating this problem, with moral antecedents, not uncommon when professionals deal with behaviour-related health issues. Rather than blaming the problematic drinker, the positive effects of this innovative approach should be emphasized.

  10. The Impact of the Social Order to Increase Enrollment in Programs of Additional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zolotareva, Angelina V.; Bayborodova, Liudmila V.; Lehomzeva, Elena N.; Sukhanova, Yulia V.; Razumova, Anzhelika B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the social demand impact on increasing the children's enrollment of supplementary education programs. The survey has involved children of younger and middle school age (n = 2,206), high school students (n = 2,162), and parents of children of preschool (n = 313), younger and middle school age (n = 262). The…

  11. Subjective and objective components of resource value additively increase aggression in parasitoid contests

    PubMed Central

    Stockermans, Bernard C.; Hardy, Ian C. W.

    2013-01-01

    Two major categories of factors are predicted to influence behaviour in dyadic contests; differences in the abilities of the contestants to acquire and retain resources (resource holding potential), and the value of the contested resource (resource value, RV; which comprises objective and subjective components). Recent studies indicate that subjective components affect contest behaviour in several animal taxa but few have simultaneously investigated objective RV components. We find that both an objective (host size) and a subjective (contestant age) component of RV affect contest intensity in the parasitoid wasp Goniozus legneri. These additively influence aggressiveness, with a larger effect from the subjective component than the objective component. The greater influence of subjective RV adds weight to the recent surge of recognition of this RV component's importance in contest behaviour. PMID:23697643

  12. Increasing the number of feminist scientists: why feminist aims are not served by the Underdetermination Thesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intemann, Kristen

    2008-11-01

    Recent feminist philosophers of science have argued that feminist values can contribute to rational decisions about which scientific theories to accept. On this view, increasing the number of feminist scientists is important for ensuring rational and objective theory acceptance. The Underdetermination Thesis has played a key role in arguments for this view [Anderson (1995) Hypatia 10(3), 50 84; Hankinson Nelson (1990) Who knows? From Quine to a feminist empiricism. Temple University Press, Philadelphia; Longino (1990) Science as social knowledge. Princeton University Press, Princeton; Longino (2002) The fate of knowledge. Princeton University Press, Princeton; Kourany (2003) Philosophy of Science 70, 1 14]. This thesis is alleged to open an argumentative “gap” between evidence and theory acceptance and provide a rationale for filling the gap with feminist values. While I agree with the conclusion that feminist values can contribute to rational decisions about which theories to accept, I argue that the Underdetermination Thesis cannot support this claim. First, using earlier arguments [Laudan (1990) in: R. Giere (ed) Minnesota studies in the philosophy of science, vol 14, pp 267 297; Slezak (1991) International Studies in Philosophy of Science 5, 241 256; Pinnick (1994) Philosophy of Science 61, 664 657] I show that Underdetermination cannot, by itself, establish that feminist values should fill the gap in theory acceptance. Secondly, I argue that the very use of the Underdetermination Thesis concedes that feminist values are extra-scientific, a-rational, factors in theory acceptance. This concession denies feminists grounds to explain why their values contribute to rational scientific reasoning. Finally, I propose two alternative ways to explain how feminist values can contribute to rational theory acceptance that do not rely on Underdetermination.

  13. Addition of prothrombin to plasma can result in a paradoxical increase in activated partial thromboplastin time.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Kenny M; Björkqvist, Jenny; Deinum, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    In the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay, a variety of nonphysiological reagents is used to induce contact activation. The sensitivity of the APTT response for different thrombin inhibitors has previously been found to be dependent on the used reagent. Recently, infusion of prothrombin (FII) has been used in in-vivo coagulopathy models and its effect has been analyzed in different assays. Therefore, we investigated whether the FII plasma concentration might affect APTT using different commercial reagents, applying both turbidimetry and viscometry. We compared both plasma-derived human FII (pd-hFII) and recombinant human FII (r-hFII). Similar results were found for pd-hFII and r-hFII with different APTT reagents. As expected, no effect on APTT was found by increasing the plasma concentration of FII using APTT reagents consisting of ellagic acid (Actin FS or Actin). Although with Pathromtin SL, consisting of SiO2, only a slight increase was found, with most other commercial APTT reagents, consisting of SiO2 or kaolin, APTT dose-dependently increased by increasing concentration of FII. Therefore, both Pathromtin SL and Actin FS were used to compare r-hFII and pd-hFII by determining the KM at 37C using FII-depleted plasma, providing values of 6 ± 0.3 nmol/l FII for both. Thus, at normal plasma concentrations of FII, the maximal initial thrombin generation rate should be reached and no effect on the coagulation time is expected at higher FII concentrations. To completely avoid the paradoxical effect in the APTT assay at FII concentrations higher than normal, Actin or Actin FS is the preferable reagent.

  14. Distraction produces over-additive increases in the degree to which alcohol impairs driving performance

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Nicholas A.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Research indicates that alcohol intoxication and increased demands on drivers’ attention from distractions (e.g. passengers and cell phones) contribute to poor driving performance and increased rates of traffic accidents and fatalities. Objectives The present study examined the separate and combined effects of alcohol and distraction on simulated driving performance at blood alcohol concentrations (BrACs) below the legal driving limit in the United States (i.e. 0.08%). Methods Fifty healthy adult drivers (36 men and 14 women) were tested in a driving simulator following a 0.65 g/kg dose of alcohol and a placebo. Drivers completed two drive tests; a distracted drive, which included a two-choice detection task, and an undistracted control drive. Multiple indicators of driving performance, such as drive speed, within-lane deviation, steering rate, and lane exceedances were measured. Results Alcohol and distraction each impaired measures of driving performance. Moreover, the magnitude of alcohol impairment was increased by at least two-fold when tested under the distracting versus the undistracted condition. Conclusions The findings highlight the need for a clearer understanding of how common distractions impact intoxicated drivers, especially at BrACs that are currently legal for driving in the United States. PMID:26349918

  15. Assessing an unknown evolutionary process: effect of increasing site-specific knowledge through taxon addition.

    PubMed

    Pollock, D D; Bruno, W J

    2000-12-01

    Assessment of the evolutionary process is crucial for understanding the effect of protein structure and function on sequence evolution and for many other analyses in molecular evolution. Here, we used simulations to study how taxon sampling affects accuracy of parameter estimation and topological inference in the absence of branch length asymmetry. With maximum-likelihood analysis, we find that adding taxa dramatically improves both support for the evolutionary model and accurate assessment of its parameters when compared with increasing the sequence length. Using a method we call "doppelgänger trees," we distinguish the contributions of two sources of improved topological inference: greater knowledge about internal nodes and greater knowledge of site-specific rate parameters. Surprisingly, highly significant support for the correct general model does not lead directly to improved topological inference. Instead, substantial improvement occurs only with accurate assessment of the evolutionary process at individual sites. Although these results are based on a simplified model of the evolutionary process, they indicate that in general, assuming processes are not independent and identically distributed among sites, more extensive sampling of taxonomic biodiversity will greatly improve analytical results in many current sequence data sets with moderate sequence lengths.

  16. Nitrogen addition, not initial phylogenetic diversity, increases litter decomposition by fungal communities

    PubMed Central

    Amend, Anthony S.; Matulich, Kristin L.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi play a critical role in the degradation of organic matter. Because different combinations of fungi result in different rates of decomposition, determining how climate change will affect microbial composition and function is fundamental to predicting future environments. Fungal response to global change is patterned by genetic relatedness, resulting in communities with comparatively low phylogenetic diversity (PD). This may have important implications for the functional capacity of disturbed communities if lineages sensitive to disturbance also contain unique traits important for litter decomposition. Here we tested the relationship between PD and decomposition rates. Leaf litter fungi were isolated from the field and deployed in microcosms as mock communities along a gradient of initial PD, while species richness was held constant. Replicate communities were subject to nitrogen fertilization comparable to anthropogenic deposition levels. Carbon mineralization rates were measured over the course of 66 days. We found that nitrogen fertilization increased cumulative respiration by 24.8%, and that differences in respiration between fertilized and ambient communities diminished over the course of the experiment. Initial PD failed to predict respiration rates or their change in response to nitrogen fertilization, and there was no correlation between community similarity and respiration rates. Last, we detected no phylogenetic signal in the contributions of individual isolates to respiration rates. Our results suggest that the degree to which PD predicts ecosystem function will depend on environmental context. PMID:25741330

  17. Nitrogen addition, not initial phylogenetic diversity, increases litter decomposition by fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Amend, Anthony S; Matulich, Kristin L; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2015-01-01

    Fungi play a critical role in the degradation of organic matter. Because different combinations of fungi result in different rates of decomposition, determining how climate change will affect microbial composition and function is fundamental to predicting future environments. Fungal response to global change is patterned by genetic relatedness, resulting in communities with comparatively low phylogenetic diversity (PD). This may have important implications for the functional capacity of disturbed communities if lineages sensitive to disturbance also contain unique traits important for litter decomposition. Here we tested the relationship between PD and decomposition rates. Leaf litter fungi were isolated from the field and deployed in microcosms as mock communities along a gradient of initial PD, while species richness was held constant. Replicate communities were subject to nitrogen fertilization comparable to anthropogenic deposition levels. Carbon mineralization rates were measured over the course of 66 days. We found that nitrogen fertilization increased cumulative respiration by 24.8%, and that differences in respiration between fertilized and ambient communities diminished over the course of the experiment. Initial PD failed to predict respiration rates or their change in response to nitrogen fertilization, and there was no correlation between community similarity and respiration rates. Last, we detected no phylogenetic signal in the contributions of individual isolates to respiration rates. Our results suggest that the degree to which PD predicts ecosystem function will depend on environmental context.

  18. Change of the mechanical properties of two different balloon catheters with increasing numbers of cycles of resterilization.

    PubMed

    Unverdorben, Martin; Quaden, René; Werner, Christian; Bloss, Peter; Degenhardt, Ralf; Ackermann, Hanns; Vallbracht, Christian

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of centers are reusing PTCA catheters even though manufacturers warrant single use only. This prospective bench laboratory trial addresses the quality of PTCA balloon catheters after up to three resterilization cycles in order to determine whether a larger trial is warranted to discern whether catheters should be reused. Forty PTCA catheters from two different manufacturers (nominal diameters 1.5 and 3.0 mm) were taken from the shelf. An independent institute tested mechanical properties such as burst pressure, nominal diameter, crossing profile, and balloon surface. The crossing profile increased by 22.5%-39.2% with no additional deterioration after repeated sterilizations. The nominal diameter either increased or decreased by a maximum of 47%. In all 1.5 mm balloons, the burst pressure remained above the manufacturers' values, whereas in the 3.0 mm balloons, the value dropped below the rated burst pressure in 40%-50% of the trials. In conclusion, in both catheter types analyzed, reuse was associated with a considerably worse quality, which puts in question their routine clinical use.

  19. Busing Cuts Cause MPS to Lag in Spending Increases. Research Brief. Volume 90, Number 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Forum, 2002

    2002-01-01

    The Forum's 16th annual report on public schooling in Southeastern Wisconsin reveals that spending increased 4% in Southeastern Wisconsin school districts to $2.8 billion last year, although the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) experienced a significantly smaller increase (2.7%). Part of this relatively small increase can be attributed to the…

  20. An Asymmetric Increase in Inhibitory Synapse Number Underlies the Development of a Direction Selective Circuit in the Retina.

    PubMed

    Morrie, Ryan D; Feller, Marla B

    2015-06-24

    Neural circuits rely upon a precise wiring of their component neurons to perform meaningful computations. To compute the direction of motion in the visual scene, the direction selective circuit in the mouse retina depends on an asymmetry in the inhibitory neurotransmission from starburst amacrine cells (SACs) to direction selective ganglion cells (DSGCs). Specifically, depolarization of a SAC on the null side of a DSGC causes a threefold greater unitary inhibitory conductance than depolarization of a SAC on the preferred side. This asymmetry emerges during the second postnatal week of development, but its basis remains unknown. To determine the source of this asymmetry in inhibitory conductance, we conducted paired recordings between SACs and DSGCs at the beginning and end of the second postnatal week. We replaced calcium with strontium to promote asynchronous neurotransmitter release and produce quantal events. During the second postnatal week the quantal frequency but not the quantal amplitude of synaptic events increased more than threefold for null-side SAC-DSGC pairs but remained constant for preferred-side pairs. In addition, paired-pulse depression did not differ between SACs located on the null and preferred sides of DSGCs, indicating that all inhibitory SAC synapses onto a DSGC exhibit the same probability of release. Thus, the higher quantal frequency seen in null-side pairs results from a greater number of inhibitory synapses, revealing that an asymmetry in synapse number between SACs and DSGCs underlies the development of an essential component in the retina's direction selective circuit.

  1. The RIBN initiative: a new effort to increase the number of baccalaureate nurses in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Polly

    2014-01-01

    To meet the increasing demand for a more educated nursing workforce, the Regionally Increasing Baccalaureate Nurses (RIBN) initiative provides an economically feasible educational pathway between community colleges and universities so that more North Carolina nursing students can achieve a baccalaureate degree at the beginning of their career.

  2. Assessing and Promoting Resilience: An Additional Tool to Address the Increasing Number of College Students with Psychological Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the assessment of resilience in undergraduate college students. Multigroup comparisons of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC; Connor & Davidson, 2003) were performed on general population students and students recruited from campus mental health offices offering college counseling, psychiatric-support, and…

  3. Increasing the Number of Women and Underrepresented Minorities in the Plasma Science-A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Pamela R.; Post-Zwicker, Andrew

    2000-10-01

    The number of women and underrepresented minorities in plasma science is woefully small.The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), for example, consists of 2% women and underrepresented minorities. The historical reasons for this specific case as well as the overall circumstances involving pipeline inclusion are beyond the scope of this paper. The answer, however, is clearly NOT a lack of qualified women and minorities as evidenced by the numbers in other SEM disciplines such as computer science where women earn 27% of the doctoral degrees, African Americans 10% and Hispanics 5%. Over the past five years the number of underrepresented minorities earning degrees in physics and engineering has risen. Since 1995, in an effort to reach this population, PPPL has actively recruited women and underrepresented minority students to its various undergraduate research programs, in particular the National Undergraduate Fellowship Program (NUF) and the Energy Research Undergraduate Laboratory Fellowship (ERULF). The results are encouraging. The details of our efforts, our future plans, and ways of introducing our methods to other laboratories will be discussed.

  4. CO2 enrichment and N addition increase nutrient loss from decomposing leaf litter in subtropical model forest ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juxiu; Fang, Xiong; Deng, Qi; Han, Tianfeng; Huang, Wenjuan; Li, Yiyong

    2015-01-01

    As atmospheric CO2 concentration increases, many experiments have been carried out to study effects of CO2 enrichment on litter decomposition and nutrient release. However, the result is still uncertain. Meanwhile, the impact of CO2 enrichment on nutrients other than N and P are far less studied. Using open-top chambers, we examined effects of elevated CO2 and N addition on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release in subtropical model forest ecosystems. We found that both elevated CO2 and N addition increased nutrient (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn) loss from the decomposing litter. The N, P, Ca and Zn loss was more than tripled in the chambers exposed to both elevated CO2 and N addition than those in the control chambers after 21 months of treatment. The stimulation of nutrient loss under elevated CO2 was associated with the increased soil moisture, the higher leaf litter quality and the greater soil acidity. Accelerated nutrient release under N addition was related to the higher leaf litter quality, the increased soil microbial biomass and the greater soil acidity. Our results imply that elevated CO2 and N addition will increase nutrient cycling in subtropical China under the future global change. PMID:25608664

  5. CO2 enrichment and N addition increase nutrient loss from decomposing leaf litter in subtropical model forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juxiu; Fang, Xiong; Deng, Qi; Han, Tianfeng; Huang, Wenjuan; Li, Yiyong

    2015-01-22

    As atmospheric CO2 concentration increases, many experiments have been carried out to study effects of CO2 enrichment on litter decomposition and nutrient release. However, the result is still uncertain. Meanwhile, the impact of CO2 enrichment on nutrients other than N and P are far less studied. Using open-top chambers, we examined effects of elevated CO2 and N addition on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release in subtropical model forest ecosystems. We found that both elevated CO2 and N addition increased nutrient (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn) loss from the decomposing litter. The N, P, Ca and Zn loss was more than tripled in the chambers exposed to both elevated CO2 and N addition than those in the control chambers after 21 months of treatment. The stimulation of nutrient loss under elevated CO2 was associated with the increased soil moisture, the higher leaf litter quality and the greater soil acidity. Accelerated nutrient release under N addition was related to the higher leaf litter quality, the increased soil microbial biomass and the greater soil acidity. Our results imply that elevated CO2 and N addition will increase nutrient cycling in subtropical China under the future global change.

  6. CO2 enrichment and N addition increase nutrient loss from decomposing leaf litter in subtropical model forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juxiu; Fang, Xiong; Deng, Qi; Han, Tianfeng; Huang, Wenjuan; Li, Yiyong

    2015-01-01

    As atmospheric CO2 concentration increases, many experiments have been carried out to study effects of CO2 enrichment on litter decomposition and nutrient release. However, the result is still uncertain. Meanwhile, the impact of CO2 enrichment on nutrients other than N and P are far less studied. Using open-top chambers, we examined effects of elevated CO2 and N addition on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release in subtropical model forest ecosystems. We found that both elevated CO2 and N addition increased nutrient (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn) loss from the decomposing litter. The N, P, Ca and Zn loss was more than tripled in the chambers exposed to both elevated CO2 and N addition than those in the control chambers after 21 months of treatment. The stimulation of nutrient loss under elevated CO2 was associated with the increased soil moisture, the higher leaf litter quality and the greater soil acidity. Accelerated nutrient release under N addition was related to the higher leaf litter quality, the increased soil microbial biomass and the greater soil acidity. Our results imply that elevated CO2 and N addition will increase nutrient cycling in subtropical China under the future global change.

  7. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah's coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heriyanto, Heri; Widya Ernayati, K.; Umam, Chairul; Margareta, Nita

    2015-12-01

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%.

  8. Increasing the maximum achievable strain of a covalent polymer gel through the addition of mechanically invisible cross-links.

    PubMed

    Kean, Zachary S; Hawk, Jennifer L; Lin, Shaoting; Zhao, Xuanhe; Sijbesma, Rint P; Craig, Stephen L

    2014-09-10

    Hydrogels and organogels made from polymer networks are widely used in biomedical applications and soft, active devices for which the ability to sustain large deformations is required. The strain at which polymer networks fracture is typically improved through the addition of elements that dissipate energy, but these materials require extra work to achieve a given, desired level of deformation. Here, the addition of mechanically "invisible" supramolecular crosslinks causes substantial increases in the ultimate gel properties without incurring the added energetic costs of dissipation.

  9. The slaughter of increased numbers of pregnant cows in Tanga abattoir, Tanzania: A cause for concern?

    PubMed

    Swai, Emmanuel S; Hayghaimo, Abdu A; Hassan, Ayubu A; Mhina, Bartholomeo S

    2015-08-12

    Information on the level of foetal wastage in slaughtered cattle in Tanzania is limited. A three-month observational study (April - June 2014) of animals slaughtered at the Tanga abattoir in Tanga region, Tanzania was carried out to determine the number of pregnant cows slaughtered. The total number of cattle slaughtered during the study period was 3643, representing a monthly kill average of 1214 and a daily kill average of 40. Over 98% of the cattle presented to the abattoir for slaughter were local breed (Tanzania shorthorn zebu) and most were above 3 years of age. Improved breeds of cattle represented only 1.3% of all slaughters. Of the cattle slaughtered, 2256 (61.9%) were female and 1387 (38.1%) were male. A total of 655 slaughtered cows were pregnant, representing a foetal wastage of 29.1%. Of the 655 recovered foetuses, 333 (50.8%) were male and 322 (49.2%) were female. Of the recovered foetuses, 25.8% were recovered in the first, 42.7% in the second and 31.6% in the third trimester. This study indicates cases of significant foetal losses, negatively impacting future replacement stock as a result of the slaughter of pregnant animals. The indiscriminate slaughter of pregnant cows suggests that existing animal welfare legislation is not sufficiently enforced and routine veterinary ante-mortem inspection of trade animals is failing to prevent the high level of foetal wastage.

  10. Human population growth and temperature increase along with the increase in urbanisation, motor vehicle numbers and green area amount in the sample of Erzurum city, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Sevgi; Toy, Süleyman; Demircioglu Yildiz, Nalan; Yilmaz, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    In the study, main purpose was to determine the effect of population growth along with the increase in urbanisation, motor vehicle use and green area amount on the temperature values using a 55-year data set in Erzurum, which is hardly industrialised, and one of the coldest cities with highest elevation in Turkey. Although the semi-decadal increases, means of which are 0.1 degrees C for mean, minimum and maximum temperatures, are not clear enough to make a strong comment even in the lights of figures or tables, it was found as the result of the statistical analysis that population growth and increases in the number of vehicles, the number of buildings and the green area amount in the city have no significant effect on mean temperatures. However, the relationships between population growth and maximum temperature; and the number of vehicles and minimum temperature were found to be statistically significant.

  11. Elevated CO/sub 2/ concentration increases stomate numbers in phaseolus vulgaris leaves

    SciTech Connect

    O'Leary, J.W.; Knecht, G.N.

    1981-12-01

    Beans were grown under a constant CO/sub 2/ concentration of either 400 or 1200 ..mu..l liter/sup -1/. There was no significant difference in stomate density on the adaxial surface, but there was a significantly lower stomate density on the abaxial surface of leaves in the higher CO/sub 2/ concentration. The leaf area was significantly greater at the higher CO/sub 2/ concentration, and total number of stomates per leaf, calculated from the density and leaf area, was significantly greater for both surfaces of the leaf. We conclude that the observed CO/sub 2/ effect on stomatal density is the result of the large change in leaf area.

  12. Genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhoea virus: evidence of an increasing number of variants in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ciulli, Sara; Galletti, Elena; Battilani, Mara; Scagliarini, Alessandra; Gentile, Arcangelo; Morganti, Luigi; Prosperi, Santino

    2008-04-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) is responsible worldwide for severe economic losses on cattle farms. BVDV is an RNA virus with a high genome variability having practical consequences on epidemiology, diagnosis and disease control. Genetic monitoring was suggested as the first step in BVDV control. Thirty-seven Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Viruses were identified in persistently infected cattle, mucosal disease-affected animals and in bulk milk, and were characterised genetically. The 5'UTR region was amplified and sequenced, and a phylogenetic analysis was carried out comparing all the Italian sequences of BVDV available from the Genbank database. An unusual number of persistent infected animals was evidenced on more than one farm. Phylogenetic analysis attributed all our viruses to BVDV type I and distinguished four different subgroups inside this genotype. Analysis of old and new viruses revealed the circulation of viruses classified in subgroups BVDV Ia and Ij never reported in Italy.

  13. New York's Statewide Approach to Increase the Number of Minority Applicants to Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Frank; Flowers, Jacqueline Caraway

    1990-01-01

    The Associated Medical Schools of New York consortium has established a multifaceted, statewide effort aimed at increasing the pool of qualified minority applicants. The programs include academic enrichment for precollege and college students, recruitment conferences, and a program to attract minority students to residency training in New York.…

  14. Sonic hedgehog and neurotrophin-3 increase oligodendrocyte numbers and myelination after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Ashley G.; Kukushliev, Todor V.; Hassani, Donna M.; Cummings, Brian J.; Anderson, Aileen J.; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in loss of sensory and motor function below the level of injury and has limited available therapies. Multiple channel bridges have been investigated as a means to create a permissive environment for regeneration, with channels supporting axonal growth through the injury. Bridges support robust axon growth with myelination of the axons, and herein we investigated the cell types that are myelinating the axons and whether trophic factors can enhance myelination. Lentivirus encoding for neurotrophin-3 (NT3), sonic hedgehog (SHH) and the combination of these factors was delivered from bridges implanted into a lateral hemisection defect at T9/T10 in mice, and the response of endogenous progenitor cells within the spinal cord was investigated. Relative to control, the localized sustained expression of these factors significantly increased growth of regenerating axons into the bridge and enhanced axon myelination 8 weeks after injury. SHH decreased Sox2+ cells and increased Olig2+ cells, whereas NT3 alone or in combination with SHH enhanced GFAP+ and Olig2+ cells relative to control. For delivery of lentivirus encoding for either factor, we identified cells at various stages of differentiation along the oligodendrocyte lineage (e.g., O4+, GalC+). Expression of NT3 enhanced myelination primarily by infiltrating Schwann cells, whereas SHH over-expression substantially increased myelination by oligodendrocytes. Gene delivery represents a promising tool to direct activation and differentiation of endogenous progenitor cells for applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:24873988

  15. Benefit of Measuring Anterior Segment Structures Using an Increased Number of Optical Coherence Tomography Images: The Chinese American Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Benjamin Y.; Israelsen, Paul; Pan, Billy X.; Wang, Dandan; Jiang, Xuejuan; Varma, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefit of analyzing an increased number of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) images on measurement values of various anterior segment parameters. Methods Subjects for this cross-sectional study were recruited from the Chinese American Eye Study (CHES), a population-based study in Los Angeles, CA. Thirty-two AS-OCT images were acquired from one eye each of 83 consecutive subjects. Sixteen parameters were analyzed in each image, including angle opening distance (AOD), angle recess area (ARA), trabecular iris space area (TISA), trabecular iris angle (TIA), scleral spur angle (SSAngle), lens vault (LV), pupillary diameter (PD), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber width (ACW), iris area (IA), and anterior chamber area (ACA). Data from 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 OCT images were averaged across subjects to calculate the range and mean of measurement values for each parameter. Results Anatomical variations were poorly captured with fewer OCT images for AOD, ARA, TISA, SSAngle, IA, and LV. For these parameters, the range and mean of measurement values obtained from one OCT image deviated from 32-image values by up to 43.9% and 13.3% of the 32-image mean, respectively. These deviations decreased when additional OCT images were analyzed. Deviations from 32-image range and mean values were less pronounced regardless of image number for PD, ACD, ACW, and ACA, measuring up to 3.5% and 5.0%, respectively. Conclusions A multi-image approach should be the standard in OCT-based studies of AOD, ARA, TISA, TIA, SSAngle, IA, and LV. PMID:27893097

  16. Multichromophoric polyphenylene dendrimers: toward brilliant light emitters with an increased number of fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Oesterling, Ingo; Müllen, Klaus

    2007-04-18

    Two routes for the introduction of highly fluorescent peryleneimide chromophores into the scaffolding of polyphenylene dendrimers via iterative Diels-Alder cycloadditions are presented. The key intermediates for the divergent dendrimer buildup were two cyclopentadienone branching units carrying two peryleneimides and two masked terminal alkynes. The difference between the two reagents is the mode of incorporation of the chromophores. In the first case, the chromophores were attached to the alpha-position of the tetraphenylcyclopentadienones. In the second case, peryleneimides are used as a "spacer" in the beta-position of the cyclopentadienones giving rise to dendrimers with extended molecular diameters (up to 12 nm) and 24 chromophores within their scaffold. Absorption and emission characteristics of the new multichromophoric nanoparticles were investigated and compared to those of the parent dyes. Additionally, an asymmetrically substituted first-generation dendrimer with six perylene diimide chromophores and one ester functionality is reported. The ester serves as a potential anchor group, and this nanoemitter paves the way to a multichromophoric fluorescence label. All dendrimers have good solubility in common organic solvents, high fluorescence quantum yields, and defined distances between the chromophores, making them attractive candidates for single-molecule spectroscopy.

  17. Bronchoalveolar mast cells in sarcoidosis: increased numbers and accentuation of mediator release.

    PubMed Central

    Flint, K C; Leung, K B; Hudspith, B N; Brostoff, J; Pearce, F L; Geraint-James, D; Johnson, N M

    1986-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage was carried out in 36 subjects with sarcoidosis and 20 control subjects undergoing bronchoscopy for routine diagnostic purposes. The proportion of mast cells in the lavage fluid of subjects with sarcoidosis (mean (SE) 0.84% 0.09%; p less than 0.01) when compared with that of controls (mean 0.32% (0.05%); p less than 0.01). This increase was greatest in subjects with positive gallium scans but was not correlated with the percentage recovery of lymphocytes or radiographic stage. Anti-IgE induced histamine release from the bronchoalveolar cells of 15 subjects with sarcoidosis was significantly increased at all effective doses of anti-IgE. This accentuation of histamine release was significantly greater in patients with positive gallium scans and correlated directly with the percentage recovery of lymphocytes (r = 0.7, p less than 0.005). The dose-response curve of anti-IgE induced histamine release from bronchoalveolar cells of subjects with more than 20% of lymphocytes in the lavage cell population was significantly greater than the dose-response curves of subjects with fewer than 20% of lymphocytes and of controls. PMID:2422776

  18. Stomatal numbers are sensitive to increases in CO2 from pre-industrial levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, F. I.

    1987-06-01

    Recent measurements of atmospheric CO2 levels in ice cores1 have shown that global CO2 has increased by about 60 µmol mol-1 over the past 200 years. Evidence for the response of plants in the field to this change in CO2 levels is here presented in the form of a significant change in stomatal density-an anatomical response of considerable ecophysiological importance. A 40% decrease in density of stomata was observed in herbarium specimens of leaves of eight temperate arboreal species collected over the last 200 years. This decline was confirmed for some of the species observed as herbarium specimens by experiments under controlled environmental conditions. In these an increase in the mole fraction of CO2 from 280 μmol mol-1 to the current ambient level of 340 µmol mol-1 was found to cause a decrease in stomatal density of 67%. Experiments have shown that the combination of this previously unreported response of stomatal density to the level of CO2, with the known responses of stomatal aperture2, cause water use efficiency to be much lower than expected at low levels of CO2 and over a wide range of humidities.

  19. Historical Increase in the Number of Factors Measured by Commercial Tests of Cognitive Ability: Are We Overfactoring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    A historical increase in the number of factors purportedly measured by commercial tests of cognitive ability may result from four distinct pressures including: increasingly complex models of intelligence, test publishers' desires to provide clinically useful assessment instruments with greater interpretive value, test publishers' desires to…

  20. Oribatid mite species numbers increase, densities decline and parthenogenetic species suffer during bog degradation.

    PubMed

    Seniczak, Anna; Seniczak, Stanisław; Maraun, Mark; Graczyk, Radomir; Mistrzak, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    This study compared the oribatid mites in two natural and four industrially exploited bogs. One natural bog (Zakręt, Z) was located in northeastern Poland and the other one (Toporowy Staw Niżni, TSN), in southern Poland. The four exploited bogs were also located in southern Poland and can be ranked from least to most degraded as follows: Łysa Puścizna (LP), Baligówka (B), Puścizna Mała (PM) and Kaczmarka (K). In the natural bogs, the water pH was higher than in the degraded ones, but other parameters were lower (conductivity, colour value, oxygen demand, and concentration of chlorides). In the natural bogs, the Oribatida were highly abundant (average density was 169,100 ind./m(2)), but with low species diversity and one dominating species. In bog Z the most abundant was Limnozetes foveolatus that had dominance of 75 % and in bog TSN, located at higher altitude, Trimalaconothrus maior dominated (73 %). In two degraded bogs that had still good water conditions (LP and B) the oribatid communities resembled those from the natural bogs; in LP the most abundant species was Hydrozetes lacustris and in bog B, L. foveolatus. In contrast, in two more degraded bogs (PM and K) the abundance of mites was lower (average density was 17,850 ind./m(2)), species diversity of the Oribatida was higher, and no species achieved a high dominance like in the natural bogs. Additionally, in more degraded bogs the abundance of parthenogenetic species was lower than in the natural bogs.

  1. Rapid increase in fish numbers follows creation of world's largest marine reserve network.

    PubMed

    Russ, Garry R; Cheal, Alistair J; Dolman, Andrew M; Emslie, Michael J; Evans, Richard D; Miller, Ian; Sweatman, Hugh; Williamson, David H

    2008-06-24

    No-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are much advocated as a solution to managing marine ecosystems, protecting exploited species and restoring natural states of biodiversity [1,2]. Increasingly, it is becoming clear that effective marine conservation and management at ecosystem and regional scales requires extensive networks of NTMRs [1,2]. The world's largest network of such reserves was established on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in 2004. Closing such a large area to all fishing has been socially and politically controversial, making it imperative that the effectiveness of this new reserve network be assessed. Here we report evidence, first, that the densities of the major target species of the GBR reef line fisheries were significantly higher in the new NTMRs, compared with fished sites, in just two years; and second, that the positive differences were consistent for multiple marine reserves over an unprecedented spatial scale (>1,000 km).

  2. Dietary Resistant Starch Supplementation Increases High-Density Lipoprotein Particle Number in Pigs Fed a Western Diet.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Todd C; Harding, Scott V; Raslawsky, Amy; Rempel, Curtis B

    2017-05-04

    Resistant starch (RS) has been well characterized for its glycemic control properties; however, there is little consensus regarding the influence of RS on blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein distribution and size. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the effect of daily RS supplementation in a controlled capsule delivery on biomarkers of cardiovascular (blood lipids, lipoproteins) and diabetes (glucose, insulin) risk in a pig model. Twelve 8-week-old male Yorkshire pigs were placed on a synthetic Western diet and randomly divided into two groups (n = 6/group) for 30 days: (1) a placebo group supplemented with capsules containing unmodified pre-gelatinized potato starch (0 g/RS/day); and (2) an RS group supplemented with capsules containing resistant potato starch (10 g/RS/day). Serum lipids including total-cholesterol (C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides did not differ (p > 0.05) between the RS and placebo groups. Although the total numbers of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles were similar (p > 0.05) between the two groups, total high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles were higher (+28%, p < 0.05) in the RS group compared with placebo, resulting from an increase (p < 0.05) in the small HDL subclass particles (+32%). Compared with the placebo group, RS supplementation lowered (p < 0.05) fasting serum glucose (-20%) and improved (p < 0.05) insulin resistance as estimated by Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) without a change in insulin. Additionally, total serum glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) was higher (+141%, p < 0.05) following RS supplementation compared with placebo. This data suggests that in addition to the more well-characterized effect of RS intake in lowering blood glucose and improving insulin sensitivity, the consumption of RS may be beneficial in lipid management strategies by enhancing total

  3. Comparison of quantitative flow cytometric data provided by panels with lower and increased color number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocsi, József; Mittag, Anja; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Baumgartner, Adolf; Dähnert, Ingo; Tárnok, Attila

    2012-03-01

    To date the flow cytometry (FCM) industry is booming with new generations of commercial clinical instruments. Long-term clinical studies have the dilemma that moving to new instruments being capable of more complex cell-analysis makes it difficult to compare new data with those obtained on older instruments with less complex analysis panels. Since 15 years we conduct follow-up studies on children with congenital heart diseases. In this period we moved from 2- to 3- and now to 10-color FCM immunophenotyping panels. Questions arise how to compare and transfer data from lower to higher level of complexity. Two comparable antibody panels for leukocyte immunophenotyping (12-tube 2-colors, and 9-tube 4-colors) were measured on a BD FACScalibur FCM (calibration: Spherotech beads) in 19 blood samples from children with congenital heart disease. This increase of colors was accompanied by moving antibodies that were in the 2-color panel either FITC or PE labeled to red dyes such as PerCP or APC. Algorithms were developed for bridging data for quantitative characterization of antigen expression (mean fluorescence intensity) and frequency of different cell subpopulations in combination with rainbow bead standard data. This approach worked for the most relevant antibodies (CD3, CD4, CD8 etc.) well, but rendered substantial uncertainty for activation markers (CD69 etc.). Our techniques are particularly well suited to the analysis in long-term studies and have the potential to compare older and recent results in a standardized way.

  4. Marshak Lectureship: Women in Physics: Increasing in Number, and What Else?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza-Montes, Lilia

    2013-03-01

    Latin America is a region with high contrasts. With abundant natural resources and home of several celebrities among the wealthiest in the world, the zone has elevated indexes of poverty. In spite of this, and mostly thanks to the continuing intense efforts of the scientific community, it has been possible to create many excellence research centers. In contrast, illiteracy and lack of access to information and communication technologies are widely spread across our countries. Attitudes toward women have even coined a term, machismo. The situation of female physicists in this scenario is analyzed. We present a statistical overview of the participation of women as students or researchers in physics and related areas, for countries where data are available. Initiatives and ongoing programs to support and promote participation of women in science are discussed. Beyond statistics, some comments are given, as expressed by colleagues about work environment and gender issues in general, which have been collected through several years of exchanging concerns on the topic. Mexico and Brazil are discussed in more detail. Finally, we propose some joint actions to increase and improve the participation of women in our scientific field, which will give rise to better conditions for us but will also contribute to building a more equitable and developed region. Member of IUPAP Working Group on Women in Physics.

  5. 75 FR 37742 - Addition of New Export Control Classification Number 6A981 Passive Infrasound Sensors to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... Classification Number 6A981 Passive Infrasound Sensors to the Commerce Control List of the Export Administration... Control List (CCL) to control passive infrasound sensors because of their military and commercial utility... CONTACT: James Thompson, Sensors and Aviation Division, Bureau of Industry and Security, Telephone:...

  6. The numbers game: Campylobacter survival in poultry products through the pH effects of polyphosphate additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter species are responsible for the largest number of food-borne gastrointestinal bacterial infections in the developed world. Poultry products are a primary pathway for the introduction of Campylobacter into the food supply. Undercooked poultry products and the cross-contamination of ot...

  7. Increased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Roosje, P J; van Kooten, P J; Thepen, T; Bihari, I C; Rutten, V P; Koeman, J P; Willemse, T

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize T cells in the skin of cats with an allergic dermatitis histologically compatible with atopic dermatitis, since T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in humans. We observed a significantly greater number of T cells in lesional skin of domestic short-haired cats with allergic dermatitis (n = 10; median age 5.8 years) than in the skin of healthy control animals (n = 10; median age 5.0 years). In the skin of the healthy control animals, one or two CD4+ cells and no CD8+ cells were found. A predominant increase of CD4+ T cells and a CD4+/CD8+ ratio (mean +/- SD: 3.9 +/- 2.0) was found in the lesional skin of 10 cats with allergic dermatitis. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio in the skin of healthy control animals could not be determined because of the absence of CD8+ cells. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio in the peripheral blood of 10 cats with allergic dermatitis (mean +/- SD: 1.9 +/- 0.4) did not differ significantly from that in 10 healthy control animals (2.2 +/- 0.4). The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and predominance of CD4+ T cells in the lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis is comparable to that found in atopic dermatitis in humans. In addition, the observed increase of CD4+ T cells in the nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis compared to the skin of healthy cats is similar to what is seen in humans. Cytokines produced by T cells and antigen-specific T cells are important mediators in the inflammatory cascade resulting in atopic dermatitis in humans. This study is a first step to investigate their role in feline allergic dermatitis.

  8. The QTL GNP1 Encodes GA20ox1, Which Increases Grain Number and Yield by Increasing Cytokinin Activity in Rice Panicle Meristems

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Xue-Fei; Shan, Jun-Xiang; Xu, Jian-Long

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinins and gibberellins (GAs) play antagonistic roles in regulating reproductive meristem activity. Cytokinins have positive effects on meristem activity and maintenance. During inflorescence meristem development, cytokinin biosynthesis is activated via a KNOX-mediated pathway. Increased cytokinin activity leads to higher grain number, whereas GAs negatively affect meristem activity. The GA biosynthesis genes GA20oxs are negatively regulated by KNOX proteins. KNOX proteins function as modulators, balancing cytokinin and GA activity in the meristem. However, little is known about the crosstalk among cytokinin and GA regulators together with KNOX proteins and how KNOX-mediated dynamic balancing of hormonal activity functions. Through map-based cloning of QTLs, we cloned a GA biosynthesis gene, Grain Number per Panicle1 (GNP1), which encodes rice GA20ox1. The grain number and yield of NIL-GNP1TQ were significantly higher than those of isogenic control (Lemont). Sequence variations in its promoter region increased the levels of GNP1 transcripts, which were enriched in the apical regions of inflorescence meristems in NIL-GNP1TQ. We propose that cytokinin activity increased due to a KNOX-mediated transcriptional feedback loop resulting from the higher GNP1 transcript levels, in turn leading to increased expression of the GA catabolism genes GA2oxs and reduced GA1 and GA3 accumulation. This rebalancing process increased cytokinin activity, thereby increasing grain number and grain yield in rice. These findings uncover important, novel roles of GAs in rice florescence meristem development and provide new insights into the crosstalk between cytokinin and GA underlying development process. PMID:27764111

  9. DUF1220 copy number is linearly associated with increased cognitive function as measured by total IQ and mathematical aptitude scores.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jonathon M; Searles, Veronica B; Anderson, Nathan; Keeney, Jonathon; Raznahan, Armin; Horwood, L John; Fergusson, David M; Kennedy, Martin A; Giedd, Jay; Sikela, James M

    2015-01-01

    DUF1220 protein domains exhibit the greatest human lineage-specific copy number expansion of any protein-coding sequence in the genome, and variation in DUF1220 copy number has been linked to both brain size in humans and brain evolution among primates. Given these findings, we examined associations between DUF1220 subtypes CON1 and CON2 and cognitive aptitude. We identified a linear association between CON2 copy number and cognitive function in two independent populations of European descent. In North American males, an increase in CON2 copy number corresponded with an increase in WISC IQ (R (2) = 0.13, p = 0.02), which may be driven by males aged 6-11 (R (2) = 0.42, p = 0.003). We utilized ddPCR in a subset as a confirmatory measurement. This group had 26-33 copies of CON2 with a mean of 29, and each copy increase of CON2 was associated with a 3.3-point increase in WISC IQ (R (2) = 0.22, p = 0.045). In individuals from New Zealand, an increase in CON2 copy number was associated with an increase in math aptitude ability (R (2) = 0.10 p = 0.018). These were not confounded by brain size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report a replicated association between copy number of a gene coding sequence and cognitive aptitude. Remarkably, dosage variations involving DUF1220 sequences have now been linked to human brain expansion, autism severity and cognitive aptitude, suggesting that such processes may be genetically and mechanistically inter-related. The findings presented here warrant expanded investigations in larger, well-characterized cohorts.

  10. Testosterone and trenbolone enanthate increase mature myostatin protein expression despite increasing skeletal muscle hypertrophy and satellite cell number in rodent muscle.

    PubMed

    Dalbo, V J; Roberts, M D; Mobley, C B; Ballmann, C; Kephart, W C; Fox, C D; Santucci, V A; Conover, C F; Beggs, L A; Balaez, A; Hoerr, F J; Yarrow, J F; Borst, S E; Beck, D T

    2017-04-01

    The androgen-induced alterations in adult rodent skeletal muscle fibre cross-sectional area (fCSA), satellite cell content and myostatin (Mstn) were examined in 10-month-old Fisher 344 rats (n = 41) assigned to Sham surgery, orchiectomy (ORX), ORX + testosterone (TEST; 7.0 mg week(-1) ) or ORX + trenbolone (TREN; 1.0 mg week(-1) ). After 29 days, animals were euthanised and the levator ani/bulbocavernosus (LABC) muscle complex was harvested for analyses. LABC muscle fCSA was 102% and 94% higher in ORX + TEST and ORX + TREN compared to ORX (p < .001). ORX + TEST and ORX + TREN increased satellite cell numbers by 181% and 178% compared to ORX, respectively (p < .01), with no differences between conditions for myonuclear number per muscle fibre (p = .948). Mstn protein was increased 159% and 169% in the ORX + TEST and ORX + TREN compared to ORX (p < .01). pan-SMAD2/3 protein was ~30-50% greater in ORX compared to SHAM (p = .006), ORX + TEST (p = .037) and ORX + TREN (p = .043), although there were no between-treatment effects regarding phosphorylated SMAD2/3. Mstn, ActrIIb and Mighty mRNAs were lower in ORX, ORX + TEST and ORX + TREN compared to SHAM (p < .05). Testosterone and trenbolone administration increased muscle fCSA and satellite cell number without increasing myonuclei number, and increased Mstn protein levels. Several genes and signalling proteins related to myostatin signalling were differentially regulated by ORX or androgen therapy.

