Science.gov

Sample records for addition initial results

  1. ALOS-2 initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankaku, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shimada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) was launched from Tanegashima Space Center by H-IIA rocket successfully on 24th May 2014. ALOS-2 carries the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) as the state-of-the-art L-band SAR system which succeeds to PALSAR onboard ALOS. PALSAR-2 uses almost whole bandwidth allocated for L-band active sensor of Earth Exploration Satellites Service specified by the Radio Regulation in order to realize the high resolution observation, and also, it transmits more than 6 kW power for lower Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero using 180 TRMs driven by Gallium Nitride (GaN) amplifier which is the first use in space. Furthermore, because ALOS-2 carries the SAR system only, PALSAR-2 antenna can be mounted under the satellite body. It enables to observe right-/left-looking observation by satellite maneuvering. And the high accuracy orbit control to maintain the satellite within 500 m radius tube against the reference orbit enables high coherence for the InSAR processing. Using these new technologies, ALOS-2 has been operating to fulfill the mission requirements such as disaster monitoring and so on. This document introduces the initial result of ALOS-2 from the first year operation.

  2. Care initiation area yields dramatic results.

    PubMed

    2009-03-01

    The ED at Gaston Memorial Hospital in Gastonia, NC, has achieved dramatic results in key department metrics with a Care Initiation Area (CIA) and a physician in triage. Here's how the ED arrived at this winning solution: Leadership was trained in and implemented the Kaizen method, which eliminates redundant or inefficient process steps. Simulation software helped determine additional space needed by analyzing arrival patterns and other key data. After only two days of meetings, new ideas were implemented and tested. PMID:19275059

  3. Initial Blackbeard power survey results

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.; Devenport, J.; Holden, D.

    1996-06-01

    The Blackbeard broadband VHF radio receiver is in low-earth orbit aboard the ALEXIS satellite. The receiver has been used to measure the transmitted power in four VHF bands (55.2-75.8, 28.0-94.8, 132.3-152.2, and 107.7-166.0 MHz) over quiet and noisy parts of the earth. The authors present the results of the survey and discuss their implications. They find that there are remote ocean areas over which the observed spectrum is largely free of man-made interference, but that the spectrum over most of the earth is dominated by broadcast VHF signals. The signal characteristics observed over a given area are quite constant when observed at different times of day and at intervals of several weeks to months. It appears that in many cases the bulk of the signal power is coming from a small number of sources.

  4. Unconscious Addition: When We Unconsciously Initiate and Follow Arithmetic Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ric, Francois; Muller, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    This research shows that people can unconsciously initiate and follow arithmetic rules (e.g., addition). Participants were asked to detect whether a symbol was a digit. This symbol was preceded by 2 digits and a subliminal instruction: "add" or a control instruction. Participants were faster at identifying a symbol as a number when the symbol was…

  5. Initial results from MARmara SuperSITE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Necmioglu, Ocal; Favali, Paolo; Douglas, John; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Geli, Louis; Ergintav, Semih; Oguz Ozel, Asım; Tan, Onur; Gurbuz, Cemil; Erdik, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    MARSite Project was initiated in November 2012 under the EC/FP-7 framework as an initiative towards establishment of new directions in seismic hazard assessment through focused earth observation in Marmara Region. Within MARSite, collection of the first comprehensive data set of fluids composition around the Sea of Marmara has been accomplished and first insight in the geochemical features of the fluids are expelled from tectonic structures around the Sea of Marmara. GPS time series and velocity fields are periodically updated and a project proposal has been prepared for Supersite initiative to take SAR data and integrate the results with in-situ data sets, which is accepted by the scientific committee of GEOSS. In the meantime, special focus was given to develop the processing algorithms, starting from low level atmospheric correction to high level modeling routines. Considerable progress has been made in the novel design of a multiparameter borehole system consisting of very wide dynamic range and stable borehole (VBB) broad band seismic sensor also incorporating 3-D strain meter, tilt meter, and temperature and local hydrostatic pressure measuring devices. Borehole and surface array locations and borehole bedrock depth of 137 m has been identified. A modeling scheme for the scenario earthquake simulation has been set up in order to realize processing of real-time high-rate GPS data and simulating of scenario earthquakes. The probability of occurrence for the fault segmentation in the Marmara region were calculated using the Poisson, BPT and BPT with a stress interaction models for time intervals of 5-10-30 and 50 years. High resolution seismic reflection and multibeam data in the easternmost Cinarcik basin obtained during the cruise MARMARA 2013 carried out onboard the CNR R/V Urania ship provided information on diffuse gravitational failures. An in situ multi-parameter observational system for landslide monitoring, including displacement, rainfall and seismic

  6. Initial Results from the Kwajalein Micrometeorite Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Price, M. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ishii, H. A.; Brownlee, D. E.; Dearborn, D.; Jones, T.; Barnett, B.; Yakuma, S.; Letendre, T.; Gonzalez, C.; Bastien, R.; Rodriquez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Micrometeorites are constantly arriving at the Earth's surface, however, they are quickly diluted by the natural and anthropogenic back-ground dust. The successful collection of micromete-orites requires either the employment of a separation technique (e.g. using magnets to separate metal-bearing micrometeorites from deepsea sediments [e.g. 1,2] and dissolved pre-historic limestones and salts [e.g. 3,4]), or an approach that limits contamination by terrestrial dust (e.g. collecting from ice, snow and well water in polar regions - locations where the terrestrial dust flux is so low that micrometeorites repre-sent the major dust component [e.g. 5-7]). We have recently set up a micrometeorite collection station on Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Is-lands in the Pacific Ocean, using high volume air samplers to collect particles directly from the atmosphere. Collecting at this location exploits the considerably reduced anthropogenic background; Kwajalein is >1000 miles from the nearest continent and for much of the year, trade winds blow from the northeast at 15 to 20 knots providing a continuous stream of oceanic aerosol for sampling. By collecting directly from the atmosphere, the terrestrial age of the particles, and hence weathering they experience, is minimal. We therefore anticipate that the Kwajalein col-lection may include particles that are highly susceptible to weathering and either not preserved well or not found at all in other collections. In addition, this collection method allows for particle arrival times to be constrained so that collections can be timed to correlate with celestial events (e.g. meteor showers). Here we describe the collections and their preparation and report on the initial results.

  7. Overview of Initial Results from CRISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelos, F.; Murchie, S.; Mustard, J.; Pelkey, S.; Roach, L.; Elhmann, B.; Arvidson, R.; Wiseman, S.; Milliken, R.; CRISM Team

    2007-05-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) reached 100 days of primary science phase operations on February 15th, 2007. Over this time period, the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) has acquired high spatial resolution hyperspectral observations and contextual multispectral survey data of type localities that record water-rock interaction through much of the geologic history of Mars. CRISM's primary science objectives are to characterize the mineralogical record of past aqueous environments and to monitor the contemporary spatial and seasonal distributions of volatiles in the surface-atmosphere system. These objectives are accomplished through an observation strategy that includes targeted data acquisition, atmospheric and seasonal monitoring, and global mapping. Targeted observations are acquired by gimbaling the instrument along-track to reduce apparent ground motion, resulting in a spatial resolution of 15-20 m/pixel in 544 wavelengths from 362 to 3920 nm. As a part of each targeted observation 10 additional spatially binned images are acquired at different atmospheric path lengths, creating an emission phase function (EPF) that allows surface-atmosphere separation in the analysis of the observed radiance. The atmospheric and seasonal monitoring campaigns consist of global grids of EPF measurements at regular Ls intervals. In CRISM's global mapping campaign, data are acquired in a push broom observing mode at a reduced spatial and spectral resolution of 200m/pxl and 72 selected spectral channels. Initial data analysis reveals evidence for environmental variability throughout Martian history. Noachian deposits exhibit diverse phyllosilicate mineralogy in a greater number of geologic units than previously recognized. Distinct mineralogic signatures are sometimes separated only by hundreds of meters, indicating variability in alteration environment or parent rock composition. Hesperian layered deposits exhibit strong vertical heterogeneity with

  8. Overview of the initial NSTX experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Darrow, D. S.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gates, D. A.; Grisham, L. R.; Hosea, J. C.; Johnson, D. W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R.; Mazzucato, E.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B. A.; Neumeyer, C.; Paoletti, F.; Paul, S. F.; Peng, Y.-K. M.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Ryan, P. M.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Skinner, C. H.; Stevenson, T.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D. W.; Synakowski, E. J.; Taylor, G.; Von Halle, A.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Zweben, S. J.; Ackers, R.; Barry, R. E.; Bers, A.; Bialek, J. M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Carter, M. D.; Chrzanowski, J.; Davis, W.; Doyle, E. J.; Dudek, L.; Efthimion, P. C.; Ellis, R.; Ferron, J. R.; Finkenthal, M.; Fredd, E.; Gibney, T.; Goldston, R. J.; Hatcher, R. E.; Hawryluck, R. J.; Hayashiya, H.; Hill, K. W.; Jarboe, T. R.; Jardin, S. C.; Ji, H.; Kalish, M.; La Marche, P.; Lao, L. L.; Lee, K. C.; Levinton, F. M.; Luhmann, N. C.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Marsala, R.; Mau, T. K.; McCormack, B.; Medley, S. S.; Menon, M. M.; Mitarai, O.; Nagata, M.; Nishino, N.; Oliaro, G.; Park, H. K.; Parsells, R.; Pearson, G.; Peebles, T.; Phillips, C. K.; Pinsker, R.; Porter, G. D.; Ram, A. K.; Robinson, J.; Roney, P.; Roquemore, A. L.; Rosenberg, A.; Schaffer, M.; Shiraiwa, S.; Sichta, P.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B. C.; Takase, Y.; Wampler, W. R.; Wurden, G. A.; Xu, X. Q.; Yang, J. G.; Zeng, L.; Zhu, W.

    2001-10-01

    The main aim of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current Ip was successfully brought up to the design value of 1 MA on 14 December 1999. The planned plasma shaping parameters, elongation κ = 1.6-2.2 and triangularity δ = 0.2-0.4, were achieved in inner wall limited, and single null and double null diverted configurations. The coaxial helicity injection (CHI) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) experiments were also initiated. CHI current of 27 kA produced up to 260 kA toroidal current without using an ohmic solenoid. With the injection of 2.3 MW of HHFW power, using 12 antennas connected to six transmitters, electrons were heated from a central temperature of 400 eV to 900 eV at a central density of 3.5 × 1013 cm-3, increasing the plasma energy to 59 kJ and the toroidal β, βT, to 10%. The NBI system commenced operation in September 2000. The initial results with two ion sources (PNBI = 2.8 MW) show good heating, producing a total plasma stored energy of 90 kJ corresponding to βT approx 18% at a plasma current of 1.1 MA.

  9. Overview of the Initial NSTX Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ono; M. Bell; R. E. Bell; T. Bigelow; M. Bitter; et al

    2000-11-16

    The main aim of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current Ip was successfully brought up to the design value of 1 million amperes on December 14, 1999. The planned plasma shaping parameters, k = 1.6 {+-} 2.2 and d = 0.2 {+-} 0.4, were achieved in inner limited, single null and double null configurations. The CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) and HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) experiments were also initiated. A CHI injected current of 27 kA produced up to 260 kA of toroidal current without using an ohmic solenoid. With an injection of 2.3 MW of HHFW power, using twelve antennas connected to six transmitters, electrons were heated from a central temperature of 400 eV to 900 eV at a centraldensity of 3.5 x 1013 cm-3 increasing the plasma energy to 59 kJ and the toroidal beta, bT to 10 %. Finally, the NBI system commenced operatio n in Sept. 2000. The initial results with two ion sources (PNBI = 2.8 MW) shows good heating, producing a total plasma stored energy of 90 kJ corresponding to bT = 18 % at a plasma current of 1.1 MA

  10. Aquarius Third Stokes Parameter Measurements: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utku, Cuneyt; Vine, David M Le; Abraham, S.; Piepmeier, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D observatory was launched on June 10, 2011 and the Aquarius instrument has been collecting data continuously since late August. One of the unique features of the L-band radiometers comprising Aquarius is the presence of a polarimetric channel to measure the third Stokes parameter. The purpose is to provide a measure of Faraday rotation, which can be important for remote sensing at L-band, especially in the case of remote sensing of salinity which requires high precision. Initial results are presented here showing a reasonable agreement between retrieved and modeled Faraday rotation and also the "noisy" behavior at land-water boundaries and other mixed scenes predicted by theory.

  11. The Green Bank Ammonia Survey: Initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Friesen, Rachel; and the GBT Ammonia Survey Team

    2016-01-01

    The past several years have seen a tremendous advancement in our ability to characterize the structure of nearby molecular clouds and the substructures in which dense star-forming cores are born. These advances include identifying and classifying the young protostellar population (Spitzer c2d and Gould Belt surveys) and the dense cores and larger filaments and clumps which form the cores and YSOs (Herschel and JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Surveys). The power of these legacy surveys lies in the large areal coverage and consistency in observing strategies between nearby molecular clouds. A major gap in the present data is a comparable survey to characterize the dense gas properties. Kinematics and gas temperatures are key to understanding the history and future fate of star-forming material, and these are not accessible from the primarily continuum-based measurements in the legacy surveys described above. We have begun an ambitious legacy survey for the GBT, the Green Bank Ammonia Survey (GAS), to map NH3 emission toward all the northern Gould Belt star forming regions where Av > 7. The Gould Belt is a ring of young stars and star-forming regions that contains nearly all the ongoing, predominantly low-mass star formation within 500 pc of the Sun. Here we present the initial results from the survey.

  12. Initial results from VIRUS production spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, Sarah E.; Allen, Richard D.; Chonis, Taylor S.; Cornell, Mark E.; DePoy, Darren L.; Hill, Gary J.; Lee, Hanshin; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Prochaska, Travis; Rafal, Marc D.; Savage, Richard D.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2012-09-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) uses a novel technique of replicated spectrographs (VIRUS) to measure dark energy at intermediate redshifts (2 < z < 4). VIRUS contains over 30,000 fibers and over 160 independent and identical channels. Here we report on the construction and characterization of the initial batch of VIRUS spectrograph cameras. Assembly of the first batch of 16 is in progress. A brief overview of the assembly is presented, and where available performance is compared to specification.

  13. Preliminary results of ADEOS initial mission checkout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, Haruhisa

    1997-01-01

    The NASDA successfully launched the ADEOS at 10:53 a.m./01:53 a.m. on August 17, 1996 from Tanegashima Space Center. The main objective of ADEOS is to contribute to elucidation of phenomena of the earth system through integrated observation of geophysical parameters using a number of sensors. ADEOS was placed into the final proper orbit on September 8 and the function of the bus system and the mission instruments are now being checked out. The initial mission checkout of ADEOS will continue for 90 days until the middle of November. ADEOS is functioning normally as of September 19, 1996.

  14. Initial Results from the LIBEAM Diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Bozek, A. S.; Robinson, J. I.; Carlstrom, T. N.; Leonard, A. W.; Burrell, K. H.; Kulchar, J.; Lynch, J.; Hoyt, D.; Harris, T. E.; Pronko, S. G. E.; Delaware, S. W.; Kellman, D. H.; Brewis, J.; Finkenthal, D. K.

    2001-10-01

    Precision polarimetry of an injected lithium beam offers one method of determining details of the edge magnetic field structure in tokamaks. During the 2001 run period we succeeded in reinstalling the LIBEAM neutral lithium beam (30 keV, ~10 mA) on DIII-D, along with an upgraded power supply and control system. In-vessel polarization-maintaining optics, photoelastic modulators, and a 32-channel radial fiber array were installed and spatially calibrated. A digital lock-in technique was developed to analyze the beam fluorescence polarization state, using commercially available PCI-based digitizer boards. A prototype detection system based on GaAs PMTs, interference filters, and 0.03 nm passband etalons was assembled for observing various parts of the line profile. Initial observations of beam fluorescence were made on numerous DIII-D shots. After etalon tuning, changes in the circular polarization were observed, consistent with poloidal field growth during current ramps.

  15. SIOExplorer: Overview, Initial Results and Next Steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. P.; Helly, J. J.; Africa, M.; Peckman, U.; Day, D.; Clark, D.

    2002-12-01

    Data, documents and images from 795 expeditions by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) since 1903 are becoming web-accessible for both education and research through the new SIOExplorer project (http://SIOExplorer.ucsd.edu), which is a collection in the overall NSF-funded National Science Digital Library (www.nsdl.org). The collaborative effort includes researchers at SIO, computer scientists from the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), and archivists and librarians from the UCSD Library. The co-authors of this paper tested a shipboard prototype during a Floating Digital Library Workshop from New Zealand to Samoa on R/V Melville in March, 2002. General purpose tools have been developed to automate collection development, manage metadata, and geographically search the library, as discussed in other presentations in this session. In the initial year of operation, the biggest challenge has been wrestling with the volume and variability of data and documents. Shipboard sensors, data volumes, and organizational structures have evolved greatly over the decades, particularly with 244 multibeam expeditions since 1982. Considerable success came after introducing the concept of a Canonical Cruise Data Structure (CCDS) with nine basic categories that seem to capture the essential characteristics of data practices since the 1960's. Automatic software pulls data into the CCDS from diverse source directories and media, guided by a template with rules for priority and filenames. Almost all metadata are harvested automatically into simple "metadata interchange format" (.mif) files, one for each "arbitrary digital object" (ADO) in the CCDS. The metadata are placed in an Oracle database, and the associated data are managed by the SDSC Storage Resource Broker on various disk and automatic tape silo systems. The system is extensible to various domains and data types, including geochemistry, image archives, multibeam bathymetry, reports and publications. A Java Metadata

  16. ACM TOMS replicated computational results initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2015-06-03

    In this study, the scientific community relies on the peer review process for assuring the quality of published material, the goal of which is to build a body of work we can trust. Computational journals such as The ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) use this process for rigorously promoting the clarity and completeness of content, and citation of prior work. At the same time, it is unusual to independently confirm computational results.

  17. ACM TOMS replicated computational results initiative

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2015-06-03

    In this study, the scientific community relies on the peer review process for assuring the quality of published material, the goal of which is to build a body of work we can trust. Computational journals such as The ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) use this process for rigorously promoting the clarity and completeness of content, and citation of prior work. At the same time, it is unusual to independently confirm computational results.

  18. [1998 environment survey--initial results].

    PubMed

    Schulz, C; Becker, K; Helm, D; Krause, C

    1999-12-01

    In close connection with the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998, a third round of the German Environmental Survey (GerES III) was carried out using a random subsample of about 4,500 subjects, which are representative for the German population aged 18 to 69 years. The GerES was carried out by the Federal Environmental Agency on behalf of the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety. The participants had to undergo an examination in human-biomonitoring. An environmental questionnaire was used to get exposure-related information. Preliminary results indicate a reduction of the body burden with metals in 1998 compared with 1990/92. However, some individuals showed elevated values. For those people health effects are possible or cannot be excluded with sufficient certainty. Using the results of GerES III it will be possible for the first time to establish reference values for organochlorine compounds on a representative data basis. The examination of the tap water used in the subjects households shows that the limit and guideline values of the German Drinking Water Ordinance have not always been met in 1998. This holds especially for lead, copper, and zinc which are being used as pipe-material for domestic plumbing. PMID:10726423

  19. Glenn Pool project: Initial tomographic results

    SciTech Connect

    Vassiliou, A.A.; Savage, C.W.; Liner, C.L.; Bozhurt, G.; Lines, L.R.

    1994-12-31

    Four crosswell seismic surveys were acquired in the Glenn Pool field, the William B. Self Unit, in January 1994. Two of these surveys were acquired between the same pairs of wells. However, it was found (Liner et al., 1994) that the well condition on one of the wells rendered the signal-to-noise ratio very low. The data quality from the three remaining crosswell surveys is good, providing high S/N ratio for the first-arrival traveltimes. The first-arrival traveltimes were picked and inverted using anisotropic traveltime tomography for a TIV medium. Preliminary results indicate continuity of the Glenn sand in all three lines and anisotropy in the shaly sands at a depth of 1360-1410 ft of about 10%.

  20. Initial results of SEPAC scientific achievement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obayashi, T.; Kawashima, N.; Sasaki, S.; Yanagisawa, M.; Kuriki, K.; Nagatomo, M.; Ninomiya, K.; Roberts, W. T.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Williamson, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    Electron beam injection of 5 keV, 300 mA (1.5 kW) and MPD arcjet plasma injection of 2 kJ/shot were successfully performed together with various kinds of diagnostic instruments including a high sensitivity TV camera observation in the Spacelab 1. Major scientific results obtained are studies of: (1) vehicle charge-up due to the electron beam emission and its neutralization by the MPD arcjet plasma; (2) beam-plasma interaction including the plasma wave excitation; (3) beam-atmosphere interaction such as the verification of critical velocity ionization effect; and (4) anomalous enhancement of ionization associated with a neutral gas injection into space.

  1. Initial Results from Mingantu Ultrawide Spectral Radioheliograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yihua; Chen, Linjie; Yu, Sijie; CSRH TEAM

    2015-04-01

    Radio imaging spectroscopy over wide range wavelength in dm/cm-bands will open new windows on solar flares and coronal mass ejections by tracing the radio emissions from accelerated electrons. The Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph (CSRH) with two arrays in 400MHz-2GHz /2-15GHz ranges with 64/520 frequency channels have just been established in Mingantu Observing Staion, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Inner Mongolia of China. CSRH is re-named as Mingantu Ultralwide Spectral Radioheliograph (MUSER) after its accomplishment. We will introduce the progress and current status of MUSER. Some preliminary results of MUSER will be presented.On 11 Nov. 2014, a burst event was registered by MUSER-I array at 400MHz-2GHz waveband. According to SGD event list there was a C-class flare event at 04:49UT in the disk center and the radio bursts during 04:22-04:24UT was attributed to this flare. However, MUSER-I image observations of the bursts indicate that the radio burst peaked around 04:22UT was due to another eruptive event at the east limb of the Sun, which may be related a CME event afterwards.

  2. SAGE III solar ozone measurements: Initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Jui; Cunnold, Derek M.; Trepte, Chip; Thomason, Larry W.; Zawodny, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Results from two retrieval algorithms, o3-aer and o3-mlr , used for SAGE III solar occultation ozone measurements in the stratosphere and upper troposphere are compared. The main differences between these two retrieved (version 3.0) ozone are found at altitudes above 40 km and below 15 km. Compared to correlative measurements, the SAGE II type ozone retrievals (o3-aer) provide better precisions above 40 km and do not induce artificial hemispheric differences in upper stratospheric ozone. The multiple linear regression technique (o3_mlr), however, can yield slightly more accurate ozone (by a few percent) in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. By using SAGE III (version 3.0) ozone from both algorithms and in their preferred regions, the agreement between SAGE III and correlative measurements is shown to be approx.5% down to 17 km. Below 17 km SAGE III ozone values are systematically higher, by 10% at 13 km, and a small hemispheric difference (a few percent) appears. Compared to SAGE III and HALOE, SAGE II ozone has the best accuracy in the lowest few kilometers of the stratosphere. Estimated precision in SAGE III ozone is about 5% or better between 20 and 40 km and approx.10% at 50 km. The precision below 20 km is difficult to evaluate because of limited coincidences between SAGE III and sondes. SAGE III ozone values are systematically slightly larger (2-3%) than those from SAGE II but the profile shapes are remarkably similar for altitudes above 15 km. There is no evidence of any relative drift or time dependent differences between these two instruments for altitudes above 15-20 km.

  3. Laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy: Our initial results

    PubMed Central

    Özgör, Faruk; Binbay, Murat; Akbulut, Mehmet Fatih; Şimsek, Abdülmuttalip; Şahan, Murat; Berberoğlu, Ahmet Yalçın; Sarılar, Ömer; Müslümanoğlu, Ahmet Yaser

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present the first 24 laparoscopic adrenalectomies performed in our clinic because of an adrenal mass. Material and methods: The medical files of 24 patients who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy between December 2008 and March 2013 at Haseki Teaching and Research Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. The demographic characteristics of the patients were recorded. Lateral transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed in all patients. The operation time was defined as the interval between the first incision of the skin and closure of the skin. Intraoperative complications, estimated blood loss and hospital stays of the patients were evaluated. Final pathologies were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patients was 44.2±8.58 years (range: 29–66 years). Nine patients were female and 15 were male. A total of 24 masses were identified in the right (n=11), and left (n=13) adrenal glands masses were identified., Eighteen patients (75%) had no symptoms, and the masses were identified incidentally. The mean operation time was 144±46.1 minutes (range: 90–320 minutes), and the mean blood loss was 74±12.3 mL (range: 50–130 mL). None of the patients required a blood transfusion. In one patient, liver injury was identified intraoperatively due to traction. The mean duration of hospitalization was 2.9±1.1 days (range: 2–5 days). Adrenocortical adenoma and pheochromocytoma were the most common pathologies. Conclusion: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe and effective method for the treatment of adrenal masses with low complication rates. PMID:26328159

  4. Initial results of the Global Thermospheric Mapping Study (GTMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, W. L.; Salah, J. E.; Musgrove, R. G.; Holt, J. M.; Wickwar, V. B.; Hernandez, G. J.; Roble, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    The Global Thermospheric Mapping Study (GTMS) is a multi-technique experimental study of the thermosphere designed to map simultaneously its spatial and temporal morphology with a thoroughness and diversity of measurement techniques heretofore unachieved. The GTMS is designed around the Incoherent Scatter Radar Chain in the western hemisphere. The European incoherent scatter radars and the worldwide communities of Fabry-Perot interferometers, meteor wind radars, partial reflection drifts radars, MST radars, and satellite probes are included to extend the spatial coverage and types of measurements available. Theoretical and modeling support in the areas of thermospheric and ionospheric structure, tides, and electric fields are included to aid in program planning and data interpretation. Solar activity was low on the three observation days (F10.7 = 97, 98, 96) and magnetic conditions were unsettled to active (A = 10, 12, 20). All six incoherent scatter radar facilities collected data. Each collected F region data day and night while Saint Santin and Millstone Hill additionally collected E region data during daylight hours. Initial results from Sondrestrom and Millstone Hill are presented. Good quality Fabry Perot data were collected at Fritz Peak and San Jose dos Campos. Weather conditions produced poor results at Arequipa and Arecibo. Initial results from Fritz Peak are presented. Mesosphere/lower-thermosphere observations were conducted under the ATMAP organization. The magnetometer chains also were operational during this campaign. Initial thermospheric general circulation model predictions were made for assumed solar-geophysical conditions, and selected results are presented.

  5. The homestake surface-underground scintillators: Initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, M. L.; Corbato, S.; Daily, T.; Fenyves, E. J.; Kieda, D.; Lande, K.; Lee, C. K.

    1986-01-01

    The first 70 tons of the 140-ton Large Area Scintillation Detector (LASD) have been operating since Jan. 1985 at a depth of 4850 ft. (4200 m.w.e.) in the Homestake Gold Mine, Lead, S.D. A total of 4 x 10(4) high-energy muons (E sub mu is approx. 2.7 TeV at the surface) have been detected. The remainder of the detector is scheduled to be in operation by the Fall of 1985. In addition, a surface air shower array is under construction. The first 27 surface counters, spaced out over an area of 270' x 500', began running in June, 1985. The LASD performance, the potential of the combined shower array and underground muon experiment for detecting point sources, and the initial results of a search for periodic emission from Cygnus X-3 are discussed.

  6. Thermodynamic Effect of Platinum Addition to beta-NiAl: An Initial Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    An initial investigation was conducted to determine the effect of platinum addition on the activities of aluminum and nickel in beta-NiAl(Pt) over the temperature range 1354 to 1692 K. These measurements were made with a multiple effusion-cell configured mass spectrometer (multi-cell KEMS). The results of this study show that Pt additions act to decreased alpha(Al) and increased the alpha(Ni) in beta-NiAl(Pt) for constant X(sub Ni)/X(sub Al) approx. = 1.13, while at constant X(sub Al) the affect of Pt on Al is greatly reduced. The measured partial enthalpies of mixing indicate Al-atoms have a strong self interaction while Ni- and Pt-atoms in have similar interactions with Al-atoms. Conversely the binding of Ni-atoms in beta-NiAl decreases with Pt addition independent of Al concentration. These initial results prove the technique can be applied to the Ni-Al-Pt system but more activity measurements are required to fully understand the thermodynamics of this system and how Pt additions improved the scaling behavior of nickel-based superalloys. In addition, with the choice of a suitable oxide material for the effusion-cell, the "closed" isothermal nature of the effusion-cell allows the direct investigation of an alloy-oxide equilibrium which resembles the "local-equilibrium" description of the metal-scale interface observed during high temperature oxidation. It is proposed that with an Al(l) + Al2O3(s) experimental reference state together with the route measurement of the relative partial-pressures of Al(g) and Al2O(g) allows the activities of O and Al2O3 to be determined along with the activities of Ni and Al. These measurements provide a direct method of investigating the thermodynamics of the metal-scale interface of a TGO-scale.

  7. Isomeric Selective Studies of the Dominant Addition Channel in OH Initiated Oxidation of Isoprene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, B.; Bugarin, A.; Connell, B.; North, S. W.

    2009-12-01

    We report the first isomeric selective study of the dominant isomeric pathway in the OH initiated oxidation of isoprene in the presence of O2 and NO using the Laser Photolysis-Laser Induced Fluorescence (LP-LIF) technique. The photolysis of monodeuterated/non deuterated 2-iodo-2-methyl-but-3-en-1-ol results exclusively in the dominant OH-isoprene addition product, providing important insight into the oxidation mechanism. Based on kinetic analysis of OH cycling experiments we have determined the rate constant for O2 addition to the hydroxy alkyl radical to be (1.0±0.5) × 10^(-12) cm^(3) s^(-1) and we find a value of (8.05±2.3) × 10^(-12) cm^(3) s^(-1) for the overall reaction rate constant of the hydroxy peroxy radical with NO. We also report the first clear experimental evidence of the (E-) form of the δ-hydroxyalkoxy channel through isotopic labeling experiments and quantify its branching ratio to be 0.1±0.025. Since it corresponds to missing carbon balance in isoprene oxidation, we have been able to identify some of the missing carbon balance. Since our measured isomeric selective rate constants for the dominant outer channel in OH initiated isoprene chemistry are similar to the overall rate constants derived from non isomeric kinetics, we predict that the remaining outer addition channel will have similar reactivity. We have extended this study to the OH initiated oxidation of 1,3-butadiene. We have obtained isomeric selective rate constants on the dominant channel of the butadiene oxidation chemistry and measured the branching ratio for the δ-hydroxyalkoxy channel. These results on butadiene studies will be discussed.

  8. Mars-GRAM 2010: Additions and Resulting Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Burns, K. Lee

    2013-01-01

    factors. The adjustment factors generated by this process had to satisfy the gas law as well as the hydrostatic relation and are expressed as a function of height (z), Latitude (Lat) and areocentric solar longitude (Ls). The greatest adjustments are made at large optical depths such as tau greater than 1. The addition of the adjustment factors has led to better correspondence to TES Limb data from 0-60 km altitude as well as better agreement with MGS, ODY and MRO data at approximately 90-130 km altitude. Improved Mars-GRAM atmospheric simulations for various locations, times and dust conditions on Mars will be presented at the workshop session. The latest results validating Mars-GRAM 2010 versus Mars Climate Sounder data will also be presented. Mars-GRAM 2010 updates have resulted in improved atmospheric simulations which will be very important when beginning systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for future aerocapture, aerobraking or landed missions to Mars.

  9. Additional Results of Ice-Accretion Scaling at SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2005-01-01

    To determine scale velocity an additional similarity parameter is needed to supplement the Ruff scaling method. A Weber number based on water droplet MVD has been included in several studies because the effect of droplet splashing on ice accretion was believed to be important, particularly for SLD conditions. In the present study, ice shapes recorded at Appendix-C conditions and recent results at SLD conditions are reviewed to show that droplet diameter cannot be important to main ice shape, and for low airspeeds splashing does not appear to affect SLD ice shapes. Evidence is presented to show that while a supplementary similarity parameter probably has the form of a Weber number, it must be based on a length proportional to model size rather than MVD. Scaling comparisons were made between SLD reference conditions and Appendix-C scale conditions using this Weber number. Scale-to-reference model size ratios were 1:1.7 and 1:3.4. The reference tests used a 91-cm-chord NACA 0012 model with a velocity of approximately 50 m/s and an MVD of 160 m. Freezing fractions of 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 were included in the study.

  10. Additional follow-up telephone counselling and initial smoking relapse: a longitudinal, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Fang; Liu, Qinghui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Changxi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking cessation services can help smokers to quit; however, many smoking relapse cases occur over time. Initial relapse prevention should play an important role in achieving the goal of long-term smoking cessation. Several studies have focused on the effect of extended telephone support in relapse prevention, but the conclusions remain conflicting. Design and setting From October 2008 to August 2013, a longitudinal, controlled study was performed in a large general hospital of Beijing. Participants The smokers who sought treatment at our smoking cessation clinic were non-randomised and divided into 2 groups: face-to-face individual counselling group (FC group), and face-to-face individual counselling plus telephone follow-up counselling group (FCF group). No pharmacotherapy was offered. Outcomes The timing of initial smoking relapse was compared between FC and FCF groups. Predictors of initial relapse were investigated during the first 180 days, using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of 547 eligible male smokers who volunteered to participate, 457 participants (117 in FC group and 340 in FCF group) achieved at least 24 h abstinence. The majority of the lapse episodes occurred during the first 2 weeks after the quit date. Smokers who did not receive the follow-up telephone counselling (FC group) tended to relapse to smoking earlier than those smokers who received the additional follow-up telephone counselling (FCF group), and the log-rank test was statistically significant (p=0.003). A Cox regression model showed that, in the FCF group, being married, and having a lower Fagerström test score, normal body mass index and doctor-diagnosed tobacco-related chronic diseases, were significantly independent protective predictors of smoking relapse. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that additional follow-up telephone counselling might be an effective strategy in preventing relapse. Further research is still

  11. Non-shock initiation model for explosive families : experimental results.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark U.; Jensen, Charles B.; Todd, Steven N.; Hugh, Chance G.; Caipen, Terry L.

    2010-03-01

    The 'DaMaGe-Initiated-Reaction' (DMGIR) computational model has been developed to predict the response of high explosives to non-shock mechanical insults. The distinguishing feature of this model is the introduction of a damage variable, which relates the evolution of damage to the initiation of a reaction in the explosive, and its growth to detonation. Specifically designed experiments were used to study the initiation process of each explosive family with embedded shock sensors and optical diagnostics. The experimental portion of this model development began with a study of PBXN-5 to develop DMGIR model coefficients for the rigid plastic bonded family, followed by studies of the cast, and bulk-moldable explosive families. The experimental results show an initiation mechanism that is related to input energy and material damage, with well defined initiation thresholds for each explosive family. These initiation details will extend the predictive capability of the DMGIR model from the rigid family into the cast and bulk-moldable families.

  12. Initial Results from the New Stress Map of Texas Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund Snee, J. E.; Zoback, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Modern techniques for characterizing tectonic stress orientation and relative magnitude have been successfully used for more than 35 years. Nevertheless, large areas of North America lack high spatial resolution maps of stress orientation, magnitude, and faulting regime. In Texas, for example, <30 A-C-quality stress orientations are currently registered on the World Stress Map and only 7 of these points also describe the stress regime. Stress data are foundational elements of attempts to characterize tectonic driving forces, understand hazards associated with induced seismicity, and optimize production of oil, gas, and geothermal resources. This year, we launched the Texas Stress Map project to characterize tectonic stress patterns at higher spatial resolution across Texas and nearby areas. Following a successful effort just completed in Oklahoma, we will evaluate borehole breakouts, drilling-induced tensile fractures, shear wave anisotropy, and earthquake data. The principal data source will be FMI (fullbore formation microimager), UBI (ultrasonic borehole imager), cross-dipole sonic, density, and caliper logs provided by private industry. Earthquake moment tensor solutions from the U.S. Geological Survey, Saint Louis University and other sources will also be used. Our initial focus is on the Permian Basin and Barnett Shale petroleum plays due to the availability of data, but we will expand our analysis across the state as the project progresses. In addition, we hope to eventually apply the higher spatial resolution data coverage to understanding tectonic and geodynamic characteristics of the southwestern United States and northeastern Mexico. Here we present early results from our work to constrain stress orientations and faulting regime in and near Texas, and we also provide a roadmap for the ongoing research.

  13. EURECA 11 months in orbit: Initial post flight investigation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dover, Alan; Aceti, Roberto; Drolshagen, Gerhard

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of the European free flying spacecraft 'EURECA' and the initial post flight investigations following its retrieval in June 1993. EURECA was in low earth orbit for 11 months commencing in August 1992, and is the first spacecraft to be retrieved and returned to Earth since the recovery of LDEF. The primary mission objective of EURECA was the investigation of materials and fluids in a very low micro-gravity environment. In addition other experiments were conducted in space science, technology and space environment disciplines. The European Space Agency (ESA) has taken the initiative in conducting a detailed post-flight investigation to ensure the full exploitation of this unique opportunity.

  14. Use of additives to improve the particle-initiated breakdown strength of SF{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, I.D.; Farish, O.; MacGregor, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    There has been considerable effort over many years to identify gases which are superior to SF{sub 6} for use in gas-insulated-substation (GIS) applications. Most of this work has been concerned with the {open_quote}intrinsic{close_quote} or uniform-field strength of the new gas or gas mixture. However, the most important requirement in GIS is for an improved tolerance to the high local fields associated with electrode surface defects or with free conducting particles. Particulate contamination is almost impossible to eliminate in large GIS and moving particles can trigger breakdown at levels as low as 20% of the expected strength of the system based on the macroscopic field. Experiments in small point-plane gaps can provide useful insight into the mechanisms by which breakdown is initiated at surface protrusions, or when a particle comes into contact with an electrode. In such experiments, it has been found that some gas mixtures have nonuniform-field strengths considerably greater than pure SF{sub 6}. In particular the addition of small quantities ({approximately}1%) of triethylamine or Freon 113 were found to suppress the development of breakdown {open_quote}leader{close_quote} discharges and to provide enhanced corona shielding of the point. Point-plane studies in SF{sub 6} have pointed to the possibility of modelling ac particle-initiated breakdown on the basis of a leader propagation criterion, while the work with additives offered the promise of an improvement in particle tolerance of GIS. The present investigation was designed to find out whether the small-gap fixed-point results were confirmed in full-scale tests in coaxial geometry with the particles free to move under the action of the applied ac field.

  15. ADCS Prevention Instrument Project: overview and initial results.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Steven H; Aisen, Paul S; Cummings, Jeffrey; Galasko, Douglas; Salmon, David P; Schneider, Lon; Sano, Mary; Whitehouse, Peter J; Edland, Steven; Thal, Leon J

    2006-01-01

    clinic designed to assess cognitive function and behavior, global change, activities of daily living, quality of life, and resource use. An additional "mail-in cognitive function questionnaire" was obtained separately by mail, 1 month before the other assessments. To evaluate the feasibility, efficiency, and validity of the home-based instruments in comparison with acquiring the same information during a clinic visit, subjects were randomized to 1 of 2 conditions in which the baseline and annual follow-up assessments are completed either at home ("home group") or at the study site during their clinic visits ("clinic group"). This initial report describes the ongoing 4-year longitudinal study and provides baseline results, which confirm the feasibility of obtaining home-based clinical information via mail or telephone. Initial results for the experimental instruments and for the book club are reported in separate accompanying articles. PMID:17135805

  16. Initial Results Derived from JEM-GLIMS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Ushio, T.; Morimoto, T.; Kobayashi, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Inan, U.; Linscott, I.; Hobara, Y.

    2012-12-01

    measured by two radio receivers. JEM-GIMS was successfully launched by H-IIB rocket at 02:06:18 UT on July 21, 2012 and transported to ISS by the HTV-3 cargo transfer spaceship. HTV-3 successfully arrived at ISS on July 27 and our JEM-GLIMS instruments will be installed at JEM-EF on August 9. For the period from September 15 to 21 we will carry out the initial checkout operation, and finally we will start continuous TLE observations from the middle of October. At the presentation we will show the test results obtained during the checkout operations and will present the initial results derived from JEM-GLIMS lightning/TLE observations.

  17. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  18. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  19. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  20. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  1. Initial Results from the UAVSAR Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Minchew, B. M.; Holt, B.; Hensley, S.

    2010-12-01

    In June 2010, the UAVSAR platform was deployed to the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in order to collect fully-polarimetric L-band radar data over the open water and along Gulf coastlines. The data from the 2-day campaign is now being used to study the extent and impact of the oil spill, both in the open water and within the coastal ecosystems. The UAVSAR campaign was initiated with three primary goals: (1) Develop and validate algorithms for improved discrimination of oil slicks on water and identification of oil properties from radar backscatter; (2) study the use of radar for determining the extent of oil penetration into sensitive coastal ecological zones, in particular, to map the spread of oil from the coastline into coastal wetlands; and (3) study the use of radar in identifying and monitoring the recovery of vegetation affected by oil. In addition, we intend for the information from this study to inform and enable use of high-resolution radar imagery in future emergency response efforts. A second flight in October 2010 is planned to repeat the collection of marshland and coastal data for the impact and recovery studies. The first deployment occurred while oil was still leaking from the Deepwater Horizon spill site. UAVSAR data was collected over the ocean along 22-km wide swaths covering the rig site and the area around it. Additional data was collected over the gulf extending ocean data extending east from the rig site to an area south of Pensacola, Florida; over the Franklin Eddy in the east-central Gulf of Mexico, and directly east of the Florida Keys. The processed data has a resolution of 7 m x 7 m. We are now using this data to study oil identification and characterization using polarimetric decomposition techniques. The UAVSAR instrument has a noise floor (noise-equivalent σ0) of ~-50 dB, at least 20 dB below that of most radars imaging the oil spill. The radiometric sensitivity of the instrument is allowing us to

  2. The GLOBE Contrail Protocol: Initial Analysis of Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Lin; Duda, David

    2004-01-01

    The GLOBE contrail protocol was launched in March 2003 to obtain surface observer reports of contrail occurrence to complement satellite and model studies underway at NASA Langley, among others. During the first year, more than 30,000 ground observations of contrails were submitted to GLOBE. An initial analysis comparing the GLOBE observations to weather prediction model results for relative humidity at flight altitudes is in progress. This paper reports on the findings to date from this effort.

  3. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  4. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  5. Additional Results of Glaze Icing Scaling in SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    New guidance of acceptable means of compliance with the super-cooled large drops (SLD) conditions has been issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in its Advisory Circular AC 25-28 in November 2014. The Part 25, Appendix O is developed to define a representative icing environment for super-cooled large drops. Super-cooled large drops, which include freezing drizzle and freezing rain conditions, are not included in Appendix C. This paper reports results from recent glaze icing scaling tests conducted in NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the scaling methods recommended for Appendix C conditions might apply to SLD conditions. The models were straight NACA 0012 wing sections. The reference model had a chord of 72 in. and the scale model had a chord of 21 in. Reference tests were run with airspeeds of 100 and 130.3 kn and with MVD's of 85 and 170 micron. Two scaling methods were considered. One was based on the modified Ruff method with scale velocity found by matching the Weber number WeL. The other was proposed and developed by Feo specifically for strong glaze icing conditions, in which the scale liquid water content and velocity were found by matching reference and scale values of the nondimensional water-film thickness expression and the film Weber number Wef. All tests were conducted at 0 deg AOA. Results will be presented for stagnation freezing fractions of 0.2 and 0.3. For nondimensional reference and scale ice shape comparison, a new post-scanning ice shape digitization procedure was developed for extracting 2-D ice shape profiles at any selected span-wise location from the high fidelity 3-D scanned ice shapes obtained in the IRT.

  6. Initial Results from the ANITA 2006-2007 Balloon Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, P.W.; Allison, P.; Barwick, S.W.; Beatty, J.J.; Besson, D.Z.; Binns, W.R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J.M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P.F.; DuVernois, M.A.; Field, R.C.; Goldstein, D.; Goodhue, A.; Hast, C.; Hebert, C.L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M.H.; Kowalski, J.; Learned, J.G.; /Hawaii U. /Caltech, JPL /Hawaii U. /Minnesota U. /Hawaii U. /Ohio State U. /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /UC, Irvine /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /Caltech, JPL /SLAC /University Coll. London /Ohio State U. /SLAC /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /UCLA /Delaware U. /Hawaii U. /SLAC /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /UC, Irvine

    2011-11-16

    We report initial results of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) 2006-2007 Long Duration Balloon flight, which searched for evidence of the flux of cosmogenic neutrinos. ANITA flew for 35 days looking for radio impulses that might be due to the Askaryan effect in neutrino-induced electromagnetic showers within the Antarctic ice sheets. In our initial high-threshold robust analysis, no neutrino candidates are seen, with no physics background. In a non-signal horizontal-polarization channel, we do detect 6 events consistent with radio impulses from extensive air showers, which helps to validate the effectiveness of our method. Upper limits derived from our analysis now begin to eliminate the highest cosmogenic neutrino models.

  7. Crystalline Silicon Short-Circuit Current Degradation Study: Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C. R.; Pruett, J.; Moriarty, T.

    2005-02-01

    Following our observation of slow degradation of short-circuit current (Isc) in crystalline silicon (x-Si) modules that was correlated with ultraviolet (UV) exposure dose, we initiated a new study of individual x-Si cells designed to determine the degradation cause. In this paper, we report the initial results of this study, which has accumulated 1056 MJ/m2 of UV dose from 1-sun metal-halide irradiance, equivalent to 3.8 years at our test site. At this time, the control samples are unchanged, the unencapsulated samples have lost about 2% of Isc, and the samples encapsulated in module-style packages have declined from 1% to 3%, depending on the cell technology.

  8. The Cloud Physics Lidar: Instrument Description and Initial Measurement Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Spinhirne, James; Scott, V. Stanley; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The new Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft. The purpose of the CPL is to provide multi-wavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. The CPL utilizes state-of-the-art technology with a high repetition rate, a low pulse energy laser, and photon-counting detection. The first deployment for the CPL was the SAFARI-2000 field campaign during August-September 2000. We provide here an overview of the instrument and initial data results to illustrate the measurement capability of the CPL.

  9. Initial replication results of learning assistants in university physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Paul M.; Carver, Jeffrey S.; Shinde, Aniketa; Ratcliff, Betsy; Murphy, Ashley N.

    2013-01-01

    West Virginia University recently began a learning assistants (LA) program in its introductory calculus-based physics course targeted at increasing course effectiveness and recruiting future STEM teachers. The LA program was modeled after the Colorado Learning Assistant model. This paper describes the setting and initial results from the implementation including changes in learning gains (measured with the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation) and attitudes (measured with the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey). These data are combined with demographic data about the individual students and compared to baseline data collected prior to the implementation of the LA program.

  10. Initial results from the Sherbrooke avalanche photodiode positron tomograph

    SciTech Connect

    Lecomte, R.; Cadorette, J.; Rodrigue, S.; Lapointe, D.; Rouleau, D.; Bentourkia, M.; Yao, R.; Msaki, P.

    1996-06-01

    The design features and engineering constraints of a PET system based on avalanche photodiode (APD) detectors have been described in a previous report. In this paper, the authors present the initial results obtained with the Sherbrooke APD-PET scanner, a very high spatial resolution device designed for dynamic imaging of small and medium-sized laboratory animals such as rats, cats, rabbits and small monkeys. Its physical performance has been evaluated in terms of resolution, sensitivity, count rate, random and scatter fractions, contrast and relative activity recovery as a function of object size. The capabilities of the scanner for biomedical research applications have been demonstrated using phantom and animal studies.

  11. Initial results with the Cohen cross-trigonal ureteroneocystotomy.

    PubMed

    Wacksman, J

    1983-06-01

    Between January 1976 and December 1980, 109 children with 157 ureters with reflux were seen in consultation. Of these ureters 52 were operated upon using the Cohen cross-trigonal technique, while 105 were followed conservatively. The operative procedure is a complete intravesical ureteral mobilization followed by the creation of a submucosal tunnel across the base of the bladder. Followup studies, including an excretory urogram and voiding cystourethrogram, showed minimal hydronephrosis in 1 ureter and persistent grade I reflux in 1 ureter. Evaluation of these initial results indicates that the Cohen cross-trigonal ureteroneocystotomy is a safe and effective antireflux procedure. PMID:6854798

  12. Initial Results of an MDO Method Evaluation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Kodiyalam, Srinivas

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Langley MDO method evaluation study seeks to arrive at a set of guidelines for using promising MDO methods by accumulating and analyzing computational data for such methods. The data are collected by conducting a series of re- producible experiments. In the first phase of the study, three MDO methods were implemented in the SIGHT: framework and used to solve a set of ten relatively simple problems. In this paper, we comment on the general considerations for conducting method evaluation studies and report some initial results obtained to date. In particular, although the results are not conclusive because of the small initial test set, other formulations, optimality conditions, and sensitivity of solutions to various perturbations. Optimization algorithms are used to solve a particular MDO formulation. It is then appropriate to speak of local convergence rates and of global convergence properties of an optimization algorithm applied to a specific formulation. An analogous distinction exists in the field of partial differential equations. On the one hand, equations are analyzed in terms of regularity, well-posedness, and the existence and unique- ness of solutions. On the other, one considers numerous algorithms for solving differential equations. The area of MDO methods studies MDO formulations combined with optimization algorithms, although at times the distinction is blurred. It is important to

  13. The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey (GPIES) Campaign Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patience, Jennifer; Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Barman, Travis; De Rosa, Robert; Konopacky, Quinn; Marley, Mark; Marois, Christian; Nielsen, Eric Ludwig; Pueyo, Laurent; Rajan, Abhijith; Rameau, Julien; Saumon, Didier; Wang, Jason

    2015-12-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a next-generation coronagraphic integral field unit with the sensitivity and resolution to detect planetary companions with separations of 0”.2 to 1”.0 around a large set of stars. An 890-hour GPI survey of 600 young, nearby stars commenced in late-2014, and approximately 100 stars have been observed thus far. The central aims of the program are: (1) the discovery of a population of giant planets with orbital radii of 5-50 AU comparable to Solar System gas giant orbits, (2) the characterization of the atmospheric properties of young planetary companions, and (3) the exploration of planet-disk interactions. Initial results from GPI exoplanet observations include the discovery of a new planetary companion to a young F-star; the planet spectrum shows a strong signature of methane absorption, indicating a cooler temperature than previously imaged young planets. An overview of the survey scope, current detection limits, and initial results will be presented.