  11. The number of preproghrelin mRNA expressing cells is increased in mice with activity-based anorexia.

    PubMed

    François, Marie; Barde, Swapnali; Achamrah, Najate; Breton, Jonathan; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Coëffier, Moïse; Hökfelt, Tomas; Déchelotte, Pierre; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2015-06-01

    Plasma levels of ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, are increased during conditions of chronic starvation, such as in patients with anorexia nervosa. However, it is not known whether such increase can be related to the number of preproghrelin mRNA-expressing cells in the stomach, and if chronic starvation may activate a tentative central ghrelin production. In this work, in situ hybridization technique was used to analyze the presence and number of preproghrelin mRNA-expressing cells in the stomach and the hypothalamus of mice with activity-based anorexia (ABA) induced by the combination of running wheel activity with progressive, during 10 days, feeding-time restriction (FTR) and compared with sedentary FTR, ABA pair-fed (PF) and ad libitum-fed control mice. All food-restricted mice lost more than 20% of body weight. Body weight loss was similar in ABA and PF mice, but it was more pronounced than in FTR mice. Food intake was also lower in ABA than in FTR mice. Preproghrelin mRNA-expressing cells in the stomach were increased proportionally to the body weight loss in all food-restricted groups with the highest number in ABA mice. No preproghrelin mRNA-producing cells were detectable in the hypothalamus of either control or food-restricted mice. Thus, the increased number of gastric preproghrelin mRNA-producing cells during chronic starvation proportionally to the body weight loss and reduced food intake may underlie increased plasma ghrelin. Hyperactivity-induced anorexia appears to further increase the number of preproghrelin mRNA-producing cells in the stomach. No evidence was found for ghrelin expression in the hypothalamus, not even in any of the present experimental models.

  12. Lead acid battery performance and cycle life increased through addition of discrete carbon nanotubes to both electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugumaran, Nanjan; Everill, Paul; Swogger, Steven W.; Dubey, D. P.

    2015-04-01

    Contemporary applications are changing the failure mechanisms of lead acid batteries. Sulfation at the negative electrode, acid stratification, and dendrite formation now precede positive electrode failures such as grid corrosion and active material shedding. To attenuate these failures, carbon has been explored as a negative electrode additive to increase charge acceptance, eliminate sulfation, and extend cycle life. Frequently, however, carbon incorporation decreases paste density and hinders manufacturability. Discrete carbon nanotubes (dCNT), also known as Molecular Rebar®, are lead acid battery additives which can be stably incorporated into either electrode to increase charge acceptance and cycle life with no change to paste density and without impeding the manufacturing process. Here, full-scale automotive batteries containing dCNT in the negative electrode or both negative and positive electrodes are compared to control batteries. dCNT batteries show little change to Reserve Capacity, improved Cold Cranking, increased charge acceptance, and enhanced overall system efficiency. Life cycle tests show >60% increases when dCNT are incorporated into the negative electrode (HRPSoC/SBA) and up to 500% when incorporated into both electrodes (SBA), with water loss per cycle reduced >20%. Failure modes of cycled batteries are discussed and a hypothesis of dCNT action is introduced: the dCNT/Had Overcharge Reaction Mechanism.

  13. Increasing the number of discrete character states for continuous characters generates well-resolved trees that do not reflect phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Bardin, Jérémie; Rouget, Isabelle; Yacobucci, Margaret Mary; Cecca, Fabrizio

    2014-08-01

    Since the introduction of the cladistic method in systematics, continuous characters have been integrated into analyses but no methods for their treatment have received unanimous support. Some methods require a large number of character states to discretise continuous characters in order to keep the maximum level of information about taxa differences within the coding scheme. Our objective was to assess the impact of increasing the character state number on the outcomes of phylogenetic analyses. Analysis of a variety of simulated datasets shows that these methods for coding continuous characters can lead to the generation of well-resolved trees that do not reflect a phylogenetic signal. We call this phenomenon the flattening of the tree-length distribution; it is influenced by both the relative quantity of continuous characters in relation to discrete characters, and the number of characters in relation to the number of taxa. Bootstrap tests provide a method to avoid this potential bias.

  14. Potential Impact of Increased Numbers of Physicians upon Physician Behavior, Access to, and Cost of, Medical Care. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, Gerald L.

    A study that forecast the consequences of the projected growth in the number of practicing U.S. physicians during the 1980s and beyond is summarized. Attention was directed to the potential impact of the increasing supply of physicians on physician behavior, the cost of medical services, and access to services. Econometric modeling and analysis of…

  15. An Enriched Research Experience for Minority Undergraduates--A Step toward Increasing the Number of Minority Nurse Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Jennifer; Goeppinger, Jean; Funk, Sandra; Roland, E. Joyce

    2003-01-01

    A partnership between a research university and a minority-serving institution created a research enrichment and apprenticeship program for minority nursing students. The program provides students an opportunity to experience nursing research with the goal of increasing the number of minority researchers in nursing. (Contains 11 references.) (JOW)

  16. Nelfinavir monotherapy increases naïve T-cell numbers in HIV-negative healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Rizza, Stacey R; Tangalos, Eric G; McClees, Mark D; Strausbauch, Michael A; Targonski, Paul V; McKean, David J; Wettstein, Peter J; Badley, Andrew D

    2008-01-01

    Although patients treated with HIV protease inhibitor (PI) containing regimens manifest increases in naïve T cell number, it is unclear whether this is due to reduction in viral replication or a direct drug effect. We questioned whether Nelfinavir monotherapy directly impacted naïve T-cell number in HIV-negative individuals. HIV-negative volunteers received Nelfinavir, 1250 mg orally, BID for 3 weeks, and T-cell receptor recombination excision circles (TREC) content in peripheral blood were assessed. Whereas TREC copies did not change over 3 weeks in untreated controls, TREC copies/copies CCR5 increased following Nelfinavir monotherapy in 8 patients (p < 0.02), and did not change in 7 patients (p = NS). Those patients who responded were younger than those who did not with a median age of 55 years for responders and 71 years for non-responders (p < 0.03). The increase in TREC was most pronounced in those patients less than 40-years old (p < 0.01). Moreover, the patients who did not increase TREC levels were more likely to have suffered a medical illness previously shown to reduce thymic function. In HIV-negative patients, monotherapy with the HIV PI Nelfinavir for 21 days increases TREC-positive naïve T cell number, particularly in individuals who are healthy and young.

  17. Increasing positive ion number densities below the peak of ion-electron pair production in Titan's ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Vigren, E.; Galand, M.; Shebanits, O.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Geppert, W. D.; Lavvas, P.; Vuitton, V.

    2014-05-01

    We combine derived ion-electron pair formation rates with Cassini Radio Plasma Wave Science Langmuir Probe measurements of electron and positive ion number densities in Titan's sunlit ionosphere. We show that positive ion number densities in Titan's sunlit ionosphere can increase toward significantly lower altitudes than the peak of ion-electron pair formation despite that the effective ion-electron recombination coefficient increases. This is explained by the increased mixing ratios of negative ions, which are formed by electron attachment to neutrals. While such a process acts as a sink for free electrons, the positive ions become longer-lived as the rate coefficients for ion-anion neutralization reactions are smaller than those for ion-electron dissociative recombination reactions.

  18. Intensive removal of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from rivers increases numbers and taxon richness of macroinvertebrate species

    PubMed Central

    Moorhouse, Tom P; Poole, Alison E; Evans, Laura C; Bradley, David C; Macdonald, David W

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species are a major cause of species extinction in freshwater ecosystems, and crayfish species are particularly pervasive. The invasive American signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus has impacts over a range of trophic levels, but particularly on benthic aquatic macroinvertebrates. Our study examined the effect on the macroinvertebrate community of removal trapping of signal crayfish from UK rivers. Crayfish were intensively trapped and removed from two tributaries of the River Thames to test the hypothesis that lowering signal crayfish densities would result in increases in macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness. We removed 6181 crayfish over four sessions, resulting in crayfish densities that decreased toward the center of the removal sections. Conversely in control sections (where crayfish were trapped and returned), crayfish density increased toward the center of the section. Macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness were inversely correlated with crayfish densities. Multivariate analysis of the abundance of each taxon yielded similar results and indicated that crayfish removals had positive impacts on macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness but did not alter the composition of the wider macroinvertebrate community. Synthesis and applications: Our results demonstrate that non-eradication-oriented crayfish removal programmes may lead to increases in the total number of macroinvertebrates living in the benthos. This represents the first evidence that removing signal crayfish from riparian systems, at intensities feasible during control attempts or commercial crayfishing, may be beneficial for a range of sympatric aquatic macroinvertebrates. PMID:24634733

  19. Muscle excursion does not correlate with increased serial sarcomere number after muscle adaptation to stretched tendon transfer.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Ward, Samuel R; Fridén, Jan; Lieber, Richard L

    2012-11-01

    Chronic skeletal muscle stretch typically increases serial muscle fiber sarcomere number. Since serial sarcomere number correlates with functional excursion in normal muscle, observed changes in sarcomere number are often extrapolated to their new assumed function. However, this has not been well demonstrated experimentally. Thus, we measured the functional properties of muscles stretched due to tendon transfer surgery. Muscle active and passive length-tension curves were measured 1 week and 4 weeks after surgery, and then each muscle was further examined to determine structural adaptation as well as single fiber and fiber bundle passive mechanical properties. We found a disconnect between the functional and structural muscle properties. Specifically, muscle excursion was significantly lower in the transferred muscle compared to controls, even though serial sarcomere number had increased. Furthermore, maximum tetanic tension was significantly reduced, though the two groups had similar physiological cross sectional areas. Passive tension increased in the transferred muscle, which was deemed to be due to proliferation of extracellular matrix. These data are the first to report that muscle morphological adaptation after chronic stretch does not accurately predict the muscle's functional properties. These data have significant implications for examining muscle physiological properties under surgical interventions.

  20. An automatic braking system that stabilizes leukocyte rolling by an increase in selectin bond number with shear.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Springer, T A

    1999-01-11

    Wall shear stress in postcapillary venules varies widely within and between tissues and in response to inflammation and exercise. However, the speed at which leukocytes roll in vivo has been shown to be almost constant within a wide range of wall shear stress, i.e., force on the cell. Similarly, rolling velocities on purified selectins and their ligands in vitro tend to plateau. This may be important to enable rolling leukocytes to be exposed uniformly to activating stimuli on endothelium, independent of local hemodynamic conditions. Wall shear stress increases the rate of dissociation of individual selectin-ligand tether bonds exponentially (, ) thereby destabilizing rolling. We find that this is compensated by a shear-dependent increase in the number of bonds per rolling step. We also find an increase in the number of microvillous tethers to the substrate. This explains (a) the lack of firm adhesion through selectins at low shear stress or high ligand density, and (b) the stability of rolling on selectins to wide variation in wall shear stress and ligand density, in contrast to rolling on antibodies (). Furthermore, our data successfully predict the threshold wall shear stress below which rolling does not occur. This is a special case of the more general regulation by shear of the number of bonds, in which the number of bonds falls below one.

  1. Awns reduce grain number to increase grain size and harvestable yield in irrigated and rainfed spring wheat

    PubMed Central

    Rebetzke, G. J.; Bonnett, D. G.; Reynolds, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variation in ear morphology is linked to differences in photosynthetic potential to influence grain yield in winter cereals. Awns contribute to photosynthesis, particularly under water-limited conditions when canopy assimilation is restricted. We assessed performance of up to 45 backcross-derived, awned–awnletted NILs representing four diverse genetic backgrounds in 25 irrigated or rainfed, and droughted environments in Australia and Mexico. Mean environment grain yields were wide-ranging (1.38–7.93 t ha−1) with vegetative and maturity biomass, plant height, anthesis date, spike number, and harvest index all similar (P >0.05) for awned and awnletted NILs. Overall, grain yields of awned–awnletted sister-NILs were equivalent, irrespective of yield potential and genetic background. Awnletted wheats produced significantly more grains per unit area (+4%) and per spike (+5%) reflecting more fertile spikelets and grains in tertiary florets. Increases in grain number were compensated for by significant reductions in grain size (–5%) and increased frequency (+0.8%) of small, shrivelled grains (‘screenings’) to reduce seed-lot quality of awnletted NILs. Post-anthesis canopies of awnletted NILs were marginally warmer over all environments (+0.27 °C) but were not different and were sometimes cooler than awned NILs at cooler air temperatures. Awns develop early and represented up to 40% of total spikelet biomass prior to ear emergence. We hypothesize that the allocation of assimilate to large and rapidly developing awns decreases spikelet number and floret fertility to reduce grain number, particularly in distal florets. Individual grain size is increased to reduce screenings and to increase test weight and milling quality, particularly in droughted environments. Despite the average reduction in grain size, awnless lines could be identified that combined higher grain yield with larger grain size, increased grain protein concentration, and reduced

  2. Meat and bone meal and mineral feed additives may increase the risk of oral prion disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; McKenzie, Debbie; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer-sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 μm and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion-contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition.

  3. Meat and bone meal and mineral feed additives may increase the risk of oral prion disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; McKenzie, D.; Pedersen, J.A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer-sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 ??m and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion-contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition. Copyright ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  4. MEAT AND BONE MEAL AND MINERAL FEED ADDITIVES MAY INCREASE THE RISK OF ORAL PRION DISEASE TRANSMISSION

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christopher J.; McKenzie, Debbie; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer–sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 μm and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion–contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition. PMID:21218345

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat protein increases the number of inhibitory synapses between hippocampal neurons in culture.

    PubMed

    Hargus, Nicholas J; Thayer, Stanley A

    2013-11-06

    Synaptodendritic damage correlates with cognitive decline in many neurodegenerative diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Because HIV-1 does not infect neurons, viral-mediated toxicity is indirect, resulting from released neurotoxins such as the HIV-1 protein transactivator of transcription (Tat). We compared the effects of Tat on inhibitory and excitatory synaptic connections between rat hippocampal neurons using an imaging-based assay that quantified clusters of the scaffolding proteins gephyrin or PSD95 fused to GFP. Tat (24 h) increased the number of GFP-gephyrin puncta and decreased the number of PSD95-GFP puncta. The effects of Tat on inhibitory and excitatory synapse number were mediated via the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and subsequent Ca(2+) influx through GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors (NMDARs). The effects of Tat on synapse number required cell-autonomous activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Ca(2+) buffering experiments suggested that loss of excitatory synapses required activation of CaMKII in close apposition to the NMDAR, whereas the increase in inhibitory synapses required Ca(2+) diffusion to a more distal site. The increase in inhibitory synapses was prevented by inhibiting the insertion of GABAA receptors into the membrane. Synaptic changes induced by Tat (16 h) were reversed by blocking either GluN2B-containing NMDARs or neuronal nitric oxide synthase, indicating changing roles for pathways activated by NMDAR subtypes during the neurotoxic process. Compensatory changes in the number of inhibitory and excitatory synapses may serve as a novel mechanism to reduce network excitability in the presence of HIV-1 neurotoxins; these changes may inform the development of treatments for HAND.

  6. The Stepwise Increase in the Number of Transcription Factor Families in the Precambrian Predated the Diversification of Plants On Land.

    PubMed

    Catarino, Bruno; Hetherington, Alexander J; Emms, David M; Kelly, Steven; Dolan, Liam

    2016-11-01

    The colonization of the land by streptophytes and their subsequent radiation is a major event in Earth history. We report a stepwise increase in the number of transcription factor (TF) families and subfamilies in Archaeplastida before the colonization of the land. The subsequent increase in TF number on land was through duplication within existing TF families and subfamilies. Almost all subfamilies of the Homeodomain (HD) and basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) had evolved before the radiation of extant land plant lineages from a common ancestor. We demonstrate that the evolution of these TF families independently followed similar trends in both plants and metazoans; almost all extant HD and bHLH subfamilies were present in the first land plants and in the last common ancestor of bilaterians. These findings reveal that the majority of innovation in plant and metazoan TF families occurred in the Precambrian before the Phanerozoic radiation of land plants and metazoans.

  7. Study of wavelength division multiplexing as a means of increasing the number of channels in multimode fiber optic communication links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Harry

    1990-01-01

    A number of optical communication lines are now in use at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the transmission of voice, computer data, and video signals. Presently, all of these channels utilize a single carrier wavelength centered near 1300 nm. The theoretical bandwidth of the fiber far exceeds the utilized capacity. Yet, practical considerations limit the usable bandwidth. The fibers have the capability of transmitting a multiplicity of signals simultaneously in each of two separate bands (1300 and 1550 nm). Thus, in principle, the number of transmission channels can be increased without installing new cable if some means of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) can be utilized. The main goal of these experiments was to demonstrate that a factor of 2 increase in bandwidth utilization can share the same fiber in both a unidirectional configuration and a bidirectional mode of operation. Both signal and multimode fiber are installed at KSC. The great majority is multimode; therefore, this effort concentrated on multimode systems.

  8. Enriched environment increases the total number of CNPase positive cells in the corpus callosum of middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan-Yu; Shi, Xiao-Yan; Qiu, Xuan; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Wei; Yang, Shu; Li, Chen; Cheng, Guo-Hua; Yang, Zheng-Wei; Tang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    It had been reported that enriched environment was beneficial for the brain cognition, neurons and synapses in cortex and hippocampus. With diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), several studies recently found the trained-induced larger corpus callosum. However, the effect of enriched environment on the oligodendrocytes in corpus callosum has not been explored with the unbiased stereological methods. In current study, the effect of enriched environment on the total number of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) positive cells in middle-aged rat corpus callosum was investigated by means of immunohistochemical techniques and the unbiased stereological methods. We found that, when compared to standard rats, the spatial learning capacity of enriched-environment rats was significantly increased. The total number of the CNPase positive cells in the corpus callosum of enriched-environment middle-aged rats was significantly increased when compared to standard rats. The present study provided, to the best of our knowledge, the first evidence of environmental enrichment-induced increases in the total number of CNPase positive cells in the corpus callosum of middle-aged rats.

  9. Selection for increased desiccation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster: Additive genetic control and correlated responses for other stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, A.A.; Parsons, P.A. )

    1989-08-01

    Previously we found that Drosophila melanogaster lines selected for increased desiccation resistance have lowered metabolic rate and behavioral activity levels, and show correlated responses for resistance to starvation and a toxic ethanol level. These results were consistent with a prediction that increased resistance to many environmental stresses may be genetically correlated because of a reduction in metabolic energy expenditure. Here we present experiments on the genetic basis of the selection response and extend the study of correlated responses to other stresses. The response to selection was not sex-specific and involved X-linked and autosomal genes acting additively. Activity differences contributed little to differences in desiccation resistance between selected and control lines. Selected lines had lower metabolic rates than controls in darkness when activity was inhibited. Adults from selected lines showed increased resistance to a heat shock, {sup 60}Co-gamma-radiation, and acute ethanol and acetic acid stress. The desiccation, ethanol and starvation resistance of isofemale lines set up from the F2s of a cross between one of the selected and one of the control lines were correlated. Selected and control lines did not differ in ether-extractable lipid content or in resistance to acetone, ether or a cold shock.

  10. Towards increasing the number of commands in a hybrid brain-computer interface with combination of gaze and motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Meena, Yogesh Kumar; Cecotti, Hubert; KongFatt Wong-Lin; Prasad, Girijesh

    2015-08-01

    Non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) provides a novel means of communication. This can be achieved by measuring electroencephalogram (EEG) signal over the sensory motor cortex of a person performing motor imagery (MI) tasks. However, the performance of BCI remains currently too low to be of wide practical use. A hybrid BCI system could improve the performance by combining two or more modalities such as eye tracking, and the detection of brain activity responses. In this paper, first, we propose a simultaneous hybrid BCI that combines an event-related de-synchronization (ERD) BCI and an eye tracker. Second, we aim to further improve performance by increasing the number of commands (i.e., the number of choices accessible to the user). In particular, we show a significant improvement in performance for a simultaneous gaze-MI system using a total of eight commands. The experimental task requires subjects to search for spatially located items using gaze, and select an item using MI signals. This experimental task studied visuomotor compatible and incompatible conditions. As incorporating incompatible conditions between gaze direction and MI can increase the number of choices in the hybrid BCI, our experimental task includes single-trial detection for average, compatible and incompatible conditions, using seven different classification methods. The mean accuracy for MI, and the information transfer rate (ITR) for the compatible condition is found to be higher than the average and the incompatible conditions. The results suggest that gaze-MI hybrid BCI systems can increase the number of commands, and the location of the items should be taken into account for designing the system.

  11. Imipramine treatment increases the number of hippocampal synapses and neurons in a genetic animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fenghua; Madsen, Torsten M; Wegener, Gregers; Nyengaard, Jens R

    2010-12-01

    The aim was to investigate treatment effects of the antidepressant imipramine on the markers of neuronal plasticity. We investigated changes in neuron and synapse numbers in a rat strain that displays a genetic susceptibility to depressive behavior, the Flinders Sensitive and Resistant Lines (FSL/FRL). All rats were treated with imipramine (15 mg/kg) or saline (i.p) once daily for 25 days. The volume, neuron and synapse numbers in the hippocampus were estimated using design-based stereological methods. Under untreated conditions, the volume and the number of neurons and synapses were significantly smaller in the FSL saline group (untreated "depressed" rats) compared with the FRL saline group (normal rats), showing correlation to the observed decreased immobility in the forced swim test. Imipramine treatment significantly increased the number of neurons in the granule cell layer (GCL) and spine synapses in the CA1 in the FSL imipramine group (treated "depressed" rats) compared with the FSL saline group. The neuron numbers in the GCL and Hilus showed no differences in the FSL imipramine group compared to the FRL saline group. In conclusion, baseline levels of the volume and the number of neurons and spine synapses in hippocampus were significantly smaller in the untreated FSL rats. Our findings indicate that chronic imipramine treatment reverses the suppression of neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in the hippocampus of the "depressed" FSL rats, and this occurs in correlation with behavioral effects. Our results support the neuronal plasticity hypothesis that depressive disorders may be related to impairments of structural plasticity and neuronal viability in hippocampus, furthermore, antidepressant treatment counteracts the structural impairments.

  12. Anaerobic Codigestion of Sludge: Addition of Butcher’s Fat Waste as a Cosubstrate for Increasing Biogas Production

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, E. J.; Gil, M. V.; Fernandez, C.; Rosas, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Fat waste discarded from butcheries was used as a cosubstrate in the anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge (SS). The process was evaluated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The codigestion was successfully attained despite some inhibitory stages initially present that had their origin in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and adsorption of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). The addition of a fat waste improved digestion stability and increased biogas yields thanks to the higher organic loading rate (OLR) applied to the reactors. However, thermophilic digestion was characterized by an effluent of poor quality and high VFA content. Results from spectroscopic analysis suggested the adsorption of lipid components onto the anaerobic biomass, thus disturbing the complete degradation of substrate during the treatment. The formation of fatty aggregates in the thermophilic reactor prevented process failure by avoiding the exposure of biomass to the toxic effect of high LCFA concentrations. PMID:27071074

  13. Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Steen; Aagaard, Per; Kadi, Fawzi; Tufekovic, Goran; Verney, Julien; Olesen, Jens L; Suetta, Charlotte; Kjaer, Michael

    2006-06-01

    The present study investigated the influence of creatine and protein supplementation on satellite cell frequency and number of myonuclei in human skeletal muscle during 16 weeks of heavy-resistance training. In a double-blinded design 32 healthy, male subjects (19-26 years) were assigned to strength training (STR) while receiving a timed intake of creatine (STR-CRE) (n=9), protein (STR-PRO) (n=8) or placebo (STR-CON) (n=8), or serving as a non-training control group (CON) (n=7). Supplementation was given daily (STR-CRE: 6-24 g creatine monohydrate, STR-PRO: 20 g protein, STR-CON: placebo). Furthermore, timed protein/placebo intake were administered at all training sessions. Muscle biopsies were obtained at week 0, 4, 8 (week 8 not CON) and 16 of resistance training (3 days per week). Satellite cells were identified by immunohistochemistry. Muscle mean fibre (MFA) area was determined after histochemical analysis. All training regimes were found to increase the proportion of satellite cells, but significantly greater enhancements were observed with creatine supplementation at week 4 (compared to STR-CON) and at week 8 (compared to STR-PRO and STR-CON) (P<0.01-0.05). At week 16, satellite cell number was no longer elevated in STR-CRE, while it remained elevated in STR-PRO and STR-CON. Furthermore, creatine supplementation resulted in an increased number of myonuclei per fibre and increases of 14-17% in MFA at week 4, 8 and 16 (P<0.01). In contrast, STR-PRO showed increase in MFA only in the later (16 week, +8%) and STR-CON only in the early (week 4, +14%) phases of training, respectively (P<0.05). In STR-CRE a positive relationship was found between the percentage increases in MFA and myonuclei from baseline to week 16, respectively (r=0.67, P<0.05). No changes were observed in the control group (CON). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates for the first time that creatine supplementation in combination with strength training amplifies the training

  14. Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Steen; Aagaard, Per; Kadi, Fawzi; Tufekovic, Goran; Verney, Julien; Olesen, Jens L; Suetta, Charlotte; Kjær, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of creatine and protein supplementation on satellite cell frequency and number of myonuclei in human skeletal muscle during 16 weeks of heavy-resistance training. In a double-blinded design 32 healthy, male subjects (19–26 years) were assigned to strength training (STR) while receiving a timed intake of creatine (STR-CRE) (n = 9), protein (STR-PRO) (n = 8) or placebo (STR-CON) (n = 8), or serving as a non-training control group (CON) (n = 7). Supplementation was given daily (STR-CRE: 6–24 g creatine monohydrate, STR-PRO: 20 g protein, STR-CON: placebo). Furthermore, timed protein/placebo intake were administered at all training sessions. Muscle biopsies were obtained at week 0, 4, 8 (week 8 not CON) and 16 of resistance training (3 days per week). Satellite cells were identified by immunohistochemistry. Muscle mean fibre (MFA) area was determined after histochemical analysis. All training regimes were found to increase the proportion of satellite cells, but significantly greater enhancements were observed with creatine supplementation at week 4 (compared to STR-CON) and at week 8 (compared to STR-PRO and STR-CON) (P < 0.01–0.05). At week 16, satellite cell number was no longer elevated in STR-CRE, while it remained elevated in STR-PRO and STR-CON. Furthermore, creatine supplementation resulted in an increased number of myonuclei per fibre and increases of 14–17% in MFA at week 4, 8 and 16 (P < 0.01). In contrast, STR-PRO showed increase in MFA only in the later (16 week, +8%) and STR-CON only in the early (week 4, +14%) phases of training, respectively (P < 0.05). In STR-CRE a positive relationship was found between the percentage increases in MFA and myonuclei from baseline to week 16, respectively (r = 0.67, P < 0.05). No changes were observed in the control group (CON). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates for the first time that creatine supplementation in combination with strength training amplifies

  15. Demographic population model for American shad: will access to additional habitat upstream of dams increase population sizes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima are in decline in their native range, and modeling possible management scenarios could help guide their restoration. We developed a density-dependent, deterministic, stage-based matrix model to predict the population-level results of transporting American shad to suitable spawning habitat upstream of dams on the Roanoke River, North Carolina and Virginia. We used data on sonic-tagged adult American shad and oxytetracycline-marked American shad fry both above and below dams on the Roanoke River with information from other systems to estimate a starting population size and vital rates. We modeled the adult female population over 30 years under plausible scenarios of adult transport, effective fecundity (egg production), and survival of adults (i.e., to return to spawn the next year) and juveniles (from spawned egg to age 1). We also evaluated the potential effects of increased survival for adults and juveniles. The adult female population size in the Roanoke River was estimated to be 5,224. With no transport, the model predicted a slow population increase over the next 30 years. Predicted population increases were highest when survival was improved during the first year of life. Transport was predicted to benefit the population only if high rates of effective fecundity and juvenile survival could be achieved. Currently, transported adults and young are less likely to successfully out-migrate than individuals below the dams, and the estimated adult population size is much smaller than either of two assumed values of carrying capacity for the lower river; therefore, transport is not predicted to help restore the stock under present conditions. Research on survival rates, density-dependent processes, and the impacts of structures to increase out-migration success would improve evaluation of the potential benefits of access to additional spawning habitat for American shad.

  16. p53 increase mitochondrial copy number via up-regulation of mitochondrial transcription factor A in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linhao; Zhou, Hongying; Fang, Dingzhi; Feng, Shi

    2016-01-01

    In colorectal cancer, no study has been carried out discovering the relationship among p53, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) expression and change of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number. In our study, co-expression of p53 and TFAM was observed in colon adenocarcinoma tissues, paracancerous tissues and 9 colorectal cancer cell lines. Then, a significant linear correlation was established between either p53 or TFAM expression and advanced TNM stage, positive lymph nodes and low 5-year survival rate in patients with colon adenocarcinoma. Additionally, advanced TNM stage, large tumor burden, presence of distant metastasis, and high TFAM expression were significantly related to poor overall 5-years survival. Moreover, alteration of p53 expression could change TFAM expression but TFAM could not influence p53 expression, and p53 could enhance TFAM expression via binding to TFAM promoter. While, both of p53 and TFAM expression could incrase mtDNA copy number in vitro. In conclusions, p53 might incrase mtDNA copy number through its regulation on TFAM expression via TFAMpromoter. PMID:27732955

  17. The number of Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells is increased in Helicobacter pylori gastritis and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Jang, Tae Jung

    2010-01-15

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization induces vigorous innate and specific immune responses; however, the infection is not removed, a state of chronic active gastritis persists for life if untreated. Recent studies have shown that CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress the immune response to H. pylori. Persistent H. pylori-associated gastritis is closely associated with gastric carcinogenesis. We investigated the number of Tregs in the context of H. pylori colonization in chronic gastritis, examined the relationship between it and histopathological findings and compared it with that of gastric dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. This study was based on the analysis of gastric biopsy specimens from 126 cases of H. pylori-associated gastritis, 16 cases of H. pylori-negative gastritis, 17 cases of gastric dysplasia, and 25 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma. The number of Tregs was elevated in H. pylori-associated gastritis, where it was positively correlated with the grade of chronic inflammation and the number of lymphoid follicles. It was significantly elevated in adenocarcinomas compared to chronic gastritis and gastric dysplasia. In summary, the number of Tregs is increased in H. pylori-associated gastritis and gastric cancer.

  18. Effectiveness of nitrate addition and increased oil content as methane mitigation strategies for beef cattle fed two contrasting basal diets.

    PubMed

    Troy, S M; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Roehe, R; Ross, D W; Wallace, R J; Waterhouse, A; Rooke, J A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of (1) the addition of nitrate and (2) an increase in dietary oil on methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) emissions from 2 breeds (cross-bred Charolais and purebred Luing) of finishing beef cattle receiving 2 contrasting basal diets consisting (grams per kilogram DM) of 500:500 (Mixed) and 80:920 (Concentrate) forage to concentrate ratios. Within each basal diet there were 3 treatments: (i) control treatments (mixed-CTL and concentrate-CTL) contained rapeseed meal as the protein source, which was replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (mixed-NIT and concentrate-NIT) supplying 21.5 g nitrate/kg DM, or (iii) rapeseed cake (mixed-RSC and concentrate-RSC) to increase dietary oil from 27 (CTL) to 53 g/kg DM (RSC). Following adaption to diets, CH4 and H2 emissions were measured on 1 occasion from each of the 76 steers over a 13-wk period. Dry matter intakes tended (P = 0.051) to be greater for the concentrate diet than the mixed diet; however, when expressed as grams DMI per kilogram BW, there was no difference between diets (P = 0.41). Dry matter intakes for NIT or RSC did not differ from CTL. Steers fed a concentrate diet produced less CH4 and H2 than those fed a mixed diet (P < 0.001). Molar proportions of acetate (P < 0.001) and butyrate (P < 0.01) were lower and propionate (P < 0.001) and valerate (P < 0.05) higher in the rumen fluid from steers fed the concentrate diet. For the mixed diet, CH4 yield (grams per kilogram DMI) was decreased by 17% when nitrate was added (P < 0.01), while H2 yield increased by 160% (P < 0.001). The addition of RSC to the mixed diet decreased CH4 yield by 7.5% (P = 0.18). However, for the concentrate diet neither addition of nitrate (P = 0.65) nor increasing dietary oil content (P = 0.46) decreased CH4 yield compared to concentrate-CTL. Molar proportions of acetate were higher (P < 0.001) and those of propionate lower (P < 0.01) in rumen fluid from NIT treatments compared to

  19. Low number of luminance levels in the luminance noise increases color discrimination thresholds estimated with pseudoisochromatic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Souza, Givago S; Malone, Felecia L; Crawford, Teera L; Miquilini, Letícia; Salomão, Raílson C; Guimarães, Diego L; Ventura, Dora F; Fitzgerald, Malinda E C; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L

    2014-01-01

    In pseudoisochromatic stimuli the presence of spatial and luminance noise forces the subject to discriminate the target from the background solely on the basis of chromaticity difference. Color-blind subjects may show difficulty to identify the target due to the elimination of borders and brightness clues caused by the luminance and spatial noise. Few studies have fully described the features of pseudoisochromatic stimuli. Fewer investigators have focused their studies in the effects of specific pseudoisochromatic parameters on color discrimination. We used the Cambridge Color Test (CCT) to investigate the influence on color discrimination thresholds due to the number of luminance levels present in the luminance noise. The CCT default has six luminance steps; however, in our investigation a total of eight different conditions were tested from 2 to 16 luminance steps. It was found that the CCT provided very robust values for color discrimination thresholds, which were degraded only for very small number of luminance steps. When the number of steps was increased, the color discrimination thresholds improved from 2 to 6 luminance steps and gradually reached a plateau for 10 or more luminance steps. The area of color discrimination ellipses as a function of luminance steps matches the relative proportion of ineffective contrasts between mosaic patches as a function of luminance steps, assuming that contrast becomes ineffective for values 18.6% or less. The lower number of color and luminance interactions in these conditions could explain the measured increase of color discrimination thresholds. The primary conclusion from this investigation was that results from pseudoisochromatic tests should have their parameters described in more detail. This type of description would allow a better understanding of the results provided, interpretations, and therefore cross study comparison of results obtained from different laboratories.

  20. Low number of luminance levels in the luminance noise increases color discrimination thresholds estimated with pseudoisochromatic stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Givago S.; Malone, Felecia L.; Crawford, Teera L.; Miquilini, Letícia; Salomão, Raílson C.; Guimarães, Diego L.; Ventura, Dora F.; Fitzgerald, Malinda E. C.; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L.

    2014-01-01

    In pseudoisochromatic stimuli the presence of spatial and luminance noise forces the subject to discriminate the target from the background solely on the basis of chromaticity difference. Color-blind subjects may show difficulty to identify the target due to the elimination of borders and brightness clues caused by the luminance and spatial noise. Few studies have fully described the features of pseudoisochromatic stimuli. Fewer investigators have focused their studies in the effects of specific pseudoisochromatic parameters on color discrimination. We used the Cambridge Color Test (CCT) to investigate the influence on color discrimination thresholds due to the number of luminance levels present in the luminance noise. The CCT default has six luminance steps; however, in our investigation a total of eight different conditions were tested from 2 to 16 luminance steps. It was found that the CCT provided very robust values for color discrimination thresholds, which were degraded only for very small number of luminance steps. When the number of steps was increased, the color discrimination thresholds improved from 2 to 6 luminance steps and gradually reached a plateau for 10 or more luminance steps. The area of color discrimination ellipses as a function of luminance steps matches the relative proportion of ineffective contrasts between mosaic patches as a function of luminance steps, assuming that contrast becomes ineffective for values 18.6% or less. The lower number of color and luminance interactions in these conditions could explain the measured increase of color discrimination thresholds. The primary conclusion from this investigation was that results from pseudoisochromatic tests should have their parameters described in more detail. This type of description would allow a better understanding of the results provided, interpretations, and therefore cross study comparison of results obtained from different laboratories. PMID:25566106

  1. Genomic mosaicism with increased amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene copy number in single neurons from sporadic Alzheimer's disease brains

    PubMed Central

    Bushman, Diane M; Kaeser, Gwendolyn E; Siddoway, Benjamin; Westra, Jurgen W; Rivera, Richard R; Rehen, Stevens K; Yung, Yun C; Chun, Jerold

    2015-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that individual neurons of the brain can display somatic genomic mosaicism of unknown function. In this study, we report altered genomic mosaicism in single, sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) neurons characterized by increases in DNA content and amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene copy number. AD cortical nuclei displayed large variability with average DNA content increases of ∼8% over non-diseased controls that were unrelated to trisomy 21. Two independent single-cell copy number analyses identified amplifications at the APP locus. The use of single-cell qPCR identified up to 12 copies of APP in sampled neurons. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes targeting APP, combined with super-resolution microscopy detected primarily single fluorescent signals of variable intensity that paralleled single-cell qPCR analyses. These data identify somatic genomic changes in single neurons, affecting known and unknown loci, which are increased in sporadic AD, and further indicate functionality for genomic mosaicism in the CNS. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05116.001 PMID:25650802

  2. Increasing the Number of Underrepresented Minorities in Astronomy Through K-12 Education and Public Outreach (Paper II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Dara; Ernst, David J.; Agueros, Marcel; Anderson, Scott F.; Baker, Andrew; Burgasser, Adam; Cruz, Kelle; Gawiser, Eric; Krishnamurthi, Anita; Lee, Hyun-chul; Mighell, Kenneth; McGruder, Charles; Norman, Dara; Sakimoto, Philip J.; Sheth, Karthik; Soderblom, Dave; Strauss, Michael; Walter, Donald; West, Andrew; Agol, Eric; Murphy, Jeremiah; Garner, Sarah; Bellovary, Jill; Schmidt, Sarah; Cowan, Nick; Gogarten, Stephanie; Stilp, Adrienne; Christensen, Charlotte; Hilton, Eric; Haggard, Daryl; Loebman, Sarah; Rosenfield, Phil; Munshi, Ferah

    In order to attract, recruit and retain underrepresented minority students to pursue Astronomy and related fields, we must ensure that there continues to be a well qualified pool of graduate and undergraduate students from which to recruit. This required pool of people are today's elementary, middle and high school students. The Astronomy community must be proactive in demonstrating the importance of pursing scientific study and careers to these students and their parents. Only by actively engaging these communities can U.S Astronomy hope to increase the numbers of minority PhDs and continue to be a leader in Astronomical discovery and knowledge.

  3. International Airport Impacts to Air Quality: Size and Related Properties of Large Increases in Ultrafine Particle Number Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hudda, N; Fruin, S A

    2016-04-05

    We measured particle size distributions and spatial patterns of particle number (PN) and particle surface area concentrations downwind from the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) where large increases (over local background) in PN concentrations routinely extended 18 km downwind. These elevations were mostly comprised of ultrafine particles smaller than 40 nm. For a given downwind distance, the greatest increases in PN concentrations, along with the smallest mean sizes, were detected at locations under the landing jet trajectories. The smaller size of particles in the impacted area, as compared to the ambient urban aerosol, increased calculated lung deposition fractions to 0.7-0.8 from 0.5-0.7. A diffusion charging instrument (DiSCMini), that simulates alveolar lung deposition, measured a fivefold increase in alveolar-lung deposited surface area concentrations 2-3 km downwind from the airport (over local background), decreasing steadily to a twofold increase 18 km downwind. These ratios (elevated lung-deposited surface area over background) were lower than the corresponding ratios for elevated PN concentrations, which decreased from tenfold to twofold over the same distance, but the spatial patterns of elevated concentrations were similar. It appears that PN concentration can serve as a nonlinear proxy for lung deposited surface area downwind of major airports.

  4. Investigation at Mach Numbers of 0.20 to 3.50 of a Blended Diamond Wing and Body Combination of Sonic Design but with Low Wave-Drag Increase with Increasing Mach Number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdaway, George H.; Mellenthin, Jack A.; Hatfield, Elaine W.

    1959-01-01

    A diamond wing and body combination was designed to have an area distribution which would result in near optimum zero-lift wave-drag coefficients at a Mach number of 1.00, and decreasing wave-drag coefficient with increasing Mach number up to near sonic leading-edge conditions for the wing. The airfoil section were computed by varying their shape along with the body radii (blending process) to match the selected area distribution and the given plan form. The exposed wing section had an average maximum thickness of about 3 percent of the local chords, and the maximum thickness of the center-line chord was 5.49 percent. The wing had an aspect ratio of 2 and a leading-edge sweep of 45 deg. Test data were obtained throughout the Mach number range from 0.20 to 3.50 at Reynolds numbers based on the mean aerodynamic chord of roughly 6,000,000 to 9,000,000. The zero-lift wave-drag coefficients of the diamond model satisfied the design objectives and were equal to the low values for the Mach number 1.00 equivalent body up to the limit of the transonic tests. From the peak drag coefficient near M = 1.00 there was a gradual decrease in wave-drag coefficient up to M = 1.20. Above sonic leading-edge conditions of the wing there was a rise in the wave-drag coefficient which was attributed in part to the body contouring as well as to the wing geometry. The diamond model had good lift characteristics, in spite of the prediction from low-aspect-ratio theory that the rear half of the diamond wing would carry little lift. The experimental lift-curve slope obtained at supersonic speeds were equal to or greater than the values predicted by linear theory. Similarly the other basic aerodynamic parameters, aerodynamic center position, and maximum lift-drag ratios were satisfactorily predicted at supersonic speeds.

  5. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes increases with copy number in multiple cancer types

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular process through which epithelial cells transform into mesenchymal cells. EMT-implicated genes initiate and promote cancer metastasis because mesenchymal cells have greater invasive and migration capacities than epithelial cells. In this pan-cancer analysis, we explored the relationship between gene expression changes and copy number variations (CNVs) for EMT-implicated genes. Based on curated 377 EMT-implicated genes from the literature, we identified 212 EMT-implicated genes associated with more frequent copy number gains (CNGs) than copy number losses (CNLs) using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Then by correlating these CNV data with TCGA gene expression data, we identified 71 EMT-implicated genes with concordant CNGs and gene up-regulation in 20 or more tumor samples. Of those, 14 exhibited such concordance in over 110 tumor samples. These 14 genes were predominantly apoptosis regulators, which may implies that apoptosis is critical during EMT. Moreover, the 71 genes with concordant CNG and up-regulation were largely involved in cellular functions such as phosphorylation cascade signaling. This is the first observation of concordance between CNG and up-regulation of specific genes in hundreds of samples, which may indicate that somatic CNGs activate gene expression by increasing the gene dosage. PMID:27029057

  6. Formation Of Transparent Exopolymeric Particles (TEP) In Mesocosms Under Increasing Turbulence Levels With And Without Additional Nutrients.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvais, S.; Pedrotti, Ml.

    Transparent Exopolymeric Particles (TEP) are formed abiotically by spontaneous co- agulation of the colloidal fraction of dissolved organic polysaccharides released via phytoplankton and bacteria exudation. Their importance in the vertical fluxes of or- ganic matter in coastal and pelagic ecosystems is now well recognised. However, their production as a function of the environment features has yet to be investigated. Evolu- tion of TEP formation was followed during a two week mesocosm experiment under 4 several turbulence levels and with or without added nutrients. This study was per- formed in the framework of EC-ELOISE-NATP project. The results showed a rapid formation of TEP 24h after the phytoplankton bloom occurred. This suggests that TEP consist of fresh organic material, derived from biological process, such as phyto- plankton blooms. Their abundance increased with time in mesocosms with additional nutrients indicating that phytoplankton cells were actively exuding the precursors. The C/N ratio of particualte organic matter (POM) in mesocosms enriched with nutrients was highly correlated with TEP abundance, it confirms that TEP can have a strong impact on the biogeochemical fluxes in oceans, in particular on the carbon cycle. TEP were more abundant in the mesocosms with the highest turbulence intensity. It sug- gests that the effect of turbulence could promote encounter rates between particles increasing coagulation processes. Even if biological processes are of primary impor- tance in TEP production, this study also highlights the role of physical processes in their formation dynamics. The role of TEP in the microbial food web will be also discussed.

  7. Dicarboxylic acids with limited numbers of hydrocarbons stabilize cell membrane and increase osmotic resistance in rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Hitoshi; Amita, Nozomi; Kawawake, Megumi; Higuchi, Ayaka

    2013-11-01

    We examined the effect of dicarboxylic acids having 0 to 6 hydrocarbons and their corresponding monocarboxylic or tricarboxylic acids in changing the osmotic fragility (OF) in rat red blood cells (RBCs). Malonic, succinic, glutaric and adipic acids, which are dicarboxylic acids with 1, 2, 3 and 4 straight hydrocarbons located between two carboxylic groups, decreased the OF in a concentration-dependent manner. Other long-chain dicarboxylic acids did not change the OF in rat RBCs. The benzoic acid derivatives, isophthalic and terephthalic acids, but not phthalic acid, decreased the OF in a concentration-dependent manner. Benzene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, but not benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid, also decreased the OF in rat RBCs. On the other hand, monocarboxylic acids possessing 2 to 7 straight hydrocarbons and benzoic acid increased the OF in rat RBCs. In short-chain dicarboxylic acids, a limited number of hydrocarbons between the two carboxylic groups are thought to form a V- or U-shaped structure and interact with phospholipids in the RBC membrane. In benzene dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids, a part of benzene nucleus between the two carboxylic groups is thought to enter the plasma membrane and act on acyl-chain in phospholipids in the RBC membrane. For dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids, limited numbers of hydrocarbons in molecules are speculated to enter the RBC membrane with the hydrophilic carboxylic groups remaining outside, stabilizing the structure of the cell membrane and resulting in an increase in osmotic resistance in rat RBCs.