  14. Frequency Spectrum for New Aviation Data Links: Initial Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matolak, David W.; Branstetter, James R.

    2004-01-01

    We describe results from an initial study to assess the suitability of various spectral bands for supporting the deployment of new aviation data links (ADL). The study focused on systems and spectral bands that can deliver VHF data link (VDL)-or-higher data rates in a two-way communication setting, including air-ground, ground-air, and air-air modes of operation. In the first part of our paper, we briefly discuss the current situation regarding communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS) links and existing spectrum, and the well-known need for new aviation data links. We next provide an overview of related systems, and discuss key factors involved in the use of spectrum in various bands for any future integrated CNS data link, addressing primarily the lower few layers of the communications protocol stack. Desired attributes of a new ADL system are discussed, and the beneficial aspects of a particular transmission technique spread spectrum are summarized. We also provide a short list of several example potential spectral regions, and note that while none of the existing systems will likely meet the full range of desired features of a new ADL, several systems and spectral regions offer promise in terms of one or more characteristics. A detailed discussion and evaluation of these spectral regions is proposed as future work. We include a few brief examples to illustrate initial technical results regarding spread spectrum overlay, also a subject for future work.

  15. Initial results with a multisource inverse-geometry CT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Jongduk; Pelc, Norbert J.; Deman, Bruno; Uribe, Jorge; Harrison, Daniel; Reynolds, Joseph; Neculaes, Bogdan; Inzinna, Louis; Caiafa, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    The multi-source inverse-geometry CT(MS-IGCT) system is composed of multiple sources and a small 2D detector array. An experimental MS-IGCT system was built and we report initial results with 2×4 x-ray sources, a 75 mm inplane field-of-view (FOV) and 160 mm z-coverage in a single gantry rotation. To evaluate the system performance, experimental data were acquired from several phantoms and a post-mortem rat. Before image reconstruction, geometric calibration, data normalization, beam hardening correction and detector spectral calibration were performed. For reconstruction, the projection data were rebinned into two full cone beam data sets, and the FDK algorithm was used. The reconstructed volumes from the upper and lower source rows shared an overlap volume which was combined in image space. The reconstructed images of the uniform cylinder phantom showed good uniformity of the reconstructed values without any artifacts. The rat data were also reconstructed reliably. The initial experimental results from this rotating-gantry MS-IGCT system demonstrated its ability to image a complex anatomical object without any significant image artifacts and to ultimately achieve large volumetric coverage in a single gantry rotation.

  16. Effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on MBR performance and effluent trihalomethane formation: At the initial stage of PAC addition.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Ma, Defang; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Huang, Xia

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the MBR was used to treat municipal wastewater for reuse. Effects of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on MBR system in terms of effluent water quality, trihalomethane (THM) formation and membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant at the initial stage of PAC addition were investigated. Effects of chlorine dose and contact time on THM formation and speciation were also studied. PAC addition enhanced the removal of organic matters, especially aromatic components, which improved the UV254 removal rate from 34% to 83%. PAC addition greatly reduced the membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant. PAC addition reduced the MBR effluent trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) from 351.29 to 241.95μg/L, while increased THM formation reactivity by 42%. PAC addition enhanced the formation of higher toxic bromine-containing THMs. High chlorine dose and contact time resulted in higher THM formation but lower proportion of bromine-containing THMs. PMID:27318162

  17. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  18. Global adjoint tomography: Perspectives, initial results and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozdag, Ebru; Zhu, Hejun; Peter, Daniel; Tromp, Jeroen

    2013-04-01

    Adjoint methods provide an efficient way for incorporating the full nonlinearity of wave propagation and 3D Fréchet kernels in iterative seismic inversions. Our goal is to take adjoint tomography forward to image the entire planet using the opportunities offered by advances in numerical wave propagation solvers and high-performance computing. Using an iterative pre-conditioned conjugate gradient scheme, we initially set the aim to obtain a global crustal and mantle model with confined transverse isotropy in the upper mantle. Our strategy is to invert crustal and mantle structure together to avoid any bias introduced into upper-mantle images due to "crustal corrections", which are commonly used in classical tomography. We have started with 255 global CMT events (5.8 ≤ Mw ≤ 7) and used GSN stations as well as some local networks such as USArray, European stations, etc. We have demonstrated the feasibility of global scale inversions by performing two iterations based on numerical simulations accurate down to ~27 s. To simplify the problem, we primarily focus on elastic structure, and therefore our measurements are based on multitaper traveltime differences between observed and synthetic seismograms. We compute 3D sensitivity kernels for the selected events combining long-period surface waves (initially T > 60 s), where it is easier to handle nonlinearities due to the crust, with shorter-period body waves (initially T > 27 s), which are more sensitive to deeper parts of the mantle. 3D simulations dramatically increase the usable amount of data so that, with the current earthquake-station setup, we perform each iteration with more than two million measurements. Our initial results are promising to improve images from the upper mantle all the way down to the core-mantle boundary. Recent improvements in our 3D solvers (e.g., a GPU version) and access to high-performance computational centers (e.g., ORNL's Cray XK7 "Titan" system) now enable us to perform iterations

  19. Np Behavior in Synthesized Uranyl Phases: Results of Initial Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Douglas, Matthew; McNamara, Bruce K.; Clark, Sue B.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2004-09-28

    Initial tests were completed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for developing a potential mechanism to retard the mobility of neptunium at the Yucca Mountain repository. Neptunium is of concern because of its mobility in the environment and long half life, contributing a large percentage of the potential dose over extended times at the perimeter of the site. The mobility of neptunium could be retarded by associating with uranium mineral phases. The following four uranium mineral phases were examined and are potential secondary phases expected to form as a result of interactions of spent nuclear fuel with the local environment: meta-schoepite, studtite, uranophane, and sodium boltwoodite. The fate of the neptunium was examined in these synthetic experiments.

  20. Initial Results From The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canizares, C. R.; Davis, D. S.; Dewey, D.; Flanagan, K. A.; Houck, J.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Marshall, H. L.; Schattenburg, M. L.; Schulz, N. S.; Wise, M.

    2000-01-01

    The High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) on the Chandra X-ray Observatory provides spectral resolving powers of 200-1000 over the range 0.4-8.0 keV (1.5-30 A) with effective area of 2-200 square centimeters. Initial observations during the activation and calibration phases of the mission show that the HETGS is performing as predicted prior to Chandra launch. The talk presented very preliminary results that illustrate the power of the HETGS for performing detailed studies of a wide range of celestial sources, including plasma diagnostics. This written version gives a brief summary of that talk with examples of preliminary spectra of Capella, the Crab pulsar, SS433 and the SNR E0102-72.

  1. Aquarius Retrieval of Sea Ice Thickness: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Matthaeis, Paolo; Utku, C.; Le Vine, David M.; Moyer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aquarius brightness temperature data are used to calculate sea ice thickness in the Arctic region. The method is based on the inversion of a radiative transfer model for icecovered sea. Using this technique, the initial sea ice thickness values retrieved from Aquarius data are compared to the SMOSIce Data as well as to estimates from NASA's Operation IceBridge. The results show similar trends between the SMOS- and Aquarius-derived sea ice thickness, however the Aquarius estimates tend to be higher and noisier than the corresponding SMOS values. The accuracy of retrieved Aquarius ice thickness is possibly influenced by uncertainties in the ancillary input parameters and by the coarser resolutions of Aquarius.

  2. Atmospheric Measurements by the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, J. D.; Palm, S. P.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Mahesh, A.; Welton, E. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System launched in early 2003 is the first satellite instrument in space to globally observe the distribution of clouds and aerosol through laser remote sensing. The instrument is a basic backscatter lidar that operates at two wavelengths, 532 and 1064 nm. The mission data products for atmospheric observations include the calibrated, observed, attenuated backscatter cross section for cloud and aerosol; height detection for multiple cloud layers; planetary boundary layer height; cirrus and aerosol optical depth and the height distribution of aerosol and cloud scattering cross section profiles. The data is expected to significantly enhance knowledge in several areas of atmospheric science, in particular the distribution, transport and influence of atmospheric aerosol. Measurements of the coverage and height of polar and cirrus cloud should be significantly more accurate than previous global measurement. Initial result from the first several months of operation will be presented.

  3. Mars Science Laboratory relative humidity observations: Initial results

    PubMed Central

    Harri, A-M; Genzer, M; Kemppinen, O; Gomez-Elvira, J; Haberle, R; Polkko, J; Savijärvi, H; Rennó, N; Rodriguez-Manfredi, JA; Schmidt, W; Richardson, M; Siili, T; Paton, M; Torre-Juarez, M De La; Mäkinen, T; Newman, C; Rafkin, S; Mischna, M; Merikallio, S; Haukka, H; Martin-Torres, J; Komu, M; Zorzano, M-P; Peinado, V; Vazquez, L; Urqui, R

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (REMS-H), and UV measurements. We concentrate on describing the REMS-H measurement performance and initial observations during the first 100 MSL sols as well as constraining the REMS-H results by comparing them with earlier observations and modeling results. The REMS-H device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc., and it makes use of transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier indirect observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water content. The water mixing ratio in the atmospheric surface layer appears to vary between 30 and 75 ppm. When assuming uniform mixing, the precipitable water content of the atmosphere is ranging from a few to six precipitable micrometers. Key Points Atmospheric water mixing ratio at Gale crater varies from 30 to 140 ppm MSL relative humidity observation provides good data Highest detected relative humidity reading during first MSL 100 sols is RH75% PMID:26213667

  4. Initial Results from the Variable Intensity Sonic Boom Propagation Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Cliatt, Larry J., II; Bunce, Thomas J.; Gabrielson, Thomas B.; Sparrow, Victor W.; Locey, Lance L.

    2008-01-01

    An extensive sonic boom propagation database with low- to normal-intensity booms (overpressures of 0.08 lbf/sq ft to 2.20 lbf/sq ft) was collected for propagation code validation, and initial results and flight research techniques are presented. Several arrays of microphones were used, including a 10 m tall tower to measure shock wave directionality and the effect of height above ground on acoustic level. A sailplane was employed to measure sonic booms above and within the atmospheric turbulent boundary layer, and the sailplane was positioned to intercept the shock waves between the supersonic airplane and the ground sensors. Sailplane and ground-level sonic boom recordings were used to generate atmospheric turbulence filter functions showing excellent agreement with ground measurements. The sonic boom prediction software PCBoom4 was employed as a preflight planning tool using preflight weather data. The measured data of shock wave directionality, arrival time, and overpressure gave excellent agreement with the PCBoom4-calculated results using the measured aircraft and atmospheric data as inputs. C-weighted acoustic levels generally decreased with increasing height above the ground. A-weighted and perceived levels usually were at a minimum for a height where the elevated microphone pressure rise time history was the straightest, which is a result of incident and ground-reflected shock waves interacting.

  5. Development of a global tsunami source database - initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    Tsunamis can be triggered by various sources; most commonly earthquakes, volcanoes or landslides. The characterization of tsunami offspring is an important element in the development of tsunami hazard and risk assessments. The world's known tsunami sources have been investigated in various projects and studies, especially with regard to of earthquakes. Some regions have been examined numerous times by researchersand have presented differing results as a result of varying methodologies and data contributions. In addition, certain tsunami sources have very few studies or singular studies associated with them. Thus, the development of a unified, global database which collects all these sources and their so-far identified characteristics is an important step to provide a shared repository for researchers for the development of future models. A collection of more than 50 detailed probabilistic and deterministic tsunami hazard and risk assessments has been taken out and carefully reviewed.This information about tsunami sources has been compiled and geocoded where possible. In addition, paleoseismic and neo-tectonic studies have been used in conjunction with up-to-date instrumental and historic earthquake catalogues to estimate return periods of megathrust earthquake events and to provide sufficiently well constrained estimates of magnitude-dependent earthquake return periods. The variability of these results is also presented within the database. The sources use a simple 3D geometry based on earthquake locations and focal mechanisms which additionally provide information to model characteristic events of each source. The study provides a detailed catalogue of tsunami source geometries, most of which are subduction zone interfaces, spanning from well-studied regions such as the Chile trench to small local sources like the Yap Trench near Palau in the western Pacific or the potentially subducting Northern Algerian front. In addition to earthquake sources, a database of

  6. GPS Antenna Characterization Experiment (ACE): Receiver Design and Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martzen, Phillip; Highsmith, Dolan E.; Valdez, Jennifer E.; Parker, Joel J. K.; Moreau, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The GPS Antenna Characterization Experiment (ACE) is a research collaboration between Aerospace and NASA Goddard to characterize the gain patterns of the GPS L1 transmit antennas. High altitude GPS observations are collected at a ground station through a transponder-based or "bent-pipe" architecture where the GPS L1 RF spectrum is received at a platform in geosynchronous orbit and relayed to the ground for processing. The focus of this paper is the unique receiver algorithm design and implementation. The high-sensitivity GPS C/A-code receiver uses high fidelity code and carrier estimates and externally supplied GPS message bit data in a batch algorithm with settings for a 0 dB-Hz threshold. The resulting carrier-to-noise measurements are used in a GPS L1 transmit antenna pattern reconstruction. This paper shows initial transmit gain patterns averaged over each block of GPS satellites, including comparisons to available pre-flight gain measurements from the GPS vehicle contractors. These results provide never-before-seen assessments of the full, in-flight transmit gain patterns.

  7. Initial Results in Global Flood Monitoring Using GPM Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Adler, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Global Flood Monitoring System (GFMS) (http://flood.umd.edu) has been developed and used to provide real-time flood detection and streamflow estimates over the last few years with significant success shown by validation against global flood event data sets and observed streamflow variations. It has become a tool for various national and international organizations to appraise flood conditions in various areas, including where rainfall and hydrology information is limited. The GFMS has been using the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) as its main rainfall input. Now, with the advent of NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission there is an opportunity to significantly improve global flood monitoring and forecasting. GPM's Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) multi-satellite product is designed to take advantage of various technical advances in the field and combine that with an efficient processing system producing "early" (6 hrs) and "late" (16 hrs) products for operational use. The products are also more uniform in results than TMPA among the various satellites going into the analysis and available at finer time and space resolutions. On the road to replacing TMPA with the IMERG in the operational version of the GFMS parallel systems were run for periods to understand the impact of the new type of data on the streamflow and flood estimates. Results of this comparison are the basis for this presentation. It is expected that an improvement will be noted both in the accuracy of the precipitation estimates and a smoother transition in and out of heavy rain events, helping to reduce "shock" in the hydrology model. The finer spatial resolution should also help in this regard. The GFMS will be initially run at its primary resolution of 1/8th degree latitude/longitude with both data sets to isolate the impact of the rain information change. Other aspects will also be examined, including higher latitude events, where GPM

  8. Initial and Late Results of Freedom Coronary Stent

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Young Keun; Kang, Kyung Tae; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kang, Jung Chaee; Park, Yang Kyu; Park, Ok Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Objectives Initial and late results after implantation of Freedom stents, a balloon expandable stainless steel coil stents were evaluated. Methods From Jun. 1996 to Nov. 1997, we implanted 123 Freedom stents in 122 lesions in 117 patients and performed follow-up coronary angiograms at 7.0 ± 3.6 months after stents placement. Clinical courses after stenting and follow-up coronary angiographic findings were evaluated. Comparison of clinical, angiographic, and procedural factors according to the presence or absence of restenosis was performed. Results In 117 patients who underwent stents implantation, major complications were not observed. Follow-up coronary angiograms were performed in 47 stents in 41 patients (35%). Among 47 stents, angiographic significant restenosis (percent diameter stenosis > 50%) was observed in 13 (28%). Mean age in 41 patients was 59 ± 9 years, with 27 male patients (66%). Indications for stents implantation were de novo lesions in 18 (38%), suboptimal results after PTCA in 18 (38%), bail-out lesions in 4 (9%) and restenotic lesions in 7 (15%). Lesion types by AHA/ACC classification were A in 1 (1%), B1 in 10 (21%), B2 in 17 (36%), and C in 19 (40%). Average lesion length was 13.7 ± 9.0mm, stent diameter 3.0 ± 0.3mm, and stent length 24.6 ± 9.0 mm. There were no significant differences of the clinical, angiographic, and procedural characteristics according to the presence or absence of restenosis. Conclusion Freedom coronary stents implantation is safely performed in various morphology of coronary lesions and no significant predictive factors on restenosis in follow-up coronary angiogram were observed. PMID:10714085

  9. Initial results from the unipolar operation of the RHEPP module

    SciTech Connect

    Harjes, H.C.; Penn, K.J.; Reed, K.W.; McClenahan, C.R.; Laderach, G.E.; Wavrik, R.W.; Adcock, J.L.; Butler, M.E.; Mann, G.A.; Pena, G.E.; Weber, G.J.; VanDeValde, D.; Martinez, L.E.; Muirhead, D.; Kiekel, P.D.; Johnson, D.L.; Neau, E.L.

    1992-08-01

    Several potential applications such as medical waste treatment, chemical waste treatment, food treatment, and flue gas cleanup have been identified for high average power electron beam systems. The technology for such a system is being developed in the RHEPP (Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power) project. The RHEPP module consists of a multistage magnetic pulse compressor driving a linear induction voltage adder with an e-beam diode load. It has been designed to operate continuously, delivering 350 kW of average power to the diode in 60-ns FWHM, 2.5-MV, 2.9-kJ pulses. The module is presently under construction with the first phase scheduled for completion in the summer of 1992. In the first phase, four of ten adder stages are being built so that testing can begin with a I-MV, 160-kW diode with the balance of the power from the compressor diverted to a resistive load. A description of the system and test results from the initial stages of the compressor will be presented.

  10. Initial results from the unipolar operation of the RHEPP module

    SciTech Connect

    Harjes, H.C.; Penn, K.J.; Reed, K.W.; McClenahan, C.R.; Laderach, G.E.; Wavrik, R.W.; Adcock, J.L.; Butler, M.E.; Mann, G.A.; Pena, G.E.; Weber, G.J.; VanDeValde, D.; Martinez, L.E.; Muirhead, D.; Kiekel, P.D.; Johnson, D.L.; Neau, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    Several potential applications such as medical waste treatment, chemical waste treatment, food treatment, and flue gas cleanup have been identified for high average power electron beam systems. The technology for such a system is being developed in the RHEPP (Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power) project. The RHEPP module consists of a multistage magnetic pulse compressor driving a linear induction voltage adder with an e-beam diode load. It has been designed to operate continuously, delivering 350 kW of average power to the diode in 60-ns FWHM, 2.5-MV, 2.9-kJ pulses. The module is presently under construction with the first phase scheduled for completion in the summer of 1992. In the first phase, four of ten adder stages are being built so that testing can begin with a I-MV, 160-kW diode with the balance of the power from the compressor diverted to a resistive load. A description of the system and test results from the initial stages of the compressor will be presented.

  11. Application of terahertz radiation to soil measurements: initial results.

    PubMed

    Dworak, Volker; Augustin, Sven; Gebbers, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Developing soil sensors with the possibility of continuous online measurement is a major challenge in soil science. Terahertz (THz) electromagnetic radiation may provide the opportunity for the measurement of organic material density, water content and other soil parameters at different soil depths. Penetration depth and information content is important for a functional soil sensor. Therefore, we present initial research on the analysis of absorption coefficients of four different soil samples by means of THz transmission measurements. An optimized soil sample holder to determine absorption coefficients was used. This setup improves data acquisition because interface reflections can be neglected. Frequencies of 340 GHz to 360 GHz and 1.627 THz to 2.523 THz provided information about an existing frequency dependency. The results demonstrate the potential of this THz approach for both soil analysis and imaging of buried objects. Therefore, the THz approach allows different soil samples to be distinguished according to their different absorption properties so that relations among soil parameters may be established in future. PMID:22163737

  12. Initial Results of Magnetic Surface Mapping in HSX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, V.; Anderson, F. S. B.

    1999-11-01

    A diagnostic based on the electron gun and fluorescent mesh technique for mapping magnetic surfaces in HSX has been fully implemented and tested. The electron gun (≈ 6mm diam.) can be moved radially to launch a beam (≈ 2mm in diam.) of low energy (<= 100eV) electrons at different locations. The emitted electron beam is detected using a high-transparency (≈ 95 percent) copper-wire mesh coated with P24 phosphor and viewed with a high-sensitivity CCD camera. The supporting frame has 22 light sources used as reference points. The image can be observed from two different points: the more easily accessed is located on the same box-port as the mesh. The other viewing point is through a periscope located at the center port between coils 2 and 3, which has the advantage of providing an image with fewer perspective distortions, which are removed using standard digital image processing techniques to compare to numerical calculations. Data acquisition and control for the diagnostic are provided by a personal computer. Initial experimental results regarding magnetic surface shape, quality and rotational transform will be presented.

  13. Initial results from a ROSAT deep survey in Lynx

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. F.; Windhorst, R. A.; Maccacaro, T.; Burstein, D.; Franklin, B. E.; Griffiths, R. E.; Koo, D. C.; Mathis, D. F.; Morgan, W. A.; Neuschaefer, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results from a deep (70 ksec) Rosat survey of the high galactic latitude selected area Lynx.3A are presented. Lynx.3A sensitivity was previously studied in both the optical radio, with deep Westerbork surveys and deep multicolor Charge Couple Device (CCD) images form the Palomar 200 inch Four-Shooter. About 70 x-ray sources were detected within the central 40 foot diameter region of the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC), observed surface densities of approximately 200 x-ray sources/sq deg are suggested, and these x-ray sources alone account for approximately 30 percent of the cosmic x-ray background (0.9 to 2.2 keV). An initial look at the observed x-ray logN - logS curve is presented, but a detailed assessment requires further study. The 4 sigma limit of about 7 times 10 to the minus 15th power erg/s.sq cm (0.5 to 2.0 keV) is considerably deeper then the Einstein deep surveys, and of comparable sensitivity to the deepest current Rosat surveys. Cross correlation with our Four Shooter optical catalogs yields at least one likely optical candidate for nearly all of the Rosat x-ray sources; a number of the likely optical identifications have colors of quasi-stellar objects (and stellar PSF), but in other cases galaxies/groups are also viable candidates.

  14. Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen Initial Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Swanger, A. M.; Tomsik, T.

    2015-01-01

    NASA operations for handling cryogens in ground support equipment have not changed substantially in 50 years, despite major technology advances in the field of cryogenics. NASA loses approximately 50% of the hydrogen purchased because of a continuous heat leak into ground and flight vessels, transient chill down of warm cryogenic equipment, liquid bleeds, and vent losses. NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) needs to develop energy-efficient cryogenic ground systems to minimize propellant losses, simplify operations, and reduce cost associated with hydrogen usage. The GODU LH2 project has designed, assembled, and started testing of a prototype storage and distribution system for liquid hydrogen that represents an advanced end-to-end cryogenic propellant system for a ground launch complex. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The system is unique because it uses an integrated refrigeration and storage system (IRAS) to control the state of the fluid. This paper will present and discuss the results of the initial phase of testing of the GODU LH2 system.

  15. Ground operations demonstration unit for liquid hydrogen initial test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Swanger, A. M.; Tomsik, T.

    2015-12-01

    NASA operations for handling cryogens in ground support equipment have not changed substantially in 50 years, despite major technology advances in the field of cryogenics. NASA loses approximately 50% of the hydrogen purchased because of a continuous heat leak into ground and flight vessels, transient chill down of warm cryogenic equipment, liquid bleeds, and vent losses. NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) needs to develop energy-efficient cryogenic ground systems to minimize propellant losses, simplify operations, and reduce cost associated with hydrogen usage. The GODU LH2 project has designed, assembled, and started testing of a prototype storage and distribution system for liquid hydrogen that represents an advanced end-to-end cryogenic propellant system for a ground launch complex. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The system is unique because it uses an integrated refrigeration and storage system (IRAS) to control the state of the fluid. This paper will present and discuss the results of the initial phase of testing of the GODU LH2 system.

  16. Quantitative MR imaging in fracture dating-Initial results.

    PubMed

    Baron, Katharina; Neumayer, Bernhard; Widek, Thomas; Schick, Fritz; Scheicher, Sylvia; Hassler, Eva; Scheurer, Eva

    2016-04-01

    For exact age determinations of bone fractures in a forensic context (e.g. in cases of child abuse) improved knowledge of the time course of the healing process and use of non-invasive modern imaging technology is of high importance. To date, fracture dating is based on radiographic methods by determining the callus status and thereby relying on an expert's experience. As a novel approach, this study aims to investigate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for bone fracture dating by systematically investigating time-resolved changes in quantitative MR characteristics after a fracture event. Prior to investigating fracture healing in children, adults were examined for this study in order to test the methodology for this application. Altogether, 31 MR examinations in 17 subjects (♀: 11 ♂: 6; median age 34±15 y, scanned 1-5 times over a period of up to 200 days after the fracture event) were performed on a clinical 3T MR scanner (TimTrio, Siemens AG, Germany). All subjects were treated conservatively for a fracture in either a long bone or in the collar bone. Both, qualitative and quantitative MR measurements were performed in all subjects. MR sequences for a quantitative measurement of relaxation times T1 and T2 in the fracture gap and musculature were applied. Maps of quantitative MR parameters T1, T2, and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) were calculated and evaluated by investigating changes over time in the fractured area by defined ROIs. Additionally, muscle areas were examined as reference regions to validate this approach. Quantitative evaluation of 23 MR data sets (12 test subjects, ♀: 7 ♂: 5) showed an initial peak in T1 values in the fractured area (T1=1895±607ms), which decreased over time to a value of 1094±182ms (200 days after the fracture event). T2 values also peaked for early-stage fractures (T2=115±80ms) and decreased to 73±33ms within 21 days after the fracture event. After that time point, no significant changes

  17. An Event Driven Phenology Model: Results from initial testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalskyy, V.; Henebry, G.

    2008-12-01

    A new model was developed to simulate land surface phenology and seasonality dynamics based on assimilation of weather data and operational land surface observations. The model was built to establish a much needed interface between boundary layer dynamics represented in weather models and surface observations and the temporal variability captured in series of remotely sensed images. The Event Driven Phenology Model (EDPM) takes advantage of both ground-based weather and climate records and spaceborne sensors to provide retrospective and predictive power. The new model enables phenologies to unfold in response to changing environmental conditions and disturbance events. It also has the ability to ingest contemporaneous discrete external records of land surface dynamics to adjust its output to achieve a better representation of the observed process. The EDPM presents an alternative to contemporary methods such as retrospective curve-fitting (either to time or to a temporal proxy, such as thermal time), long term averages (or climatologies), and phenologies from look-up tables based on land use/land cover or plant functional types. We describe the model and report results of initial testing of the EDPM using level 1 flux tower records from the Mead, Nebraska Ameriflux sites in conjunction with associated MODIS subsets from the Carbon DAAC at ORNL. We assess the EDPM predictions by comparing and contrasting the results with reserved ground records and with outcomes of other phenology models. Finally, we point out prospects for future use of descriptive and prescriptive EDPM capabilities in the work of climate models, production of continuous remote sensing records, and other scientific applications.

  18. Initial results of the 2011 Geoid Slope Validation Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA), National Geodetic Survey (NGS) has embarked on a ten year project called GRAV-D (Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum).The purpose of this project is to replace the current official vertical datum, NAVD 88 (the North American Vertical Datum of 1988) with a geopotential reference system based on a new survey of the gravity field and a gravimetric geoid. As part of GRAV-D, NGS plans to execute a set of "geoid validation surveys" at various locations of the country.These will be surveys designed to independently measure the geoid to provide a check against both the data and theory used to create the final gravimetric geoid which will be used in the geopotential reference system. The first of these surveys, known as the Geoid Slope Validation Survey of 2011 (GSVS11) was executed between July and October, 2011 in the west central region of Texas.The survey took place over a 330 kilometer line running more or less north-south from Austin to Corpus Christi, Texas.Measurements were taken at 220 marks (one per mile) and included static GPS, RTN GPS, geodetic leveling, astro-geodetic deflections of the vertical using the Swiss DIADEM camera, absolute gravity, gravity gradients and LIDAR.This region was chosen for many factors including the availability of GRAV-D airborne gravity over the area, its relatively low elevation (220 meter orthometric height max), its geoid slope (about 130 cm over 300 km), lack of significant topographic relief, lack of large forestation, availability of good roads, clarity of weather and lack of large water crossings. This talk will outline the initial results of the survey, specifically the comparison of various geoid slopes over this region:gravimetric geoid models (with and without airborne gravity), minimally constrained GPS and leveling and from astro-geodetic deflections of the vertical.

  19. AMPERE: Project Implementation Overview and Initial Results (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Rock, K.; Dyrud, L. P.; Korth, H.; Waters, C. L.; Green, D. L.; Barnes, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    -degree latitude resolution. The architecture and performance of the AMPERE system are reviewed, and initial results of the dynamics of storm-time and other time-variable currents are presented.

  20. Transient nucleate pool boiling in microgravity: Some initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merte, Herman, Jr.; Lee, H. S.; Ervin, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    Variable gravity provides an opportunity to test the understanding of phenomena which are considered to depend on buoyancy, such as nucleate pool boiling. The active fundamental research in nucleate boiling has sought to determine the mechanisms or physical processes responsible for its high effectiveness, manifested by the high heat flux levels possible with relatively low temperature differences. Earlier research on nucleate pool boiling at high gravity levels under steady conditions demonstrated quantitatively that the heat transfer is degraded as the buoyancy normal to the heater surfaced increases. Correspondingly, it was later shown, qualitatively for short periods of time only, that nucleate boiling heat transfer is enhanced as the buoyancy normal to the heater surface is reduced. It can be deduced that nucleate pool boiling can be sustained as a quasi-steady process provided that some means is available to remove the vapor generated from the immediate vicinity of the heater surface. One of the objectives of the research, the initial results of which are presented here, is to quantify the heat transfer associated with boiling in microgravity. Some quantitative results of nucleate pool boiling in high quality microgravity (a/g approximately 10(exp -5)) of 5s duration, obtained in an evacuated drop tower, are presented here. These experiments were conducted as precursors of longer term space experiments. A transient heating technique is used, in which the heater surface is a transparent gold film sputtered on a qua rtz substrate, simultaneously providing the mean surface temperature from resistance thermometry and viewing of the boiling process both from beneath and across the surface. The measurement of the transient mean heater surface temperature permits the computation, by numerical means, of the transient mean heat transfer coefficient. The preliminary data obtained demonstrates that a quasi-steady boiling process can occur in microgravity if the bulk

  1. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  2. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  3. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Davis, James M.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Lukins, Craig D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Smith, Dennese M.

    2012-12-01

    rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of this report is to present the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the large-scale test stand. The report includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodology, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging of small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. 2012a. The results of the aerosol measurements in the small-scale test stand are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012b).

  4. Initial results from new Northern Cascadia tide gauge network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, P.; Weldon, R. J.; Livelybrooks, D.; Schmidt, D. A.; Alba, S.; Maciel, T.; Bug, J.; Croes, B.

    2010-12-01

    Research Experiences) program, and present preliminary results. We will also discuss the potential of this network, and its extension south into southwest WA and Oregon for augmenting the long-term NOAA tide gauge records for long-term uplift rate determination and to capture additional slow slip events in southwest Washington and Oregon.

  5. Electron cyclotron thruster new modeling results preparation for initial experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, E. Bickford

    1993-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: a whistler-based electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) thruster; cross-field coupling in the helicon approximation; wave propagation; wave structure; plasma density; wave absorption; the electron distribution function; isothermal and adiabatic plasma flow; ECRH thruster modeling; a PIC code model; electron temperature; electron energy; and initial experimental tests. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  6. The Montana Behavioral Initiative: Student Results and System Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rude, Harvey; Bailey-Anderson, Susan; Dotter, Susan

    The Montana Behavioral Initiative (MBI) was developed in 1995 in response to increased incidents of student behavior problems. The intent of MBI is to improve educational environments to meet the needs of all students, including those with behavioral challenges. Each participating school conducts needs assessments and develops site-specific goals…

  7. Initial Results from Coaxial Helicity Injection Experiments in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mueller, D.; Schaffer, M.J.; Maqueda, R.; Nelson, B.A.; Sabbagh, S.; Bell, M.; Ewig, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Gates, D.; Hosea, J.; Ji, H.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.M.; Kugel, H.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Orvis, D.; Paolette, F.; Paul, S.; Peng, M.; Skinner, C.H.; Wilgen, W.; Zweben, S.; and the NSTX Research Team

    2001-05-10

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) has been investigated on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Initial experiments produced 130 kA of toroidal current without the use of the central solenoid. The corresponding injector current was 20 kA. Discharges with pulse lengths up to 130 ms have been produced.

  8. Initial results from Topo-Iberia continuous GPS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio, Eva; Khazaradze, Giorgi

    2010-05-01

    Topo-Iberia GPS network consists of 26 continuous GPS reference stations located in the Spanish part of the Iberian Peninsula (22 stations) and northern Morocco (4 stations). The first station was installed at Cabo Busto (Asturias) in March 2008 and the last one at Sierra Nevada (Betics) in October 2008. Since this date all the stations are fully operational. The network has been designed as two X-shaped transects crossing the Iberian Peninsula from NE to SW and NW to SE, with denser coverage in the seismically active areas of the Betics, Pyrenees and Cantabrian chains. During the design of the spatial distribution of the network, we took into account the existence of the already functioning GPS networks, especially ones which had high-quality monumentations that could satisfy the high-precision geodetic standards, required for tectonic deformation monitoring. For this reason, due to the existence of the CatNet CGPS network in Catalonia (www.icc.cat), we have not installed any new stations in this part of Spain. A major objective behind the establishment of this array is to monitor millimeter level deformation of the crust due to the collision of African and Eurasian (including Iberian micro-plate) tectonic plates. More specific goals of the project include the identification of the areas and/or specific seismic faults which exhibit higher deformation rates, which could imply an increased seismic hazard in these specifics areas. Here we report the initial results of data analysis performed at the University of Barcelona using GAMIT/GLOBK software from MIT (Herring et al. 2006; King & Bock 2004). The analysis was performed in a network mode strategy using double-differences. In this processing mode all the stations are analyzed together and the ambiguities are resolved. In total we have processed daily data from more than 120 continuous GPS sites, that included the 26 Topo-Iberia CGPS sites; 22 core stations of IGS and EUREF, as well as, the data from the Spanish

  9. Update and Initial Results from The COHERENT Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Taking advantage of technologies which have come to maturity and the availability of a world-class pulsed neutrino source, the COHERENT collaboration seeks to make the first unambiguous measurement of coherent, elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS). Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutron Source is, as a by-product of the spallation process, an intense, pulsed neutrino source. The high beam power of the SNS results in a high neutrino flux, and the energy spectrum of emitted neutrinos is well-suited for CEvNS detection: coherence is preserved in nearly all scattering events while generating nuclear recoil events above threshold for a number of established detector technologies. Additionally, the pulsed nature and short duty cycle of the SNS beam allow for powerful reduction of backgrounds not associated with the beam. The COHERENT Collaboration is deploying a suite of low threshold detectors (CsI[Na] scintillator, high-purity Ge detector array, 2-phase Xe TPC) at the SNS to detect CEvNS, in a manner that limits systematic uncertainties and observes the N2-dependence on the cross section. The current status of the efforts of the collaboration's efforts will be discussed and longer-term physics goals of the collaboration will be addressed, including searches for non-standard neutrino interactions and a measurement of the Weak mixing angle. Assessments of the backgrounds present in the detector locations will be discussed, including new measurements of neutrino-induced neutron production in candidate shielding materials. Preliminary measurements will be presented from existing deployments, as will implementation plans for upcoming detector systems.

  10. Nitrogen addition, not initial phylogenetic diversity, increases litter decomposition by fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Amend, Anthony S; Matulich, Kristin L; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2015-01-01

    Fungi play a critical role in the degradation of organic matter. Because different combinations of fungi result in different rates of decomposition, determining how climate change will affect microbial composition and function is fundamental to predicting future environments. Fungal response to global change is patterned by genetic relatedness, resulting in communities with comparatively low phylogenetic diversity (PD). This may have important implications for the functional capacity of disturbed communities if lineages sensitive to disturbance also contain unique traits important for litter decomposition. Here we tested the relationship between PD and decomposition rates. Leaf litter fungi were isolated from the field and deployed in microcosms as mock communities along a gradient of initial PD, while species richness was held constant. Replicate communities were subject to nitrogen fertilization comparable to anthropogenic deposition levels. Carbon mineralization rates were measured over the course of 66 days. We found that nitrogen fertilization increased cumulative respiration by 24.8%, and that differences in respiration between fertilized and ambient communities diminished over the course of the experiment. Initial PD failed to predict respiration rates or their change in response to nitrogen fertilization, and there was no correlation between community similarity and respiration rates. Last, we detected no phylogenetic signal in the contributions of individual isolates to respiration rates. Our results suggest that the degree to which PD predicts ecosystem function will depend on environmental context. PMID:25741330

  11. Nitrogen addition, not initial phylogenetic diversity, increases litter decomposition by fungal communities

    PubMed Central

    Amend, Anthony S.; Matulich, Kristin L.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi play a critical role in the degradation of organic matter. Because different combinations of fungi result in different rates of decomposition, determining how climate change will affect microbial composition and function is fundamental to predicting future environments. Fungal response to global change is patterned by genetic relatedness, resulting in communities with comparatively low phylogenetic diversity (PD). This may have important implications for the functional capacity of disturbed communities if lineages sensitive to disturbance also contain unique traits important for litter decomposition. Here we tested the relationship between PD and decomposition rates. Leaf litter fungi were isolated from the field and deployed in microcosms as mock communities along a gradient of initial PD, while species richness was held constant. Replicate communities were subject to nitrogen fertilization comparable to anthropogenic deposition levels. Carbon mineralization rates were measured over the course of 66 days. We found that nitrogen fertilization increased cumulative respiration by 24.8%, and that differences in respiration between fertilized and ambient communities diminished over the course of the experiment. Initial PD failed to predict respiration rates or their change in response to nitrogen fertilization, and there was no correlation between community similarity and respiration rates. Last, we detected no phylogenetic signal in the contributions of individual isolates to respiration rates. Our results suggest that the degree to which PD predicts ecosystem function will depend on environmental context. PMID:25741330

  12. Initial Results from the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Lenters, J. D.; Grosse, G.; Arp, C. D.; Jones, B.; Beck, R. A.; Eisner, W. R.; Frey, K. E.; Liu, H.; Kim, C.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2011-12-01

    About half of the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska is covered with thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins, making lakes a dominant landscape element and a crucial component of the Arctic permafrost system. However, to date there has been no systematic collection of key lake parameters or baseline data with which to make spatial and temporal comparisons to assess the impact of warmer temperatures, changing cloud cover and precipitation patterns, permafrost degradation, and direct human impacts on lakes. As separate groups, we have been working on lakes in arctic Alaska for the past decade and are currently monitoring some lakes. This effort has recently been organized into the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) with funding from NSF's Arctic Observing Network (AON) program. The objective of CALON is to expand and integrate our existing lake monitoring network across arctic Alaska to provide data for key indices using in situ measurements, field surveys, interviews with members of the indigenous community, and remote sensing/GIS technologies. In 2012, we will enhance the existing in situ network by developing lake monitoring sites to collect year-round baseline data and assess physical, chemical, and biological lake characteristics across environmental gradients. This will be accomplished by implementing a multiscale (hierarchical) lake instrumentation scheme such that basic data are collected from 51 lakes, while a subset of 16 lakes is more intensively instrumented. Regional scaling and extrapolation of key metrics is accomplished through validation of satellite imagery with ground measurements, and standardized protocols will be developed to enable inter-site comparison and to prepare for expansion towards a pan-Arctic network. Initial results are available from lake water profile temperature measurements made in summer 2010 along a 130-km transect extending from Barrow southward toward the interior. Ice-out occurs about 2-4 weeks later

  13. Changes in science classrooms resulting from collaborative action research initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Phil Seok

    Collaborative action research was undertaken over two years between a Korean science teacher and science education researchers at the University of Iowa. For the purpose of realizing science learning as envisioned by constructivist principles, Group-Investigations were implemented three or five times per project year. In addition, the second year project enacted Peer Assessments among students. Student perceptions of their science classrooms, as measured by the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), provided evidence that the collaborative action research was successful in creating constructivist learning environments. Student attitudes toward science lessons, as examined by the Enjoyment of Science Lessons Scale (ESLS), indicated that the action research also contributed to developing more positive attitudes of students about science learning. Discourse analysis was conducted on video-recordings of in-class presentations and discussions. The results indicated that students in science classrooms which were moving toward constructivist learning environments engaged in such discursive practices as: (1) Communicating their inquiries to others, (2) Seeking and providing information through dialogues, and (3) Negotiating conflicts in their knowledge and beliefs. Based on these practices, science learning was viewed as the process of constructing knowledge and understanding of science as well as the process of engaging in scientific inquiry and discourse. The teacher's discursive practices included: (1) Wrapping up student presentations, (2) Addressing misconceptions, (3) Answering student queries, (4) Coaching, (5) Assessing and advising, (6) Guiding students discursively into new knowledge, and (7) Scaffolding. Science teaching was defined as situated acts of the teacher to facilitate the learning process. In particular, when the classrooms became more constructivist, the teacher intervened more frequently and carefully in student activities to fulfill a

  14. Initial physics results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S. M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Bialek, J.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Bonoli, P.; Darrow, D.; Efthimion, P.; Ferron, J.; Fredrickson, E.; Gates, D.; Grisham, L.; Hosea, J.; Johnson, D.; Kaita, R.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Maingi, R.; Manickam, J.; Mau, T. K.; Maqueda, R. J.; Mazzucato, E.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B.; Nishino, N.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Paul, S.; Peng, Y-K. M.; Phillips, C. K.; Raman, R.; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Schaffer, M.; Skinner, C. H.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Wilgen, J.; Wilson, J. R.; Zhu, W.; Zweben, S.; Bers, A.; Carter, M.; Deng, B.; Domier, C.; Doyle, E.; Finkenthal, M.; Hill, K.; Jarboe, T.; Jardin, S.; Ji, H.; Lao, L.; Lee, K. C.; Luhmann, N.; Majeski, R.; Medley, S.; Park, H.; Peebles, T.; Pinsker, R. I.; Porter, G.; Ram, A.; Rensink, M.; Rognlien, T.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.; Taylor, G.; Wampler, W.; Wurden, G. A.; Xu, X. Q.; Zeng, L.

    2001-01-01

    The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to extend the understanding of toroidal physics to low aspect ratio (R/a approx-equal 1.25) in low collisionality regimes. NSTX is designed to operate with up to 6 MW of high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating and current drive, 5 MW of neutral beam injection (NBI) and co-axial helicity injection (CHI) for noninductive startup. Initial experiments focused on establishing conditions that will allow NSTX to achieve its aims of simultaneous high βt and high-bootstrap current fraction, and to develop methods for noninductive operation, which will be necessary for Spherical Torus power plants. Ohmic discharges with plasma currents up to 1 MA and with a range of shapes and configurations were produced. Density limits in deuterium and helium reached 80% and 120% of the Greenwald limit, respectively. Significant electron heating was observed with up to 2.3 MW of HHFW. Up to 270 kA of toroidal current for up to 200 ms was produced noninductively using CHI. Initial NBI experiments were carried out with up to two beam sources (3.2 MW). Plasmas with stored energies of up to 140 kJ and βt = 21% were produced.

  15. Initial Results from the Magnetized Dusty Plasma Experiment (MDPX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edward; Konopka, Uwe; Lynch, Brian; Adams, Stephen; Leblanc, Spencer; Artis, Darrick; Dubois, Ami; Merlino, Robert; Rosenberg, Marlene

    2014-10-01

    The MDPX device is envisioned as a flexible, multi-user, research instrument that can perform a wide range of studies in fundamental and applied plasma physics. The MDPX device consists of two main components. The first is a four-coil, open bore, superconducting magnet system that is designed to produce uniform magnetic fields of up to 4 Tesla and non-uniform magnetic fields with gradients up to up to 2 T/m configurations. Within the warm bore of the magnet is placed an octagonal vacuum chamber that has a 46 cm outer diameter and is 22 cm tall. The primary missions of the MDPX device are to: (1) investigate the structural, thermal, charging, and collective properties of a plasma as the electrons, ions, and finally charged microparticles become magnetized; (2) study the evolution of a dusty plasma containing magnetic particles (paramagnetic, super-paramagnetic, or ferromagnetic particles) in the presence of uniform and non-uniform magnetic fields; and, (3) explore the fundamental properties of strongly magnetized plasmas (``i.e., dust-free'' plasmas). This presentation will summarize the initial characterization of the magnetic field structure, initial plasma parameter measurements, and the development of in-situ and optical diagnostics. This work is supported by funding from the NSF and the DOE.

  16. Initial Physics Results From the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bialek, J.

    2001-01-03

    The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to extend the understanding of toroidal physics to low aspect ratio (R/a approximately equal to 1.25) in low collisionality regimes. NSTX is designed to operate with up to 6 MW of High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating and current drive, 5 MW of Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) and Co-Axial Helicity Injection (CHI) for non-inductive startup. Initial experiments focused on establishing conditions that will allow NSTX to achieve its aims of simultaneous high-bt and high-bootstrap current fraction, and to develop methods for non-inductive operation, which will be necessary for Spherical Torus power plants. Ohmic discharges with plasma currents up to 1 MA and with a range of shapes and configurations were produced. Density limits in deuterium and helium reached 80% and 120% of the Greenwald limit respectively. Significant electron heating was observed with up to 2.3 MW of HHFW. Up to 270 kA of toroidal current for up to 200 msec was produced noninductively using CHI. Initial NBI experiments were carried out with up to two beam sources (3.2 MW). Plasmas with stored energies of up to 140 kJ and bt =21% were produced.

  17. The Clementine Mission: Initial Results from lunar mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, P. D.; Shoemaker, E.; Acton, C.; Burratti, B.; Duxbury, T.; Baker, D.; Smith, D.; Blamont, J.; Davies, M.; Eliason, E.

    1994-01-01

    Clementine was a mission designed to test the space-worthiness of a variety of advanced sensors for use on military surveillance satellites while, at the same time, gathering useful scientific information on the composition and structure of the Moon and a near-Earth asteroid. Conducted jointly by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO, formerly the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization) of the US Department of Defense and NASA, Clementine was dispatched for an extended stay in the vicinity of Earth's moon on 25 January 1994 and arrived at the Moon on 20 February 1994. The spacecraft started systematic mapping on 26 February, completed mapping on 22 April, and left lunar orbit on 3 May. The entire Clementine project, from conception through end-of-mission, lasted approximately 3 years.

  18. The Clementine Mission: Initial Results from lunar mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spudis, P. D.; Shoemaker, E.; Acton, C.; Burratti, B.; Duxbury, T.; Baker, D.; Smith, D.; Blamont, J.; Davies, M.; Eliason, E.

    1994-07-01

    Clementine was a mission designed to test the space-worthiness of a variety of advanced sensors for use on military surveillance satellites while, at the same time, gathering useful scientific information on the composition and structure of the Moon and a near-Earth asteroid. Conducted jointly by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO, formerly the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization) of the US Department of Defense and NASA, Clementine was dispatched for an extended stay in the vicinity of Earth's moon on 25 January 1994 and arrived at the Moon on 20 February 1994. The spacecraft started systematic mapping on 26 February, completed mapping on 22 April, and left lunar orbit on 3 May. The entire Clementine project, from conception through end-of-mission, lasted approximately 3 years.

  19. Promising Breakthroughs: Initial Results of the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation's Breaking Through Initiative. In Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.; Barnett, Elisabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    The Breaking Through (BT) initiative of the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation seeks to prepare low-skilled adults, adult learners who are below college-level in reading, writing and/or mathematics, often lacking a high school diploma, and frequently low-income, to be successful in college and the labor market by strengthening and expanding policies…

  20. Cluster Close Separation at the Bow Shock Campaign: Initial Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balikhin, M. A.; Sagdeev, R.; Walker, S. N.; Malkov, M.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Doss, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Cluster close separation at the terrestrial bow shock campaign was aimed at probing the terrestrial bow shock front using multi-scale spacecraft separations. The closest separation (< 10 km) was achieved between Cluster 3 and Cluster 4. The separation of two other spacecraft from this pair was in the range 100-1000 km. The data from this Cluster campaign have been used to study the fine structure of the magnetic ramp. It is shown that the magnetic field perturbations observed within the ramp along the shock normal possess spatial scales a few times shorter than the ramp region itself, and are accompanied by variations in the electric field with magnitudes of a few tens mV/m. Using dual spacecraft measurements enables us to show that in the plane of the shock front the characteristic width of these structures corresponds to electron scales. Comparison of the magnetic field profile obtained from Cluster 3 and 4 indicates possibility that the initial stage of the front reformation is observed. However alternative explanations ( kinetic instabilities, corrugation instability) are also discussed.

  1. Initial results of a positron tomograph for prostate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.S.; Choong, W.S.; Moses, W.W.; Qi, J.; Hu, J.; Wang,G.C.; Wilson, D.; Oh, S.; Huesman, R.H.; Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.

    2004-11-29

    We present the status and initial images of a positrontomograph for prostate imaging that centers a patient between a pair ofexternal curved detector banks (ellipse: 45 cm minor, 70 cm major axis).The distance between detector banks adjusts to allow patient access andto position the detectors as closely as possible for maximum sensitivitywith patients of various sizes. Each bank is composed of two axial rowsof 20 CTI PET Systems HR+ block detectors for a total of 80 modules inthe camera. Compared to an ECAT HR PET system operating in 3D mode, ourcamera uses about one-quarter the number of detectors and hasapproximately the same sensitivity for a central point source, becauseour detectors are close to the patient. The individual detectors areangled in the plane to point towards the prostate to minimize resolutiondegradation in that region. The detectors are read out by modified CTIdata acquisition electronics. We have completed construction of thegantry and electronics, have developed detector calibration and dataacquisition software, and are taking coincidence data. We demonstratethat we can clearly visualize a "prostate" in a simple phantom.Reconstructed images of two phantoms are shown.

  2. Stent retriever technology: concept, application and initial results.

    PubMed

    Rohde, S; Bösel, J; Hacke, W; Bendszus, M

    2012-11-01

    Stent retrievers are increasingly used for flow restoration and thrombectomy in acute embolic stroke. First clinical results support the potential of these new devices, in particular the ability to rapidly restore flow and effectively retrieve clots from large intracranial arteries, with favorable clinical results in preliminary patient series. This article reviews the concept and technical aspects of this new technique of endovascular stroke treatment and summarizes the first clinical results. PMID:22131439

  3. The August 2011 URSI World Day campaign: Initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immel, Thomas J.; Liu, Guiping; England, Scott L.; Goncharenko, Larisa P.; Erickson, Philip J.; Lyashenko, Mykhaylo V.; Milla, Marco; Chau, Jorge; Frey, Harald U.; Mende, Stephen B.; Zhou, Qihou; Stromme, Anja; Paxton, Larry J.

    2015-11-01

    During a 10-day URSI World Day observational campaign beginning on August 1, 2011, an isolated, major geomagnetic storm occurred. On August 5, Kp reached values of 8- and Dst dropped to -113 nT. The occurrence of this isolated storm in the middle of a 10-day URSI World Day campaign provides and unprecedented opportunity to observe the coupling of solar wind energy into the magnetosphere and to evaluate the varied effects that occur in the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. Dramatic changes in the ionosphere are seen at every one of the active radar stations, extending from Greenland down to equatorial Peru in the American sector and at middle latitudes in Ukraine. Data from TIMED and THEMIS are shown to support initial interpretations of the observations, where we focus on processes in the middle latitude afternoon sector during main phase, and the formation of a dense equatorial ionosphere during storm recovery. The combined measurements strongly suggest that the changes in ionospheric conditions observed after the main storm phase can be attributed in large part to changes in the stormtime thermosphere. This is through the generation of disturbance dynamo winds and also global neutral composition changes that either reduce or enhance plasma densities in a manner that depends mainly upon latitude. Unlike larger storms with possibly more sustained forcing, this storm exhibits minimal effects of persistent meridional stormtime wind drag, and little penetration of solar wind electric potentials to low latitudes. It is, therefore, an outstanding example of an impulsive event that exhibits longer-term effects through modification of the background atmosphere.

  4. Influence of Al/CuO reactive multilayer films additives on exploding foil initiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiang; Shen, Ruiqi; Ye, Yinghua; Zhu, Peng; Hu, Yan; Wu, Lizhi

    2011-11-01

    An investigation on the influence of Al/CuO reactive multilayer films (RMFs) additives on exploding foil initiator was performed in this paper. Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs were produced by using standard microsystem technology and RF magnetron sputtering technology, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy characterization revealed the distinct layer structure of the as-deposited Al/CuO RMFs. Differential scanning calorimetry was employed to ascertain the amount of heat released in the thermite reaction between Al films and CuO films, which was found to be 2024 J/g. Electrical explosion tests showed that 600 V was the most matching voltage for our set of apparatus. The explosion process of two types of films was observed by high speed camera and revealed that compared with Cu film, an extra distinct combustion phenomenon was detected with large numbers of product particles fiercely ejected to a distance of about six millimeters for Cu/Al/CuO RMFs. By using the atomic emission spectroscopy double line technique, the reaction temperature was determined to be about 6000-7000 K and 8000-9000 K for Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs, respectively. The piezoelectricity of polyvinylidene fluoride film was employed to measure the average velocity of the slapper accelerated by the explosion of the films. The average velocities of the slappers were calculated to be 381 m/s and 326 m/s for Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs, respectively, and some probable reasons were discussed with a few suggestions put forward for further work.

  5. Effect of alcohol addition on shock-initiated formation of soot from benzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenklach, Michael; Yuan, Tony

    1988-01-01

    Soot formation in benzene-methanol and benzene-ethanol argon-diluted mixtures was studied behind reflected shock waves by monitoring the attenuation of an He-Ne laser beam. The experiments were performed at temperatures 1580-2250 K, pressures 2.0-3.0 bar, and total carbon atom concentrations (2.0-2.7) x 10 to the 17th atoms/cu cm. The results obtained indicate that the addition of alcohol suppresses the formation of soot from benzene at all temperatures, and that the reduction in soot yields is increased with the amount of alcohol added. The analysis of the results indicates that the suppression effect is probably due to the oxidation of soot and soot precursors by OH and the removal of hydrogen atoms by alcohol and water molecules.

  6. Initial Satellite Formation Flight Results from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Ottenstein, Neil; Palmer, Eric; Farahmand, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the underlying dynamics of formation flying in a high-eccentricity orbit such as that of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. The GPS-based results used for MMS navigation is summarized, as well as the procedures that are used to design the maneuvers used to place the spacecraft into a tetrahedron formation and then maintain it. The details of how to carry out these maneuvers are then discussed. Finally, the numerical results that have been obtained concerning formation flying for the MMS mission to date (e.g. tetrahedron sizes flown, maneuver execution error, fuel usage, etc.) are presented in detail.

  7. Initial results from the MAVEN mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Brain, David A.

    2015-11-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) Mars orbiter has been gathering information on the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, and solar and solar wind interactions since its orbit insertion in September 2014. MAVEN's science goals are to understand processes driving the escape of atmospheric gases to space at the present epoch, and their variations with solar and local heliospheric conditions together with geographical and seasonal influences. This introduction and the accompanying articles provide a selection of key results obtained up to the time of writing, including measurements of the overall geometry and variability of the Martian magnetosphere, upper atmosphere, and ionosphere and their responses to interplanetary coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particle influxes. The ultimate goal is to use these results to determine the integrated loss to space through time and its role in overall Mars atmosphere evolution.

  8. Initial test results using the GEOS-3 engineering model altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayne, G. S.; Clary, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Data from a series of experimental tests run on the engineering model of the GEOS 3 radar altimeter using the Test and Measurement System (TAMS) designed for preflight testing of the radar altimeter are presented. These tests were conducted as a means of preparing and checking out a detailed test procedure to be used in running similar tests on the GEOS 3 protoflight model altimeter systems. The test procedures and results are also included.

  9. The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer mission - Overview and initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, B.; Bowyer, S.; Malina, R. F.

    1993-01-01

    The history of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy is briefly reviewed, and an overview of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer mission, launched into a near-earth (550 km) orbit on June 7, 1992, is presented. First, the principal objective of the mission are summarized. The instrumentation and operation of the mission are then described, with particular attention given to the sky survey instruments, the deep survey instrument, and the spectrometers. The discussion also covers the current view of the interstellar medium, early results from the mission, and future prospects for EUV astronomy.

  10. Initial diagnostics commissioning results for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.; Patterson, D.; Wang, X.

    1995-07-01

    Principal diagnostics systems have been installed and nearly all have been commissioned on the subsystems of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) facility. Data have been obtained on beam position, beam profile, current, beam loss rate, and synchrotron radiation monitors on both injector rings and most recently the main 7-GeV storage ring. Results for the 150- to 450-MeV electron beams in the accumulator ring, up to 7 GeV in the injector synchrotron, and 4.5 to 7 GeV in the SR will be presented.

  11. Volumetric imaging of the auroral ionosphere: Initial results from PFISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeter, Joshua; Butler, Thomas; Heinselman, Craig; Nicolls, Michael; Kelly, John; Hampton, Donald

    2009-05-01

    The Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) is the first dedicated ISR built with an electronically steerable array. This paper demonstrates the capabilities of PFISR for producing three-dimensional volumetric images of E-region ionization patterns produced by the aurora. The phase table was configured to cycle through 121 beam positions arranged in an 11×11 grid. A 13-baud Barker coded pulse was used, which provided ~1.5-km range resolution out to a maximum range of 250 km. Backscattered power was converted to electron density by correcting for path loss and applying the Buneman approximation assuming equal electron and ion temperatures. The results were then interpolated onto a three-dimensional cartesian grid. Volumetric images are presented at 5-min, 1-min, and 14.6-s integration times (corresponding to 960, 192, and 48 pulses-per-position, respectively) to illustrate the tradeoff between spatio-temporal resolution and data quality. At 14.6 s cadence, variability in plasma density within the volume appears to be fully resolved in space and time, a result that is supported by both observational evidence and theoretical predictions of ionospheric response times. Some potential applications of this mode for studying magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions in the auroral zone are discussed.

  12. First results from the Permafrost Research Priorities initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantuit, Hugues; Michel, Allard; Mauro, Guglielmin; Margareta, Johansson; Gleb, Kraev; Michael, Krautblatter; Gerhard, Krinner; Schuur Edward, A., G.; Ylva, Sjöberg; Jenny, Baeseman; Karina, Schollän

    2015-04-01

    At present, no consensus document ("white paper" or "strategy") exists at the international level to identify forward-looking priorities in permafrost research. CliC has partnered with the International Permafrost Association (IPA) to seize the opportunity offered by the upcoming International Conference on Arctic Research Planning III (ICARP III) and the SCAR Horizon Scan to frame a consultative process that will result in the formulation of such permafrost priorities. Provisionally entitled "Permafrost Research Priorities: A Roadmap for the Future", it will focus on all permafrost regions, from the Arctic to the Antarctic and mountain permafrost around the globe in order to accurately represent the level of overlap in scientific challenges in all three domains. The product stemming from the effort will consist of a high level, but short publication (ca. 2-3 pages) in a high-profile journal listing and putting into context permafrost research priorities. The document aims to become the benchmark against which permafrost research should be gauged starting in 2015. Here we present the first results stemming from this effort and outline avenues for answering the research questions outlined in the effort.

  13. RNA polymerase pausing regulates translation initiation by providing additional time for TRAP-RNA interaction.

    PubMed

    Yakhnin, Alexander V; Yakhnin, Helen; Babitzke, Paul

    2006-11-17

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) pause sites have been identified in several prokaryotic genes. Although the presumed biological function of RNAP pausing is to allow synchronization of RNAP position with regulatory factor binding and/or RNA folding, a direct causal link between pausing and changes in gene expression has been difficult to establish. RNAP pauses at two sites in the Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon leader. Pausing at U107 and U144 participates in transcription attenuation and trpE translation control mechanisms, respectively. Substitution of U144 caused a substantial pausing defect in vitro and in vivo. These mutations led to increased trp operon expression that was suppressed by overproduction of TRAP, indicating that pausing at U144 provides additional time for TRAP to bind to the nascent transcript and promote formation of an RNA structure that blocks translation of trpE. These results establish that pausing is capable of playing a role in regulating translation in bacteria. PMID:17114058

  14. Weather Forecasting for Ka-band Operations: Initial Study Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D.; Wu, L.; Slobin, S.

    2016-08-01

    As lower frequency bands (e.g., 2.3 GHz and 8.4 GHz) have become oversubscribed during the past several decades, NASA has become interested in using higher frequency bands (e.g., 26 GHz and 32 GHz) for telemetry, thus making use of the available wider bandwidth. However, these bands are more susceptible to atmospheric degradation. Currently, flight projects tend to be conservative in preparing their communications links by using worst-case or conservative assumptions. Such assumptions result in nonoptimum data return. We explore the use of weather forecasting for Goldstone and Madrid for different weather condition scenarios to determine more optimal values of atmospheric attenuation and atmospheric noise temperature for use in telecommunication link design. We find that the use of weather forecasting can provide up to 2 dB or more of increased data return when more favorable conditions are forecast. Future plans involve further developing the technique for operational scenarios with interested flight projects.

  15. Initial flight results of the TRMM Kalman filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Stephen F.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.

    1998-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft is a nadir pointing spacecraft that nominally controls attitude based on the Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA) output. After a potential single point failure in the ESA was identified, the contingency attitude determination method chosen to backup the ESA-based system was a sixth-order extended Kalman filter that uses magnetometer and digital sun sensor measurements. A brief description of the TRMM Kalman filter will be given, including some implementation issues and algorithm heritage. Operational aspects of the Kalman filter and some failure detection and correction will be described. The Kalman filter was tested in a sun pointing attitude and in a nadir pointing attitude during the in-orbit checkout period, and results from those tests will be presented. This paper will describe some lessons learned from the experience of the TRMM team.

  16. Initial Flight Results of the TRMM Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Stephen F.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.

    1998-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft is a nadir pointing spacecraft that nominally controls attitude based on the Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA) output. After a potential single point failure in the ESA was identified, the contingency attitude determination method chosen to backup the ESA-based system was a sixth-order extended Kalman filter that uses magnetometer and digital sun sensor measurements. A brief description of the TRMM Kalman filter will be given, including some implementation issues and algorithm heritage. Operational aspects of the Kalman filter and some failure detection and correction will be described. The Kalman filter was tested in a sun pointing attitude and in a nadir pointing attitude during the in-orbit checkout period, and results from those tests will be presented. This paper will describe some lessons learned from the experience of the TRMM team.

  17. GPS interferometric attitude and heading determination: Initial flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangraas, Frank; Braasch, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Attitude and heading determination using GPS interferometry is a well-understood concept. However, efforts have been concentrated mainly in the development of robust algorithms and applications for low dynamic, rigid platforms (e.g., shipboard). This paper presents results of what is believed by the authors to be the first realtime flight test of a GPS attitude and heading determination system. The system is installed in Ohio University's Douglas DC-3 research aircraft. Signals from four antennas are processed by an Ashtech 3DF 24-channel GPS receiver. Data from the receiver are sent to a microcomputer for storage and further computations. Attitude and heading data are sent to a second computer for display on a software generated artificial horizon. Demonstration of this technique proves its candidacy for augmentation of aircraft state estimation for flight control and navigation as well as for numerous other applications.

  18. GPS interferometric attitude and heading determination - Initial flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Graas, Frank; Braasch, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Attitude and heading determination using GPS interferometry is a well-understood concept. However, efforts have been concentrated mainly in the development of robust algorithms and applications for low-dynamic, rigid platforms (e.g., shipboard). This paper presents results of what is believed to be the first real-time flight test of a GPS attitude and heading determination system. Signals from four antennas are processed by a 24-channel GPS receiver. Data from the receiver are sent to a microcomputer for storage and further computations. Attitude and heading data are sent to a second computer for display on a software-generated artificial horizon. Demonstration of this technique proves its candidacy for augmentation of aircraft state estimation for flight control and navigation, as well as for numerous other applications.

  19. Silicon microchannel plates: initial results for photon counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, Oswald H.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Vallerga, John V.; Beetz, Charles P.; Boerstler, Robert W.; Winn, D. R.

    2000-12-01

    The emergence of Silicon based microchannel plates (MCP's) has been awaited for a number of years, with many proposed advantages over standard glass MCPs for space-based detectors. Si should have a very low inherent background (< 0.01 events sec-1 cm-2), as well as being a low Z element with low stopping power for x, gamma and cosmic rays. The surface is oxidized and can be baked to very high temperatures (> 800 degrees Celsius), and will not react with photocathodes deposited on the surface. This could potentially allow opaque photocathodes, with their higher resolution and efficiency, to be used in the near UV/optical bands. Since the microchannel positions are determined photolithographically, the pattern will be uniform and coherent, resulting in more uniform flat fields and less differential non-linearity in the spatial response. Microchannel spacing could decrease to the micron regime, while size formats could increase. The potential advantages of Si MCPs encompass increased gain, stability, longevity, event rate, and QE. However, glass MCPs have a strong and successful heritage in space-based detector systems and the advantages of Si MCP's must be demonstrated in the laboratory before being considered for flight applications. We have tested some newly developed silicon (Si) MCP's provided by Nanosciences Corp. Although these are still in the developmental stage we have achieved a number of significant results. The gain, pulse height, response and gain uniformity, and quantum detection efficiency are very similar to glass MCP's. However the Si MCP background is approximately 0.02 events sec-1 cm-2 without shielding, a significant improvement over even low noise MCP's. The small samples we have tested are 25 mm format with 8 micrometer pore spacing, but they are taken from a 75 mm substrate, which offers the possibility of large MCP's in the near future. More testing and process development are underway to probe other operational parameters and optimize the

  20. Initial results on ionosphere sounding based on GOLPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, V.; Soria, F.; de Haro, B.

    After SAC-C has been successfully launched on 16 November 2000, the GPS flight receiver tracks up to 8 satellites simultaneously for precision orbit determination by GPS O ccultation and Passive Reflection Experiment (GOLPE) . Since these navigation data are measured with a sampling rate of 10s, the dual frequency GPS signals provide valuable information on the ionisation state of the topside ionosphere. Combining differential carrier and code phases, absolute values of the total electron content (TEC) along the numerous radio links are estimated after calibrating the instrumental biases of each SAC-C receiver - GPS transmitter combination in a separate way. The calibration is carried out by applying a model assisted technique under nighttime ionospheric conditions that promises a low ionization level and therefore small calibration errors. The calibrated TEC data derived for a full SAC-C revolution are then assimilated into the Parameterized Ionospheric Model (PIM). The assimilation technique and preliminary results that provide a 2D-reconstruction of the ionosphere electron density in the SAC-C orbit plane from the SAC -C altitude up to GPS orbit heights will be discussed. First order validation checks will be presented using electron density in situ measurements by the Digisonde 256 of Tucumán for selected coincidence cases.

  1. Initial Results from the MAVEN IUVS Echelle Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, John T.; Mayassi, Majd; McClintock, William; Schneider, Nick; Deighan, Justin; Stewart, Ian; Holsclaw, Greg; Jakosky, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    The study of the evolution of water on Mars includes understanding the high D/ H ratio in the atmosphere and surface water today, believed to be linked to the historic loss of a large volume of primordial water (the lighter H escapes faster than the heavier D). Toward this end, the IUVS instrument on MAVEN contains the first echelle spectrograph to be sent to another planet. The system has a novel optical design to enable long-aperture measurements of emission lines in the absence of continuum, intended primarily to measure the H and D Ly α emission lines and thereby the D/H ratio from the martian upper atmosphere. The system also detects the OI 1304 triplet with the three component lines well resolved. The specific scientific goal of the echelle channel is to measure the H and D Ly α emissions, and to discover how the H and D densities, temperatures, and escape fluxes vary with location, season, topography, etc. Recent IR observations indicate large variations in the D/H ratio in the lower atmosphere from location to location, and possibly seasonal changes [Villanueva et al. 2015]. HST and MEX measurements of the H corona of Mars show large (order of magnitude) changes in the H exosphere and escape flux with changing seasons and/or heliospheric distance [Clarke et al. 2014 Chaffin et al. 2014]. Early results from the echelle channel regarding how these parameters apply to martian deuterium will be presented.

  2. Initial Results from the ASTRAL Helicon Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, Robert

    2003-10-01

    The Auburn Steady sTate Research fAciLity (ASTRAL) is 2 m long Helicon source designed to investigate basic plasma and space plasma processes. The device produces a plasma with the following parameters: ne = 10^10 to 10^13 cm-3, Te = 2 to 20 eV and Ti = 0.03 to 0.1 eV. A series of large coils produce an axial magnetic field up to 1.2 kGauss. Operating pressure varies from 0.1 to 100 mTorr and any gas can be used for the discharge. A fractional helix antenna is used to introduce up to 2 kWatt of RF power into the plasma through a matching pi circuit. A number of diagnostics are presently installed on the plasma device. A RF compensated Langmuir probe is used to measure electron temperature and plasma density. A 0.33 m Criss-Cross Scanning monochromator with a high performance CCD camera is used to measure impurity concentration and to develop novel spectroscopy diagnostic. A diode laser based Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) is used to obtain ion temperature and ion drift in the plasma column. A microwave interferometer is also used to calibrate the Langmuir probe. First experimental results associated with this new facility are presented.

  3. Breast vibro-acoustography: initial results show promise

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Vibro-acoustography (VA) is a recently developed imaging modality that is sensitive to the dynamic characteristics of tissue. It detects low-frequency harmonic vibrations in tissue that are induced by the radiation force of ultrasound. Here, we have investigated applications of VA for in vivo breast imaging. Methods A recently developed combined mammography-VA system for in vivo breast imaging was tested on female volunteers, aged 25 years or older, with suspected breast lesions on their clinical examination. After mammography, a set of VA scans was acquired by the experimental device. In a masked assessment, VA images were evaluated independently by 3 reviewers who identified mass lesions and calcifications. The diagnostic accuracy of this imaging method was determined by comparing the reviewers' responses with clinical data. Results We collected images from 57 participants: 7 were used for training and 48 for evaluation of diagnostic accuracy (images from 2 participants were excluded because of unexpected imaging artifacts). In total, 16 malignant and 32 benign lesions were examined. Specificity for diagnostic accuracy was 94% or higher for all 3 reviewers, but sensitivity varied (69% to 100%). All reviewers were able to detect 97% of masses, but sensitivity for detection of calcification was lower (≤ 72% for all reviewers). Conclusions VA can be used to detect various breast abnormalities, including calcifications and benign and malignant masses, with relatively high specificity. VA technology may lead to a new clinical tool for breast imaging applications. PMID:23021305

  4. Interventional C-arm tomosynthesis for vascular imaging: initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langan, David A.; Claus, Bernhard E. H.; Al Assad, Omar; Trousset, Yves; Riddell, Cyril; Avignon, Gregoire; Solomon, Stephen B.; Lai, Hao; Wang, Xin

    2015-03-01

    As percutaneous endovascular procedures address more complex and broader disease states, there is an increasing need for intra-procedure 3D vascular imaging. In this paper, we investigate C-Arm 2-axis tomosynthesis ("Tomo") as an alternative to C-Arm Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) for workflow situations in which the CBCT acquisition may be inconvenient or prohibited. We report on our experience in performing tomosynthesis acquisitions with a digital angiographic imaging system (GE Healthcare Innova 4100 Angiographic Imaging System, Milwaukee, WI). During a tomo acquisition the detector and tube each orbit on a plane above and below the table respectively. The tomo orbit may be circular or elliptical, and the tomographic half-angle in our studies varied from approximately 16 to 28 degrees as a function of orbit period. The trajectory, geometric calibration, and gantry performance are presented. We overview a multi-resolution iterative reconstruction employing compressed sensing techniques to mitigate artifacts associated with incomplete data reconstructions. In this work, we focus on the reconstruction of small high contrast objects such as iodinated vasculature and interventional devices. We evaluate the overall performance of the acquisition and reconstruction through phantom acquisitions and a swine study. Both tomo and comparable CBCT acquisitions were performed during the swine study thereby enabling the use of CBCT as a reference in the evaluation of tomo vascular imaging. We close with a discussion of potential clinical applications for tomo, reflecting on the imaging and workflow results achieved.

  5. A prototype tap test imaging system: Initial field test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, J. J.; Barnard, D. J.; Hudelson, N. A.; Simpson, T. S.; Hsu, D. K.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a simple, field-worthy tap test imaging system that gives quantitative information about the size, shape, and severity of defects and damages. The system consists of an accelerometer, electronic circuits for conditioning the signal and measuring the impact duration, a laptop PC and data acquisition and processing software. The images are generated manually by tapping on a grid printed on a plastic sheet laid over the part's surface. A mechanized scanner is currently under development. The prototype has produced images for a variety of aircraft composite and metal honeycomb structures containing flaws, damages, and repairs. Images of the local contact stiffness, deduced from the impact duration using a spring model, revealed quantitatively the stiffness reduction due to flaws and damages, as well as the stiffness enhancement due to substructures. The system has been field tested on commercial and military aircraft as well as rotor blades and engine decks on helicopters. Field test results will be shown and the operation of the system will be demonstrated.—This material is based upon work supported by the Federal Aviation Administration under Contract #DTFA03-98-D-00008, Delivery Order No. IA016 and performed at Iowa State University's Center for NDE as part of the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability program.

  6. A Digital Preclinical PET/MRI Insert and Initial Results.

    PubMed

    Weissler, Bjoern; Gebhardt, Pierre; Dueppenbecker, Peter M; Wehner, Jakob; Schug, David; Lerche, Christoph W; Goldschmidt, Benjamin; Salomon, Andre; Verel, Iris; Heijman, Edwin; Perkuhn, Michael; Heberling, Dirk; Botnar, Rene M; Kiessling, Fabian; Schulz, Volkmar

    2015-11-01

    Combining Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results in a promising hybrid molecular imaging modality as it unifies the high sensitivity of PET for molecular and cellular processes with the functional and anatomical information from MRI. Digital Silicon Photomultipliers (dSiPMs) are the digital evolution in scintillation light detector technology and promise high PET SNR. DSiPMs from Philips Digital Photon Counting (PDPC) were used to develop a preclinical PET/RF gantry with 1-mm scintillation crystal pitch as an insert for clinical MRI scanners. With three exchangeable RF coils, the hybrid field of view has a maximum size of 160 mm × 96.6 mm (transaxial × axial). 0.1 ppm volume-root-mean-square B 0-homogeneity is kept within a spherical diameter of 96 mm (automatic volume shimming). Depending on the coil, MRI SNR is decreased by 13% or 5% by the PET system. PET count rates, energy resolution of 12.6% FWHM, and spatial resolution of 0.73 mm (3) (isometric volume resolution at isocenter) are not affected by applied MRI sequences. PET time resolution of 565 ps (FWHM) degraded by 6 ps during an EPI sequence. Timing-optimized settings yielded 260 ps time resolution. PET and MR images of a hot-rod phantom show no visible differences when the other modality was in operation and both resolve 0.8-mm rods. Versatility of the insert is shown by successfully combining multi-nuclei MRI ((1)H/(19)F) with simultaneously measured PET ((18)F-FDG). A longitudinal study of a tumor-bearing mouse verifies the operability, stability, and in vivo capabilities of the system. Cardiac- and respiratory-gated PET/MRI motion-capturing (CINE) images of the mouse heart demonstrate the advantage of simultaneous acquisition for temporal and spatial image registration. PMID:25935031

  7. Kepler AutoRegressive Planet Search: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caceres, Gabriel; Feigelson, Eric; Jogesh Babu, G.; Bahamonde, Natalia; Bertin, Karine; Christen, Alejandra; Curé, Michel; Meza, Cristian

    2015-08-01

    The statistical analysis procedures of the Kepler AutoRegressive Planet Search (KARPS) project are applied to a portion of the publicly available Kepler light curve data for the full 4-year mission duration. Tests of the methods have been made on a subset of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI) systems, classified both as planetary `candidates' and `false positives' by the Kepler Team, as well as a random sample of unclassified systems. We find that the ARMA-type modeling successfully reduces the stellar variability, by a factor of 10 or more in active stars and by smaller factors in more quiescent stars. A typical quiescent Kepler star has an interquartile range (IQR) of ~10 e-/sec, which may improve slightly after modeling, while those with IQR ranging from 20 to 50 e-/sec, have improvements from 20% up to 70%. High activity stars (IQR exceeding 100) markedly improve, but visual inspection of the residual series shows that significant deviations from Gaussianity remain for many of them. Although the reduction in stellar signal is encouraging, it is important to note that the transit signal is also altered in the resulting residual time series. The periodogram derived from our Transit Comb Filter (TCF) is most effective for shorter period planets with quick ingress/egress times (relative to Kepler's 29-minute sample rate). We do not expect high sensitivity to periods of hundreds of days. Our findings to date on real-data tests of the KARPS methodology will be discussed including confirmation of some Kepler Team `candidate' planets, no confirmation of some `candidate' and `false positive' sytems, and suggestions of mischosen harmonics in the Kepler Team periodograms. We also present cases of new possible planetary signals.

  8. Earthquake Source Inversion Blindtest: Initial Results and Further Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, P.; Burjanek, J.; Delouis, B.; Festa, G.; Francois-Holden, C.; Monelli, D.; Uchide, T.; Zahradnik, J.

    2007-12-01

    Images of earthquake ruptures, obtained from modelling/inverting seismic and/or geodetic data exhibit a high degree in spatial complexity. This earthquake source heterogeneity controls seismic radiation, and is determined by the details of the dynamic rupture process. In turn, such rupture models are used for studying source dynamics and for ground-motion prediction. But how reliable and trustworthy are these earthquake source inversions? Rupture models for a given earthquake, obtained by different research teams, often display striking disparities (see http://www.seismo.ethz.ch/srcmod) However, well resolved, robust, and hence reliable source-rupture models are an integral part to better understand earthquake source physics and to improve seismic hazard assessment. Therefore it is timely to conduct a large-scale validation exercise for comparing the methods, parameterization and data-handling in earthquake source inversions.We recently started a blind test in which several research groups derive a kinematic rupture model from synthetic seismograms calculated for an input model unknown to the source modelers. The first results, for an input rupture model with heterogeneous slip but constant rise time and rupture velocity, reveal large differences between the input and inverted model in some cases, while a few studies achieve high correlation between the input and inferred model. Here we report on the statistical assessment of the set of inverted rupture models to quantitatively investigate their degree of (dis-)similarity. We briefly discuss the different inversion approaches, their possible strength and weaknesses, and the use of appropriate misfit criteria. Finally we present new blind-test models, with increasing source complexity and ambient noise on the synthetics. The goal is to attract a large group of source modelers to join this source-inversion blindtest in order to conduct a large-scale validation exercise to rigorously asses the performance and

  9. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  10. Ash deposits - Initiating the change from empiricism to generic engineering. Part 2: Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Wessel, R.A.; Wagoner, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The goal is to develop and use calculations and measurements from several engineering disciplines that exceed the demonstrated limitations of present empirical techniques for predicting slagging/fouling behavior. In Part I of this paper, general relationships were presented for assessing effects of deposits and sootblowing on the real-time performance of heat transfer surfaces in pilot- and commercial-scale steam generators. In Part 2, these concepts are applied to the gas-side fouling of heat exchanger tubes. Deposition and heat transfer are calculated for superheater tubes in laboratory and utility furnaces. Numerical results for deposit thickness and heat flux are presented. Comparisons with data show agreement, demonstrating that the broad-base engineering approach is promising.

  11. A colorimetric detection of acrylamide in potato chips based on nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinqin; Fu, Yingchun; Xu, Xiahong; Qiao, Zhaohui; Wang, Ronghui; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanbin

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide (AA), a neurotoxin and a potential carcinogen, has been found in various thermally processed foods such as potato chips, biscuits, and coffee. Simple, cost-effective, and sensitive methods for the rapid detection of AA are needed to ensure food safety. Herein, a novel colorimetric method was proposed for the visual detection of AA based on a nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition reaction. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were aggregated by glutathione (GSH) because of a ligand-replacement, accompanied by a color change from red to purple. In the presence of AA, after the thiol-ene Michael addition reaction between GSH and AA with the catalysis of a nucleophile, the sulfhydryl group of GSH was consumed by AA, which hindered the subsequent ligand-replacement and the aggregation of AuNPs. Therefore, the concentration of AA could be determined by the visible color change caused by dispersion/aggregation of AuNPs. This new method showed high sensitivity with a linear range from 0.1 μmol L(-1) to 80 μmol L(-1) and a detection limit of 28.6 nmol L(-1), and especially revealed better selectivity than the fluorescence sensing method reported previously. Moreover, this new method was used to detect AA in potato chips with a satisfactory result in comparison with the standard methods based on chromatography, which indicated that the colorimetric method can be expanded for the rapid detection of AA in thermally processed foods. PMID:26699696

  12. 34 CFR 350.55 - What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for funding? 350.55 Section 350.55 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY...

  13. Instructions for additional qualitative scoring of the initial-letter Word-association Test.

    PubMed

    Zivković, M

    1994-04-01

    An additional scoring method is based on grouping test-words according to whether the same sign is given by subjects to the test-words. In this way five test-word categories are formed, Eros (test-words with double plus signs), demi-Eros (single plus sign), demi-Thanatos (single minus), Thanatos (double minus), and Deviant (+/- and theta signs). The next step in scoring is to count the number of test-words in a given scoring category whose meanings do not conform. The greater the discrepancy between the test-word category and its meaning, the less well adapted is the subject. Several illustrative protocols are discussed. PMID:8022674

  14. The Modern U.S. High School Astronomy Course, Its Status and Makeup II: Additional Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumenaker, Larry

    2009-01-01

    A postal survey of high school astronomy teachers strongly confirms many results of an earlier electronic survey. Additional and new results include a measure of the level of inquiry (more structured inquiry and teacher-led) in the classroom as well as data showing that more emphasis is given to traditional topics than to contemporary astronomy…

  15. [Results of Booster Vaccination in Children with Primary Vaccine Failure after Initial Varicella Vaccination].

    PubMed

    Ozakiv, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Gotoh, Kensei; Funahashi, Keiji; Yoshii, Hironori; Okuno, Yoshinobu

    2016-05-01

    In October 2014, the varicella vaccination policy in Japan was changed from a single voluntary inoculation to two routine inoculations. This paper reports the results of booster vaccination in children who did not show seroconversion after initial vaccination (i.e., primary vaccine failure : PVF) over a 7-year period prior to the introduction of routine varicella vaccination. Between November 2007 and May 2014, 273 healthy children aged between 1.1 and 14.5 years (median : 1.7 years) underwent varicella vaccination. Before and 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination, the antibody titers were measured using an immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) assay and a glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA). In addition, side reactions were examined during the four-week period after vaccination. Children who did not show IAHA seroconversion (PVF) were recommended to receive a booster vaccination, and the measurement of antibody titers and an assessment of side reactions were performed after the booster dose. In May 2015, a questionnaire was mailed to each of the 273 participants to investigate whether they had developed varicella and/or herpes zoster after vaccination. After initial vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 75% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 4.7, while the gpELISA seroconversion rate was 84% and the mean antibody titer (Log10) with seroconversion was 2.4. Among children with PVF, 54 received booster vaccination within 81 to 714 days (median : 139 days) after the initial vaccination. After booster vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 98% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 5.8. Both the seroconversion rate and the antibody titer were higher compared with the values after the initial vaccination (p < 0.01). After booster vaccination, the gpELISA seropositive rate was 100% and the mean positive antibody titer (Log 10) was 3.6 ; similar results were obtained for the IAHA assay, with

  16. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell

    PubMed Central

    Schüler, Torben; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Neidhardt, Alexander; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bernhart, Simone; la Porta, Laura; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1), the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW) is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate. PMID:26263991

  17. Results From the Data & Democracy Initiative to Enhance Community-Based Organization Data and Research Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Carroll-Scott, Amy; Toy, Peggy; Wyn, Roberta; Zane, Jazmin I.; Wallace, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. In an era of community-based participatory research and increased expectations for evidence-based practice, we evaluated an initiative designed to increase community-based organizations’ data and research capacity through a 3-day train-the-trainer course on community health assessments. Methods. We employed a mixed method pre–post course evaluation design. Various data sources collected from 171 participants captured individual and organizational characteristics and pre–post course self-efficacy on 19 core skills, as well as behavior change 1 year later among a subsample of participants. Results. Before the course, participants reported limited previous experience with data and low self-efficacy in basic research skills. Immediately after the course, participants demonstrated statistically significant increases in data and research self-efficacy. The subsample reported application of community assessment skills to their work and increased use of data 1 year later. Conclusions. Results suggest that an intensive, short-term training program can achieve large immediate gains in data and research self-efficacy in community-based organization staff. In addition, they demonstrate initial evidence of longer-term behavior change related to use of data and research skills to support their community work. PMID:22594748

  18. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell.

    PubMed

    Schüler, Torben; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Neidhardt, Alexander; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bernhart, Simone; la Porta, Laura; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1), the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW) is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate. PMID:26263991

  19. Formation pathways of DMSO(2) in the addition channel of the OH-initiated DMS oxidation: A theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Anguita, Juan M; González-Lafont, Angels; Lluch, José M

    2009-07-15

    The production of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethyl sulfone (DMSO(2)) in the dimethyl sulfide (DMS) degradation scheme initiated by the hydroxyl (OH) radical has been shown to be very sensitive to nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) levels. In the present work we have explored the potential energy surfaces corresponding to several reaction pathways which yield DMSO(2) from the CH(3)S(O)(OH)CH(3) adduct [including the formation of CH(3)S(O)(OH)CH(3) from the reaction of DMSO with OH] and the reaction channels that yield DMSO or/and DMSO(2) from the CH(3)S(O(2))(OH)CH(3) adduct are also studied. The formation of the CH(3)S(O(2))(OH)CH(3) adduct from CH(3)S(OH)CH(3) (DMS-OH) and O(2) was analyzed in our previous work. All these pathways due to the presence of NO(x) (NO and NO(2)) and also due to the reactions with O(2), OH and HO(2) are compared with the objective of inferring their kinetic relevance in the laboratory experiments that measure DMSO(2) (and DMSO) formation yields. In particular, our theoretical results clearly show the existence of NO(x)-dependent pathways leading to the formation of DMSO(2), which could explain some of these experimental results in comparison with experimental measurements carried out in NO(x)-free conditions. Our results indicate that the relative importance of the addition channel in the DMS oxidation process can be dependent on the NO(x) content of chamber experiments and of atmospheric conditions. PMID:19072765

  20. Space and surface power for the space exploration initiative: Results from project outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipbaugh, C.; Solomon, K.; Gonzales, D.; Juncosa, M.; Bauer, T.; Salter, R.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis and evaluations of the Space and Surface Power panel, one of eight panels created by RAND to screen and analyze submissions to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Outreach Program, is documented. In addition to managing and evaluating the responses, or submissions, to this public outreach program, RAND conducted its own analysis and evaluation relevent to SEI mission concepts, systems, and technologies. The Power panel screened and analyzed submissions for which a substantial portion of the concepts involved power generation sources, transmission, distribution, thermal management, and handling of power (including conditioning, conversion, packaging, and enhancements in system components). A background discussion of the areas the Power panel covered and the issues the reviewers considered pertinent to the analysis of power submissions are presented. An overview of each of the highest-ranked submissions and then a discussion of these submissions is presented. The results of the analysis is presented.

  1. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. This topical report presents the results from the Task 2 and Task 4 pilot-scale additive tests. The Task 3 and Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2006.

  2. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility...

  3. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility...

  4. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility...

  5. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility...

  6. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility...

  7. Additional results on space environmental effects on polymer matrix composites: Experiment A0180

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Additional experimental results on the atomic oxygen erosion of boron, Kevlar, and graphite fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composites are presented. Damage of composite laminates due to micrometeoroid/debris impacts is also examined with particular emphasis on the relationship between damage area and actual hole size due to particle penetration. Special attention is given to one micrometeoroid impact on an aluminum base plate which resulted in ejecta visible on an adjoining vertical flange structure.

  8. Self-initiated actions result in suppressed auditory but amplified visual evoked components in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Mifsud, Nathan G; Oestreich, Lena K L; Jack, Bradley N; Ford, Judith M; Roach, Brian J; Mathalon, Daniel H; Whitford, Thomas J

    2016-05-01

    Self-suppression refers to the phenomenon that sensations initiated by our own movements are typically less salient, and elicit an attenuated neural response, compared to sensations resulting from changes in the external world. Evidence for self-suppression is provided by previous ERP studies in the auditory modality, which have found that healthy participants typically exhibit a reduced auditory N1 component when auditory stimuli are self-initiated as opposed to externally initiated. However, the literature investigating self-suppression in the visual modality is sparse, with mixed findings and experimental protocols. An EEG study was conducted to expand our understanding of self-suppression across different sensory modalities. Healthy participants experienced either an auditory (tone) or visual (pattern-reversal) stimulus following a willed button press (self-initiated), a random interval (externally initiated, unpredictable onset), or a visual countdown (externally initiated, predictable onset-to match the intrinsic predictability of self-initiated stimuli), while EEG was continuously recorded. Reduced N1 amplitudes for self- versus externally initiated tones indicated that self-suppression occurred in the auditory domain. In contrast, the visual N145 component was amplified for self- versus externally initiated pattern reversals. Externally initiated conditions did not differ as a function of their predictability. These findings highlight a difference in sensory processing of self-initiated stimuli across modalities, and may have implications for clinical disorders that are ostensibly associated with abnormal self-suppression. PMID:26751981

  9. Initial Results from the 2002 Gulf of California Conjugate Margin Seismic Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, S.; Lizarralde, D.; Kent, G.; Harding, A.; Fletcher, J.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Umhoefer, P.; Axen, G.

    2003-04-01

    The Gulf of California, which marks the ongoing separation of Baja California from mainland Mexico, is one of the few locales where active continental breakup can be studied along unambiguous flow lines that join clear conjugate margin pairs. In Fall 2002, we conducted an onshore-offshore seismic experiment across the conjugate rifted margins of the Gulf of California in several rift segments. The joint U.S.-Mexico project, sponsored principally by the MARGINS program of the U.S. National Science Foundation, aimed to image crustal structure across conjugate margins of four major basins to determine the modes of extension and the influence of sedimentation and magmatism on breakup. Here we present an overview of the experiment, which was substantially altered at sea due to concerns for marine-mammal safety, and present some preliminary findings. Three flow-line transects were acquired, in the Alarcon Basin, the Guaymas Basin, and between Cabo and Tres Marias Islands. In addition, a fourth transect across the Baja Peninsula was acquired. Data acquired included (1) multichannel seismic reflection data using the R/V Ewing’s 20-gun array and 480-channel, 6-km-long streamer, (2) wide-angle reflection/refraction data recorded on ocean-bottom seismometers, from 206 deployments conducted by the R/V New Horizon, and (3) onshore-offshore data recorded on portable seismometers deployed up to 100 km inland on all transects. Initial results from the experiment include (1) clear evidence for asymmetric basement structure on the conjugate rifted margins and across the active mid-ocean spreading center, of the Guaymas Basin, (2) the suggestion of substantial magmatism in an early failed rift of the Alarcon Basin, and (3) active subduction beneath the margin at the Tres Marias islands. In addition, we will discuss new procedures for mitigating effects on marine mammals that may have a significant impact on future U.S.-sponsored seismic reflection activities.

  10. Initial Results from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Swenson, Charles; Thompson, Don; Barjatya, Aroh; Koontz, Steven L.; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason; Minow, Joseph; Craven, Paul; Coffey, Victoria; Parker, Linda; Bui, Them

    2007-01-01

    The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) is a multi-probe package designed to measure the floating potential of the 1nternational Space Station (ISS) as well as the density and temperature of the local ionospheric plasma environment. The role oj the FPMU is to provide direct measurements of ISS spacecraft charging as continuing construction leads to dramatic changes in ISS size and configuration. FPMU data are used for refinement and validation of the ISS spacecraft charging models used to evaluate the severity and frequency of occurrence of ISS charging hazards. The FPMU data and the models are also used to evaluate the effectiveness of proposed hazard controls. The FPMU consists of four probes: a floating potential probe, two Langmuir probes. and a plasma impedance probe. These probes measure the floating potential of the ISS, plasma density, and electron temperature. Redundant measurements using different probes support data validation by inter-probe comparisons. The FPMU was installed by ISS crewmembers, during an ExtraVehicular Activity, on the starboard (Sl) truss of the ISS in early August 2006, when the ISS incorporated only one 160V US photovoltaic (PV) array module. The first data campaign began a few hours after installation and continued for over five days. Additional data campaigns were completed in 2007 after a second 160V US PV array module was added to the ISS. This paper discusses the general performance characteristics of the FPMU as integrated on ISS, the functional performance of each probe, the charging behavior of the ISS before and after the addition of a second 160V US PV array module, and initial results from model comparisons.

  11. Dying Pulse Trains in Cygnus XR-1: Initial Results of X-Ray Searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, Joseph F.

    2003-01-01

    Dying pulse trains (DPT's) are a signature of a black hole as described by general relativity. Detecting DPT's would establish the existence of black holes by ruling out more exotic objects in systems in which a neutron star or white dwarf component has already been excluded by maximum mass arguments. The positive identification of a black hole would also be an additional test of general relativity. Two possible DPT's were detected in W photometry of Cygnus XR-1, the leading candidate for a stellar mass sized BH, in 3 hours of observational data. A search of X-ray photometry of Cygnus XR-1 from the Ross1 X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) has begun. No DPT's have been detected in the first 4 hours of data searched. Because of the low event rate detected in the W data, these initial results are consistent with such disparate scenarios as the rate of DPT occurrence being dependent on the luminosity state of the system; or being more difficult to detect in the X-ray region relative to the W region; or occurring at the same rate in the W and X-ray regions; or even not occurring at all from Cygnus XR-1. The search for DPT's in RXTE photometry is continuing.

  12. 75 FR 71072 - Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Pipe from Korea, 57 FR 49453 (November 2, 1992). On May 17, 2010, both TUNA and Lamina y Placa filed a...: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed- Circumstances Review, 71 FR 14679 (March 23, 2006... Strip from Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 57 FR 20460, 20462 (May...

  13. Additive effects of pollinators and herbivores result in both conflicting and reinforcing selection on floral traits.

    PubMed

    Sletvold, Nina; Moritz, Kim K; Agren, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Mutualists and antagonists are known to respond to similar floral cues, and may thus cause opposing selection on floral traits. However, we lack a quantitative understanding of their independent and interactive effects. In a population of the orchid Gymnadenia conopsea, we manipulated the intensity of pollination and herbivory in a factorial design to examine whether both interactions influence selection on flowering phenology, floral display, and morphology. Supplemental hand-pollination increased female fitness by 31% and one-quarter of all plants were damaged by herbivores. Both interactions contributed to selection. Pollinators mediated selection for later flowering and herbivores for earlier flowering, while both selected for longer spurs. The strength of selection was similar for both agents, and their effects were additive. As a consequence, there was no. net selection on phenology, whereas selection on spur length was strong. The experimental results demonstrate that both pollinators and herbivores can markedly influence the strength of selection on flowering phenology and floral morphology, and cause both conflicting and reinforcing selection. They also indicate that the direction of selection on phenology will vary with the relative intensity of the mutualistic and antagonistic interaction, potentially resulting in both temporal and among-population variation in optimal flowering time. PMID:26236906

  14. Quality initiatives: improving patient flow for a bone densitometry practice: results from a Mayo Clinic radiology quality initiative.

    PubMed

    Aakre, Kenneth T; Valley, Timothy B; O'Connor, Michael K

    2010-03-01

    Lean Six Sigma process improvement methodologies have been used in manufacturing for some time. However, Lean Six Sigma process improvement methodologies also are applicable to radiology as a way to identify opportunities for improvement in patient care delivery settings. A multidisciplinary team of physicians and staff conducted a 100-day quality improvement project with the guidance of a quality advisor. By using the framework of DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control), time studies were performed for all aspects of patient and technologist involvement. From these studies, value stream maps for the current state and for the future were developed, and tests of change were implemented. Comprehensive value stream maps showed that before implementation of process changes, an average time of 20.95 minutes was required for completion of a bone densitometry study. Two process changes (ie, tests of change) were undertaken. First, the location for completion of a patient assessment form was moved from inside the imaging room to the waiting area, enabling patients to complete the form while waiting for the technologist. Second, the patient was instructed to sit in a waiting area immediately outside the imaging rooms, rather than in the main reception area, which is far removed from the imaging area. Realignment of these process steps, with reduced technologist travel distances, resulted in a 3-minute average decrease in the patient cycle time. This represented a 15% reduction in the initial patient cycle time with no change in staff or costs. Radiology process improvement projects can yield positive results despite small incremental changes. PMID:20067999

  15. Initial results from the ICDP SCOPSCO drilling project, Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, A.; Wagner, B.; Krastel, S.; Lindhorst, K.; Wilke, T.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Grazhdani, A.; Reicherter, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    a glacial/interglacial timescale and also short-term events such as Dansgaard-Oescher cycles during the last glacial period can be inferred from the initial data. Although a high amount of greigite complicates the paleomagnetic dating of the recovered sediments, a robust age model can likely be inferred from numerous tephras and cryptotephras, which are indicated by spikes in the magnetic susceptibility data. Three additional sites at lateral parts of Lake Ohrid were drilled to un-ravel lake level fluctuations, catchment dynamics, biodiversity and evolution processes ('Cerava', deepest drilled depth: 90 m), active tectonics and spring dynamics ('Gradiste', deepest drilled depth: 123 m), and the early development of the Ohrid Basin ('Pestani', deepest drilled depth: 194 m). The composite field recovery is >90% at each site. The initial results obtained from the field campaign indicate that Lake Ohrid provides an extraordinary record of environmental change in the northern Mediterranean and will become a key site for a better understanding of speciation triggers.

  16. Non-Shock Initiation of the Plastic Bonded Explosive PBXN-5: Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappo, K. N.; Todd, S. N.; Anderson, M. U.; Vogler, T. J.

    2007-12-01

    The plastic bonded explosive PBXN-5 was studied under impulsive loading experiments to relate impact-induced mechanical damage to the onset of, and the extent of reaction produced. A small diameter projectile generated shock and release conditions at the impact interface, on the microsecond time scale during the initial portion of the impulsive loading. These shock and release wave interactions generate significant damage, resulting in a porous, powder compaction-type initiation behavior. Experimental measurements show an energy threshold for initiation of reaction which relates to impact-induced kinetic energy. These results are implemented in the model development and validation phases of the damage-induced reaction (DMGIR) model, which is used to simulate impact scenarios of explosives, explosive components, and explosive systems.

  17. Aircraft-Produced Ice Particles (APIPs): Additional Results and Further Insights.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, William L.; Gordon, Glenn; Henderson, Thomas J.; Vonnegut, Bernard; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Detwiler, Andrew

    2003-05-01

    APIPs, when they are created, appear in aircraft wakes in concentrations up to several hundred per liter, which are initially very small and almost uniform in size but grow to larger nearly uniform sizes with time. APIPs production is most likely at low ambient temperatures when an aircraft is flown at maximum power with the gear and flaps extended, resulting in a relatively low airspeed under high-drag conditions. It is predicted that APIPs production of an aircraft can be decreased or eliminated altogether by using a propeller with a larger number of propeller blades, such that the engine thrust is distributed over more blades, thereby decreasing the cooling on each blade. Plans to test this hypothesis using three- and four-bladed King Airs as the test aircraft never came to fruition because of unsatisfactory weather conditions. It is likely that APIPs have confounded the results of some past cloud microphysical investigations, especially those in which repeat passes were made through individual clouds under heavy icing conditions by aircraft known now to be APIPs producers. Aircraft flying under such conditions are forced to use high power settings to overcome the drag of a heavy ice load. These are the conditions that field tests demonstrate are most conducive to the production of APIPs. In these situations, APIPs may have led investigators to conclude that there was more rapid development of ice, and higher concentrations of ice particles in clouds, than actually was the case.