  8. Numerical investigation about the effect of increasing the number of forming passes on the quality of AHSS roll formed products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badr, Ossama Mamdouh; Rolfe, Bernard; Hodgson, Peter; Weiss, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Over recent years, roll forming has gained an increasing interest for the manufacture of structural components made of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) sheets. It is an incremental forming technique where the material is bent into the desired shape by feeding it through a number of roll forming stands. Springback is a major concern in forming of AHSS, and springback is lower in roll forming when compared to that in single step and multi-step bending. Some experimental studies suggest that this is may be due to the incremental nature of the roll forming process. In this study the effect of forming passes/steps on springback is numerically analyzed for DP 780 by means of FEA - Abaqus standard. The cyclic hardening characteristics of DP780 were determined by the pure bending test. The hardening model generated from bend data set was imported into Abaqus. The effect forming pattern on the springback was analyzed by forming a V-section shaped profile (15 mm forming radius). The numerical results show that there is a reduction in springback with increasing number of forming passes in the roll forming process, and that this may be the result of straining experienced by the sheet during the multi-step roll forming. This study seems to provide a greater insight into understanding the nature of springback with the forming passes and process design.

  9. C-kit overexpression correlates with KIT gene copy numbers increases in phyllodes tumors of the breast.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junjun; Liu, Xiaozhen; Feng, Xiaolong; Liu, Jian; Lv, Shuhua; Zhang, Wei; Niu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    We determined c-kit expression in the stroma and epithelia of benign, borderline, and malignant phyllodes tumors (PTs), respectively, as well as the relationship between c-kit expression in stromal elements and KIT gene copy number variations (CNVs). To assess c-kit expression and KIT CNVs, 348 PT cases were studied: 120 (34.4 %) benign cases, 115 (33.1 %) borderline cases, and 113 (32.5 %) malignant cases. All of these cases were evaluated for c-kit (CD117) expression using immunohistochemistry. Forty-two cases (29 c-kit-positive in the stromal cells cases and 13 negative cases) were investigated for KIT gene CNVs via genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall rate of c-kit positivity in the stroma was 46.8 %, as well as 24.2, 53.1, and 64.6 %, respectively, in PTs of three different grades. However, in the majority of cases, the epithelia were c-kit positive (98.2 %), and the positivity was 100, 99.1, and 95 % in PTs of three different grades, respectively. There was a significant change in the expression of c-kit in the stroma and epithelia according to grade (P < 0.001, P = 0.014). From the genomic PCR results, we can confirm that c-kit positivity in the stroma is directly correlated with KIT gene copy numbers increases (P = 0.003, P = 0.041). We demonstrated that c-kit expression in the stroma of PTs is positively associated with malignancy. c-Kit epithelial positivity was inversely correlated with PTs malignancy. c-Kit overexpression in the stroma was related to KIT gene copy numbers increases.

  10. Increased levels of prolactin receptor expression correlate with the early onset of lupus symptoms and increased numbers of transitional-1 B cells after prolactin treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prolactin is secreted from the pituitary gland and other organs, as well as by cells such as lymphocytes. Prolactin has an immunostimulatory effect and is associated with autoimmune diseases that are characterised by abnormal B cell activation, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Our aim was to determine if different splenic B cell subsets express the prolactin receptor and if the presence of prolactin influences these B cell subsets and correlates with development of lupus. Results Using real-time PCR and flow cytometry, we found that different subsets of immature (transitional) and mature (follicular, marginal zone) B cells express different levels of the prolactin receptor and are differentially affected by hyperprolactinaemia. We found that transitional B cells express the prolactin receptor at higher levels compared to mature B cells in C57BL/6 mice and the lupus-prone MRL/lpr and MRL mouse strains. Transitional-1 (T1) B cells showed a higher level of prolactin receptor expression in both MRL/lpr and MRL mice compared to C57BL/6 mice. Hyperprolactinaemia was induced using metoclopramide, which resulted in the development of early symptoms of SLE. We found that T1 B cells are the main targets of prolactin and that prolactin augments the absolute number of T1 B cells, which reflects the finding that this B cell subpopulation expresses the highest level of the prolactin receptor. Conclusions We found that all B cell subsets express the prolactin receptor but that transitional B cells showed the highest prolactin receptor expression levels. Hyperprolactinaemia in mice susceptible to lupus accelerated the disease and increased the absolute numbers of T1 and T3 B cells but not of mature B cells, suggesting a primary effect of prolactin on the early stages of B cell maturation in the spleen and a role of prolactin in B cell differentiation, contributing to SLE onset. PMID:22404893

  11. Standard Addition Quantitative Real-Time PCR (SAQPCR): A Novel Approach for Determination of Transgene Copy Number Avoiding PCR Efficiency Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Changqing; Wang, Weiwei; Grierson, Donald; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been previously applied to estimate transgene copy number in transgenic plants. However, the results can be erroneous owing to inaccurate estimation of PCR efficiency. Here, a novel qPCR approach, named standard addition qPCR (SAQPCR), was devised to accurately determine transgene copy number without the necessity of obtaining PCR efficiency data. The procedures and the mathematical basis for the approach are described. A recombinant plasmid harboring both the internal reference gene and the integrated target gene was constructed to serve as the standard DNA. It was found that addition of suitable amounts of standard DNA to test samples did not affect PCR efficiency, and the guidance for selection of suitable cycle numbers for analysis was established. Samples from six individual T0 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were analyzed by SAQPCR, and the results confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The approach produced accurate results and required only small amounts of plant tissue. It can be generally applied to analysis of different plants and transgenes. In addition, it can also be applied to zygosity analysis. PMID:23308234

  12. Vitamin A Supplementation in Early Life Enhances the Intestinal Immune Response of Rats with Gestational Vitamin A Deficiency by Increasing the Number of Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xia; Cui, Ting; Li, Yingying; Wang, Yuting; Wang, Qinghong; Li, Xin; Bi, Yang; Wei, Xiaoping; Liu, Lan; Li, Tingyu; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A is a critical micronutrient for regulating immunity in many organisms. Our previous study demonstrated that gestational or early-life vitamin A deficiency decreases the number of immune cells in offspring. The present study aims to test whether vitamin A supplementation can restore lymphocyte pools in vitamin A-deficient rats and thereby improve the function of their intestinal mucosa; furthermore, the study aimed to identify the best time frame for vitamin A supplementation. Vitamin A-deficient pregnant rats or their offspring were administered a low-dose of vitamin A daily for 7 days starting on gestational day 14 or postnatal day 1, day 14 or day 28. Serum retinol concentrations increased significantly in all four groups that received vitamin A supplementation, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The intestinal levels of secretory immunoglobulin A and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor increased significantly with lipopolysaccharide challenge in the rats that received vitamin A supplementation starting on postnatal day 1. The rats in this group had higher numbers of CD8+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, CD11C+ dendritic cells in the Peyer's patches and CD4+CD25+ T cells in the spleen compared with the vitamin A-deficient rats; flow cytometric analysis also demonstrated that vitamin A supplementation decreased the number of B cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Additionally, vitamin A supplementation during late gestation increased the numbers of CD8+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and decreased the numbers of B lymphocytes in the mesenteric lymph nodes. However, no significant differences in lymphocyte levels were found between the rats in the other two vitamin A supplement groups and the vitamin A-deficient group. In conclusion, the best recovery of a subset of lymphocytes in the offspring of gestational vitamin A-deficient rats and the greatest improvement in the intestinal mucosal immune response are achieved when

  13. Increase in numbers of beta-lactam-resistant invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Brazil and the impact of conjugate vaccine coverage.

    PubMed

    Brandileone, Maria-Cristina C; Casagrande, Silvana Tadeu; Guerra, Maria-Luiza L S; Zanella, Rosemeire Cobo; Andrade, Ana-Lucia S S; Di Fabio, José-Luis

    2006-05-01

    A comprehensive investigation of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae was carried out in Brazil as part of the programme of the national epidemiological surveillance system. The investigation provided data on the trends of resistance to antimicrobial agents. A total of 6470 isolates of S. pneumoniae collected in the country from 1993 to 2004 were tested. During this period of time, the number of penicillin-resistant strains rose from 10.2 to 27.9%. The proportions of intermediate and high-level resistant strains in 1993, which were 9.1 and 1.1%, respectively, rose to 22.0 and 5.9% in 2004. Geometric mean MICs for penicillin increased after the year 2000, to 0.19 microg ml(-1) in 2004; most of these isolates were from patients with pneumonia and from children under 5 years old, and belonged to serotype 14. There was a significant increase in the number of isolates belonging to serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine from children under 5 years old: from 48.6% in 1993 to 69.6% in 2004, mainly related to an increase in the frequency of serotype 14 isolates. From 2000 to 2004, meningitis isolates showed higher resistance rates to cefotaxime (2.6%) compared to non-meningitis isolates (0.7%); percentages of isolates resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and rifampicin were 65, 14.6, 6.2, 1.3 and 0.7 %, respectively. No levoflaxin resistance was observed. Multidrug resistance was identified in 4.6% of isolates, of which 3.8% were resistant to three classes, 0.7% to four classes and 0.1% to five classes of antimicrobial agent. The study provides valuable information that may support empirical antimicrobial therapy for severe S. pneumoniae infections in Brazil, and emphasizes the need for conjugate pneumococcal vaccination.

  14. Decreased number of interneurons and increased seizures in neuropilin 2 deficient mice: Implications for autism and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gant, John C.; Thibault, Oliver; Blalock, Eric M.; Yang, Jun; Bachstetter, Adam; Kotick, James; Schauwecker, Paula E.; Hauser, Kurt F.; Smith, George M.; Mervis, Ron; Li, YanFang; Barnes, Gregory N.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Purpose Clinically, perturbations in the semaphorin signaling system have been associated with autism and epilepsy. The semaphorins have been implicated in guidance, migration, differentiation, and synaptic plasticity of neurons. The semaphorin 3F (Sema3F) ligand and its receptor, neuropilin 2 (NPN2) are highly expressed within limbic areas. NPN2 signaling may intimately direct the apposition of presynaptic and postsynaptic locations, facilitating the development and maturity of hippocampal synaptic function. To further understand the role of NPN2 signaling in central nevous system (CNS) plasticity, structural and functional alterations were assessed in NPN2 deficient mice. Methods In NPN2 deficient mice, we measured seizure susceptibility after kainic acid or pentylenetetrazol, neuronal excitability and synaptic throughput in slice preparations, principal and interneuron cell counts with immunocytochemical protocols, synaptosomal protein levels with immunoblots, and dendritic morphology with Golgi-staining. Results NPN2 deficient mice had shorter seizure latencies, increased vulnerability to seizure-related death, were more likely to develop spontaneous recurrent seizure activity after chemical challenge, and had an increased slope on input/output curves. Principal cell counts were unchanged, but GABA, parvalbumin, and neuropeptide Y interneuron cell counts were significantly reduced. Synaptosomal NPN2 protein levels and total number of GABAergic synapses were decreased in a gene dose-dependent fashion. CA1 pyramidal cells showed reduced dendritic length and complexity, as well as an increased number of dendritic spines. Discussion These data suggest the novel hypothesis that the Sema 3F signaling system's role in appropriate placement of subsets of hippocampal interneurons has critical downstream consequences for hippocampal function, resulting in a more seizure susceptible phenotype. PMID:18657176

  15. Antigen-Induced Increases in Pulmonary Mast Cell Progenitor Numbers Depend on IL-9 and CD1d-Restricted NKT Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Tatiana G.; Hallgren, Jenny; Humbles, Alison; Burwell, Timothy; Finkelman, Fred D.; Alcaide, Pilar; Austen, K. Frank; Gurish, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary mast cell progenitor (MCp) numbers increase dramatically in sensitized and aerosolized Ag-challenged mice. This increase depends on CD4+ T cells, as no MCp increase occurs in the lungs of sensitized wild-type (WT) mice after mAb depletion of CD4+ but not CD8+ cells before aerosol Ag challenge. Neither the genetic absence of IL-4, IL-4Rα chain, STAT-6, IFN-γ, or IL-12p40 nor mAb blockade of IFN-γ, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-12p40, or IL-12p40Rβ1 before Ag challenge in WT mice reduces the pulmonary MCp increase. However, sensitized and Ag-challenged IL-9-deficient mice and sensitized WT mice given mAb to IL-9 just before Ag challenge show significant reductions in elicited lung MCp/106 mononuclear cells of 47 and 66%, respectively. CD1d-deficient mice and WT mice receiving anti-CD1d before Ag challenge also show significant reductions of 65 and 59%, respectively, in elicited lung MCp/106 mononuclear cells, revealing an additional requirement for MCp recruitment. However, in Jα18-deficient mice, which lack only type 1 or invariant NKT cells, the increase in the numbers of lung MCp with Ag challenge was intact, indicating that their recruitment must be mediated by type 2 NKT cells. Furthermore, anti-CD1d treatment of IL-9-deficient mice or anti-IL-9 treatment of CD1d-deficient mice does not further reduce the significant partial impairment of MCp recruitment occurring with a single deficiency. These findings implicate type 2 NKT cells and IL-9 as central regulators that function in the same pathway mediating the Ag-induced increase in numbers of pulmonary MCp. PMID:19783672

  16. Cholecalciferol Additively Reduces Serum Parathyroid Hormone and Increases Vitamin D and Cathelicidin Levels in Paricalcitol-Treated Secondary Hyperparathyroid Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jing-Quan; Hou, Yi-Chou; Zheng, Cai-Mei; Lu, Chien-Lin; Liu, Wen-Chih; Wu, Chia-Chao; Huang, Ming-Te; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Lu, Kuo-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Active Vitamin D analogues are used clinically for prevention and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Nutritional vitamin D supplementation is used for additional local parathyroid (PTH) suppression, with lower incidence of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. This study evaluates the possible beneficial effects of combined vitamin D treatment (paricalcitol and cholecalciferol). Methods: Sixty HD patients with serum parathyroid hormone (iPTH) >300 pg/mL were enrolled. All patients administered 2 mcg/day of paricalcitol and were randomly allocated into control group (placebo) or study group (cholecalciferol) for 16 weeks. Serum 25(OH)D3, iPTH and human cathelicidin (hCAP-18) were measured at baseline and during follow-up. Results: iPTH levels decreased in the study group appropriately and were more significantly decreased at 16 weeks. Study group had significantly increased 25(OH)D3 levels. In addition, the study group had significantly increased serum hCAP-18 levels compared with control group. Correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between the percentage increase in serum hCAP-18 and 25(OH)D3 levels. Conclusions: Cholecalciferol, in combination with paricalcitol, additively lowers the iPTH levels in a significant number of patients after 16 weeks of supplementation. A dose of 5000 IU/week of cholecalciferol could maintain serum 25(OH)D3 levels above 30 ng/dL as early as 8 weeks after beginning supplementation. Doubling of serum cathelicidin levels were noted after 16 weeks of cholecalciferol supplementation in 40% of study patients. PMID:27827962

  17. Determining the number of isomers in X-, XY-, XYZ-, and XYZU-substituted D2 d allenes: Additive schemes for calculating enthalpies of vaporization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilov, D. Yu.; Smolyakov, V. M.

    2015-02-01

    Using Pólya's theorem, cycle indices are derived that identify the chiral and achiral substitution isomers of an allene (1,2-propadiene). Equations of symmetry that allow us to determine the number of isomers in a series and arrange the isomers according to families, depending on the number of substitution sites, are obtained. Eight- and nine-constant additive schemes based on the similarity between subgraphs in the molecular graphs (MGs) of a series of 120 molecules of X-, XY-, XYZ-, and XYZU-substituted allenes and the expansion of polygonal numbers (triangular, tetrahedral, and others) of a Pascal triangle are devised. Enthalpies of vaporization L NBP are calculated for 21 XY- and 120 XYZU-substituted allenes, respectively, not yet studied experimentally. It is shown that each coefficient of the scheme (the number of ways for superpositioning subgraphs with lengths i 1, i 2, ⋯ on molecular graphs of allene) is a result of partitioning triangular, tetrahedral, or four-dimensional tetrahedral numbers of a Pascal triangle.

  18. Mass spectrometry analyses of κ and λ fractions result in increased number of complementarity-determining region identifications.

    PubMed

    Broodman, Ingrid; de Costa, Dominique; Stingl, Christoph; Dekker, Lennard J M; VanDuijn, Martijn M; Lindemans, Jan; van Klaveren, Rob J; Luider, Theo M

    2012-01-01

    Sera from lung cancer patients contain antibodies against tumor-associated antigens. Specific amino acid sequences of the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) in the antigen-binding fragment (Fab) of these antibodies have potential as lung cancer biomarkers. Detection and identification of CDRs by mass spectrometry can significantly be improved by reduction of the complexity of the immunoglobulin molecule. Our aim was to molecular dissect IgG into κ and λ fragments to reduce the complexity and thereby identify substantially more CDRs than by just total Fab isolation. We purified Fab, Fab-κ, Fab-λ, κ and λ light chains from serum from 10 stage I lung adenocarcinoma patients and 10 matched controls from the current and former smokers. After purification, the immunoglobulin fragments were enzymatically digested and measured by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Finally, we compared the number of CDRs identified in these immunoglobulin fragments with that in the Fab fragments. Twice as many CDRs were identified when Fab-κ, Fab-λ, κ and λ (3330) were combined than in the Fab fraction (1663) alone. The number of CDRs and κ:λ ratio was statistically similar in both cases and controls. Molecular dissection of IgG identifies significantly more CDRs, which increases the likelihood of finding lung cancer-related CDR sequences.

  19. Planning for Uncertainty and Fallbacks Can Increase the Number of Transplants in a Kidney-Paired Donation Program.

    PubMed

    Bray, M; Wang, W; Song, P X-K; Leichtman, A B; Rees, M A; Ashby, V B; Eikstadt, R; Goulding, A; Kalbfleisch, J D

    2015-10-01

    A kidney-paired donation (KPD) pool consists of transplant candidates and their incompatible donors, along with nondirected donors (NDDs). In a match run, exchanges are arranged among pairs in the pool via cycles, as well as chains created from NDDs. A problem of importance is how to arrange cycles and chains to optimize the number of transplants. We outline and examine, through example and by simulation, four schemes for selecting potential matches in a realistic model of a KPD system; proposed schemes take account of probabilities that chosen transplants may not be completed as well as allowing for contingency plans when the optimal solution fails. Using data on candidate/donor pairs and NDDs from the Alliance for Paired Donation, the simulations extend over 8 match runs, with 30 pairs and 1 NDD added between each run. Schemes that incorporate uncertainties and fallbacks into the selection process yield substantially more transplants on average, increasing the number of transplants by as much as 40% compared to a standard selection scheme. The gain depends on the degree of uncertainty in the system. The proposed approaches can be easily implemented and provide substantial advantages over current KPD matching algorithms.

  20. Olfactory sensory deprivation increases the number of proBDNF-immunoreactive mitral cells in the olfactory bulb of mice.

    PubMed

    Biju, K C; Mast, Thomas Gerald; Fadool, Debra Ann

    2008-12-05

    In the olfactory bulb, apoptotic cell-death induced by sensory deprivation is restricted to interneurons in the glomerular and granule cell layers, and to a lesser extent in the external plexiform layer, whereas mitral cells do not typically undergo apoptosis. With the goal to understand whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mediates mitral cell survival, we performed unilateral naris occlusion on mice at postnatal day one (P1) and examined the subsequent BDNF-immunoreactive (BDNF-ir) profile of the olfactory bulb at P20, P30, and P40. Ipsilateral to the naris occlusion, there was a significant increase in the number of BDNF-ir mitral cells per unit area that was independent of the duration of the sensory deprivation induced by occlusion. The number of BDNF-ir juxtaglomerular cells per unit area, however, was clearly diminished. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of primarily proBDNF in the olfactory bulb. These data provide evidence for a neurotrophic role of proBDNF in the olfactory system of mice and suggest that proBDNF may act to protect mitral cells from the effects of apoptotic changes induced by odor sensory deprivation.

  1. Strength in numbers: high parasite burdens increase transmission of a protozoan parasite of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus).

    PubMed

    de Roode, Jacobus C; Chi, Jean; Rarick, Rachel M; Altizer, Sonia

    2009-08-01

    Parasites often produce large numbers of offspring within their hosts. High parasite burdens are thought to be important for parasite transmission, but can also lower host fitness. We studied the protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, a common parasite of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), to quantify the benefits of high parasite burdens for parasite transmission. This parasite is transmitted vertically when females scatter spores onto eggs and host plant leaves during oviposition; spores can also be transmitted between mating adults. Monarch larvae were experimentally infected and emerging adult females were mated and monitored in individual outdoor field cages. We provided females with fresh host plant material daily and quantified their lifespan and lifetime fecundity. Parasite transmission was measured by counting the numbers of parasite spores transferred to eggs and host plant leaves. We also quantified spores transferred from infected females to their mating partners. Infected monarchs had shorter lifespans and lower lifetime fecundity than uninfected monarchs. Among infected females, those with higher parasite loads transmitted more parasite spores to their eggs and to host plant leaves. There was also a trend for females with greater parasite loads to transmit more spores to their mating partners. These results demonstrate that high parasite loads on infected butterflies confer a strong fitness advantage to the parasite by increasing between-host transmission.

  2. Increased expression and copy number amplification of LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposable elements in murine mammary carcinoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Gualtieri, Alberto; Andreola, Federica; Sciamanna, Ilaria; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Serafino, Annalucia; Spadafora, Corrado

    2013-01-01

    In higher eukaryotic genomes, Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons and endogenous retroviruses represent large families of repeated elements encoding reverse transcriptase (RT) proteins. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element B1 (SINE B1) retrotrasposons do not encode RT, but use LINE-1-derived RT for their retrotransposition. We previously showed that many cancer types have an abundant endogenous RT activity. Inhibition of that activity, by either RNA interference-dependent silencing of active LINE-1 elements or by RT inhibitory drugs, reduced proliferation and promoted differentiation in cancer cells, indicating that LINE-1-encoded RT is required for tumor progression. Using MMTV-PyVT transgenic mice as a well-defined model of breast cancer progression, we now report that both LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposons are up-regulated at a very early stage of tumorigenesis; LINE-1-encoded RT product and enzymatic activity were detected in tumor tissues as early as stage 1, preceding the widespread appearance of histological alterations and specific cancer markers, and further increased in later progression stages, while neither was present in non-pathological breast tissues. Importantly, both LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposon families undergo copy number amplification during tumor progression. These findings therefore indicate that RT activity is distinctive of breast cancer cells and that, furthermore, LINE-1 and SINE B1 undergo copy number amplification during cancer progression. PMID:24231191

  3. Increased expression and copy number amplification of LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposable elements in murine mammary carcinoma progression.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Alberto; Andreola, Federica; Sciamanna, Ilaria; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Serafino, Annalucia; Spadafora, Corrado

    2013-11-01

    In higher eukaryotic genomes, Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons and endogenous retroviruses represent large families of repeated elements encoding reverse transcriptase (RT) proteins. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element B1 (SINE B1) retrotrasposons do not encode RT, but use LINE-1-derived RT for their retrotransposition. We previously showed that many cancer types have an abundant endogenous RT activity. Inhibition of that activity, by either RNA interference-dependent silencing of active LINE-1 elements or by RT inhibitory drugs, reduced proliferation and promoted differentiation in cancer cells, indicating that LINE-1-encoded RT is required for tumor progression. Using MMTV-PyVT transgenic mice as a well-defined model of breast cancer progression, we now report that both LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposons are up-regulated at a very early stage of tumorigenesis; LINE-1-encoded RT product and enzymatic activity were detected in tumor tissues as early as stage 1, preceding the widespread appearance of histological alterations and specific cancer markers, and further increased in later progression stages, while neither was present in non-pathological breast tissues. Importantly, both LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposon families undergo copy number amplification during tumor progression. These findings therefore indicate that RT activity is distinctive of breast cancer cells and that, furthermore, LINE-1 and SINE B1 undergo copy number amplification during cancer progression.

  4. Increasing the number of African American PhDs in the sciences and engineering: a strengths-based approach.

    PubMed

    Maton, Kenneth I; Hrabowski, Freeman A

    2004-09-01

    Fifty years after Brown v. Board of Education, the percentage of African American students who receive PhDs in natural science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) fields remains disappointingly low. A multifaceted, strengths-based approach to intervention and research that holds great promise for increasing the number of African American students who achieve at the highest levels academically is described. This work began in 1988 with the development of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program for undergraduate minority STEM majors at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). If current PhD receipt rates of program graduates continue, UMBC will in all likelihood become the leading predominantly White baccalaureate-origin university for Black STEM PhDs in the nation. The program is described and outcome and process findings from its ongoing evaluation are highlighted. The parenting practices that helped these youths to overcome the odds and achieve at the highest levels prior to coming to college are also examined.

  5. Effects of increasing numbers of phagocytic inclusions on human retinal pigment epithelial cells in culture: a model for aging.

    PubMed Central

    Boulton, M; Marshall, J

    1986-01-01

    Cultures of human retinal pigment epithelial cells have been challenged with a number of biological (lipofuscin, melanin, and rod outer segments) and non-biological (latex microspheres) particles at a variety of concentrations. The particles were chosen to include examples of both degradable and non-degradable systems. A range of morphological changes were observed by phase contrast microscopy, and these became more atypical with increasing concentration. At the highest concentration cells had ingested so many particles that many had died and others had ruptured. The time course of these changes indicated a relationship between cellular lytic activity and the capacity of the particle to degrade. The potential of this system as a model for studying senescence is discussed. Images PMID:3790481

  6. Increased number of cancer cells in bronchial washing fluid detected by combining conventional cytology and high-resolution flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Cicconetti, F; Teodori, L; Persiani, M; Di Tondo, U; Alò, P; Marci, A; Brun, S; Göhde, W

    1997-01-01

    The present study was performed to improve early lung cancer diagnosis in bronchial washing fluid, thereby increasing the diagnostic sensitivity of bronchoscopy by means of high-resolution flow cytometry (FC). We combined dual-parameter DNA/protein FC and conventional cytology in bronchial washing fluid samples from 112 patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic lung diseases and found 43% of histologically confirmed tumor cases to be cytologically positive; 63% of the tumor samples were aneuploid, 52% of the aneuploid cases were cytologically positive and 48% were negative. In the negative cases, FC was an independent diagnostic factor. In 32% of the cases, FC also failed to detect abnormalities. However, the combination of both techniques increased the sensitivity in detecting neoplastic cells to 73%. Furthermore, simultaneous DNA/protein analysis allowed the recognition of aneuploid cell lines not detectable by single DNA measurement. Identification of aneuploid subpopulations by dual-parameter analysis in cytologically negative one-parameter FC "diploid" samples assumes an important diagnostic value. Dual-parameter DNA/protein FC is a valuable technique that increases the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy with no risk for the patient and a low additional cost.

  7. Ablation of TSC2 Enhances Insulin Secretion by Increasing the Number of Mitochondria through Activation of mTORC1

    PubMed Central

    Koyanagi, Maki; Asahara, Shun-ichiro; Matsuda, Tomokazu; Hashimoto, Naoko; Shigeyama, Yutaka; Shibutani, Yuki; Kanno, Ayumi; Fuchita, Megumi; Mikami, Tomoko; Hosooka, Tetsutya; Inoue, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Koike, Masato; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Noda, Tetsuo; Seino, Susumu; Kasuga, Masato; Kido, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Aim We previously found that chronic tuberous sclerosis protein 2 (TSC2) deletion induces activation of mammalian target of rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) and leads to hypertrophy of pancreatic beta cells from pancreatic beta cell-specific TSC2 knockout (βTSC2−/−) mice. The present study examines the effects of TSC2 ablation on insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. Methods Isolated islets from βTSC2−/− mice and TSC2 knockdown insulin 1 (INS-1) insulinoma cells treated with small interfering ribonucleic acid were used to investigate insulin secretion, ATP content and the expression of mitochondrial genes. Results Activation of mTORC1 increased mitochondrial DNA expression, mitochondrial density and ATP production in pancreatic beta cells of βTSC2−/− mice. In TSC2 knockdown INS-1 cells, mitochondrial DNA expression, mitochondrial density and ATP production were increased compared with those in control INS-1 cells, consistent with the phenotype of βTSC2−/− mice. TSC2 knockdown INS-1 cells also exhibited augmented insulin secretory response to glucose. Rapamycin inhibited mitochondrial DNA expression and ATP production as well as insulin secretion in response to glucose. Thus, βTSC2−/− mice exhibit hyperinsulinemia due to an increase in the number of mitochondria as well as enlargement of individual beta cells via activation of mTORC1. Conclusion Activation of mTORC1 by TSC2 ablation increases mitochondrial biogenesis and enhances insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. PMID:21886784

  8. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice.

    PubMed

    Ash, Jessica A; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2014-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves spatial mapping and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial mapping followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large.

  9. Aging as an evolvability-increasing program which can be switched off by organism to mobilize additional resources for survival.

    PubMed

    Skulachev, Maxim V; Severin, Fedor F; Skulachev, Vladimir P

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, several pieces of convincing evidence were published indicating that aging of living organisms is programmed, being a particular case of programmed death of organism (phenoptosis). Among them, the following observations can be mentioned. (1) Species were described that show negligible aging. In mammals, the naked mole rat is the most impressive example. This is a rodent of mouse size living at least 10-fold longer than a mouse and having fecundity higher than a mouse and no agerelated diseases. (2) In some species with high aging rate, genes responsible for active organization of aging by poisoning of the organism with endogenous metabolites have been identified. (3) In women, standard deviations divided by the mean are the same for age of menarche (an event controlled by the ontogenetic program) and for age of menopause (an aging-related event). (4) Inhibitors of programmed cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) retard and in certain cases even reverse the development of age-dependent pathologies. (5) In aging species, the rate of aging is regulated by the individual which responds by changes in this rate to changes in the environmental conditions. In this review, we consider point (5) in detail. Data are summarized suggesting that inhibition of aging rate by moderate food restriction can be explained assuming that such restriction is perceived by the organism as a signal of future starvation. In response to this dramatic signal, the organism switches off such an optional program as aging, mobilizing in such a way additional reserves for survival. A similar explanation is postulated for geroprotective effects of heavy muscle work, a lowering or a rise in the external temperature, small amounts of metabolic poisons (hormesis), low doses of radiation, and other deleterious events. On the contrary, sometimes certain positive signals can prolong life by inhibiting the aging program in individuals who are useful for the community (e

  10. Aging As An Evolvability-Increasing Program Which Can Be Switched Off By Organism To Mobilize Additional Resources For Survival.

    PubMed

    Skulachev, Maxim V; Severin, Fedor F; Skulachev, Vladimir P

    2015-04-22

    During the last decade, several pieces of convincing evidence were published indicating that aging of living organisms is programmed, being a particular case of programmed death of organism (phenoptosis). Among them, the following observations can be mentioned [1]. Species were described that show negligible aging. In mammals, the naked mole rat is the most impressive example. This is a rodent of mouse size living at least 10-fold longer than a mouse and having fecundity higher than a mouse and no age-related diseases [2]. In some species with high aging rate, genes responsible for active organization of aging by poisoning of the organism with endogenous metabolites have been identified [3]. In women, standard deviations divided by the mean are the same for age of menarche (an event controlled by the ontogenetic program) and for age of menopause (an aging-related event) [4]. Inhibitors of programmed cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) retard and in certain cases even reverse the development of age-dependent pathologies [5]. In aging species, the rate of aging is regulated by the individual which responds by changes in this rate to changes in the environmental conditions. In this review, we consider point [5] in detail. Data are summarized suggesting that inhibition of aging rate by moderate food restriction can be explained assuming that such restriction is perceived by the organism as a signal of future starvation. In response to this dramatic signal, the organism switches off such an optional program as aging, mobilizing in such a way additional reserves for survival. A similar explanation is postulated for geroprotective effects of heavy muscle work, a lowering or a rise in the external temperature, small amounts of metabolic poisons (hormesis), low doses of radiation, and other deleterious events. On the contrary, sometimes certain positive signals can prolong life by inhibiting the aging program in individuals who are useful for the community (e

  11. Increased numbers of monocyte-derived dendritic cells during successful tumor immunotherapy with immune-activating agents.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Sabine; Hyde, Evelyn J; Yang, Jianping; Rich, Fenella J; Harper, Jacquie L; Kirman, Joanna R; Ronchese, Franca

    2013-08-15

    Local treatment with selected TLR ligands or bacteria such as bacillus Calmette-Guérin increases antitumor immune responses and delays tumor growth. It is thought that these treatments may act by activating tumor-associated dendritic cells (DCs), thereby supporting the induction of antitumor immune responses. However, common parameters of successful immune activation have not been identified. We used mouse models to compare treatments with different immune-activating agents for the ability to delay tumor growth, improve priming of tumor-specific T cells, and induce early cytokine production and DC activation. Treatment with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid or a combination of monosodium urate crystals and Mycobacterium smegmatis was effective at delaying the growth of s.c. B16 melanomas, orthotopic 4T1 mammary carcinomas, and reducing 4T1 lung metastases. In contrast, LPS, monosodium urate crystals, or M. smegmatis alone had no activity. Effective treatments required both NK1.1(+) and CD8(+) cells, and resulted in increased T cell priming and the infiltration of NK cells and CD8(+) T cells in tumors. Unexpectedly, both effective and ineffective treatments increased DC numbers and the expression of costimulatory molecules in the tumor-draining lymph node. However, only effective treatments induced the rapid appearance of a population of monocyte-derived DCs in the draining lymph node, early release of IL-12p70 and IFN-γ, and low IL-10 in the serum. These results suggest that the activation of existing DC subsets is not sufficient for the induction of antitumor immune responses, whereas early induction of Th1 cytokines and monocyte-derived DCs are features of successful activation of antitumor immunity.

  12. Increasing the Overall Quality and the Number of Women and Hispanic Geoscientists for the Workforce: Rebuilding an Undergraduate Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, M. T.; McGehee, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past ten years, the Geosciences Program at Texas A&M University-Kingsville has increased the number of Geology majors 400%, and in the past five years we have graduated 62 students, an increase of 800%. Of these graduates, 37% were Hispanic or African-American and 26% were women. Our graduates are high-achievers with 13% also graduating from the Honor's College (campus-wide rate is less than 1.5%) and that included three women and two Hispanic graduates. Two of these recent graduates are doctoral candidates and eleven are master's candidates at major universities. Of these, three master's candidates are Hispanic, including two women, and one doctoral candidate is a Hispanic woman. The recent productivity and quality changes in this program are attributed to our shift toward an undergraduate, student-centered focus. The increases in productivity resulted from the development of strong relationships with community colleges across the state and significant efforts in recruitment and retention. The major changes in quality included implementation of a strong field-oriented focus with full faculty participation, a strong undergraduate research program, a well-developed recruitment and retention plan, a GIS Certification incorporated into the geology degree, and a culture change to further student professional development. We have maintained over 50 majors in our program for the past three years through increased faculty presentations at high-schools and community colleges, a good University recruiting staff, and quarterly newsletters, focused on student achievements, sent to all prospective students and parents inquiring about the geology major. The resurgence of the oil and gas industry and the retirement of geoscientists have provided a steady stream of job opportunities for our graduates. The 79% that are not pursuing a graduate education accepted jobs after graduation. These include oil and gas entry level jobs, mining jobs, teaching jobs, and geospatial

  13. Increasing the Number of Underrepresented Minorities in Astronomy at the Undergraduate, Graduate, and Postdoctoral Levels (Paper I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Dara; Ernst, David J.; Agueros, Marcel; Anderson, Scott F.; Baker, Andrew; Burgasser, Adam; Cruz, Kelle; Gawiser, Eric; Krishnamurthi, Anita; Lee, Hyun-chul; Mighell, Kenneth; McGruder, Charles; Norman, Dara; Sakimoto, Philip J.; Sheth, Karthik; Soderblom, Dave; Strauss, Michael; Walter, Donald; West, Andrew; Agol, Eric; Murphy, Jeremiah; Garner, Sarah; Bellovary, Jill; Schmidt, Sarah; Cowan, Nick; Gogarten, Stephanie; Stilp, Adrienne; Christensen, Charlotte; Hilton, Eric; Haggard, Daryl; Loebman, Sarah; Rosenfield, Phil; Munshi, Ferah

    If the ethnic makeup of the astronomy profession is to achieve parity with the general population within one generation (~30 years), the number of underrepresented minorities earning graduate degrees in astronomy and astrophysics must increase in the coming decade by a factor of 5 to 10. To accomplish this, the profession must develop and invest in mechanisms to more effectively move individuals across critical educational junctures to the PhD and beyond. Early and continuous research engagement starting in the undergraduate years is critical to this vision, in which the federally funded research internship programs (e.g. NSF REU, NASA GSRP) and national centers/observatories play a vital role. Regionally based partnerships with minority-serving institutions (MSIs) are crucial for tapping extant pools of minority talent, as are post-baccalaurate and/or masters degree "bridging" programs that provide critical stepping stones to the PhD. Because of the strong undergraduate physics, engineering, and computer science backgrounds of many students from MSIs, we suggest that instrument development and large scale computing/data-mining are particularly promising avenues for engagement in the coming decade.

  14. Acute exposure to cold rapidly increases the number of nucleotide binding sites, but not proton conductance, in BAT mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Swick, A.G.; Swick, R.W.

    1986-03-01

    Studies on the effect of acute cold exposure of rats on brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity have produced equivocal results. Therefore, the authors have reexamined the response of BAT mitochondria to abrupt changes in environmental temperature. /sup 3/H-GDP binding to BAT mitochondria increased more than 2-fold in 20 min when rats were moved from 27/sup 0/C to 4/sup 0/C. When rats housed at 4/sup 0/C for 2 h were returned to 27/sup 0/C, GDP binding decreased sharply in 20 min and returned to control levels in 2 h. On the other hand, GDP-inhibitable proton conductance, as measured by passive swelling in isotonic K-acetate of KCl buffers, was unaffected by brief cold exposure but more than doubled in rats kept at 4/sup 0/C for 10 days. The authors conclude that GDP-inhibitable swelling may be more indicative of uncoupling protein concentration whereas thermogenic activity is more appropriately indicated by GDP binding. GDP binding to BAT mitochondria from warm and acutely cold treated rats was not altered by prior swelling of the mitochondria nor by freeze-thawing the mitochondria before assay. Therefore, alterations of the number of GDP binding sites may not be a result of conformational changes of the mitochondril membrane.

  15. Increased number of IL-2, IL-2 receptor and IL-10 positive cells in premalignant lesions of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Mindiola, Raimy; Caulejas, Diana; Núñez-Troconis, José; Araujo, Mary; Delgado, Mariela; Mosquera, Jesús

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown the involvement of the immune response in the progression of human uterine cervix cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of Interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) and Interleukin 10 (IL-10) in different grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias of the exocervix (CIN 1, 2 and 3), and its relationship with the serum cytokine profiles and human papilomavirus (HPV) infection status. Indirect immunofluorescence was used to study the expression of IL-2, IL-2R and IL-10 in human cervical samples from 50 patients and 9 normal controls. Serum IL-2, IL-2R and IL-10 were measured by ELISA and HPV DNA and HPV types were identified by PCR. Increased number of IL-2, IL-2R and IL-10 positive cells were observed in the cervix from patients with CIN, associated with the grades of dysplasia. A significant correlation was observed between IL-2 and IL-2R (p>0.0001), IL-2 and IL-10 (p>0.0001), as well as IL-10 and IL-2R (p>0.0001). Twenty percent of patients were HPV positive and 84% of those patients were tissue cytokine positive. These results suggest that IL-2, IL-2R and IL-10 tissue expression may play a role in the development of cervical intraepithelial dysplasias.

  16. Exposure to Inorganic Arsenic Is Associated with Increased Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Longer Telomere Length in Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Ameer, Syeda S.; Xu, YiYi; Engström, Karin; Li, Huiqi; Tallving, Pia; Nermell, Barbro; Boemo, Analia; Parada, Luis A.; Peñaloza, Lidia G.; Concha, Gabriela; Harari, Florencia; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) through drinking water causes cancer. Alterations in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and telomere length in blood have been associated with cancer risk. We elucidated if arsenic exposure alters mtDNAcn and telomere length in individuals with different arsenic metabolizing capacity. Methods: We studied two groups in the Salta province, Argentina, one in the Puna area of the Andes (N = 264, 89% females) and one in Chaco (N = 169, 75% females). We assessed arsenic exposure as the sum of arsenic metabolites [iAs, methylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] in urine (U-As) using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Efficiency of arsenic metabolism was expressed as percentage of urinary metabolites. MtDNAcn and telomere length were determined in blood by real-time PCR. Results: Median U-As was 196 (5–95 percentile: 21–537) μg/L in Andes and 80 (5–95 percentile: 15–1637) μg/L in Chaco. The latter study group had less-efficient metabolism, with higher %iAs and %MMA in urine compared with the Andean group. U-As was significantly associated with increased mtDNAcn (log2 transformed to improve linearity) in Chaco (β = 0.027 per 100 μg/L, p = 0.0085; adjusted for age and sex), but not in Andes (β = 0.025, p = 0.24). U-As was also associated with longer telomere length in Chaco (β = 0.016, p = 0.0066) and Andes (β = 0.0075, p = 0.029). In both populations, individuals with above median %iAs showed significantly higher mtDNAcn and telomere length compared with individuals with below median %iAs. Conclusions: Arsenic was associated with increased mtDNAcn and telomere length, particularly in individuals with less-efficient arsenic metabolism, a group who may have increased risk for arsenic-related cancer. PMID:27597942

  17. Inhibition of muscle fibrosis results in increases in both utrophin levels and the number of revertant myofibers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Oshrat; Genin, Olga; Angelini, Corrado; Halevy, Orna; Pines, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is characterized by: near absence of dystrophin in skeletal muscles; low percentage of revertant myofibers; up-regulation of utrophin synthesis; and a high degree of muscle fibrosis. In patient quadriceps femoris biopsies (n = 6, ages between 3–9 years) an inverse correlation was observed between the levels of collagen type I – representing fibrosis – and the levels of utrophin. This correlation was independent of the patient's age and was observed in the entire muscle biopsy sections. In the mdx mice diaphragm (n = 6/group), inhibition of fibrosis by halofuginone resulted in increases in the levels of utrophin. The utrophin/fibrosis relationships were not limited to collagen type I, but also applied to other constituents of the fibrosis machinery. The inverse correlation was found also in old mdx mice with established fibrosis. In addition, inhibition of collagen type I levels was associated with increases in the numbers of revertant myofibers, both as single myofibers and in clusters in the diaphragm and the gastrocnemius. In summary, our results demonstrate an inverse correlation between the level of muscle fibrosis and the level of utrophin and that of the number of revertant myofibers. These findings may reveal common links between the fibrotic and utrophin-synthesis pathways and offer new insights into the regulation of utrophin synthesis. PMID:26015394

  18. Ex vivo lung perfusion to improve donor lung function and increase the number of organs available for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Valenza, Franco; Rosso, Lorenzo; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Palleschi, Alessandro; Tosi, Davide; Mendogni, Paolo; Salice, Valentina; Ruggeri, Giulia M; Fumagalli, Jacopo; Villa, Alessandro; Nosotti, Mario; Santambrogio, Luigi; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the initial clinical experience of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) at the Fondazione Ca' Granda in Milan between January 2011 and May 2013. EVLP was considered if donor PaO2 /FiO2 was below 300 mmHg or if lung function was doubtful. Donors with massive lung contusion, aspiration, purulent secretions, pneumonia, or sepsis were excluded. EVLP was run with a low-flow, open atrium and low hematocrit technique. Thirty-five lung transplants from brain death donors were performed, seven of which after EVLP. EVLP donors were older (54 ± 9 years vs. 40 ± 15 years, EVLP versus Standard, P < 0.05), had lower PaO2 /FiO2 (264 ± 78 mmHg vs. 453 ± 119 mmHg, P < 0.05), and more chest X-ray abnormalities (P < 0.05). EVLP recipients were more often admitted to intensive care unit as urgent cases (57% vs. 18%, P = 0.05); lung allocation score at transplantation was higher (79 [40-84] vs. 39 [36-46], P < 0.05). After transplantation, primary graft dysfunction (PGD72 grade 3, 32% vs. 28%, EVLP versus Standard, P = 1), mortality at 30 days (0% vs. 0%, P = 1), and overall survival (71% vs. 86%, EVLP versus Standard P = 0.27) were not different between groups. EVLP enabled a 20% increase in available donor organs and resulted in successful transplants with lungs that would have otherwise been rejected (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01967953).