  18. The Palomar-Quest Digital Synoptic Sky Survey: Summary and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djorgovski, Stanislav G.; Baltay, C.; Mahabal, A.; Rabinowitz, D.; Drake, A.; Donalek, C.; Glikman, E.; Graham, M.; Williams, R.; Ellman, N.; Scalzo, R.; Bauer, A.; Nugent, P.; PQ Survey Team

    2009-05-01

    The Palomar-Quest (PQ) digital synoptic sky survey was conducted over a period of 5 years, ending in September 2008. The survey is a joint venture between groups at Yale and Caltech, with collaborating groups world-wide. The data were obtained using the Palomar 48-inch Samuel Oschin telescope and QUEST-2 112 CCD camera, with up to 4 distinct filters (Johnson UBRI or Gunn griz systems). Data were taken in the drift scan mode, in 4.6 deg wide strips of a constant declination, typically with 2 passes per night. The survey covered a total area of 15,500 deg2, with up to several tens of passes per location, and with the time baselines ranging from minutes to years. About 15 TB or raw data were collected in the course of about 550 nights (including non-photometric conditions). In addition, a somewhat larger amount of data over a larger number of nights have been taken in the point-and-stare mode, in a single broad-band red filter. The data have been processed using independent pipelines at Yale, Caltech, and LBNL. The survey was fully VO-compliant, and served as a testbed for development of a number of VO-related standards and technologies. All of the data are now in the process of being reprocessed and recalibrated, and will be made fully publicly available. Given the synoptic nature of the survey, most of the initial scientific studies involve exploration of various time-domain phenomena, such as Supernovae, variability of AGN, and high-amplitude variable stars. We have also conducted searches for high-redshift quasars, gravitational lenses, and other projects. We will describe some of the results to date.

  19. Initial results from NuSTAR observations of the Norma Arm

    SciTech Connect

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Krivonos, Roman; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Stern, Daniel; Bauer, Franz E.; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Christensen, Finn E.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Zhang, William W.

    2014-08-10

    Results are presented for an initial survey of the Norma Arm gathered with the focusing hard X-Ray Telescope NuSTAR. The survey covers 0.2 deg{sup 2} of sky area in the 3-79 keV range with a minimum and maximum raw depth of 15 ks and 135 ks, respectively. Besides a bright black-hole X-ray binary in outburst (4U 1630–47) and a new X-ray transient (NuSTAR J163433–473841), NuSTAR locates three sources from the Chandra survey of this region whose spectra are extended above 10 keV for the first time: CXOU J163329.5–473332, CXOU J163350.9–474638, and CXOU J163355.1–473804. Imaging, timing, and spectral data from a broad X-ray range (0.3-79 keV) are analyzed and interpreted with the aim of classifying these objects. CXOU J163329.5–473332 is either a cataclysmic variable or a faint low-mass X-ray binary. CXOU J163350.9–474638 varies in intensity on year-long timescales, and with no multi-wavelength counterpart, it could be a distant X-ray binary or possibly a magnetar. CXOU J163355.1–473804 features a helium-like iron line at 6.7 keV and is classified as a nearby cataclysmic variable. Additional surveys are planned for the Norma Arm and Galactic Center, and those NuSTAR observations will benefit from the lessons learned during this pilot study.

  20. Initial Results of 3D Topographic Mapping Using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Stereo Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Oberst, J.; McEwen, A. S.; Archinal, B. A.; Beyer, R. A.; Thomas, P. C.; Chen, Y.; Hwangbo, J.; Lawver, J. D.; Scholten, F.; Mattson, S. S.; Howington-Kraus, A. E.; Robinson, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), launched June 18, 2009, carries the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) as one of seven remote sensing instruments on board. The camera system is equipped with a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and two Narrow Angle Cameras (NAC) for systematic lunar surface mapping and detailed site characterization for potential landing site selection and resource identification. The LROC WAC is a pushframe camera with five 14-line by 704-sample framelets for visible light bands and two 16-line by 512-sample (summed 4x to 4 by 128) UV bands. The WAC can also acquire monochrome images with a 14-line by 1024-sample format. At the nominal 50-km orbit the visible bands ground scale is 75-m/pixel and the UV 383-m/pixel. Overlapping WAC images from adjacent orbits can be used to map topography at a scale of a few hundred meters. The two panchromatic NAC cameras are pushbroom imaging sensors each with a Cassegrain telescope of a 700-mm focal length. The two NAC cameras are aligned with a small overlap in the cross-track direction so that they cover a 5-km swath with a combined field-of-view (FOV) of 5.6°. At an altitude of 50-km, the NAC can provide panchromatic images from its 5,000-pixel linear CCD at a ground scale of 0.5-m/pixel. Calibration of the cameras was performed by using precision collimator measurements to determine the camera principal points and radial lens distortion. The orientation of the two NAC cameras is estimated by a boresight calibration using double and triple overlapping NAC images of the lunar surface. The resulting calibration results are incorporated into a photogrammetric bundle adjustment (BA), which models the LROC camera imaging geometry, in order to refine the exterior orientation (EO) parameters initially retrieved from the SPICE kernels. Consequently, the improved EO parameters can significantly enhance the quality of topographic products derived from LROC NAC imagery. In addition, an analysis of the spacecraft

  1. Two- and Three-Year Achievement Results from the Memphis Restructuring Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Sanders, William L.; Wright, S. Paul; Stringfield, Sam; Wang, L. Weiping; Alberg, Marty

    2001-01-01

    Presents the results of a study of student achievement, using a value-added testing technique, after 3 years of Memphis Restructuring Initiative. Findings show positive achievement gains in reform schools compared to demographically similar control schools, though strength of gains varied by type of reform and community poverty levels. (Contains…

  2. Initial Laboratory-Scale Melter Test Results for Combined Fission Product Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Buchmiller, William C.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the methods and results used to vitrify a baseline glass, CSLNTM-C-2.5 in support of the AFCI (Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative) using a Quartz Crucible Scale Melter at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Document number AFCI-WAST-PMO-MI-DV-2009-000184.

  3. Building a taxonomy of integrated palliative care initiatives: results from a focus group

    PubMed Central

    Ewert, Benjamin; Hodiamont, Farina; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen; Payne, Sheila; Groot, Marieke; Hasselaar, Jeroen; Menten, Johann; Radbruch, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Background Empirical evidence suggests that integrated palliative care (IPC) increases the quality of care for palliative patients and supports professional caregivers. Existing IPC initiatives in Europe vary in their design and are hardly comparable. InSuP-C, a European Union research project, aimed to build a taxonomy of IPC initiatives applicable across diseases, healthcare sectors and systems. Methods The taxonomy of IPC initiatives was developed in cooperation with an international and multidisciplinary focus group of 18 experts. Subsequently, a consensus meeting of 10 experts revised a preliminary taxonomy and adopted the final classification system. Results Consisting of eight categories, with two to four items each, the taxonomy covers the process and structure of IPC initiatives. If two items in at least one category apply to an initiative, a minimum level of integration is assumed to have been reached. Categories range from the type of initiative (items: pathway, model or guideline) to patients’ key contact (items: non-pc specialist, pc specialist, general practitioner). Experts recommended the inclusion of two new categories: level of care (items: primary, secondary or tertiary) indicating at which stage palliative care is integrated and primary focus of intervention describing IPC givers’ different roles (items: treating function, advising/consulting or training) in the care process. Conclusions Empirical studies are required to investigate how the taxonomy is used in practice and whether it covers the reality of patients in need of palliative care. The InSuP-C project will test this taxonomy empirically in selected initiatives using IPC. PMID:26647043

  4. Automated Analysis of the Digitized Second Palomar Sky Survey: System Design, Implementation, and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, Nicholas

    1995-01-01

    We describe the design, implementation, and initial scientific results of a system for analyzing the Digitized Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (DPOSS). The system (SKICAT) facilitates and largely automates the pipeline processing of DPOSS from raw pixel data into calibrated, classified object catalog form. A fundamental constraint limiting the scientific usefulness of optical imaging surveys is the level at which objects may be reliably distinguished as stars, galaxies, or artifacts. The classifier implemented within SKICAT was created using a new machine learning technology, whereby an algorithm determines a near-optimal set of classification rules based upon training examples. Using this approach, we were able to construct a classifier which distinguishes objects to the same level of accuracy as in previous surveys using comparable plate material, but nearly one magnitude fainter (or an equivalent BJ ~ 21.0). Our first analysis of DPOSS using SKICAT is of an overlapping set of four survey fields near the North Galactic Pole, in both the J and F passbands. Through detailed simulations of a subset of these data, we were able to analyze systematic aspects of our detection and measurement procedures, as well as optimize them. We discuss how we calibrate the plate magnitudes to the Gunn-Thuan g and r photometric system using CCD sequences obtained in a program devoted expressly to calibrating DPOSS. Our technique results in an estimated plate-to-plate zero point standard error of under 0.10m in g and below 0.05^{m } in r, for J and F plates, respectively. Using the catalogs derived from these fields, we compare our differential galaxy counts in g and r with those from recent Schmidt plate surveys as well as predictions from evolutionary and non-evolutionary (NE) galaxy models. We find generally good agreement between our counts and recent NE and mild evolutionary models calibrated to consistently fit bright and faint galaxy counts, colors, and redshift

  5. INITIAL RESULTS FROM INVESTIGATIONS TO ENHANCE THE PERFORMANCE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE IRRADIATION-RESISTANT THERMOCOUPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Crepeau, John; Rempe, Joy; Wilkins, S. Curtis; Knudson, Darrell L.; Condie, Keith G.; Daw, Joshua

    2007-04-01

    New fuel, cladding, and structural materials offer the potential for safer and more economic energy from existing reactor and advanced nuclear reactor designs. However, insufficient data are available to characterize these materials in high temperature, radiation conditions. To evaluate candidate material performance, robust instrumentation is needed that can survive these conditions. However, traditional thermocouples either drift due to degradation at high temperatures (above 1100 °C) or due to transmutation of thermocouple components. Thermocouples are needed which can withstand both high temperature and high radiation environments. To address this instrumentation need, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) recently developed the design and evaluated the performance of a high temperature radiation-resistant thermocouple that contains commercially-available alloys of molybdenum and niobium (Rempe, 2006). Candidate thermocouple component materials were first identified based on their ability to withstand high temperature and radiation. Then, components were selected based on data obtained from materials interaction tests, ductility investigations, and resolution evaluations. Results from long duration (over 4000 hours) tests at high temperatures (up to 1400 °C) and thermal cycling tests demonstrate the stability and reliability of the INL-developed design. Tests in INL’s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) are underway to demonstrate the in-pile performance of these thermocouples. However, several options have been identified that could further enhance the lifetime and reliability of the INL-developed thermocouples, allowing their use in higher temperature applications (up to at least 1700 °C). A joint University of Idaho (UI) and INL University Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (UNERI) is underway to investigate these options and ultimately, provide recommendations for an enhanced thermocouple design. This paper presents preliminary results from this UI/INL effort

  6. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.; Click, D.

    2010-01-06

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass - 14 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  7. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D

    2009-02-26

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass-1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma--mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  8. Initial Results From The Micro-pulse Lidar Network (MPL-Net)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Berkoff, T. A.; Spinhirne, J. D.; Ginoux, P.

    2001-12-01

    The micro-pulse lidar system (MPL) was developed in the early 1990s and was the first small, eye-safe, and autonomous lidar built for fulltime monitoring of cloud and aerosol vertical distributions. In 2000, a new project using MPL systems was started at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This new project, the Micro-pulse Lidar Network or MPL-Net, was created to provide long-term observations of aerosol and cloud vertical profiles at key sites around the world. This is accomplished using both NASA operated sites and partnerships with other organizations owning MPL systems. The MPL-Net sites are co-located with NASA AERONET sunphotometers to provide aerosol optical depth data needed for calibration of the MPL. In addition to the long-term sites, MPL-Net provides lidar support for a limited number of field experiments and ocean cruises each year. We will present an overview of the MPL-Net project and show initial results from the first two MPL-Net sites at the South Pole and at Goddard Space Flight Center. Observations of dust layers transported from the desert regions of China, across the Pacific Ocean, to the east coast of the United States will also be shown. MPL-Net affiliated instruments were in place at the desert source region in China, on a research vessel in the Sea of Japan, at ARM sites in Alaska and Oklahoma, and finally at our home site in Maryland (GSFC) during the massive dust storms that occurred in April 2001. The MPL observations of dust layers at each location are shown in comparison to dust layers predicted using the Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model (GOCART). Finally, the MPL-Net project is the primary ground-validation program for the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) satellite lidar project (launch date 2002). We will present an overview demonstrating how MPL-Net results are used to help prepare the GLAS data processing algorithms and assist in the calibration/validation of the GLAS data

  9. Initial Results from the Micro-pulse Lidar Network (MPL-Net)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Spinhirne, James D.; Ginoux, Paul; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The micro-pulse lidar system (MPL) was developed in the early 1990s and was the first small, eye-safe, and autonomous lidar built for full time monitoring of cloud and aerosol vertical distributions. In 2000, a new project using MPL systems was started at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This new project, the Micro-pulse Lidar Network or MPL-Net, was created to provide long-term observations of aerosol and cloud vertical profiles at key sites around the world. This is accomplished using both NASA operated sites and partnerships with other organizations owning MPL systems. The MPL-Net sites are co-located with NASA AERONET sunphotometers to provide aerosol optical depth data needed for calibration of the MPL. In addition to the long-term sites, MPL-Net provides lidar support for a limited number of field experiments and ocean cruises each year. We will present an overview of the MPL-Net project and show initial results from the first two MPL-Net sites at the South Pole and at Goddard Space Flight Center. Observations of dust layers transported from the Gobi desert, across the Pacific Ocean, to the east coast of the United States will also be shown. MPL-Net affiliated instruments were in place at the desert source region in China, on a research vessel in the Sea of Japan, at ARM sites in Alaska and Oklahoma, and finally at our home site in Maryland (GSFC) during the massive dust storms that occurred in April 2001. The MPL observations of dust layers at each location are shown in comparison to dust layers predicted using the Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model (GOCART). Finally, the MPL-Net project is the primary ground-validation program for the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) satellite lidar project (launch date 2002). We will present an overview demonstrating how MPL-Net results are used to help prepare the GLAS data processing algorithms and assist in the calibration/validation of the GLAS data products.

  10. The effect of gravitational acceleration on cardiac diastolic function: a biofluid mechanical perspective with initial results.

    PubMed

    Pantalos, George M; Bennett, Thomas E; Sharp, M Keith; Woodruff, Stewart J; O'Leary, Sean D; Gillars, Kevin J; Schurfranz, Thomas; Everett, Scott D; Lemon, Mark; Schwartz, John

    2005-08-01

    Echocardiographic measurements of astronaut cardiac function have documented an initial increase, followed by a progressive reduction in both left ventricular end-diastolic volume index and stroke volume with entry into microgravity (micro-G). The investigators hypothesize that the observed reduction in cardiac filling may, in part, be due to the absence of a gravitational acceleration dependent, intraventricular hydrostatic pressure difference in micro-G that exists in the ventricle in normal gravity (1-G) due to its size and anatomic orientation. This acceleration-dependent pressure difference, DeltaP(LV), between the base and the apex of the heart for the upright posture can be estimated to be 6660 dynes/cm(2) ( approximately 5 mm Hg) on Earth. DeltaP(LV) promotes cardiac diastolic filling on Earth, but is absent in micro-G. If the proposed hypothesis is correct, cardiac pumping performance would be diminished in micro-G. To test this hypothesis, ventricular function experiments were conducted in the 1-G environment using an artificial ventricle pumping on a mock circulation system with the longitudinal axis anatomically oriented for the upright posture at 45 degrees to the horizon. Additional measurements were made with the ventricle horizontally oriented to null DeltaP(LV)along the apex-base axis of the heart as would be the case for the supine posture, but resulting in a lesser hydrostatic pressure difference along the minor (anterior-posterior) axis. Comparative experiments were also conducted in the micro-G environment of orbital space flight on board the Space Shuttle. This paper reviews the use of an automated cardiovascular simulator flown on STS-85 and STS-95 as a Get Away Special payload to test this hypothesis. The simulator consisted of a pneumatically actuated, artificial ventricle connected to a closed-loop, fluid circuit with adjustable compliance and resistance elements to create physiologic pressure and flow conditions. Ventricular

  11. Speech Perception Results for Children Using Cochlear Implants Who Have Additional Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettman, Shani J.; Fiket, Hayley; Dowell, Richard C.; Charlton, Margaret; Williams, Sarah S.; Tomov, Alexandra M.; Barker, Elizabeth J.

    2004-01-01

    Speech perception outcomes in young children with cochlear implants are affected by a number of variables including the age of implantation, duration of implantation, mode of communication, and the presence of a developmental delay or additional disability. The aim of this study is to examine the association between degree of developmental delay…

  12. RESULTS OF INITIAL ANALYSES OF THE MACROBATCH 5 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-31

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Salt (Macro)Batch 5 for the Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 5 strategy are identified. This report describes the laboratory results of Salt (Macro)Batch 5 preliminary samples from Tank 21H. These results will be used by Tank Farm Engineering for their blend calculations. This work was specified by Technical Task Request (TTR) and by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP).

  13. Engine systems analysis results of the Space Shuttle Main Engine redesigned powerhead initial engine level testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Erik J.; Gosdin, Dennis R.

    1992-07-01

    Engineers regularly analyze SSME ground test and flight data with respect to engine systems performance. Recently, a redesigned SSME powerhead was introduced to engine-level testing in part to increase engine operational margins through optimization of the engine internal environment. This paper presents an overview of the MSFC personnel engine systems analysis results and conclusions reached from initial engine level testing of the redesigned powerhead, and further redesigns incorporated to eliminate accelerated main injector baffle and main combustion chamber hot gas wall degradation. The conclusions are drawn from instrumented engine ground test data and hardware integrity analysis reports and address initial engine test results with respect to the apparent design change effects on engine system and component operation.

  14. Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA): Results From Four Target Regions in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, R. J.; Dennis, A.; Millar, C. I.; Westfall, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    The Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is a worldwide network of long- term research sites established to assess the impacts of climate change in sensitive native alpine communities. Many alpine species face habitat fragmentation and loss, and even extinction because they are adapted to cold temperatures and very limited in their geographic distribution. This study summarizes the data collected from four sites comprised of three to four summits each in the Sierra Nevada and White Mountain ranges of California. The 14 summits cover elevational gradients ranging from 3170m to 4285m. On each summit, habitat characteristics, species composition, species cover, and frequency counts are recorded in sixteen 1m x 1m quadrats. Additional surveys on the percentage cover of surface types and of each species in eight larger plots extending to 10m below the summit focus on detecting changes in species richness and species migrations. Sites were analyzed both independently and as a group to explore similarities and differences in species composition, plant functional groups, phenology, and response to climate. A total of 124 species were identified across all sites. The summits within each site exhibited rich, heterogeneous plant communities, but ones in which most species were infrequent. Northern slopes generally had the highest vegetation cover and eastern slopes, the lowest. Elevation, aspect, and substrate all strongly influenced community composition. The average minimum winter soil temperature varied by more than 10C between the lowest and highest sites in the gradient. Resampling over time will allow us to discern trends in species diversity and temperature, and assess and predict losses in biodiversity and other threats to these fragile alpine ecosystems. Results from this work will contribute to a predictive understanding of shifts in the distribution of alpine species with climate warming in the western U.S.; expand existing long

  15. Penn State geoPebble system: Design,Implementation, and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, J. V.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Bilen, S. G.; Fleishman, A.; Burkett, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Penn State geoPebble system is a new network of wirelessly interconnected seismic and GPS sensor nodes with flexible architecture. This network will be used for studies of ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland, as well as to investigate mountain glaciers. The network will consist of ˜150 geoPebbles that can be deployed in a user-defined spatial geometry. We present our design methodology, which has enabled us to develop these state-of- the art sensors using commercial-off-the-shelf hardware combined with custom-designed hardware and software. Each geoPebble is a self- contained, wirelessly connected sensor for collecting seismic measurements and position information. Key elements of each node encompasses a three-component seismic recorder, which includes an amplifier, filter, and 24- bit analog-to-digital converter that can sample up to 10 kHz. Each unit also includes a microphone channel to record the ground-coupled airwave. The timing for each node is available from GPS measurements and a local precision oscillator that is conditioned by the GPS timing pulses. In addition, we record the carrier-phase measurement of the L1 GPS signal in order to determine location at sub-decimeter accuracy (relative to other geoPebbles within a few kilometers radius). Each geoPebble includes 16 GB of solid-state storage, wireless communications capability to a central supervisory unit, and auxiliary measurements capability (including tilt from accelerometers, absolute orientation from magnetometers and temperature). A novel aspect of the geoPebble is a wireless charging system for the internal battery (using inductive coupling techniques). The geoPebbles include all the sensors (geophones, GPS, microphone), communications (WiFi), and power (battery and charging) internally, so the geoPebble system can operate without any cabling connections (though we do provide an external connector so that different geophones can be used). We report initial field-deployment results and

  16. Non-lethal heat treatment of cells results in reduction of tumor initiation and metastatic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoo-Shin; Lee, Tae Hoon; O'Neill, Brian E.

    2015-08-14

    Non-lethal hyperthermia is used clinically as adjuvant treatment to radiation, with mixed results. Denaturation of protein during hyperthermia treatment is expected to synergize with radiation damage to cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Alternatively, hyperthermia is known to cause tissue level changes in blood flow, increasing the oxygenation and radiosensitivity of often hypoxic tumors. In this study, we elucidate a third possibility, that hyperthermia alters cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction, with particular impact on the cancer stem cell population. We demonstrate that cell heating results in a robust but temporary loss of cancer cell aggressiveness and metastatic potential in mouse models. In vitro, this heating results in a temporary loss in cell mobility, adhesion, and proliferation. Our hypothesis is that the loss of cellular adhesion results in suppression of cancer stem cells and loss of tumor virulence and metastatic potential. Our study suggests that the metastatic potential of cancer is particularly reduced by the effects of heat on cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction. If true, this could help explain both the successes and failures of clinical hyperthermia, and suggest ways to target treatments to those who would most benefit. - Highlights: • Non-lethal hyperthermia treatment of cancer cells is shown to cause a reduction in rates of tumor initiation and metastasis. • Dynamic imaging of cells during heat treatment shows temporary changes in cell shape, cell migration, and cell proliferation. • Loss of adhesion may lead to the observed effect, which may disproportionately impact the tumor initiating cell fraction. • Loss or suppression of the tumor initiating cell fraction results in the observed loss of metastatic potential in vivo. • This result may lead to new approaches to synergizing hyperthermia with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.

  17. Spinel dissolution via addition of glass forming chemicals. Results of preliminary experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Johnson, F. C.

    2015-11-01

    Increased loading of high level waste in glass can lead to crystallization within the glass. Some crystalline species, such as spinel, have no practical impact on the chemical durability of the glass, and therefore may be acceptable from both a processing and a product performance standpoint. In order to operate a melter with a controlled amount of crystallization, options must be developed for remediating an unacceptable accumulation of crystals. This report describes preliminary experiments designed to evaluate the ability to dissolve spinel crystals in simulated waste glass melts via the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs).

  18. The architecture and initial results of the Large Millimeter Telescope control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souccar, Kamal; Smith, David

    2008-07-01

    As the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) has continued to progress towards scientific operations, some preliminary commissioning of the telescope control system has taken place. We present the architecture of the LMT control system along with initial commissioning results of the LMT servo and drive system. The LMT azimuth drive system is a wheel-on-track mechanism with sixteen individually driven wheels on a circular track. The elevation drive system consists of two main gear arcs, each driven by two pinions. All twenty of the drives (sixteen in azimuth and four in elevation) consist of a motor and a gearbox. These drives are controlled by a fully digital servo system that is divided into a drive control unit which consists of the servo amplifiers and an embedded PLC that implements torque sharing and safety interlocks, and an antenna control unit that implements the servo control loops and astronomical tracking. The results of the initial commissioning of the LMT servo and drive system include full range motion in azimuth and elevation, azimuth track welding effects, elevation gear rims alignment effects, elevation balance, friction contribution to servo errors, and initial tracking accuracy.

  19. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2015-10-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amount of solids, or unusual colors. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  20. Results Of Initial Analyses Of The Salt (Macro) Batch 9 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.

    2015-10-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  1. A Scattered Light Correction to Color Images Taken of Europa by the Galileo Spacecraft: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, C. B.; Valenti, M.

    2009-12-01

    interfaces of lenses. Because of the wavelength dependence of this effect, a scattered light correction must be performed on any SSI multispectral dataset before quantitative spectral analysis can be done. The process involves using a point-spread function for each filter that helps determine the amount of scattered light expected for a given pixel based on its location and the model attenuation factor for that pixel. To remove scattered light for a particular image taken through a particular filter, the Fourier transform of the attenuation function, which is the point spread function for that filter, is convolved with the Fourier transform of the image at the same wavelength. The result is then filtered for noise in the frequency domain, and then transformed back to the spatial domain. This results in a version of the original image that would have been taken without the scattered light contribution. We will report on our initial results from this calibration.

  2. Receiver Function Study of the Peruvian Flat-Slab Region: Initial Results from PULSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, B.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Kumar, A.; Wagner, L. S.; Long, M. D.; Tavera, H.

    2013-12-01

    The largest segment of flat slab subduction in the world occurs beneath Peru where the distribution of slab earthquakes indicates the Nazca plate subducts nearly horizontally below the Andes. The presumably buoyant Nazca Ridge subducts at the southern end of this shallow subduction segment which has been linked to the cessation of active arc volcanism within the segment of the Andes between 3°S and 15°S. We deployed 40 broadband seismic stations as part of the PerU Lithosphere and Slab Experiment (PULSE) to investigate the flat slab subduction processes beneath the Peruvian Andes between 10.5°S and 15°S. As one component of a multi-technique seismological study, we have calculated Receiver Functions from PULSE seismic data to create Common Conversion Point stacks utilizing a 1-D velocity structure with Vp of 6.2 km/s to 60 km depth, 8.1 km/s from 60 to 200 km depth, and a Vp/Vs ratio of 1.8 to provide preliminary constraints on crustal-scale structures near the subducting Nazca Ridge. Forward modeling of results from individual stations was carried out to provide additional constraints on more localized crustal variations. These results provide estimates for the thickness of the continental crust of the overriding South American Plate as well as the first regional images of a discontinuous oceanic Moho of the subducted Nazca Plate. Receiver function results show a strong P-to-S conversion from the continental Moho indicating the presence of significantly thickened crust within the central Peruvian Andes, reaching thicknesses of 50 to more than 60 kilometers and extending eastward into the Subandean region. A significant change in crustal thickness is present in the Eastern Cordillera northeast of Cuzco, stepping from approximately 62 km to 55 km, which matches prior crustal models based on gravity data. A number of high amplitude arrivals indicate the top of a low velocity layer at approximately 12-15 km depth throughout the PULSE study region, roughly

  3. Prolonged durability of electroporation microarrays as a result of addition of saccharides to nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Kato, Koichi; Iwata, Hiroo

    2009-01-01

    The electroporation microarray is a useful tool for high-throughput analysis of gene functions. However, transfection efficiency is greatly impaired by storage of the microarrays, due to water evaporation from arrayed nucleotides. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the effect of saccharides and sugar alcohols, added to the solution of the plasmid DNA or small interfering RNA (siRNA). Microarrays loaded with plasmids and siRNAs were prepared with various polyols including sugars and sugar alcohols. After storage of these microarrays at different temperatures for various time periods, transfection efficiency was evaluated using human embryonic kidney cells. In the case of plasmid-loaded microarrays, addition of monosaccharides (glucose, fructose), disaccharides (trehalose, sucrose), and trisaccharide (raffinose) served to retain transfection efficiency at a reasonably high level after storage at -20 degrees C. The observed effects may be because moisture retention serves to maintain the solubility of DNA. In contrast, polysaccharide (dextran) and sugar alcohol (glycerol) had insignificant effects on retention of transfection efficiency. On the other hand, addition of saccharides and sugar alcohols had insignificant effects on the transfection of siRNA after storage of a microarray at 25 degrees C for 7 days, presumably due to the intrinsically-high solubility of siRNA which consists of short nucleotides. PMID:18989662

  4. Hunting the most distant stars in the Milky Way: methods and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Bochanski, John J.; Willman, Beth; West, Andrew A.; Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura

    2014-04-01

    We present a new catalog of 404 M giant candidates found in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). The 2400 deg{sup 2} available in the UKIDSS Large Area Survey Data Release 8 resolve M giants through a volume four times larger than that of the entire Two Micron All Sky Survey. Combining near-infrared photometry with optical photometry and proper motions from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey yields an M giant candidate catalog with less M dwarf and quasar contamination than previous searches for similarly distant M giants. Extensive follow-up spectroscopy of this sample will yield the first map of our Galaxy's outermost reaches over a large area of sky. Our initial spectroscopic follow-up of ∼30 bright candidates yielded the positive identification of five M giants at distances ∼20-90 kpc. Each of these confirmed M giants have positions and velocities consistent with the Sagittarius stream. The fainter M giant candidates in our sample have estimated photometric distances ∼200 kpc (assuming [Fe/H] = 0.0), but require further spectroscopic verification. The photometric distance estimates extend beyond the Milky Way's virial radius, and increase by ∼50% for each 0.5 dex decrease in assumed [Fe/H]. Given the number of M giant candidates, initial selection efficiency, and volume surveyed, we loosely estimate that at least one additional Sagittarius-like accretion event could have contributed to the hierarchical build-up of the Milky Way's outer halo.

  5. Characterization and initial results from the upgraded MST interferometer-polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parke, E.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Duff, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    The FIR interferometer-polarimeter diagnostic on MST is a high-bandwidth system with unique capabilities for measuring high-frequency density and internal magnetic fluctuations. Installation of new planar-diode mixers improves both the signal strength and the noise floor compared to the corner-cube mixers previously used. The new mixer technology also offers a simpler detection configuration that eliminates the need for additional amplifiers. We characterize the bandwidth capabilities of the upgraded heterodyne receiver system and present initial measurements in reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas. High wavenumber resolution becomes possible when operating without focusing elements, using only the 2-3 mm aperture on the mixer to determine the sampled chord width. This configuration will provide better resolution of small-scale fluctuations observed in the RFP during periods of improved, tokamak-like confinement. Finally, cross-correlation techniques between two mixers viewing the same chord further reduce measurement noise and improve the resolution of high-frequency, small-amplitude magnetic and density fluctuations. Initial tests of this technique in neutral-beam heated plasmas will be presented. Work supported by U.S. DOE.

  6. Congruent visual and proprioceptive information results in a better encoding of initial hand position.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Louis-Nicolas; Proteau, Luc

    2011-10-01

    Goal-directed movements performed in a virtual environment pose serious challenges to the central nervous system because the visual and proprioceptive representations of one's hand position are not perfectly congruent. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the vision of one's hand or upper arm, compared with that of a cursor representing the tips of one's index finger and thumb, optimizes the planning and modulation of one's movement as the cursor nears the target. The participants performed manual aiming movements that differed by the source of static visual information available during movement planning and the source of dynamic information available during movement execution. The results revealed that the vision of one's hand during the movement planning phase results in more efficient online control processes than when the movement planning was based on a virtual representation of one's initial hand location. This observation was seen regardless of the availability of online visual feedback during movement execution. These results suggest that a more reliable estimation of the initial hand position results in more accurate estimation of the position of the cursor/hand at any one time resulting in more accurate online control. PMID:21837439

  7. A 10-Year Mechatronics Curriculum Development Initiative: Relevance, Content, and Results--Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, S.; Yost, S. A.; Krishnan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the first phase of a Mechatronics Curriculum Development effort--the design of an "Introduction to Mechatronics" course, the infusion of mechatronics activities throughout the curriculum and in outreach activities, and assessment results. In addition, the relevance and impact of such a curriculum on the education of engineers…

  8. Ground testing on the nonvented fill method of orbital propellant transfer: Results of initial test series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of a series of no-vent fill experiments conducted on a 175 cu ft flightweight hydrogen tank. The experiments consisted of the nonvented fill of the tankage with liquid hydrogen using two different inlet systems (top spray, and bottom spray) at different tank initial conditions and inflow rates. Nine tests were completed of which six filled in excess of 94 percent. The experiments demonstrated a consistent and repeatable ability to fill the tank in excess of 94 percent using the nonvented fill technique. Ninety-four percent was established as the high level cutoff due to requirements for some tank ullage to prevent rapid tank pressure rise which occurs in a tank filled entirely with liquid. The best fill was terminated at 94 percent full with a tank internal pressure less than 26 psia. Although the baseline initial tank wall temperature criteria was that all portions of the tank wall be less than 40 R, fills were achieved with initial wall temperatures as high as 227 R.

  9. Convection of Plasmaspheric Plasma into the Outer Magnetosphere and Boundary Layer Region: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ober, Daniel M.; Horwitz, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    We present initial results on the modeling of the circulation of plasmaspheric-origin plasma into the outer magnetosphere and low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL), using a dynamic global core plasma model (DGCPM). The DGCPM includes the influences of spatially and temporally varying convection and refilling processes to calculate the equatorial core plasma density distribution throughout the magnetosphere. We have developed an initial description of the electric and magnetic field structures in the outer magnetosphere region. The purpose of this paper is to examine both the losses of plasmaspheric-origin plasma into the magnetopause boundary layer and the convection of this plasma that remains trapped on closed magnetic field lines. For the LLBL electric and magnetic structures we have adopted here, the plasmaspheric plasma reaching the outer magnetosphere is diverted anti-sunward primarily along the dusk flank. These plasmas reach X= -15 R(sub E) in the LLBL approximately 3.2 hours after the initial enhancement of convection and continues to populate the LLBL for 12 hours as the convection electric field diminishes.

  10. Convection of Plasmaspheric Plasma into the Outer Magnetosphere and Boundary Layer Region: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ober, Daniel M.; Horwitz, J. L.; Gallagher, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    We present initial results on the modeling of the circulation of plasmaspheric- origin plasma into the outer magnetosphere and low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL), using a dynamic global core plasma model (DGCPM). The DGCPM includes the influences of spatially and temporally varying convection and refilling processes to calculate the equatorial core plasma density distribution throughout the magnetosphere. We have developed an initial description of the electric and magnetic field structures in the outer magnetosphere region. The purpose of this paper is to examine both the losses of plasmaspheric-origin plasma into the magnetopause boundary layer and the convection of this plasma that remains trapped on closed magnetic field lines. For the LLBL electric and magnetic structures we have adopted here, the plasmaspheric plasma reaching the outer magnetosphere is diverted anti-sunward primarily along the dusk flank. These plasmas reach X = -15 R(sub E) in the LLBL approximately 3.2 hours after the initial enhancement of convection and continues to populate the LLBL for 12 hours as the convection electric field diminishes.

  11. Non-Shock Initiation Model for Plastic Bonded Explosive PBXN-5 and Cast Explosive: Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Mark; Todd, Steven; Caipen, Terry; Jensen, Charlie; Hughs, Chance

    2009-06-01

    A damage initiated reaction (DMGIR) computational model is being developed for the CTH shock physics code to predict the response of an explosive to non-shock mechanical insults. The distinguishing feature of this model is the introduction of a damage variable, which relates the evolution of damage to the initiation of reaction in the explosive, and its growth to detonation. The DMGIR model is a complement to the History Variable Reactive Burn (HVRB) model embedded in the current CTH code. Specifically designed experiments are supporting the development, implementation, and validation of the DMGIR numerical approach. PBXN-5 was the initial explosive material used experimentally to develop the DMGIR model. This explosive represents a family of plastically bonded explosives with good mechanical strength and rigid body properties. The model has been extended to cast explosives represented by Composition B. Furthermore, the DMGIR model will extended to predict results of non-shock mechanical insults for moldable plastic explosives such as C4 and PrimaSheet.

  12. Ground testing of the nonvented fill method of orbital propellant transfer - Results of initial test series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of a series of no-vent fill experiments conducted on a 175 cu ft flightweight hydrogen tank. The experiments consisted of the nonvented fill of the tankage with liquid hydrogen using two different inlet systems (top spray, and bottom spray) at different tank initial conditions and inflow rates. Nine tests were completed of which six filled in exceess of 94 percent. The experiments demonstrated a consistent and repeatable ability to fill the tank in excess of 94 percent using the nonvented fill technique. Ninety-four percent was established as the high level cutoff due to requirements for some tank ullage to prevent rapid tank pressure rise which occurs in a tank filled entirely with liquid. The best fill was terminated at 94 percent full with a tank internal pressure less than 26 psia. Although the baseline initial tank wall temperature criteria was that all portions of the tank wall be less than 40 R, fills were achieved with initial wall temperatures as high as 227R.

  13. Initial Results from the Lost Alpha Diagnostics on Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, Doug; Cecil, Ed; Ellis, Bob; Fullard, Keith; Hill, Ken; Horton, Alan; Kiptily, Vasily; Pedrick, Les; Reich, Matthias

    2007-07-25

    Two devices have been installed in the Joint European Torus (JET) vacuum vessel near the plasma boundary to investigate the loss of energetic ions and fusion products in general and alpha particles in particular during the upcoming JET experiments. These devices are (i) a set of multichannel thin foil Faraday collectors, and (ii) a well collimated scintillator which is optically connected to a charge-coupled device. Initial results, including the radial energy and poloidal dependence of lost ions from hydrogen and deuterium plasmas during the 2005–06 JET restart campaign, will be presented.

  14. Initial results from the lost alpha diagnostics on Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, Doug; Baeumel, Stefan; Cecil, Ed; Ellis, Bob; Fullard, Keith; Hill, Ken; Horton, Alan; Kiptily, Vasily; Pedrick, Les; Reich, Matthias; Werner, Andreas

    2006-10-15

    Two devices have been installed in the Joint European Torus (JET) vacuum vessel near the plasma boundary to investigate the loss of energetic ions and fusion products in general and alpha particles in particular during the upcoming JET experiments. These devices are (i) a set of multichannel thin foil Faraday collectors and (ii) a well collimated scintillator, which is optically connected to a charge-coupled device. Initial results including the radial energy and poloidal dependence of lost ions from hydrogen and deuterium plasmas during the 2005-06 JET restart campaign will be presented.

  15. Design, implementation, and initial results from a water-quality monitoring network for Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Elrick, K.A.; Smith, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    In cooperation with the City of Atlanta, Georgia, the US Geological Survey has designed and implemented a water-quantity and quality monitoring network that measures a variety of biological and chemical constituents in water and suspended sediment. The network consists of 20 long-term monitoring sites and is intended to assess water-quality trends in response to planned infrastructural improvements. Initial results from the network indicate that nonpoint-source contributions may be more significant than point-source contributions for selected sediment associated trace elements and nutrients. There also are indications of short-term discontinuous point-source contributions of these same constituents during baseflow.

  16. Airborne laser topographic mapping results from initial joint NASA/US Army Corps of Engineers experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Initial results from a series of joint NASA/US Army Corps of Engineers experiments are presented. The NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) was exercised over various terrain conditions, collecting both profile and scan data from which river basin cross sections are extracted. Comparisons of the laser data with both photogrammetry and ground surveys are made, with 12 to 27 cm agreement observed over open ground. Foliage penetration tests, utilizing the unique time-waveform sampling capability of the AOL, indicate 50 cm agreement with photogrammetry (known to have difficulty in foliage covered terrain).

  17. The benchmark aeroelastic models program: Description and highlights of initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert M.; Eckstrom, Clinton V.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Dansberry, Bryan E.; Farmer, Moses G.; Durham, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental effort was implemented in aeroelasticity called the Benchmark Models Program. The primary purpose of this program is to provide the necessary data to evaluate computational fluid dynamic codes for aeroelastic analysis. It also focuses on increasing the understanding of the physics of unsteady flows and providing data for empirical design. An overview is given of this program and some results obtained in the initial tests are highlighted. The tests that were completed include measurement of unsteady pressures during flutter of rigid wing with a NACA 0012 airfoil section and dynamic response measurements of a flexible rectangular wing with a thick circular arc airfoil undergoing shock boundary layer oscillations.

  18. Posture-Dependent Human 3He Lung Imaging in an Open Access MRI System: Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, L. L.; Mair, R. W.; Li, C.-H.; Rosen, M. S.; Patz, S.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives The human lung and its functions are extremely sensitive to orientation and posture, and debate continues as to the role of gravity and the surrounding anatomy in determining lung function and heterogeneity of perfusion and ventilation. However, study of these effects is difficult. The conventional high-field magnets used for most hyperpolarized 3He MRI of the human lung, and most other common radiological imaging modalities including PET and CT, restrict subjects to lying horizontally, minimizing most gravitational effects. Materials and Methods In this paper, we briefly review the motivation for posture-dependent studies of human lung function, and present initial imaging results of human lungs in the supine and vertical body orientations using inhaled hyperpolarized 3He gas and an open-access MRI instrument. The open geometry of this MRI system features a “walk-in” capability that permits subjects to be imaged in vertical and horizontal positions, and potentially allows for complete rotation of the orientation of the imaging subject in a two-dimensional plane. Results Initial results include two-dimensional lung images acquired with ~ 4 × 8 mm in-plane resolution and three-dimensional images with ~ 2 cm slice thickness. Conclusion Effects of posture variation are observed, including posture-related effects of the diaphragm and distension of the lungs while vertical. PMID:18486009

  19. Quantification of atmospheric methane oxidation in glacier forefields: Initial survey results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauer, Philipp A.; Schroth, Martin H.; Pinto, Eric A.; Zeyer, Josef

    2010-05-01

    enough to derive meaningful first-order rate coefficients of CH4 oxidation. The more sensitive GPPT with 13C-CH4 resulted in a coefficient of 0.025 h-1, close to the value of 0.011 h-1 estimated from the corresponding concentration profile. Activities in the forefield on calcareous bedrock were substantially higher, with decreased CH4 concentrations in the soil at three out of five locations. Estimated first-order rate coefficients from GPPT and profile at one selected location were 0.6 h-1 and 1.3 h-1, respectively, one to two orders of magnitude higher than values from the siliceous forefield. Additional analysis by quantitative PCR revealed substantially lower numbers of pmoA gene copies per g soil at the active location in the siliceous forefield compared to the selected location in the calcareous forefield. Reasons for these differences in activity and abundance are still unknown and will be subject of further investigations in an upcoming field campaign. The GPPT in combination with δ13C analysis of extracted CO2 appeared to be a functioning approach to sensitively quantify low CH4 turnover.

  20. In Flight Calibration of the Magnetospheric Multisale Mission Fast Plasma Investigation: Initial Flight Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, A.; Gliese, U.; Gershman, D. J.; Avanov, L. A.; Rager, A. C.; Pollock, C. J.; Dorelli, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) combines data from eight spectrometers, each with four deflection states, into a single map of the sky. Any systematic discontinuity, artifact, noise source, etc. present in this map may be incorrectly interpreted as legitimate data and incorrect conclusions reached. For this reason it is desirable to have all spectrometers return the same output for a given input, and for this output to be low in noise sources or other errors. While many missions use statistical analyses of data to calibrate instruments in flight, this process is difficult with FPI for two reasons: 1. Only a small fraction of high resolution data is downloaded to the ground due to bandwidth limitations and 2: The data that is downloaded is, by definition, scientifically interesting and therefore not ideal for calibration. FPI uses a suite of new tools to calibrate in flight. A new method for detection system ground calibration has been developed involving sweeping the detection threshold to fully define the pulse height distribution. This method has now been extended for use in flight as a means to calibrate MCP voltage and threshold (together forming the operating point) of the Dual Electron Spectrometers (DES) and Dual Ion Spectrometers (DIS). A method of comparing higher energy data (which has low fractional voltage error) to lower energy data (which has a higher fractional voltage error) will be used to calibrate the high voltage outputs. Finally, a comparison of pitch angle distributions will be used to find remaining discrepancies among sensors. Initial flight results from the four MMS observatories will be discussed here. Specifically, data from initial commissioning, inter-instrument cross calibration and interference testing, and initial Phase1A routine calibration results. Success and performance of the in flight calibration as well as deviation from the ground calibration will be discussed.

  1. XLF deficiency results in reduced N-nucleotide addition during V(D)J recombination

    PubMed Central

    IJspeert, Hanna; Rozmus, Jacob; Schwarz, Klaus; Warren, René L.; van Zessen, David; Holt, Robert A.; Pico-Knijnenburg, Ingrid; Simons, Erik; Jerchel, Isabel; Wawer, Angela; Lorenz, Myriam; Patıroğlu, Turkan; Akar, Himmet Haluk; Leite, Ricardo; Verkaik, Nicole S.; Stubbs, Andrew P.; van Gent, Dik C.; van Dongen, Jacques J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the nonhomologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ) is important not only for repair of spontaneous breaks but also for breaks induced in developing lymphocytes during V(D)J (variable [V], diversity [D], and joining [J] genes) recombination of their antigen receptor loci to create a diverse repertoire. Mutations in the NHEJ factor XLF result in extreme sensitivity for ionizing radiation, microcephaly, and growth retardation comparable to mutations in LIG4 and XRCC4, which together form the NHEJ ligation complex. However, the effect on the immune system is variable (mild to severe immunodeficiency) and less prominent than that seen in deficiencies of NHEJ factors ARTEMIS and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, with defects in the hairpin opening step, which is crucial and unique for V(D)J recombination. Therefore, we aimed to study the role of XLF during V(D)J recombination. We obtained clinical data from 9 XLF-deficient patients and performed immune phenotyping and antigen receptor repertoire analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TR) rearrangements, using next-generation sequencing in 6 patients. The results were compared with XRCC4 and LIG4 deficiency. Both Ig and TR rearrangements showed a significant decrease in the number of nontemplated (N) nucleotides inserted by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, which resulted in a decrease of 2 to 3 amino acids in the CDR3. Such a reduction in the number of N-nucleotides has a great effect on the junctional diversity, and thereby on the total diversity of the Ig and TR repertoire. This shows that XLF has an important role during V(D)J recombination in creating diversity of the repertoire by stimulating N-nucleotide insertion. PMID:27281794

  2. XLF deficiency results in reduced N-nucleotide addition during V(D)J recombination.

    PubMed

    IJspeert, Hanna; Rozmus, Jacob; Schwarz, Klaus; Warren, René L; van Zessen, David; Holt, Robert A; Pico-Knijnenburg, Ingrid; Simons, Erik; Jerchel, Isabel; Wawer, Angela; Lorenz, Myriam; Patıroğlu, Turkan; Akar, Himmet Haluk; Leite, Ricardo; Verkaik, Nicole S; Stubbs, Andrew P; van Gent, Dik C; van Dongen, Jacques J M; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2016-08-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the nonhomologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ) is important not only for repair of spontaneous breaks but also for breaks induced in developing lymphocytes during V(D)J (variable [V], diversity [D], and joining [J] genes) recombination of their antigen receptor loci to create a diverse repertoire. Mutations in the NHEJ factor XLF result in extreme sensitivity for ionizing radiation, microcephaly, and growth retardation comparable to mutations in LIG4 and XRCC4, which together form the NHEJ ligation complex. However, the effect on the immune system is variable (mild to severe immunodeficiency) and less prominent than that seen in deficiencies of NHEJ factors ARTEMIS and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, with defects in the hairpin opening step, which is crucial and unique for V(D)J recombination. Therefore, we aimed to study the role of XLF during V(D)J recombination. We obtained clinical data from 9 XLF-deficient patients and performed immune phenotyping and antigen receptor repertoire analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TR) rearrangements, using next-generation sequencing in 6 patients. The results were compared with XRCC4 and LIG4 deficiency. Both Ig and TR rearrangements showed a significant decrease in the number of nontemplated (N) nucleotides inserted by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, which resulted in a decrease of 2 to 3 amino acids in the CDR3. Such a reduction in the number of N-nucleotides has a great effect on the junctional diversity, and thereby on the total diversity of the Ig and TR repertoire. This shows that XLF has an important role during V(D)J recombination in creating diversity of the repertoire by stimulating N-nucleotide insertion. PMID:27281794

  3. Hydrocode Modeling of Asteroid Impacts into a Volatile-Rich Martian Surface: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesko, C. S.; Asphaug, E.; Gisler, G. R.; Gittings, M. L.

    2005-08-01

    We present initial results of simulations of asteroid impacts into a volatile-rich Martian surface, and test the RAGE hydrocode (Gittings et al., 2005) in benchmark scenarios relevant to such models. RAGE is an Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamics code that runs in up to three dimensions, using a Godunov method to solve the hydrodynamics equations, and adaptive mesh refinement to increase computational efficiency near shocks and boundaries. It incorporates a large variety of detailed equations of state including the temperature-based SESAME tables maintained by LANL. Our Mars impact modeling effort involves two components: (1) characterizing and validating RAGE models of the propagation of impact shocks in well-characterized laboratory experiments, and (2) building up realistic RAGE models of the Martian surface involving inhomogeneous layers, volatile layers, and atmosphere. The Mars science goals of these efforts are twofold. The first is to arrive at a robust quantitative examination of impact devolatilization, which has been proposed (Segura et al., Science 2002) as a mechanism for triggering sporadic but intense Martian hydrologic cycles. The second goal is to attempt to relate the geological expression of Martian craters to the nature of sub-surface layering. Comparison of hydrocode results against analytical and laboratory results are imperative for correct forward modeling, so we have begun by putting RAGE through a series of validation tests. We present model results that show good agreement with laboratory experiments and analytical models, and initial results for Mars crater formation. This effort is supported by LANL/IGPP (CSP, GRG, MLG) and by NASA PG&G "Small Bodies and Planetary Collisions" (EA).

  4. Initial results of sensitivity tests performed on the RE-1000 free-piston stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.G.

    1984-08-01

    A 1 kW (1.33hp) single cylinder free-piston Stirling engine has been tested in the test facilities at the Lewis laboratory. Tests have been performed over the past several years on an engine designed to investigate the dynamics of a free-piston Stirling engine for the purpose of computer code validation. A description of the engine and its instrumentation is given in a prior NASA report TM-82999. Some initial test results are given in NASA Report TM-83407. Tests to investigate the sensitivity of the engine performance to variations in working space pressure, heater and cooler temperatures, regenerator porosity, power piston mass and displacer dynamics have been initiated at Lewis. Maps of engine performance have been recorded with the use of an 81.2% porosity regenerator; both a high efficiency displacer and a high power displacer were tested; efficiencies up to 33% were recorded and power output of approximately 1500 watts was recorded. This report presents preliminary results from the Lewis sensitivity tests being performed on the RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine. Descriptions of future tests are also given.

  5. 34 CFR 350.55 - What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM How Does the... Field-Initiated Project applications for funding? 350.55 Section 350.55 Education Regulations of the... Project applications for funding? (a) The Secretary reserves funds to support some or all of the...

  6. 34 CFR 350.55 - What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM How Does the... Field-Initiated Project applications for funding? 350.55 Section 350.55 Education Regulations of the... Project applications for funding? (a) The Secretary reserves funds to support some or all of the...

  7. 34 CFR 350.55 - What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM How Does the... Field-Initiated Project applications for funding? 350.55 Section 350.55 Education Regulations of the... Project applications for funding? (a) The Secretary reserves funds to support some or all of the...