  19. Ex vivo lung perfusion to improve donor lung function and increase the number of organs available for transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Valenza, Franco; Rosso, Lorenzo; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Palleschi, Alessandro; Tosi, Davide; Mendogni, Paolo; Salice, Valentina; Ruggeri, Giulia M; Fumagalli, Jacopo; Villa, Alessandro; Nosotti, Mario; Santambrogio, Luigi; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the initial clinical experience of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) at the Fondazione Ca’ Granda in Milan between January 2011 and May 2013. EVLP was considered if donor PaO2/FiO2 was below 300 mmHg or if lung function was doubtful. Donors with massive lung contusion, aspiration, purulent secretions, pneumonia, or sepsis were excluded. EVLP was run with a low-flow, open atrium and low hematocrit technique. Thirty-five lung transplants from brain death donors were performed, seven of which after EVLP. EVLP donors were older (54 ± 9 years vs. 40 ± 15 years, EVLP versus Standard, P < 0.05), had lower PaO2/FiO2 (264 ± 78 mmHg vs. 453 ± 119 mmHg, P < 0.05), and more chest X-ray abnormalities (P < 0.05). EVLP recipients were more often admitted to intensive care unit as urgent cases (57% vs. 18%, P = 0.05); lung allocation score at transplantation was higher (79 [40–84] vs. 39 [36–46], P < 0.05). After transplantation, primary graft dysfunction (PGD72 grade 3, 32% vs. 28%, EVLP versus Standard, P = 1), mortality at 30 days (0% vs. 0%, P = 1), and overall survival (71% vs. 86%, EVLP versus Standard P = 0.27) were not different between groups. EVLP enabled a 20% increase in available donor organs and resulted in successful transplants with lungs that would have otherwise been rejected (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01967953). PMID:24628890

  20. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection is associated with an increased number of Sn-positive and CD8-positive cells in the maternal-fetal interface.

    PubMed

    Karniychuk, U U; De Spiegelaere, W; Nauwynck, H J

    2013-09-01

    It is already known that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in lungs changes a local cell pattern and cytokine profile. However, there is no information about cellular and immunological events upon PRRSV infection in the maternal-fetal interface yet. The altered number and/or function of macrophages and NK cells in the maternal-fetal interface during infection may have a functional importance for virus replication. In addition, local cellular and immunological disbalance may also disrupt fragile homeostasis and contribute to the PRRSV-related reproductive disorders. Sialoadhesin (Sn)-positive macrophages are target cells for PRRSV and Sn overexpression has been observed upon chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases. It is also known that mouse Sn-positive macrophages in lymph nodes are able to closely interact with and activate NK cells in response to viral particles. Therefore, the main purpose of the present study was to examine if PRRSV infection is associated with altered Sn expression on endometrial and placental macrophages. In addition, CD8-positive cells (porcine endometrial NK cells were previously described as CD8(+)CD3(-) cells) were localized and quantified in the PRRSV-positive and control tissues. Tissue samples were obtained from three PRRSV-inoculated and three non-inoculated control sows at 100 days of gestation. Real-time RT-PCR showed a clear upregulation of Sn mRNA expression in the PRRSV-positive endometrium/placenta (p<0.05). Sn-, CD163- and CD14-specific immunofluorescence stainings revealed that PRRSV-inoculated sows had a significantly higher number of Sn-positive macrophages in the endometrium and placenta due to de novo Sn expression on local CD163-positive macrophages. Along with the increased number of Sn-positive macrophages an increased number of CD8-positive cells, which were mostly CD3-negative, was observed in the PRRSV-positive endometrium. The effects of the observed cellular changes on

  1. Increased effect of IMiDs by addition of cytokine-induced killer cells in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Bullok, Katharina F; Sippel, Christoph; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G H

    2016-12-01

    Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), such as thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide, represent the basic principle of multiple myeloma treatment. However, the development of resistance is a limiting factor. Over the last years, the efficient application of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells has been reported as an alternative strategy to treat hematological neoplasms. In this study, we tested for a potential synergistic effect by combining the IMiDs thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide with CIK cells in different myeloma cell lines in vitro. Myeloma cells tested with CIK cells were significantly reduced. In the combination, myeloma cells were significantly reduced compared with cells only tested with IMiDs but not to the cells tested with CIK cells. Otherwise, the number of CIK cells was significantly reduced when treated with IMiDs. Because IMiDs are active in patients with myeloma, these results lead to the expectation that combination of IMiDs and CIK cells achieve better results in the treatment of multiple myeloma compared with the single use of IMiDs. Therefore, further examinations in an in vivo setting are necessary to have a closer look on the cellular interactions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Canagliflozin Lowers Postprandial Glucose and Insulin by Delaying Intestinal Glucose Absorption in Addition to Increasing Urinary Glucose Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Polidori, David; Sha, Sue; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ciaraldi, Theodore P.; Ghosh, Atalanta; Vaccaro, Nicole; Farrell, Kristin; Rothenberg, Paul; Henry, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor, is also a low-potency SGLT1 inhibitor. This study tested the hypothesis that intestinal canagliflozin levels postdose are sufficiently high to transiently inhibit intestinal SGLT1, thereby delaying intestinal glucose absorption. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This two-period, crossover study evaluated effects of canagliflozin on intestinal glucose absorption in 20 healthy subjects using a dual-tracer method. Placebo or canagliflozin 300 mg was given 20 min before a 600-kcal mixed-meal tolerance test. Plasma glucose, 3H-glucose, 14C-glucose, and insulin were measured frequently for 6 h to calculate rates of appearance of oral glucose (RaO) in plasma, endogenous glucose production, and glucose disposal. RESULTS Compared with placebo, canagliflozin treatment reduced postprandial plasma glucose and insulin excursions (incremental 0- to 2-h area under the curve [AUC0–2h] reductions of 35% and 43%, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), increased 0- to 6-h urinary glucose excretion (UGE0–6h, 18.2 ± 5.6 vs. <0.2 g; P < 0.001), and delayed RaO. Canagliflozin reduced AUC RaO by 31% over 0 to 1 h (geometric means, 264 vs. 381 mg/kg; P < 0.001) and by 20% over 0 to 2 h (576 vs. 723 mg/kg; P = 0.002). Over 2 to 6 h, canagliflozin increased RaO such that total AUC RaO over 0 to 6 h was <6% lower versus placebo (960 vs. 1,018 mg/kg; P = 0.003). A modest (∼10%) reduction in acetaminophen absorption was observed over the first 2 h, but this difference was not sufficient to explain the reduction in RaO. Total glucose disposal over 0 to 6 h was similar across groups. CONCLUSIONS Canagliflozin reduces postprandial plasma glucose and insulin by increasing UGE (via renal SGLT2 inhibition) and delaying RaO, likely due to intestinal SGLT1 inhibition. PMID:23412078

  3. Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Stimulation Increase the Number of Luteinized Follicles and the Progesterone Level Compared with Cabergoline Stimulation in Anoestrus Bitches.

    PubMed

    Jurczak, A; Domosławska, A; Bukowska, B; Janowski, T

    2016-08-01

    In this study, ovarian morphologies and blood progesterone concentrations following oestrous induction in bitches were examined. Fifty-three clinically healthy anoestrus bitches received cabergoline at a daily dose of 5 μg/kg of body weight per os for 21 days (group I) or subcutaneous equine chorionic gonadotropin at a dose of 20 IU/kg of body weight for five consecutive days with an additional 500 IU s.c. per bitch of human chorionic gonadotropin on the last day of treatment (group II). Twenty bitches that spontaneously displayed oestrous signs were left untreated and served as controls (group III). The induced oestrous rates and ovulation rates in groups I and II were 60.0% vs 64.3% and 86.7% vs 83.3%, respectively. Morphological assessments of the ovarian structures after ovariohysterectomy revealed an increase in the number of luteinized follicles and cysts in group II compared with the two other groups (p < 0.001). In contrast, the numbers of corpora lutea and follicles were similar in all groups. In accordance with the above-mentioned alteration, the progesterone concentration in the gonadotropin group (II) was increased (p < 0.001) in the periovulatory period compared with the other two groups. During the entire sampling period, the progesterone profiles in the cabergoline (I) and control (III) groups were similar and typical of normally cycling bitches. In conclusion, gonadotropin treatment is associated with an increased progesterone level during the periovulatory period that probably originates from luteinized follicles, whereas cabergoline treatment induces cycles with both physiological progesterone concentrations and ovarian morphologies.

  4. Sulfate reduction in sulfuric material after re-flooding: Effectiveness of organic carbon addition and pH increase depends on soil properties.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chaolei; Fitzpatrick, Rob; Mosley, Luke M; Marschner, Petra

    2015-11-15

    Sulfuric material is formed upon oxidation of sulfidic material; it is extremely acidic, and therefore, an environmental hazard. One option for increasing pH of sulfuric material may be stimulation of bacterial sulfate reduction. We investigated the effects of organic carbon addition and pH increase on sulfate reduction after re-flooding in ten sulfuric materials with four treatments: control, pH increase to 5.5 (+pH), organic carbon addition with 2% w/w finely ground wheat straw (+C), and organic carbon addition and pH increase (+C+pH). After 36 weeks, in five of the ten soils, only treatment +C+pH significantly increased the concentration of reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) compared to the control and increased the soil pore water pH compared to treatment+pH. In four other soils, pH increase or/and organic carbon addition had no significant effect on RIS concentration compared to the control. The RIS concentration in treatment +C+pH as percentage of the control was negatively correlated with soil clay content and initial nitrate concentration. The results suggest that organic carbon addition and pH increase can stimulate sulfate reduction after re-flooding, but the effectiveness of this treatment depends on soil properties.

  5. Use deposit control additives to lower auto/engine hydrocarbon and CO emissions, even with increased combustion chamber deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Zahalka, T.L.; Kulinowski, A.M.; Malfer, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Mandated reductions in allowable emissions from spark-ignited engines have presented considerable challenges to the automotive industry. The achievement of lower emissions without a loss in vehicular performance has resulted in complicated electronic engine control strategies. As engine management systems have become more complex, the effect of deposits has become an issue with the operation of modern engines. The oil industry, in providing fuel to the ever-growing vehicle fleet, has become a partner in the emissions reduction effort. Through joint work, such as the Auto/Oil Research Program, it has been demonstrated that changes to the physical properties of the fuel can contribute to lower overall vehicle emissions. While certain fuel parameters can be adjusted to minimize emissions, the demand for gasoline in North America (and a growing demand globally) limits the refiners ability to control the deposit-forming tendencies of a fuel without an external aid. The gap between a modern engine`s appetite for clean fuel, and the refiners` ability to provide enough of this fuel has resulted in the application of gasoline detergents to minimize deposit formation. During the past several decades, gasoline detergents have evolved to control induction system deposits that a affected vehicle performance and emissions. The earliest problem involved icing and deposit formation in automotive carburetors. Deposits interfered with fuel induction, causing poor driveability, and an increased in emissions and fuel consumption. Simple low molecular weight amine detergents were effective in controlling deposits in the throttling areas of the carburetor.

  6. Increasing fat content from 20 to 45 wt% in a complex diet induces lower endotoxemia in parallel with an increased number of intestinal goblet cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Bérengère; Laugerette, Fabienne; Plaisancié, Pascale; Géloën, Alain; Bodennec, Jacques; Estienne, Monique; Pineau, Gaëlle; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Vidal, Hubert; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2015-04-01

    The impacts of high-fat diets (HFDs) on the onset of metabolic endotoxemia and low-grade inflammation are well established in rodent models. However, the dose-effect of dietary lipid intakes on these parameters is not known. We hypothesized that increasing dietary lipid amounts could be linked to parallel increases of endotoxemia, low-grade inflammation, and metabolic and intestinal alterations. Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD, 2.6 wt% of lipids), a moderate HFD (mHFD, 22 wt% of lipids), or a very HFD (vHFD, 45 wt% of lipids) formulated mainly using chow ingredients and milk fat. After 12 weeks, white adipose tissues, liver, intestine, distal colon contents, and plasma were collected. Only vHFD mice significantly increased body weight and fat mass vs LFD mice. This was associated with increases of plasma concentrations of triglycerides, leptin and adiponectin, and liver lipids. No such differences were observed between LFD and mHFD mice. However, mHFD developed metabolic endotoxemia and inflammation, unlike vHFD mice. In turn, vHFD mice showed more goblet cells in all intestine segments vs both other groups and a decrease of Bacteroides-Prevotella in their microbiota vs LFD mice. Finally, mHFD mice colon exhibited a decrease in lactobacilli and in the levels of occludin phosphorylation. Altogether, using complex HFD, no associations were observed between dietary lipid amounts and the magnitude of endotoxemia, inflammation, and physiological alterations developed. These results reveal the impact of the diet composition on intestinal goblet cells and mucus coat, bringing new insights about further consequences on HFD-induced metabolic disorders.

  7. What Motivates an Ever Increasing Number of Students to Enroll in Part-Time Taught Postgraduate Awards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Amaly; Kember, David; Hong, Celina

    2012-01-01

    There has been a substantial rise in the number of students enrolling in part-time taught postgraduate awards. This study investigates the reasons or motivation for students to spend significant amounts on tutorial fees and find time alongside work, family and social commitments to take a taught postgraduate award. Data were gathered through…

  8. Increasing the Number of Competing Awards at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: Projections of a Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Carl A.; Lenfant, Claude

    1991-01-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) has begun funding longer research award terms, limiting the number of projects to be funded. A model was developed to assess alternative research funding policies that might allow NHLBI to support more competing awards. Findings and implications for research stability are reported. (Author/MSE)

  9. When larger brains do not have more neurons: increased numbers of cells are compensated by decreased average cell size across mouse individuals

    PubMed Central

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Messeder, Débora J.; Fonseca-Azevedo, Karina; Pantoja, Nilma A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong trend toward increased brain size in mammalian evolution, with larger brains composed of more and larger neurons than smaller brains across species within each mammalian order. Does the evolution of increased numbers of brain neurons, and thus larger brain size, occur simply through the selection of individuals with more and larger neurons, and thus larger brains, within a population? That is, do individuals with larger brains also have more, and larger, neurons than individuals with smaller brains, such that allometric relationships across species are simply an extension of intraspecific scaling? Here we show that this is not the case across adult male mice of a similar age. Rather, increased numbers of neurons across individuals are accompanied by increased numbers of other cells and smaller average cell size of both types, in a trade-off that explains how increased brain mass does not necessarily ensue. Fundamental regulatory mechanisms thus must exist that tie numbers of neurons to numbers of other cells and to average cell size within individual brains. Finally, our results indicate that changes in brain size in evolution are not an extension of individual variation in numbers of neurons, but rather occur through step changes that must simultaneously increase numbers of neurons and cause cell size to increase, rather than decrease. PMID:26082686

  10. Cocaine-conditioned place preference is predicted by previous anxiety-like behavior and is related to an increased number of neurons in the basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, David; Pavón, Francisco J; Serrano, Antonia; Rivera, Patricia; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Suárez, Juan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis J; Castilla-Ortega, Estela

    2016-02-01

    The identification of behavioral traits that could predict an individual's susceptibility to engage in cocaine addiction is relevant for understanding and preventing this disorder, but investigations of cocaine addicts rarely allow us to determinate whether their behavioral attributes are a cause or a consequence of drug use. To study the behaviors that predict cocaine vulnerability, male C57BL/6J mice were examined in a battery of tests (the elevated plus maze, hole-board, novelty preference in the Y-Maze, episodic-like object recognition and forced swimming) prior to training in a cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to assess the reinforcing value of the drug. In a second study, the anatomical basis of high and low CPP in the mouse brain was investigated by studying the number of neurons (neuronal nuclei-positive) in two addiction-related limbic regions (the medial prefrontal cortex and the basolateral amygdala) and the number of dopaminergic neurons (tyrosine hydroxylase-positive) in the ventral tegmental area by immunohistochemistry and stereology. Correlational analyses revealed that CPP behavior was successfully predicted by anxiety-like measures in the elevated plus maze (i.e., the more anxious mice showed more preference for the cocaine-paired compartment) but not by the other behaviors analyzed. In addition, increased numbers of neurons were found in the basolateral amygdala of the high CPP mice, a key brain center for anxiety and fear responses. The results support the theory that anxiety is a relevant factor for cocaine vulnerability, and the basolateral amygdala is a potential neurobiological substrate where both anxiety and cocaine vulnerability could overlap.

  11. Increased number of cerebellar granule cells and astrocytes in the internal granule layer in sheep following prenatal intra-amniotic injection of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Strackx, Eveline; Gantert, Markus; Moers, Veronique; van Kooten, Imke A J; Rieke, Rebecca; Hürter, Hanna; Lemmens, Marijke A M; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Zimmermann, L J I; Vles, Johannes S H; Garnier, Yves; Gavilanes, Antonio W D; Kramer, Boris W

    2012-03-01

    Chorioamnionitis is an important problem in perinatology today, leading to brain injury and neurological handicaps. However, there are almost no data available regarding chorioamnionitis and a specific damage of the cerebellum. Therefore, this study aimed at determining if chorioamnionitis causes cerebellar morphological alterations. Chorioamnionitis was induced in sheep by the intra-amniotic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at a gestational age (GA) of 110 days. At a GA of 140 days, we assessed the mean total and layer-specific volume and the mean total granule cell (GCs) and Purkinje cell (PC) number in the cerebelli of LPS-exposed and control animals using high-precision design-based stereology. Astrogliosis was assessed in the gray and white matter (WM) using a glial fibrillary acidic protein staining combined with gray value image analysis. The present study showed an unchanged volume of the total cerebellum as well as the molecular layer, outer and inner granular cell layers (OGL and IGL, respectively), and WM. Interestingly, compared with controls, the LPS-exposed brains showed a statistically significant increase (+20.4%) in the mean total number of GCs, whereas the number of PCs did not show any difference between the two groups. In addition, LPS-exposed animals showed signs of astrogliosis specifically affecting the IGL. Intra-amniotic injection of LPS causes morphological changes in the cerebellum of fetal sheep still detectable at full-term birth. In this study, changes were restricted to the inner granule layer. These cerebellar changes might correspond to some of the motor or non-motor deficits seen in neonates from compromised pregnancies.

  12. Number of addictive substances used related to increased risk of unnatural death: A combined medico-legal and case-record study

    PubMed Central

    Brådvik, Louise; Berglund, Mats; Frank, Arne; Lindgren, Anna; Löwenhielm, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders have repeatedly been found to lead to premature death, i.e. drug-related death by disease, fatal intoxications, or trauma (accidents, suicide, undetermined suicide, and homicide). The present study examined the relationship between multi-drug substance use and natural and unnatural death. Methods All consecutive, autopsied patients who had been in contact with the Addiction Centre in Malmö University Hospital from 1993 to 1997 inclusive were investigated. Drug abuse was investigated blindly in the case records and related to the cause of death in 387 subjects. Results Every substance apart from alcohol used previously in life added to the risk of unnatural death in a linear way. There were independent increased risks of fatal heroin overdoses or undetermined suicide. Death by suicide and violent death were unrelated to additional abuse. Conclusion The number of drugs used was related to an increased risk of unnatural death by undetermined suicide (mainly fatal intoxications) and heroin overdose. PMID:19653902

  13. Effect of increasing the number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms from 60,000 to 85,000 in genomic evaluation of Holsteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The periodic need to restock reagent pools for genotyping chips provides an opportunity to increase the number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on a chip at no increase in cost. A high-density chip with >140,000 SNP has been developed by GeneSeek Inc. (Lincoln, NE) to increase accuracy of ge...

  14. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. 1995 Ship Production Symposium, Paper Number 27: Increasing U.S. Shipbuilding Profitability & Competitiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    commercial ship owners in order to obtain contracts. Increased profitability is also a necessary condition for short term survival but does not ensure that...these shipyards will be competitive in the commercial ship world marketplace. The significant impact on profitability and competitiveness resulting...1995 Ship Production Symposium Paper No. 27: Increasing U.S. Ship- building Profitability & Competitive- ness U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CARDEROCK

  15. Biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy in intermediate-risk group men increases with the number of risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Furubayashi, Nobuki; Negishi, Takahito; Iwai, Hidenori; Nagase, Kei; Taguchi, Kenichi; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to determine whether the number and type of risk factors are associated with biochemical recurrence-free survival after radical prostatectomy in men with D’Amico intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Between August 1998 and May 2013, 481 Japanese patients underwent antegrade radical prostatectomy. The relationships between the rate of PSA failure after radical prostatectomy and the number and type of risk factors were examined in the intermediate-risk group. Results: According to the D’Amico criteria, the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups comprised 107, 222, and 152 patients, respectively. The median follow-up period after surgery was 54.1 months. The 5-year PSA failure-free rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 96.5%, 88.9%, and 72.6%, respectively (P < 0.001). The 5-year PSA failure-free rate in the intermediate-risk group with one, two, and three intermediate risk factors was 94.9%, 88.4%, and 49.0%, respectively (P < 0.001). The difference between the high- and intermediate-risk group with three intermediate risk factors was statistically significant based on the log-rank test (P = 0.039). Conclusion: The number of intermediate risk factors is significantly associated with the PSA failure-free survival rate after radical prostatectomy in the intermediate-risk group. Patients classified into the intermediate-risk group based on all three intermediate risk factors are less likely to achieve a complete cure through surgery alone. PMID:28197033

  16. Photoelectron spectra of small LaOn- clusters: decreasing electron affinity upon increasing the number of oxygen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingeler, R.; Lüttgens, G.; Pontius, N.; Rochow, R.; Bechthold, P. S.; Neeb, M.; Eberhardt, W.

    We present mass selected photoelectron spectra of small lanthanum oxide cluster anions LaOn- (n=1-5) which have been generated in a laser vaporization cluster source. The electron affinity of the lanthanum oxide clusters drops continuously with the number of chemisorbed oxygen atoms as revealed from the anion photoelectron spectra. The decreasing electron affinity behaves contrary to several other metal oxide clusters. The geometry of some of the measured clusters are discussed in comparsion with configuration interaction and density functional calculations using a Gaussian94 program package.

  17. Method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and pre-determined increase in cetane number

    DOEpatents

    Waller, Francis Joseph; Quinn, Robert

    2004-07-06

    The present invention relates to a method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and a pre-determined increase in cetane number over the stock diesel fuel. Upon establishing the desired flash-point and increase in cetane number, an amount of a first oxygenate with a flash-point less than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number equal to or greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number. Thereafter, an amount of a second oxygenate with a flash-point equal to or greater than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number.

  18. Maternal Prebiotic Ingestion Increased the Number of Fecal Bifidobacteria in Pregnant Women but Not in Their Neonates Aged One Month

    PubMed Central

    Jinno, Shinji; Toshimitsu, Takayuki; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Kubota, Takayuki; Igoshi, Yuka; Ozawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Shuichi; Nakano, Taiji; Morita, Yoshinori; Arima, Takayasu; Yamaide, Fumiya; Kohno, Yoichi; Masuda, Kentaro; Shimojo, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) can selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of maternal FOS ingestion on maternal and neonatal gut bifidobacteria. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we administered 8 g/day of FOS or sucrose to 84 women from the 26th week of gestation to one month after delivery. The bifidobacteria count was detected using quantitative PCR in maternal (26 and 36 weeks of gestation) and neonatal (one month after delivery) stools. Maternal stool frequency was recorded from 24 to 36 weeks of gestation. The number of fecal Bifidobacterium spp. and Bifidobacterium longum in the FOS group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group at 36 weeks of gestation (2.7 × 1010/g vs. 1.1 × 1010/g and 2.3 × 1010/g vs. 9.7 × 109/g). In their neonates, these numbers did not differ between the groups. Also, stool frequency in the FOS group was slightly higher than that in the placebo group two weeks after the intervention (1.0 vs. 0.8 times/day), suggesting a potential constipation alleviation effect. In conclusion, the maternal FOS ingestion showed a bifidogenic effect in pregnant women but not in their neonates. PMID:28245628

  19. Maternal Prebiotic Ingestion Increased the Number of Fecal Bifidobacteria in Pregnant Women but Not in Their Neonates Aged One Month.

    PubMed

    Jinno, Shinji; Toshimitsu, Takayuki; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Kubota, Takayuki; Igoshi, Yuka; Ozawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Shuichi; Nakano, Taiji; Morita, Yoshinori; Arima, Takayasu; Yamaide, Fumiya; Kohno, Yoichi; Masuda, Kentaro; Shimojo, Naoki

    2017-02-26

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) can selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of maternal FOS ingestion on maternal and neonatal gut bifidobacteria. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we administered 8 g/day of FOS or sucrose to 84 women from the 26th week of gestation to one month after delivery. The bifidobacteria count was detected using quantitative PCR in maternal (26 and 36 weeks of gestation) and neonatal (one month after delivery) stools. Maternal stool frequency was recorded from 24 to 36 weeks of gestation. The number of fecal Bifidobacterium spp. and Bifidobacterium longum in the FOS group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group at 36 weeks of gestation (2.7 × 10(10)/g vs. 1.1 × 10(10)/g and 2.3 × 10(10)/g vs. 9.7 × 10⁸/g). In their neonates, these numbers did not differ between the groups. Also, stool frequency in the FOS group was slightly higher than that in the placebo group two weeks after the intervention (1.0 vs. 0.8 times/day), suggesting a potential constipation alleviation effect. In conclusion, the maternal FOS ingestion showed a bifidogenic effect in pregnant women but not in their neonates.

  20. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah’s coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    SciTech Connect

    Heriyanto, Heri; Widya Ernayati, K.; Umam, Chairul; Margareta, Nita

    2015-12-29

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%.

  1. New modified weight function for the dissipative force in the DPD method to increase the Schmidt number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaghoubi, S.; Shirani, E.; Pishevar, A. R.; Afshar, Y.

    2015-04-01

    To simulate liquid fluid flows with high Schmidt numbers (Sc), one needs to use a modified version of the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Recently the modifications made by others for the weight function of dissipative forces, enables DPD simulations for Sc, up to 10. In this paper, we introduce a different dissipative force weight function for DPD simulations that allows achieving a solution with higher values of Sc and improving the dynamic characteristics of the simulating fluid. Moreover, by reducing the energy of DPD particles, even higher values of Sc can be achieved. Finally, using the new proposed weight function and kBT =0.2 , the Sc values can reach up to 200.

  2. Potential Impact of Increased Numbers of Physicians upon Physician Behavior, Access to, and Cost of, Medical Care. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, Gerald L.

    The potential impact of the increasing supply of physicians on physician behavior, the cost of medical services, and access to services is addressed in detail in this final research report. Econometric modeling and analyses of economic activity within the health sector were undertaken. An eight equation model of the hospital and physician sectors…

  3. Farm Business Management Analysis: Adjusting the Farm Business to Increase Profit. Unit III. Volume 15, Number 3. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denker, Robert; And Others

    Designed primarily for Missouri vocational agricultural instructors participating in the Farm Business Management Analysis Program, this instructor's guide, consisting of 10 lessons, deals with adjusting a farm business to increase profits. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons: law and the farm family, planning income tax…

  4. 1986 Newspaper Help Wanted Ad Survey. Number of Ads Increases 11.5%. Computer Use Up; Shorthand Down.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusselman, Kay

    1986-01-01

    Key findings of the 1986 Newspaper Help Wanted Advertisements Survey concerning secretarial positions are reported. It was found that ads indicating that word processors or computers would be used on the job increased to 38.9 percent; ads requiring shorthand or fast notetaking were down for the second year; and averages of salaries offered were…

  5. Antiangiogenic therapy using endostatin increases the number of ALDH+ lung cancer stem cells by generating intratumor hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Wang, Yu-yi; Wang, Yi-qin; Wang, Xia; Liu, Yan-Yang; Wang, Jian-Tao; Du, Chi; Wang, Li; Li, Mei; Luo, Feng; Jiang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic therapy is becoming a promising option for cancer treatment. However, many investigations have recently indicated that these therapies may have limited efficacy, and the cancers in most patients eventually develop resistance to these therapies. There is considerable recently acquired evidence for an association of such resistance with cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs). Here, we used xenograft tumor murine models to further suggest that antiangiogenic agents actually increase the invasive and metastatic properties of lung cancer cells. In our experiments with murine lung cancer xenografts, we found that the antiangiogenic agent endostatin increased the population of ALDH+ cells, and did so by generating intratumoral hypoxia in the xenografts. We further showed endostatin to cause an increase in the CSLC population by accelerating the generation of tumor hypoxia and by recruiting TAMs, MDSCs and Treg cells, which are inflammatory and immunosuppressive cells and which can secrete cytokines and growth factors such as IL-6, EGF, and TGF-β into the tumor microenvironment. All these factors are related with increased CSLC population in tumors. These results imply that improving the clinical efficacy of antiangiogenic treatments will require the concurrent use of CSLC-targeting agents. PMID:27703219

  6. Fear learning increases the number of polyribosomes associated with excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the barrel cortex.

    PubMed

    Jasinska, Malgorzata; Siucinska, Ewa; Jasek, Ewa; Litwin, Jan A; Pyza, Elzbieta; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Associative fear learning, resulting from whisker stimulation paired with application of a mild electric shock to the tail in a classical conditioning paradigm, changes the motor behavior of mice and modifies the cortical functional representation of sensory receptors involved in the conditioning. It also induces the formation of new inhibitory synapses on double-synapse spines of the cognate barrel hollows. We studied density and distribution of polyribosomes, the putative structural markers of enhanced synaptic activation, following conditioning. By analyzing serial sections of the barrel cortex by electron microscopy and stereology, we found that the density of polyribosomes was significantly increased in dendrites of the barrel activated during conditioning. The results revealed fear learning-induced increase in the density of polyribosomes associated with both excitatory and inhibitory synapses located on dendritic spines (in both single- and double-synapse spines) and only with the inhibitory synapses located on dendritic shafts. This effect was accompanied by a significant increase in the postsynaptic density area of the excitatory synapses on single-synapse spines and of the inhibitory synapses on double-synapse spines containing polyribosomes. The present results show that associative fear learning not only induces inhibitory synaptogenesis, as demonstrated in the previous studies, but also stimulates local protein synthesis and produces modifications of the synapses that indicate their potentiation.

  7. Early-life environmental intervention may increase the number of neurons, astrocytes, and cellular proliferation in the hippocampus of rats.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann-Duarte, Elisa C; Padilha-Hoffmann, Camila B; Martins, Daniel F; Schuh, Artur F S; Fernandes, Marilda C; Santin, Ricardo; Merlo, Suelen; Sanvitto, Gilberto L; Lucion, Aldo B

    2011-11-01

    Neonatal handling reduces the stress response in adulthood due to a feedback mechanism. The present study analyzed the effects of repeated neonatal environmental intervention (daily handling during the first 10 days after birth) on neuron-, astroglial cell density, and cellular proliferation of the hippocampal (CA1, CA2, and CA3) pyramidal cell layers in female rats. Pups were divided into two groups, nonhandled and handled, which were submitted to repeated handling sessions between postnatal days 1 and 10. Histological and immunohistochemical procedures were used to determine changes in neuron density, astroglial cell density, and cellular proliferation. We found an increase in neuron density in each pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus (CA1, CA2, and CA3) in female rats (11 and 90 day old) that were handled during the neonatal period. Furthermore, we found an increase in astroglial cell density in both hemispheres of the brain in the handled group. Finally, we observed an increase in cellular proliferation in both hippocampi (CA1, CA2, and CA3) of the brain in female pups (11 days old) handled during the neonatal period. This study demonstrates that an early-life environmental intervention may induce morphological changes in a structure involved with several functions, including the stress response. The results of the current study suggest that neonatal handling may influence the animals' responses to environmental adversities later in life.

  8. A Sinorhizobium meliloti-specific N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal increases nodule numbers in Medicago truncatula independent of autoregulation.

    PubMed

    Veliz-Vallejos, Debora F; van Noorden, Giel E; Yuan, Mengqi; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) act as quorum sensing signals that regulate cell-density dependent behaviors in many gram-negative bacteria, in particular those important for plant-microbe interactions. AHLs can also be recognized by plants, and this may influence their interactions with bacteria. Here we tested whether the exposure to AHLs affects the nodule-forming symbiosis between legume hosts and rhizobia. We treated roots of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, with a range of AHLs either from its specific symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, or from the potential pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium vitis. We found increased numbers of nodules formed on root systems treated with the S. meliloti-specific AHL, 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone, at a concentration of 1 μM, while the other AHLs did not result in significant changes to nodule numbers. We did not find any evidence for altered nodule invasion by the rhizobia. Quantification of flavonoids that could act as nod gene inducers in S. meliloti did not show any correlation with increased nodule numbers. The effects of AHLs were specific for an increase in nodule numbers, but not lateral root numbers or root length. Increased nodule numbers following 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone treatment were under control of autoregulation of nodulation and were still observed in the autoregulation mutant, sunn4 (super numeric nodules4). However, increases in nodule numbers by 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone were not found in the ethylene-insensitive sickle mutant. A comparison between M. truncatula with M. sativa (alfalfa) and Trifolium repens (white clover) showed that the observed effects of AHLs on nodule numbers were specific to M. truncatula, despite M. sativa nodulating with the same symbiont. We conclude that plant perception of the S. meliloti-specific 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone influences nodule numbers in M. truncatula via an ethylene-dependent, but autoregulation-independent mechanism.

  9. Geminin deletion increases the number of fetal hematopoietic stem cells by affecting the expression of key transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Karamitros, Dimitris; Patmanidi, Alexandra L; Kotantaki, Panoraia; Potocnik, Alexandre J; Bähr-Ivacevic, Tomi; Benes, Vladimir; Lygerou, Zoi; Kioussis, Dimitris; Taraviras, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    Balancing stem cell self-renewal and initiation of lineage specification programs is essential for the development and homeostasis of the hematopoietic system. We have specifically ablated geminin in the developing murine hematopoietic system and observed profound defects in the generation of mature blood cells, leading to embryonic lethality. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) accumulated in the fetal liver following geminin ablation, while committed progenitors were reduced. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis identified key HSC transcription factors as being upregulated upon geminin deletion, revealing a gene network linked with geminin that controls fetal hematopoiesis. In order to obtain mechanistic insight into the ability of geminin to regulate transcription, we examined Hoxa9 as an example of a key gene in definitive hematopoiesis. We demonstrate that in human K562 cells geminin is associated with HOXA9 regulatory elements and its absence increases HOXA9 transcription similarly to that observed in vivo. Moreover, silencing geminin reduced recruitment of the PRC2 component SUZ12 to the HOXA9 locus and resulted in an increase in RNA polymerase II recruitment and H3K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), whereas the repressive marks H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 were reduced. The chromatin landscape was also modified at the regulatory regions of HOXA10 and GATA1. K562 cells showed a reduced ability to differentiate to erythrocytes and megakaryocytes upon geminin silencing. Our data suggest that geminin is indispensable for fetal hematopoiesis and regulates the generation of a physiological pool of stem and progenitor cells in the fetal hematopoietic system.

  10. Exotic plant infestation is associated with decreased modularity and increased numbers of connectors in mixed-grass prairie pollination networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Rabie, Paul A.; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L.; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots andConvolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvenseand the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested

  11. Exotic Plant Infestation Is Associated with Decreased Modularity and Increased Numbers of Connectors in Mixed-Grass Prairie Pollination Networks

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Diane L.; Rabie, Paul A.; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L.; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots and Convolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvense and the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested networks

  12. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay identifies additional copy number changes compared with R-band karyotype and provide more accuracy prognostic information in myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zefeng; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Jinqin; Li, Bing; Fang, Liwei; Zhang, Hongli; Pan, Lijuan; Hu, Naibo; Qu, Shiqiang; Cai, Wenyu; Ru, Kun; Jia, Yujiao; Huang, Gang; Xiao, Zhijian

    2017-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis provides important diagnostic and prognostic information for patients with Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and plays an essential role in the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay is a recently developed technique to identify targeted cytogenetic aberrations in MDS patients. In the present study, we evaluated the results obtained using an MLPA assay in 437 patients with MDS to determine the efficacy of MLPA analysis. Using R-banding karyotyping, 45% (197/437) of MDS patients had chromosomal abnormalities, whereas MLPA analysis detected that 35% (153/437) of MDS cases contained at least one copy-number variations (CNVs) .2/5 individuals (40%) with R-band karyotype failures had trisomy 8 detected using only MLPA. Clonal cytogenetic abnormalities were detected in 20/235 (8.5%) MDS patients with a normal R-band karyotype, and 12/20 (60%) of those patients were reclassified into a higher-risk IPSS-R prognostic category. When sequencing and cytogenetics were combined, the fraction of patients with MDS-related oncogenic lesions increased to 87.3% (233/267 cases). MLPA analysis determined that the median OS of patients with a normal karyotype (n=218) was 65 months compared with 27 months in cases with an aberrant karyotype (P=0.002) in 240 patients with normal or failed karyotypes by R-banding karyotyping. The high-resolution MPLA assay is an efficient and reliable method that can be used in conjunction with R-band karyotyping to detect chromosomal abnormalities in patients with suspected MDS. MLPA may also provide more accurate prognostic information. PMID:27906673

  13. Pulse increase of soil N2O emission in response to N addition in a temperate forest on Mt Changbai, northeast China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Edith; Li, Wei; Li, Shanlong; Sun, Jianfei; Peng, Bo; Dai, Weiwei; Jiang, Ping; Han, Shijie

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has increased significantly globally since the industrial revolution. Previous studies on the response of gaseous emissions to N deposition have shown controversial results, pointing to the system-specific effect of N addition. Here we conducted an N addition experiment in a temperate natural forest in northeastern China to test how potential changes in N deposition alter soil N2O emission and its sources from nitrification and denitrification. Soil N2O emission was measured using closed chamber method and a separate incubation experiment using acetylene inhibition method was carried out to determine denitrification fluxes and the contribution of nitrification and denitrification to N2O emissions between Jul. and Oct. 2012. An NH4NO3 addition of 50 kg N/ha/yr significantly increased N2O and N2 emissions, but their "pulse emission" induced by N addition only lasted for two weeks. Mean nitrification-derived N2O to denitrification-derived N2O ratio was 0.56 in control plots, indicating higher contribution of denitrification to N2O emissions in the study area, and this ratio was not influenced by N addition. The N2O to (N2+N2O) ratio was 0.41-0.55 in control plots and was reduced by N addition at one sampling time point. Based on this short term experiment, we propose that N2O and denitrification rate might increase with increasing N deposition at least by the same fold in the future, which would deteriorate global warming problems.

  14. The Effect of Emphasizing Mathematical Structure in the Acquisition of Whole Number Computation Skills (Addition and Subtraction) By Seven- and Eight-Year Olds: A Clinical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uprichard, A. Edward; Collura, Carolyn

    This investigation sought to determine the effect of emphasizing mathematical structure in the acquisition of computational skills by seven- and eight-year-olds. The meaningful development-of-structure approach emphasized closure, commutativity, associativity, and the identity element of addition; the inverse relationship between addition and…

  15. Loss of thyroid hormone receptor β is associated with increased progenitor proliferation and NeuroD positive cell number in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Richa; Ghosh, Himanish; Nordstrom, Kristina; Vennstrom, Björn; Vaidya, Vidita A

    2011-01-07

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is modulated by perturbations in thyroid hormone status; however the role of specific thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in this process is not completely understood. We show here that loss of the TRβ gene results in a significant increase in the proliferation of adult hippocampal progenitors, without any change in immature neuron number or in the neuronal and glial differentiation of progenitors. Using the mitotic marker 5'-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) or the endogenous cell cycle marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), we find a significant increase in the number of BrdU- and PCNA-immunopositive cells within the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus subfield in TRβ-/- mice. Further, we find that TRβ-/- mice exhibit a significant increase in the numbers of NeuroD-positive cells within the SGZ, suggesting that the increased numbers of proliferating progenitors translate into enhanced numbers of neuroblasts. Interestingly, the number of BrdU-positive cells that persist 4 weeks post-BrdU injection is unaltered in TRβ-/- mice, indicating that the enhanced proliferation does not result in increased hippocampal neurogenesis. This is also supported by the evidence of no change in the numbers of cells expressing markers of immature neurons such as doublecortin or polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule. Furthermore, no change is observed in the neuronal or glial differentiation of BrdU-positive cells in the TRβ-/- mice. Taken together, our results provide novel evidence for a role of TRβ in modulating hippocampal progenitor cell division, and implicate this receptor in the effects of thyroid hormone on adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  16. Biochar addition to an arsenic contaminated soil increases arsenic concentrations in the pore water but reduces uptake to tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Beesley, Luke; Marmiroli, Marta; Pagano, Luca; Pigoni, Veronica; Fellet, Guido; Fresno, Teresa; Vamerali, Teofilo; Bandiera, Marianna; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic (As) concentrations in soil, soil pore water and plant tissues were evaluated in a pot experiment following the transplantation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plantlets to a heavily As contaminated mine soil (~6000 mg kg(-1) pseudo-total As) receiving an orchard prune residue biochar amendment, with and without NPK fertiliser. An in-vitro test was also performed to establish if tomato seeds were able to germinate in various proportions of biochar added to nutrient solution (MS). Biochar significantly increased arsenic concentrations in pore water (500 μg L(-1)-2000 μg L(-1)) whilst root and shoot concentrations were significantly reduced compared to the control without biochar. Fruit As concentrations were very low (<3 μg kg(-1)), indicating minimal toxicity and transfer risk. Fertilisation was required to significantly increase plant biomass above the control after biochar addition whilst plants transplanted to biochar only were heavily stunted and chlorotic. Given that increasing the amount of biochar added to nutrient solution in-vitro reduced seed germination by up to 40%, a lack of balanced nutrient provision from biochar could be concluded. In summary, solubility and mobility of As were increased by biochar addition to this soil, but uptake to plant was reduced, and toxicity-transfer risk was negligible. Therefore leaching rather than food chain transfer appears the most probable immediate consequence of biochar addition to As contaminated soils.

  17. Increase in the carbohydrate content of the microalgae Spirulina in culture by nutrient starvation and the addition of residues of whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Vieira Salla, Ana Cláudia; Margarites, Ana Cláudia; Seibel, Fábio Ivan; Holz, Luiz Carlos; Brião, Vandré Barbosa; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Colla, Luciane Maria; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Non-renewable sources that will end with time are the largest part of world energy consumption, which emphasizes the necessity to develop renewable sources of energy. This necessity has created opportunities for the use of microalgae as a biofuel. The use of microalgae as a feedstock source for bioethanol production requires high yields of both biomass and carbohydrates. With mixotrophic cultures, wastewater can be used to culture algae. The aim of the study was to increase the carbohydrate content in the microalgae Spirulina with the additions of residues from the ultra and nanofiltration of whey protein. The nutrient deficit in the Zarrouk medium diluted to 20% and the addition of 2.5% of both residue types led to high carbohydrate productivity (60 mg L(-1) d(-1)). With these culture conditions, the increase in carbohydrate production in Spirulina indicated that the conditions were appropriate for use with microalgae as a feedstock in the production of bioethanol.

  18. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.