  8. 34 CFR 350.55 - What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM How Does the... Field-Initiated Project applications for funding? 350.55 Section 350.55 Education Regulations of the... Project applications for funding? (a) The Secretary reserves funds to support some or all of the...

  9. Initial Fault Tolerance and Autonomy Results for Autonomous On-board Processing of Hyperspectral Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, M.; Walters, J.; Zick, K.

    2011-12-01

    By developing Radiation Hardening by Software (RHBSW) techniques leveraged from the High Performance Computing community, our work seeks to deliver radiation tolerant, high performance System on a Chip (SoC) processors to the remote sensing community. This SoC architecture is uniquely suited to both handle high performance signal processing tasks, as well as autonomous agent processing. This allows situational awareness to be developed in-situ, resulting in a 10-100x decrease in processing latency, which directly translates into more science experiments conducted per day and a more thorough, timely analysis of captured data. With the increase in the amount of computational throughput made possible by commodity high performance processors and low overhead fault tolerance, new applications can be considered for on-board processing. A high performance and low overhead fault tolerance strategy targeting scientific applications on the SpaceCube 1.0 platform has been enhanced with initial results showing an order of magnitude increase in Mean Time Between Data Error and a complete elimination of processor hangs. Initial study of representative Hyperspectral applications also proves promising due to high levels of data parallelism and fine grained parallelism achievable within FPGA System on a Chip architectures enabled by our RHBSW techniques. To demonstrate the kinds of capabilities these fault tolerance approaches yield, the team focused on applications representative of the Decadal Survey HyspIRI mission, which uses high throughput Thermal Infrared Scanner (132 Mbps) and Hyperspectral Visibe ShortWave InfraRed (804 Mbps) instruments, while having only a 15 Mbps downlink channel. This mission provides a great many use scenarios for onboard processing, from high compression algorithms, to pre-processing and selective download of high priority images, to full on-board classification. This paper focuses on recent efforts which revolve around developing a fault emulator

  10. Initial Results of Aperture Area Comparisons for Exo-Atmospheric Total Solar Irradiance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. Carol; Litorja, Maritoni; Fowler, Joel B.; Butler, James J.

    2009-01-01

    In the measurement of exo-atmospheric total solar irradiance (TSI), instrument aperture area is a critical component in converting solar radiant flux to irradiance. In a May 2000 calibration workshop for the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE), the solar irradiance measurement community recommended that NASA and NISI coordinate an aperture area measurement comparison to quantify and validate aperture area uncertainties and their overall effect on TSI uncertainties. From May 2003 to February 2006, apertures from 4 institutions with links to the historical TSI database were measured by NIST and the results were compared to the aperture area determined by each institution. The initial results of these comparisons are presented and preliminary assessments of the participants' uncertainties are discussed.

  11. Initial performance results for high-aspect ratio gold MEMS deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Bautista; Kubby, Joel

    2009-02-01

    The fabrication and initial performance results of high-aspect ratio 3-dimensional Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) Deformable Mirrors (DM) for Adaptive Optics (AO) will be discussed. The DM systems were fabricated out of gold, and consist of actuators bonded to a continuous face sheet, with different boundary conditions. DM mirror displacements vs. voltage have been measured with a white light interferometer and the corresponding results compared to Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulations. Interferometer scans of a DM have shown that ~9.4um of stroke can be achieved with low voltage, thus showing that this fabrication process holds promise in the manufacturing of future MEMS DM's for the next generation of extremely large telescopes.

  12. Initial test results from FHWA project Dynamic Bridge Substructure Evaluation and Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouad, Marwan F.; Olson, Larry D.; Liu, Ming

    1998-03-01

    The FHWA project 'Dynamic Bridge Substructure Evaluation and Monitoring System' was conceived to use dynamic characteristics of the bridge substructure to determine the condition of the foundation and to identify the type of the underground substructure (deep or shallow foundation). The determination of the foundation condition will be used to quantify losses in foundation stiffness caused by seismic and scour events. The dynamic characteristics of natural frequencies and mode shapes are extracted from the experimental data and compared with the computer simulation results. The computer simulations are based on a 3-D finite element modeling with Super-Soil-Structural (SSS) elements. The stiffness and mass of these Super-Soil-Structural elements are indicative of the foundation conditions which may be quantified by structural parameter identification techniques. Discussed in this paper are experimental test setups and initial test results for three kinds of foundation conditions at the Trinity River Bridge in Liberty County, Texas.

  13. Results Of Initial Analyses Of The Macrobatch 7 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-07-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Salt (Macro) Batch 7 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) through ARP/MCU. This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 7 strategy are identified, other than the presence of visible quantities of dark colored solids. Based upon a SRNL settling test, the solids should settle well within the months-long settling period to be employed in Tank 21H. However, SRNL recommends analyzing the solids to provide input to OLI modeling in order to evaluate the impacts of these solids to present and future salt batches.

  14. Initial Results From the 3D Hybrid Heliospheric Modeling System With Pickup Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detman, T. R.; Intriligator, D.; Dryer, M.; Sun, W.; Deehr, C.; Intriligator, J.

    2008-12-01

    Interstellar neutral hydrogen flows into the heliosphere and becomes ionized by photoionization and by charge exchange with solar wind protons. These "pickup" protons cause a slowing and heating of the solar wind flow in the outer heliosphere. We are adding the physics of these processes to our time-dependent 3D Hybrid Heliospheric Modeling System. We plan to present initial results for the "Halloween" 2003 events, and to show comparisons with both ACE and Ulysses observations and with our previous results (without pickup protons). This work is sponsored by NASA Grant NNX08AE40G and by Carmel Research Center. Detman et al., 2006, A hybrid heliospheric modeling system: Background solar wind, J. Geophys. Res., V 111, doi:10.1029/2005JA011340

  15. Note: Design and initial results of a multi-pulsed intense electron beam source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Zhang, H.; Yang, A.; Shen, Y.; Wang, W.; Wen, L.; Zhang, K.; Shi, J.; Zhang, L.; Deng, J.

    2014-06-01

    A multi-pulsed intense electron beam source is introduced, including the design and the initial experimental results. The source can generate a burst of three pulses of intense electron beams with energy of 2-3 MeV and beam intensities of around 2.5 kA. An inductive adder is chosen to generate the pulsed diode voltages and a dispenser cathode is chosen to emit electron beams. The test results indicate that the design of the source is reliable. The multi-pulsed diode voltage is up to 2.5 MV and the beam intensities are more than 2 kA at the exit of the source with small variation.

  16. Note: Design and initial results of a multi-pulsed intense electron beam source.

    PubMed

    Xia, L; Zhang, H; Yang, A; Shen, Y; Wang, W; Wen, L; Zhang, K; Shi, J; Zhang, L; Deng, J

    2014-06-01

    A multi-pulsed intense electron beam source is introduced, including the design and the initial experimental results. The source can generate a burst of three pulses of intense electron beams with energy of 2-3 MeV and beam intensities of around 2.5 kA. An inductive adder is chosen to generate the pulsed diode voltages and a dispenser cathode is chosen to emit electron beams. The test results indicate that the design of the source is reliable. The multi-pulsed diode voltage is up to 2.5 MV and the beam intensities are more than 2 kA at the exit of the source with small variation. PMID:24985872

  17. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. First topical report, Results of laboratory screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of {le} 10 {mu}m dia.

  18. 2-year outcomes in Initial survivors with Acute Liver failure: Results from a Prospective, Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Robert J.; Ellerbe, Caitlyn; Durkalski, Valerie E.; Rangnekar, Amol; Reddy, K. Rajender; Stravitz, Todd; McGuire, Brendan; Davern, Timothy; Reuben, Adrian; Liou, Iris; Fix, Oren; Ganger, Daniel R; Chung, Raymond T.; Schilsky, Mike; Han, Steven; Hynan, Linda S.; Sanders, Corron; Lee, William M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The long-term clinical outcomes in initial survivors with acute liver failure (ALF) are not well known. AIMS The aim of the current study is to provide an overview of the 2 year clinical outcomes amongst initial survivors and liver transplant (LT) recipients that were alive 3 weeks after enrollment in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group (ALFSG). METHODS Outcomes in adult ALFSG patients that were enrolled between 1998 and 2010 were reviewed. RESULTS 2-year patient survival was significantly higher in the 262 LT recipients (92.4%) compared to the 306 acetaminophen (APAP) spontaneous survivors (SS) (89.5%) and 200 non-APAP SS (75.5%) (p < 0.0001). The causes of death were similar in the 3 groups but the time to death was significantly longer in the LT recipients (p< 0.0001). Independent predictors of 2-year mortality in the APAP group were a high serum phosphate level and patient age (c-statistic = 0.65 (0.54, 0.76)), patient age and days from jaundice to ALF onset in the non-APAP group (c-statistic =0.69 (0.60, 0.78)), and patient age, days from jaundice, and higher coma grade in the LT recipients (c-statistic=0.74 (0.61, 0.87)). The LT recipients were significantly more likely to be employed and have a higher educational level (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Two-year outcomes in initial survivors of ALF are generally good but non-APAP patients have a significantly lower survival which may relate to pre-existing medical co-morbidities. Spontaneous survivors with APAP overdose experience substantial morbidity during follow-up from ongoing psychiatric and substance abuse issues. PMID:25039930

  19. Merging neutron stars. 1. Initial results for coalescence of noncorotating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. B.; Benz, W.; Piran, T.; Thielemann, F. K.

    1994-01-01

    We present three-dimensional Newtonian simulations of the coalescence of two neutron stars, using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. We begin the simulations with the two stars in a hard, circular binary, and have them spiral together as angular momentum is lost through gravitational radiation at the rate predicted by modeling the system as two point masses. We model the neutron stars as hard polytropes (gamma = 2.4) of equal mass, and investigate the effect of the initial spin of the two stars on the coalescence. The process of coalescence, from initial contact to the formation of an axially symmetric object, takes only a few orbital periods. Some of the material from the two neutron stars is shed, forming a thick disk around the central, coalesced object. The mass of this disk is dependent on the initial neutron star spins; higher spin rates result in greater mass loss and thus more massive disks. For spin rates that are most likely to be applicable to real systems, the central coalesced object has a mass of 2.4 solar mass, which is tantalizingly close to the maximum mass allowed by any neutron star equation of state for an object that is supported in part by rotation. Using a realistic nuclear equation of state, we estimate the temperature of the material after the coalescence. We find that the central object is at a temperature of approximately 10 MeV, while the disk is heated by shocks to a temperature of 2 to 4 MeV.

  20. Reference Alloy Waste Form Fabrication and Initiation of Reducing Atmosphere and Reductive Additives Study on Alloy Waste Form Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Frank; T.P. O'Holleran; P.A. Hahn

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the fabrication of two reference alloy waste forms, RAW-1(Re) and RAW-(Tc) using an optimized loading and heating method. The composition of the alloy materials was based on a generalized formulation to process various proposed feed streams resulting from the processing of used fuel. Waste elements are introduced into molten steel during alloy fabrication and, upon solidification, become incorporated into durable iron-based intermetallic phases of the alloy waste form. The first alloy ingot contained surrogate (non-radioactive), transition-metal fission products with rhenium acting as a surrogate for technetium. The second alloy ingot contained the same components as the first ingot, but included radioactive Tc-99 instead of rhenium. Understanding technetium behavior in the waste form is of particular importance due the longevity of Tc-99 and its mobility in the biosphere in the oxide form. RAW-1(Re) and RAW-1(Tc) are currently being used as test specimens in the comprehensive testing program investigating the corrosion and radionuclide release mechanisms of the representative alloy waste form. Also described in this report is the experimental plan to study the effects of reducing atmospheres and reducing additives to the alloy material during fabrication in an attempt to maximize the oxide content of waste streams that can be accommodated in the alloy waste form. Activities described in the experimental plan will be performed in FY12. The first aspect of the experimental plan is to study oxide formation on the alloy by introducing O2 impurities in the melt cover gas or from added oxide impurities in the feed materials. Reducing atmospheres will then be introduced to the melt cover gas in an attempt to minimize oxide formation during alloy fabrication. The second phase of the experimental plan is to investigate melting parameters associated with alloy fabrication to allow the separation of slag and alloy components of the melt.

  1. Nitrogen Addition as a Result of Long-Term Root Removal Affects Soil Organic Matter Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, S. E.; Lajtha, K.

    2004-12-01

    A long-term field litter manipulation site was established in a mature coniferous forest stand at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, OR, USA in 1997 in order to address how detrital inputs influence soil organic matter formation and accumulation. Soils at this site are Andisols and are characterized by high carbon (C) and low nitrogen (N) contents, due largely to the legacy of woody debris and extremely low atmospheric N deposition. Detrital treatments include trenching to remove roots, doubling wood and needle litter, and removing aboveground litter. In order to determine whether five years of detrital manipulation had altered organic matter quantity and lability at this site, soil from the top 0-5 cm of the A horizon was density fractionated to separate the labile light fraction (LF) from the more recalcitrant mineral soil in the heavy fraction (HF). Both density fractions and whole soils were incubated for one year in chambers designed such that repeated measurements of soil respiration and leachate chemistry could be made. Trenching resulted in the removal of labile root inputs from root exudates and turnover of fine roots and active mycorrhizal communities as well as an increase of available N by removing plant uptake. Since 1999, soil solution chemistry from tension lysimeters has shown greater total N and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) flux and less dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux to stream flow in the trenched plots relative to the other detrital treatments. C/N ratio and C content of both light and heavy fractions from the trenched plots were greater than other detrital treatments. In the lab incubation, over the course of a year C mineralization from these soils was suppressed. Cumulative DOC losses and CO2 efflux both were significantly less in soils from trenched plots than in other detrital treatments including controls. After day 150 of the incubation, leachates from the HF of plots with trenched treatments had a DOC/DON ratio significantly

  2. First multipoint in situ observations of electron microbursts: Initial results from the NSF FIREBIRD II mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crew, Alexander B.; Spence, Harlan E.; Blake, J. Bernard; Klumpar, David M.; Larsen, Brian A.; O'Brien, T. Paul; Driscoll, Shane; Handley, Matthew; Legere, Jason; Longworth, Stephen; Mashburn, Keith; Mosleh, Ehson; Ryhajlo, Nicholas; Smith, Sonya; Springer, Larry; Widholm, Mark

    2016-06-01

    We present initial dual spacecraft observations that for the first time both constrain the spatial scale size and provide spectral properties at medium energies of electron microbursts. We explore individual microburst events that occurred on 2 February 2015 using simultaneous observations made by the twin CubeSats which comprise the National Science Foundation (NSF) Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Bursts: Intensity, Range, and Dynamics (FIREBIRD II). During these microburst events, the two identically instrumented FIREBIRD II CubeSats were separated by as little as 11 km while traversing electron precipitation regions in low-Earth orbit. These coincident microburst events map to size scales >120 km at the equator. Given the prevalence of coincident and noncoincident events we conclude that this is of the same order of magnitude as that of the spatial scale size of electron microburst, an unknown property that is critical for quantifying their overall role in radiation belt dynamics. Finally, we present measurements of electron microbursts showing that precipitation often occurs simultaneously across a broad energy range spanning 200 keV to 1 MeV, a new form of empirical evidence that provides additional insights into the physics of microburst generation mechanisms.

  3. Implementation of STUD Pulses at the Trident Laser and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. P.; Shimada, T.; Montgomery, D. S.; Afeyan, B.; Hüller, S.

    2012-10-01

    Controlling and mitigating laser-plasma instabilities such as stimulated Brillouin scattering, stimulated Raman scattering, and crossed-beam energy transfer is important to achieve high-gain inertial fusion using laser drivers. Recent theory and simulations show that these instabilities can be largely controlled using laser pulses consisting of spike trains of uneven duration and delay (STUD) by modulating the laser on a picosecond time scale [1,2]. We have designed and implemented a STUD pulse generator at the LANL Trident Laser Facility using Fourier synthesis to produce a 0.5-ns envelope of psec-duration STUD pulses using a spatial light modulator. Initial results from laser propagation tests and measurements as well as initial laser-plasma characterization experiments will be presented.[4pt] [1] B. Afeyan and S. H"uller, ``Optimal Control of Laser Plasma Instabilities using STUD pulses,'' IFSA 2011, P.Mo.1, to appear in Euro. Phys. J. Web of Conf. (2012).[2] S. H"uller and B. Afeyan, ``Simulations of drastically reduced SBS with STUD pulses,'' IFSA 2011, O.Tu8-1, to appear in Euro. Phys. J. Web of Conf. (2012).

  4. Overview and initial results from the ANITA HiCal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockham, Jessica; Anita Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The ANtarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) is a balloon-borne apparatus that surveys the Antarctic ice looking for radio signals produced by ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos and cosmic rays. Neutrino signals originating from shower events in the ice and cosmic ray signals originating from shower events in the atmosphere arrive at ANITA after being, respectively, transmitted through or reflected from the ice surface. Since these signals interact with the air-ice interface, it is important to understand the impact of the transmission or reflection on the signal, specifically decoherence caused by surface roughness, in reconstructing the properties of the initial UHE particle. HiCal is a calibration pulsing unit employing a piezo-electric sparking device coupled to a dipole antenna that transmits a UHE-like impulsive signal. The first HiCal payload was launched on a second balloon in conjunction with ANITA-III, with the objective of transmitting pulses that would be received by ANITA both directly and as signals reflected from the ice surface. A ratio of the amplitudes of reflected to direct signals would provide a direct measurement of any decoherence effects caused by surface roughness. The design, testing, and initial results from the first HiCal flight will be discussed. NASA Grant NNX11AC47G.

  5. Initial results from the Los Alamos photoinjector-driven free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, P. G.; Bender, S. C.; Byrd, D. A.; Carlsten, B. E.; Early, J. W.; Feldman, D. W.; Feldman, R. B.; Johnson, W. J. D.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Schmitt, M. J.; Springer, R. W.; Stein, W. E.; Zaugg, T. J.

    1992-07-01

    We report initial results on the APEX (APLE prototype experiment) photoinjector-driven infrared free-electron laser (FEL). The APEX FEL is operating in support of a Boeing Aerospace and Electronics/Los Alamos National Laboratory collaboration to build the average power laser experiment (APLE). Our system uses a high quantum efficiency (3-7%) multi-alkali photocathode, illuminated with a frequency-doubled Nd:YLF mode locked laser at 21.7 MHz. The photocathode is located in this first cell of a six-cell 1.3 GHz, 6 MeV photoinjector that feeds a linac with a final energy up to 40 MeV. Because the illuminating laser pulse on our photocathode is short (10 ps), no pulse compression is required in the linac. Emittance measurements made after the second linac tank at 15 MeV have shown that a normalized emittance (for 90% of the particles) of less than 50π mm mrad can be achieved at a peak micropulse current of 300 A. Our initial lasing has been at a wavelength of 3.6 μm over a 30 μs macropulse with an electron beam energy of 35 MeV and a 2.7 cm period permanent magnet wiggler. We are continuing to characterize and optimize our system, with particular emphasis on understanding and minimizing electron beam emittance-growth mechanisms, and subsequently improving the quality of the beam delivered to the wiggler.

  6. Initial results from the Los Alamos photoinjector-driven free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshea, P. G.; Bender, S. C.; Byrd, D. A.; Carlsten, B. E.; Early, J. W.; Feldman, D. W.; Feldman, R. B.; Johnson, W. J. D.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Schmitt, M. J.

    We report initial lasing results on the APEX (APLE Prototype Experiment) photoinjector-driven infrared free-electron laser (FEL). The APEX FEL is operating in supporting a Boeing Aerospace and Electronics/Los Alamos National Laboratory collaboration to build the Average Power Laser Experiment (APLE). Our system uses a high quantum efficiency (3-7 percent) multi-alkali photocathode, illuminated with a frequency-doubled Nd:YLF mode locked laser at 21.7 MHz. The photocathode is located in this first cell of a six-cell 1.3 GHz, 6 MeV photoinjector that feeds a linac with a final energy of up to 40 MeV. Because the illuminating laser pulse on our photocathode is short (10 ps), no pulse compression is required in the linac. Emittance measurements made after the second linac tank at 15 MeV have shown that a normalized emittance (for 90 percent of the particles) of less than 50 (pi) mm-mrad can be achieved at a peak micropulse current of 300 A. Our initial lasing has been at a wavelength of 3.6 microns over a 30 micron macropulse with an electron beam energy of 35 MeV and a 2.7 cm period permanent magnet wiggler. We are continuing to characterize and optimize our system, with particular emphasis on understanding and minimizing electron beam emittance growth mechanisms, and subsequently improving the quality of the beam delivered to the wiggler.

  7. PhytoPET: Design and initial results of modular PET for plant biology

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung Joon; Kross, Brian J.; McKisson, John E.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Xi, Wenze; Zorn, Carl J.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Smith, M. P.

    2012-11-01

    We have developed a positron emission tomography (PET) system designed specifically for plant imaging in Phytotron at Duke University. Initial evaluation of a PhytoPET system to image the biodistribution of the positron emitting tracer {sup 11}C in live plants is presented. The mechanical arrangement of the detectors is designed to accommodate the unpredictable and random distribution in space of the plant parts such as stems, leaves, and roots. Prototyping such a system requires a completely new PET system design strategy different from preclinical and clinical applications. This PhytoPET design allows flexible arrangements of PET detectors based on individual standalone detector modules built from single 5 cm × 5 cm Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes. Each H8500 is coupled to a L YSO:Ce scintillator array composed of 48 × 48 elements that are 10 mm thick with a 1 mm pitch. Initial results provide planar PET images from two different arrangements (1 × 4 or 2 × 2) for flexible imaging capability.

  8. The 110 GHz ECH installation on DII-D: Status and initial experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, J.; Callis, R.W.; O`Neill, R.C.

    1997-05-01

    Two 110 GHz gyrotrons with nominal output power of 1 MW each have been installed on the DIII-D tokamak. The gyrotrons, produced by Gycom and Communications and Power Industries, are connected to the tokamak by windowless evacuated transmission lines using circular corrugated waveguide carrying the HE{sub 11} mode. Initial experiments with the Gycom gyrotron showed good central heating efficiency at the second harmonic resonance with record central electron temperatures for DIII-D in excess of 10 keV achieved. The beam spot in the DIII-D vacuum vessel was well focused, with a diameter of approximately 8 cm, and it could be steered poloidally by a remotely adjustable mirror. The injection was at 19 deg off-perpendicular for current drive and the beams could be modulated for studies of energy transport and power deposition. The system will be described and the initial physics results will be presented. A third gyrotron, also at 110 GHz, will be installed later this year. Progress with this CPI tube will be discussed and future plans for the ECH installation and physics experiments using it will be presented.

  9. Status, Plans, and Initial Results for ARES 1 Crew Launch Vehicle Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Haynes, Davy A.; Taylor, Terry L.; Hall, Robert M.; Pamadi, Bandu N.; Seaford, C. Mark

    2006-01-01

    Following the completion of NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture Study in August 2004 for the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), the Exploration Launch Office at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was assigned project management responsibilities for the design and development of the first vehicle in the architecture, the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will be used to launch astronauts to low earth orbit and rendezvous with either the International Space Station or the ESMD s earth departure stage for lunar or other future missions beyond low Earth orbit. The primary elements of the Ares I CLV project are the first stage, the upper stage, the upper stage engine, and vehicle integration. Within vehicle integration is an effort in integrated design and analysis which is comprised of a number of technical disciplines needed to support vehicle design and development. One of the important disciplines throughout the life of the project is aerodynamics. This paper will present the status, plans, and initial results of Ares I CLV aerodynamics as the project was preparing for the Ares I CLV Systems Requirements Review. Following a discussion of the specific interactions with other technical panels and a status of the current activities, the plans for aerodynamic support of the Ares I CLV until the initial crewed flights will be presented.

  10. The European Network for Translational Research in Atrial Fibrillation (EUTRAF): objectives and initial results.

    PubMed

    Schotten, Ulrich; Hatem, Stephane; Ravens, Ursula; Jaïs, Pierre; Müller, Frank-Ulrich; Goette, Andres; Rohr, Stephan; Antoons, Gudrun; Pieske, Burkert; Scherr, Daniel; Oto, Ali; Casadei, Barbara; Verheule, Sander; Cartlidge, David; Steinmeyer, Klaus; Götsche, Thorsten; Dobrev, Dobromir; Kockskämper, Jens; Lendeckel, Uwe; Fabritz, Larissa; Kirchhof, Paulus; Camm, A John

    2015-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia in the general population. As an age-related arrhythmia AF is becoming a huge socio-economic burden for European healthcare systems. Despite significant progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of AF, therapeutic strategies for AF have not changed substantially and the major challenges in the management of AF are still unmet. This lack of progress may be related to the multifactorial pathogenesis of atrial remodelling and AF that hampers the identification of causative pathophysiological alterations in individual patients. Also, again new mechanisms have been identified and the relative contribution of these mechanisms still has to be established. In November 2010, the European Union launched the large collaborative project EUTRAF (European Network of Translational Research in Atrial Fibrillation) to address these challenges. The main aims of EUTRAF are to study the main mechanisms of initiation and perpetuation of AF, to identify the molecular alterations underlying atrial remodelling, to develop markers allowing to monitor this processes, and suggest strategies to treat AF based on insights in newly defined disease mechanisms. This article reports on the objectives, the structure, and initial results of this network. PMID:26364316

  11. Status, Plans and Initial Results for Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Hall, Robert M.; Haynes, Davy A.; Pamadi, Bandu N.; Taylor, Terry L.; Seaford, C. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Following the completion of NASA s Exploration Systems Architecture Study in August 2004 for the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), the Ares Projects Office at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was assigned project management responsibilities for the design and development of the first vehicle in the architecture, the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will be used to launch astronauts to low earth orbit and rendezvous with either the International Space Station or the ESMD s earth departure stage for lunar or other future missions beyond low Earth orbit. The primary elements of the Ares I CLV project are the first stage, the upper stage, the upper stage engine, and vehicle integration. Within vehicle integration is an effort in integrated design and analysis which is comprised of a number of technical disciplines needed to support vehicle design and development. One of the important disciplines throughout the life of the project is aerodynamics. This paper will present the status, plans, and initial results of Ares I CLV aerodynamics as the project was preparing for the Ares I CLV Systems Requirements Review. Following a discussion of the specific interactions with other technical panels and a status of the current activities, the plans for aerodynamic support of the Ares I CLV until the initial crewed flights will be presented. Keywords: Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, aerodynamics, wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics

  12. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  13. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  14. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  15. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  16. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  17. Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions for the Pliocene (Plio-QUMP): Initial results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, J.O.; Collins, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Dowsett, H.J.; Hunter, S.J.; Lunt, D.J.; Pickering, S.J.; Pound, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Examination of the mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP; ~. 3.3 to 3.0. Ma BP) provides an excellent opportunity to test the ability of climate models to reproduce warm climate states, thereby assessing our confidence in model predictions. To do this it is necessary to relate the uncertainty in model simulations of mPWP climate to uncertainties in projections of future climate change. The uncertainties introduced by the model can be estimated through the use of a Perturbed Physics Ensemble (PPE). Developing on the UK Met Office Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions (QUMP) Project, this paper presents the results from an initial investigation using the end members of a PPE in a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model (HadCM3) running with appropriate mPWP boundary conditions. Prior work has shown that the unperturbed version of HadCM3 may underestimate mPWP sea surface temperatures at higher latitudes. Initial results indicate that neither the low sensitivity nor the high sensitivity simulations produce unequivocally improved mPWP climatology relative to the standard. Whilst the high sensitivity simulation was able to reconcile up to 6 ??C of the data/model mismatch in sea surface temperatures in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (relative to the standard simulation), it did not produce a better prediction of global vegetation than the standard simulation. Overall the low sensitivity simulation was degraded compared to the standard and high sensitivity simulations in all aspects of the data/model comparison. The results have shown that a PPE has the potential to explore weaknesses in mPWP modelling simulations which have been identified by geological proxies, but that a 'best fit' simulation will more likely come from a full ensemble in which simulations that contain the strengths of the two end member simulations shown here are combined. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. MER Field Geologic Traverse in Gusev Crater, Mars: Initial Results From the Perspective of Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L.; Cabrol, N.; desMarais, D.; Farmer, J.; Golmbek, M.; Grant, J.; Greely, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Haskin, L.; Arvidson, R.

    2004-01-01

    This report casts the initial results of the traverse and science investigations by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit at Gusev crater [1] in terms of data sets commonly used in field geologic investigations: Local mapping of geologic features, analyses of selected samples, and their location within the local map, and the regional context of the field traverse in terms of the larger geologic and physiographic region. These elements of the field method are represented in the MER characterization of the Gusev traverse by perspective-based geologic/morphologic maps, the placement of the results from Mossbauer, APXS, Microscopic Imager, Mini-TES and Pancam multispectral studies in context within this geologic/ morphologic map, and the placement of the overall traverse in the context of narrow-angle MOC (Mars Orbiter Camera) and descent images. A major campaign over a significance fraction of the mission will be the first robotic traverse of the ejecta from a Martian impact crater along an approximate radial from the crater center. The Mars Exploration Rovers have been conceptually described as 'robotic field geologists', that is, a suite of instruments with mobility that enables far-field traverses to multiple sites located within a regional map/image base at which in situ analyses may be done. Initial results from MER, where the field geologic method has been used throughout the initial course of the investigation, confirm that this field geologic model is applicable for remote planetary surface exploration. The field geologic method makes use of near-field geologic characteristics ('outcrops') to develop an understanding of the larger geologic context through continuous loop of rational steps focused on real-time hypothesis identification and testing. This poster equates 'outcrops' with the locations of in situ investigations and 'regional context' with the geology over distance of several kilometers. Using this fundamental field geologic method, we have

  19. Optical design and initial results from NIST's AMMT/TEMPS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, Steven; Lane, Brandon; Neira, Jorge; Mekhontsev, Sergey; Vlasea, Mihaela; Hanssen, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    NIST's Physical Measurement and Engineering Laboratories are jointly developing the Additive Manufacturing Measurement Test bed (AMMT)/ Temperature and Emittance of Melts, Powders and Solids (TEMPS) facilities. These facilities will be co-located on an open architecture laser-based powder bed fusion system allowing users full access to the system's operation parameters. This will provide users with access to machine-independent monitoring and control of the powder bed fusion process. In this paper there will be emphasis on the AMMT, which incorporates in-line visible light collection optics for monitoring and feedback control of the powder bed fusion process. We shall present an overview of the AMMT/TEMPs program and it goals. The optical and mechanical design of the open architecture powder-bed fusion system and the AMMT will be also be described. In addition, preliminary measurement results from the system along with the current system status of the system the will be described.

  20. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Second topical report, Results of bench-scale screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-08-13

    ADA Technologies, Inc. (ADA) has completed the bench-scale testing phase of a program to evaluate additives that will improve the collection of fine particles in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A bench-scale ESP was installed at the Consolidation Coal Company (CONSOL) combustion research and development facility in Library, PA in order to conduct the evaluation. During a two-week test, four candidate additives were injected into the flue gas ahead of a 100 acfm ESP to determine the effect on fly ash collectability. Two additives were found to reduce the emissions from the ESP. Additives ``C`` and ``D`` performed better than initially anticipated -- reducing emissions initially by 17%. Emissions were reduced by 27% after the ESP was modified by the installation of baffles to minimize sneakage. In addition to the measured improvements in performance, no detrimental effects (i.e., electrode fouling) were observed in the operation of the ESP during the testing. The measures of success identified for the bench-scale phase of the program have been surpassed. Since the additives will affect only non-rapping reentrainment particle losses, it is expected that an even greater improvement in particle collection will be observed in larger-scale ESPs. Therefore, positive results are anticipated during the pilot-scale phase of the program and during a future full-scale demonstration test. A preliminary economic analysis was performed to evaluate the cost of the additive process and to compare its costs against alternative means for reducing emissions from ESPs. The results show that conditioning with additive C at a rate of 0.05% (wt. additive to wt. fly ash) is much less expensive than adding new ESP capacity, and more cost competitive than existing chemical conditioning processes. Preliminary chemical analysis of conditioned fly ash shows that it passes the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure criteria.

  1. Initial Results from an In-Vacuum Undulator in the NSLS X-ray Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, P.M.; Krinsky, S.; Rakowsky, G.; Solomon, L.; Tanabe, T.; Kitamura, H.

    1997-11-01

    A short period, in vacuum undulator for the NSLS X-Ray Ring has been developed and has achieved its project design goals during commissioning studies. The device is called IVUN (In-Vacuum UNdulator) and employs magnet arrays (31 periods, with an 11 mm period) developed at SPring-8, while the requisite vacuum chamber and mechanical systems were developed at the NSLS. At a magnet gap of 3.3 mm, IVUN produces 4.6 keV radiation in the fundamental, with useful photon fluxes in both the 2nd and 3rd harmonics. The magnet gap is adjustable between 2 mm and 10 mm. A brief overview of IVUN is presented, together with initial commissioning results: the dependence of electron beam lifetime and bremsstrahlung on magnet gap, and the output radiation spectrum.

  2. Data processing and initial results from the CE-3 Extreme Ultraviolet Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jian-Qing; Liu, Jian-Jun; He, Fei; Yan, Wei; Ren, Xin; Tan, Xu; He, Ling-Ping; Chen, Bo; Zuo, Wei; Wen, Wei-Bin; Su, Yan; Zou, Yong-Liao; Li, Chun-Lai

    2014-12-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Camera (EUVC) onboard the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) lander is used to observe the structure and dynamics of Earth's plasmasphere from the Moon. By detecting the resonance line emission of helium ions (He+) at 30.4 nm, the EUVC images the entire plasmasphere with a time resolution of 10 min and a spatial resolution of about 0.1 Earth radius (RE) in a single frame. We first present details about the data processing from EUVC and the data acquisition in the commissioning phase, and then report some initial results, which reflect the basic features of the plasmasphere well. The photon count and emission intensity of EUVC are consistent with previous observations and models, which indicate that the EUVC works normally and can provide high quality data for future studies.

  3. Initial results on fault diagnosis of DSN antenna control assemblies using pattern recognition techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, P.; Mellstrom, J.

    1990-01-01

    Initial results obtained from an investigation using pattern recognition techniques for identifying fault modes in the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70 m antenna control loops are described. The overall background to the problem is described, the motivation and potential benefits of this approach are outlined. In particular, an experiment is described in which fault modes were introduced into a state-space simulation of the antenna control loops. By training a multilayer feed-forward neural network on the simulated sensor output, classification rates of over 95 percent were achieved with a false alarm rate of zero on unseen tests data. It concludes that although the neural classifier has certain practical limitations at present, it also has considerable potential for problems of this nature.

  4. Gas dynamics, accretion, and evolution of Algols: Initial results for three representative systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gimenez, A.; Gonzalez-Riestra, Rosario; Guinan, Edward F.; Kondo, Yoji; Mccluskey, G.; Bradstreet, D. H.; Mccook, G. P.; Dorren, J. D.; Johansson, S.; Sahade, J.

    1990-01-01

    IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) observations were made around the orbits of three Algol-type binaries: R Arae, U Cephei and Algol. These stars were selected to represent, respectively, the rapid, moderate and slow phases of mass transfer and mass loss in Algols. The data was obtained to derive maps of gas flow and mass loss, to study accretion processes and kinetic heating, and to investigate the importance of magnetic fields in these systems. Continuous observations were made from GSFC and VILSPA over 4 1/3 consecutive days during 10 to 14 Sep. 1989. A total of 100 spectra are obtained. This is the first time that Algol systems are observed continuously over their orbits with IUE. Initial results from this program are discussed.

  5. Federating Clinical Data from Six Pediatric Hospitals: Process and Initial Results from the PHIS+ Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Narus, Scott P.; Srivastava, Rajendu; Gouripeddi, Ramkiran; Livne, Oren E.; Mo, Peter; Bickel, Jonathan P.; de Regt, David; Hales, Joseph W.; Kirkendall, Eric; Stepanek, Richard L.; Toth, Jamie; Keren, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Integrating clinical data with administrative data across disparate electronic medical record systems will help improve the internal and external validity of comparative effectiveness research. The Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) currently collects administrative information from 43 pediatric hospital members of the Child Health Corporation of America (CHCA). Members of the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) network have partnered with CHCA and the University of Utah Biomedical Informatics Core to create an enhanced version of PHIS that includes clinical data. A specialized version of a data federation architecture from the University of Utah (“FURTHeR”) is being developed to integrate the clinical data from the member hospitals into a common repository (“PHIS+”) that is joined with the existing administrative data. We report here on our process for the first phase of federating lab data, and present initial results. PMID:22195159

  6. Quantitative CT for volumetric analysis of medical images: initial results for liver tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnaz, Alexander S.; Snider, James; Chibuzor, Eneh; Esposito, Giuseppe; Wilson, Emmanuel; Yaniv, Ziv; Cohen, Emil; Cleary, Kevin

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative CT for volumetric analysis of medical images is increasingly being proposed for monitoring patient response during chemotherapy trials. An integrated MATLAB GUI has been developed for an oncology trial at Georgetown University Hospital. This GUI allows for the calculation and visualization of the volume of a lesion. The GUI provides an estimate of the volume of the tumor using a semi-automatic segmentation technique. This software package features a fixed parameter adaptive filter from the ITK toolkit and a tumor segmentation algorithm to reduce inter-user variability and to facilitate rapid volume measurements. The system also displays a 3D rendering of the segmented tumor, allowing the end user to have not only a quantitative measure of the tumor volume, but a qualitative view as well. As an initial validation test, several clinical cases were hand-segmented, and then compared against the results from the tool, showing good agreement.

  7. Initial Results of Multi-Frequency Electron Cyclotron Heating in the Levitated Dipole Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.K.; Garnier, D.T.; Mauel, M.; Ortiz, E.E.; Mahar, S.; Boxer, A.C.; Ellsworth, J.L.; Karim, I.; Kesner, J.

    2005-09-26

    The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) has created high-beta, hot-electron plasmas that are confined by a strong dipole electromagnet via multiple-frequency electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). Multiple frequency ECRH is used to investigate how variation of the power deposition profile may be used to adjust the plasma density and pressure profiles. The initial experiments have been performed using up to 3 kW at 2.45 GHz and 3 kW at 6.4 GHz. Variations included switching on and off a single source while injecting constant power with the other source. We have also investigated the role of magnetic shaping, using external coils, on ECRH phenomena and plasma profile control. The preliminary results of these experiments will be presented.

  8. Gravitational Waves from Known Pulsars: Results from the Initial Detector Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Ceron, E. A.; Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. B.; Gehrels, N.; Graff, P. B.; Kanner, J. B.; Hobbs, G. B.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of searches for gravitational waves from a large selection of pulsars using data from the most recent science runs (S6, VSR2 and VSR4) of the initial generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory) and Virgo. We do not see evidence for gravitational wave emission from any of the targeted sources but produce upper limits on the emission amplitude. We highlight the results from seven young pulsars with large spin-down luminosities. We reach within a factor of five of the canonical spin-down limit for all seven of these, whilst for the Crab and Vela pulsars we further surpass their spin-down limits. We present new or updated limits for 172 other pulsars (including both young and millisecond pulsars). Now that the detectors are undergoing major upgrades, and, for completeness, we bring together all of the most up-to-date results from all pulsars searched for during the operations of the first-generation LIGO, Virgo and GEO600 detectors. This gives a total of 195 pulsars including the most recent results described in this paper.

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of FEAST-Metal Fuel Performance Code: Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Edelmann, Paul Guy; Williams, Brian J.; Unal, Cetin; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2012-06-27

    This memo documents the completion of the LANL milestone, M3FT-12LA0202041, describing methodologies and initial results using FEAST-Metal. The FEAST-Metal code calculations for this work are being conducted at LANL in support of on-going activities related to sensitivity analysis of fuel performance codes. The objective is to identify important macroscopic parameters of interest to modeling and simulation of metallic fuel performance. This report summarizes our preliminary results for the sensitivity analysis using 6 calibration datasets for metallic fuel developed at ANL for EBR-II experiments. Sensitivity ranking methodology was deployed to narrow down the selected parameters for the current study. There are approximately 84 calibration parameters in the FEAST-Metal code, of which 32 were ultimately used in Phase II of this study. Preliminary results of this sensitivity analysis led to the following ranking of FEAST models for future calibration and improvements: fuel conductivity, fission gas transport/release, fuel creep, and precipitation kinetics. More validation data is needed to validate calibrated parameter distributions for future uncertainty quantification studies with FEAST-Metal. Results of this study also served to point out some code deficiencies and possible errors, and these are being investigated in order to determine root causes and to improve upon the existing code models.

  10. Gravitational waves from known pulsars: Results from the initial detector era

    SciTech Connect

    Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M. R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Ajith, P.; Abbott, T.; Accadia, T.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Affeldt, C.; Allen, B.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Allocca, A.; Ceron, E. Amador; Amariutei, D.; Collaboration: LIGO Scientific Collaboration and The Virgo Collaboration; and others

    2014-04-20

    We present the results of searches for gravitational waves from a large selection of pulsars using data from the most recent science runs (S6, VSR2 and VSR4) of the initial generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory) and Virgo. We do not see evidence for gravitational wave emission from any of the targeted sources but produce upper limits on the emission amplitude. We highlight the results from seven young pulsars with large spin-down luminosities. We reach within a factor of five of the canonical spin-down limit for all seven of these, whilst for the Crab and Vela pulsars we further surpass their spin-down limits. We present new or updated limits for 172 other pulsars (including both young and millisecond pulsars). Now that the detectors are undergoing major upgrades, and, for completeness, we bring together all of the most up-to-date results from all pulsars searched for during the operations of the first-generation LIGO, Virgo and GEO600 detectors. This gives a total of 195 pulsars including the most recent results described in this paper.

  11. Gravitational Waves from Known Pulsars: Results from the Initial Detector Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, R. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S. H.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Belopolski, I.; Bergmann, G.; Berliner, J. M.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Bessis, D.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhadbhade, T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bowers, J.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brannen, C. A.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castiglia, A.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Deleeuw, E.; Deléglise, S.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Dmitry, K.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W.; Favata, M.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R.; Flaminio, R.; Foley, E.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Griffo, C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B.; Hall, E.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Horrom, T.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Hua, Z.; Huang, V.; Huerta, E. A.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of searches for gravitational waves from a large selection of pulsars using data from the most recent science runs (S6, VSR2 and VSR4) of the initial generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory) and Virgo. We do not see evidence for gravitational wave emission from any of the targeted sources but produce upper limits on the emission amplitude. We highlight the results from seven young pulsars with large spin-down luminosities. We reach within a factor of five of the canonical spin-down limit for all seven of these, whilst for the Crab and Vela pulsars we further surpass their spin-down limits. We present new or updated limits for 172 other pulsars (including both young and millisecond pulsars). Now that the detectors are undergoing major upgrades, and, for completeness, we bring together all of the most up-to-date results from all pulsars searched for during the operations of the first-generation LIGO, Virgo and GEO600 detectors. This gives a total of 195 pulsars including the most recent results described in this paper.

  12. What do Patients Want From Their Radiation Oncologist? Initial Results From a Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatnagar, Ajay K.; Heron, Dwight E.; Flickinger, John C.

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: To assess patients' initial physician preferences using a newly developed instrument. Methods and Materials: A total of 182 patients with a primary diagnosis of prostate, breast, or lung cancer referred for consultation to University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Department of Radiation Oncology enrolled in our institutional review board-approved protocol. All patients completed patient preference instrument surveys before meeting their radiation oncologist. Survey responses to 10 statements were categorized into three groups (agree, neutral, or disagree), and the association of survey responses by cancer site was tested with chi-squared tests. Results: Ninety-nine percent of all patients preferred to be addressed by their first name in encounters with their radiation oncologist. There were significant associations of Item 3 (hand holding) with gender (p = 0.039) and education (p = 0.028). The responses to Item 5, a statement that patients would feel uncomfortable if the radiation oncologist offered to hug them at the end of treatment, was significantly associated with disease site (p < 0.0001). Further analysis was performed for Item 5 and revealed that the male lung cancer patients had a much higher rate of disagreement with Item 5 compared with prostate cancer patients (37% vs. 18%). Conclusions: Results of this study may afford greater insight and foster better understanding of what patients want from their radiation oncologist. For breast, lung, and prostate cancer patients, initial preferences for their radiation oncologist are generally similar, according to this tool. However, there are important difference among cancer sites (and gender) regarding physical contact at the end of treatment.

  13. Initial GPS scintillation results from CASES receiver at South Pole, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, K. B.; Bust, G. S.; Clauer, C. R.; Kim, H.; Macon, J. E.; Humphreys, T. E.; Bhatti, J. A.; Musko, S. B.; Crowley, G.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2012-10-01

    Connected Autonomous Space Environment Sensor (CASES) Global Positioning System (GPS) software-defined receivers developed for ionospheric scintillation studies have been deployed on Autonomous Adaptive Low-Power Instrument Platforms (AAL-PIP) at South Pole, Antarctica. In this paper, we describe the AAL-PIP experimental setup focusing on CASES. We explain in detail the method developed for analyzing CASES data, and report initial AAL-PIP CASES results. Furthermore, we compare the CASES measurements with those from a modified Novatel GSV4004 GPS Ionospheric Scintillations and TEC Monitor (GISTM) receiver at the South Pole. CASES receivers have been successfully deployed and reliably operated in equatorial and midlatitude regions. Four of these GPS receivers, for the first time, are deployed in high-latitude regions as a part of the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded project of deploying space science instrument platforms, AAL-PIPs, in Antarctica since December 2010-2011. We present initial scintillation results recorded by a CASES receiver at South Pole during the storm on 24 January 2012 along with AAL-PIP magnetometer observations. We have deduced that the CASES receiver scintillation observations agree with those from the Novatel GPS scintillation receiver. Since this is the first time a CASES receiver has been deployed to operate in a high latitude, low temperature, and low humidity environment, we consider this comparison a demonstration of its reliable operation as a science-grade scintillation receiver in such conditions. We plan to study high latitude ionospheric irregularities by using observations from CASES and other ancillary instruments from Antarctica coupled with physical parameters derived from models.

  14. Tracking Jupiter’s Quasi-Quadrennial Oscillation and Mid-Latitude Zonal Waves: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greathouse, Thomas K.; Orton, Glenn S.; Morales-Juberias, Raul; Fletcher, Leigh N.; DeWitt, Curtis N.; Cosentino, Rick; Richter, Matthew J.; Lacy, John H.

    2014-11-01

    We report on initial results of a long term observational study to track the temporal and 3-dimensional evolution of the Quasi-Quadrennial Oscillation (QQO) and the propagation and evolution of mid-latitude zonal waves in Jupiter’s stratosphere. These wave-driven phenomena affect variations in Jupiter’s vertical and horizontal temperature field, which can be inferred by measuring methane emission in the thermal infrared at 1245 cm-1. Using TEXES, the Texas Echelon cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph, mounted on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility we observed high-spectral resolution (R=75,000) scan maps of Jupiter’s mid-latitudes in January and October 2012, February 2013, and February 2014. These initial datasets were taken using several different observing strategies in an attempt to optimize efficiency and mapping accuracy in preparation for our prime study period (2014-2019). We will present the zonally averaged inferred thermal structure over ±30° latitude and between 10 and 0.01 mbar, showing the QQO’s downward progression along with inferred 3-dimensional thermal maps (latitude, longitude, pressure) displaying a multitude of vertically isolated waves and eddies. These results set the stage for an unprecedented dataset that will: 1) significantly improve the determination of the period and vertical descent velocity of Jupiter’s QQO and map its 3-dimensional spatial structure; 2) measure the zonal wavenumbers, vertical wavelengths, zonal group velocities and lifetimes of transient mid-latitude waves that are impossible to obtain from historic mid-infrared imaging datasets due to their lack of vertical resolution; and 3) record the thermal state of Jupiter’s stratosphere in detail prior to, during, and after Juno’s prime mission to assist in analysis of Juno Mission observations from the Waves, JIRAM, and UVS instruments.

  15. Dual Beam FIB for Imaging, Nano-Sectioning and Sample Preparation of Spores: Initial Results.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, M A; Fluss, M J; Schaldach, C

    2004-04-26

    Results from the first use of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technology to section Bacillus spores at LLNL in a dual-beam (electron and ion) instrument is presented and discussed. With the use of a dual-beam instrument, high resolution imaging of single spores using low voltage scanning electron microscopy followed by FIB sectioning, SEM imaging of internal structure of the same spore is demonstrated to be possible. Additionally, FIB is shown to be able to precisely micro-machine spores thus potentially facilitating micro-scale experiments on single spores.

  16. Characterization of explosive devices in luggage: Initial results of the ART-IIC test series

    SciTech Connect

    Akerman, M.A.; Kass, M.D.; Clough, B.T.

    1993-12-31

    Characteristics and damage associated with exploded luggage aboard aircraft are presented in this paper. Plastic-sided suitcases filled with typical travel possessions were exploded inside the fuselage of decomissioned B-52 aircraft. Multilayered shield panels, mounted to one side of the fuselage, served to protect the aircraft body and flight system components from both the blast wave and exploded fragments. The resulting damage produced by the explosions was characterized and the absorbing characteristics of the shielding were evaluated. In addition, the energy of the luggage fragments was estimated.

  17. Regional Collaboration Among Urban Area Security Initiative Regions: Results of the Johns Hopkins Urban Area Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J.; Resnick, Beth A.; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration–related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments. PMID:25398073

  18. Regional collaboration among Urban Area Security Initiative regions: results of the Johns Hopkins urban area survey.

    PubMed

    Errett, Nicole A; Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J; Resnick, Beth A; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration-related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments. PMID:25398073

  19. Initial experimental results from the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alling, A.; Allen, J.; Dempster, W.; Nelson, M.; Silverstone, S.; van Thillo, M.

    Results from the closure and initial closed ecological system research in the "Laboratory Biosphere" facility in Santa Fe, New Mexico (USA) will be presented. The facility was initially sealed in April 2002; and the first crop experiments with soybeans commenced in May 2002. The Laboratory Biosphere was created by the team which invented, built and operated Biosphere 2 during its years of closed ecological system functioning (1991-94) and is a testbed to build upon the lessons learned. It is an opportunity to continue experiments with a sustainable soil based agriculture system unlike most bioregenerative systems which use hydroponic systems dependent on a supply of nutrient solution. Because of the small volume of the system (34-45 m3), developing mechanisms to keep parameters like carbon dioxide within acceptable limits will be critical. Recycle of nutrients within the system to maintain soil fertility; and the ability of the inherent complex ecology of soils and a soil bed reactor to handle trace gas buildups are primary research goals. Other research goals are determination of short and long-term exchanges between soil, plants and atmosphere, especially for carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, NOX, and methane, impact of cultivation (tillage) on soil/atmospheric exchanges., investigation and development of strategies to return nutrients to the soil to maintain fertility, e.g. shredding biomass vs. composting, impact on soil chemistry of returning leachate water to the soil as irrigation water. The microbiological status of soils prior to experiments and over time will allow measurement of changes in microbial diversity and the determination of the role of soil microbes in biogeochemical cycles. Integration of automated sensor and control in the system with real-time modeling has importance for operation, research and educational outreach programs. The Laboratory Biosphere is intended to test and develop a "cybersphere" (network of shared intelligence) that may be

  20. 42 CFR 476.93 - Opportunity to discuss proposed initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.93 Section 476.93 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation. Before a QIO reaches an initial denial determination or makes a change as a result of a DRG validation, it must— (a) Promptly notify...