  19. Increases in soil aggregation following phosphorus additions in a tropical premontane forest are not driven by root and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camenzind, Tessa; Papathanasiou, Helena; Foerster, Antje; Dietrich, Karla; Hertel, Dietrich; Homeier, Juergen; Oelmann, Yvonne; Olsson, Pål Axel; Suárez, Juan; Rillig, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    Tropical ecosystems have an important role in global change scenarios, in part because they serve as a large terrestrial carbon pool. Carbon protection is mediated by soil aggregation processes, whereby biotic and abiotic factors influence the formation and stability of aggregates. Nutrient additions may affect soil structure indirectly by simultaneous shifts in biotic factors, mainly roots and fungal hyphae, but also via impacts on abiotic soil properties. Here, we tested the hypothesis that soil aggregation will be affected by nutrient additions primarily via changes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae and root length in a pristine tropical forest system. Therefore, the percentage of water-stable macroaggregates (> 250µm) (WSA) and the soil mean weight diameter (MWD) was analyzed, as well as nutrient contents, pH, root length and AMF abundance. Phosphorus additions significantly increased the amount of WSA, which was consistent across two different sampling times. Despite a positive effect of phosphorus additions on extraradical AMF biomass, no relationship between WSA and extra-radical AMF nor roots was revealed by regression analyses, contrary to the proposed hypothesis. These findings emphasize the importance of analyzing soil structure in understudied tropical systems, since it might be affected by increasing nutrient deposition expected in the future.

  20. The effect of membrane fluidization on protein kinase C: Inhibition by ethanol and higher alcohols and stimulation by increased lipid unsaturation or addition non-esterified fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, K.J.A.; Rubin, E.; Stubbs, C.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a membrane bound enzyme that is dependent on calcium, anionic phospholipids, and sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) to be fully active. The relationship between membrane fluidity and PKC activity was investigated using model vesicle systems composed of phosphatidylserine alone or in combination with phosphatidylcholine. Effects on membrane fluidity were assessed using the fluorescence anisotropy of diphenylhexatriene. When membrane fluidity was increased by the addition of short chain n-alkanols, PKC activity was inhibited. There was a linear relationship for a given level of inhibition and the membrane-buffer partition coefficient. By contrast, when the degree of unsaturation in the phosphatidylcholine was increased, although the bilayer was again fluidized, PKC activity was enhanced. The addition of non-esterified fatty acid also activated PKC, either when directly added to the vesicles or when generated by the addition of exogenous phospholipase A[sub 2], and again the bilayer was fluidized. It is proposed that a more fluid membrane lipid bilayer, induced by increased unsaturation or non-esterified fatty acids, facilitated optimal interaction at the DAG site since the effect could be demonstrated in a lipid free system using protamine sulfate.

  1. General Education Teachers Need to Be Prepared to Co-Teach the Increasing Number of Children with Autism in Inclusive Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loiacono, Vito; Valenti, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    The sustained increase in the number of children diagnosed with autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has become a widespread concern throughout the US as well as globally. Federal mandates (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [IDEA], 2004; No Child Left Behind [NCLB]) have directed state education departments and local educational…

  2. What It Would Take to Increase the Number of High School Astronomy Courses: A Survey of Principals and a Comparison to Astronomy Teachers, and a Prescription for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumenaker, Larry

    2010-01-01

    A survey to principals of high schools without astronomy points to the conditions needed to increase the number of high school astronomy courses and acceptable justifications for adding in a course. The former includes the need for more and better trained teachers, changing the perceptions of higher officials from local administrations to…

  3. Two Decades of Increasing Diversity More than Doubled the Number of Minority Graduate Students in Science and Engineering. InfoBrief. NSF 11-319

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einaudi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    From 1989 through 2009 the number of minority U.S. citizens and permanent residents enrolled in graduate science and engineering (S&E) programs more than doubled, growing from approximately 37,700 in 1989 to 92,700 in 2009. Increases in Hispanic, black, and Asian/Pacific Islander S&E graduate students were similar over this period…

  4. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Nivel 2a: Suma y Resta de Numeros Enteros (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Level 2a: Addition and Subtraction of Whole Numbers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include addition and subtraction. (MK)

  5. The novel GLP-1-gastrin dual agonist ZP3022 improves glucose homeostasis and increases β-cell mass without affecting islet number in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Dalbøge, Louise S; Almholt, Dorthe L C; Neerup, Trine S R; Vrang, Niels; Jelsing, Jacob; Fosgerau, Keld

    2014-08-01

    Antidiabetic treatments aiming to preserve or even to increase β-cell mass are currently gaining increased interest. Here we investigated the effect of chronic treatment with the novel glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-gastrin dual agonist ZP3022 (HGEGTFTSDLSKQMEEEAVRLFIEWLKN-8Ado-8Ado-YGWLDF-NH2) on glycemic control, β-cell mass and proliferation, and islet number. Male db/db mice were treated with ZP3022, liraglutide, or vehicle for 2, 4, or 8 weeks, with terminal assessment of hemoglobin A1c, basal blood glucose, and plasma insulin concentrations. Pancreata were removed for immunohistochemical staining and stereological quantification of β-cell mass, islet numbers, proliferation, and apoptosis. Treatment with ZP3022 or liraglutide led to a significant improvement in glycemic control. ZP3022 treatment resulted in a sustained increase in β-cell mass after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, whereas the effect of liraglutide was transient. The expansion in β-cell mass observed in the ZP3022-treated mice appeared to be driven by increased β-cell proliferation in existing islets rather than by formation of new islets, as mean islet mass increased but the number of islets remained constant. Our data demonstrate that the GLP-1-gastrin dual agonist ZP3022 causes a sustained improvement in glycemic control accompanied by an increase in β-cell mass, increased proliferation, and increased mean islet mass. The results highlight that the GLP-1-gastrin dual agonist increases β-cell mass more than liraglutide and that dual agonists could potentially be developed into a new class of antidiabetic treatments.

  6. Enzymatic Pretreatment Coupled with the Addition of p-Hydroxyanisole Increased Levulinic Acid Production from Steam-Exploded Rice Straw Short Fiber.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li-Tong; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Yu, Bin; Chen, Hong-Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Levulinic acid production, directly from lignocellulosic biomass, resulted in low yields due to the poor substrate accessibility and occurrence of side reactions. The effects of reaction conditions, enzymatic pretreatment, and inhibitor addition on the conversion of steam-exploded rice straw (SERS) short fiber to levulinic acid catalyzed by solid superacid were investigated systematically. The results indicated that the optimal reaction conditions were temperature, time, and solid superacid concentration combinations of 200 °C, 15 min, and 7.5 %. Enzymatic pretreatment improved the substrate accessibility to solid superacid catalyst, and p-hydroxyanisole inhibitor reduced the side reactions during reaction processes, which helped to increase levulinic acid yield. The levulinic acid yield reached 25.2 % under the optimal conditions, which was 61.5 % higher than that without enzymatic pretreatment and inhibitor addition. Therefore, enzymatic pretreatment coupled with the addition of p-hydroxyanisole increased levulinic acid production effectively, which contributed to the value-added utilization of lignocellulosic biomass.

  7. Increase in the number of extremely strong fronts over Europe? A study based on ERA-Interim reanalysis (1979-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemm, S.; Sprenger, M.; Martius, O.; Wernli, H.; Zimmer, M.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the frequency of extremely strong fronts, which occur mainly in summer, has increased over Europe in ERA-Interim reanalyses data (1979-2014). Fronts are defined using a common detection scheme based on gradients of equivalent potential temperature (θe) at 850 hPa. The frequency increase is due to increasing atmospheric humidity, which in turn is reported as statistically significant over Europe in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5). There is no trend in the frequency of extremely strong fronts in North America where humidity trends are, according to the IPCC AR5, close to zero. Because frontal precipitation increases with frontal strength, measured by the θe gradient, the increase in the number of extremely strong fronts may help explain regional patterns of longer-term trends in strong precipitation events.

  8. Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest increases sugar storage, antioxidant activity and cold tolerance in native red spruce (Picea rubens).

    PubMed

    Halman, Joshua M; Schaberg, Paul G; Hawley, Gary J; Eagar, Christopher

    2008-06-01

    In fall (November 2005) and winter (February 2006), we collected current-year foliage of native red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing in a reference watershed and in a watershed treated in 1999 with wollastonite (CaSiO(3), a slow-release calcium source) to simulate preindustrial soil calcium concentrations (Ca-addition watershed) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (Thornton, NH). We analyzed nutrition, soluble sugar concentrations, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and cold tolerance, to evaluate the basis of recent (2003) differences between watersheds in red spruce foliar winter injury. Foliar Ca and total sugar concentrations were significantly higher in trees in the Ca-addition watershed than in trees in the reference watershed during both fall (P=0.037 and 0.035, respectively) and winter (P=0.055 and 0.036, respectively). The Ca-addition treatment significantly increased foliar fructose and glucose concentrations in November (P=0.013 and 0.007, respectively) and foliar sucrose concentrations in winter (P=0.040). Foliar APX activity was similar in trees in both watersheds during fall (P=0.28), but higher in trees in the Ca-addition watershed during winter (P=0.063). Cold tolerance of foliage was significantly greater in trees in the Ca-addition watershed than in trees in the reference watershed (P<0.001). Our results suggest that low foliar sugar concentrations and APX activity, and reduced cold tolerance in trees in the reference watershed contributed to their high vulnerability to winter injury in 2003. Because the reference watershed reflects forest conditions in the region, the consequences of impaired physiological function caused by soil Ca depletion may have widespread implications for forest health.

  9. SU-E-T-568: Improving Normal Brain Sparing with Increasing Number of Arc Beams for Volume Modulated Arc Beam Radiosurgery of Multiple Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, S; Hildebrand, K; Ahmad, S; Larson, D; Ma, L; Sahgal, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated arc beams have been newly reported for treating multiple brain metastases. The purpose of this study was to determine the variations in the normal brain doses with increasing number of arc beams for multiple brain metastases treatments via the TrueBeam Rapidarc system (Varian Oncology, Palo Alto, CA). Methods: A patient case with 12 metastatic brain lesions previously treated on the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (GK) was used for the study. All lesions and organs at risk were contoured by a senior radiation oncologist and treatment plans for a subset of 3, 6, 9 and all 12 targets were developed for the TrueBeam Rapidarc system via 3 to 7 intensity modulated arc-beams with each target covered by at least 99% of the prescribed dose of 20 Gy. The peripheral normal brain isodose volumes as well as the total beam-on time were analyzed with increasing number of arc beams for these targets. Results: All intensisty modulated arc-beam plans produced efficient treatment delivery with the beam-on time averaging 0.6–1.5 min per lesion at an output of 1200 MU/min. With increasing number of arc beams, the peripheral normal brain isodose volumes such as the 12-Gy isodose line enclosed normal brain tissue volumes were on average decreased by 6%, 11%, 18%, and 28% for the 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-target treatment plans respectively. The lowest normal brain isodose volumes were consistently found for the 7-arc treatment plans for all the cases. Conclusion: With nearly identical beam-on times, the peripheral normal brain dose was notably decreased when the total number of intensity modulated arc beams was increased when treating multiple brain metastases. Dr Sahgal and Dr Ma are currently serving on the board of international society of stereotactic radiosurgery.

  10. GeoFORCE Texas: An Outreach Program that is Increasing the Number and Diversity of Students Completing STEM Degrees and Entering the Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, E.; Moore, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    GeoFORCE Texas is an outreach program of the Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin. Established in 2005 with the goal of increasing the number and diversity of students studying geosciences and engineering and entering the high-tech workforce, GeoFORCE has been highly successful. Key elements to that success will be presented here. GeoFORCE targets bright students in rural and inner-city schools where they are generally not academically challenged. Every summer throughout high school we take them on geologic field trips all over the country. In 2014, GeoFORCE led 15 field academies for about 600 students. The program is rigorous and academic. We emphasize college-level thinking skills. Because it is a 4-year program, they have a pretty good grounding in physical geology by the time they graduate. More importantly, they develop confidence in their ability to handle college, and a strong motivation to earn a college degree. GeoFORCE students are mostly minority (85%) and more than half will be the first in their family to graduate from college. GeoFORCE students exceed national averages in rates of going to college (97%), majoring in STEM fields (66%), majoring in geosciences (15%) and engineering (13%), and graduating from college (~85%). GeoFORCE is a public/private partnership and a workforce-focused program. The Jackson School funds staff and operating expenses (37%). Money for student programs comes from private industry (44%), state and federal grants (14%), and foundations and individual donors (5%). Our corporate partners are in the energy sector. In addition to funding, corporate sponsors attend the summer field programs, mentor GeoFORCE students, and provide opportunities for the students to visit the companies. As our students move toward college graduation, our industry and government partners have begun to hire them as interns. GeoFORCE graduates are now entering the workforce. Our first two cohorts are 4 and 5 years past high

  11. Combined Effect of Reduced Band Number and Increased Bandwidth on Shallow Water Remote Sensing: The Case of WorldView 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    on Shallow Water Remote Sensing : The Case of WorldView 2 N/A NNH09AM26I 73-4223-01-5 ZhongPing Lee, Alan Weidemann, and Robert Arnone Naval Research...Presentation The Combined Effect of Reduced Spectral Bands and Increased Bandwidth on Shallow Water Remote Sensing : The Case of WorldView 2...ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING , VOL. 51, NO. 5, MAY 2013 2577 Combined Effect of Reduced Band Number and Increased Bandwidth on Shallow Water Remote

  12. An Extract of Pomegranate Fruit and Galangal Rhizome Increases the Numbers of Motile Sperm: A Prospective, Randomised, Controlled, Double-Blinded Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fedder, Maja D. K.; Jakobsen, Henrik B.; Giversen, Ina; Christensen, Lars P.; Parner, Erik T.; Fedder, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) and galangal (Alpinia galanga) have separately been shown to stimulate spermatogenesis and to increase sperm counts and motility in rodents. Within traditional medicine, pomegranate fruit has long been used to increase fertility, however studies on the effect on spermatogenesis in humans have never been published. With this study we investigated whether oral intake of tablets containing standardised amounts of extract of pomegranate fruit and powder of greater galangal rhizome (Punalpin) would increase the total number of motile spermatozoa. The study was designed as a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial. Enrolment was based on the mean total number of motile spermatozoa of two ejaculates. The participants delivered an ejaculate after 4–8 days of tablet intake and two ejaculates just before they stopped taking the tablets. Seventy adult men with a semen quality not meeting the standards for commercial application at Nordic Cryobank, but without azoospermia, were included in the study. Participants were randomized to take tablets containing extract of pomegranate fruit (standardised with respect to punicalagin A+B, punicalin and ellagic acid) and freeze-dried rhizome of greater galangal (standardised with respect to 1′S-1′-acetoxychavicol acetate) or placebo on a daily basis for three months. Sixty-six participants completed the intervention (active treatment: n = 34; placebo: n = 32). After the intervention the total number of motile spermatozoa was increased in participants treated with plant extracts compared with the placebo group (p = 0.026). After three months of active treatment, the average total number of motile sperm increased by 62% (from 23.4 to 37.8 millions), while for the placebo group, the number of motile sperm increased by 20%. Sperm morphology was not affected by the treatment. Our findings may help subfertile men to gain an improved amount of motile ejaculated sperm by

  13. Gamma- and neutron continuous irradiations at low doses can increase stromal progenitor cell (cfu-f) number in mouse bone marrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domaratskaya, E.; Tsetlin, V.; Bueverova, E.; Payushina, O.; Butorina, N.; Starostin, V.

    Low doses of continuous gamma and neutron irradiation chosen in these experiments corresponded to those aboard a spacecraft (Mitricas, Tsetlin, 2000). F1 (CBAxC57Bl/6) male and female mice at the age of 3-4 months were used. The experimental groups of mice were exposed for 10 days to gamma irradiation (total dose 1.5 cGy, dose rate 0.15 cGy/day) or neutron irradiation (neutrons with energy of 4 MeV at flow in the range from 10-5 to 10-6 n/cm2, flow densities from 1 to 30 n/cm2sec). Gamma irradiation stimulated the proliferative rate of femoral CFU-F and raised their number 1,5-4,5-fold. The size of ectopic marrow transplants from gamma irradiated donors also increased. However, no changes in CFU-S proliferative rate and their number were observed. Neutron irradiation at total absorbed dose of 48x10-3 cGy (total neutron flow 2,8x106 n/cm2) produced a 3-fold increase of femoral CFU-F number, but CFU-S number remained unchanged. If total absorbed dose was lowered to 7x10-3 cGy (total neutron flow 1,3x105 n/cm2) CFU-F number remained at the control level. Therefore, the effect of radiation hormesis that caused by the neutron irradiation was observed at doses much lower than those of gamma irradiation. Supported in part by Russian Ministry of Education (projects ``Scientific Schools'' - 1629.2003.4).

  14. Continuous gamma and neutron irradiation at low doses can increase the number of stromal progenitor cell (CFU-F) in mouse bone marrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domaratskaya, E. I.; Tsetlin, V. V.; Bueverova, E. I.; Payushina, O. I.; Butorina, N. N.; Khrushchov, N. G.; Starostin, V. I.

    Experimental groups of male and female F1 (CBA × C57Bl/6) mice at the age of 3-4 months were exposed for 10 days to gamma irradiation (total dose 1.5 cGy, dose rate 0.15 cGy/day) or neutron irradiation (neutrons at average energy of 4.5 MeV at a total neutron flux ranging from 10 5 to 10 6 cm -2 and neutron flux density from 1 to 30 cm -2 s -1). These radiation doses were chosen so as to correspond to those received aboard spacecraft. [Mitrikas, V.G., Tsetlin, V.V., 2000. Radiation control onboard the MIR orbital manned station during the 22th solar cycle. Kosm. Issled. 38(2), 113-118.] Gamma irradiation stimulated the proliferation of femoral CFU-F, and their number increased by a factor of 1.5-4.5. The ectopic marrow grafts from γ-irradiated donors also increased in size. However, no changes in CFU-S proliferation rate and their number were observed. Neutron irradiation at a total absorbed dose of 2 × 10 -1 cGy (total neutron flux 2.8 × 10 7 cm -2) produced a 1.5-3-fold increase in the number of femoral CFU-F, but that of CFU-S remained unchanged. At a lower total absorbed dose 0.82 × 10 -2 cGy, total neutron flux 1.3 × 10 6 cm -2, the number of CFU-F remained at the control level. Therefore, the effect of radiation hormesis caused by neutron irradiation was observed at doses much lower than those of gamma irradiation.

  15. Military Personnel: Oversight Framework and Evaluations Needed for DOD and the Coast Guard to Help Increase the Number of Female Officer Applicants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    the initiatives they are currently using to increase the accessions of women into the officer corps. We assessed the reliability of the marketing ...addition, according to a DOD Joint Advertising, Market Research and Studies survey, fewer women than men have an interest in military service and...Military Academy, the Army Marketing and Research Group, the Army National Guard, the U.S. Naval Academy, the Navy Recruiting Command, the Marine

  16. IGF-1/IGFBP-1 increases blastocyst formation and total blastocyst cell number in mouse embryo culture and facilitates the establishment of a stem-cell line

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ta-Chin; Yen, Jui-Mei; Gong, Kun-Bing; Hsu, Teng-Tsao; Chen, Lih-Ren

    2003-01-01

    Background Apoptosis occurs frequently for blastocysts cultured in vitro, where conditions are suboptimal to those found in the natural environment. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays an important role in preventing apoptosis in the early development of the embryo, as well as in the progressive regulation of organ development. We hypothesize that IGF-1 and its dephosphorylated binding protein (IGFBP-1) may be able to improve embryo culture with an associated reduced cell death, and that the resultant increase in the total cell number of the embryo could increase the chances of establishing an embryonic stem-cell line. Results In vivo fertilized zygotes were cultured in medium containing supplementary IGF-1, or IGFBP-1/IGF-1. The stages of the resultant embryos were evaluated at noon on day five post-hCG injection. The extent of apoptosis and necrosis was evaluated using Annexin V and propidium iodine staining under fluorescent microscopy. The establishment of embryonic stem-cell lines was performed using the hatching blastocysts that were cultured in the presence of IGF-1 or IGFBP-1/IGF-1. The results show that the rate of blastocyst formation in a tissue-culture system in the presence of IGF-1 was 88.7% and IGFBP-1/IGF-1 it was 94.6%, respectively, and that it was significantly greater than the figure for the control group (81.9%). IGFBP-1/IGF-1 also resulted in a higher hatching rate than was the case for the control group (68.8% vs. 48.6% respectively). IGF-1 also increased the number of Annexin V-free and propidium iodine-free blastocysts in culture (86.8% vs. 75.9% respectively). Total cell number of blastocyst in culture was increased by 18.9% for those examples cultured with dephosphorylated IGFBP-1/IGF-1. For subsequent stem-cell culture, the chances of the successful establishment of a stem-cell line was increased for the IGF-1 and IGFBP-1/IGF-1 groups (IGF-1 vs. IGFBP-1/IGF-1 vs. control: 45.8% vs. 59.6% vs. 27.3% respectively). Conclusion IGF-1

  17. Physical Activity Increases the Total Number of Bone-Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Enhances Their Osteogenic Potential, and Inhibits Their Adipogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Marędziak, Monika; Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Chrząstek, Klaudia; Basinska, Katarzyna; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Aging and sedentary lifestyle are common nowadays and are associated with the increasing number of chronic diseases. Thus, physical activity is recommended as one of three healthy behavior factors that play a crucial role in health prophylaxis. In the present study, we were interested whether physical activity influences the number and potential of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells BMMSCs. In this study, four-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice were trained on a treadmill at progressive speeds over a 5-week period. Comparisons made between exercised (EX) and sedentary animal groups revealed (i) significantly higher number of MSCs in EX animals, (ii) elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, (iii) increased level of osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCL), and (iv) reduced marrow cavity fat. The results obtained support the thesis that EX may play a substantial role in the regeneration of mesenchymal tissues. Therefore, EX may represent a novel, nonpharmacological strategy of slowing down age-related decline of the musculoskeletal functions. PMID:26167185

  18. Does actually mean chromosome number increase with latitude in vascular plants? An answer from the comparison of Italian, Slovak and Polish floras.

    PubMed

    Peruzzi, Lorenzo; Góralski, Grzegorz; Joachimiak, Andrzej J; Bedini, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    WE COMPARED CHROMOSOME NUMBER (CN) VARIATION AMONG VASCULAR FLORAS OF THREE DIFFERENT COUNTRIES WITH INCREASING LATITUDE IN THE BOREAL HEMISPHERE: Italy, Slovakia, Poland. Aim of the study was to verify whether the patterns of CN variation parallel the differences in latitudinal ranges. The three datasets comprised 3426 (Italy), 3493 (Slovakia) and 1870 (Poland) distinct cytotypes. Standard statistics (ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis tests) evidenced significant differences among the three countries, mean CN increasing together with latitude. On the contrary, an inverse relation (r = -1) was evidenced among the frequency of odd CNs and latitude. Our results show that the hypothesis of a polyploid increase proportional with distance from the Equator seems to be confirmed, when territories from the same hemisphere are compared.

  19. Does actually mean chromosome number increase with latitude in vascular plants? An answer from the comparison of Italian, Slovak and Polish floras

    PubMed Central

    Peruzzi, Lorenzo; Góralski, Grzegorz; Joachimiak, Andrzej J.; Bedini, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We compared chromosome number (CN) variation among vascular floras of three different countries with increasing latitude in the Boreal hemisphere: Italy, Slovakia, Poland. Aim of the study was to verify whether the patterns of CN variation parallel the differences in latitudinal ranges. The three datasets comprised 3426 (Italy), 3493 (Slovakia) and 1870 (Poland) distinct cytotypes. Standard statistics (ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis tests) evidenced significant differences among the three countries, mean CN increasing together with latitude. On the contrary, an inverse relation (r = -1) was evidenced among the frequency of odd CNs and latitude. Our results show that the hypothesis of a polyploid increase proportional with distance from the Equator seems to be confirmed, when territories from the same hemisphere are compared. PMID:24260677

  20. Replication of a gene-environment interaction Via Multimodel inference: additive-genetic variance in adolescents' general cognitive ability increases with family-of-origin socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2015-03-01

    The present study of general cognitive ability attempts to replicate and extend previous investigations of a biometric moderator, family-of-origin socioeconomic status (SES), in a sample of 2,494 pairs of adolescent twins, non-twin biological siblings, and adoptive siblings assessed with individually administered IQ tests. We hypothesized that SES would covary positively with additive-genetic variance and negatively with shared-environmental variance. Important potential confounds unaddressed in some past studies, such as twin-specific effects, assortative mating, and differential heritability by trait level, were found to be negligible. In our main analysis, we compared models by their sample-size corrected AIC, and base our statistical inference on model-averaged point estimates and standard errors. Additive-genetic variance increased with SES-an effect that was statistically significant and robust to model specification. We found no evidence that SES moderated shared-environmental influence. We attempt to explain the inconsistent replication record of these effects, and provide suggestions for future research.

  1. Replication of a Gene-Environment Interaction via Multimodel Inference: Additive-Genetic Variance in Adolescents’ General Cognitive Ability Increases with Family-of-Origin Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    The present study of general cognitive ability attempts to replicate and extend previous investigations of a biometric moderator, family-of-origin socioeconomic status (SES), in a sample of 2,494 pairs of adolescent twins, non-twin biological siblings, and adoptive siblings assessed with individually administered IQ tests. We hypothesized that SES would covary positively with additive-genetic variance and negatively with shared-environmental variance. Important potential confounds unaddressed in some past studies, such as twin-specific effects, assortative mating, and differential heritability by trait level, were found to be negligible. In our main analysis, we compared models by their sample-size corrected AIC, and base our statistical inference on model-averaged point estimates and standard errors. Additive-genetic variance increased with SES—an effect that was statistically significant and robust to model specification. We found no evidence that SES moderated shared-environmental influence. We attempt to explain the inconsistent replication record of these effects, and provide suggestions for future research. PMID:25539975

  2. Aging is associated with an increase in dye coupling and in gap junction number in satellite glial cells of murine dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Huang, T Y; Hanani, M; Ledda, M; De Palo, S; Pannese, E

    2006-01-01

    Glial cells in both central and peripheral nervous systems are connected by gap junctions, which allow electrical and metabolic coupling between them. In spite of the great current interest in aging of the nervous system, the effect of aging on glial cell coupling received little attention. We examined coupling between satellite glial cells in murine dorsal root ganglia using the dye coupling technique and electron microscopy. We studied mice at ages of postnatal 90-730 days. Dye coupling incidence between satellite glial cells associated with a single neuron increased from 24.2% at postnatal day 90 to 50.5% at postnatal day 730. Dye coupling between satellite glial cells that are in contact with two or more neurons increased from 2.7% at postnatal day 90 to 18.6% at postnatal day 730 (P<0.05). Examination of the ganglia with the electron microscope showed that the number of gap junctions per 100 microm2 of surface area of satellite glial cells increased from 0.22 at postnatal day 90 to 1.56 at postnatal day 730 (P<0.01). The mean length of individual gap junctions did not change with age. These results provide strong evidence for an increase of functional coupling between satellite glial cells during life. This increase is apparently due to an increase in the total area of the system of gap junctions connecting these cells.

  3. Orally administered fructose increases the numbers of peripheral lymphocytes reduced by exposure of mice to gamma or SPE-like proton radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Weaver, A. L.; Ni, J.; Lin, L.; Kennedy, A. R.

    2014-07-01

    Exposure of the whole body or a major portion of the body to ionizing radiation can result in Acute Radiation Sickness (ARS), which can cause symptoms that range from mild to severe, and include death. One of the syndromes that can occur during ARS is the hematopoietic syndrome, which is characterized by a reduction in bone marrow cells as well as the number of circulating blood cells. Doses capable of causing this syndrome can result from conventional radiation therapy and accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. It is of concern that this syndrome could also occur during space exploration class missions in which astronauts could be exposed to significant doses of solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Of particular concern is the reduction of lymphocytes and granulocytes, which are major components of the immune system. A significant reduction in their numbers can compromise the immune system, causing a higher risk for the development of infections which could jeopardize the success of the mission. Although there are no specific countermeasures utilized for the ARS resulting from exposure to space radiation(s), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been proposed as a countermeasure for the low number of neutrophils caused by SPE radiation, but so far no countermeasure exists for a reduced number of circulating lymphocytes. The present study demonstrates that orally administered fructose significantly increases the number of peripheral lymphocytes reduced by exposure of mice to 2 Gy of gamma- or SPE-like proton radiation, making it a potential countermeasure for this biological end-point.

  4. Orally Administered Fructose Increases the Numbers of Peripheral Lymphocytes Reduced by Exposure of Mice to Gamma or SPE-like Proton Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Weaver, A.L.; Ni, J.; Lin, L.; Kennedy, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of the whole body or a major portion of the body to ionizing radiation can result in Acute Radiation Sickness (ARS), which can cause symptoms that range from mild to severe, and include death. One of the syndromes that can occur during ARS is the hematopoietic syndrome, which is characterized by a reduction in bone marrow cells as well as the number of circulating blood cells. Doses capable of causing this syndrome can result from conventional radiation therapy and accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. It is of concern that this syndrome could also occur during space exploration class missions in which astronauts could be exposed to significant doses of solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Of particular concern is the reduction of lymphocytes and granulocytes, which are major components of the immune system. A significant reduction in their numbers can compromise the immune system, causing a higher risk for the development of infections which could jeopardize the success of the mission. Although there are no specific countermeasures utilized for the ARS resulting from exposure to space radiation(s), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been proposed as a countermeasure for the low number of neutrophils caused by SPE radiation, but so far no countermeasure exists for a reduced number of circulating lymphocytes. The present study demonstrates that orally administered fructose significantly increases the number of peripheral lymphocytes reduced by exposure of mice to 2 Gy of gamma- or SPE-like proton radiation, making it a potential countermeasure for this biological end-point. PMID:25360417

  5. TP53 copy number expansion is associated with the evolution of increased body size and an enhanced DNA damage response in elephants.

    PubMed

    Sulak, Michael; Fong, Lindsey; Mika, Katelyn; Chigurupati, Sravanthi; Yon, Lisa; Mongan, Nigel P; Emes, Richard D; Lynch, Vincent J

    2016-09-19

    A major constraint on the evolution of large body sizes in animals is an increased risk of developing cancer. There is no correlation, however, between body size and cancer risk. This lack of correlation is often referred to as 'Peto's Paradox'. Here, we show that the elephant genome encodes 20 copies of the tumor suppressor gene TP53 and that the increase in TP53 copy number occurred coincident with the evolution of large body sizes, the evolution of extreme sensitivity to genotoxic stress, and a hyperactive TP53 signaling pathway in the elephant (Proboscidean) lineage. Furthermore, we show that several of the TP53 retrogenes (TP53RTGs) are transcribed and likely translated. While TP53RTGs do not appear to directly function as transcription factors, they do contribute to the enhanced sensitivity of elephant cells to DNA damage and the induction of apoptosis by regulating activity of the TP53 signaling pathway. These results suggest that an increase in the copy number of TP53 may have played a direct role in the evolution of very large body sizes and the resolution of Peto's paradox in Proboscideans.

  6. Reduction in the number of astrocytes and their projections is associated with increased synaptic protein density in the hypothalamus of poorly controlled diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso M; Arroba, Ana I; Frago, Laura M; García-Cáceres, Cristina; de Célix, Arancha Delgado-Rubín; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2006-11-01

    Processes under hypothalamic control, such as thermogenesis, feeding behavior, and pituitary hormone secretion, are disrupted in poorly controlled diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Because glial cells regulate neurosecretory neurons through modulation of synaptic inputs and function, we investigated the changes in hypothalamic glia in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Hypothalamic glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels decreased significantly 6 wk after diabetes onset. This was coincident with decreased GFAP immunoreactive surface area, astrocyte number, and the extension of GFAP immunoreactive processes/astrocyte in the arcuate nucleus. Cell death, analyzed by terminal deoxyuridine 5-triphosphate nick-end labeling and ELISA, increased significantly at 4 wk of diabetes. Proliferation, measured by Western blot for proliferating cell nuclear antigen and immunostaining for phosphorylated histone H-3, decreased in the hypothalamus of diabetic rats throughout the study, becoming significantly reduced by 8 wk. Both proliferation and death affected astroctyes because both phosphorylated histone H-3- and terminal deoxyuridine 5-triphosphate nick-end labeling-labeled cells were GFAP positive. Western blot analysis revealed that postsynaptic density protein 95 and the presynaptic proteins synapsin I and synaptotagmin increased significantly at 8 wk of diabetes, suggesting increased hypothalamic synaptic density. Thus, in poorly controlled diabetic rats, there is a decrease in the number of hypothalamic astrocytes that is correlated with modifications in synaptic proteins and possibly synaptic inputs. These morphological changes in the arcuate nucleus could be involved in neurosecretory and metabolic changes seen in diabetic animals.

  7. Dietary restriction and fasting arrest B and T cell development and increase mature B and T cell numbers in bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Shushimita, Shushimita; de Bruijn, Marjolein J W; de Bruin, Ron W F; IJzermans, Jan N M; Hendriks, Rudi W; Dor, Frank J M F

    2014-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) delays ageing and extends life span. Both long- and short-term DR, as well as short-term fasting provide robust protection against many "neuronal and surgery related damaging phenomena" such as Parkinson's disease and ischemia-reperfusion injury. The exact mechanism behind this phenomenon has not yet been elucidated. Its anti-inflammatory actions prompted us to thoroughly investigate the consequences of DR and fasting on B and T cell compartments in primary and secondary lymphoid organs of male C57Bl/6 mice. In BM we found that DR and fasting cause a decrease in the total B cell population and arrest early B cell development, while increasing the number of recirculating mature B cells. In the fasting group, a significant reduction in peripheral B cell counts was observed in both spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (mLN). Thymopoiesis was arrested significantly at double negative DN2 stage due to fasting, whereas DR resulted in a partial arrest of thymocyte development at the DN4 stage. Mature CD3(+) T cell populations were increased in BM and decreased in both spleen and mLN. Thus, DR arrests B cell development in the BM but increases the number of recirculating mature B cells. DR also arrests maturation of T cells in thymus, resulting in depletion of mature T cells from spleen and mLN while recruiting them to the BM. The functional relevance in relation to protection against organ damage needs to be determined.

  8. TP53 copy number expansion is associated with the evolution of increased body size and an enhanced DNA damage response in elephants

    PubMed Central

    Sulak, Michael; Fong, Lindsey; Mika, Katelyn; Chigurupati, Sravanthi; Yon, Lisa; Mongan, Nigel P; Emes, Richard D; Lynch, Vincent J

    2016-01-01

    A major constraint on the evolution of large body sizes in animals is an increased risk of developing cancer. There is no correlation, however, between body size and cancer risk. This lack of correlation is often referred to as 'Peto's Paradox'. Here, we show that the elephant genome encodes 20 copies of the tumor suppressor gene TP53 and that the increase in TP53 copy number occurred coincident with the evolution of large body sizes, the evolution of extreme sensitivity to genotoxic stress, and a hyperactive TP53 signaling pathway in the elephant (Proboscidean) lineage. Furthermore, we show that several of the TP53 retrogenes (TP53RTGs) are transcribed and likely translated. While TP53RTGs do not appear to directly function as transcription factors, they do contribute to the enhanced sensitivity of elephant cells to DNA damage and the induction of apoptosis by regulating activity of the TP53 signaling pathway. These results suggest that an increase in the copy number of TP53 may have played a direct role in the evolution of very large body sizes and the resolution of Peto's paradox in Proboscideans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11994.001 PMID:27642012

  9. Addition of microbially-treated sugar beet residue and a native bacterium increases structural stability in heavy metal-contaminated Mediterranean soils.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, L; Caravaca, F; Azcón, R; Kohler, J; Roldán, A

    2009-10-15

    A mesocosm experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of the addition of Aspergillus niger-treated sugar beet waste, in the presence of rock phosphate, and inoculation with a native, metal-tolerant bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, on the stabilisation of soil aggregates of two mine tailings, with differing pH values, from a semiarid Mediterranean area and on the stimulation of growth of Piptatherum miliaceum. Bacterium combined with organic amendment enhanced structural stability (38% in acidic soil and 106% in neutral soil compared with their corresponding controls). Only the organic amendment increased pH, electrical conductivity, water-soluble C, water-soluble carbohydrates and plant growth, in both soils. While in neutral soil both organic amendment and bacterium increased dehydrogenase activity, only organic amendment had a significant effect in acidic soil. This study demonstrates that the use of P. miliaceum in combination with organic amendment and bacterium is a suitable tool for the stabilisation of the soil structure of degraded mine tailings, although its effectiveness is dependent on soil pH.

  10. Evaluation of corn oil as an additive in the pre-enrichment step to increase recovery of Salmonella enterica from oregano.

    PubMed

    Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Flamer, Marie-Laure; Addy, Nicole; Ewing, Laura; Gopinath, Gopal; Jarvis, Karen; Grim, Chris; Hanes, Darcy E

    2016-08-01

    Phenolic compounds associated with essential oils of spices and herbs possess a variety of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties that interfere with Salmonella detection from fresh and dried products. Finding a compound to neutralize the effect of these antimicrobial compounds, while allowing Salmonella growth during pre-enrichment, is a crucial step in both traditional pathogen isolation and molecular detection from these foods. This study evaluated the effectiveness of corn oil as a component of the pre-enrichment broth to counteract antimicrobial compounds properties and increase the recovery of Salmonella from spices. Oregano samples artificially contaminated with Salmonella enterica were pre-enriched in modified Buffered Peptone Water (mBPW) supplemented with and without 2% (vol/vol) corn oil respectively. Samples were incubated overnight at 37 °C. The results showed that recovery of Salmonella from oregano samples was increased by ≥50% when pre-enriched with corn oil. Serovars were confirmed using a PCR serotyping method. In addition, shot-gun metagenomics analyses demonstrated bacterial diversity and the effect of corn oil on the relative prevalence of Salmonella in the oregano samples. Modifying pre-enrichment broths with corn oil improved the detection and isolation of Salmonella from oregano, and may provide an alternative method for pathogen detection in dried food matrices such as spices.

  11. Addition of a third field significantly increases dose to the brachial plexus for patients undergoing tangential whole-breast therapy after lumpectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Stanic, Sinisa; Mathai, Mathew; Mayadev, Jyoti S.; Do, Ly V.; Purdy, James A.; Chen, Allen M.

    2012-07-01

    Our goal was to evaluate brachial plexus (BP) dose with and without the use of supraclavicular (SCL) irradiation in patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy with whole-breast radiation therapy (RT) after lumpectomy. Using the standardized Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-endorsed guidelines delineation, we contoured the BP for 10 postlumpectomy breast cancer patients. The radiation dose to the whole breast was 50.4 Gy using tangential fields in 1.8-Gy fractions, followed by a conedown to the operative bed using electrons (10 Gy). The prescription dose to the SCL field was 50.4 Gy, delivered to 3-cm depth. The mean BP volume was 14.5 {+-} 1.5 cm{sup 3}. With tangential fields alone, the median mean dose to the BP was 0.57 Gy, the median maximum dose was 1.93 Gy, and the irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 0%. When the third (SCL field) was added, the dose to the BP was significantly increased (P = .01): the median mean dose to the BP was 40.60 Gy, and the median maximum dose was 52.22 Gy. With 3-field RT, the median irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 83.5%, 68.5%, and 24.6%, respectively. The addition of the SCL field significantly increases dose to the BP. The possibility of increasing the risk of BP morbidity should be considered in the context of clinical decision making.

  12. Contraction-induced increases in Na+-K+-ATPase mRNA levels in human skeletal muscle are not amplified by activation of additional muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Thomassen, Martin; Lundby, Carsten; Pilegaard, Henriette; Bangsbo, Jens

    2005-07-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that exercise with a large compared with a small active muscle mass results in a higher contraction-induced increase in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase mRNA expression due to greater hormonal responses. Furthermore, the relative abundance of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase subunit alpha(1), alpha(2), alpha(3), alpha(4), beta(1), beta(2), and beta(3) mRNA in human skeletal muscle was investigated. On two occasions, eight subjects performed one-legged knee extension exercise (L) or combined one-legged knee extension and bilateral arm cranking (AL) for 5.00, 4.25, 3.50, 2.75, and 2.00 min separated by 3 min of rest. Leg exercise power output was the same in AL and L, but heart rate at the end of each exercise interval was higher in AL compared with L. One minute after exercise, arm venous blood lactate was higher in AL than in L. A higher level of blood epinephrine and norepinephrine was evident 3 min after exercise in AL compared with L. Nevertheless, none of the exercise-induced increases in alpha(1), alpha(2), beta(1), and beta(3) mRNA expression levels were higher in AL compared with L. The most abundant Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase subunit at the mRNA level was beta(1), which was expressed 3.4 times than alpha(2). Expression of alpha(1), beta(2), and beta(3) was less than 5% of the alpha(2) expression, and no reliable detection of alpha(3) and alpha(4) was possible. In conclusion, activation of additional muscle mass does not result in a higher exercise-induced increase in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase subunit-specific mRNA.

  13. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1), with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit), without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 μM in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 μM). The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 μM), 5-min (76 μM) and 10-min (40 μM) sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral cancer associated with

  14. Increasing addition of autochthonous to allochthonous carbon in nutrient-rich aquatic systems stimulates carbon consumption but does not alter bacterial community composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attermeyer, K.; Hornick, T.; Kayler, Z. E.; Bahr, A.; Zwirnmann, E.; Grossart, H.-P.; Premke, K.

    2013-08-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations - mainly of terrestrial origin - are increasing worldwide in inland waters. The biodegradability of the DOC varies depending on quantity and chemical quality. Heterotrophic bacteria are the main consumers of DOC and thus determine DOC temporal dynamics and availability for higher trophic levels. It is therefore crucial to understand the processes controlling the bacterial turnover of additional allochthonous and autochthonous DOC in aquatic systems. Our aim was to study bacterial carbon (C) turnover with respect to DOC quantity and chemical quality using both allochthonous and autochthonous DOC sources. We incubated a natural bacterial community with allochthonous C (13C-labeled beech leachate) and increased concentrations and pulses (intermittent occurrence of organic matter input) of autochthonous C (algae lysate). We then determined bacterial carbon consumption, activities, and community composition together with the carbon flow through bacteria using stable C isotopes. The chemical analysis of single sources revealed differences in aromaticity and fractions of low and high molecular weight substances (LMWS and HMWS, respectively) between allochthonous and autochthonous C sources. In parallel to these differences in chemical composition, we observed a higher availability of allochthonous C as evidenced by increased DOC consumption and bacterial growth efficiencies (BGE) when solely allochthonous C was provided. In treatments with mixed sources, rising concentrations of added autochthonous DOC resulted in a further, significant increase in bacterial DOC consumption from 52 to 68% when nutrients were not limiting. This rise was accompanied by a decrease in the humic substances (HS) fraction and an increase in bacterial biomass. Stable C isotope analyses of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and respired dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) supported a preferential assimilation of autochthonous C and respiration of the

  15. The annual carnival in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) is associated with an increase in the number of conceptions and subsequent births nine months later: 2000 – 2011

    PubMed Central

    Costet, Nathalie; Toto, Teddy; Janky, Eustase; Multigner, Luc

    2017-01-01

    The seasonal patterns of conceptions and births differ between geographic areas. Several potential determinants of this variation have been identified, including biological, environmental and behavioral elements, but festive events are rarely mentioned. We investigated the possible association between the carnival and seasonal fertility variations in the French West Indies. We ran a retrospective registry-based study. The data were extracted from the registry of all births on Guadeloupe between 2000 and 2011 (n = 74,412), and from the Maternity Birth Register of the University Hospital, for all pregnancies of at least 14 completed weeks of gestation (observable conceptions) with an outcome recorded between 2007 and 2010 (n = 8,425). We compared data during and outside the carnival period for each year, including 2009, when there was no carnival due to a 44-day general strike. In all years other than 2009, the weekly number of births was higher for pregnancies initiated during the carnival period than for pregnancies initiated at other times, and the weekly number of observable conceptions was higher during the carnival period than at other times. Our findings support the hypothesis that carnivals in the French West Indies are associated with an increase in the number of conceptions and subsequent births. PMID:28253323

  16. Increased Uterine NK cell numbers and perforin expression during the implantation phase in IVF Cycles with GnRH Antagonist Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bufang; Wang, Jingwen; Xia, Lan; Zhang, Dan; Wu, Xian; Zhang, Aijun

    2017-01-01

    GnRH antagonist negatively affects endometrial receptivity in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. To explore its target molecules, we studied endometria in the window phase of fixed GnRH antagonist, low-dose flexible GnRH antagonist, GnRH agonist long protocol, and untreated control groups. There were 384 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the fixed antagonist group with greater than twofold expression change compared with the control group and 197 DEGs between the fixed antagonist and agonist groups, the majority of which were associated with the natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity pathway. We then analysed the PRF1 and FASLG protein levels. The perforin level were significantly higher in both the antagonist groups than in other two groups, and was higher in the fixed antagonist group. Similarly, the uNK cell numbers were higher in the antagonist groups, and the highest uNK cell number occurred in the fixed group (p < 0.05). No significant differences existed in the Fas ligand levels and apoptosis rates among the three treatment groups, but were higher in the treatment groups than the control group. Together, these data indicate that GnRH antagonist may increase the uNK cell numbers and perforin expression, and this effect may be dose-dependent. PMID:28045093

  17. A strategy to synergistically increase the number of active edge sites and the conductivity of MoS2 nanosheets for hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hailong; Yu, Xianbo; Chen, Yujin; Zhang, Shen; Gao, Peng; Li, Chunyan

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructured MoS2 is very promising as an electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution due to a greater number of active edge sites. However, a very large resistance between basal planes decreases the overall efficiency of hydrogen evolution, and greatly limits its application in industry. Herein we develop a facile strategy to synergistically increase the number of active edge sites and the conductivity of MoS2. MoS2 nanosheet arrays can be grown vertically on a carbon fiber cloth (CFC) substrates by a facile strategy. On the one hand, ammonium fluoride in the reaction system could effectively etch the inert basal plane of the MoS2 nanosheets, leading to the formation of pits in the inert basal plane of the MoS2 nanosheets. Thereby the number of active edge sites is significantly increased. On the other hand, the vertical growth of MoS2 nanosheet arrays on CFCs can significantly decrease the resistance of MoS2-based electrocatalysts. As a result, the MoS2-based electrocatalysts exhibit excellent catalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reactions, with a small Tafel slope and a large cathodic current density. Moreover, the CFC can be repeatedly utilized as a template to grow ultrathin MoS2 nanosheet arrays for HERs. The excellent activity and recyclable utilization, as well as mass production, indicate that the composite has promising applications in industry.Nanostructured MoS2 is very promising as an electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution due to a greater number of active edge sites. However, a very large resistance between basal planes decreases the overall efficiency of hydrogen evolution, and greatly limits its application in industry. Herein we develop a facile strategy to synergistically increase the number of active edge sites and the conductivity of MoS2. MoS2 nanosheet arrays can be grown vertically on a carbon fiber cloth (CFC) substrates by a facile strategy. On the one hand, ammonium fluoride in the reaction system could effectively etch the inert basal

  18. The increased number of tumor-associated macrophage is associated with overexpression of VEGF-C, plays an important role in Kazakh ESCC invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian Ming; Liu, Kai; Liu, Ji Hong; Jiang, Xian Li; Wang, Xue Li; Yang, Lan; Chen, Yun Zhao; Liu, Chun Xia; Li, Shu Gang; Cui, Xiao Bin; Zou, Hong; Pang, Li Juan; Zhao, Jin; Qi, Yan; Liang, Wei Hua; Yuan, Xiang Lin; Li, Feng

    2017-02-01

    Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in the growth, progression, and metastasis of tumors. The distribution of TAMs in Kazakh esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is not determined. We aimed to investigate the role of TAMs in the occurrence and progression of Kazakh ESCC. CD163 was used as the TAM marker, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) counts were used to quantify the density of TAMs in tumor nest and surrounding stroma. IHC staining was used to evaluate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) in Kazakh ESCC and cancer adjacent normal (CAN) tissues. The density of TAMs in Kazakh ESCCs tumor nest and stromal was significantly higher than that in CAN tissues. The increased number of CD163-positive TAMs in tumor nest and tumor stromal was positively associated with Kazakh ESCC lymph node metastasis and clinical stage progression. Meanwhile, the expression of VEGF-C in Kazakh ESCCs was significantly higher than that in CAN tissues. Overexpression of VEGF-C in Kazakh ESCCs was significantly associated with gender, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and tumor clinical stage. The increased number of TAMs, either in the tumor nests or tumor stroma was positively correlated with the overexpression of VEGF-C, which may promote lymphangiogenesis and play an important role in the invasion and metastasis of Kazakh ESCC.

  19. An increase in tolerogenic dendritic cell and natural regulatory T cell numbers during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Rras-/- mice results in attenuated disease.

    PubMed

    Ray, Avijit; Basu, Sreemanti; Miller, Nichole M; Chan, Andrew M; Dittel, Bonnie N

    2014-06-01

    R-Ras is a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases, which are regulators of various cellular processes, including adhesion, survival, proliferation, trafficking, and cytokine production. R-Ras is expressed by immune cells and has been shown to modulate dendritic cell (DC) function in vitro and has been associated with liver autoimmunity. We used Rras-deficient mice to study the mechanism whereby R-Ras contributes to autoimmunity using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of the CNS autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis. We found that a lack of R-Ras in peripheral immune cells resulted in attenuated EAE disease. Further investigation revealed that, during EAE, absence of R-Ras promoted the formation of MHC II(low) DC concomitant with a significant increase in proliferation of natural regulatory T cells, resulting in an increase in their cell numbers in the periphery. Our study suggests a novel role for R-Ras in promoting autoimmunity through negative regulation of natural regulatory T cell numbers by inhibiting the development of MHCII(low) DC with tolerogenic potential.

  20. Second Malignancies After Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Breast Cancer: Is There Increased Risk With Addition of Regional Radiation to Local Radiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole; Tyldesley, Scott; Li, Dongdong; Olson, Robert; McBride, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an increased risk of second malignancies (SM), particularly lung cancer, in early stage breast cancer patients treated with the addition of nodal fields to breast and/or chest wall radiation therapy (RT). Materials and Methods: Subjects were stage I/II female breast cancer patients 20 to 79 years of age, diagnosed between 1989 and 2005 and treated with adjuvant RT at our institution. Patients were included if they survived and did not have SM within 3 years of diagnosis. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare SM incidence to cancer incidence in the general sex- and age-matched populations. Secondary malignancy risks in patients treated with local RT (LRT) to the breast/chest wall were compared to those in patients treated with locoregional RT (LRRT) to the breast/chest wall and regional nodes, using multivariate regression analysis (MVA) to account for covariates. Results: The cohort included 12,836 patients with a median follow-up of 8.4 years. LRRT was used in 18% of patients. The SIR comparing patients treated with LRT to the general population was 1.29 (CI: 1.21-1.38). No statistically significant increased incidence of in-field malignancies (SIR, 1.04; CI: 0.87-1.23) and lung cancers (SIR, 1.06; CI: 0.88-1.26) was detected. The SIR comparing patients treated with LRRT to the general population was 1.39 (CI: 1.17-1.64). No statistically significant increased incidence of in-field malignancies (SIR, 1.26; CI: 0.77-1.94) and lung cancers (SIR, 1.27; CI: 0.76-1.98) was detected. On MVA comparing LRRT to LRT, the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.20 for in-field malignancies (CI: 0.68-2.16) and 1.26 for lung cancer (CI: 0.67-2.36). The excess attributable risk (EAR) to regional RT was 3.1 per 10,000 person years (CI: −8.7 to 9.9). Conclusions: No statistically significant increased risk of second malignancy was detected after LRRT relative to

  1. Addition of chloride to a prepartal diet high in cations increases 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D response to hypocalcemia preventing milk fever.

    PubMed

    Goff, J P; Horst, R L; Mueller, F J; Miller, J K; Kiess, G A; Dowlen, H H

    1991-11-01

    In this study, we present evidence that cows fed highly cationic diets are less responsive to parathyroid hormone than those fed a highly anionic diet. Forty-seven Jersey cows (55 mo of age) were fed an alfalfa haylage-based diet supplemented with either anions (Cl-) or cations (Na+). Cows fed the high cationic diet suffered significantly more cases of milk fever (6 out of 23) than those fed the high anionic diet (1 out of 24). Concentrations of Ca at parturition and the first 2 d of lactation were significantly higher in cows fed the anionic diet. Secretion of parathyroid hormone in response to developing hypocalcemia was similar in cows fed either diet. Plasma hydroxyproline concentration (an index of bone Ca resorption activity) was greater in cows fed the anionic diet, suggesting better utilization of bone Ca. Plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration was correlated inversely with plasma Ca and related directly to plasma parathyroid hormone in both groups of cows. However, the magnitude of the response (the amount of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D produced per unit increase in parathyroid hormone) was reduced greatly in cows fed the high cation diet. Because parathyroid hormone regulates both bone Ca resorption and renal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D production, these data suggest that prepartal diets high in cations decrease the ability of bone and renal tissues to respond to parathyroid hormone. Addition of anions to prepartal diets can reduce the excess cation balance of diets, increasing tissue response to parathyroid hormone and enabling the cow to better adapt to the Ca demands of lactation.

  2. Dietary Restriction and Fasting Arrest B and T Cell Development and Increase Mature B and T Cell Numbers in Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Shushimita, Shushimita; de Bruijn, Marjolein J. W.; de Bruin, Ron W. F.; IJzermans, Jan N. M.; Hendriks, Rudi W.; Dor, Frank J. M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) delays ageing and extends life span. Both long- and short-term DR, as well as short-term fasting provide robust protection against many “neuronal and surgery related damaging phenomena” such as Parkinson’s disease and ischemia-reperfusion injury. The exact mechanism behind this phenomenon has not yet been elucidated. Its anti-inflammatory actions prompted us to thoroughly investigate the consequences of DR and fasting on B and T cell compartments in primary and secondary lymphoid organs of male C57Bl/6 mice. In BM we found that DR and fasting cause a decrease in the total B cell population and arrest early B cell development, while increasing the number of recirculating mature B cells. In the fasting group, a significant reduction in peripheral B cell counts was observed in both spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (mLN). Thymopoiesis was arrested significantly at double negative DN2 stage due to fasting, whereas DR resulted in a partial arrest of thymocyte development at the DN4 stage. Mature CD3+ T cell populations were increased in BM and decreased in both spleen and mLN. Thus, DR arrests B cell development in the BM but increases the number of recirculating mature B cells. DR also arrests maturation of T cells in thymus, resulting in depletion of mature T cells from spleen and mLN while recruiting them to the BM. The functional relevance in relation to protection against organ damage needs to be determined. PMID:24504160

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone increases the number and dendrite maturation of doublecortin cells in the dentate gyrus of middle age male Wistar rats exposed to chronic mild stress.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Pérez, J J; Martínez-Mota, L; Jiménez-Rubio, G; Ortiz-López, L; Cabrera-Muñoz, E A; Galindo-Sevilla, N; Zambrano, E; Hernández-Luis, F; Ramírez-Rodríguez, G B; Flores-Ramos, M

    2017-03-15

    Aging increases the vulnerability to stress and risk of developing depression. These changes have been related to a reduction of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, an adrenal steroid with anti-stress effects. Also, adult hippocampal neurogenesis decreases during aging and its alteration or impaired is related to the development of depression. Besides, it has been hypothesized that DHEA increases the formation of new neurons. However, it is unknown whether treatment with DHEA in aging may stimulate the dendrite maturation of newborn neurons and reversing depressive-like signs evoked by chronic stress exposure. Here aged male rats (14 months old) were subjected to a scheme of chronic mild stress (CMS) during six weeks, received a treatment with DHEA from the third week of CMS. Changes in body weight and sucrose preference (SP) were measured once a week. DHEA levels were measured in serum, identification of doublecortin-(DCX)-, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN-labeled cells was done in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. CMS produced a gradual reduction in the body weight, but no changes in the SP were observed. Treatment enhanced levels of DHEA, but lack of recovery on body weight of stressed rats. Aging reduced the number of DCX-, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN- cells but DHEA just significantly increased the number of DCX-cells in rats under CMS and controls, reaching levels of young non-stressed rats (used here as a reference of an optimal status of health). In rats under CMS, DHEA facilitated dendritic maturation of immature new neurons. Our results reveal that DHEA improves neural plasticity even in conditions of CMS in middle age rats. Thus, this hormone reverted the decrement of DCX-cells caused during normal aging.

  4. Overexpression of the leucine-rich receptor-like kinase gene LRK2 increases drought tolerance and tiller number in rice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Junfang; Li, Jianmin; Gao, Shuang; Tian, Chao; Zha, Xiaojun

    2017-02-09

    Drought represents a key limiting factor of global crop distribution. Receptor-like kinases play major roles in plant development and defense responses against stresses such as drought. In this study, LRK2, which encodes a leucine-rich receptor-like kinase, was cloned and characterized and found to be localized on the plasma membrane in rice. Promoter-GUS analysis revealed strong expression in tiller buds, roots, nodes and anthers. Transgenic plants overexpressing LRK2 exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought stress due to an increased number of lateral roots compared to the wild-type at the vegetative stage. Moreover, ectopic expression of LRK2 seedlings resulted in increased tiller development. Yeast two-hybrid screening and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) indicated a possible interaction between LRK2 and elongation factor 1 alpha (OsEF1A) in vitro. These results suggest that LRK2 functions as a positive regulator of the drought stress response and tiller development via increased branch development in rice. These findings will aid our understanding of branch regulation in other grasses and support improvements in rice genetics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  6. Increased number of skin lesions as a measure of aggression following the mixing of slaughter boars from western Canada assembled for export

    PubMed Central

    Paetkau, Leanne N.; Whiting, Terry L.

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary observational study was conducted to evaluate the animal welfare impacts of holding and mixing on boars; specifically, the need to tusk trim on arrival at assembly. Cull boars assembled in Manitoba from 3 western Canadian provinces were observed without intervention. Although aggression among boars was common, significant physical injury to boars from handling and other boars was rare. Tusk trimming was widely practised in mature boars prior to transport in the population studied. Length of time assembled, number of boars in a pen, temperature, size of boar, and presence of tusk were not associated with change in the skin score of new boars introduced into a pen. Holding groups of previously unfamiliar boars en route to slaughter did not appear to be a significant risk for increased skin lesions in the population studied. Further research is required into the methods and welfare implications to boars subjected to tusk trimming. PMID:18512461

  7. Nerve growth factor promotes human sperm motility in vitro by increasing the movement distance and the number of A grade spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai; Ding, Xue-Feng; Shi, Cui-Ge; Zeng, Dan; QuZong, SuoLang; Liu, Shu-Hong; Wu, Yan; LuoBu, GeSang; Fan, Ming; Zhao, Y-Q

    2015-11-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) was first found in the central nervous system and is now well known for its multiple pivotal roles in the nervous system and immune system. However, more and more evidences showed that NGF and its receptors TrkA and p75 were also found in the head and tail of spermatozoa, which indicate the possible effect of NGF on the sperm motility. Nevertheless, the exact role of NGF in the human sperm motility remains unclear until now. In this study, we investigated the effect of NGF on human sperm motility, and the results showed that NGF could promote human sperm motility in vitro by increasing the movement distance and the number of A grade spermatozoa. Further analysis demonstrated that NGF promoted the sperm motility in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. These results may facilitate the further studies on human fertility and assisted reproduction techniques.

  8. Increase in the coordination number of a cobalt porphyrin after photo-induced interfacial electron transfer into nanocrystalline TiO2.

    PubMed

    Achey, Darren; Ardo, Shane; Meyer, Gerald J

    2012-09-17

    Spectroscopic, electrochemical, and kinetic data provide compelling evidence for a coordination number increase initiated by interfacial electron transfer. Light excitation of Co(I)(meso-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin) anchored to a nanocrystalline TiO(2) thin film, abbreviated Co(I)P/TiO(2), immersed in an acetonitrile:pyridine electrolyte resulted in rapid excited state injection, k(inj) > 10(8) s(-1), to yield Co(II)P/TiO(2)(e(-)), followed by axial coordination of pyridine to the Co(II)P and hence an increase in coordination number from four to five. The formal oxidation state and coordination environment of the Co metalloporphyrin on TiO(2) were assigned through comparative studies in fluid solution as well as by comparisons to previously reported data. The kinetics for pyridine coordination were successfully modeled with a pseudo-first order kinetic model that yielded a second-order rate constant of k(+py) = 2 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1). Spectro-electrochemical measurements showed that pyridine coordination resulted in a ∼200 mV negative shift in the Co(II/I) reduction potential, E°(Co(II/I)/TiO(2)) = -0.72 V and E°(Co(II/I)(py)/TiO(2)) = -0.85 V vs NHE. With some assumptions, this indicated an equilibrium formation constant K(f) = 400 M(-1) for the Co(II)P(py)/TiO(2) compound. The kinetics for charge recombination were non-exponential under all conditions studied, but were successfully modeled by the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) function with observed rate constants that decreased by about a factor of 100 when pyridine was present. The possible mechanisms for charge recombination are discussed.

  9. STAT4 Associates with SLE Through Two Independent Effects that Correlate with Gene Expression and Act Additively with IRF5 to Increase Risk

    PubMed Central

    Abelson, Anna-Karin; Delgado-Vega, Angélica M.; Kozyrev, Sergey V.; Sánchez, Elena; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Eriksson, Niclas; Wojcik, Jerome; Reddy, Prasad Linga; Lima, Guadalupe; D’Alfonso, Sandra; Migliaresi, Sergio; Baca, Vicente; Orozco, Lorena; Witte, Torsten; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Abderrahim, Hadi; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Gutiérrez, Carmen; Suárez, Ana; González-Escribano, Maria Francisca; Martin, Javier; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To confirm and define the genetic association of STAT4 and systemic lupus erythematosus, investigate the possibility of correlations with differential splicing and/or expression levels, and genetic interaction with IRF5. Methods 30 tag SNPs were genotyped in an independent set of Spanish cases and controls. SNPs surviving correction for multiple tests were genotyped in 5 new sets of cases and controls for replication. STAT4 cDNA was analyzed by 5’-RACE PCR and sequencing. Expression levels were measured by quantitative PCR. Results In the fine-mapping, four SNPs were significant after correction for multiple testing, with rs3821236 and rs3024866 as the strongest signals, followed by the previously associated rs7574865, and by rs1467199. Association was replicated in all cohorts. After conditional regression analyses, two major independent signals represented by SNPs rs3821236 and rs7574865, remained significant across the sets. These SNPs belong to separate haplotype blocks. High levels of STAT4 expression correlated with SNPs rs3821236, rs3024866 (both in the same haplotype block) and rs7574865 but not with other SNPs. We also detected transcription of alternative tissue-specific exons 1, indicating presence of tissue-specific promoters of potential importance in the expression of STAT4. No interaction with associated SNPs of IRF5 was observed using regression analysis. Conclusions These data confirm STAT4 as a susceptibility gene for SLE and suggest the presence of at least two functional variants affecting levels of STAT4. Our results also indicate that both genes STAT4 and IRF5 act additively to increase risk for SLE. PMID:19019891

  10. Increasing Number and Proportion of Adverse Obstetrical Outcomes among Women Living with HIV in the Ottawa Area: A 20-Year Clinical Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Sarah; Spaans, Johanna N.; Balfour, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence and associated risks with adverse obstetrical outcomes among women living with HIV are not well measured. The objective of this study was to longitudinally investigate the prevalence and correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes among women with HIV. Methods. This 20-year (1990–2010) clinical case series assessed the prevalence of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV receiving care at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH). General estimating equation modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes, while controlling for year of childbirth clustering. Results. At TOH, there were 127 deliveries among 94 women (1990–2010): 22 preterm births, 9 births with low birth weight, 12 births small for gestational age, and 4 stillbirths. Per year, the odds of adverse obstetrical outcomes increased by 15% (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03–1.30). Psychiatric illness (AOR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.12–6.24), teen pregnancy (AOR: 3.35, 95% CI: 1.04–1.46), and recent immigrant status (AOR: 7.24, 95% CI: 1.30–40.28) were the strongest correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes. Conclusions. The increasing number and proportion of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV over the past 20 years highlight the need for social supports and maternal and child health interventions, especially among adolescents, new immigrants, and those with a history of mental illness. PMID:27528877

  11. Increased Numbers of Circulating CD8 Effector Memory T Cells before Transplantation Enhance the Risk of Acute Rejection in Lung Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    San Segundo, David; Ballesteros, María Ángeles; Naranjo, Sara; Zurbano, Felipe; Miñambres, Eduardo; López-Hoyos, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The effector and regulatory T cell subpopulations involved in the development of acute rejection episodes in lung transplantation remain to be elucidated. Twenty-seven lung transplant candidates were prospectively monitored before transplantation and within the first year post-transplantation. Regulatory, Th17, memory and naïve T cells were measured in peripheral blood of lung transplant recipients by flow cytometry. No association of acute rejection with number of peripheral regulatory T cells and Th17 cells was found. However, effector memory subsets in acute rejection patients were increased during the first two months post-transplant. Interestingly, patients waiting for lung transplant with levels of CD8+ effector memory T cells over 185 cells/mm3 had a significant increased risk of rejection [OR: 5.62 (95% CI: 1.08-29.37), p=0.04]. In multivariate analysis adjusted for age and gender the odds ratio for rejection was: OR: 5.89 (95% CI: 1.08-32.24), p=0.04. These data suggest a correlation between acute rejection and effector memory T cells in lung transplant recipients. The measurement of peripheral blood CD8+ effector memory T cells prior to lung transplant may define patients at high risk of acute lung rejection. PMID:24236187

  12. Negative Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Mary J.

    1974-01-01

    Examination of models for representing integers demonstrates that formal operational thought is required for establishing the operations on integers. Advocated is the use of many models for introducing negative numbers but, apart from addition, it is recommended that operations on integers be delayed until the formal operations stage. (JP)

  13. Daily Thermal Fluctuations Experienced by Pupae via Rhythmic Nursing Behavior Increase Numbers of Mushroom Body Microglomeruli in the Adult Ant Brain

    PubMed Central

    Falibene, Agustina; Roces, Flavio; Rössler, Wolfgang; Groh, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Social insects control brood development by using different thermoregulatory strategies. Camponotus mus ants expose their brood to daily temperature fluctuations by translocating them inside the nest following a circadian rhythm of thermal preferences. At the middle of the photophase brood is moved to locations at 30.8°C; 8 h later, during the night, the brood is transferred back to locations at 27.5°C. We investigated whether daily thermal fluctuations experienced by developing pupae affect the neuroarchitecture in the adult brain, in particular in sensory input regions of the mushroom bodies (MB calyces). The complexity of synaptic microcircuits was estimated by quantifying MB-calyx volumes together with densities of presynaptic boutons of microglomeruli (MG) in the olfactory lip and visual collar regions. We compared young adult workers that were reared either under controlled daily thermal fluctuations of different amplitudes, or at different constant temperatures. Thermal regimes significantly affected the large (non-dense) olfactory lip region of the adult MB calyx, while changes in the dense lip and the visual collar were less evident. Thermal fluctuations mimicking the amplitudes of natural temperature fluctuations via circadian rhythmic translocation of pupae by nurses (amplitude 3.3°C) lead to higher numbers of MG in the MB calyces compared to those in pupae reared at smaller or larger thermal amplitudes (0.0, 1.5, 9.6°C), or at constant temperatures (25.4, 35.0°C). We conclude that rhythmic control of brood temperature by nursing ants optimizes brain development by increasing MG densities and numbers in specific brain areas. Resulting differences in synaptic microcircuits are expected to affect sensory processing and learning abilities in adult ants, and may also promote interindividual behavioral variability within colonies. PMID:27147994

  14. A short-term extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure increases circulating leukocyte numbers and affects HPA-axis signaling in mice.

    PubMed

    de Kleijn, Stan; Ferwerda, Gerben; Wiese, Michelle; Trentelman, Jos; Cuppen, Jan; Kozicz, Tamas; de Jager, Linda; Hermans, Peter W M; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy

    2016-10-01

    There is still uncertainty whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) can induce health effects like immunomodulation. Despite evidence obtained in vitro, an unambiguous association has not yet been established in vivo. Here, mice were exposed to ELF-EMF for 1, 4, and 24 h/day in a short-term (1 week) and long-term (15 weeks) set-up to investigate whole body effects on the level of stress regulation and immune response. ELF-EMF signal contained multiple frequencies (20-5000 Hz) and a magnetic flux density of 10 μT. After exposure, blood was analyzed for leukocyte numbers (short-term and long-term) and adrenocorticotropic hormone concentration (short-term only). Furthermore, in the short-term experiment, stress-related parameters, corticotropin-releasing hormone, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and CYP11A1 gene-expression, respectively, were determined in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, pituitary, and adrenal glands. In the short-term but not long-term experiment, leukocyte counts were significantly higher in the 24 h-exposed group compared with controls, mainly represented by increased neutrophils and CD4 ± lymphocytes. POMC expression and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone were significantly lower compared with unexposed control mice. In conclusion, short-term ELF-EMF exposure may affect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation in mice. Changes in stress hormone release may explain changes in circulating leukocyte numbers and composition. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:433-443, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Increased number of crop types over France in the ISBA-A-gs land surface model : does it improve the regional simulation of LAI ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    lafont, Sebastien; Calvet, Alina; Carrer, Dominque; Delire, Christine; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Alkama, ramdane

    2013-04-01

    Land surface models have at first been designed to represent natural vegetation classified in broad Plant Functional Type (PFT). A better description of the agricultural land is needed to enlarge the accuracy of the model (especially at high resolution) and their range of application (land use studies, climate change...). For example in temperate region, the C3 crops have two different seasonal cycles with a peak LAI in spring or in summer depending on sowing date. A larger number of agricultural PFT have been recently introduced in the ISBA-A-gs land surface model within the SURFEX modelling platform. The SURFEX modelling platform is used in a wide range of applications either in coupled mode or in off-line mode (driven by meteorological forcing). The number of agricultural PFT have been increased from 3 (C3 crops, C4 crops, irrigated C4 crops) to 8 (C3 winter crops, and C3 summer crops both irrigated or not; C4 crops; C4 irrigated crops). The objective is not to implement a full agronomic model but to introduce simple parametrisation which account for the broad differences between these classes. For example summer C3 crops have a prescribed emergence date parameter that differentiate them from winter C3 crops. The irrigation introduced in an earlier version of ISBA-A-gs is based on a simple empirical model based on threshold of soil moisture. We will test the new version of the model over France in a configuration close to the one used by the GEOLAND2 Land Carbon project. The simulations are performed with the high resolution meteorological forcing (8km) SAFRAN over a period of 20 years. We compare the simulated LAI over France with the GEOLAND2 LAI product derived project from the SPOT/VEGETATION sensor. Finally, we discuss the improvement in seasonal cycle and inter-annual variability bring by the new PFTs.

  16. A short‐term extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure increases circulating leukocyte numbers and affects HPA‐axis signaling in mice

    PubMed Central

    de Kleijn, Stan; Ferwerda, Gerben; Wiese, Michelle; Trentelman, Jos; Cuppen, Jan; Kozicz, Tamas; de Jager, Linda; Hermans, Peter W. M.

    2016-01-01

    There is still uncertainty whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF‐EMF) can induce health effects like immunomodulation. Despite evidence obtained in vitro, an unambiguous association has not yet been established in vivo. Here, mice were exposed to ELF‐EMF for 1, 4, and 24 h/day in a short‐term (1 week) and long‐term (15 weeks) set‐up to investigate whole body effects on the level of stress regulation and immune response. ELF‐EMF signal contained multiple frequencies (20–5000 Hz) and a magnetic flux density of 10 μT. After exposure, blood was analyzed for leukocyte numbers (short‐term and long‐term) and adrenocorticotropic hormone concentration (short‐term only). Furthermore, in the short‐term experiment, stress‐related parameters, corticotropin‐releasing hormone, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and CYP11A1 gene‐expression, respectively, were determined in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, pituitary, and adrenal glands. In the short‐term but not long‐term experiment, leukocyte counts were significantly higher in the 24 h‐exposed group compared with controls, mainly represented by increased neutrophils and CD4 ± lymphocytes. POMC expression and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone were significantly lower compared with unexposed control mice. In conclusion, short‐term ELF‐EMF exposure may affect hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenal axis activation in mice. Changes in stress hormone release may explain changes in circulating leukocyte numbers and composition. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:433–443, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27553635

  17. The dual PPARα/γ agonist aleglitazar increases the number and function of endothelial progenitor cells: implications for vascular function and atherogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Werner, C M; Schirmer, S H; Gensch, C; Pavlickova, V; Pöss, J; Wright, M B; Böhm, M; Laufs, U

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Aleglitazar is a dual PPARα/γ agonist but little is known about its effects on vascular function and atherogenesis. Hence, we characterized its effects on circulating angiogenic cells (CAC), neoangiogenesis, endothelial function, arteriogenesis and atherosclerosis in mice. Experimental Approach C57Bl/6 wild-type (WT, normal chow), endothelial NOS (eNOS)−/− (normal chow) and ApoE−/− (Western-type diet) mice were treated with aleglitazar (10 mg·kg−1·day−1, i.p.) or vehicle. Key Results Aleglitazar enhanced expression of PPARα and PPARγ target genes, normalized glucose tolerance and potently reduced hepatic fat in ApoE−/− mice. In WT mice, but not in eNOS−/−, aleglitazar up-regulated Sca-1/VEGFR2-positive CAC in the blood and bone marrow and up-regulated diLDL/lectin-positive CAC. Aleglitazar augmented CAC migration and enhanced neoangiogenesis. In ApoE−/− mice, aleglitazar up-regulated CAC number and function, reduced markers of vascular inflammation and potently improved perfusion restoration after hindlimb ischaemia and aortic endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. This was associated with markedly reduced formation of atherosclerotic plaques. In human cultured CAC from healthy donors and patients with coronary artery disease with or without diabetes mellitus, aleglitazar increased migration and colony-forming units in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, oxidative stress-induced CAC apoptosis and expression of p53 were reduced, while telomerase activity and expression of phospho-eNOS and phospho-Akt were elevated. Comparative agonist and inhibitor experiments revealed that aleglitazar's effects on CAC migration and colony-forming units were mediated by both PPARα and PPARγ signalling and required Akt. Conclusions and Implications Aleglitazar augments the number, function and survival of CAC, which correlates with improved vascular function, enhanced arteriogenesis and prevention of atherosclerosis

  18. The acceleration of cardiomyogenesis in embryonic stem cells in vitro by serum depletion does not increase the number of developed cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Radaszkiewicz, Katarzyna Anna; Sýkorová, Dominika; Binó, Lucia; Kudová, Jana; Bébarová, Markéta; Procházková, Jiřina; Kotasová, Hana; Kubala, Lukáš; Pacherník, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    The differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells into various lineages in vitro represents an important tool for studying the mechanisms underlying mammalian embryogenesis. It is a key technique in studies evaluating the molecular mechanisms of cardiomyogenesis and heart development and also in embryotoxicology. Herein, modest modifications of the basic protocol for ES cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes were evaluated in order to increase the yield and differentiation status of developed cardiomyocytes. Primarily, the data show that ES cell cultivation in the form of non-adherent embryoid bodies (EBs) for 5 days compared to 8 days significantly improved cardiomyogenic differentiation. This is illustrated by the appearance of beating foci in the adherent EBs layer at earlier phases of differentiation from day 10 up to day 16 and by the significantly higher expression of genes characteristic of cardiomyogenic differentiation (sarcomeric alpha actinin, myosin heavy chain alpha and beta, myosin light chain 2 and 7, and transcriptional factor Nkx2.5) in EBs cultivated under non-adherent conditions for 5 days. The ratio of cardiomyocytes per other cells was also potentiated in EBs cultivated in non-adherent conditions for only 5 days followed by cultivation in adherent serum-free culture conditions. Nevertheless, the alteration in the percentage of beating foci among these two tested cultivation conditions vanished at later phases and also did not affect the total number of cardiomyocytes determined as myosin heavy chain positive cells at the end of the differentiation process on day 20. Thus, although these modifications of the conditions of ES cells differentiation may intensify cardiomyocyte differentiation, the final count of cardiomyocytes might not change. Thus, serum depletion was identified as a key factor that intensified cardiomyogenesis. Further, the treatment of EBs with N-acetylcysteine, a reactive oxygen species scavenger, did not affect

  19. The novel free radical scavenger, edaravone, increases neural stem cell number around the area of damage following rat traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Tatsuki; Satou, Takao; Nishida, Shozo; Tsubaki, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Shigeo; Ito, Hiroyuki

    2009-11-01

    Edaravone is a novel free radical scavenger that is clinically employed in patients with acute cerebral infarction, but has not previously been used to treat traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, we investigated the effect of edaravone administration on rat TBI. In particular, we used immunohistochemistry to monitor neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation around the area damaged by TBI. Two separate groups of rats were administered saline or edaravone (3 mg/kg) after TBI and then killed chronologically. We also used ex vivo techniques to isolate NSCs from the damaged region and observed nestin-positive cells at 1, 3, and 7 days following TBI in both saline- and edaravone-treated groups. At 3 days following TBI in both groups, there were many large cells that morphologically resembled astrocytes. At 1 and 7 days following TBI in the saline group, there were a few small nestin-positive cells. However, in the edaravone group, there were many large nestin-positive cells at 7 days following TBI. At 3 and 7 days following TBI, the number of nestin-positive cells in the edaravone group increased significantly compared with the saline group. There were many single-stranded DNA-, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine-, and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-positive cells in the saline group following TBI, but only a few such cells in the edaravone group following TBI. Furthermore, almost all ssDNA-positive cells in the saline group co-localized with Hu, nestin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining, but not in the edaravone group. In the ex vivo study, spheres could only be isolated from injured brain tissue in the saline group at 3 days following TBI. However, in the edaravone group, spheres could be isolated from injured brain tissue at both 3 and 7 days following TBI. The number of spheres isolated from injured brain tissue in the edaravone group showed a significant increase compared with the saline group. The spheres isolated from both saline and edaravone groups were

  20. Air ambulance flights in northern Norway 2002-2008. Increased number of secondary fixed wing (FW) operations and more use of rotor wing (RW) transports

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Air ambulance service in Norway has been upgraded during the last years. European regulations concerning pilots' working time and new treatment guidelines/strategies have called for more resources. Aims The objective was to describe and analyse the two supplementary air ambulance [fixed wing (FW) and rotor wing (RW)] alternatives' activity during the study period (2002-2008). Furthermore we aimed to compare our findings with reports from other north European regions. Methods A retrospective analysis. The air ambulance fleet's activity according to the electronic patient record database of "Luftambulansetjenesten ANS" (LABAS) was analysed. The subject was the fleet's operations in northern Norway, logistics, and patients handled. Type of flight, distances, frequency, and patients served were the main outcome measures. Results A significant increase (45%) in the use of RW and a shift in FW operations (less primary and more secondary) were revealed. The shift in FW operations reflected the centralisation of several health care services [i.e. percutaneous cardiac intervention (PCI), trauma, and cancer surgery] during the study period. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and injuries were the main diagnoses and constituted half of all operations. CVD was the most common cause of FW operations and injuries of the RW ones. The number of air ambulance operations was 16 per 1,000 inhabitants. This was more frequent than in other north European regions. Conclusions The use of air ambulances and especially RW was significantly increased during the study period. The change in secondary FW operations reflected centralisation of medical care. When health care services are centralised, air ambulance services must be adjusted to the new settings. PMID:21878107

  1. Decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in BDNF(+/-) mice is associated with enhanced recovery of motor performance and increased neuroblast number following experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Nygren, Josefine; Kokaia, Merab; Wieloch, Tadeusz

    2006-08-15

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in brain plasticity and neuronal survival. Generally, BDNF enhances synaptic activity and neurite growth, although the effect of BDNF on neuronal survival and brain plasticity following injury is equivocal. Housing rats in an enriched environment after experimental stroke enhances recovery of sensory-motor function, which is associated with a decrease in the BDNF mRNA and protein levels. We used BDNF(+/-) mice and wild-type littermate mice to investigate whether the decrease in the brain levels of BDNF affected motor function or infarct volume following transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (tMCAO) for 40 min. We found that the BDNF(+/-) mice had a significantly improved motor function on the rotating pole test 2 weeks after tMCAO compared with wild-type mice. When intermittently exposed to an enriched environment following tMCAO, the wild-type mice improved motor function to the same degree as BDNF(+/-) mice. There was no effect of BDNF reduction on infarct volume. Neurogenesis is induced following experimental stroke, and in the striatum of BDNF(+/-) mice significantly increased numbers of neuroblasts compared with wild-type mice were seen, both in standard and in enriched conditions. We conclude that decreasing brain levels of BDNF enhances the recovery of function following experimental stroke.

  2. Heat effects on DNA repair after ionising radiation: hyperthermia commonly increases the number of non-repaired double-strand breaks and structural rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    El-Awady, R. A.; Dikomey, E.; Dahm-Daphi, J.

    2001-01-01

    After ionising radiation double-strand breaks (dsb) are lethal if not repaired or misrepaired. Cell killing is greatly enhanced by hyperthermia and it is questioned here whether heat not only affects dsb repair capacity but also fidelity in a chromosomal context. dsb repair experiments were designed so as to mainly score non-homologous end joining, while homologous recombination was largely precluded. Human male G0 fibroblasts were either preheated (45°C, 20 min) or not before X-irradiation. dsb induction and repair were measured by conventional gel electrophoresis and an assay combining restriction digestion using a rare cutting enzyme (NotI) and Southern hybridisation, which detects large chromosomal rearrangements (>100 kb). dsb induction rate in an X-chromosomal NotI fragment was 4.8 × 10–3 dsb/Gy/Mb. Similar values were found for the genome overall and also when cells were preheated. After 50 Gy, fibroblasts were competent to largely restore the original restriction fragment size. Five per cent of dsb remained non-rejoined and 14% were misrejoined. Correct restitution of restriction fragments occurred preferably during the first hour but continued at a slow rate for 12–16 h. In addition, dsb appeared to misrejoin throughout the entire repair period. After hyperthermia the fractions of non-rejoined and misrejoined dsb were similarly increased to 13 and 51%, respectively. It is suggested that heat increases the probability of dsb being incorrectly rejoined but it is not likely to interfere with one dsb repair pathway in particular. PMID:11328880

  3. An Algebra-Integrated Physics and Chemistry Workshop for Teachers as a Model for Increasing the Number of Minority Students in Science and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obot, V.; Brown, B.; Wu, T.; Wunsch, G.; Miles, A.; Morris, P.; Lindstrom, M.; Allen, J.

    , but I don't like math" or " I like math, but I don't like science" will be a thing of the past. Students will achieve a certain comfort level with math and sciences and want to continue their studies in math, science, and engineering disciplines. Thus, the number of students studying science and engineering will increase. However, to increase the secondary school teachers' comfo rt level with interdisciplinary subject matter and new approaches to delivery, a partnership must be forged between universities, industry, government science and education agencies, and secondary school teachers.

  4. Addition of an N-terminal epitope tag significantly increases the activity of plant fatty acid desaturases expressed in yeast cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows great potential for development of bioreactor systems geared towards the production of high-value lipids such as polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, the yields of which are largely dependent on the activity of ectopically-expressed enzymes. Here we show that the addit...

  5. Elevated CO2, not defoliation, enhances N cycling and increases short-term soil N immobilization regardless of N addition in a semiarid grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated CO2 and defoliation effects on nitrogen (N) cycling in rangeland soils remain poorly understood. Here we tested whether effects of elevated CO2 and defoliation (clipping to 2.5 cm height) on N cycling depended on soil N availability (addition of 1 vs. 11 g N/m2) in intact mesocosms extracte...

  6. Establishment of Aedes aegypti (L.) in mountainous regions in Mexico: Increasing number of population at risk of mosquito-borne disease and future climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Equihua, Miguel; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Benítez, Griselda; Estrada-Contreras, Israel; Sandoval-Ruiz, César A; Mendoza-Palmero, Fredy S

    2017-02-01

    The study was conducted in the central region of Veracruz Mexico, in the metropolitan area of Xalapa. It is a mountainous area where Aedes aegypti (L.) is not currently endemic. An entomological survey was done along an elevation gradient using the Ae. aegypti occurrences at different life cycle stages. Seven sites were sampled and a total of 24 mosquito species were recorded: 9 species were found in urban areas, 18 in non-urban areas with remnant vegetation, and 3 occurred in both environments. Ae. aegypti was found only in the urban areas, usually below 1200m a.s.l., but in this study was recorded for the first time at 1420m a.s.l. These occurrences, together with additional distribution data in the state of Veracruz were used to developed species distribution models using Maxlike software in R to identify the current projected suitable areas for the establishment of this vector and the human populations that might be affected by dengue transmission at higher elevations. Its emergence in previously unsuitable places appears to be driven by both habitat destruction and biodiversity loss associated with biotic homogenization. A border study using data from the edges of the vector's distribution might allow sensitive monitoring to detect any changes in this mosquito's distribution pattern, and any changes in the anthropic drivers or climate that could increase transmission risk.

  7. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  8. The GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Liraglutide Improves Memory Function and Increases Hippocampal CA1 Neuronal Numbers in a Senescence-Accelerated Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henrik H; Fabricius, Katrine; Barkholt, Pernille; Niehoff, Michael L; Morley, John E; Jelsing, Jacob; Pyke, Charles; Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Farr, Susan A; Vrang, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, currently used in the management of type 2 diabetes, exhibit neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects in amyloid-β (Aβ) toxicity models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the potential pro-cognitive and neuroprotective effects of the once-daily GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice, a model of age-related sporadic AD not dominated by amyloid plaques. Six-month-old SAMP8 mice received liraglutide (100 or 500 μg/kg/day, s.c.) or vehicle once daily for 4 months. Vehicle-dosed age-matched 50% back-crossed as well as untreated young (4-month-old) SAMP8 mice were used as control groups for normal memory function. Vehicle-dosed 10-month-old SAMP8 mice showed significant learning and memory retention deficits in an active-avoidance T-maze, as compared to both control groups. Also, 10-month-old SAMP8 mice displayed no immunohistological signatures of amyloid-β plaques or hyperphosphorylated tau, indicating the onset of cognitive deficits prior to deposition of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in this AD model. Liraglutide significantly increased memory retention and total hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron numbers in SAMP8 mice, as compared to age-matched vehicle-dosed SAMP8 mice. In conclusion, liraglutide delayed or partially halted the progressive decline in memory function associated with hippocampal neuronal loss in a mouse model of pathological aging with characteristics of neurobehavioral and neuropathological impairments observed in early-stage sporadic AD.

  9. The Malnutrition-Related Increase in Early Visceralization of Leishmania donovani Is Associated with a Reduced Number of Lymph Node Phagocytes and Altered Conduit System Flow

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Marwa K.; Barnes, Jeffrey L.; Anstead, Gregory M.; Jimenez, Fabio; Travi, Bruno L.; Peniche, Alex G.; Osorio, E. Yaneth; Ahuja, Seema S.; Melby, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    In a murine model of moderate childhood malnutrition we found that polynutrient deficiency led to a 4–5-fold increase in early visceralization of L. donovani (3 days post-infection) following cutaneous infection and a 16-fold decrease in lymph node barrier function (p<0.04 for all). To begin to understand the mechanistic basis for this malnutrition-related parasite dissemination we analyzed the cellularity, architecture, and function of the skin-draining lymph node. There was no difference in the localization of multiple cell populations in the lymph node of polynutrient deficient (PND) mice, but there was reduced cellularity with fewer CD11c+dendritic cells (DCs), fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), MOMA-2+ macrophages, and CD169+ subcapsular sinus macrophage (p<0.05 for all) compared to the well-nourished (WN) mice. The parasites were equally co-localized with DCs associated with the lymph node conduit network in the WN and PND mice, and were found in the high endothelial venule into which the conduits drain. When a fluorescent low molecular weight (10 kD) dextran was delivered in the skin, there was greater efflux of the marker from the lymph node conduit system to the spleens of PND mice (p<0.04), indicating that flow through the conduit system was altered. There was no evidence of disruption of the conduit or subcapsular sinus architecture, indicating that the movement of parasites into the subcortical conduit region was due to an active process and not from passive movement through a leaking barrier. These results indicate that the impaired capacity of the lymph node to act as a barrier to dissemination of L. donovani infection is associated with a reduced number of lymph node phagocytes, which most likely leads to reduced capture of parasites as they transit through the sinuses and conduit system. PMID:23967356

  10. Increasing fermentation efficiency at high sugar concentrations by supplementing an additional source of nitrogen during the exponential phase of the tequila fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, Javier; Gschaedler, Anne

    2002-11-01

    In the tequila industry, fermentation is traditionally achieved at sugar concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 g x L(-1). In this work, the behaviour of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (isolated from the juices of the Agave tequilana Weber blue variety) during the agave juice fermentation is compared at different sugar concentrations to determine if it is feasible for the industry to run fermentation at higher sugar concentrations. Fermentation efficiency is shown to be higher (above 90%) at a high concentration of initial sugar (170 g x L(-1)) when an additional source of nitrogen (a mixture of amino acids and ammonium sulphate, different than a grape must nitrogen composition) is added during the exponential growth phase.