  1. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. (a) General timeframe. A QIO or... initial denial determination or a change as a result of a DRG validation. (b) Extended timeframes. (1)...

  2. 42 CFR 476.93 - Opportunity to discuss proposed initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.93 Section 476.93 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation. Before a QIO reaches an initial denial determination or makes a change as a result of a DRG validation, it must— (a) Promptly notify...

  3. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. (a) General timeframe. A QIO or... initial denial determination or a change as a result of a DRG validation. (b) Extended timeframes. (1)...

  4. Imaging infrared polarimetry: initial results and potential in detection of scatterable mines and surface disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Herman E.; Jones, Stephen H.; Iannarilli, Frank J., Jr.

    1999-08-01

    Over the past year with the support of the Army Humanitarian Demining MURI, Aerodyne has substantially moved forward in developing and demonstrating the value of an affordable and fieldworthy IR polarimetric hyperspectral imager for inclusion in multisensor demining. Such technology promises powerful clutter suppression and enhancement of man made objects, particularly applicable to the reliable detection of scatterable mines, especially plastics, and any UXO that are partially exposed. We have achieved the first 3 steps of a 4 step, controlled-risk program defined as follows: (1) LWIR Spectral Polarimeter to demonstrate the effectiveness of combined polarimetric and hyperspectral discrimination capabilities in observations on static scenes; (2) LWIR Uncooled FPA Imaging Polarimeter to verify the sensitivity of an affordable Uncooled FPA in a broadband configuration against static scenes; (3) Multispectral IMaging Polarimeter to quantify clutter rejection performance improvements to be realized from multispectral imaging polarimetry; and (4) IR Polarimetric Hyperspectral Imager designed with optimal spatial and spectral resolution and sufficient throughput to achieve the reliable performance required in surface mine and UXO detection applications. We present results for Steps 1 and 2, and initial result for Step 3 from the ongoing demonstrations in simulated surface mine detection.

  5. Initial Results from the CRRES/MICS Empirical Model of Ion Plasma in the Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudepierre, Seth; Roeder, James; Chen, Margaret; Lemon, Colby; Guild, Timothy

    2013-04-01

    We present initial results from a recently developed empirical model of low energy ion plasma (~1-300 keV/e) in the inner magnetosphere. This model is constructed from data taken by the Magnetospheric Ion Composition Spectrometer (MICS) on-board the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). The model has been constructed in a similar fashion to the Roeder et al., [2005] CAMMICE/MICS model, which used NASA Polar satellite data. The orbital differences between CRRES (GTO) and Polar (highly-inclined polar orbit) result in each spacecraft sampling different portions of the ion pitch-angle distributions. Such models can be used to estimate the average flux for major ion species (e.g. H+, He+, He++, O+) along any orbit in the inner magnetosphere. To construct this new model, CRRES/MICS ion fluxes were computed and sorted into bins of magnetic coordinates L, MLT, MLAT, equatorial pitch-angle and activity indices. Preliminary comparisons are made between the CAMMICE/MICS and CRRES/MICS models, highlighting the strengths and limitations of both. We also consider the average O+ ion flux deduced from the model in various spatial and activity ranges and qualitatively compare with what is to be expected from O+ ion transport and loss processes.

  6. Evaluation of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for remote wetland monitoring: design and initial results.

    PubMed

    Watras, Carl J; Morrow, Michael; Morrison, Ken; Scannell, Sean; Yaziciaglu, Steve; Read, Jordan S; Hu, Yu-Hen; Hanson, Paul C; Kratz, Tim

    2014-02-01

    Here, we describe and evaluate two low-power wireless sensor networks (WSNs) designed to remotely monitor wetland hydrochemical dynamics over time scales ranging from minutes to decades. Each WSN (one student-built and one commercial) has multiple nodes to monitor water level, precipitation, evapotranspiration, temperature, and major solutes at user-defined time intervals. Both WSNs can be configured to report data in near real time via the internet. Based on deployments in two isolated wetlands, we report highly resolved water budgets, transient reversals of flow path, rates of transpiration from peatlands and the dynamics of chromophoric-dissolved organic matter and bulk ionic solutes (specific conductivity)-all on daily or subdaily time scales. Initial results indicate that direct precipitation and evapotranspiration dominate the hydrologic budget of both study wetlands, despite their relatively flat geomorphology and proximity to elevated uplands. Rates of transpiration from peatland sites were typically greater than evaporation from open waters but were more challenging to integrate spatially. Due to the high specific yield of peat, the hydrologic gradient between peatland and open water varied with precipitation events and intervening periods of dry out. The resultant flow path reversals implied that the flux of solutes across the riparian boundary varied over daily time scales. We conclude that WSNs can be deployed in remote wetland-dominated ecosystems at relatively low cost to assess the hydrochemical impacts of weather, climate, and other perturbations. PMID:24046241

  7. Epistemology and expectations survey about experimental physics: Development and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hirokawa, Takako; Finkelstein, Noah; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2014-06-01

    In response to national calls to better align physics laboratory courses with the way physicists engage in research, we have developed an epistemology and expectations survey to assess how students perceive the nature of physics experiments in the contexts of laboratory courses and the professional research laboratory. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS) evaluates students' epistemology at the beginning and end of a semester. Students respond to paired questions about how they personally perceive doing experiments in laboratory courses and how they perceive an experimental physicist might respond regarding their research. Also, at the end of the semester, the E-CLASS assesses a third dimension of laboratory instruction, students' reflections on their course's expectations for earning a good grade. By basing survey statements on widely embraced learning goals and common critiques of teaching labs, the E-CLASS serves as an assessment tool for lab courses across the undergraduate curriculum and as a tool for physics education research. We present the development, evidence of validation, and initial formative assessment results from a sample that includes 45 classes at 20 institutions. We also discuss feedback from instructors and reflect on the challenges of large-scale online administration and distribution of results.

  8. Results & Lessons Learned from 1:1 Laptop Initiatives: A Collective Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Lori B.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last ten years, the emergence of 1:1 programs has grown increasingly in popularity. More and more schools are implementing 1:1 programs as a means for increasing student achievement and performance. In fact, few modern educational initiatives have been as widespread and costly as the integration of laptop initiatives into education. As a…

  9. [LVA Rheinland-Pfalz Model Project of day care rehabilitation: initial results].

    PubMed

    Bührlen, B; Jäckel, W H

    1999-08-01

    A study is carried out to examine a demonstration project for partial hospitalization rehabilitation of patients of the pension insurance scheme of Rhineland-Palatinate (LVA Rheinland-Pfalz) using a parallel design. In four centers for the rehabilitation of musculoskeletal diseases the patients are assessed at the beginning and at the end of rehabilitation as well as six and twelve months post using the IRES questionnaire, a phycisians' questionnaire for the documentation of medical parameters, an instrument for client satisfaction and additional questionnaires. In addition the treatment and the costs on the side of the pension insurance agency are examined. Partial hospitalization rehabilitation clients are compared to inpatient ones from three rehabilitation hospitals. Preliminary analyses of patient self-report data show a strong similarity of inpatient and partial hospitalization clients as far as admission parameters, rehabilitation treatment, perception of rehabilitation and its effects are concerned. These results indicate that the pension insurance schemes' concept of interdisciplinary rehabilitation can be realized in partial hospitalization rehabilitation centers as well, achieving an outcome very similar to inpatient rehabilitation. PMID:10507103

  10. Joint NASA/EPA AVIRIS Analysis in the Chesapeake Bay Region: Plans and Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Lee; Stokely, Peter; Lobitz, Brad; Shelton, Gary

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center is performing an AVIRIS demonstration project in conjunction with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (Region 3). NASA and EPA scientists have jointly defined a Study Area in eastern Virginia to include portions of the Chesapeake Bay, southern Delmarva Peninsula, and the mouths of the York and James Rivers. Several environmental issues have been identified for study. These include, by priority: 1) water constituent analysis in the Chesapeake Bay, 2) mapping of submerged aquatic vegetation in the Bay, 3) detection of vegetation stress related to Superfund sites at the Yorktown Naval Weapons Station, and 4) wetland species analysis in the York River vicinity. In support of this project, three lines of AVIRIS data were collected during the Wallops Island deployment on 17 August 1997. The remote sensing payload included AVIRIS, MODIS Airborne Simulator and an RC-10 color infrared film camera. The AVIRIS data were delivered to Ames from the JPL AVIRIS Data Facility, on 29 September 1997. Quicklook images indicate nominal data acquisition, and at the current time an atmospheric correction is being applied. Water constituent analysis of the Bay is our highest priority based on EPA interest and available collateral data, both from the surface and from other remote sensing instruments. Constituents of interest include suspended sediments, chlorophyll-a and accessory pigments, Analysis steps will include: verification of data quality, location of study sites in imagery, incorporation of relevant field data from EPA and other Chesapeake Bay cooperators, processing of imagery to show phenomenon of interest, verification of results with cooperators. By 1st quarter CY98 we plan to circulate initial results to NASA and EPA management for review. In the longer term we will finalize documentation, prepare results for publication, and complete any needed technology transfer to EPA remote sensing personnel.

  11. Initial trials results for image stabilisation using a rugged low noise gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, D. G.

    1992-11-01

    Several motion sensors of novel design have been developed during the past decade with the guided weapon or projectile market as the target user. In addition to technical performance requirements, all such sensors must be very robust with small size and mass, low power consumption and low cost. START is an angular rate sensor developed for this purpose. However, the guided munitions market has been very slow to evolve and new applications were sought in which the characteristics listed above, plus a very long operating and shelf life could be exploited. The field of image stabilization seemed promising and applications for use were followed up. The paper describes the characteristics of START which make it suited to this field and discusses some of the specific applications and the results achieved in tests of these equipments.

  12. THE BURRELL-OPTICAL-KEPLER-SURVEY (BOKS). I. SURVEY DESCRIPTION AND INITIAL RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmeier, John J.; Kutsko, Rebecca M.; Howell, Steve B.; Sherry, William; Von Braun, Kaspar; Ciardi, David R.; Everett, Mark E.; Paul Harding; Mihos, J. Christopher; Rudick, Craig S.; Lee, Ting-Hui; Van Belle, Gerard T.

    2011-07-15

    We present the initial results of a 40 night contiguous ground-based campaign of time series photometric observations of a 1.39 deg{sup 2} field located within the NASA Kepler Mission field of view. The goal of this pre-launch survey was to search for transiting extrasolar planets and to provide independent variability information of stellar sources. We have gathered a data set containing light curves of 54,687 stars from which we have created a statistical sub-sample of 13,786 stars between 14 < r < 18.5 and have statistically examined each light curve to test for variability. We present a summary of our preliminary photometric findings including the overall level and content of stellar variability in this portion of the Kepler field and give some examples of unusual variable stars found within. We present a preliminary catalog of 2,457 candidate variable stars, of which 776 show signs of periodicity. We also present three potential exoplanet candidates, all of which should be observable by the Kepler mission.

  13. Cosmic noise absorption and ionospheric currents at the South Pole and Frobisher Bay: Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, T.J. ); Wolfe, A. AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ ); Lanzerotti, L.J. )

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the conjugacy of auroral and ionospheric phenomena at very high latitudes are an important aspect of magnetospheric physics research. The extent to which auroral phenomena in opposite hemispheres are similar in occurrence and in the details of their temporal, spatial, and spectral characteristics can be used to infer the commonality of the source(s) of the disturbances. At one extreme in this consideration is the questions of whether sources lie on open or closed magnetic field lines. The University of Maryland and AT T Bell Laboratories have operated riometers and fluxgate magnetometers, respectively, at South Pole since 1982. Corresponding measurements at Frobisher Bay were begun in mid-1985. Riometers record the absorption of cosmic radio noise in the ionosphere produced by the enhances precipitation of energetic charged particles. The studies of the riometer data relate mainly to the effects of the influx of magnetospheric electrons, which give rise to auroral absorption of the cosmic signals. Intense currents (electrojets) that often flow in the ionosphere in association with auroral absorption events produce magnetic field changes that can be recorded on the ground by appropriately sited magnetometers. This report presents some initial results of the comparison of the two data sets.

  14. Interprofessional curriculum development achieves results: Initial evidence from a dementia-care protocol.

    PubMed

    Annear, Michael James; Goldberg, Lynette R; Lo, Amanda; Robinson, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    This report describes the outcomes of a five-day, protocol-based interprofessional education (IPE) initiative to prepare undergraduate medical, nursing, and paramedic students for collaborative work with adults with dementia. Clinical placements provided a structured and supervised IPE experience for 127 students in two Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACFs) in Hobart, Australia, during 2013 and 2014. The IPE activity was based on a seven-step protocol formulated by an interprofessional team of educators and aged care practitioners that revolved around collaborative assessments of adults with complex health needs. This article describes the IPE protocol and presents the results of a pre- and post-placement attitude questionnaire and knowledge quiz administered to evaluate student attitudes towards IPE and knowledge of dementia. Data suggest that a five-day, supervised, and protocol-based IPE experience in a dementia-care setting can inculcate positive changes in student attitudes about collaborative practice and may encourage dementia-related learning outcomes. PMID:27029913

  15. Research Initiatives and Preliminary Results In Automation Design In Airspace Management in Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA and the FAA have entered into a joint venture to explore, define, design and implement a new airspace management operating concept. The fundamental premise of that concept is that technologies and procedures need to be developed for flight deck and ground operations to improve the efficiency, the predictability, the flexibility and the safety of airspace management and operations. To that end NASA Ames has undertaken an initial development and exploration of "key concepts" in the free flight airspace management technology development. Human Factors issues in automation aiding design, coupled aiding systems between air and ground, communication protocols in distributed decision making, and analytic techniques for definition of concepts of airspace density and operator cognitive load have been undertaken. This paper reports the progress of these efforts, which are not intended to definitively solve the many evolving issues of design for future ATM systems, but to provide preliminary results to chart the parameters of performance and the topology of the analytic effort required. The preliminary research in provision of cockpit display of traffic information, dynamic density definition, distributed decision making, situation awareness models and human performance models is discussed as they focus on the theme of "design requirements".

  16. [Treatment and outcome of Crohn's disease without initial complications. Results of a retrospective, multicenter Tunisian study].

    PubMed

    Cheikh, Imed; Ben Ammar, Ahmed; Essid, Mejda; Azzouz, Messadak; Ettahri, Nabil; Krichene, Mohamed; Bouzaidi, Slim; Ennajar, Taoufik

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and achieve the factors that have an influence on the evolution of the Chron's disease. This study was done in 124 patients reaching the diagnosis of Chron's disease between 1988 and 1997. The evolution of this disease was achieved in 87 patients. The Chron's disease was inactive among 31 patients (35-6%)--with discontinous evolution in 42 patients (48.3%) and active chronic in 14 patients (16-1%). The active chronic form of Chron's disease was twice more frequent among the smokers and the patients with age above 40 years--but this difference has no statistical significance. The indication of surgical treatment was realised in 21 patients and it takes place as result of failure of medical treatment in 16 patients (76-2%)--an abcess in 2 patents (9-5%) and iatrogenic perforation in 1 patient (4-8%). The age-sexe-smoke--the intensity of the initial attack and the nature of the treatment had no influence in the need of the surgical interfference. The Chron's disease showed the less severe evolution in this study--the age above 40 years and the consumption of smoke increased the frequency of active chronic form. PMID:12416354

  17. The solar-stellar spectrograph: Project description, data calibration, and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Jeffrey C.; Lockwood, G. W.

    1995-01-01

    The Solar-Stellar Spectrograph (SSS) is a project initiated in the 1980s by scientists from the High Altitude Observatory, Lowell Observatory, the Pennsylvania State Universty, and the Sacramento Peak Observatory. The instrument is comprised of two spectrographs: one is an echelle covering the wavelength range lambda lambda 5000-9200, while the second is a Littrow spectrograph covering the Ca II and H and K region around lambda 3950. This project is designed to address a broad range of outstanding questions regarding the nature of stellar activity cycles. The unique capability of the spectrograph is its ability to record both solar and stellar spectra, allowing more accurate placement of the Sun in the stellar context than has been feasible previously. In this report we discuss the motivation for this project, the instrumental characteristics, the observing programs, the methods being used to reduce, calibrate, and analyze the data, and the connection of our databases to extant databases. A central part of the discussion is the connection of the Sun with the stars both in terms of existing solar and stellar activity indices as well as physical flux. This work resolves a long-standing discrepancy in this area and establishes a protocol for relating the large set of observations from the Mount Wilson Ca II H and K project to physical flux, in preparation for future comparison to our observations and results from theory.

  18. Time-domain optical mammography Softscan: initial results on detection and characterization of breast tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intes, Xavier; Djeziri, Salim; Ichalalene, Zahia; Mincu, Niculae; Wang, Yong; St.-Jean, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric; Hall, David; Boas, David A.; Polyzos, Margaret

    2004-10-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) technology appears promising as a non-invasive clinical technique for breast cancer screening and diagnosis. The technology capitalizes on the relative transparency of human tissue in this spectral range and its sensitivity to the main components of the breast:; water, lipid and hemoglobin. In this work we present initial results obtained using the SoftScan® breast-imaging system developed by ART, Advanced Research Technologies inc., Montreal. This platform consists of a 4-wavelength time-resolved scanning system used to quantify non-invasively the local functional state of breast tissue. The different aspects of the system used to retrieve 3D optical contrast will be presented. Furthermore, preliminary data obtained from a prospective study conducted at The Royal Victoria Hospital of the McGill University Health Center in Montreal will be discussed. Analysis of the data gathered by SoftScan® demonstrated the potential of the technology in discriminating between healthy and diseased tissue.

  19. Communications with Mars During Periods of Solar Conjunction: Initial Study Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D.; Hastrup, R.

    2001-07-01

    During the initial phase of the human exploration of Mars, a reliable communications link to and from Earth will be required. The direct link can easily be maintained during most of the 780-day Earth-Mars synodic period. However, during periods in which the direct Earth-Mars link encounters increased intervening charged particles during superior solar conjunctions of Mars, the resultant effects are expected to corrupt the data signals to varying degrees. The purpose of this article is to explore possible strategies, provide recommendations, and identify options for communicating over this link during periods of solar conjunctions. A significant improvement in telemetry data return can be realized by using the higher frequency 32 GHz (Ka-band), which is less susceptible to solar effects. During the era of the onset of probable human exploration of Mars, six superior conjunctions were identified from 2015 to 2026. For five of these six conjunctions, where the signal source is not occulted by the disk of the Sun, continuous communications with Mars should be achievable. Only during the superior conjunction of 2023 is the signal source at Mars expected to lie behind the disk of the Sun for about one day and within two solar radii (0. 5 deg) for about three days.

  20. Initial Field Deployment Results of Green PCB Removal from Sediment Systems (GPRSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVor, Robert William

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this task order was to complete optimization and development of the Green PCB Remediation from Sediment Systems(GPRSSs) technology, culminating in the production of functioning demonstration test units which would be deployed at a suitable demonstration location. This location would be selected in conjunction with Toxicological & Ecological Associates who have entered into a SAA with NASA to partner with and further develop this technology. The GPRSSs technology was initially developed under ESC Task Order 83 with the purpose of providing a green remediation technology capable of in-situ removal and remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from contaminated sediments. The core concept of the technology, a polymeric blanket capable of absorbing PCBs when in contact with contaminated sediments was then transitioned to Task Order 165 where the primary objective was to fully design and optimize a functioning test unit capable of testing the theoretical and laboratory scale concepts in a real world situation. Results from both task orders are included in this report for completeness, although Task Order 165 focused on the blanket design and the small scale field demonstration in which is currently still ongoing in Altavista, VA.

  1. Initial test results of the Los Alamos proton-storage-ring bump-magnet system

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, C.R.; Barlow, D.B.; Redd, D.B.

    1997-09-01

    An upgrade program for increasing the stored beam current in the LANSCE Proton Storage is presently under way. Part of the upgrade effort has been to design, specify, and add four bump-magnet/modulator systems to the ring. This paper describes the initial test results of the first bump-magnet/modulator system. The paper begins with an overview of the pulsed-power system including important specifications of the modulator, magnet, cabling, and control system. In the main portion of the paper, waveforms and test data are included showing the accuracy, repeatability, and stability of the magnet-current pulses. These magnet pulses are programmable both in rise and fall time as well as in amplitude. The amplitude can be set between 50 and 300 A, the rise-time is fixed at 1 ms, and the linear fall-time can be varied between 500 {mu}s and 1500 {mu}s. Other issues such as loading effects and power dissipation in the magnet-bore beamtube are examined and reported.

  2. Laser immunotherapy: initial results from a human breast cancer pilot trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hode, Tomas; Guerra, Maria C.; Ferrel, Gabriela L.; Lunn, John A.; Adelsteinsson, Orn; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2010-02-01

    Laser Immunotherapy is an experimental treatment modality for late-stage, metastatic tumors, which targets solid primary and/or secondary tumors and utilizes an autologous vaccine-like approach to stimulate immune responses. Specifically, laser immunotherapy combines laser-induced in situ tumor devitalization with an immunoadjuvant for local immunostimulation. Here we report the initial results from a human breast cancer pilot trial with laser immunotherapy. Six stage III and IV cancer patients were treated, all of which were considered to be out of all other options, and preliminary data at the three-month examination are presented. The immediate goal of the trial was to determine the patient tolerance and the toxicity of the therapy, the optimal dose for the alteration of the course of the disease, and the reduction of the tumor burden. Each patient was individually evaluated for toxicity tolerance through physical exams and by appropriate supplemental and routine laboratory tests. Observable tumors in patients were followed with physical examination and radiological evaluations. Treatment efficacy was judged by the size and number of local and distant metastases before and after treatment.

  3. Developing a national indicator of soil quality on U.S forestlands: methods and initial results.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Katherine P; Amacher, Michael C; Palmer, Craig J

    2005-08-01

    The Montreal Process was formed in 1994 to develop an internationally agreed upon set of criteria and indicators for the conservation and sustainable management of temperate and boreal forests. In response to this initiative, the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) programs of the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service have implemented soil measurements as part of a national monitoring program to address specific questions related to the conservation of soil and water resources. Integration of soil assessments into the national FIA program provides for systematic monitoring of soil properties across all forested regions of the U.S. using standardized collection, laboratory, and statistical procedures that are compatible with existing forest inventory data. The resulting information will provide quantitative benchmarks for regional, national, and international reporting on sustainable forest management and enhance our understanding of management effects on soil quality. This paper presents an overview of the FIA soil monitoring program, outlines the field and laboratory protocols as currently implemented, and provides examples of how these data may be used to assess indicators of sustainable management as defined by the Montreal Process. PMID:16418905

  4. MicroRNAs in Breast Cancer —Our Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Popovska-Jankovic, K; Noveski, P; Chakalova, L; Petrusevska, G; Kubelka, K; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small [∼21 nucleotide (nt)] non coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally. About 3.0% of human genes encode for miRNAs, and up to 30.0% of human protein coding genes may be regulated by miRNAs. Currently, more than 2000 unique human mature microRNAs are known. MicroRNAs play a key role in diverse biological processes including development, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. These processes are commonly dysregulated in cancer, implicating miRNAs in carcinogenesis, where they act as tumor supressors or oncogenes. Several miRNAs are associated with breast cancer. Here we present our initial results of miRNA analyses of breast cancer tissues using quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (ReTi-PCR) (qPCR) involving stem-loop reverse transcriptase (RT) primers combined with TaqMan® PCR and miRNA microarray analysis. PMID:24052751

  5. Energetic neutral atom imaging with the Polar CEPPAD/IPS instrument: Initial forward modeling results

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, M.G.; Reeves, G.D.; Moore, K.R.; Spence, H.E.; Jorgensen, A.M.; Fennell, J.F.; Blake, J.B.; Roelof, E.C.

    1997-12-31

    Although the primary function of the CEP-PAD/IPS instrument on Polar is the measurement of energetic ions in-situ, it has also proven to be a very capable Energetic neutral Atom (ENA) imager. Raw ENA images are currently being constructed on a routine basis with a temporal resolution of minutes during both active and quiet times. However, while analyses of these images by themselves provide much information on the spatial distribution and dynamics of the energetic ion population in the ring current, detailed modeling is required to extract the actual ion distributions. In this paper, the authors present the initial results of forward modeling an IPS ENA image obtained during a small geo-magnetic storm on June 9, 1997. The equatorial ion distribution inferred with this technique reproduces the expected large noon/midnight and dawn/dusk asymmetries. The limitations of the model are discussed and a number of modifications to the basic forward modeling technique are proposed which should significantly improve its performance in future studies.

  6. Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging with the POLAR CEPPAD/ IPS Instrument : Initial Forward Modeling Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, M. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Moore, K. R.; Spence, H. E.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Roelof, E. C.

    1999-01-01

    Although the primary function of the CEPPAD/IPS instrument on Polar is the measurement of energetic ions in-situ, it has also proven to be a very capable Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imager. Raw ENA images are currently being constructed on a routine basis with a temporal resolution of minutes during both active and quiet times. However, while analyses of these images by themselves provide much information on the spatial distribution and dynamics of the energetic ion population in the ring current. detailed modeling is required to extract the actual ion distributions. In this paper. we present the initial results of forward modeling an IPS ENA image obtained during a small geo-magnetic storm on June 9, 1997. The equatorial ion distribution inferred with this technique reproduces the expected large noon/midnight and dawn/dusk asymmetries. The limitations of the model are discussed and a number of modifications to the basic forward modeling technique are proposed which should significantly improve its performance in future studies.

  7. Initial results from a cryogenic proton irradiation of a p-channel CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gow, J. P. D.; Wood, D.; Burt, D.; Hall, D. J.; Dryer, B.; Holland, A. D.; Murray, N. J.

    2015-08-01

    The displacement damage hardness that can be achieved using p-channel charge coupled devices (CCD) was originally demonstrated in 1997 and since then a number of other studies have demonstrated an improved tolerance to radiationinduced CTI when compared to n-channel CCDs. A number of recent studies have also shown that the temperature history of the device after the irradiation impacts the performance of the detector, linked to the mobility of defects at different temperatures. This study describes the initial results from an e2v technologies p-channel CCD204 irradiated at 153 K with a 10 MeV equivalent proton fluences of 1.24×109 and 1.24×1011 protons.cm-2. The number of defects identified using trap pumping, dark current and cosmetic quality immediately after irradiation and over a period of 150 hours after the irradiation with the device held at 153 K and then after different periods of time at room temperature are described. The device also exhibited a flatband voltage shift of around 30 mV per krad, determined by the reduction in full well capacity.

  8. Initial Results of Optical Vortex Laser Absorption Spectroscopy in the HYPER-I Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Asai, Shoma; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Ozawa, Naoya; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Morisaki, Tomohiro

    2015-11-01

    Optical vortex beams have a potential to make a new Doppler measurement, because not only parallel but perpendicular movement of atoms against the beam axis causes the Doppler shift of their resonant absorption frequency. As the first step of a proof-of-principle experiment, we have performed the optical vortex laser absorption spectroscopy for metastable argon neutrals in an ECR plasma produced in the HYPER-I device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. An external cavity diode laser (TOPTICA, DL100) of which center wavelength was 696.735 nm in vacuum was used for the light source. The Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam was converted into the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam (optical vortex) by a computer-generated hologram displayed on the spatial light modulator (Hamamatsu, LCOS-SLM X10468-07). In order to make fast neutral flow across the LG beam, a high speed solenoid valve system was installed on the HYPER-I device. Initial results including the comparison of absorption spectra for HG and LG beams will be presented. This study was supported by NINS young scientists collaboration program for cross-disciplinary study, NIFS collaboration research program (NIFS13KOAP026), and JSPS KAKENHI grant number 15K05365.

  9. Space Borne Cloud and Aerosol Measurements by the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James D.; Palm, Steven P.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Hart, William D.; Mahesh, Ashwin; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2003-01-01

    In January 2003 the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) was successfully launched into orbit. Beginning in March 2003 GLAS will provide global coverage lidar measurement of the height distribution of clouds and aerosol in the atmosphere for up to five years. The characteristic and value of the unique data will be presented. The instrument is a basic backscatter lidar that operates at two wavelengths, 532 and 1064 nm. The mission data products for atmospheric observations include the calibrated, observed, attenuated backscatter cross section for cloud and aerosol; height detection for multiple cloud layers; planetary boundary layer height; cirrus and aerosol optical depth and the height distribution of aerosol and cloud scattering cross section profiles. The data is expected to significantly enhance knowledge in several areas of atmospheric science, in particular the distribution, transport and influence of atmospheric aerosol and thin clouds. Measurements of the coverage and height of polar and cirrus cloud should be significantly more accurate than previous global observations. In March and April 2003, airborne and ground based data verification experiments will be carried out. Initial results from the verification experiments and the first several months of operation will be presented.

  10. Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing in NASA: An Overview of Current Projects and Future Initiatives for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    NASA, including each Mission Directorate, is investing in, experimenting with, and/or utilizing AM across a broad spectrum of applications and projects; Centers have created and are continuing to create partnerships with industry, other Government Agencies, other Centers, and Universities; In-house additive manufacturing capability enables rapid iteration of the entire design, development and testing process, increasing innovation and reducing risk and cost to projects; For deep space exploration, AM offers significant reduction to logistics costs and risk by providing ability to create on demand; There are challenges: Overwhelming message from recent JANNAF AM for Propulsion Applications TIM was "certification."; NASA will continue to work with our partners to address this and other challenges to advance the state of the art in AM and incorporate these capabilities into an array of applications from aerospace to science missions to deep space exploration.

  11. Multi-Channel Seismic Images of the Mariana Forearc: EW0202 Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, A. J.; Goodliffe, A. M.; Taylor, B.; Moore, G. F.; Fryer, P.

    2002-12-01

    During the Spring of 2002, the Mariana Subduction Factory was surveyed using multi-channel seismics (MCS) as the first major phase of a US-Japanese collaborative NSF-MARGINS funded project. The resulting geophysical transects extend from the Pacific Plate to the West Mariana remnant arc. For details of this survey, including the results from the back-arc, refer to Taylor et al. (this session). The incoming Pacific Plate and its accompanying seamounts are deformed by plate flexure, resulting in extension of the upper crust as it enters the subduction zone. The resultant trench parallel faults dominate the bathymetry and MCS data. Beneath the forearc, in the southern transects near Saipan, the subducting slab is imaged to a distance of 50-60 km arcward. In addition to ubiquitous trench parallel normal faulting, a N-S transect of the forearc clearly shows normal faults perpendicular to the trench resulting from N-S extension. On the east side of the Mariana Ridge, thick sediment packages extend into the forearc. Directly east of Saipan and Tinian, a large, deeply scouring slide mass is imaged. Several serpentine mud volcanoes (Big Blue, Turquoise and Celestial) were imaged on the Mariana Forearc. Deep horizontal reflectors (likely original forearc crust) are imaged under the flanks of some of these seamounts. A possible "throat" reflector is resolved on multiple profiles at the summit of Big Blue, the northern-most seamount in the study area. The flanks of Turquoise seamount terminate in toe thrusts that represent uplift and rotation of surrounding sediments as the volcano grows outward. These thrusts form a basal ridge around the seamount similar to that previously noted encircling Conical Seamount. Furthermore, MCS data has revealed that some forearc highs previously thought to be fault blocks are in actuality mud volcanoes.

  12. Structure and Rotation of the Solar Interior: Initial Results from the MDI Medium-L Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosovichev, A. G.; Schou, J.; Scherrer, P. H.; Bogart, R. S.; Bush, R. I.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Aloise, J.; Bacon, L.; Burnette, A.; DeForest, C.; Giles, P. M.; Leibrand, K.; Nigam, R.; Rubin, M.; Scott, K.; Williams, S. D.; Basu, Sarbani; Christensen-Dalsgaard J.; Daeppen W.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The medium-l program of the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on board SOHO provides continuous observations of oscillation modes of angular degree, l, from 0 to approximately 300. The data for the program are partly processed on board because only about 3% of MDI observations can be transmitted continuously to the ground. The on-board data processing, the main component of which is Gaussian-weighted binning, has been optimized to reduce the negative influence of spatial aliasing of the high-degree oscillation modes. The data processing is completed in a data analysis pipeline at the SOI Stanford Support Center to determine the mean multiplet frequencies and splitting coefficients. The initial results show that the noise in the medium-l oscillation power spectrum is substantially lower than in ground-based measurements. This enables us to detect lower amplitude modes and, thus, to extend the range of measured mode frequencies. This is important for inferring the Sun's internal structure and rotation. The MDI observations also reveal the asymmetry of oscillation spectral lines. The line asymmetries agree with the theory of mode excitation by acoustic sources localized in the upper convective boundary layer. The sound-speed profile inferred from the mean frequencies gives evidence for a sharp variation at the edge of the energy-generating core. The results also confirm the previous finding by the GONG (Gough et al., 1996) that, in a thin layer just beneath the convection zone, helium appears to be less abundant than predicted by theory. Inverting the multiplet frequency splittings from MDI, we detect significant rotational shear in this thin layer. This layer is likely to be the place where the solar dynamo operates. In order to understand how the Sun works, it is extremely important to observe the evolution of this transition layer throughout the 11-year activity cycle.

  13. High Fidelity Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing: Analysis and Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David

    2007-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power system, providing system characterization data and allowing one to work through various fabrication, assembly and integration issues without the cost and time associated with a full ground nuclear test. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Testing with non-optimized heater elements allows one to assess thermal, heat transfer, and stress related attributes of a given system, but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. High fidelity thermal simulators that match both the static and the dynamic fuel pin performance that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor can vastly increase the value of non-nuclear test results. With optimized simulators, the integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronie response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and fueled nuclear testing, providing a better assessment of system integration issues, characterization of integrated system response times and response characteristics, and assessment of potential design improvements' at a relatively small fiscal investment. Initial conceptual thermal simulator designs are determined by simple one-dimensional analysis at a single axial location and at steady state conditions; feasible concepts are then input into a detailed three-dimensional model for comparison to expected fuel pin performance. Static and dynamic fuel pin performance for a proposed reactor design is determined using SINDA/FLUINT thermal analysis software, and comparison is made between the expected nuclear performance and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs. Through a series of iterative analyses, a conceptual high fidelity design can developed. Test results presented in this paper correspond to a "first cut" simulator design for a potential

  14. Summary of initial results from the Magnetized Dusty Plasma Experiment (MDPX) device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Dusty (or complex) plasmas are four-component plasma systems consisting of electrons, ions, neutral atoms and charged, solid particulates. These particulates, i.e., the ``dust,'' become charged through interactions with the surrounding plasma particles and are therefore fully coupled to the background. The study of dusty plasmas began with astrophysical studies and has developed into a distinct area of plasma science with contributions to industrial, space, and fundamental plasma science. However, the vast majority of the laboratory studies are performed without the presence of a magnetic field. This is because, compared to the masses of the electrons and ions, the dust particles are significantly more massive and therefore the charge-to-mass ratio of the dust is very small. As a result, large (B > 1 T) magnetic fields are required to achieve conditions in which the dynamics of electrons, ions, and dust particles are dominated by the magnetic field. This presentation will provide a brief description of the design of the large bore (50 cm diameter x 158 cm long), multi-configuration, 4-Tesla class, superconducting magnet and integrated plasma chamber optimized for the study of dusty plasmas at high magnetic field - the MDPX device. The presentation will then focus on initial results of measurements made using MDPX - including observations of a new type of imposed ordered structures formed by the dust particles in a magnetized plasma, E x B driven flows of the particles, and observations of instabilities. This work is a collaboration of the author with Uwe Konopka (Auburn), Robert L. Merlino (Univ. of Iowa), Marlene Rosenberg (UCSD), and the MDPX team at Auburn University. Construction of the MDPX device was supported by the NSF-MRI program. Operations are supported by the NSF and DOE.

  15. Diet Quality and Survival After Ovarian Cancer: Results From the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Tracy E.; Wertheim, Betsy C.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Li, Wenjun; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Basen-Engquist, Karen M.; Zhou, Yang; Irwin, Melinda L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Survival after an ovarian cancer diagnosis is poor. Given the high mortality in these patients, efforts to identify modifiable lifestyle behaviors that could influence survival are needed. Earlier evidence suggests a protective role for vegetables, but no prior studies have evaluated overall dietary quality and ovarian cancer survival. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the role of prediagnosis diet quality in ovarian cancer survival. Methods We identified 636 centrally adjudicated cases of ovarian cancer within the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study or Clinical Trials of 161808 postmenopausal women followed from 1995 to 2012. Dietary quality was assessed for the Healthy Eating Index (2005) using a food frequency questionnaire, covariables were obtained from standardized questionnaires, and adiposity was measured by clinic-based measurements of height, weight, and waist circumference. The association between diet quality and mortality was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for potential confounders, and stratified by waist circumference, physical activity level, and diabetes status. Tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Results Overall, higher diet quality was associated with lower all-cause mortality after ovarian cancer (hazard ratio [HR] for highest vs lowest tertile = 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.55 to 0.97, P trend = .03). The effect was strongest among women with waist circumference of 88cm or less and with no history of diabetes (HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.98). Physical activity level did not modify the association between diet quality and survival. Conclusion Our results suggest that overall higher prediagnosis diet quality may protect against mortality after ovarian cancer. PMID:25335480

  16. Greenhouse gases observation from space -initial operation and calibration results of TANSO on GOSAT- (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuze, A.; Shiomi, K.; Suto, H.; Nakajima, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) observes carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) globally from space. It is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). GOSAT was launched on January 23, 2009 from Tanegashima Space Center and placed in a 666 km sun-synchronous orbit of 12:48 local time, with an inclination angle of 98 deg. There are two instruments: the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) detects gas absorption spectra of Short Wave InfraRed (SWIR) reflected on the earth's surface as well as of Thermal InfraRed (TIR) radiated from the ground and the atmosphere. TANSO-FTS is capable of detecting wide spectral coverage; three narrow bands (0.76, 1.6, and 2μm) and a wide band (5.5-14.3 μm) with 0.27 cm-1 spectral resolution. The TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) is a radiometer of ultraviolet (UV), visible, and SWIR to detect cloud and aerosol interference. TANSO-FTS and CAI acquire global data every three days. For the first six months after the launch, on-orbit function, performance, calibration, and validation have been checked-out. The presentation includes instrument design, pre-launch test results, observation plan, onboard calibration schemes, and the initial on-orbit results of radiometric, geometric and spectroscopic performances. The data processing on the ground is also presented.

  17. SUMMARY REPORT ON RESEARCH RESULTS FROM THE ADVANCE MEASUREMENT INITIATIVE (AMI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA created the Advanced Measurement Initiative (AMI) to permit the early and inexpensive evaluation of innovative advanced technology and to encourage broad and rapid application in EPA operations. The AMI program focused on improving EPA's technological capabilities and acceler...

  18. An Enhanced Box-Wing Solar Radiation pressure model for BDS and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qunhe; Wang, Xiaoya; Hu, Xiaogong; Guo, Rui; Shang, Lin; Tang, Chengpan; Shao, Fan

    2016-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure forces are the largest non-gravitational perturbations acting on GNSS satellites, which is difficult to be accurately modeled due to the complicated and changing satellite attitude and unknown surface material characteristics. By the end of 2015, there are more than 50 stations of the Multi-GNSS Experiment(MGEX) set-up by the IGS. The simple box-plate model relies on coarse assumptions about the dimensions and optical properties of the satellite due to lack of more detailed information. So, a physical model based on BOX-WING model is developed, which is more sophisticated and more detailed physical structure has been taken into account, then calculating pressure forces according to the geometric relations between light rays and surfaces. All the MGEX stations and IGS core stations had been processed for precise orbit determination tests with GPS and BDS observations. Calculation range covers all the two kinds of Eclipsing and non-eclipsing periods in 2015, and we adopted the un-differential observation mode and more accurate values of satellite phase centers. At first, we tried nine parameters model, and then eliminated the parameters with strong correlation between them, came into being five parameters of the model. Five parameters were estimated, such as solar scale, y-bias, three material coefficients of solar panel, x-axis and z-axis panels. Initial results showed that, in the period of yaw-steering mode, use of Enhanced ADBOXW model results in small improvement for IGSO and MEO satellites, and the Root-Mean-Square(RMS) error value of one-day arc orbit decreased by about 10%~30% except for C08 and C14. The new model mainly improved the along track acceleration, up to 30% while in the radial track was not obvious. The Satellite Laser Ranging(SLR) validation showed, however, that this model had higher prediction accuracy in the period of orbit-normal mode, compared to GFZ multi-GNSS orbit products, as well with relative post

  19. Nitrogen addition and harvest frequency rather than initial plant species composition determine vertical structure and light interception in grasslands.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Ute; Isselstein, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In biodiversity experiments based on seeded experimental communities, species richness and species composition exert a strong influence on canopy structure and can lead to an improved use of aboveground resources. In this study, we want to explore whether these findings are applicable to agriculturally managed permanent grassland. Vertical layered profiles of biomass, leaf area (LA) and light intensity were measured in a removal-type biodiversity experiment (GrassMan) to compare the canopy structure in grassland vegetation of different plant species composition (called sward types). Additionally, the altered sward types were subjected to four different management regimes by a combination of the factors fertilization (unfertilized, NPK fertilized) and cutting frequency (one late cut or three cuts). In spite of large compositional differences (ratio grasses : non-leguminous forbs : leguminous forbs ranging from 93 : 7 : 0 to 39 : 52 : 9), the vegetation of the same management regime hardly differed in its canopy structure, whereas the different management regimes led to distinct vertical profiles in the vegetation. However, the allocation of biomass in response to cutting and fertilization differed among the sward types. Vegetation dominated by grasses was denser and had more LA when fertilized compared with vegetation rich in dicots which merely grew taller. In functionally more diverse vegetation, light interception was not increased compared with vegetation consisting of more than 90 % of grasses in terms of biomass. Management had a much stronger influence on structure and light interception than plant species composition in this grassland experiment. PMID:26199402

  20. Electrical isolation of pulmonary veins using cryothermal energy: study design and initial results

    PubMed Central

    Scholten, M.F.; Kimman, G.J.; Janse, P.A.; Thornton, A.S.; Theuns, D.A.M.J.; Jordaens, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the September 2003 issue of the Netherlands Heart Journal, the wrong figures where inserted in this article. The article is reprinted here with the correct figures. Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently encountered arrhythmia. Radiofrequency pulmonary vein (PV) ablation is promising for symptomatic paroxysmal AF, but is associated with a significant risk of PV stenosis. Objectives To assess the efficacy of cryothermal PV ablation and the incidence of PV stenosis. Methods Highly symptomatic patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF were eligible for cryothermal ablation. Multislice spiral CT scans were performed before, and three months after ablation. AF burden was assessed using transtelephonic ECG recording and by telephone enquiry. Results An attempt was made to isolate 27 PVs in 15 patients. In total, 20 PVs could be isolated (74% acute success). No significant difference in PV diameter was seen before and after ablation. Five out of 12 patients with paroxysmal AF were completely without AF after one ablation procedure. An additional two patients reported a significant reduction in symptoms. In the three patients with persistent AF no improvement was reported. Conclusion Cryothermal PV ablation was effective in isolation of the targeted PVs. It appears to be safe, as no PV stenosis was seen in this study three months after the ablation. Taking into account a learning curve, we consider the clinical results to be very promising. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3 PMID:25696159

  1. Electrical isolation of pulmonary veins using cryothermal energy: study design and initial results

    PubMed Central

    Scholten, M.F.; Kimman, G.J.; Janse, P.A.; Thornton, A.S.; Theuns, D.A.M.J.; Jordaens, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently encountered arrhythmia. Radiofrequency pulmonary vein (PV) ablation is promising for symptomatic paroxysmal AF, but is associated with a significant risk of PV stenosis. Objectives To assess the efficacy of cryothermal PV ablation and the incidence of PV stenosis. Methods Highly symptomatic patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF were eligible for cryothermal ablation. Multislice spiral CT scans were performed before, and three months after ablation. AF burden was assessed using transtelephonic ECG recording and by telephonic enquiry. Results An attempt was made to isolate 27 PVs in 15 patients. In total, 20 PVs could be isolated (74% acute success). No significant difference in PV diameter was seen before and after ablation. Five out of 12 patients with paroxysmal AF were completely without AF after one ablation procedure. An additional two patients reported a significant reduction in symptoms. In the three patients with persistent AF no improvement was reported. Conclusion Cryothermal PV ablation was effective in isolation of the targeted PVs. It appears to be safe, as no PV stenosis was seen in this study three months after the ablation. Taking into account a learning curve, we consider the clinical results to be very promising. ImagesFigure 3 PMID:25696243

  2. [Quadrantectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy in carcinoma of the breast. Initial results of our cases].

    PubMed

    Gabriele, A M; Boidi Trotti, A; Tardy, A

    1987-06-01

    The conservative treatment of early breast cancer always requires irradiation of residual mammary tissue. The preliminary results obtained in 45 early breast cancer patients, who received quadrantectomy plus axillary dissection, followed by radiation of residual breast are reported. Radiation was performed by the two opposed field technique. In some cases the residual breast tissue was compressed using a special accessory provided with the Theratron 780. In addition to the tumor dose of 50 GY, 10 GY boots was added to the surgical scar using 7 MeV electrons. The 6 patients with positive axillary nodes received 6 courses of adjuvant chemotherapy (CMF) after radiotherapy. All patients are currently alive and free of disease. The 64% (29 patients) were followed up for at least 5 years, and 36% (16 patients) for at least 3 years. Only 2 cases of local recurrence were encountered (4.4%). The esthetic result was satisfactory in all cases. No side effects due to treatment were noted. PMID:3602483

  3. Connecting the disconnected: Preliminary results and lessons learned from a telepsychology initiative with special management inmates.

    PubMed

    Batastini, Ashley B; Morgan, Robert D

    2016-08-01

    The use of telepsychology, such as videoconferencing (VC) systems, has been rapidly increasing as a tool for the provision of mental health services to underserved clients in difficult to access settings. Inmates detained in restrictive housing appear to be at an increased risk of experiencing emotional and behavioral disturbances compared to their general population counterparts, yet they are less likely to receive appropriate treatment due to security constraints. The primary purpose of this article is to describe the process of implementing a novel telepsychology intervention specifically designed to offer group therapy to high-security, administratively segregated inmates. In addition, preliminary results on treatment and therapeutic process outcomes in a sample of 49 participants are reported. Although some evidence indicated that telepsychology was less preferred than in-person sessions, group differences on measures of psychological functioning and criminal thinking were not found across 3 conditions (telepsychology, in-person, and a no-treatment control). Furthermore, a number of limitations associated with program implementation and study design suggest that results be interpreted with caution and should not be used to discount the use of telepsychology as a viable treatment delivery option. Recommendations for future development and evaluation of telepsychological programs are discussed within the context of correctional settings and beyond. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504646

  4. Initial results from the Lick Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S.S.; An, J.; Avicola, K.

    1995-11-08

    A prototype adaptive optics system has been installed and tested on the 3 m Shane telescope at Lick Observatory. The adaptive optics system performance, using bright natural guide stars, is consistent with expectations based on theory. A sodium-layer laser guide star system has also been installed and tested on the Shane telescope. Operating at 15 W, the laser system produces a 9th magnitude guide star with seeing-limited size at 589 nm. Using the laser guide star, the adaptive optics system has reduced the wavefront phase variance on scales above 50 cm by a factor of 4. These results represent the first continuous wavefront phase correction using a sodium-layer laser guide star. Assuming tip-tilt is removed using a natural guide star, the measured control loop performance should produce images with a Strehl ratio of 0.4 at 2.2 {mu}m in 1 arc second seeing. Additional calibration procedures must be implemented in order to achieve these results with the prototype Lick adaptive optics system.

  5. Multiparametric PET/CT-perfusion does not add significant additional information for initial staging in lung cancer compared with standard PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of CT-perfusion (CTP), 18F-FDG-PET/CT and histological parameters, and the possible added value of CTP to FDG-PET/CT in the initial staging of lung cancer. Methods Fifty-four consecutive patients (median age 65 years, 15 females, 39 males) with suspected lung cancer were evaluated prospectively by CT-perfusion scan and 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan. Overall, 46 tumors were identified. CTP parameters blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), and mean transit time (MTT) of the tumor tissue were calculated. Intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) was assessed quantitatively. Differences in CTP parameters concerning tumor type, location, PET positivity of lymph nodes, TNM status, and UICC stage were analyzed. Spearman correlation analyses between CTP and 18F-FDG-PET/CT parameters (SUVmax, SUVmean, PETvol, and TLG), MVD, tumor size, and tumor stage were performed. Results The mean BF (mL/100 mL min-1), BV (mL/100 mL), and MTT (s) was 35.5, 8.4, and 14.2, respectively. The BF and BV were lower in tumors with PET-positive lymph nodes (p = 0.02). However, the CTP values were not significantly different among the N stages. The CTP values were not different, depending on tumor size and location. No significant correlation was found between CTP parameters and MVD. Conclusions Overall, the CTP information showed only little additional information for the initial staging compared with standard FDG-PET/CT. Low perfusion in lung tumors might possibly be associated with metabolically active regional lymph nodes. Apart from that, both CTP and 18F-FDG-PET/CT parameter sets may reflect different pathophysiological mechanisms in lung cancer. PMID:24450990

  6. A Global, Three-Ion Approach to the Ionospheric Outflow Problem: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welling, D. T.; Liemohn, M. W.; Glocer, A.; Jordanova, V. K.; Zaharia, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Global magnetohydrodynamic models of the magnetosphere have been used to investigate the effects of ionospheric outflow on the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere system with great early success. These studies differentiate plasma populations in a few different ways. The first is multi-species MHD, where each species has its own continuity equation but share a single energy and momentum equation. Multi-fluid approaches have also been developed, but have been limited to two ion species: either independent H+ and O+ or separate solar wind H+ and ionospheric O+ fluids. Each of these approaches neglects the reality of the situation: solar wind H+, ionospheric H+, and ionospheric O+ progress through the magnetosphere on different paths with different entry mechanisms and arrive at the inner magnetosphere with different temperatures and different spatial distributions. Existing approaches neglect several of these aspects by failing to include the three main constituents as separate fluids. This work presents initial results using a three-ion approach to investigate the effects of ionospheric outflow on the magnetosphere and ring current and the balance between ionospheric and solar wind plasma contributions. The three-ion version of the BATS-R-US model is used for this study and is combined with the first-principles-based Polar Wind Outflow Model (PWOM), which treats outflowing O+ and H+ as separate fluids with separate radial velocities. Important effects such as counter-streaming populations in the cusp regions and the geomagnetic mass spectrometer effect are all captured in this revised model. Model results for an idealized magnetic storm will be presented. The differences in entry and heating of each population will be examined as will the plasma sheet conditions at geosynchronous locations. Results will be compared to those from the simpler multi-species version of the code. Finally, the output will be used to drive a ring current model (the Ring current Atmosphere

  7. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies survey (SLUGGS): sample definition, methods, and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Woodley, Kristin A.; Strader, Jay; Forbes, Duncan A.; Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S.; Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R.