  11. Increased pattern transfer fidelity ZEP 520A during reactive ion etching through chemical modifications by additional dosing of the electron beam resist.

    SciTech Connect

    Czaplewski, D. A.; Ocola, L. E.

    2011-03-01

    This article describes a postdevelopment, additional electron exposure to enhance the etch selectivity and improve pattern transfer fidelity of an electron beam resist, ZEP 520A, through chemical changes of the resist. After the critical features were patterned and developed, the resist was exposed at 5 kV accelerating voltage to a second dose of electrons ranging from 300 to 300,000 {micro}C/cm{sup 2}. The etch rate of the resist decreased by approximately 25% in a CHF{sub 3} and O{sub 2} plasma. More critically, the fidelity of the pattern transfer was improved. Infrared and Raman spectroscopies were used to characterize the resist before and after electron beam exposure for doses up to 3000 {micro}C/cm{sup 2}. The carbonyl bonding in the polymer showed significant changes after electron beam exposure that can be associated with improvement in the etch performance of this resist.

  12. Addition of interferon-alpha to a standard maturation cocktail induces CD38 up-regulation and increases dendritic cell function.

    PubMed

    Trepiakas, Redas; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Met, Ozcan; Svane, Inge Marie

    2009-04-06

    Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) are used as adjuvant cells in cancer immunotherapy and have shown promising results. In order to obtain full functional capacity, these DCs need to be maturated, and the current "gold standard" for this process is maturation with TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and PGE(2) used for generating standard DCs (sDC). Several studies indicate that IFN-alpha might also be important for DC differentiation and maturation. In this study, we tested the effect of IFN-alpha alone or as addition to the gold standard sDC cocktail. We observed that maturation by IFN-alpha differs from sDC maturation: The major phenotypic change after IFN-alpha maturation was dose-dependent up-regulation of CD38 but not CD83, while sDCs expressed the opposite profile with low CD38 and high CD83 expression. Similarly, maturation by Poly I:C leads to CD38high, CD83low DCs indicating a functional relationship between CD38, IFN-alpha and TLR3. Thus, CD38 appear to be a relevant marker for activation by TLR3 or IFN-alpha. Addition of IFN-alpha to the sDC cocktail results in up-regulation of both CD38 and CD83 and improved capacity for induction of autologous T-cell responses despite few other changes in DC phenotype and cytokine secretion. Our observations suggest that IFN-alpha could be included in maturation protocols for clinical grade DCs used for immunotherapy against cancer and should be included if DCs are used for CD8+ T-cell stimulation in vitro.

  13. Addition of strawberries to the usual diet increases postprandial but not fasting non-urate plasma antioxidant activity in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Prymont-Przyminska, Anna; Bialasiewicz, Piotr; Zwolinska, Anna; Sarniak, Agata; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Rutkowski, Krzysztof P; Nowak, Dariusz

    2016-11-01

    Strawberries can augment plasma antioxidant activity, but this may be confounded by selection of methods, time of blood sampling and concomitant dietary restrictions. We examined the effect of strawberry consumption on ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (DPPH-test) of native and non-urate plasma in healthy subjects on their usual diet. Eleven subjects consumed strawberries (500 g daily) for 9 days. Fasting and 3-h postprandial plasma and 24-h urine collection were obtained before, during and after strawberry course for FRAP, DPPH-test and polyphenols determination. Fifteen subjects served as a control in respect to plasma antioxidant activity changes and effect of 300 mg of oral ascorbate. First, 5th and 9th strawberry dose increased 3-h postprandial DPPH-test by 17.4, 17.6 and 12.6%, and FRAP by 15.5, 25.6 and 21.4% in comparison to fasting values in non-urate plasma (p<0.05). In native plasma only a trend was observed to higher postprandial values for both tests. Strawberries increased urinary urolithin A and 4-hydroxyhippuric acid whereas plasma polyphenols were stable. No changes of FRAP and DPPH-test were noted in controls and after ascorbate intake. Strawberries transiently increased non-urate plasma antioxidant activity but this cannot be attributed to direct antioxidant effect of polyphenols and ascorbate.

  14. Addition of strawberries to the usual diet increases postprandial but not fasting non-urate plasma antioxidant activity in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Prymont-Przyminska, Anna; Bialasiewicz, Piotr; Zwolinska, Anna; Sarniak, Agata; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Rutkowski, Krzysztof P.; Nowak, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Strawberries can augment plasma antioxidant activity, but this may be confounded by selection of methods, time of blood sampling and concomitant dietary restrictions. We examined the effect of strawberry consumption on ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (DPPH-test) of native and non-urate plasma in healthy subjects on their usual diet. Eleven subjects consumed strawberries (500 g daily) for 9 days. Fasting and 3-h postprandial plasma and 24-h urine collection were obtained before, during and after strawberry course for FRAP, DPPH-test and polyphenols determination. Fifteen subjects served as a control in respect to plasma antioxidant activity changes and effect of 300 mg of oral ascorbate. First, 5th and 9th strawberry dose increased 3-h postprandial DPPH-test by 17.4, 17.6 and 12.6%, and FRAP by 15.5, 25.6 and 21.4% in comparison to fasting values in non-urate plasma (p<0.05). In native plasma only a trend was observed to higher postprandial values for both tests. Strawberries increased urinary urolithin A and 4-hydroxyhippuric acid whereas plasma polyphenols were stable. No changes of FRAP and DPPH-test were noted in controls and after ascorbate intake. Strawberries transiently increased non-urate plasma antioxidant activity but this cannot be attributed to direct antioxidant effect of polyphenols and ascorbate. PMID:27895386

  15. Antioxidant value addition in human diets: genetic transformation of Brassica juncea with gamma-TMT gene for increased alpha-tocopherol content.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2007-02-01

    Alpha-tocopherol, the most biologically active form of vitamin E, is implicated in decreasing the risk of several types of cancers, coronary heart disease and a number of degenerative human conditions, when taken in excess of the recommended daily allowance. Natural alpha-tocopherol has twice the bioavailability of the synthetic isomer. This study describes a successful attempt at fortifying human diets with natural alpha-tocopherol by taking recourse to genetic engineering of an important oilseed crop, Brassica juncea. Gamma-tocopherol methyl transferase cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana, coding for the enzyme catalysing the conversion of the large gamma-tocopherol pool to alpha-tocopherol, was overexpressed in B. juncea plants. The successful integration of the transgene was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis, while the enhanced transcript level was evident in the northern blot analysis. HPLC analysis of the seeds of the T1 transgenic lines showed a shift in tocopherol profile with the highest over-expressors having alpha-tocopherol levels as high as sixfold over the non-transgenic controls. This study discusses the production of a transgenic oilseed crop with high alpha-tocopherol levels, which can provide a feasible, innocuous, and inexpensive way of taking the beneficial effects of high alpha-tocopherol intake to the masses.

  16. Bevacizumab Addition in Neoadjuvant Treatment Increases the Pathological Complete Response Rates in Patients with HER-2 Negative Breast Cancer Especially Triple Negative Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Binglan; Shi, Changle; Liu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background Neoadjuvant therapy is administered to breast cancer patients as an induction process before surgery or radiotherapy to reduce tumor size. Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) negative breast cancer lacks effective standard target therapy. Bevacizumab has a controversial role in the treatment of breast cancer and we conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the value of adding bevacizumab in neoadjuvant regimen. Methods Potentially eligible studies were retrieved using PubMed, EMBASE and Medline. Clinical characteristics of patients and statistical data with pathological complete response (pCR) data were collected. Then a meta-analysis model was established to investigate the correlation between administration of bevacizumab in neoadjuvant therapy and pCR rates in HER-2 negative breast cancer. Results Seven eligible studies and 5408 patients were yielded. The pCR rates for “breast” or “breast plus lymph node” were similar. In subgroup analysis, we emphasized on patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). In the criterion of “lesions in breast” the pooled ORs was 1.55 [1.29, 1.86], P<0.00001 and regarding to the evaluation criterion of “lesions in breast and lymph nodes”, the pooled ORs was 1.48 [1.23, 1.78], P<0.0001, in favor of bevacizumab administration. Conclusion According to our pooled results, we finally find that bevacizumab addition as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy component, for induction use with limited cycle to improve the pCR rates and patients may avoid long-term adverse event and long-term invalid survival improvement. Especially in subgroup analysis, pCR rates could be improved significantly and physicians could consider bevacizumab with caution. As patients could avoid the adverse event caused by long-term using of bevacizumab, long-term quality of life improvement may be achieved, especially in TNBC. PMID:27579484

  17. D-cycloserine increases positive symptoms in chronic schizophrenic patients when administered in addition to antipsychotics: a double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    van Berckel, B N; Evenblij, C N; van Loon, B J; Maas, M F; van der Geld, M A; Wynne, H J; van Ree, J M; Kahn, R S

    1999-08-01

    A hypofunction of the glutamatergic system and NMDA receptors in schizophrenia has been hypothesized. Therefore, stimulation of these receptors could be of benefit to patients with schizophrenia. D-cycloserine has been used for this purpose. This study reports the effects of 100 mg D-cycloserine, when added to typical antipsychotics in chronic schizophrenic patients exhibiting prominent negative symptoms, using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel, design. D-cycloserine slightly worsened psychotic symptoms and general psychopathology as compared to placebo. D-cycloserine failed to change negative symptoms and had no effect on extrapyramidal symptoms. The exacerbation of schizophrenic symptoms may be explained by the antagonistic effects of this dose of D-cycloserine at the glycine recognition site of the NMDA receptor due to competition with the endogenous agonist glycine. Another explanation for the increase in psychopathology may be an interaction with the effects of antipsychotics on NMDA mediated neurotransmission. Thus, D-cycloserine in this study did not ameliorate schizophrenic symptoms. However, the fact that they actually worsened suggests that NMDA systems may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Further placebo-controlled studies with lower dosages of D-cycloserine, preferably in drug-free patients, are necessary to evaluate if D-cycloserine is of use for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia.

  18. Increasing the Richness of Culturable Arsenic-Tolerant Bacteria from Theonella swinhoei by Addition of Sponge Skeleton to the Growth Medium.

    PubMed

    Keren, Ray; Lavy, Adi; Ilan, Micha

    2016-05-01

    Theonella swinhoei is an arsenic hyper-accumulator sponge, harboring a multitude of associated bacteria. These bacteria reside in the mesohyl, the dense extracellular matrix of the sponge. Previous elemental analysis of separated cell fractions from the sponge had determined that arsenic is localized to the associated bacteria. Subsequently, sponge-associated arsenic-tolerant bacteria were isolated here and grouped into 15 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 97% similarity). Both culture-dependent and culture-independent work had revealed that T. swinhoei harbors a highly diverse bacterial community. It was thus hypothesized the acclimation of bacteria in the presence of a sponge skeleton, better mimicking its natural environment, would increase the yield of isolation of sponge-associated bacteria. Using seven modularly designed media, 380 bacteria isolates were grown and grouped into 22 OTUs. Inclusion of sponge skeleton in the growth medium promoted bacterial growth in all seven media, accounting for 20 of the 22 identified OTUs (the other two in a medium without skeleton). Diversity and richness indices were calculated for each treatment or combination of treatments with shared growth parameters. Integrating data inherent in the modularly designed media with the ecological indices led to the formation of new hypotheses regarding the aeration conditions and expected arsenic form in situ. Both aerobic and anoxic conditions are expected to occur in the sponge (temporally and/or spatially). Arsenate is expected to be the dominant (or even the only) arsenic form in the sponge.

  19. Development of cost-effective media to increase the economic potential for larger-scale bioproduction of natural food additives by Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Debaryomyces hansenii , and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2009-11-11

    Yeast extract (YE) is the most common nitrogen source in a variety of bioprocesses in spite of the high cost. Therefore, the use of YE in culture media is one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes, making the search for alternative-cheaper nitrogen sources particularly desired. The aim of the current study is to develop cost-effective media based on corn steep liquor (CSL) and locally available vinasses in order to increase the economic potential for larger-scale bioproduction. Three microorganisms were evaluated: Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Debaryomyces hansenii , and Aspergillus niger . The amino acid profile and protein concentration was relevant for the xylitol and citric acid production by D. hansenii and A. niger , respectively. Metals also played an important role for citric acid production, meanwhile, D. hansenii showed a strong dependence with the initial amount of Mg(2+). Under the best conditions, 28.8 g lactic acid/L (Q(LA) = 0.800 g/L.h, Y(LA/S) = 0.95 g/g), 35.3 g xylitol/L (Q(xylitol) = 0.380 g/L.h, Y(xylitol/S) = 0.69 g/g), and 13.9 g citric acid/L (Q(CA) = 0.146 g/L.h, Y(CA/S) = 0.63 g/g) were obtained. The economic efficiency (E(p/euro)) parameter identify vinasses as a lower cost and more effective nutrient source in comparison to CSL.

  20. Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-499

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.

    2013-10-01

    Under this CRADA NREL will support Creare's project for the Department of Energy entitled 'Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density' which involves the development of an air-flow based cooling product that increases energy density, safety, and reliability of hybrid electric vehicle battery packs.

  1. The chemokine network. II. On how polymorphisms and alternative splicing increase the number of molecular species and configure intricate patterns of disease susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Colobran, R; Pujol-Borrell, R; Armengol, M P; Juan, M

    2007-01-01

    In this second review on chemokines, we focus on the polymorphisms and alternative splicings and on their consequences in disease. Because chemokines are key mediators in the pathogenesis of inflammatory, autoimmune, vascular and neoplastic disorders, a large number of studies attempting to relate particular polymorphisms of chemokines to given diseases have already been conducted, sometimes with contradictory results. Reviewing the published data, it becomes evident that some chemokine genes that are polymorphic have alleles that are found repeatedly, associated with disease of different aetiologies but sharing some aspects of pathogenesis. Among CXC chemokines, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CXCL8 and CXCL12 genes stand out, as they have alleles associated with many diseases such as asthma and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), respectively. Of CC chemokines, the stronger associations occur among alleles from SNPs in CCL2 and CCL5 genes and a number of inflammatory conditions. To understand how chemokines contribute to disease it is also necessary to take into account all the isoforms resulting from differential splicing. The first part of this review deals with polymorphisms and the second with the diversity of molecular species derived from each chemokine gene due to alternative splicing phenomena. The number of molecular species and the level of expression of each of them for every chemokine and for each functionally related group of chemokines reaches a complexity that requires new modelling algorithms akin to those proposed in systems biology approaches. PMID:17848170

  2. Increased gene copy number of ERG on chromosome 21 but not TMPRSS2–ERG fusion predicts outcome in prostatic adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Toubaji, Antoun; Albadine, Roula; Meeker, Alan K; Isaacs, William B; Lotan, Tamara; Haffner, Michael C; Chaux, Alcides; Epstein, Jonathan I; Han, Misop; Walsh, Patrick C; Partin, Alan W; De Marzo, Angelo M; Platz, Elizabeth A; Netto, George J

    2012-01-01

    The role of TMPRSS2–ERG gene fusion in prostate cancer prognostication remains controversial. We evaluated the prognostic role of TMPRSS2–ERG fusion using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis in a case–control study nested in The Johns Hopkins retropubic radical prostatectomy cohort. In all, 10 tissue microarrays containing paired tumors and normal tissues obtained from 172 cases (recurrence) and 172 controls (non-recurrence) matched on pathological grade, stage, race/ethnicity, and age at the time of surgery were analyzed. All radical prostatectomies were performed at our institution between 1993 and 2004. Recurrence was defined as biochemical recurrence, development of clinical evidence of metastasis, or death from prostate carcinoma. Each tissue microarray spot was scored for the presence of TMPRSS2–ERG gene fusion and for ERG gene copy number gains. The odds ratio of recurrence and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from conditional logistic regression. Although the percentage of cases with fusion was slightly lower in cases than in controls (50 vs 57%), the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.20). The presence of fusion due to either deletion or split event was not associated with recurrence. Similarly, the presence of duplicated ERG deletion, duplicated ERG split, or ERG gene copy number gain with a single ERG fusion was not associated with recurrence. ERG gene polysomy without fusion was significantly associated with recurrence (odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.17–3.42). In summary, TMPRSS2–ERG fusion was not prognostic for recurrence after retropubic radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer, although men with ERG gene copy number gain without fusion were twice more likely to recur. PMID:21743434

  3. Fulfilling the Promise of the Community College: Increasing First-Year Student Engagement and Success. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series Number 56

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas, Ed.; King, Margaret C., Ed.; Stanley, Patricia, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    For the past three decades, American higher education has paid increasing attention to the beginning college experience--to ensuring that entering students make a successful transition to college. Yet, much of the extant research and practice literature focuses on the experience of first-year students entering four-year colleges and universities.…

  4. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  5. A Case of 22q11 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) with a Panayiotopoulos Epileptic Pattern: Are Additional Copy-Number Variations a Possible Second Hit in Modulating the 22q11DS Phenotype?

    PubMed Central

    Bertini, Veronica; Valetto, Angelo; Azzarà, Alessia; Legitimo, Annalisa; Saggese, Giuseppe; Consolini, Rita; Orsini, Alessandro; Bonuccelli, Alice

    2017-01-01

    “22q11 deletion syndrome” (22q11DS) is a rare genetic syndrome, in which most patients share the same deletion, but their clinical features may vary a great deal. The genetic mechanisms underlying the variable expressivity and reduced penetrance of 22q11DS still have to be fully elucidated. Epilepsy has been reported in about 15.2% of the patients; however, few studies have focused on this topic, and in most cases, a detailed epileptic profile is missing. Since only a minority of patients experience epileptic seizures, 22q11deletion can be considered a predisposing factor, which is not sufficient “per se” to cause epilepsy; to date, no candidate gene for epilepsy has been identified in the deleted region. We report on a 6-year-old girl with 22q11DS presenting a form of epilepsy that can be classified as “Panayiotopoulos syndrome.” Array CGH revealed an additional microduplication of 172 kb in 2q37, harboring three genes. One of these, DGKD (diacylglycerol kinase delta), is interrupted by the distal breakpoint of the duplication. DGKD encodes a cytoplasmic enzyme that phosphorylates diacylglycerol to produce phosphatidic acid. This is an important second messenger in a pathway of lipid signaling that has been implicated in epilepsy and other neurological diseases. Disruption of DGKD by a t(X;2) has been previously reported in a patient with epilepsy. The 2q37 microduplication was inherited from her mother, who never experienced epileptic seizures, thus this imbalance is not “per se” sufficient to cause epilepsy. It can be hypothesized that the epileptic phenotype is provoked by the simultaneous presence of 22q11.2 deletion and 2q37 duplication. It has been shown that rare additional copy-number variations (CNVs) outside the 22q11.2 region may modulate the risk of congenital heart defects. It is possible that also for the epileptic phenotype, the additional CNVs may represent an important modifying factor underlying the variable expressivity and

  6. Relation between the increased transmission in the EXAFS region of X-ray absorption and the increase in the number of Abrikosov Vortices as cuprate superconductors go through Tc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigvinadze, Jaba G.; Mamniashvilli, Gogi I.; Acrivos, Juana V.

    2004-03-01

    The increased flux expulsion as T->Tc (observed as the external magnetic field, Bz = +/- 0.75 oe. goes through zero [1]) is related to the increased transmission as T->Tc (observed in all cuprate superconductors in the EXFAS region of X-ray absorption [2]). The expulsion of Abrikosov vortices as T->Tc is a cooperative dynamic phenomenon that affects only the EXAFS region of the spectrum. When the flux expulsion diverges beyond a critical value, we propose the EXAFS transmission increases because photoelectrons are involved in the Abrikosov Vortex. The phenomenon is similar to the increased transmission observed in He 4 by the formation of supercritical vortices [3]. [1] J.V. Acrivos, Lei Chen, C.M. Burch, P. Metcalf, J.M.Honig, R.S.Liu and K.K.Singh, Phys. Rev. B 50, 13710 (1994), [2] J.V. Acrivos, L.Nguyen, T.Norman, C.T. Lin, W.Y.Liang, J.M Honig and P.Somasundaram, Microchemical Journal, 71, 117 (2002), [3] E.J.Yarmchuk, M.J.V.Gordon, R.E.Packard, Phys.Rev.Lett. 43, 214 (1979)

  7. One season of pasture exposure fails to induce a protective resistance to cyathostomes but increases numbers of hypobiotic third-stage larvae.

    PubMed

    Chapman, M R; French, D D; Taylor, H W; Klei, T R

    2002-08-01

    The development of acquired resistance to cyathostome challenge after 1 season's exposure to a cyathostome-contaminated pasture was investigated using 17 parasite-naive ponies, which were 2-3 yr of age. These were divided into 3 groups: 1 to graze a cyathostome-contaminated pasture for 4 mo (exposed ponies), 1 to graze a "clean" pasture not previously grazed by parasitized animals (nonexposed ponies), and 1 group to remain in the barn under helminth-free conditions (parasite-free ponies). After pasture exposure all ponies were housed in stalls in the barn dewormed with ivermectin (200 micrograms/kg) and oxibendazole (100 mg/kg), a treatment that eliminated most cyathostomes encysted in the mucosa as well as all luminal parasites, on the basis of necropsies of 5 animals, after 17 days. Remaining ponies were challenged with 100,000 cyathostome-infective third-stage larvae (L3) per os 3 wk after anthelmintic treatment. Necropsies were performed 7 wk after the challenge. Total cyathostome burdens (luminal plus encysted stages) were not significantly different among any of the groups. However, a significantly higher percentage of hypobiotic early L3 (EL3) and a lower percentage of adults were found in exposed ponies. This observation supports the hypothesis that resistance acquired through exposure promotes cyathostome hypobiosis. This increase in EL3 in exposed ponies was associated with a significant increase in weight of cecum and ventral colon biopsies.

  8. The Projected Impact on Passing Rates of Proposed Changes to the CLAST Passing Standards and Increased CLAST Passing Standards: The Impact on Ethnic Groups. Institutional Research Report Abstracts Numbers RR89-15 and RR89-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabe, LiAnne C.

    When the College Level Academic Skills Test (CLAST) was mandated in Florida, a schedule of incremental increases in the required passing scores was legislated. The 1986 passing standards were scheduled to be increased in 1989. This change was projected to reduce by half the number of students admitted to upper-level status at Florida's colleges. A…

  9. Flower numbers, pod production, pollen viability, and pistil function are reduced and flower and pod abortion increased in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under terminal drought.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiangwen; Turner, Neil C; Yan, Guijun; Li, Fengmin; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2010-01-01

    Terminal drought during the reproductive stage is a major constraint to yield of chickpea in many regions of the world. Termination of watering (WS) during podding in a small-seeded desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivar, Rupali, and a large-seeded kabuli chickpea cultivar, Almaz, induced a decrease in predawn leaf water potential (LWP), in the rate of photosynthesis, and in stomatal conductance. Compared to well-watered (WW) controls, the WS treatment reduced flower production by about two-thirds. In the WW treatment, about 15% of the flowers aborted and 42% (Rupali) and 67% (Almaz) of the pods aborted, whereas in the WS treatment 37% and 56% of the flowers aborted and 54% and 73% of the pods aborted, resulting in seed yields of 33% and 15% of the yields in WW plants in Rupali and Almaz, respectively. In vitro pollen viability and germination in Rupali decreased by 50% and 89% in the WS treatment, and pollen germination decreased by 80% in vivo when pollen from a WS plant was placed on a stigma of a WW plant. While about 37% of the germinated pollen tubes from WW plants and 22% from the WS plants reached the ovary in the WW plants, less than 3% of pollen grains reached the ovary when pollen from either WS or WW plants was placed on a stigma of a WS plant. It is concluded that, in addition to pod abortion, flower abortion is an important factor limiting yield in chickpea exposed to terminal drought and that water deficit impaired the function of the pistil/style more than the pollen.

  10. The Synergistic Effect of Everolimus and Chloroquine on Endothelial Cell Number Reduction Is Paralleled by Increased Apoptosis and Reduced Autophagy Occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Anna; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; D'Onofrio, Nunzia; Di Domenico, Gilda; Nocera, Cosimo; Lamberti, Monica; Tonini, Giuseppe; Zoccoli, Alice; Santini, Daniele; Caraglia, Michele; Pantano, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs), a minor subpopulation of the mononuclear cell fraction in peripheral blood, play a critical role in cancer development as they contribute to angiogenesis-mediated pathological neovascularization. In response to tumor cytokines, including VEGF, EPCs mobilize from the bone marrow into the peripheral circulation and move to the tumor bed where they incorporate into sprouting neovessels. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of everolimus (Afinitor, Novartis), a rapamycin analogue, alone or in combination with chloroquine, a 4-alkylamino substituted quinoline family member, one of the autophagy inhibitors, on EPCs biological functions. We found that either everolimus or chloroquine induce growth inhibition on EPCs in a dose-dependent manner after 72 h from the beginning of incubation. The combined administration of the two drugs to EPC was synergistic in inducing growth inhibition; in details, the maximal pharmacological synergism between everolimus and chloroquine in inducing growth inhibition on EPCs cells was recorded when chloroquine was administered 24 h before everolimus. Moreover, we have studied the mechanisms of cell death induced by the two agents alone or in combination on EPCs and we have found that the synergistic effect of combination on EPC growth inhibition was paralleled by increased apoptosis induction and reduced autophagy. These effects occurred together with biochemical features that are typical of reduced autophagic death such as increased co-immunoprecipitation between Beclin 1 and Bcl-2. Chloroquine antagonized the inhibition of the activity of Akt→4EBP1 axis mediated by everolimus and at the same time it blocked the feed-back activation of Erk-1/2 induced by RAD in EPCs. These data suggest a new strategy in order to block angiogenesis in tumours in which this process plays a key role in both the sustainment and spreading of cancer cells. PMID:24244540

  11. An increase in the number of recombinant molecules and other effects of the simultaneous allotype suppression of trans-chromosomal a VH and n Cmu Ig gene products.

    PubMed

    Horng, W J; Roux, K H; Gilman-Sachs, A; Dray, S

    1982-01-01

    The concomitant effects of trans-chromosomal allotype suppression of both an a VH and an n Cmu locus allotype in multiheterozygous rabbits were investigated. For example of the expression of the a2 VH and n81 Cmu allotypes were suppressed in a multiheterozygous rabbit having the a1 chi-y-n81de12,15f73g74/a2 chi 32y33n80de12.14f69g77 genotype. This trans-chromosomal allotype suppression led to the concomitant suppression of other CH allotypes in the same parental haplotype as the suppressed-n81 allotype (i.e. the e15, f73 and g74 allotype) and the partial suppression of the a1 VH allotype (from the normal level of 70% of the total Ig to 10%), and also led to compensation by other VH allotypes from the same parental haplotype as the suppressed-a2 allotype (i.e. the x32 and y33 allotypes). The x32 and y33 allotypes were expressed on Ig molecules with the CH allotypes coded by the same haplotype (i.e. the cis molecules). In a further analysis of the IgG molecules having the partially-suppressed-a1 allotype, one-half (5%) of these molecules were trans-chromosomal recombinant molecules (i.e. a1e14 IgG) and the other half (5%) were cis-chromosomal molecules (i.e. a1e15 IgG). The trans-chromosomal a1e14 IgG molecules probably were derived from the expansion of a limited number of lymphoid clones that normally produce only 1.5% trans-chromosomal recombinant molecules. The cis-chromosomal a1e15 IgG molecules were probably derived either from lymphoid clones that survived the suppression by the anti-n81 Ab, or from lymphoid clones that bore a different subclass of IgM (i.e. n-negative IgM).

  12. News Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

  13. Increased numbers of CD23(+) CD21(hi) Bin-like B cells in human reactive and rheumatoid arthritis lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Kuzin, Igor I; Kates, Stephen L; Ju, Yawen; Zhang, Longze; Rahimi, Homaira; Wojciechowski, Wojciech; Bernstein, Steven H; Burack, Richard; Schwarz, Edward M; Bottaro, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    A unique population of CD23(+) CD21(high) B cells in inflamed nodes (Bin) has been shown to accumulate in lymph nodes (LNs) draining inflamed joints of TNF-transgenic (TNF-tg) mice. Bin cells contribute to arthritis flare in mice by distorting node architecture and hampering lymphatic flow, but their existence in human inflamed LNs has not yet been described. Here, we report the characterization of resident B-cell populations in fresh popliteal lymph nodes (PLNs) from patients with severe lower limb diseases (non-RA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and from banked, cryopreserved reactive and normal human LN single cell suspension samples. Bin-like B cells were shown to be significantly increased in reactive LNs, and strikingly elevated (>30% of total) in RA samples. Histopathology and immunofluorescence analyses were consistent with B follicular hyperplasia and histological alterations in RA vs. non-RA PLNs. This is the first description of Bin-like B cells in human inflamed LNs. Consistent with published mouse data, this population appears to be associated with inflammatory arthritis and distortion of LN architecture. Further analyses are necessary to assess the role of CD23(+) CD21(hi) Bin-like B cells in RA pathogenesis and arthritic flare.

  14. Both increases in immature dentate neuron number and decreases of immobility time in the forced swim test occurred in parallel after environmental enrichment of mice.

    PubMed

    Llorens-Martín, M V; Rueda, N; Martínez-Cué, C; Torres-Alemán, I; Flórez, J; Trejo, J L

    2007-07-13

    A direct relation between the rate of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice and the immobility time in a forced swim test after living in an enriched environment has been suggested previously. In the present work, young adult mice living in an enriched environment for 2 months developed considerably more immature differentiating neurons (doublecortin-positive, DCX(+)) than control, non-enriched animals. Furthermore, we found that the more DCX(+) cells they possessed, the lower the immobility time they scored in the forced swim test. This DCX(+) subpopulation is composed of mostly differentiating dentate neurons independently of the birthdates of every individual cell. However, variations found in this subpopulation were not the result of a general effect on the survival of any newborn neuron in the granule cell layer, as 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells born during a narrow time window included in the longer lifetime period of DCX(+) cells, were not significantly modified after enrichment. In contrast, the survival of the mature population of neurons in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus in enriched animals increased, although this did not influence their performance in the Porsolt test, nor did it influence the dentate gyrus volume or granule neuronal nuclei size. These results indicate that the population of immature, differentiating neurons in the adult hippocampus is one factor directly related to the protective effect of an enriched environment against a highly stressful event.

  15. SU-E-T-587: Optimal Volumetric Modulated Arc Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Technique for Multiple Brain Metastases with Increasing Number of Arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, V; Hossain, S; Hildebrand, K; Ahmad, S; Larson, D; Ma, L; Sahgal, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To show improvements in dose conformity and normal brain tissue sparing using an optimal planning technique (OPT) against clinically acceptable planning technique (CAP) in the treatment of multiple brain metastases. Methods: A standardized international benchmark case with12 intracranial tumors was planned using two different VMAT optimization methods. Plans were split into four groups with 3, 6, 9, and 12 targets each planned with 3, 5, and 7 arcs using Eclipse TPS. The beam geometries were 1 full coplanar and half non-coplanar arcs. A prescription dose of 20Gy was used for all targets. The following optimization criteria was used (OPT vs. CAP): (No upper limit vs.108% upper limit for target volume), (priority 140–150 vs. 75–85 for normal-brain-tissue), and (selection of automatic sparing Normal-Tissue-Objective (NTO) vs. Manual NTO). Both had priority 50 to critical structures such as brainstem and optic-chiasm, and both had an NTO priority 150. Normal-brain-tissue doses along with Paddick Conformity Index (PCI) were evaluated. Results: In all cases PCI was higher for OPT plans. The average PCI (OPT,CAP) for all targets was (0.81,0.64), (0.81,0.63), (0.79,0.57), and (0.72,0.55) for 3, 6, 9, and 12 target plans respectively. The percent decrease in normal brain tissue volume (OPT/CAP*100) achieved by OPT plans was (reported as follows: V4, V8, V12, V16, V20) (184, 343, 350, 294, 371%), (192, 417, 380, 299, 360%), and (235, 390, 299, 281, 502%) for the 3, 5, 7 arc 12 target plans, respectively. The maximum brainstem dose decreased for the OPT plan by 4.93, 4.89, and 5.30 Gy for 3, 5, 7 arc 12 target plans, respectively. Conclusion: Substantial increases in PCI, critical structure sparing, and decreases in normal brain tissue dose were achieved by eliminating upper limits from optimization, using automatic sparing of normal tissue function with high priority, and a high priority to normal brain tissue.

  16. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  17. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  18. Number relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Philip

    Number relativity 1.Every equation of the relativity is just the way to understand through to solve one question of the math problem. We just add the hypothesis into the number. 2. Sequence of number is the machine physics for software(computer) as the number order is program equation as calculator. 3. When zero is denominator, it is not existing as it is doing something by nothing. So nothing means time as we put zero denominator into time. My personal physics imagine.

  19. Number Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Terese A.

    2004-01-01

    This article features Number Time, a site developed by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) for young mathematics learners, located at www.bbc.co.uk/schools/numbertime. The site uses interactive animation to help children in pre-K through grade 2 understand and practice number basics. Users will find online games, videos that tell number…

  20. The Absence of the N-acyl-homoserine-lactone Autoinducer Synthase Genes traI and ngrI Increases the Copy Number of the Symbiotic Plasmid in Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234

    PubMed Central

    Grote, Jessica; Krysciak, Dagmar; Petersen, Katrin; Güllert, Simon; Schmeisser, Christel; Förstner, Konrad U.; Krishnan, Hari B.; Schwalbe, Harald; Kubatova, Nina; Streit, Wolfgang R.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-released flavonoids induce the transcription of symbiotic genes in rhizobia and one of the first bacterial responses is the synthesis of so called Nod factors. They are responsible for the initial root hair curling during onset of root nodule development. This signal exchange is believed to be essential for initiating the plant symbiosis with rhizobia affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria. Here, we provide evidence that in the broad host range strain Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234 the complete lack of quorum sensing molecules results in an elevated copy number of its symbiotic plasmid (pNGR234a). This in turn triggers the expression of symbiotic genes and the production of Nod factors in the absence of plant signals. Therefore, increasing the copy number of specific plasmids could be a widespread mechanism of specialized bacterial populations to bridge gaps in signaling cascades. PMID:27917168

  1. Growth of Thin, Anisotropic, π-Conjugated Molecular Films by Step-Wise `Click' Assembly of Molecular Building Blocks: Characterizing Reaction Yield, Surface Coverage, and Film Thickness vs. Addition Step Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Abel; Haugstad, Greg; Frisbie, C. Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Molecular electronics is an active field of nanotechnology that has gained much interest due to the advent of modern microscopy techniques, and thin film synthesis using click chemistry - an approach which has enabled scientists to achieve a sub-angstrom control of monolayer length. Among the major challenges to grow oriented, surface-confined wires by click chemistry is development of synthetic routes that yield monodisperse wires, and lack of systematic way to measure the surface coverage of molecules. In this work, we report a comprehensive characterization of π-conjugated oligophenylene imine (OPI) wires synthesized step-wise by imine condensation click chemistry. OPI wire synthesis began with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 4-formylthiophenol or 4-aminothiophenol on Au, followed by alternate addition of terepthaldehyde or phenylenediamine. OPI wires were characterized after each monomer addition via Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, reflection-absorption infra-red spectroscopy, and nuclear reaction analysis. We have determined an average extent of reaction greater than 98% completion for each growth step using five different techniques. Overall, these nanoscale scale surface characterization techniques proved to be an extremely sufficient method for monitoring wire growth and surface coverage.

  2. Proteolytic enzyme levels are increased during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-induced hematopoietic stem cell mobilization in human donors but do not predict the number of mobilized stem cells.

    PubMed

    van Os, R; van Schie, M L J; Willemze, R; Fibbe, W E

    2002-06-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory indicate that functional, mature neutrophils are essential for interleukin-8 (IL-8)-induced stem cell mobilization. To study a possible role of neutrophils in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) induced hematopoietic mobilization, we assessed the number of circulating CD34+ cells in healthy allogeneic stem cell donors on days 3, 4, and 5 of mobilization for comparison with the number of peripheral blood neutrophils and the plasma levels of IL-8, Flt3 ligand (FL), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and human neutrophil elastase (HNE). Thirty-seven of 45 donors required 1 day of apheresis to obtain 5 x 10(6) CD34+/kg recipient body weight (high responders), the remaining 8 donors required 1 extra day of apheresis on day 6 (low responders). On day 5, CD34+ numbers in the blood were significantly highe in high responders (116 x 10(3) +/- 10.4/ml) than in low responders (54.1 x 10(3) +/- 10.3, p < 0.001). In all donors, MMP-9 and HNE levels were increased compared to nonmobilized individuals, but in high responders, plasma MMP-9 levels on days 3-5 of mobilization were substantially higher than in low responders (p < or = 0.02 for MMP-9 and p = 0.89, p = 0.05 and p = 0.52 for HNE on days 3, 4, and 5, respectively). These results are in accordance with the hypothesis that neutrophils play a role in G-CSF-induced mobilization through the release of proteases such as MMP-9 and elastase. No change in plasma levels of IL-8 or Flt3 ligand was observed, suggesting that these cytokines do not play a role in stem cell mobilization. However, because stem cell numbers could not be predicted by proteolytic enzyme levels and/or neutrophil numbers, other undefined factors may be more important.

  3. Use of an electronic activity detection system to characterize estrus activity in crossbred beef heifers differing in follicle number

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased numbers of antral follicles have been associated with decreased calving day, increased fertility, increased serum estradiol concentrations, increased serum progesterone concentrations, and increased estrus behavior in cattle. In addition, cows with increased fertility have been shown to h...

  4. The Numbered Forest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissner, Emily

    2000-01-01

    Describes the activity of numbering trees in which students number trees or find the numbered trees and observe other features according to class time. This activity aims to increase student tracking, mapping, and writing skills and integrate them with math skills. Suggests follow up activities that focus on reading, writing, and language skills.…

  5. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  6. Number Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezin, Fatin

    2009-01-01

    It is instructive and interesting to find hidden numbers by using different positional numeration systems. Most of the present guessing techniques use the binary system expressed as less-than, greater-than or present-absent type information. This article describes how, by employing four cards having integers 1-64 written in different colours, one…

  7. Numbers, Please!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, John R.

    2013-01-01

    What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…

  8. Numbers Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathotia, Vinay

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on work undertaken by schools as part of Qualifications and Curriculum Authority's (QCA's) "Engaging mathematics for all learners" project. The goal was to use in the classroom, materials and approaches from a Royal Institution (Ri) Year 10 master-class, "Number Sense", which was inspired by examples from…

  9. Possible number systems.

    PubMed

    Rips, Lance J; Thompson, Samantha

    2014-03-01

    Number systems-such as the natural numbers, integers, rationals, reals, or complex numbers-play a foundational role in mathematics, but these systems can present difficulties for students. In the studies reported here, we probed the boundaries of people's concept of a number system by asking them whether "number lines" of varying shapes qualify as possible number systems. In Experiment 1, participants rated each of a set of number lines as a possible number system, where the number lines differed in their structures (a single straight line, a step-shaped line, a double line, or two branching structures) and in their boundedness (unbounded, bounded below, bounded above, bounded above and below, or circular). Participants also rated each of a group of mathematical properties (e.g., associativity) for its importance to number systems. Relational properties, such as associativity, predicted whether participants believed that particular forms were number systems, as did the forms' ability to support arithmetic operations, such as addition. In Experiment 2, we asked participants to produce properties that were important for number systems. Relational, operation, and use-based properties from this set again predicted ratings of whether the number lines were possible number systems. In Experiment 3, we found similar results when the number lines indicated the positions of the individual numbers. The results suggest that people believe that number systems should be well-behaved with respect to basic arithmetic operations, and that they reject systems for which these operations produce ambiguous answers. People care much less about whether the systems have particular numbers (e.g., 0) or sets of numbers (e.g., the positives).

  10. Human blood and marrow side population stem cell and Stro-1 positive bone marrow stromal cell numbers decline with age, with an increase in quality of surviving stem cells: correlation with cytokines.

    PubMed

    Brusnahan, S K; McGuire, T R; Jackson, J D; Lane, J T; Garvin, K L; O'Kane, B J; Berger, A M; Tuljapurkar, S R; Kessinger, M A; Sharp, J G

    2010-01-01

    Hematological deficiencies increase with aging leading to anemias, reduced hematopoietic stress responses and myelodysplasias. This study tested the hypothesis that side population hematopoietic stem cells (SP-HSC) would decrease with aging, correlating with IGF-1 and IL-6 levels and increases in bone marrow fat. Marrow was obtained from the femoral head and trochanteric region of the femur at surgery for total hip replacement (N=100). Whole trabecular marrow samples were ground in a sterile mortar and pestle and cellularity and fat content determined. Marrow and blood mononuclear cells were stained with Hoechst dye and the SP-HSC profiles acquired. Marrow stromal cells (MSC) were enumerated flow cytometrically employing the Stro-1 antibody, and clonally in the colony forming unit fibroblast (CFU-F) assay. Plasma levels of IGF-1 (ng/ml) and IL-6 (pg/ml) were measured by ELISA. SP-HSC in blood and bone marrow decreased with age but the quality of the surviving stem cells increased. MSC decreased non-significantly. IGF-1 levels (mean=30.7, SEM=2) decreased and IL-6 levels (mean=4.4, SEM=1) increased with age as did marrow fat (mean=1.2mmfat/g, SEM=0.04). There were no significant correlations between cytokine levels or fat and SP-HSC numbers. Stem cells appear to be progressively lost with aging and only the highest quality stem cells survive.

  11. The ACE inhibitors enalapril and captopril modulate cytokine responses in Balb/c and C57Bl/6 normal mice and increase CD4(+)CD103(+)CD25(negative) splenic T cell numbers.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Deijanira; Nihei, Jorge; Cardillo, Fabíola; Singh, Ram

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence implies beneficial effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors beyond those of their original indications to control hypertension. One of the most attractive non-hemodynamic properties of ACE inhibitors is their ability to regulate cytokine production. The mechanism(s) underlying the role of ACE inhibitors on cytokine synthesis are not well understood but they have traditionally been attributed to the inhibition of angiotensin (Ang) II formation. In fact, it has been extensively demonstrated that ACE inhibitors decrease Ang II-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. However, it is not well described if inhibition of endogenous Ang II generation by ACE inhibitors modulates systemic cytokine production in mice. To verify that, in this work, we investigated the effects of treatment with the ACE inhibitors enalapril and captopril on cytokine synthesis in C57Bl/6 and Balb/c mice. Our results show that enalapril up regulates IL-10 produced by splenocytes from Balb/c and C57Bl/6 mice and captopril increased it only in Balb/c mice. Furthermore, CD4(+)CD103(+) presented increased IL-10 production after enalapril treatment. Enalapril as well as captopril short-term treatment enhanced IL-2 synthesis in Balb/c mice. Besides, enhanced IL-2 and IL-10 levels correlates with increased CD4(+)CD103(+)CD25(negative) T cells numbers in spleens from enalapril-treated mice.

  12. PET: [number sign]1 is number one

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1994-09-01

    Subsidized in the beginning by bottle deposits, now spurred by the ability of curbside recycling to collect more than soda bottles, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling has made great strides in the last 10 years. Its growth rate and increased market demand are the envy of many other materials. Appropriate, if not deliberately, this number-one resin is listed under the Society for the Plastics Industry's resin identification code as [number sign]1. Unlike most recyclables, the market demand for recycled PET is greater than the supply. As a result, demand not supply, is fueling the increase in PET recycling.

  13. Adrenaline Stimulates Glucagon Secretion in Pancreatic A-Cells by Increasing the Ca2+ Current and the Number of Granules Close to the L-Type Ca2+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    Gromada, Jesper; Bokvist, Krister; Ding, Wei-Guang; Barg, Sebastian; Buschard, Karsten; Renström, Erik; Rorsman, Patrik

    1997-01-01

    We have monitored electrical activity, voltage-gated Ca2+ currents, and exocytosis in single rat glucagon-secreting pancreatic A-cells. The A-cells were electrically excitable and generated spontaneous Na+- and Ca2+-dependent action potentials. Under basal conditions, exocytosis was tightly linked to Ca2+ influx through ω-conotoxin-GVIA–sensitive (N-type) Ca2+ channels. Stimulation of the A-cells with adrenaline (via β-adrenergic receptors) or forskolin produced a greater than fourfold PKA-dependent potentiation of depolarization-evoked exocytosis. This enhancement of exocytosis was due to a 50% enhancement of Ca2+ influx through L-type Ca2+ channels, an effect that accounted for <30% of the total stimulatory action. The remaining 70% of the stimulation was attributable to an acceleration of granule mobilization resulting in a fivefold increase in the number of readily releasable granules near the L-type Ca2+ channels. PMID:9276750

  14. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  15. Short-Lived Human Umbilical Cord-Blood-Derived Neural Stem Cells Influence the Endogenous Secretome and Increase the Number of Endogenous Neural Progenitors in a Rat Model of Lacunar Stroke.