    2014-11-20

    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin{sup 2} field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ∼8 R {sub e}, and to ∼15 R {sub e} in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (∼2-3 R {sub e}) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  8. Initial Results from CASSIOPE/ePOP Satellite Overpasses above HAARP in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J., Jr.; James, H. G.; Yau, A. W.; Knudsen, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility was operated in conjunction with overpasses of the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP) instruments on the Canadian CASSIOPE satellite. During these overpasses HAARP was operated in several different heating modes and regimes as diagnosed by the characteristics of Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (SEE) using ground-based receivers while simultaneously ePOP monitored in-situ HF and VLF signals, looked for ion and electron heating, and provided VHF and UHF signals for propagation effects studies. The e-POP suite of instruments and particularly the ePOP Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) offer a unique combination diagnostics appropriate for studying the non-linear plasma effects generated high-power HF waves in the ionosphere. In this presentation, the initial results from ePOP observations from two separate 2014 measurement campaigns at HAARP (April 16 to April 29 and May 25 to June 9) will be discussed. Several innovative experiments were performed during the campaign. Experiments explored a wide range of ionospheric effects. These include: 1) Penetration of HF pump waves into the ionosphere via large and small scale irregularities, 2) effects of gyro-harmonic heating and artificial ionization layers, 3) effects of HAARP beam shape with O- and X-mode transmissions, 4) coupling of Lower Hybrid modes into Whistler waves, 5) D/E-region VLF generation in the ionosphere using VLF modulation of the HF pump 6) scattering of VHF and UHF signals and 7) scattering and non-linear modulation of a 9.5 MHz probe wave propagating through the region of the ionosphere modified by HAARP. This work supported by the Naval Research Laboratory Base Program.

  9. Tangible Results and Progress in Flood Risks Management with the PACTES Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costes, Murielle; Abadie, Jean-Paul; Ducuing, Jean-Louis; Denier, Jean-Paul; Stéphane

    The PACTES project (Prévention et Anticipation des Crues au moyen des Techniques Spatiales), initiated by CNES and the French Ministry of Research, aims at improving flood risk management, over the following three main phases : - Prevention : support and facilitate the analysis of flood risks and socio-economic impacts (risk - Forecasting and alert : improve the capability to predict and anticipate the flooding event - Crisis management : allow better situation awareness, communication and sharing of In order to achieve its ambitious objectives, PACTES: - integrates state-of-the-art techniques and systems (integration of the overall processing chains, - takes advantage of integrating recent model developments in wheather forecasting, rainfall, In this approach, space technology is thus used in three main ways : - radar and optical earth observation data are used to produce Digital Elevation Maps, land use - earth observation data are also an input to wheather forecasting, together with ground sensors; - satellite-based telecommunication and mobile positioning. Started in December 2000, the approach taken in PACTES is to work closely with users such as civil security and civil protection organisms, fire fighter brigades and city councils for requirements gathering and during the validation phase. It has lead to the development and experimentation of an integrated pre-operational demonstrator, delivered to different types of operational users. Experimentation has taken place in three watersheds representative of different types of floods (flash and plain floods). After a breaf reminder of what the PACTES project organization and aims are, the PACTES integrated pre-operational demonstrator is presented. The main scientific inputs to flood risk management are summarized. Validation studies for the three watersheds covered by PACTES (Moselle, Hérault and Thoré) are detailed. Feedback on the PACTES tangible results on flood risk management from an user point of view

  10. Radium decay series dating of barite deposition in the Gulf of Mexico: Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gent, D.L.; Scott, L.M.; Fu, B.

    1995-12-31

    Barite deposits consisting of chimneys and crusts were recently documented and recovered by submersible from hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico offshore Louisiana at water depths of 510-670 m in the Garden Banks and Mississippi Canyon areas. This is the first discovery of barite deposits associated with cold hydrocarbon seeps. The outer part of the chimneys are dominated by barite whereas the inner part of the chimneys are dominated by barite with pyrite as accessory mineral. The crusts are about 5-8 cm thick and their surficial layers are composed of barite coexisting with carbonate whereas the lower part of the crusts consists of barite, carbonate, and pyrite. A program of radiometric dating by Ra decay series isotopes was initiated in order to derive a chronology of barite deposition in association with the hydrocarbon seeps. Chimneys and crusts were analyzed for NORM using a high purity intrinsic germanium gamma spectroscopy system. The deposits were found to contain {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra at concentrations comparable to those found in scale associated with oil production in the Gulf States Region (approximately 500 pCi/gm and 250 pCi/gm, respectively). The deposits were subjected to two separate age dating techniques. The primary technique utilized gamma spectroscopy for determination of {sup 210}Pb/{sup 226}Ra ratios. The second technique utilized gamma spectroscopy for determination of {sup 226}Th/{sup 228}Ra ratios. Ages as determined by {sup 210}Pb/{sup 226}Ra ranged from 2 years to 40 years. The {sup 228}Th/{sup 228}Ra methodology tended to validate the primary dating technique, although the useful range of dating for this method does not exceed 15 years. Sulfide-rich layers in the barite deposits tended to give anomalous and biased results when dated by the primary method. Both methodologies also appear valid for age dating scale deposits {le} 100 years old that are generated in oil production operations.

  11. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests were completed in 2005 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 3 full-scale additive tests, conducted at IPL's Petersburg Station Unit 2. The Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2007.

  12. 49 CFR 1155.23 - Additional requirements when filing after an unsatisfactory result from a State, local, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements when filing after an unsatisfactory result from a State, local, or municipal authority affecting the siting of the facility. 1155.23 Section 1155.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT...

  13. Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3): Mission Summary and Initial Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, S. A.; Newman, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    conducted and summarize early results related to: • Nadine's (2012) interaction with the Saharan Air Layer • Outflow structure as revealed by dropsondes and CPL • Environmental conditions in weakly developing and non-developing storms in 2013 • Initial results for 2014 cases

  14. Exploratory X-ray monitoring of luminous radio-quiet quasars at high redshift: Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Shemmer, Ohad; Stein, Matthew S.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Paolillo, Maurizio; Kaspi, Shai; Vignali, Cristian; Lira, Paulina; Gibson, Robert R.

    2014-03-10

    We present initial results from an exploratory X-ray monitoring project of two groups of comparably luminous radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). The first consists of four sources at 4.10 ≤ z ≤ 4.35, monitored by Chandra, and the second is a comparison sample of three sources at 1.33 ≤ z ≤ 2.74, monitored by Swift. Together with archival X-ray data, the total rest-frame temporal baseline spans ∼2-4 yr and ∼5-13 yr for the first and second group, respectively. Six of these sources show significant X-ray variability over rest-frame timescales of ∼10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} days; three of these also show significant X-ray variability on rest-frame timescales of ∼1-10 days. The X-ray variability properties of our variable sources are similar to those exhibited by nearby and far less luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). While we do not directly detect a trend of increasing X-ray variability with redshift, we do confirm previous reports of luminous AGNs exhibiting X-ray variability above that expected from their luminosities, based on simplistic extrapolation from lower luminosity sources. This result may be attributed to luminous sources at the highest redshifts having relatively high accretion rates. Complementary UV-optical monitoring of our sources shows that variations in their optical-X-ray spectral energy distribution are dominated by the X-ray variations. We confirm previous reports of X-ray spectral variations in one of our sources, HS 1700+6416, but do not detect such variations in any of our other sources in spite of X-ray flux variations of up to a factor of ∼4. This project is designed to provide a basic assessment of the X-ray variability properties of RQQs at the highest accessible redshifts that will serve as a benchmark for more systematic monitoring of such sources with future X-ray missions.

  15. Initial results of noble gases in micrometeorites from the Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baecker, B.; Cordier, C.; Folco, L.; Trieloff, M.; Ott, U.

    2012-12-01

    The bulk of extraterrestrial matter collected by Earth is in the form of micrometeorites, which have a main flux onto Earth at about 220 μm in diameter [1]. According to the petrographic and geochemical data, most of the small micrometeorites have been related to CM chondrites [2]. Recent studies suggest that larger micrometeorites (> 300μm) mostly derive from ordinary chondrite sources e.g. [3-5]. Following some models [6], they may have made important contributions to the volatile inventory of the Earth. We have initiated a coupled comprehensive survey of noble gas contents and petrography in micrometeorites. While helium and neon are generally dominated by the solar wind contribution, the inventory of heavy primordial noble gases has been hardly characterized so far. In particular, useful data are lacking on the diagnostic isotopic composition of xenon. We hope to fill this gap, since huge amounts of material are available. This might make a contribution towards understanding some aspects of the formation of the solar system and in particular the terrestrial atmosphere. We will present results obtained on "large" micrometeorites from Victoria Land, Transantarctic Mountains. These were collected during a PNRA (Programma Nazionale delle Ricerche in Antartide, Italy) expedition on top of the Miller Butte micrometeorite traps #45 b and c [7]. We reported first results in [8]. Our research includes however, also material from other collections, e.g. CONCORDIA [9, 10]. [1] Love, S.G., Brownlee, D.E. (1993) Science 262, 550-553. [2] Kurat, G. et al. (1994) Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58, 3879-3904. [3] Genge, M.J. et al. (2008) Meteoritics & Planetary Science 43, 497-515. [4] Dobrica, E. et al. (2011) Meteoritics & Planetary Science 46, 1363-1375. [5] Van Ginneken M. et al. (2012) Meteoritics & Planetary Science 47, 228-247. [6] Maurette, M. et al. (2000) Planetary and Space Science 48, 1117-1137. [7] Rochette P. et al. (2008) Proceedings of the National Academy

  16. Porcine Ex Vivo Liver Phantom for Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography: Development and Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Scott M.; Giraldo, Juan C. Ramirez; Knudsen, Bruce; Grande, Joseph P.; Christner, Jodie A.; Xu, Man; Woodrum, David A.; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Callstrom, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate the feasibility of developing a fixed, dual-input, biological liver phantom for dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) imaging and to report initial results of use of the phantom for quantitative CT perfusion imaging. Materials and Methods Porcine livers were obtained from completed surgical studies and perfused with saline and fixative. The phantom was placed in a body-shaped, CT-compatible acrylic container and connected to a perfusion circuit fitted with a contrast injection port. Flow-controlled contrast-enhanced imaging experiments were performed using a 128-slice and 64 slice, dual-source multidetector CT scanners. CT angiography protocols were employed to obtain portal venous and hepatic arterial vascular enhancement, reproduced over a period of four to six months. CT perfusion protocols were employed at different input flow rates to correlate input flow with calculated tissue perfusion, to test reproducibility and demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous dual input liver perfusion. Histologic analysis of the liver phantom was also performed. Results CT angiogram 3D reconstructions demonstrated homogenous tertiary and quaternary branching of the portal venous system out to the periphery of all lobes of the liver as well as enhancement of the hepatic arterial system to all lobes of the liver and gallbladder throughout the study period. For perfusion CT, the correlation between the calculated mean tissue perfusion in a volume of interest and input pump flow rate was excellent (R2 = 0.996) and color blood flow maps demonstrated variations in regional perfusion in a narrow range. Repeat perfusion CT experiments demonstrated reproducible time-attenuation curves and dual-input perfusion CT experiments demonstrated that simultaneous dual input liver perfusion is feasible. Histologic analysis demonstrated that the hepatic microvasculature and architecture appeared intact and well preserved at the completion of four to six

  17. The MARIA Helicon Plasma Experiment at UW Madison: Upgrade, Initial Scientific Goals Mission and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Victoria; Green, Jonathan; Hershkowitz, Noah; Schmitz, Oliver; Severn, Greg

    2015-11-01

    The versatile helicon plasma device, MARIA (Magnetized AnisotRopic Ion-distribution Apparatus), was upgraded with stronger magnetic field B <= 1200G. The main focus is to understand the neutral particle dynamics and ionization mechanism with helicon waves to establish a high-density plasma (10 ∧ 20/m ∧ 3) at substantial electron (Te ~5-15eV) and ion (Ti ~1-3eV) temperature. To achieve this, installation of higher RF Power <= 15kW is planned as well as design of an ion cyclotron-heating antenna. To quantify the plasma characteristics, diagnostics including a Triple Langmuir Probe, Emissive Probe, and Laser Induced Fluorescence were established. We show first results from characterization of the device. The coupling of the helicon mode in the electron temperature and density parameter space in Argon was mapped out with regard to neutral pressure, B-field and RF power. In addition, validity of the Bohm Criterion and of the Chodura model starting in the weakly collisional regime is tested. A key goal in all efforts is to develop methods of quantitative spectroscopy based on cutting-edge models and active laser spectroscopy. This work was funded by Startup funds of the Department of Engineering Physics at UW Madison, the NSF CAREER award PHY-1455210 and NSF grant PHY-1206421.

  18. Contamination of the home environment by patients treated with Iodine-131: initial results.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, A P; Plato, P A; Toeroek, D

    1978-01-01

    We have employed twin sodium iodide radiation detectors to analyze iodine-131 transfer from thyroid patients to their families. Unlike previous studies of this problem, we measured thyroid radioiodine activity directly and are able to detect as little as 92 pCi of iodine 131 in adult thyroids. As in previous studies, we have also measured direct radiation exposures of family members with wristband thermoluminescent dosimeters. Thus far, we have studied seven families with 17 persons. Eleven of these are children under age 16. Direct radiation exposure of family persons from proximity of these radioactive patients ranged from 0.17 to 126 mR per day (natural background radiation amounts to approximately 0.35 mR per day). The maximum activity of iodine-131 in family thyroids ranged from less than 92 pCi to as high as 110,000 pCi and resulted in thyroid dose equivalents of 4 to 1330 mrem. Based on recent estimates of thyroid cancer, the latter dose equivalent could possibly double the risk of thyroid malignancy in children over what is expected normally. Such a risk implies the addition of 10 induced cases to the 10 naturally occurring cases per million people per year. PMID:637168

  19. Evolution of angular velocity for defunct satellites as a result of YORP: An initial study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuja, Antonella A.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; McMahon, Jay W.

    2015-07-01

    Observations of defunct satellites show that these objects are generally rotating, with some having very fast rotation rates, yet the cause of these rapid rates is unknown. The observed secular change in the spin rate and spin axis orientation of asteroids is known to be caused by the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect, however, its effect on inactive satellites in Earth orbit remains unexplored. This paper applies the YORP effect to defunct satellites and analyzes its effect on the spin rate and obliquity of these objects. This work uses two different satellite geometries to explore the secular change of the spin rate and obliquity caused by the YORP effect for inactive Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites. One of the model satellites has an asymmetric geometry, which leads to the classical YORP effect as originally formulated for asteroids. The other model satellite is geometrically symmetric, but relies on mass distribution asymmetry to generate the YORP effect. For both models the secular change is explored with averaged dynamics, and the solutions of the averaged theory are compared with numerical integrations of the non-averaged equations of motion. Additionally, previously published observations of inactive GEO satellites are used to estimate the YORP torque acting on those bodies. A comparison between this torque and the expected torque on a defunct satellite shows that the two are of the same order of magnitude. These results motivate further study on the YORP effect in the realm of inactive satellites.

  20. Initial results from a dynamic coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-ring current model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pembroke, Asher; Toffoletto, Frank; Sazykin, Stanislav; Wiltberger, Michael; Lyon, John; Merkin, Viacheslav; Schmitt, Peter

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we describe a coupled model of Earth's magnetosphere that consists of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation, the MIX ionosphere solver and the Rice Convection Model (RCM) and report some results using idealized inputs and model parameters. The algorithmic and physical components of the model are described, including the transfer of magnetic field information and plasma boundary conditions to the RCM and the return of ring current plasma properties to the LFM. Crucial aspects of the coupling include the restriction of RCM to regions where field-line averaged plasma-β ≤ 1, the use of a plasmasphere model, and the MIX ionosphere model. Compared to stand-alone MHD, the coupled model produces a substantial increase in ring current pressure and reduction of the magnetic field near the Earth. In the ionosphere, stronger region-1 and region-2 Birkeland currents are seen in the coupled model but with no significant change in the cross polar cap potential drop, while the region-2 currents shielded the low-latitude convection potential. In addition, oscillations in the magnetic field are produced at geosynchronous orbit with the coupled code. The diagnostics of entropy and mass content indicate that these oscillations are associated with low-entropy flow channels moving in from the tail and may be related to bursty bulk flows and bubbles seen in observations. As with most complex numerical models, there is the ongoing challenge of untangling numerical artifacts and physics, and we find that while there is still much room for improvement, the results presented here are encouraging.

  1. Rapid screening test for gestational diabetes: public health need, market requirement, initial product design, and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Zwisler, Greg; Peck, Roger; Abu-Haydar, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Gestational diabetes is a global epidemic where many urban areas in Southeast Asia have found prevalence rates as high as 20%, exceeding the highest prevalence rates in the developed world. It can have serious and life-threatening consequences for mothers and babies. We are developing two variants of a new, simple, low-cost rapid test for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus for use primarily in low-resource settings. The pair of assays, both semiquantitative rapid diagnostic strip tests for glycated albumin, require neither fasting nor an oral glucose challenge test. One variant is an extremely simple strip test to estimate the level of total glycated albumin in blood. The other, which is slightly more complex and expensive, is a test that determines the ratio of glycated albumin to total albumin. The screening results can be used to refer women to receive additional care during delivery to avoid birth complications as well as counseling on diet and exercise during and after pregnancy. Results with the latter test may also be used to start treatment with glucose-lowering drugs. Both assays will be read visually. We present initial results of a preliminary cost-performance comparison model evaluating the proposed test versus existing alternatives. We also evaluated user needs and schematic paper microfluidics-based designs aimed at overcoming the challenge of visualizing relatively narrow differences between normal and elevated levels of glycated albumin in blood.

  2. Review of dWindDS Model Initial Results; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, Ian; Gleason, Michael; Preus, Robert; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-06-17

    The dWindDS model analyses the market diffusion of distributed wind generation for behind the meter applications. It is consumer decision based and uses a variety of data sets including a high resolution wind data set. It projects market development through 2050 based on input on specified by the user. This presentation covers some initial runs with draft base case assumptions.

  3. Human support issues and systems for the space exploration initiative: Results from Project Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aroesty, J.; Zimmerman, R.; Logan, J.

    1991-01-01

    The analyses and evaluations of the Human Support panel are discussed. The Human Support panel is one of eight panels created by RAND to screen and analyze submissions to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Outreach Program. Submissions to the Human Support panel were in the following areas: radiation protection; microgravity; life support systems; medical care; and human factors (behavior and performance).

  4. Getting Results: Outcomes Management and the Annie E. Casey Foundations Jobs Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giloth, Robert; Phillips, William

    The Anne E. Casey Foundation (AECF) funded replications of effective jobs projects to achieve better job placement and retention for low-income, young adults. The six projects funded, collectively called the Jobs Initiative (JI), in Denver, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Philadelphia, Seattle, and St. Louis, used an outcomes framework developed by The…

  5. Mining Student Data Captured from a Web-Based Tutoring Tool: Initial Exploration and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merceron, Agathe; Yacef, Kalina

    2004-01-01

    In this article we describe the initial investigations that we have conducted on student data collected from a web-based tutoring tool. We have used some data mining techniques such as association rule and symbolic data analysis, as well as traditional SQL queries to gain further insight on the students' learning and deduce information to improve…

  6. Smile Alabama! Initiative: Interim Results from a Program To Increase Children's Access to Dental Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene-McIntyre, Mary; Finch, Mary Hayes; Searcy, John

    2003-01-01

    An Alabama initiative aimed to improve access to oral health care for Medicaid-eligible children through four components: improved Medicaid claims processing, increased reimbursement for providers, outreach and educational activities to support providers, and parent and patient education about children's oral health. In the first 3 program years,…

  7. Recidivism among Child Sexual Abusers: Initial Results of a 13-Year Longitudinal Random Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Steven; Marsh, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In the initial analysis of data from a random sample of all those charged with child sexual abuse in Idaho over a 13-year period, only one predictive variable was found that related to recidivism of those convicted. Variables such as ethnicity, relationship, gender, and age differences did not show a significant or even large association with…

  8. Results of automatic image registration are dependent on initial manual registration.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joshua E; Fischer, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of static alignment of articulating joints is of clinical benefit and can be determined using image-based registration. We propose a method that could potentially improve the outcome of image-based registration by using initial manual registration. Magnetic resonance images of two wrist specimens were acquired in the relaxed position and during simulated grasp. Transformations were determined from voxel-based image registration between the two volumes. The volumes were manually aligned to match as closely as possible before auto-registration, from which standard transformations were obtained. Then, translation/rotation perturbations were applied to the manual registration to obtain altered initial positions, from which altered auto-registration transformations were obtained. Models of the radiolunate joint were also constructed from the images to simulate joint contact mechanics. We compared the sensitivity of transformations (translations and rotations) and contact mechanics to altering the initial registration condition from the defined standard. We observed that with increasing perturbation, transformation errors appeared to increase and values for contact force and contact area appeared to decrease. Based on these preliminary findings, it appears that the final registration outcome is sensitive to the initial registration. PMID:25408167

  9. Child Sexual Abuse and Psychological Impairment in Victims: Results of an Online Study Initiated by Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Gerard A.; Mundt, Ingrid A.; Ahlers, Christoph J.; Bahls, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims…

  10. Initial results from the Pawnee eddy correlation system for acid deposition research

    SciTech Connect

    Zeller, K.; Massman, W.; Stocker, D.; Fox, D.G.; Stellman, D.; Hazlett, D.

    1989-01-01

    The Pawnee grassland eddy correlation dry deposition project is described. Instrumentation, methods of analysis, and initial data and research findings are presented. Data from this eddy correlation system show agreement with previous observations of deposition velocities for atmospheric ozone, NO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x}; micrometeorological theory; and micrometeorological site characteristics.

  11. Effect of Microgravity on Sinorhizobium meliloti: Initial Results from the SyNRGE Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Michael S.; Stutte, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIe) hardware to study the effect of microgravity on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species of the legume family, was innoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe early events associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFUs). Two sets of experiments were conducted in orbit and in 24-hour delayed ground controls. Experiment one was designed to determine if S. meliloti infect M. truncatula and initiate physiological changes associated with nodule formation. Roots of five-day-old M. truncatula cultivar Jemalong A17 (Enodll::gus) were innoculated 24 hr before launch with either S. meliloti strain 1021 or strain ABS7 and integrated into BRIC-PDFU hardware placed in a 4 C Cold Bag for launch on Atlantis. Innoculated plants and uninoculated controls were maintained in the dark at ambient temperature in the middeck of STS-135 for 11 days before fixation in RNA/ate/M by crew activation of the PDFU. Experiment two was designed to determine if microgravity altered the process of bacterial infection and host plant nodule formation. Seeds of two M. truncatula cultivar Jemalong A17 lines, the Enodll::gus used in experiment 1, and SUNN, a super-nodulating mutant of A17, were germinated on orbit for 11 days in the middeck cabin and returned to Earth alive inside of BRIC-PDFU's at 4 C S. meliloti strains 1021 and ABS7 were cultivated separately in broth culture on orbit and also returned to Earth alive. After landing, flight- and ground-grown plants and bacteria were transferred from BRIC-PDFU's into Nunc(TradeMark) 4-well plates for reciprocity crosses. Rates of plant growth and nodule development on Buffered Nodulation Medium (lacking nitrogen) were measured for 14 days. Bacteria cultivated in microgravity in the

  12. Initial Results from the Vector Electric Field Investigation on the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.; Acuna, M.; Le, G.; Farrell, W.; Holzworth, R.; Wilson, G.; Burke, W.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; Liebrecht, C.; Martin, S.; Kujawski, J.; Uribe, P.; Fourre, R.; McCarthy, M.; Maynard, N.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Steigies, C.

    2009-01-01

    Initial results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. The DC electric field detector has revealed zonal and meridional electric fields that undergo a diurnal variation, typically displaying eastward and outward-directed fields during the day and westward and downward-directed fields at night. In general, the measured DC electric field amplitudes are in the 0.5-2 mV/m range, corresponding to I3 x B drifts of the order of 30-150 m/s. What is surprising is the high degree of large-scale (10's to 100's of km) structure in the DC electric field, particularly at night, regardless of whether well-defined spread-F plasma density depletions are present. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. On some occasions, localized regions of low frequency (< 8 Hz) magnetic field broadband irregularities have been detected, suggestive of filamentary currents, although there is no one-to-one correspondence of these waves with the observed plasma density depletions, at least within the data examined thus far. Finally, the data set includes a wide range of ELF/VLF/HF waves corresponding to a variety of plasma waves, in particular banded ELF hiss, whistlers, and lower hybrid wave turbulence

  13. Storage-and-release flux rope eruptions in the laboratory: initial results and experimental plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, C. E.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Yoo, J.; Jara-Almonte, J.; Lawrence, E. E.

    2012-12-01

    Solar eruptive events such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are thought to be driven by a sudden release of magnetic energy stored in the corona. In many cases, the pre-eruptive configuration is a non-potential magnetic structure that can be modeled as a line-tied magnetic flux rope. In spite of ever-improving observational capabilities, directly studying the evolution of coronal flux ropes remains a significant challenge. Thus, in order to further explore the mechanisms that drive solar eruptions, we must find novel ways to simulate the relevant physical system. To this end, we have constructed a new laboratory experiment to study storage-and-release flux rope eruptions. This experiment contains a carefully designed set of ``sub-photospheric" coils that produces an active-region-like potential field configuration that remains static throughout the discharge. An arched magnetic flux rope plasma is formed within this potential field configuration by driving electric current through two line-tied footpoints (copper electrodes). Over the course of the discharge, the plasma current is quasi-statically increased (to tens of kiloamperes over many Alfvén times) in order to slowly build up magnetic energy in the system. As the flux rope gains energy, it will expand away from the electrodes to a point where it is expected to undergo a dynamic eruption due to the onset of a loss-of-equilibrium [Forbes & Isenberg, Astrophys. J. 373, 294 (1991)] or the torus instability [Kliem & Török, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 255002 (2006)]. In these experiments, the structure of the background potential field configuration (i.e., the field decay index) can be varied to study its effect on the observed flux rope eruptions. Initial results from these experiment are presented, including images from a fast visible light camera and direct measurements from internal magnetic diagnostics. This research is supported by DoE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by the Center for Magnetic Self

  14. A Unique Test Facility to Measure Liner Performance with a Summary of Initial Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Gaeta, R. J., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A very ambitious study was initiated to obtain detailed acoustic and flow data with and without a liner in a duct containing a mean flow so that available theoretical models of duct liners can be validated. A unique flow-duct facility equipped with a sound source, liner box, flush-walled microphones, traversable microphones and traversable pressure and temperature probes was built. A unique set of instrumentation boxes equipped with computer controlled traverses were designed and built that allowed measurements of Mach number, temperature, SPLs and phases in two planes upstream of a liner section and two planes downstream at a large number of measurement points. Each pair of planes provided acoustic pressure gradients for use in estimating the particle velocities. Specially-built microphone probes were employed to make measurements in the presence of the flow. A microphone traverse was also designed to measure the distribution of SPLs and phases from the beginning of the liner to its end along the duct axis. All measurements were made with the help of cross-correlation techniques to reject flow noise and/or other obtrusive noise, if any. The facility was designed for future use at temperatures as high as 1500 F. In order to validate 2-D models in the presence of mean flow, the flow duct was equipped with a device to modify boundary layer flow on the smaller sides of a rectangular duct to simulate 2-D flow. A massive amount of data was acquired for use in validating duct liner models and will be provided to NASA in an electronic form. It was found that the sound in the plane-wave regime is well behaved within the duct and the results are repeatable from one run to another. At the higher frequencies corresponding to the higher-order modes, the SPLs within a duct are not repeatable from run to run. In fact, when two or more modes have the same frequency (i.e., for the degenerate modes), the SPLs in the duct varied between 2 dB to 12 dB from run to run. This made the

  15. Petrophysical Characterization of Stony Meteorites Using Low Field Magnetic Susceptibility: Initial Results From Anisotropy Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. L.; Ernst, R. E.; Herd, R. K.; Claire, S.

    2004-05-01

    Low field magnetic susceptibility represents a fast, systematic and non-destructive technique of meteorite classification [1-4]. We previously reported measurements of bulk susceptibility, and its frequency dependence, along with a `proxy' measure of anisotropy, on 204 specimens from 108 different meteorites in the National Meteorite Collection of Canada [5,6]. Measurements were performed on a Sapphire Instruments Model 2B. Bulk susceptibility values followed expected trends, governed by metal content, with values increasing from LL, to L, to H, to E chondrites. Frequency dependence (19000 vs 825 Hz) was greatest in H and C chondrites. Aubrites (AUB) and Howardites (HOW) had the lowest. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) was measured using a `proxy' approach: the mean value determined from a series of random sample orientations was compared with repeated measurements in one orientation. AUB, E chondrites and Martian SNCs had the largest inferred anisotropies, while LL and C chondrites had the lowest. Here we report initial results from a follow-up study. Quantitative measurements of the AMS were made on 67 stony meteorite specimens. AMS measurements [3,5,6,7,8,9] can provide information on the physical fabric of the meteorite, and may relate to its deformational history. Samples measured show significant degrees of anisotropy ranging from 1-50 % for an individual specimen (in parentheses is the number of specimens used in the class mean): AUB (5), Acapulcoites (1) and E chondrites (10) display the largest degrees of anisotropy, 40±11 (1 standard deviation), 34, and 24±10, respectively. These classes are followed by Diogenite (1) 20, H (13) 14±7 and L (10) 13±6 chondrites, Brachinite (1) 11, Ureilite (2) 8, Eucrite (4) 7±4, C chondrites (14) 6±3, and Rumurutiite (1) 4. These results match a similar trend based on the `proxy' method [5,6]: AUB and E chondrites were found to have the highest inferred anisotropies followed by tightly grouped H and L

  16. Behavior of spinning laminated composite plates with initial twist-experimental vibrations, strain, and deflection results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapid, A. J.; Kosmatka, J. B.; Mehmed, O.

    1993-01-01

    The experimental behavior of spinning, pre-twisted laminated composite plates was investigated. The purpose of these experiments was to establish an experimental database consisting of strain, deflections, and natural frequencies as a function of rotational velocity. Six different plate sets were tested, that included three different stacking sequences (two symmetric, one asymmetric), two different initial twist levels (0 deg, 30 deg), and two different initial twist axis locations (midchord, quarter-chord). The plates were spin tested at four different combinations of pitch and sweep. It was observed that the location of the pretwist axis and the level of pretwist greatly affects the strain and deflections of the spinning plate, while only the pretwist level affects the measured natural frequencies.

  17. [Innovative ways of occupational integration of handicapped patients--results of the European Community Initiative HORIZON].

    PubMed

    Gmelin, A

    1996-02-01

    A European Commission programme aimed at occupational integration of disabled, disadvantaged and migrant persons, the HORIZON Community initiative had been implemented in the Federal Republic of Germany between 1991 and 1994. Along with an overview of project participants, exemplary innovative approaches to and potential for integrating disabled persons in employment are presented that have been developed and implemented under the programme. Also, the labour market effects achieved for the disability target group are set out. PMID:8693188

  18. The Vega balloon experiment - Initial results from the global radio tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, R. A.; Hildebrand, C. E.; Purcell, G. H., Jr.; Finley, S. G.; Stelzried, C. T.; Ellis, J.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Matveenko, L. I.; Linkin, V. M.; Kerzhanovich, V. V.

    1986-01-01

    A unique global array of 20 radio telescopes provided 24-h telemetry acquisition of meteorological data from the Vega balloons and differential VLBI measurements of their trajectories. Initial Doppler-tracking analysis indicates mean zonal wind velocities of 69 + or - 1 and 66 + or - 1 m/sec at the Vega 1 and Vega 2 float heights, and discloses an anomaly in the Vega 2 trajectory above the mountains in Aphrodite Terra.

  19. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal were completed in 2005 and 2006 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 5 full-scale additive tests, conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1. Both additives were tested there.

  20. The IAEA Coordinated Research Program on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis: Phase I Status and Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Strydom, Gerhard; Bostelmann, Friederike; Ivanov, Kostadin

    2014-10-01

    The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of HTGR design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. One way to address the uncertainties in the HTGR analysis tools is to assess the sensitivity of critical parameters (such as the calculated maximum fuel temperature during loss of coolant accidents) to a few important input uncertainties. The input parameters were identified by engineering judgement in the past but are today typically based on a Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT) process. The input parameters can also be derived from sensitivity studies and are then varied in the analysis to find a spread in the parameter of importance. However, there is often no easy way to compensate for these uncertainties. In engineering system design, a common approach for addressing performance uncertainties is to add compensating margins to the system, but with passive properties credited it is not so clear how to apply it in the case of modular HTGR heat removal path. Other more sophisticated uncertainty modelling approaches, including Monte Carlo analysis, have also been proposed and applied. Ideally one wishes to apply a more fundamental approach to determine the predictive capability and accuracies of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and depletion simulations used for reactor design and safety assessment. Today there is a broader acceptance of the use of uncertainty analysis even in safety studies, and it has been accepted by regulators in some cases to replace the traditional conservative analysis. Therefore some safety analysis calculations may use a mixture of these approaches for different parameters depending upon the particular requirements of the analysis problem involved. Sensitivity analysis can for example be used to provide information as part of an uncertainty analysis to determine best estimate plus uncertainty results to the

  1. Preliminary Results from Initial Investigations of Ceres' Cratering Record from Dawn Imaging Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmedemann, Nico; Michael, Gregory; Ivanov, Boris A.; Kneissl, Thomas; Neesemann, Adrian; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2015-04-01

    The highly successful Dawn mission [1] finished data collection at Vesta in 2012 and is now on its way to the dwarf planet Ceres. According to the current Ceres approach timeline of the Dawn mission, the ground resolution of the Dawn FC camera [2] will be about 10 times better than Hubble data [3] at the time of the presentation of this work. This may allow for identification of craters about 15 km in diameter. Initial mapping of sample areas may provide enough information of the cratering record in order to compare it with the theoretical Ceres crater production function we present at the 46th LPSC conference (March 16-20, 2015, The Woodlands, Texas) [4]. Our preliminary crater production function for Ceres is derived from the assumption of an icy crust just below a thin surface layer of dust [5], and a projectile population that is very similar to the one that impacted the Moon [6]. In order to scale the lunar cratering record to Ceres we use the Ivanov scaling laws [7], which allow for crater scaling based on parameters that can be derived from observations. The lunar-like approach gave reasonable good results for the crater production function on the asteroids Vesta, Ida, Lutetia and Gaspra [8]. Since the lunar surface is of basaltic composition, the correct scaling between the different materials is challenging. One crucial parameter is the transition diameter from simple to complex craters. Based on the simple to complex transition diameter on Iapetus, an icy satellite of Saturn, we expect this transition at about 12 km crater size at Ceres. This value may be slightly different due to the different temperatures at Ceres and Iapetus. If the simple to complex transition is observed at much larger diameters, the reason could be a substantial fraction of rock in the shallow subsurface of Ceres. In an ice-rich surface material high relaxation rates may also be expected that could change the shape of the crater production function. A thorough geological mapping

  2. Initial Mars Upper Atmospheric Structure Results from the Accelerometer Science Experiment aboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, G. M.; Bougher, S. W.; Theriot, M. E.; Tolson, R. H.; Blanchard, R. C.; Zurek, R. W.; Forbes, J. M.; Murphy, J.

    2006-12-01

    Designed for aerobraking, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005, achieved Mars Orbital Insertion (MOI), March 10, 2006, and successfully completed aerobraking on August 30, 2006. Atmospheric density decreases exponentially with increasing height. By small propulsive adjustments of the apoapsis orbital velocity, periapsis altitude was fine tuned to the density surface that safely used the atmosphere of Mars to aerobrake over 445 orbits, providing 890 vertical structures. MRO periapsis precesses from near the South Pole at 6pm LST to near the equator at 3am LST. Meanwhile, apoapsis is brought dramatically from 40,000km at MOI to 480 km at aerobraking completion (ABX). Without aerobraking this would have required an additional 400kg of fuel. After ABX, two small propulsive orbital adjustment maneuvers September 5, 2006 and September 11, 2006 established the final Primary Science Orbit (PSO). Each of the 445 aerobraking orbits provides, a pair of vertical structures inbound toward periapsis and outbound from periapsis, with a distribution of density, scale heights, temperatures, and pressures along the orbital path, providing key in situ insight into various upper atmosphere (> 100 km) processes. One of the major questions for scientists studying Mars is: Where did the water go? Honeywell's substantially improved electronics package for its IMU (QA-2000 accelerometer, gyro, electronics) maximized accelerometer sensitivities at the requests of The George Washington University, JPL, and Lockheed Martin. The improved accelerometer sensitivities allowed density measurements to exceed 200km, at least 40 km higher than with Mars Odyssey (MO). This extends vertical structures from MRO into the neutral lower exosphere, a region where various processes may allow atmospheric gasses to escape. Over the eons, water may have been lost in both the lower atmosphere and the upper atmosphere, thus the water balance throughout the entire atmosphere from

  3. Initial results of environmental monitoring in the Texas Rio Grande Valley.

    PubMed

    Garcia, S S; Ake, C; Clement, B; Huebner, H J; Donnelly, K C; Shalat, S L

    2001-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that a segment of human disease may be attributable to environmental exposures. These may include exposure to chemicals released from a broad range of natural and man-made sources. The purpose of this study was to develop the sampling methodology and prepare a preliminary database on the presence of various organic chemicals in environmental media in two South Texas counties bordered by the Rio Grande River. A third county, located approximately 150 miles north of the Rio Grande River, was also sampled. The South Texas counties were the focus of study due to an increased incidence of anencephalic births in recent years. The environmental media that was sampled included surface water and sediment from the Rio Grande River and irrigation canals, as well as soil from adjacent cropland and pastures. Samples were collected using United States Geological Survey (USGS) quadrangle maps (7.5'; 1:24,000 scale) to identify the area of interest. At least one sampling location was established in each quadrangle. A pond sampler was used for the collection of surface water samples, while soil was collected with a stainless steel trowel. Sediment samples were collected directly in a glass jar. Solid samples were extracted in a soxhlet extractor using methylene chloride. Organic chemicals were concentrated from water samples on a Sep-Pak cartridge and the organics eluted with methanol/acetonitrile. Extracts were analyzed using GC-MS. All of the surface water samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons and plasticizers, while soil samples contained aliphatics, plasticizers, pesticides, and industrial estrogens. Specific chemicals detected in environmental samples included atrazine and benzene dicarboxylic acid. Contaminant levels in sediments were generally higher than were detected in other media. The results demonstrate the broad variability of contaminant types and concentrations in environmental samples. Although this study presents only a very

  4. Interdiffusion of deuterium and hydrogen in olivine and enstatite: Initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyburczy, J. A.; Du Frane, W. L.; Sharp, T. G.

    2009-12-01

    Interdiffusion rates of hydrogen and deuterium in olivine and enstatite, the most abundant minerals in the upper mantle, will improve our understanding of point defects, and defect dominated processes such as electrical conductivity. Deuterium is interdiffused into San Carlos olivine and enstatite as a traceable species of hydrogen to simulate the process of hydrogen self diffusion. Experiments were performed on oriented single crystals of olivine, and unoriented grains of olivine and enstatite. The olivine samples underwent two annealing steps before the diffusion experiment. The first anneal was at 1-bar, 1300 °C at NNO oxygen fugacity for 16+ hrs to set the point defects. Olivine samples were then saturated with 75 +/- 15 ppm-wt H2O during a hydrothermal anneal in a H2O(100wt%) bath at temperatures ranging between 750-900 °C, 2 GPa, NNO, with the inclusion of enstatite to buffer silica. Enstatite grains did not undergo a dry 1-atm anneal and were saturated with 300 +/- 100 ppm-wt H2O. Finally, deuterium is interdiffused into the hydrated olivine and enstatite; samples were recovered and brought back to the same P-T conditions as saturation in a D2O(90wt%)/H2O(10wt%) bath. We used the Cameca 6f SIMS at ASU to measure hydrogen and deuterium across samples from each of these experiments, and fit interdiffusion coefficients to the resulting deuterium and hydrogen profiles. In olivine D[100] is 2.0e-12 m^2/s at 800 °C, 2GPa. Diffusion lengths in the [010] and [001] directions were only modestly larger than the spatial resolution of our technique. Using concentration boundary conditions from the better quality data in [100] diffusion profile, we estimate diffusion coefficients for the other orientations as ~3e-13 m^2/s [001] and ~5e-14 m^2/s [010]. These values are roughly 1 ½ -2 orders of magnitude lower than chemical diffusion in San Carlos olivine (Kohlstedt & Mackwell, 1998). Activation energies estimated over the temperature range 750 - 800 °C are

  5. Effect of Partition of Photo-Initiator Components and Addition of Iodonium Salt on the Photopolymerization of Phase-Separated Dental Adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedin, Farhana; Ye, Qiang; Song, Linyong; Ge, Xueping; Camarda, Kyle; Spencer, Paulette

    2016-04-01

    The polymerization kinetics of physically separated hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-rich phases of a model dental adhesive have been investigated. The two phases were prepared from neat resin containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA) in the ratio of 45:55 (wt./wt.). Neat resins containing various combinations of popular photo-initiating compounds, e.g., camphoquinone (CQ), ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (EDMAB), 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate (DPIHP), were prepared. To obtain the two phases, 33 wt.% of deuterium oxide (D2O) was added to the neat resins. This amount of D2O exceeded the miscibility limit for the resins. The concentration of each component of the photo-initiating system in the two phases was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). When combined with CQ, DMAEMA is less efficient as a co-initiator compared to EDMAB. The addition of DPIHP as the third component into either CQ/EDMAB or CQ/DMAEMA photo-initiating systems led to comparable performance in both the hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-rich phases. The addition of the iodonium salt significantly improved the photopolymerization of the hydrophilic-rich phase; the latter exhibited extremely poor polymerization when the iodonium salt was not included in the formulation. The partition concentration of EDMAB in the hydrophilic-rich phase was significantly lower than that of DMAEMA or DPIHP. This study indicates the need for a combination of hydrophobic/hydrophilic photosensitizer and addition of iodonium salt to improve polymerization within the hydrophilic-rich phase of the dental adhesive.

  6. Automation and robotics for the Space Exploration Initiative: Results from Project Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, D.; Criswell, D.; Heer, E.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 52 submissions were received in the Automation and Robotics (A&R) area during Project Outreach. About half of the submissions (24) contained concepts that were judged to have high utility for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) and were analyzed further by the robotics panel. These 24 submissions are analyzed here. Three types of robots were proposed in the high scoring submissions: structured task robots (STRs), teleoperated robots (TORs), and surface exploration robots. Several advanced TOR control interface technologies were proposed in the submissions. Many A&R concepts or potential standards were presented or alluded to by the submitters, but few specific technologies or systems were suggested.

  7. The Ulysses solar wind plasma investigation: Description and initial in-ecliptic results

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, S. J.; Phillips, J. L.; McComas, D. J.; Gosling, J. T.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1991-01-01

    During the in-ecliptic flight of Ulysses from the Earth toward its encounter with Jupiter, the Los Alamos solar wind plasma experiment has performed well. Briefly described, the instrumentation contains two independent electrostatic analyzers, one for ions and one for electrons. Initial analysis of solar wind electron core temperatures obtained between 1.15 and 3.76 AU yields a gradient of T {proportional to} R{sup {minus}0.7} which is flatter than expected for adiabatic expansion of a single-temperature Maxwellian velocity distribution and steeper than that obtained from Mariner-Voyager.

  8. Initial results from the Solar Dynamic (SD) Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) project at NASA Lewis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.; Boyle, Robert V.

    1995-01-01

    A government/industry team designed, built, and tested a 2 kWe solar dynamic space power system in a large thermal/vacuum facility with a simulated sun at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Lewis facility provides an accurate simulation of temperatures, high vacuum, and solar flux as encountered in low earth orbit. This paper reviews the goals and status of the Solar Dynamic (SD) Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) program and describes the initial testing, including both operational and performance data. This SD technology has the potential as a future power source for the International Space Station Alpha.

  9. The Edison Environmental Center Permeable Pavement Site: Initial Results from a Stormwater Control Designed for Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are few detailed studies of full-scale, replicated, actively-used permeable pavement systems. Practitioners need additional studies of permeable pavement systems in its intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditio...

  10. Virtual Iraq: initial results from a VR exposure therapy application for combat-related PTSD.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Albert A; Graap, Ken; Perlman, Karen; McLay, Robert N; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Reger, Greg; Parsons, Thomas; Difede, Joann; Pair, Jarrell

    2008-01-01

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is reported to be caused by traumatic events that are outside the range of usual human experience including (but not limited to) military combat, violent personal assault, being kidnapped or taken hostage and terrorist attacks. Initial data suggests that at least 1 out of 6 Iraq War veterans are exhibiting symptoms of depression, anxiety and PTSD. Virtual Reality (VR) delivered exposure therapy for PTSD has been used with reports of positive outcomes. The aim of the current paper is to present the rationale and brief description of a Virtual Iraq PTSD VR therapy application and present initial findings from its use with PTSD patients. Thus far, Virtual Iraq consists of a series of customizable virtual scenarios designed to represent relevant Middle Eastern VR contexts for exposure therapy, including a city and desert road convoy environment. User-centered design feedback needed to iteratively evolve the system was gathered from returning Iraq War veterans in the USA and from a system deployed in Iraq and tested by an Army Combat Stress Control Team. Clinical trials are currently underway at Ft. Lewis, Camp Pendleton, Emory University, Weill Cornell Medical College, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, San Diego Naval Medical Center and 12 other sites. PMID:18391334

  11. 42 CFR 476.85 - Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.85 Section 476.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR... denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. A QIO initial denial determination or change as a result of DRG validation is final and binding unless, in accordance with the procedures...

  12. 42 CFR 476.85 - Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.85 Section 476.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR... denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. A QIO initial denial determination or change as a result of DRG validation is final and binding unless, in accordance with the procedures...

  13. Test results of the Chrysler upgraded automotive gas turbine engine: Initial design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, D.; Ribble, G. H., Jr.; Warren, E. L.; Wood, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The upgraded engine as built to the original design was deficient in power and had excessive specific fuel consumption. A high instrumented version of the engine was tested to identify the sources of the engine problems. Analysis of the data shows the major problems to be low compressor and power turbine efficiency and excessive interstage duct losses. In addition, high HC and CO emission were measured at idle, and high NOx emissions at high energy speeds.

  14. Setup and initial results from the magnetic flux surface diagnostics at Wendelstein 7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otte, M.; Aßmus, D.; Biedermann, C.; Bozhenkov, S.; Bräuer, T.; Dudek, A.; Geiger, J.; Kocsis, G.; Lazerson, S.; Pedersen, T. S.; Schauer, F.; Szepesi, T.; Standley, B.; the W7-X Team

    2016-06-01

    Wendelstein 7-X is an optimized stellarator with superconducting magnetic field coils that just started plasma operation at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP) Greifswald. Utilizing the electron beam technique the first vacuum flux surface measurements were performed during the commissioning of the magnet system. For the magnetic configurations investigated so far the existence of closed and nested flux surfaces has been validated. All features of the configuration designed for the initial plasma operation phase, including a predicted island chain, were confirmed. No evidence on significant magnetic field errors was found. Furthermore, the effect of the elastic deformation of the non-planar coils was confirmed by the measurements.

  15. Performance of the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility and initial experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, W.; Conde, M.; Cox, G.; Konecny, R.; Power, J.; Schoessow, P.; Simpson, J.; Barov, N.

    1997-09-01

    The Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility has begun its experimental program. This unique facility is designed to address advanced acceleration research which requires very short, intense electron bunches. The facility incorporates two photo-cathode based electron sources. One produces up to 100 nC, multi-kiloamp drive bunches which are used to excite wakefields in dielectric loaded structures and in plasma. The second source produces much lower intensity witness pulses which are used to probe the fields produced by the drive. The drive and witness pulses can be precisely timed as well as laterally positioned with respect to each other. The authors discuss commissioning, initial experiments, and outline plans for a proposed 1 GeV demonstration accelerator.

  16. Performance of the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Facility and initial experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, W.; Conde, M.; Cox, G.; Konecny, R.; Power, J.; Schoessow, P.; Simpson, J.; Barov, N.

    1996-10-01

    The Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility has begun its experimental program. It is designed to address advanced acceleration research requiring very short, intense electron bunches. It incorporates two photocathode based electron sources. One produces up to 100 nC, multi-kiloamp `drive` bunches which are used to excite wakefields in dielectric loaded structures and in plasma. The second source produces much lower intensity `witness` pulses which are used to probe the fields produced by the drive. The drive and witness pulses can be precisely timed as well as laterally positioned with respect to each other. This paper discusses commissioning, initial experiments, and outline plans for a proposed 1 GeV demonstration accelerator.