    PubMed

    Jablonska, Anna; Drela, Katarzyna; Wojcik-Stanaszek, Luiza; Janowski, Miroslaw; Zalewska, Teresa; Lukomska, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of severe disability, and lacunar stroke is related to cognitive decline and hemiparesis. There is no effective treatment for the majority of patients with stroke. Thus, stem cell-based regenerative medicine has drawn a growing body of attention due to the capabilities for trophic factor expression and neurogenesis enhancement. Moreover, it was shown in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model that even short-lived stem cells can be therapeutic, and we have previously observed that phenomenon indirectly. Here, in a rat model of lacunar stroke, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the positive therapeutic effects of short-lived human umbilical cord-blood-derived neural stem cells (HUCB-NSCs) through the distinct measurement of exogenous human and endogenous rat trophic factors. We have also evaluated neurogenesis and metalloproteinase activity as cellular components of therapeutic activity. As expected, we observed an increased proliferation and migration of progenitors, as well as metalloproteinase activity up to 14 days post transplantation. These changes were most prominent at the 7-day time point when we observed 30 % increases in the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in HUCB-NSC transplanted animals. The expression of human trophic factors was present until 7 days post transplantation, which correlated well with the survival of the human graft. For these 7 days, the level of messenger RNA (mRNA) in the analyzed trophic factors was from 300-fold for CNTF to 10,000-fold for IGF, much higher compared to constitutive expression in HUCB-NSCs in vitro. What is interesting is that there was no increase in the expression of rat trophic factors during the human graft survival, compared to that in non-transplanted animals. However, there was a prolongation of a period of increased trophic expression until 14 days post transplantation, while, in non-transplanted animals, there was a

  16. Grasping numbers.

    PubMed

    Moretto, Giovanna; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2008-07-01

    Both theoretical and empirical studies suggest that numerical processing is intimately linked to representations of goal-directed hand actions. Further evidence for this possibility is provided here by the results of two experiments, both of which revealed a powerful influence of numerical magnitude on the selection of hand grasping movements. Human participants performed either power or precision grip responses based on the semantic properties (e.g., parity) of visual Arabic numerals, in Experiment 1, or depending on their surface characteristics (e.g., colour), in Experiment 2. In both the experiments, it was found that small numerical values facilitated precision grip (commonly used to grasp small objects), while large numerical value potentiated power grip (commonly used to grasp large objects). These findings reveal that perceiving numbers can automatically prime grasping gestures, in a similar manner to viewing physical objects. This result is coherent with the view that processing of symbolic (numerical) and physical quantitative information converges onto a shared magnitude system representing the coordinates of action.

  17. Education by the Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Education, it seems, is increasingly driven by the numbers. Whether it is measuring student performance or a school district's ability to balance the books, one will find data out there about it. So much data, in fact, that it is difficult to sort through all the numbers to get the needed information. This article describes California's Ed-Data…

  18. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  19. The infusion of glucose in ewes during the luteal phase increases the number of follicles but reduces oestradiol production and some correlates of metabolic function in the large follicles.

    PubMed

    Gallet, Claire; Dupont, Joëlle; Campbell, Bruce K; Monniaux, Danielle; Guillaume, Daniel; Scaramuzzi, Rex J

    2011-09-01

    Short-term nutritional supplementation stimulates folliculogenesis in ewes probably by insulin-mediated actions of glucose in the follicle. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of glucose on follicle number and granulosa levels of Aromatase P450 and phosphorylated Akt and AMPK. Twelve Ile-de-France ewes were allocated to two groups; one (n=7) infused with saline and the other (n=5) with glucose (10mM/h) for 72h in the luteal phase. At the end of infusion, ovaries were collected and all follicles >1mm in diameter were dissected to recover granulosa cells. Aromatase P450 and phosphorylated Akt and AMPK were analysed by Western blotting of granulosa cell lysates. Blood plasmas collected before and during the infusions were analysed for progesterone, oestradiol, LH, FSH, glucose, insulin and IGF-I. The infusion of glucose significantly increased follicle number but, significantly reduced Aromatase P450 and phosphorylated Akt and AMPK in granulosa cells. The circulating concentration of glucose rose significantly 3h after the start of the glucose infusion and remained elevated until 27h then fell; the circulating concentration of insulin rose significantly by 3h and remained elevated. The circulating concentration of oestradiol fell significantly by 32h and remained low; the circulating concentrations of LH and FSH were unaffected. These data show that short-term infusion of glucose stimulated follicular growth but decreased Aromatase P450 in granulosa cells. The reduced levels of phosphorylated Akt and AMPK suggest that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway has been inhibited by high concentrations of glucose. These data also suggest that there may be functional cross-talk between FSH and insulin signalling in granulosa cells.

  20. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  1. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  2. mTOR Hyperactivation by Ablation of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 in the Mouse Heart Induces Cardiac Dysfunction with the Increased Number of Small Mitochondria Mediated through the Down-Regulation of Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Taneike, Manabu; Nishida, Kazuhiko; Omiya, Shigemiki; Zarrinpashneh, Elham; Misaka, Tomofumi; Kitazume-Taneike, Rika; Austin, Ruth; Takaoka, Minoru; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Gambello, Michael J; Shah, Ajay M; Otsu, Kinya

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a key regulator of cell growth, proliferation and metabolism. mTORC1 regulates protein synthesis positively and autophagy negatively. Autophagy is a major system to manage bulk degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic components and organelles. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1 and 2 form a heterodimeric complex and inactivate Ras homolog enriched in brain, resulting in inhibition of mTORC1. Here, we investigated the effects of hyperactivation of mTORC1 on cardiac function and structure using cardiac-specific TSC2-deficient (TSC2-/-) mice. TSC2-/- mice were born normally at the expected Mendelian ratio. However, the median life span of TSC2-/- mice was approximately 10 months and significantly shorter than that of control mice. TSC2-/- mice showed cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy without considerable fibrosis, cell infiltration or apoptotic cardiomyocyte death. Ultrastructural analysis of TSC2-/- hearts revealed misalignment, aggregation and a decrease in the size and an increase in the number of mitochondria, but the mitochondrial function was maintained. Autophagic flux was inhibited, while the phosphorylation level of S6 or eukaryotic initiation factor 4E -binding protein 1, downstream of mTORC1, was increased. The upregulation of autophagic flux by trehalose treatment attenuated the cardiac phenotypes such as cardiac dysfunction and structural abnormalities of mitochondria in TSC2-/- hearts. The results suggest that autophagy via the TSC2-mTORC1 signaling pathway plays an important role in maintenance of cardiac function and mitochondrial quantity and size in the heart and could be a therapeutic target to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis in failing hearts.

  3. The IgM isotype of anti-annexin A5 antibodies and multiple positivity of conventional antiphospholipid antibodies: increasing the number of clinical manifestations of primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bećarević, Mirjana; Stojanović, Ljudmila; Ignjatović, Svetlana; Dopsaj, Violeta

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the importance of anti-annexin A5 antibodies (aanxA5 Abs) for clinical (thrombosis and/or recurrent pregnancy loss) and serologic (presence of antiphospholipid antibodies: lupus anticoagulant (LA), anticardiolipin (aCL), and anti-β2 glycoprotein I (aβ2GPI) antibodies) features of patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS). Our study included 70 patients with PAPS according to the international consensus criteria for APS. The mean age of the analyzed patients was 45.97 ± 12.72. The disease duration above 5 years was present in 31/70 of patients. Concentrations of analyzed antibodies were measured by ELISA. Cutoff values were set in accordance to the manufacturers' recommendations. History of recurrent pregnancy loss was associated with double positivity for aanxA5 IgM and LA (χ (2) = 4.000, P = 0.046) and triple positivity for aanxA5 IgM + LA + aβ2GPI IgM (χ (2) = 4.168, P = 0.041). Venous thromboses were associated with triple positivity for aanxA5 IgM + aCLIgG + aβ2GPI IgM (χ (2) = 3.965, P = 0.046). The IgG isotype of aanxA5 Abs was in positive correlation with aCL Abs of the IgG (r = 0.310, P = 0.009) and IgM (r = 0.254, P = 0.034) isotype. The presence of the clinical manifestations of PAPS is increasing with the number of positive conventional aPL and the IgM aanxA5 Abs tests. This new combination of Abs is beneficial even when the number of patients with positivity for aanxA5 Abs is low. This is important in further detection of patients prone to recurrence of thrombotic episodes.

  4. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 attenuates adenylyl cyclase activity in rat thyroid cells: reduction of thyrotropin receptor number and increase in guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gi-2 alpha.

    PubMed

    Berg, J P; Sandvik, J A; Ree, A H; Sørnes, G; Bjøro, T; Torjesen, P A; Gordeladze, J O; Haug, E

    1994-08-01

    number and increasing the level of the AC inhibitory G-protein Gi-2 alpha in FRTL-5 cells.

  5. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  6. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Thomassen, A-M; Poulsen, H D

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD+phy), BDD soaked for 24 h at 20°C before feeding (BDS) and BDS with microbial phytase (BDS+phy). Supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of DM and crude protein (N×6.25) by 2 and 3 percentage units (P<0.0001; P<0.001), respectively. The ATTD of P was affected by the interaction between microbial phytase and soaking (P=0.02). This was due to a greater increase in ATTD of P by soaking of the diet containing solely plant phytase compared with the diet supplemented with microbial phytase: 35%, 65%, 44% and 68% for BDD, BDD+phy, BSD and BSD+phy, respectively. As such, supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of P in the dry-fed diet, but not in the soaked diet. The higher ATTD of P for BDS compared with BDD resulted from the degradation of 54% of the phytate in BDS by wheat and barley phytases during soaking. On the other hand, soaking of BDS+phy did not increase ATTD of P significantly compared with BDD+phy despite that 76% of the phytate in BDS+phy was degraded before feeding. In conclusion, soaking of BDS containing solely plant phytase provided a great potential for increasing ATTD of P. However, this potential was not present when microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet) was supplemented, most likely because soaking of BDS+phy for 24 h at 20°C did not result in a complete degradation of phytate before feeding.

  7. The effect of MgSO4 addition and the increasing doses of calcium and phosphorus during ending drying period on the occurrence of hypocalcaemia and hypophosphataemia in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bodarski, R; Kinal, S; Preś, J; Slupczyńska, M; Twardoń, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was the estimation of optimal Ca and P levels applied before calving together with anionic salt addition, as an element of hypocalcaemia and hypophosphataemia prevention. The experiment was carried out during the dry period on 48 cows with similar milk yield in the previous lactation. Cows were divided into four groups. In group I (control) the amount of minerals was in accordance to NRC standards. In experimental groups (groups II-IV), two weeks before calving, cows received 140 g/day/head of hydrated magnesium sulphate to achieve dietary cation-anion difference at the level of about 50 mEq/kg DM. In groups II and III cows received calcium carbonate (100 g/day) 10 days a.p. (antepartum) (group II), or 5 days a.p. (group III), while cows in IV group received dicalcium phosphate (100 g/day) for 5 days a.p. Application of MgSO4 x 7H20 significantly affected the urine pH of cows from group III and IV 4-5 d. before calving - 6.45 and 6.81, respectively. The acidification of urine was observed after calving in group IV (7.13). In cows from group II (100 CaCO3 10 days a.p.) urine pH decline was not found (7.97-7.75). In that group the incidences of hypophosphatemia were noted (blood serum inorganic P level 1.41-1.46 mmol/1). Addition of magnesium sulphate prevented hypocalcaemia occurrence -- 4-5 d. before calving the concentration of ionized Ca in blood serum was 1.11, 1.13 and 1.16 mmol/1 (respectively for group II, III and IV). Reproductive functions were significantly improved after the application of CaCO3 and CaHPO4 for 5 days a.p. in comparison with control and group II -- progesterone concentration in the blood serum on the 45th day of lactation was 1.396 - 1.409 versus 0.799 - 0.401. The correlation between progesterone and inorganic P level in serum was almost significant. Based on the obtained results a treatment optimal in prevention of hypocalcaemia and hypophosphataemia is the application of 50 g CaCO3 and 50 g of CaHPO4 for

  8. Extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate during the co-digestion of rapeseed oil and sewage sludge in a CSTR--characterization of granules formed due to CaO addition to maintain process stability.

    PubMed

    Kasina, M; Kleyböcker, A; Michalik, M; Würdemann, H

    2015-01-01

    In a co-digestion system running with rapeseed oil and sewage sludge, an extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate was studied to develop a procedure to allow for flexible and demand-driven energy production. The over-acidification of the digestate was successfully prevented by calcium oxide dosage, which resulted in granule formation. Mineralogical analyses revealed that the granules were composed of insoluble salts of long chain fatty acids and calcium and had a porous structure. Long chain fatty acids and calcium formed the outer cover of granules and offered interfaces on the inside thereby enhancing the growth of biofilms. With granule size and age, the pore size increased and indicated degradation of granular interfaces. A stable biogas production up to the organic loading rate of 10.4 kg volatile solids m(-3) d(-1) was achieved although the hydrogen concentration was not favorable for propionic acid degradation. However, at higher organic loading rates, unbalanced granule formation and degradation were observed. Obviously, the adaption time for biofilm growth was too short to maintain the balance, thereby resulting in a low methane yield.

  9. Introducing Complex Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudgian, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    One of the difficulties in any teaching of mathematics is to bridge the divide between the abstract and the intuitive. Throughout school one encounters increasingly abstract notions, which are more and more difficult to relate to everyday experiences. This article examines a familiar approach to thinking about negative numbers, that is an…

  10. Playing the Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Some say that the educators now have a gender-stratified system of higher education, with nearly 60 percent of all undergraduates being women and fewer men attending each year. The battle for gender equity for women in higher education has been a long and contentious one. In the decades since, increasing numbers of women have gone to college, to…

  11. Cross-Over Study Comparing Postprandial Glycemic Increase After Addition of a Fixed-Dose Mitiglinide/Voglibose Combination or a Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor to Basal Insulin Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Ihana-Sugiyama, Noriko; Yamamoto-Honda, Ritsuko; Sugiyama, Takehiro; Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Kakei, Masafumi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the efficacy of combination therapy consisting of basal insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) has been shown, which OHAs are the most efficient remains unclear. Material/Methods Five patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled and treated with insulin degludec and metformin as a basal therapy. The patients were randomized in a cross-over fashion to receive a combination of mitiglinide (10 mg) and voglibose (0.2 mg) (M+V) 3 times daily or linagliptin (5 mg) (L) once daily for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, 2 kinds of meal tolerance tests were performed as breakfast on 2 consecutive days. The first breakfast contained 460 kcal (carbohydrates, 49.1%; protein, 15.7%; fat, 35.2%), while the second contained 462 kcal (carbohydrates, 37.2%; protein, 19.6%; fat, 43.2%). Self-monitoring blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min after the meal tests, and the increase in the postprandial area under the curve (AUC)0–120 min was determined. The HbA1c, glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (AG) levels were measured, and continuous glucose monitoring was performed. Results The increase in the postprandial AUC0–120 min was significantly smaller in the M+V group than in the L group after both meals. The 24-h average, 24-h standard deviations, 24-h AUC, and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) were similar for both groups and after both meals. The change in 1,5-AG was higher in the M+V group than in the L group. Conclusions The combination of M+V with basal therapy improved postprandial glucose excursion more effectively than L in T2DM patients. PMID:28242866

  12. Safety in glomerular numbers.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, Michiel F

    2012-10-01

    A low nephron number is, according to Brenner's hyperfiltration hypothesis, associated with hypertension, glomerular damage and proteinuria, and starts a vicious cycle that ends in renal failure over the long term. Nephron endowment is set during foetal life, and there is no formation of nephrons after 34-36 weeks of gestation, indicating that many factors before that time-point may have an impact on kidney development and reduce nephron numbers. Such factors include maternal malnutrition, stress, diseases, such as diabetes, uteroplacental insufficiency, maternal and neonatal drugs and premature birth. However, other congenital anomalies, such as renal hypoplasia, unilateral renal agenesis or multicystic dysplastic kidney, may also lead to a reduced nephron endowment, with an increased risk for hypertension, renal dysfunction and the need for renal replacement therapy. This review focuses on the causes and consequences of a low nephron endowment and will illustrate why there is safety in glomerular numbers.

  13. Prevalence of Methylphenidate Prescription among School-Aged Children in a Swiss Population: Increase in the Number of Prescriptions in the Swiss Canton of Vaud, from 2002 to 2005, and Changes in Patient Demographics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumy, Cedric; Huissoud, Therese; Dubois-Arber, Francoise

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Methylphenidate is prescribed for children and adolescents to treat ADHD. As in many Western countries, the increase in methylphenidate consumption is a public concern in Switzerland. The article discusses the authors' assessment of prescription prevalence in 2002 and 2005 for school-aged children in the canton of Vaud. Method: Pharmacy…

  14. Decreased beige adipocyte number and mitochondrial respiration coincide with increased histone methyl transferase (G9a) and reduced FGF21 gene expression in Sprague Dawley rats fed prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have shown that protein malnutrition during fetal growth followed by postnatal high-fat diets results in a rapid increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue mass in the offspring contributing to development of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies have shown that the absence of a key transcr...

  15. PTCH polymorphism is associated with the rate of increase in basal cell carcinoma numbers during follow-up: preliminary data on the influence of an exon 12-exon 23 haplotype.

    PubMed

    Strange, Richard C; El-Genidy, Noha; Ramachandran, Sudarshan; Lovatt, Tracy J; Fryer, Anthony A; Smith, Andrew G; Lear, John T; Ichii-Jones, Fumiyo; Jones, Peter W; Hoban, Paul R

    2004-01-01

    After first presentation with a basal cell carcinoma (BCC), patients demonstrate interindividual diversity in the rate of development of further BCCs (number/year of follow-up). The mechanism for this variation is unknown. In this study, we evaluated whether PTCH variants mediate this phenomenon. We used negative binomial regression analysis to identify associations between BCC numbers/year and host characteristics, parameters of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and PTCH exon 12(1686) C/T, intron 15(2560+9) G/C, and exon 23(3944) C/T genotypes and haplotypes in 279 BCC cases who presented with an initial tumor on the head/neck. PTCH genotypes were not significantly associated with BCCs/year, although cases with two copies of the C1686-C3944 haplotype developed significantly fewer BCCs/year than those without this haplotype (rate ratio = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.27-0.71). Cases with one copy of T1686-T3944 developed more BCCs/year (rate ratio = 2.46; 95% CI = 1.27-3.97) than those without the haplotype. We found no significant associations between BCCs/year and the other PTCH haplotypes studied. We reexamined the association of C1686-C3944 with BCCs/year in a model that included UVR exposure parameters (sunburning in childhood, sunbathing score, intermittency of exposure between 40 and 60 years of age, exposure in hours/year) and skin type, gender, and age at first presentation. The association between C1686-C3944 and BCCs/year remained significant (rate ratio = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.26-0.73 for two copies of the haplotype). The data show that allelic variation in PTCH contributes to the rate of development of BCC.

  16. Reducing Communication in Algebraic Multigrid Using Additive Variants

    SciTech Connect

    Vassilevski, Panayot S.; Yang, Ulrike Meier

    2014-02-12

    Algebraic multigrid (AMG) has proven to be an effective scalable solver on many high performance computers. However, its increasing communication complexity on coarser levels has shown to seriously impact its performance on computers with high communication cost. Moreover, additive AMG variants provide not only increased parallelism as well as decreased numbers of messages per cycle but also generally exhibit slower convergence. Here we present various new additive variants with convergence rates that are significantly improved compared to the classical additive algebraic multigrid method and investigate their potential for decreased communication, and improved communication-computation overlap, features that are essential for good performance on future exascale architectures.

  17. Women at risk: why increasing numbers of women are failing to get the health care they need and how the Affordable Care Act will help. Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey of 2010.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Ruth; Collins, Sara R

    2011-05-01

    Women have greater health care needs than men, and generally play larger roles in the health care of family members. Rising health care costs combined with sluggish income growth has contributed to losses in health insurance among women and rising rates of problems gaining necessary health care and paying medical bills. Women who seek coverage in the individual insurance market face additional hurdles--few plans offer maternity coverage and, in most states, insurance carriers charge higher premium rates to young women than men of the same age. The Affordable Care Act is bringing change for women through required free coverage of preventive care services, small business tax credits, new affordable coverage options, and insurance market reforms, including bans on gender rating. When the law is fully implemented in 2014, nearly all the 27 million working-age women who went without health insurance in 2010 will gain affordable and comprehensive benefits.

  18. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  19. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paasonen, Pauli; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Klimont, Zbigniew; Visschedijk, Antoon; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Amann, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa), coke production (Russia and China), and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation) scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol-cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response to tightening

  20. Effects of Video Games as Reinforcers for Computerized Addition Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Saul; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Four 2nd-grade students completed addition problems on a computer, using video games as reinforcers. Two variable ratio schedules of reinforcement failed to increase student accuracy or the rate of correct responses. In a no-games reinforcement condition, students had more opportunities to respond and had a greater number of correct answers.…

  1. The number of components of enhancement contributing to short-term synaptic plasticity at the neuromuscular synapse during patterned nerve Stimulation progressively decreases as basal release probability is increased from low to normal levels by changing extracellular Ca2+.

    PubMed

    Holohean, Alice M; Magleby, Karl L

    2011-05-11

    Presynaptic short-term plasticity (STP) dynamically modulates synaptic strength in a reversible manner on a timescale of milliseconds to minutes. For low basal vesicular release probability (prob0), four components of enhancement, F1 and F2 facilitation, augmentation (A), and potentiation (P), increase synaptic strength during repetitive nerve activity. For release rates that exceed the rate of replenishment of the readily releasable pool (RRP) of synaptic vesicles, depression of synaptic strength, observed as a rundown of postsynaptic potential amplitudes, can also develop. To understand the relationship between enhancement and depression at the frog (Rana pipiens) neuromuscular synapse, data obtained over a wide range of prob0 using patterned stimulation are analyzed with a hybrid model to reveal the components of STP. We find that F1, F2, A, P, and depletion of the RRP all contribute to STP during repetitive nerve activity at low prob0. As prob0 is increased by raising Ca(o)(2+) (extracellular Ca2+), specific components of enhancement no longer contribute, with first P, then A, and then F2 becoming undetectable, even though F1 continues to enhance release. For levels of prob0 that lead to appreciable depression, only F1 and depletion of the RRP contribute to STP during rundown, and for low stimulation rates, F2 can also contribute. These observations place prob0-dependent limitations on which components of enhancement contribute to STP and suggest some fundamental mechanistic differences among the components. The presented model can serve as a tool to readily characterize the components of STP over wide ranges of prob0.

  2. Neonatal administration of phencyclidine decreases the number of putative inhibitory interneurons and increases neural excitability to auditory paired clicks in the hippocampal CA3 region of freely moving adult mice.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, M; Katayama, T; Suzuki, Y; Hoshino, K-Y; Yamada, H; Matsuoka, N; Jodo, E

    2012-11-08

    Animals exposed to phencyclidine (PCP) during the neonatal period have fewer GABAergic interneurons in the corticolimbic area, including the hippocampus, and exhibit abnormal behaviors after attaining maturation that correspond with schizophrenic symptoms. Since a lack of inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus has also been reported in postmortem studies of patients with schizophrenia, the deficit may induce abnormal activity of hippocampal neurons that underlies pathological states in schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear how PCP treatment during the neonatal period affects the discharge activity of hippocampal neurons in adulthood. In the current study, single unit responses of hippocampal CA3 neurons to paired auditory clicks were recorded in freely moving mice repeatedly injected with PCP or saline during the neonatal period. The recorded neurons were classified into two subpopulations, narrow-spike neurons and broad-spike neurons, based on the spike width. The spontaneous discharge rate was higher in the narrow-spike neurons than in the broad-spike neurons, indicating that the narrow-spike neurons correspond with hippocampal inhibitory neurons. The proportion of narrow-spike neurons was significantly smaller in neonatally PCP-treated mice than in saline-treated mice. The broad-spike neurons that exhibited a response magnitude to the second click as large as that to the first click (E/E-type response) showed longer response duration to the paired clicks in PCP-treated mice than in the saline-treated mice. Further, the number of neurons with E/E-type response was higher in the PCP-treated mice than in the saline-treated mice. Finally, the attenuation of an auditory-evoked potential component, N40, to the second click (sensory gating) was blunted in the PCP-treated mice when compared with that in the saline-treated mice. These results suggest that the neonatal administration of PCP induced a deficit of inhibitory interneurons and altered discharge

  3. Number Concepts with "Number Worlds": Thickening Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liljedahl, Peter; Sinclair, Nathalie; Zazkis, Rina

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the nature of preservice elementary school teachers' understandings of several concepts in elementary number theory that are evoked by a computer-based microworld called "Number Worlds". In particular, the focus is on the concepts of factor, multiple and prime number. The notion of "thickness" is examined with respect to…

  4. On Multiplying Negative Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Mary L.; Dunn, Kenneth A.

    1985-01-01

    Comments on the history of negative numbers, some methods that can be used to introduce the multiplication of negative numbers to students, and an explanation of why the product of two negative numbers is a positive number are included. (MNS)

  5. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  6. All Square Chiliagonal Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A?iru, Muniru A.

    2016-01-01

    A square chiliagonal number is a number which is simultaneously a chiliagonal number and a perfect square (just as the well-known square triangular number is both triangular and square). In this work, we determine which of the chiliagonal numbers are perfect squares and provide the indices of the corresponding chiliagonal numbers and square…

  7. Promote Number Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurganus, Susan

    2004-01-01

    "Number sense" is "an intuition about numbers that is drawn from all varied meanings of number" (NCTM, 1989, p. 39). Students with number sense understand that numbers are representative of objects, magnitudes, relationships, and other attributes; that numbers can be operated on, compared, and used for communication. It is fundamental knowledge…

  8. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  9. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  10. Negative numbers in simple arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Das, Runa; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Penner-Wilger, Marcie

    2010-10-01

    Are negative numbers processed differently from positive numbers in arithmetic problems? In two experiments, adults (N = 66) solved standard addition and subtraction problems such as 3 + 4 and 7 - 4 and recasted versions that included explicit negative signs-that is, 3 - (-4), 7 + (-4), and (-4) + 7. Solution times on the recasted problems were slower than those on standard problems, but the effect was much larger for addition than subtraction. The negative sign may prime subtraction in both kinds of recasted problem. Problem size effects were the same or smaller in recasted than in standard problems, suggesting that the recasted formats did not interfere with mental calculation. These results suggest that the underlying conceptual structure of the problem (i.e., addition vs. subtraction) is more important for solution processes than the presence of negative numbers.

  11. Numbers Defy the Law of Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ruma; Lann, Avital Lavie

    2015-01-01

    As the number of independent tosses of a fair coin grows, the rates of heads and tails tend to equality. This is misinterpreted by many students as being true also for the absolute numbers of the two outcomes, which, conversely, depart unboundedly from each other in the process. Eradicating that misconception, as by coin-tossing experiments,…

  12. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report. olume 22, Number 1, January 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    cramps. It is spread primarily via contaminated food (common sources includes poultry and eggs), but can also be transmitted via animal contact...utensils; appropriate storage of food; and, as appropriate, cooking foods thoroughly, especially poultry . In addition, an increasing number of...of live poultry is also warranted. F I G U R E 4 . Annual numbers of incident cases of salmonellosis among other Mili- tary Health System benefi

  13. Increasing the Number of Underrepresented Minorities in Astronomy: Executive Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Dara; Ernst, David J.; Agueros, Marcel; Anderson, Scott F.; Baker, Andrew; Burgasser, Adam; Cruz, Kelle; Gawiser, Eric; Krishnamurthi, Anita; Lee, Hyun-chul; Mighell, Kenneth; McGruder, Charles; Norman, Dara; Sakimoto, Philip J.; Sheth, Karthik; Soderblom, Dave; Strauss, Michael; Walter, Donald; West, Andrew; Agol, Eric; Murphy, Jeremiah; Garner, Sarah; Bellovary, Jill; Schmidt, Sarah; Cowan, Nick; Gogarten, Stephanie; Stilp, Adrienne; Christensen, Charlotte; Hilton, Eric; Haggard, Daryl; Loebman, Sarah; Rosenfield, Phil; Munshi, Ferah

    Promoting racial and ethnic diversity is critically important to the future success and growth of the field of astronomy. The raw ability, drive and interest required to excel in the field is distributed without regard to race, gender, or socioeconomic background. By not actively promoting diversity in our field we risk losing talented people to other professions (or losing them entirely), which means that there will be astronomical discoveries that simply won't get made. There is demonstrated evidence that STEM fields benefit from diverse perspectives on problems that require more complex thought processes. This is especially relevant to a field like astronomy where more and more work is being done collaboratively. The lack of notable growth in African American, Hispanic, and Native American representation in astronomy indicates that the 'pipeline' for these individuals is systemically leaky at critical junctures. Substantially more effort must be directed toward improving the educational and career development of minorities to insure that these potential colleagues are supported through the process. However, simply recognizing that the pipeline is faulty is woefully inadequate. There must be very specific, targeted solutions to help improve the situation. With this in mind, we offer two position papers addressing specific areas of improvement that we identify as (a) essential for any foreseeable progress in the field, and (b) attainable in the 2010-2020 decade. These position papers focus primarily on African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Although we do not directly address issues of Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders, and other groups, many of the recommendations made here can be adapted to address issues faced by these groups as well.

  14. Effect of Medium Symmetries on Limiting the Number of Parameters Estimated with Polarimetric SAR Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghaddam, M.

    1999-01-01

    The addition of interferometric backscattering pairs to the conventional polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data over forests and other vegetated areas increases the dimensionality of the data space, in principle enabling the estimation of a larger number of parameters.

  15. Development of detergent additives for automotive fuels in other countries

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharova, E.L.; Emel`yanov, V.E.; Deineko, P.S.

    1994-09-01

    With increasing demands on environmental protection and with the production of reformulated unleaded motor fuels, new and effective detergent additives are urgently needed. A number of monographs and scientific works have been devoted to problems involved in the development and application of such additives. Since the mid-1980s in the United States and certain other countries, a crisis has been noted in the application of detergent additives. It has been found that certain types of detergents not only fail to give the required cleaning effect, but even promote the formation of deposits. This situation can be attributed primarily to the development of automotive gasoline engines with direct fuel injection. In the United States in 1989, about 90% of all automotive vehicles were equipped with such engines, which have very definite advantages in fuel economy, less smoking, and a number of other areas. However, after a few thousand kilometers of travel, the characteristics of these engines deteriorate, and undesirable changes are observed, including excessive fuel consumption, a reduction of the vehicle speed, and increased contents of carbon monoxide in the exhaust. These changes occur because of deposit formation in the fuel intake system, particularly on the intake valves. As the deposits continue to accumulate, the engines gradually experience an increase in octane number demand for engine operation without knocking. This phenomenon, which is known in American publications as {open_quotes}octane requirement increase{close_quotes} or ORI (Russian initialism RTOCh, literal translation, {open_quotes}increase of requirements for octane number{close_quotes}), continues until a certain equilibrium octane number is reached. This equilibrium value may change, depending on the engine design and other factors. In all cases, however, the ORI of modern engines is significant, amount to 2-14 octane numbers.

  16. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  17. [Risk hidden in the small print? : Some food additives may trigger pseudoallergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Zuberbier, Torsten; Hengstenberg, Claudine

    2016-06-01

    Some food additives may trigger pseudoallergenic reactions. However, the prevalence of such an overreaction is - despite the increasing number of food additives - rather low in the general population. The most common triggers of pseudoallergic reactions to food are naturally occurring ingredients. However, symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria should improve significantly on a pseudoallergen-free diet. In addition, some studies indicate that certain food additives may also have an impact on the symptoms of patients with neurodermatitis and asthma.

  18. 47 CFR 95.671 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Technical Regulations Additional Certification Requirements for Cb Transmitters § 95.671 Serial number. The serial number of each CB transmitter must be engraved on the transmitter chassis....

  19. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  20. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  1. SOME CHROMOSOME NUMBERS OF DRAPARNALDIA.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J W; Deason, T R

    1969-03-01

    The variability exhibited by Draparnaldia both in nature and in the laboratory makes it difficult to identify the species. The natural variability of Draparnaldia was amplified by the environmental conditions and the media used in this study. With the hope that chromosome studies would aid in taxonomic characterization by providing additional differentiating criteria, special attention was devoted to adapting techniques which could be used to determine chromosome numbers of Draparnaldia isolates. The chromosome numbers reported herein are as follows: (1) Draparnaldia glomerata, Isolate #1, isolated from Davis Falls, Montevallo, Alabama, was found to have a chromosome number of 13. (2) Draparnaldia Isolate #2, an unidentified species obtained from Anniston, Alabama, was found to have a chromosome number of 13. (3) Draparnaldia acuta, Isolate #3 from Northwood Lake, Northport, Alabama, exhibited 26 chromosomes. (4) Draparnaldia plumosa strain 423 (Indiana Culture Collection), 418/a (Cambridge) was observed to have a chromosome number of 13.

  2. Brain systems involved in arithmetic with positive versus negative numbers.

    PubMed

    Gullick, Margaret M; Wolford, George

    2014-02-01

    Positive number arithmetic is based on combining and separating sets of items, with systematic differences in brain activity in specific regions depending on operation. In contrast, arithmetic with negative numbers involves manipulating abstract values worth less than zero, possibly involving different operation-activity relationships in these regions. Use of procedural arithmetic knowledge, including transformative rules like "minus a negative is plus a positive," may also differ by operand sign. Here, we examined whether the activity evoked in negative number arithmetic was similar to that seen in positive problems, using region of interest analyses (ROIs) to examine a specific set of brain regions. Negative-operand problems demonstrated a positive-like effect of operation in the inferior parietal lobule with more activity for subtraction than addition, as well as increased activity across operation. Interestingly, while positive-operand problems demonstrated the expected addition > subtraction activity difference in the angular gyrus, negative problems showed a reversed effect, with relatively more activity for subtraction than addition. Negative subtraction problems may be understood after translation to addition via rule, thereby invoking more addition-like activity. Whole-brain analyses showed increased right caudate activity for negative-operand problems across operation, indicating a possible overall increase in usage of procedural rules. Arithmetic with negative numbers may thus shows some operation-activity relationships similar to positive numbers, but may also be affected by strategy. This study examines the flexibility of the mental number system by exploring to what degree the processing of an applied usage of a difficult, abstract mathematical concept is similar to that for positive numbers.

  3. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Yanowitz, J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; McCormick, R. L.; Taylor, J. D.; Murphy, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    This report is an updated version of the 2004 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until March 2014 as well as a number of unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This Compendium contains cetane values for 389 pure compounds, including 189 hydrocarbons and 201 oxygenates. More than 250 individual measurements are new to this version of the Compendium. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines; it is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous Compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed, and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane has been expanded and the data has been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.

  4. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  5. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  6. Rare Copy Number Variants

    PubMed Central

    Grozeva, Detelina; Kirov, George; Ivanov, Dobril; Jones, Ian R.; Jones, Lisa; Green, Elaine K.; St Clair, David M.; Young, Allan H.; Ferrier, Nicol; Farmer, Anne E.; McGuffin, Peter; Holmans, Peter A.; Owen, Michael J.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Context Recent studies suggest that copy number variation in the human genome is extensive and may play an important role in susceptibility to disease, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. The possible involvement of copy number variants (CNVs) in bipolar disorder has received little attention to date. Objectives To determine whether large (>100 000 base pairs) and rare (found in <1% of the population) CNVs are associated with susceptibility to bipolar disorder and to compare with findings in schizophrenia. Design A genome-wide survey of large, rare CNVs in a case-control sample using a high-density microarray. Setting The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Participants There were 1697 cases of bipolar disorder and 2806 nonpsychiatric controls. All participants were white UK residents. Main Outcome Measures Overall load of CNVs and presence of rare CNVs. Results The burden of CNVs in bipolar disorder was not increased compared with controls and was significantly less than in schizophrenia cases. The CNVs previously implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia were not more common in cases with bipolar disorder. Conclusions Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder differ with respect to CNV burden in general and association with specific CNVs in particular. Our data are consistent with the possibility that possession of large, rare deletions may modify the phenotype in those at risk of psychosis: those possessing such events are more likely to be diagnosed as having schizophrenia, and those without them are more likely to be diagnosed as having bipolar disorder. PMID:20368508

  7. Beam geometry selection using sequential beam addition

    SciTech Connect

    Popple, Richard A. Brezovich, Ivan A.; Fiveash, John B.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The selection of optimal beam geometry has been of interest since the inception of conformal radiotherapy. The authors report on sequential beam addition, a simple beam geometry selection method, for intensity modulated radiation therapy. Methods: The sequential beam addition algorithm (SBA) requires definition of an objective function (score) and a set of candidate beam geometries (pool). In the first iteration, the optimal score is determined for each beam in the pool and the beam with the best score selected. In the next iteration, the optimal score is calculated for each beam remaining in the pool combined with the beam selected in the first iteration, and the best scoring beam is selected. The process is repeated until the desired number of beams is reached. The authors selected three treatment sites, breast, lung, and brain, and determined beam arrangements for up to 11 beams from a pool comprised of 25 equiangular transverse beams. For the brain, arrangements were additionally selected from a pool of 22 noncoplanar beams. Scores were determined for geometries comprised equiangular transverse beams (EQA), as well as two tangential beams for the breast case. Results: In all cases, SBA resulted in scores superior to EQA. The breast case had the strongest dependence on beam geometry, for which only the 7-beam EQA geometry had a score better than the two tangential beams, whereas all SBA geometries with more than two beams were superior. In the lung case, EQA and SBA scores monotonically improved with increasing number of beams; however, SBA required fewer beams to achieve scores equivalent to EQA. For the brain case, SBA with a coplanar pool was equivalent to EQA, while the noncoplanar pool resulted in slightly better scores; however, the dose-volume histograms demonstrated that the differences were not clinically significant. Conclusions: For situations in which beam geometry has a significant effect on the objective function, SBA can identify

  8. Dynamic Virtual Credit Card Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molloy, Ian; Li, Jiangtao; Li, Ninghui

    Theft of stored credit card information is an increasing threat to e-commerce. We propose a dynamic virtual credit card number scheme that reduces the damage caused by stolen credit card numbers. A user can use an existing credit card account to generate multiple virtual credit card numbers that are either usable for a single transaction or are tied with a particular merchant. We call the scheme dynamic because the virtual credit card numbers can be generated without online contact with the credit card issuers. These numbers can be processed without changing any of the infrastructure currently in place; the only changes will be at the end points, namely, the card users and the card issuers. We analyze the security requirements for dynamic virtual credit card numbers, discuss the design space, propose a scheme using HMAC, and prove its security under the assumption the underlying function is a PRF.

  9. Interactive effects of nutrient additions and predation on infaunal communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Posey, M.H.; Alphin, T.D.; Cahoon, L.; Lindquist, D.; Becker, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Nutrient additions represent an important anthropogenic stress on coastal ecosystems. At moderate levels, increased nutrients may lead to increased primary production and, possibly, to increased biomass of consumers although complex trophic interactions may modify or mask these effects. We examined the influence of nutrient additions and interactive effects of trophic interactions (predation) on benthic infaunal composition and abundances through small-scale field experiments in 2 estuaries that differed in ambient nutrient conditions. A blocked experimental design was used that allowed an assessment of direct nutrient effects in the presence and absence of predation by epibenthic predators as well as an assessment of the independent effects of predation. Benthic microalgal production increased with experimental nutrient additions and was greater when infaunal abundances were lower, but there were no significant interactions between these factors. Increased abundances of one infaunal taxa, Laeonereis culveri, as well as the grazer feeding guild were observed with nutrient additions and a number of taxa exhibited higher abundances with predator exclusion. In contrast to results from freshwater systems there were no significant interactive effects between nutrient additions and predator exclusion as was predicted. The infaunal responses observed here emphasize the importance of both bottom-up (nutrient addition and primary producer driven) and top-down (predation) controls in structuring benthic communities. These processes may work at different spatial and temporal scales, and affect different taxa, making observation of potential interactive effects difficult.

  10. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  11. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  12. Are Numbers Gendered?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…

  13. Building Numbers from Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  14. Sierpinski and Carmichael Numbers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-16

    prove that almost all odd natural numbers k have the property that 2nk + 1 is not a Carmichael number for any n 2 N; this implies the existence of a...Sierpiński and Riesel numbers. First, we prove that almost all odd natural numbers k have the property that 2nk + 1 is not a Carmichael number for any n...Sierpiński [25] showed that there are infinitely many odd natural numbers k with the property that 2nk + 1 is composite for every natural number n; such an

  15. How the ICCOC Uses Analytics to Increase Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Matt; Rheinschmidt, Steve

    2010-01-01

    With unemployment still high in many areas of the country, many job seekers are returning to school for additional training. The increase in numbers of students puts additional strain on community colleges, which is where many adult learners choose to further their education. Nevertheless, even among this population, only about half earn degrees.…

  16. A World of Difference. Parental Perspectives on Cochlear Implantation in Deaf Children with Additional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isarin, Jet; van Zadelhoff, Ilse; Wolters-Leermakers, Nina; Speksnijder-Bregman, Marjon; Hannink, Mariën; Knoors, Harry

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of deaf children with additional disabilities receive a cochlear implant (CI). International studies on cochlear implantation in deaf children with additional disabilities show less and slower speech and language gains, but improvement in overall quality of life. In order to qualify the concept of quality of life this study…

  17. Cochlear Implantation among Deaf Children with Additional Disabilities: Parental Perceptions of Benefits, Challenges, and Service Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Curle, Deirdre; Jamieson, Janet R.; Chia, Ruth; Kozak, Frederick K.

    2015-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of children with additional disabilities are receiving cochlear implants (CIs), little is known about family perspectives of the benefits and the challenges of cochlear implantation in this pediatric population. This study examines perceptions among parents of deaf children with additional disabilities regarding…

  18. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  19. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  20. Number Sense Made Simple Using Number Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Hui Fang Huang; Marinas, Carol; Furner, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights investigating intriguing number patterns utilising an emerging technology called the Square Tool. Mathematics teachers of grades K-12 will find the Square Tool useful in making connections and bridging the gap from the concrete to the abstract. Pattern recognition helps students discover various mathematical concepts. With…

  1. Pi Division and Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The number Pi (approximately 3.14159) is defined to be the ratio C/d of the circumference (C) to the diameter (d) of any given circle. In particular, Pi measures the circumference of a circle of diameter d = 1. Historically, the Greek mathematician Archimedes found good approximations for Pi by inscribing and circumscribing many-sided polygons…

  2. Appetite - increased

    MedlinePlus

    ... Have you noticed any other symptoms such as anxiety, palpitations , increased thirst , vomiting , frequent urination , or unintentional weight gain? Tests that may be done include: Blood tests, ...

  3. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  4. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  5. Food additives and contaminants. An update.

    PubMed

    Newberne, P M; Conner, M W

    1986-10-15

    Food additives continue to be a source of benefits to the consuming public but there are also perceived risks. Concern for the latter in the last decade has produced a society afflicted with cancer phobia. The intentional additives including sugars, salt, corn syrup, and dextrose make up 90% of the direct additives. These, along with a limited number of familiar items make up a large proportion of the remainder of the additives. Such common ingredients as nitrates and nitrites, solanine, cyanogenetic compounds, arsenic, etc., are unavoidably consumed in the diet and with little if any evidence for public health consequences. Major concern on the part of the public in recent years has been focused on man-made chemicals which are intentionally added to foods to enhance flavors and acceptability, nutrient value, shelf life and increased availability. These include food colors, nonnutritive and low-nutrient sweeteners, (saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame); antioxidants; and nitrites. Contaminants, sometimes incorrectly included in lists of food additives, present the greatest potential threat to public health. Such contaminants as mycotoxins, nitrosamines, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, among others, provide a continuing challenge to our regulatory agencies and to public health authorities. Evidence to date indicate that these responsible for food safety are doing an admirable job, and as a society, our food supply has never been better, or safer, and, as a population, we have never been healthier. Aside from contaminants, major concerns relate to an excess of good food and to obesity. These comments should not be taken to infer that we should relax our concern and surveillance;