  17. Radiation doses in adult computed tomography practice in Serbia: initial results.

    PubMed

    Arandjic, Danijela; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Hadnadjev, Darka; Stojanovic, Sanja; Bozovic, Predrag; Ceklic, Sandra; Lazarevic, Djordje

    2014-11-01

    This work presents initial data on radiation doses in adult computed tomography (CT) in Serbia. Data were collected in terms of CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) values for head, chest and abdomen examination. The range of CTDIvol values was found to be 53-98, 11-34 and 8.5-227 mGy whereas for DLP was 803-1066, 350-845 and 1066-3078 mGy cm(-1) for head, chest and abdomen examination, respectively. Except for abdomen on one CT unit, all estimated values were in line with the reported data. This work also presents simple method on how to reduce radiation doses when scanning head. Using axial (step-and-shot) instead of helical mode and decreasing tube current-time product leads to significant dose reduction. CTDIvol was decreased by 20 % whereas DLP was reduced for a factor 2. PMID:25063787

  18. Issues, concerns, and initial implementation results for space based telerobotic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, D. A.; Chapel, J. D.; Depkovich, T. M.

    1987-01-01

    Telerobotic control for space based assembly and servicing tasks presents many problems in system design. Traditional force reflection teleoperation schemes are not well suited to this application, and the approaches to compliance control via computer algorithms have yet to see significant testing and comparison. These observations are discussed in detail, as well as the concerns they raise for imminent design and testing of space robotic systems. As an example of the detailed technical work yet to be done before such systems can be specified, a particular approach to providing manipulator compliance is examined experimentally and through modeling and analysis. This yields some initial insight into the limitations and design trade-offs for this class of manipulator control schemes. Implications of this investigation for space based telerobots are discussed in detail.

  19. Design of an Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Performance prediction of turbomachines is a significant part of aircraft propulsion design. In the conceptual design stage, there is an important need to quantify compressor and turbine aerodynamic performance and develop initial geometry parameters at the 2-D level prior to more extensive Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses. The Object-oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (OTAC) is being developed to perform 2-D meridional flowthrough analysis of turbomachines using an implicit formulation of the governing equations to solve for the conditions at the exit of each blade row. OTAC is designed to perform meanline or streamline calculations; for streamline analyses simple radial equilibrium is used as a governing equation to solve for spanwise property variations. While the goal for OTAC is to allow simulation of physical effects and architectural features unavailable in other existing codes, it must first prove capable of performing calculations for conventional turbomachines. OTAC is being developed using the interpreted language features available in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code described by Claus et al (1991). Using the NPSS framework came with several distinct advantages, including access to the pre-existing NPSS thermodynamic property packages and the NPSS Newton-Raphson solver. The remaining objects necessary for OTAC were written in the NPSS framework interpreted language. These new objects form the core of OTAC and are the BladeRow, BladeSegment, TransitionSection, Expander, Reducer, and OTACstart Elements. The BladeRow and BladeSegment consumed the initial bulk of the development effort and required determining the equations applicable to flow through turbomachinery blade rows given specific assumptions about the nature of that flow. Once these objects were completed, OTAC was tested and found to agree with existing solutions from other codes; these tests included various meanline and streamline comparisons of axial

  20. Design of an Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Performance prediction of turbomachines is a significant part of aircraft propulsion design. In the conceptual design stage, there is an important need to quantify compressor and turbine aerodynamic performance and develop initial geometry parameters at the 2-D level prior to more extensive Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses. The Object-oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (OTAC) is being developed to perform 2-D meridional flowthrough analysis of turbomachines using an implicit formulation of the governing equations to solve for the conditions at the exit of each blade row. OTAC is designed to perform meanline or streamline calculations; for streamline analyses simple radial equilibrium is used as a governing equation to solve for spanwise property variations. While the goal for OTAC is to allow simulation of physical effects and architectural features unavailable in other existing codes, it must first prove capable of performing calculations for conventional turbomachines.OTAC is being developed using the interpreted language features available in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code described by Claus et al (1991). Using the NPSS framework came with several distinct advantages, including access to the pre-existing NPSS thermodynamic property packages and the NPSS Newton-Raphson solver. The remaining objects necessary for OTAC were written in the NPSS framework interpreted language. These new objects form the core of OTAC and are the BladeRow, BladeSegment, TransitionSection, Expander, Reducer, and OTACstart Elements. The BladeRow and BladeSegment consumed the initial bulk of the development effort and required determining the equations applicable to flow through turbomachinery blade rows given specific assumptions about the nature of that flow. Once these objects were completed, OTAC was tested and found to agree with existing solutions from other codes; these tests included various meanline and streamline comparisons of axial

  1. Ten Years of Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI): Results and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, P. Y.; Gutman, G.; Gulev, S.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    During recent decades, Northern Eurasia was affected by unprecedented climate and environmental changes. Several droughts and heat waves alternated with hazardous extreme precipitation and flood events. Permafrost thaw, retreating Arctic sea ice, increasing areas of forest fire, and dramatic regional warming buffeted this region, tossing northern Eurasia from one extreme condition to the next. The region stores nearly half of the Earth's terrestrial carbon in permafrost, wetlands, and forested land, so ecosystem changes that release stored carbon could profoundly affect the world's climate. Furthermore, changes to climate and to hydrological and biogeochemical cycles are starting to affect daily life. For example, infrastructure is collapsing as permafrost thaws, severe winter storms increasingly bring businesses to a halt, and a growing water deficit is beginning to strain agricultural production and forestry. To pool resources and facilitate research, the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI, http://neespi.org) was launched in 2004. With its multidisciplinary focus, the internationally funded NEESPI (more than165 individual international projects during the past decade) has challenged participants to research climate-ecosystem interactions, societal impacts from extreme events in Northern Eurasia, and the feedbacks of these interactions and impacts to the global Earth system. Among the numerous Institutional and private sponsors from the United States, European Union, Russia, China, and Japan, the cornerstone support for the NEESPI studies was provided by the NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change Program and the Russian Academy of Sciences. At this presentation we shall overview the environmental studies conducted by the NEESPI community, brief the audience about the main achievements of the NEESPI researchers, and lay down the plans for the future studies. At the side event of the Meeting, we are going to initiate preparation of the book

  2. Free-piston stirling component test power converter test results of the initial test phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dochat, George R.; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)—Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has the responsibility to develop power technologies that have the potential of satisfying anticipated future space mission power requirements. The Free-Piston Stirling Power Converter (FPSC) is one of the many power technologies being evaluated and developed by NASA. FPSPCs have the potential to provide high reliability, long life, efficient operation; and they can be coupled with all potential heat sources, nuclear, radioisotope and solar, various heat input, heat rejection systems, and various power management and distribution systems. FPSPCs can complete favorably with alternative power conversion systems over a range of hundreds of watts to hundreds of kilowatts and to megawatts. Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) is developed FPSPC technology under contract to NASA-LeRC and will demonstrate this technology in two full-scale power converters. The first of these, the Component Test Power Converter (CTPC), initiated testing in Spring 1991 to evaluate mechanical operation at space operating temperatures. This paper reviews the testing of the CTPC at MTI and the companion testing of the earlier technology engine, the Space Power Research Engine (SPRE) at NASA-LeRC.

  3. The Khatri Sikh Diabetes Study (SDS): study design, methodology, sample collection, and initial results.

    PubMed

    Sanghera, Dharambir K; Bhatti, Jaswinder S; Bhatti, Gurjit K; Ralhan, Sarju K; Wander, Gurpreet S; Singh, Jai Rup; Bunker, Clareann H; Weeks, Daniel E; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Ferrell, Robert E

    2006-02-01

    Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, or type 2 diabetes (T2DM), has become a major public health problem in India. The high prevalence, relatively young age of onset, and strong familial aggregation of T2DM in some Indian communities remains to be explained. Many of the traditional risk factors established for European populations do not appear to be present in Asian Indians. Phase I of the Sikh Diabetes Study (SDS) was launched to build the population resources required to initiate a large-scale genetic epidemiological study of diabetes in an Asian Indian population. The SDS is focused on the Khatri Sikh population of North India. In all, 1,892 subjects were enrolled to participate in the family-based study; 1,623 of these subjects belong to 324 families, each of which has at least 2 siblings affected with T2DM. The sample included 1,288 individuals affected with T2DM (siblings, parents, or relatives) and 335 unaffected siblings, parents, or relatives. The remaining 269 subjects were unrelated nondiabetic control subjects, including unaffected spouses of probands or siblings. This primarily nonvegetarian, nonsmoking endogamous caste group has presented an unusual clinical picture of uneven distribution of adiposity and a high rate of T2DM with secondary complications. Such well-characterized population isolates may offer unique advantages in mapping genes for common complex diseases. PMID:16900881

  4. Aquarius Satellite Salinity Measurement Mission Status, and Science Results from the initial 3-Year Prime Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Kao, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Aquarius satellite microwave sensor, launched June 2011, as part of the US-Argentina joint Aquarius/SAC-D mission, and commenced observations on 25 Aug2011, and completed three years of ocean surface salinity measurements in late August 2014. The Aquarius measurement objectives are to describe unknown features in the sea surface salinity (SSS) field, and document seasonal and interannual variations on regional and basin scales. This presentation will first describe the structure of the mean annual global salinity field compared with the previous in situ climatology and contemporary in situ measurements , including small persistent biases of opposite sign in high latitudes versus low latitudes, currently under intense investigation, as well as global and regional error statistics. Then we summarize highlights of various studies and papers submitted to the JGR-Oceans special section on satellite salinity (2014). The most prominent seasonal variations, most notably the extant and variability of the SSS signature of the Atlantic and Pacific inter-tropical convergence zones, Amazon-Orinoco and other major rivers, and other important regional patterns of seasonal variability. Lastly we will examine the trends observed during the three Sep-Aug measurement years beginning Sep2011, Sep2012 and Sep2013, respectively, in relation to ENSO and other climate indices, as the first step in analyzing interannual SSS variability. An outline for extended mission operations beyond the initial three-year prime mission will be presented.

  5. The Antarctic Ozone Hole: Initial Results from Aura / OMI Compared with TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Newman, P.

    2004-01-01

    A series of TOMS instruments (on November 7 , Meteor 3, and Earth Probe) has been monitoring the annual development of the Antarctic ozone hole since the 1980s. The ozone mapping instrument on Aura, OMI, is expected to take over this record of observation from the aging Earth Probe TOMS instrument. The area of the ozone hole can be taken as a sensitive indicator of the magnitude of ozone destruction each year. The timing of initial formation of the ozone hole and its duration are sensitive to the atmospheric dynamics of the southern polar regions. The entire TOMS data record (1978 - 2004) has recently been reprocessed with the new version 8 algorithm, which includes a revised calibration. The effect has been to slightly increase ozone hole area over earlier estimates, but only by 23%. OMI (ozone monitoring instrument) on Aura is a hyperspectral imaging instrument that operates in a pushbroom mode to measure solar backscattered radiation in the ultraviolet and visible. OMI has higher spatial resolution than TOMS - 14 x 24 km versus 38 km x 38 km from TOMS. OMI has now begin mapping total column ozone on a global basis in a measurement similar to TOMS. The ozone hole measurements for 2003 are compared with those from Earth Probe TOMS.

  6. 42 CFR 476.94 - Notice of QIO initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.94 Section 476.94 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... changes as a result of a DRG validation. (a) Notice of initial denial determination—(1) Parties to be... retrospective review, (excluding DRG validation and post procedure review), within 3 working days of the...

  7. 42 CFR 476.94 - Notice of QIO initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.94 Section 476.94 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... changes as a result of a DRG validation. (a) Notice of initial denial determination—(1) Parties to be... retrospective review, (excluding DRG validation and post procedure review), within 3 working days of the...

  8. 77 FR 64953 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (Feb. 1, 2005). On September 6, 2012, Apex...: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 75 FR 8925 (Feb. 26, 2010), unchanged in..., 75 FR 27706 (May 18, 2010); and Brake Rotors From the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

  9. Developing Methodologies for Applying TRMM-Estimated Precipitation Data to Hydrological Modeling of a South TX Watershed - Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, K. J.; Bennett, M. E.

    2007-05-01

    Previous experience with hydrological modeling in South Texas, which is located along the Texas-Mexico border, suggests that NWS ground measurements are too widely scattered to provide reliable precipitation input for modeling. In addition, a significant fraction of the study region is located at the edge of the coverage envelopes of the NWS NEXRAD weather radars present in the region limiting the accuracy of these systems to provide reliable precipitation estimates. Therefore, we are exploring whether TRMM estimated-precipitation data (3B42), in some form, can be used to support hydrological modeling in the Middle Rio Grande and Nueces River Basin watersheds. We have begun our modeling efforts by focusing on the middle Nueces watershed (7770 sq km). To model this largely rural watershed we selected the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Three precipitation datasets were selected for our initial model runs that include: (1) nearest NWS cooperative hourly rain gauge data, (2) three hourly TRMM 3B42 estimated precipitation, and (3) combination TRMM 3B42/NWS rain gauge datasets in which ground measurements are used for three hourly periods lacking high quality satellite microwave precipitation estimates as determined from TRMM 3G68 data. Three dataset were aggregated into an average daily estimate of precipitation for each TRMM grid cell. Manual calibration of was completed achieving model results that yield realistic monthly and annual water balances with both gauge and satellite estimate precipitation datasets. In the future, we plan to use the newly developed automatic calibration routine for SWAT, which is based on the Shuffled Complex Evolution algorithm, to optimize modeled discharge results from this study.

  10. THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM ABSORPTION LINE SPECTROSCOPY. II. RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Charlie; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2012-11-20

    The spectral absorption lines in early-type galaxies contain a wealth of information regarding the detailed abundance pattern, star formation history, and stellar initial mass function (IMF) of the underlying stellar population. Using our new population synthesis model that accounts for the effect of variable abundance ratios of 11 elements, we analyze very high quality absorption line spectra of 38 early-type galaxies and the nuclear bulge of M31. These data extend to 1 {mu}m and they therefore include the IMF-sensitive spectral features Na I, Ca II, and FeH at 0.82 {mu}m, 0.86 {mu}m, and 0.99 {mu}m, respectively. The models fit the data well, with typical rms residuals {approx}< 1%. Strong constraints on the IMF and therefore the stellar mass-to-light ratio, (M/L){sub stars}, are derived for individual galaxies. We find that the IMF becomes increasingly bottom-heavy with increasing velocity dispersion and [Mg/Fe]. At the lowest dispersions and [Mg/Fe] values the derived IMF is consistent with the Milky Way (MW) IMF, while at the highest dispersions and [Mg/Fe] values the derived IMF contains more low-mass stars (is more bottom-heavy) than even a Salpeter IMF. Our best-fit (M/L){sub stars} values do not exceed dynamically based M/L values. We also apply our models to stacked spectra of four metal-rich globular clusters in M31 and find an (M/L){sub stars} that implies fewer low-mass stars than a MW IMF, again agreeing with dynamical constraints. We discuss other possible explanations for the observed trends and conclude that variation in the IMF is the simplest and most plausible.

  11. The Green Bank Northern Celestial Cap Pulsar Survey. I. Survey Description, Data Analysis, and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, K.; Lynch, R. S.; Ransom, S. M.; Archibald, A. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Boyles, J.; Dartez, L. P.; Day, D.; Ford, A. J.; Flanigan, J.; Garcia, A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hinojosa, J.; Jenet, F. A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Leake, S.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Rohr, M. D.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I. H.; van Leeuwen, J.; Walker, A. N.; Wells, B. L.

    2014-08-01

    We describe an ongoing search for pulsars and dispersed pulses of radio emission, such as those from rotating radio transients (RRATs) and fast radio bursts, at 350 MHz using the Green Bank Telescope. With the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument, we record 100 MHz of bandwidth divided into 4096 channels every 81.92 μs. This survey will cover the entire sky visible to the Green Bank Telescope (δ > -40°, or 82% of the sky) and outside of the Galactic Plane will be sensitive enough to detect slow pulsars and low dispersion measure (<30 pc cm-3) millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with a 0.08 duty cycle down to 1.1 mJy. For pulsars with a spectral index of -1.6, we will be 2.5 times more sensitive than previous and ongoing surveys over much of our survey region. Here we describe the survey, the data analysis pipeline, initial discovery parameters for 62 pulsars, and timing solutions for 5 new pulsars. PSR J0214+5222 is an MSP in a long-period (512 days) orbit and has an optical counterpart identified in archival data. PSR J0636+5129 is an MSP in a very short-period (96 minutes) orbit with a very low mass companion (8 M J). PSR J0645+5158 is an isolated MSP with a timing residual RMS of 500 ns and has been added to pulsar timing array experiments. PSR J1434+7257 is an isolated, intermediate-period pulsar that has been partially recycled. PSR J1816+4510 is an eclipsing MSP in a short-period orbit (8.7 hr) and may have recently completed its spin-up phase.

  12. Outcomes of Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Results From a National Quality Initiative.

    PubMed

    Bostock, I C; Zarkowsky, D S; Hicks, C W; Stone, D H; Eslami, M H; Malas, M B; Goodney, P P

    2016-08-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) can have devastating consequences. The Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) database was queried to select all KTRs who underwent EVAR between January 2003 and December 2014. Our primary outcome was renal dysfunction, defined as acute kidney injury (AKI; elevation of serum creatinine >0.5 mg/dL from baseline) or new postoperative hemodialysis requirement. Within the EVAR VQI dataset, 40 patients were KTRs (40 of 17 213, or 0.2%). Renal dysfunction occurred in five of 40 patients in the KTR group in comparison to 779 of 17 173 patients in the nontransplanted group (12.5% versus 4.5%, p < 0.01). Emergent EVAR was required in 2 (5%) patients, one of whom required dialysis after surgery and subsequently died. One-year survival after EVAR was similar in the two groups (92.9% versus 93.1%, p = 0.73). KTRs who developed renal dysfunction had significantly lower preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) (29.5 versus 54.7, p = 0.007) and a significantly higher iodine:eGFR ratio (0.78 versus 0.39, p = 0.02) despite receiving a similar volume of contrast (70.0 versus 68.8, p = 0.97). Renal dysfunction is 3 times more frequent in KTRs treated with EVAR, though overall survival did not differ between the groups. Decreased preoperative eGFR and a higher iodine:eGFR ratio are associated with postoperative renal dysfunction. PMID:26813253

  13. The green bank northern celestial cap pulsar survey. I. Survey description, data analysis, and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, K.; Dartez, L. P.; Ford, A. J.; Garcia, A.; Hinojosa, J.; Jenet, F. A.; Leake, S.; Lynch, R. S.; Archibald, A. M.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Ransom, S. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Day, D.; Flanigan, J.; Kaplan, D. L.; Boyles, J.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kondratiev, V. I.; and others

    2014-08-10

    We describe an ongoing search for pulsars and dispersed pulses of radio emission, such as those from rotating radio transients (RRATs) and fast radio bursts, at 350 MHz using the Green Bank Telescope. With the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument, we record 100 MHz of bandwidth divided into 4096 channels every 81.92 μs. This survey will cover the entire sky visible to the Green Bank Telescope (δ > –40°, or 82% of the sky) and outside of the Galactic Plane will be sensitive enough to detect slow pulsars and low dispersion measure (<30 pc cm{sup –3}) millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with a 0.08 duty cycle down to 1.1 mJy. For pulsars with a spectral index of –1.6, we will be 2.5 times more sensitive than previous and ongoing surveys over much of our survey region. Here we describe the survey, the data analysis pipeline, initial discovery parameters for 62 pulsars, and timing solutions for 5 new pulsars. PSR J0214+5222 is an MSP in a long-period (512 days) orbit and has an optical counterpart identified in archival data. PSR J0636+5129 is an MSP in a very short-period (96 minutes) orbit with a very low mass companion (8 M{sub J}). PSR J0645+5158 is an isolated MSP with a timing residual RMS of 500 ns and has been added to pulsar timing array experiments. PSR J1434+7257 is an isolated, intermediate-period pulsar that has been partially recycled. PSR J1816+4510 is an eclipsing MSP in a short-period orbit (8.7 hr) and may have recently completed its spin-up phase.

  14. Chicxulub central crater structure: Initial results from physical property measurements and combined velocity and gravity modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, P. M.; Morgan, J. V.

    2004-07-01

    The Chicxulub crater in Mexico is a nearly pristine example of a large impact crater. Its slow burial has left the central impact basin intact, within which there is an apparently uneroded topographic peak ring. Its burial, however, means that we must rely on drill holes and geophysical data to interpret the crater form. Interpretations of crater structures using geophysical data are often guided by numerical modeling and observations at other large terrestrial craters. However, such endeavors are hindered by uncertainties in current numerical models and the lack of any obvious progressive change in structure with increasing crater size. For this reason, proposed structural models across Chicxulub remain divergent, particularly within the central crater region, where the deepest well is only ~1.6 km deep. The shape and precise location of the stratigraphic uplift are disputed. The spatial extent and distribution of the allogenic impact breccias and melt rocks remain unknown, as do the lithological nature of the peak ring and the mechanism for its formation. The objective of our research is to provide a well-constrained 3D structural and lithological model across the central region of the Chicxulub crater that is consistent with combined geophysical data sets and drill core samples. With this in mind, we present initial physical property measurements made on 18 core samples from the Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) drill hole between 400 and 1500 m deep and present a new density model that is in agreement with both the 3D velocity and gravity data. Future collation of petrophysical and geochemical data from Yax-1 core, as well as further seismic surveys and drilling, will allow us to calibrate our geophysical models-assigning a suite of physical properties to each lithology. An accurate 3D model of Chicxulub is critical to our understanding of large craters and to the constraining of the environmental effects of this impact.

  15. Initial results from geophysical surveys and shallow coring of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallelonga, P.; Christianson, K.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Christian, J. E. M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Gkinis, V.; Holme, C.; Jacobel, R. W.; Karlsson, N. B.; Keisling, B. A.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kjær, H. A.; Kristensen, M. E. L.; Muto, A.; Peters, L. E.; Popp, T.; Riverman, K. L.; Svensson, A. M.; Tibuleac, C.; Vinther, B. M.; Weng, Y.; Winstrup, M.

    2014-07-01

    The Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) is the sole interior Greenlandic ice stream. Fast flow initiates near the summit dome, and the ice stream terminates approximately 1000 km downstream in three large outlet glaciers that calve into the Greenland Sea. To better understand this important system, in the summer of 2012 we drilled a 67 m firn core and conducted ground-based radio-echo sounding (RES) and active-source seismic surveys at a site approximately 150 km downstream from the onset of streaming flow (NEGIS firn core, 75°37.61' N, 35°56.49' W). The site is representative of the upper part of the ice stream, while also being in a crevasse-free area for safe surface operations. Annual cycles were observed for insoluble dust, sodium and ammonium concentrations and for electrolytic conductivity, allowing a seasonally resolved chronology covering the past 400 yr. Annual layer thicknesses averaged 0.11 m ice equivalent (i.e.) for the period 1607-2011, although accumulation varied between 0.08 and 0.14 m i.e., likely due to flow-related changes in surface topography. Tracing of RES layers from the NGRIP (North Greenland Ice Core Project) ice core site shows that the ice at NEGIS preserves a climatic record of at least the past 51 kyr. We demonstrate that deep ice core drilling in this location can provide a reliable Holocene and late-glacial climate record, as well as helping to constrain the past dynamics and ice-lithosphere interactions of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  16. Initial results from geophysical surveys and shallow coring of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallelonga, P.; Christianson, K.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Christian, J. E. M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Gkinis, V.; Holme, C.; Jacobel, R. W.; Karlsson, N.; Keisling, B. A.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kjær, H. A.; Kristensen, M. E. L.; Muto, A.; Peters, L. E.; Popp, T.; Riverman, K. L.; Svensson, A. M.; Tibuleac, C.; Vinther, B. M.; Weng, Y.; Winstrup, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) is the sole interior Greenlandic ice stream. Fast flow initiates near the summit dome, and the ice stream terminates approximately 1000 km downstream in three large outlet glaciers that calve into the Greenland Sea. To better understand this important system, in the summer of 2012 we drilled a 67 m firn core and conducted ground-based radio-echo sounding (RES) and active-source seismic surveys at a site approximately 150 km downstream from the onset of streaming flow (NEGIS firn core, 75° 37.61' N, 35°56.49' W). The site is representative of the upper part of the ice stream, while also being in a crevasse-free area for safe surface operations. Annual cycles were observed for insoluble dust, sodium and ammonium concentrations and for electrolytic conductivity, allowing a seasonally resolved chronology covering the past 400 yr. Annual layer thicknesses averaged 0.11 m ice equivalent (i.e.) for the period 1607-2011, although accumulation varied between 0.08 and 0.14 m i.e., likely due to flow-related changes in surface topography. Tracing of RES layers from the NGRIP ice core site shows that the ice at NEGIS preserves a climatic record of at least the past 51 kyr. We demonstrate that a deep ice core drilling in this location can provide a reliable Holocene and late-glacial climate record, as well as helping to constrain the past dynamics and ice-lithosphere interactions of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  17. Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission: Mission Status and Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission is a component of the NASA Discovery Program. GRAIL is a twin-spacecraft lunar gravity mission that has two primary objectives: to determine the structure of the lunar interior, from crust to core; and to advance understanding of the thermal evolution of the Moon. GRAIL launched successfully from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 10, 2011, executed a low-energy trajectory to the Moon, and inserted the twin spacecraft into lunar orbit on December 31, 2011 and January 1, 2012. A series of maneuvers brought both spacecraft into low-altitude (55-km), near-circular, polar lunar orbits, from which they perform high-precision satellite-to-satellite ranging using a Ka-band payload along with an S-band link for time synchronization. Precise measurements of distance changes between the spacecraft are used to map the lunar gravity field. GRAIL completed its primary mapping mission on May 29, 2012, collecting and transmitting to Earth >99.99% of the possible data. Spacecraft and instrument performance were nominal and has led to the production of a high-resolution and high-accuracy global gravity field, improved over all previous models by two orders of magnitude on the nearside and nearly three orders of magnitude over the farside. The field is being used to understand the thickness, density and porosity of the lunar crust, the mechanics of formation and compensation states of lunar impact basins, and the structure of the mantle and core. GRAIL s three month-long-extended mission will initiate on August 30, 2012 and will consist of global gravity field mapping from an average altitude of 22 km.

  18. Some initial results from the new SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) permeameter

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.K.; Early, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    A new permeameter has been built and is now available for testing samples of steel and other ferromagnetic materials for their magnetic characteristics such as permeability, remanent induction, coercive force and saturation induction. The present range of operation for the permeameter is from 0.5 Oe to 1250 Oe. Results are presented for two samples of low-carbon steel as well as some preliminary results for Vanadium Permendur. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Space Technology 5 Measurements of the Near-Earth Magnetic Field: Initial Science Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    Space Technology 5 (ST-5) returned high quality multi-point measurements of the near-Earth magnetic field throughout its three month long mission. The three ST-5 micro-satellites were launched into a 300 x 4500 km, dawn dusk, sun synchronous orbit (inclination = 105.6 deg) orbit with a period of 138 min by a Pegasus launch vehicle on March 22, 2006. The spacecraft were maintained in a "pearls on a sting" constellation with controlled spacings ranging from just over 5000 km down to under 50 km. The individual micro-satellites were 48 cm tall octagons with diameters of 50 cm. They were spin-stabilized at approximately 20 rpm at deployment and slowly spun-down to about 15 rpm by the end of the mission. Each spacecraft carried a miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer (MAG) provided by the University of California at Los Angeles (Instrument Scientist R. Strangeway) mounted at the end of a ultra-low mass 72 cm boom. The MAG had two dynamic ranges: 0 - ±64,000 nT (Full-field) and 0 - ±16,000 nT (Low-field) with digital resolutions of 1.3 nT (Full-field) and 0.3 nT (Low-field), respectively. The MAG sample rate was 16 vectors/s. Pre-launch measurements in the GSFC Magnetic Coil Facility showed that the magnetic cleanliness program was very successful with the predicted spacecraft field at the MAG sensors for all three micro-satellites being < 1 nT. Initial analyses of the ST-5 MAG measurements indicate that measurement accuracies of +/- 0.1 deg in direction and +/- 0.1% in field strength were achieved. Using the ST-5 magnetic field measurements we present the first observations of field-aligned current (FAC) temporal variability on time scales less than 10 min, the first direct measurements of FAC motion and thickness, the first multi-point measurements of wave-like cusp field-aligned current filaments and the first geomagnetic crustal anomaly measurements by a multi- spacecraft constellation.

  20. Model-based reasoning in the physics laboratory: Framework and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hu, Dehui; Finkelstein, Noah; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] We review and extend existing frameworks on modeling to develop a new framework that describes model-based reasoning in introductory and upper-division physics laboratories. Constructing and using models are core scientific practices that have gained significant attention within K-12 and higher education. Although modeling is a broadly applicable process, within physics education, it has been preferentially applied to the iterative development of broadly applicable principles (e.g., Newton's laws of motion in introductory mechanics). A significant feature of the new framework is that measurement tools (in addition to the physical system being studied) are subjected to the process of modeling. Think-aloud interviews were used to refine the framework and demonstrate its utility by documenting examples of model-based reasoning in the laboratory. When applied to the think-aloud interviews, the framework captures and differentiates students' model-based reasoning and helps identify areas of future research. The interviews showed how students productively applied similar facets of modeling to the physical system and measurement tools: construction, prediction, interpretation of data, identification of model limitations, and revision. Finally, we document students' challenges in explicitly articulating assumptions when constructing models of experimental systems and further challenges in model construction due to students' insufficient prior conceptual understanding. A modeling perspective reframes many of the seemingly arbitrary technical details of measurement tools and apparatus as an opportunity for authentic and engaging scientific sense making.

  1. Engaging older adults in burn prevention education: results of a community-based urban initiative.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Nicole E; Sessler, Kelly A; Baggott, Kaitlin; Laverde, Louisa; Rabbitts, Angela; Yurt, Roger W

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to educate New York City seniors aged 60 years and older about fire safety and burn prevention through the use of a community-based, culturally sensitive delivery platform. The ultimate goal is to reduce burn injury morbidity and mortality among this at-risk population. Programming was developed and provided to older adults attending community-based senior centers. Topics included etiology of injury, factors contributing to burn injuries, methods of prevention, emergency preparedness, and home safety. Attendees completed a postpresentation survey. Of the 234 senior centers invited to participate in the program, 64 (27%) centers requested presentations, and all received the educational programming, reaching 2196 seniors. An additional 2590 seniors received education during community-based health fairs. A majority reported learning new information, found the presentation helpful, and intended to apply this knowledge to daily routines. Data confirm that many opportunities exist to deliver culturally sensitive burn prevention programming to the older adult population of this large metropolitan area in settings that are part of their daily lives. A majority of respondents welcomed the information, perceived it as helpful, and reported that they were likely to integrate the information into their lives. PMID:22561308

  2. Initial test results on bolometers for the Planck high frequency instrument.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Warren A; Bock, James J; Crill, Brendan P; Koch, Timothy C; Jones, William C; Lange, Andrew E; Paine, Christopher G

    2008-11-10

    We summarize the fabrication, flight qualification, and dark performance of bolometers completed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) of the joint ESA/NASA Herschel/Planck mission to be launched in 2009. The HFI is a multicolor focal plane which consists of 52 bolometers operated at 100 mK. Each bolometer is mounted to a feedhorn-filter assembly which defines one of six frequency bands centered between 100-857 GHz. Four detectors in each of five bands from 143-857 GHz are coupled to both linear polarizations and thus measure the total intensity. In addition, eight detectors in each of four bands (100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz) couple only to a single linear polarization and thus provide measurements of the Stokes parameters, Q and U, as well as the total intensity. The measured noise equivalent power (NEP) of all detectors is at or below the background limit for the telescope and time constants are a few ms, short enough to resolve point sources as the 5 to 9 arc min beams move across the sky at 1 rpm. PMID:19002223

  3. Initial results of imaging melanoma metastasis in resected human lymph nodes using photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Jithin; Grootendorst, Diederik J.; Vijn, Thomas W.; Wouters, Michel W.; van Boven, Hester; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Ruers, Theo J. M.; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-09-01

    The pathological status of the sentinel lymph node is important for accurate melanoma staging, ascertaining prognosis and planning treatment. The standard procedure involves biopsy of the node and histopathological assessment of its status. Drawbacks of this examination include a finite sampling of the node with the likelihood of missing metastases, and a significant time-lag before histopathological results are available to the surgeon. We studied the applicability of photoacoustic computed tomographic imaging as an intraoperative modality for examining the status of resected human sentinel lymph nodes. We first applied the technique to image ex vivo pig lymph nodes carrying metastases-simulating melanoma cells using multiple wavelengths. The experience gained was applied to image a suspect human lymph node. We validated the photoacoustic imaging results by comparing a reconstructed slice with a histopathological section through the node. Our results suggest that photoacoustics has the potential to develop into an intraoperative imaging method to detect melanoma metastases in sentinel lymph nodes.

  4. Initial results from a reconnaissance of cyanobacteria and associated toxins in Illinois, August--October 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terrio, Paul J.; Ostrodka, Lenna M.; Loftin, Keith A.; Good, Gregg; Holland, Teri

    2013-01-01

    Ten lakes and two rivers in Illinois were sampled in August–October 2012 to determine the concentrations and spatial distribution of cyanobacteria and associated cyanotoxins throughout the State. The reconnaissance was a collaborative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Sample results indicated that concentrations of both total cyanobacterial cells and microcystin were commonly at levels likely to result in adverse human health effects, according to World Health Organization guidance values. Concentrations generally decreased from August to October following precipitation events and lower temperatures.

  5. Design of a digital beam attenuation system for computed tomography. Part II. Performance study and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Mistretta, Charles A.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to present a performance study of the digital beam attenuator (DBA) for implementing fluence field modulated CT (FFMCT) using a simulation framework developed to model the incorporation of the DBA into an existing CT system. Additionally, initial results will be presented using a prototype DBA and the realization of the prototype will be described. To our knowledge, this study represents the first experimental use of a device capable of modulating x-ray fluence as a function of fan angle using a CT geometry. Methods: To realize FFMCT, the authors propose to use a wedge design in which one wedge is held stationary and another wedge is moved over the stationary wedge. Due to the wedge shape, the composite thickness of the two wedges changes as a function of the amount of overlap between the wedges. This design allows for the wedges to modulate the photon fluence incident onto a patient. Using a simulation environment, the effect of changing the number of wedges has on dose, scatter, detector dynamic range, and noise uniformity is explored. Experimental results are presented using a prototype DBA having ten Fe wedges and a c-arm CT system geometry. The experimental DBA results are compared to non-DBA scans using scatter and detector dynamic range as metrics. Both flat field and bowtie filtered CT acquisitions were simulated for comparison with the DBA. Results: Numerical results suggest that substantial gains in noise uniformity and scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) can be obtained using only seven wedges. After seven wedges, the decrease in noise ununiformity and SPR falls off at a lower rate. Simulations comparing CT acquisitions between flat field, bowtie enabled, and DBA CT acquisitions suggest DBA-FFMCT can reduce dose relative to flat field CT by Almost-Equal-To 3 times. A bowtie filter under the same imaging conditions was shown to only allow a dose reduction of 1.65 times. Experimentally, a 10 wedge DBA prototype result showed

  6. Design of a digital beam attenuation system for computed tomography. Part II. Performance study and initial results

    PubMed Central

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Mistretta, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to present a performance study of the digital beam attenuator (DBA) for implementing fluence field modulated CT (FFMCT) using a simulation framework developed to model the incorporation of the DBA into an existing CT system. Additionally, initial results will be presented using a prototype DBA and the realization of the prototype will be described. To our knowledge, this study represents the first experimental use of a device capable of modulating x-ray fluence as a function of fan angle using a CT geometry. Methods: To realize FFMCT, the authors propose to use a wedge design in which one wedge is held stationary and another wedge is moved over the stationary wedge. Due to the wedge shape, the composite thickness of the two wedges changes as a function of the amount of overlap between the wedges. This design allows for the wedges to modulate the photon fluence incident onto a patient. Using a simulation environment, the effect of changing the number of wedges has on dose, scatter, detector dynamic range, and noise uniformity is explored. Experimental results are presented using a prototype DBA having ten Fe wedges and a c-arm CT system geometry. The experimental DBA results are compared to non-DBA scans using scatter and detector dynamic range as metrics. Both flat field and bowtie filtered CT acquisitions were simulated for comparison with the DBA. Results: Numerical results suggest that substantial gains in noise uniformity and scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) can be obtained using only seven wedges. After seven wedges, the decrease in noise ununiformity and SPR falls off at a lower rate. Simulations comparing CT acquisitions between flat field, bowtie enabled, and DBA CT acquisitions suggest DBA-FFMCT can reduce dose relative to flat field CT by ≈3 times. A bowtie filter under the same imaging conditions was shown to only allow a dose reduction of 1.65 times. Experimentally, a 10 wedge DBA prototype result showed a SPR

  7. Electron Beam Return-Current Losses in Solar Flares: Initial Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Accelerated electrons play an important role in the energetics of solar flares. Understanding the process or processes that accelerate these electrons to high, nonthermal energies also depends on understanding the evolution of these electrons between the acceleration region and the region where they are observed through their hard X-ray or radio emission. Energy losses in the co-spatial electric field that drives the current-neutralizing return current can flatten the electron distribution toward low energies. This in turn flattens the corresponding bremsstrahlung hard X-ray spectrum toward low energies. The lost electron beam energy also enhances heating in the coronal part of the flare loop. Extending earlier work by Knight & Sturrock (1977), Emslie (1980), Diakonov & Somov (1988), and Litvinenko & Somov (1991), I have derived analytical and semi-analytical results for the nonthermal electron distribution function and the self-consistent electric field strength in the presence of a steady-state return-current. I review these results, presented previously at the 2009 SPD Meeting in Boulder, CO, and compare them and computed X-ray spectra with numerical results obtained by Zharkova & Gordovskii (2005, 2006). The phYSical significance of similarities and differences in the results will be emphasized. This work is supported by NASA's Heliophysics Guest Investigator Program and the RHESSI Project.

  8. 75 FR 67685 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Steel Wire Rod From Mexico, 70 FR 25809 (May 16, 2005); see also Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico, 71 FR 27989 (May 15... of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 57 FR 20460, 20462 (May 13, 1992) and Certain...

  9. Initial Comparison of Single Cylinder Stirling Engine Computer Model Predictions with Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, R. C., Jr.; Thieme, L. G.; Miao, D.

    1979-01-01

    A Stirling engine digital computer model developed at NASA Lewis Research Center was configured to predict the performance of the GPU-3 single-cylinder rhombic drive engine. Revisions to the basic equations and assumptions are discussed. Model predictions with the early results of the Lewis Research Center GPU-3 tests are compared.

  10. 75 FR 61702 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand, 70 FR 5145... From Japan, 67 FR 58 (Jan. 2, 2002); Brass Sheet and Strip from Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 57 FR 20460, 20462 (May 13, 1992). While no single factor or combination...

  11. Tether dynamics and control results for tethered satellite system's initial flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapel, Jim D.; Flanders, Howard

    1993-01-01

    The recent Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) mission has provided a wealth of data concerning the dynamics of tethered systems in space and has demonstrated the effectiveness of operational techniques designed to control these dynamics. In this paper, we review control techniques developed for managing tether dynamics, and discuss the results of using these techniques for the Tethered Satellite System's maiden flight on STS-46. In particular, the flight results of controlling libration dynamics, string dynamics, and slack tether are presented. These results show that tether dynamics can be safely managed. The overall stability of the system was found to be surprisingly good even at relatively short tether lengths. In fact, the system operated in passive mode at a tether length of 256 meters for over 9 hours. Only monitoring of the system was required during this time. Although flight anomalies prevented the planned deployment to 20 km, the extended operations at shorter tether lengths have proven the viability of using tethers in space. These results should prove invaluable in preparing for future missions with tethered objects in space.

  12. Analysis of Disposition Measures of Consistency with INTASC Principles: Results of an Initial Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, William Steve

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the analysis of the results from a pilot effort to create and use a battery of instruments based on INTASC principles indicators of teacher dispositions. The original conception of the battery was designed on the taxonomy of increasing levels of inference. This means that the intent to measure included multiple instruments in…

  13. 75 FR 4044 - Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Duty Orders: Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the Republic of Korea and Taiwan, 65 FR 33807 (May 25... Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 18348 (April 22, 2009). FET has... Changed Circumstances Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan, 67 FR...

  14. Installation and Initial Results of Borehole Strainmeters around the Marmara Sea in Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, David; Bohnhoff, Marco; Ozener, Haluk; Mattioli, Glen; Bilham, Roger; Johnson, Wade; Gottlieb, Mike; Van Boskirk, Elizabeth; Aracel, Digdem; Bulut, Fatih; Bal, Osman

    2016-04-01

    Twice in the past 1000 years a sequence of damaging earthquakes has propagated during the course of a few decades along the North Anatolian fault (NAF) in Turkey towards Istanbul, with the final earthquake in the sequence catastrophically destroying the city. This occurred most recently in 1509 when the population was only about 200,000 yet ten thousand people died. The population of greater Istanbul is now 20 million, building stock more fragile, and the last earthquake of the current westward propagating sequence is considered geologically imminent. An opportunity to enhance the detection capability of a suite of deep seismometers installed near Istanbul has arisen, that will permit us to observe, characterize, and possibly predict the moment of imminent failure along the NAF, as well as monitor the tectonic processes leading to this failure. As an augmentation of the Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault (GONAF), UNAVCO installed two continuous creepmeters and six borehole strainmeters between July 2014 and October 2015 into boreholes provided by the several international sponsors, including NSF, GFZ, AFAD and Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory. The entire geophysical sensor network is collectively referred to as GeoGONAF. The borehole strainmeters enhance the ability of the scientific instrumentation to monitor ultra-slow process near the probable source zone of the Mw>7 earthquake that is soon expected beneath the Marmara Sea. The strainmeters and creepmeters allow us to make geodetic observations of this segment of the fault before, during and after a large earthquake, which combined with the seismic data from GONAF will provide valuable data for understanding earthquake processes. Installed instruments have already recorded both local and teleseismic events and observed creep events on the on-shore segments of the NAF to the East of the Marmara. In addition we have seen typical hydrological loading signals associated with normal modes of

  15. Initial results of precise orbit and clock determination for COMPASS navigation satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qile; Guo, Jing; Li, Min; Qu, Lizhong; Hu, Zhigang; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2013-05-01

    The development of the COMPASS satellite system is introduced, and the regional tracking network and data availability are described. The precise orbit determination strategy of COMPASS satellites is presented. Data of June 2012 are processed. The obtained orbits are evaluated by analysis of post-fit residuals, orbit overlap comparison and SLR (satellite laser ranging) validation. The RMS (root mean square) values of post-fit residuals for one month's data are smaller than 2.0 cm for ionosphere-free phase measurements and 2.6 m for ionosphere-free code observations. The 48-h orbit overlap comparison shows that the RMS values of differences in the radial component are much smaller than 10 cm and those of the cross-track component are smaller than 20 cm. The SLR validation shows that the overall RMS of observed minus computed residuals is 68.5 cm for G01 and 10.8 cm for I03. The static and kinematic PPP solutions are produced to further evaluate the accuracy of COMPASS orbit and clock products. The static daily COMPASS PPP solutions achieve an accuracy of better than 1 cm in horizontal and 3 cm in vertical. The accuracy of the COMPASS kinematic PPP solutions is within 1-2 cm in the horizontal and 4-7 cm in the vertical. In addition, we find that the COMPASS kinematic solutions are generally better than the GPS ones for the selected location. Furthermore, the COMPASS/GPS combinations significantly improve the accuracy of GPS only PPP solutions. The RMS values are basically smaller than 1 cm in the horizontal components and 3-4 cm in the vertical component.

  16. Lanthanum Tricyanide-Catalyzed Acyl Silane-Ketone Benzoin Additions and Kinetic Resolution of Resultant α-Silyloxyketones

    PubMed Central

    Tarr, James C.

    2010-01-01

    We report the full account of our efforts on the lanthanum tricyanide-catalyzed acyl silane-ketone benzoin reaction. The reaction exhibits a wide scope in both acyl silane (aryl, alkyl) and ketone (aryl-alkyl, alkyl-alkyl, aryl-aryl, alkenyl-alkyl, alkynyl-alkyl) coupling partners. The diastereoselectivity of the reaction has been examined in both cyclic and acyclic systems. Cyclohexanones give products arising from equatorial attack by the acyl silane. The diastereoselectivity of acyl silane addition to acyclic α-hydroxy ketones can be controlled by varying the protecting group to obtain either Felkin-Ahn or chelation control. The resultant α-silyloxyketone products can be resolved with selectivity factors from 10 to 15 by subjecting racemic ketone benzoin products to CBS reduction. PMID:20392127

  17. Divergent targets of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation result in additive effects of metformin and starvation in colon and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Marini, Cecilia; Bianchi, Giovanna; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Ravera, Silvia; Martella, Roberto; Bottoni, Gianluca; Petretto, Andrea; Emionite, Laura; Monteverde, Elena; Capitanio, Selene; Inglese, Elvira; Fabbi, Marina; Bongioanni, Francesca; Garaboldi, Lucia; Bruzzi, Paolo; Orengo, Anna Maria; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Sambuceti, Gianmario

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates that targeting energy metabolism is a promising strategy to fight cancer. Here we show that combining metformin and short-term starvation markedly impairs metabolism and growth of colon and breast cancer. The impairment in glycolytic flux caused by starvation is enhanced by metformin through its interference with hexokinase II activity, as documented by measurement of 18F-fluorodeoxyglycose uptake. Oxidative phosphorylation is additively compromised by combined treatment: metformin virtually abolishes Complex I function; starvation determines an uncoupled status of OXPHOS and amplifies the activity of respiratory Complexes II and IV thus combining a massive ATP depletion with a significant increase in reactive oxygen species. More importantly, the combined treatment profoundly impairs cancer glucose metabolism and virtually abolishes lesion growth in experimental models of breast and colon carcinoma. Our results strongly suggest that energy metabolism is a promising target to reduce cancer progression. PMID:26794854

  18. Divergent targets of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation result in additive effects of metformin and starvation in colon and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Cecilia; Bianchi, Giovanna; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Ravera, Silvia; Martella, Roberto; Bottoni, Gianluca; Petretto, Andrea; Emionite, Laura; Monteverde, Elena; Capitanio, Selene; Inglese, Elvira; Fabbi, Marina; Bongioanni, Francesca; Garaboldi, Lucia; Bruzzi, Paolo; Orengo, Anna Maria; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Sambuceti, Gianmario

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates that targeting energy metabolism is a promising strategy to fight cancer. Here we show that combining metformin and short-term starvation markedly impairs metabolism and growth of colon and breast cancer. The impairment in glycolytic flux caused by starvation is enhanced by metformin through its interference with hexokinase II activity, as documented by measurement of 18F-fluorodeoxyglycose uptake. Oxidative phosphorylation is additively compromised by combined treatment: metformin virtually abolishes Complex I function; starvation determines an uncoupled status of OXPHOS and amplifies the activity of respiratory Complexes II and IV thus combining a massive ATP depletion with a significant increase in reactive oxygen species. More importantly, the combined treatment profoundly impairs cancer glucose metabolism and virtually abolishes lesion growth in experimental models of breast and colon carcinoma. Our results strongly suggest that energy metabolism is a promising target to reduce cancer progression. PMID:26794854

  19. Initial results from seismic monitoring at the Aquistore CO2 storage site, Saskatchewan, Canada

    DOE PAGESBeta

    White, D. J.; Roach, L. A.N.; Roberts, B.; Daley, T. M.

    2014-12-31

    from 2012 shows excellent repeatability (NRMS less than 10%) which will provide enhanced monitoring sensitivity to smaller amounts of CO2. The permanent array also provides continuous passive monitoring for injection-related microseismicity. Passive monitoring has been ongoing since the summer of 2012 in order to establish levels of background seismicity before CO2 injection starts in 2014. Microseismic monitoring was augmented in 2013 by the installation of 3 broadband seismograph stations surrounding the Aquistore site. These surface installations should provide a detection capability of seismic events with magnitudes as low as ~0. Downhole seismic methods are also being utilized for CO2 monitoring at the Aquistore site. Baseline crosswell tomographic images depict details (meters-scale) of the reservoir in the 150-m interval between the observation and injection wells. This level of resolution is designed to track the CO2 migration between the wells during the initial injection period. A baseline 3D vertical seismic profile (VSP) was acquired in the fall of 2013 to provide seismic images with resolution on a scale between that provided by the surface seismic array and the downhole tomography. The 3D VSP was recorded simultaneously using both a conventional array of downhole geophones (60-levels) and an optical fibre system. The latter utilized an optical fiber cable deployed on the outside of the monitor well casing and cemented in place. A direct comparison of these two methodologies will determine the suitability of using the fiber cable for ongoing time-lapse VSP monitoring.« less

  20. Satellite observation of lake ice as a climate indicator - Initial results from statewide monitoring in Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynne, Randolph H.; Lillesand, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    The research reported herein focused on the general hypothesis that satellite remote sensing of large-area, long-term trends in lake ice phenology (formation and breakup) is a robust, integrated measure of regional and global climate change. To validate this hypothesis, we explored the use of data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to discriminate the presence and extent of lake ice during the winter of 1990-1991 on the 45 lakes and reservoirs in Wisconsin with a surface area greater than 1,000 hectares. Our results suggest both the feasibility of using the AVHRR to determine the date of lake ice breakup as well as the strong correlation (R= -0.87) of the date so derived with local surface-based temperature measurements. These results suggest the potential of using current and archival satellite data to monitor changes in the date of lake ice breakup as a means of detecting regional 'signals' of greenhouse warming.

  1. Initial operating results of coal-fired steam generators converted to 100% refuse-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Barsin, J.A. ); Graika, P.K. ); Gonyeau, J.A. ); Bloomer, T.M. )

    1988-01-01

    The conversion of Northern States Power Company's (NSP) Red Wing and Wilmarth steam generators to fire refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is discussed. The use of the existing plant with the necessary modifications to the boilers has allowed NSP to effectively incinerate the fuel as required by Washington and Ramsey Counties. This paper covers the six-month start-up of Red Wing No. 1, commencing in May 1987, and the operating results since the plant went commercial in July 1987.

  2. Initial results and long-term clinical and angiographic outcome of coronary stenting in women.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, F; Hernández, R; Bañuelos, C; Fernández-Ortíz, A; Escaned, J; Sabaté, M; Pérez-Vizcayno, M J; Fernández, C; Macaya, C

    2000-12-15

    To assess whether gender influences the results of coronary stenting, 158 consecutive women undergoing coronary stenting were compared with 823 consecutive men. Women had more adverse baseline characteristics, a higher hospital mortality, and were independently associated with procedural failure/complications (relative risk 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 4.8); however, the long-term event-free survival and the restenosis rate were not influenced by gender. PMID:11113419

  3. Determining the value of simulation in nurse education: study design and initial results.

    PubMed

    Alinier, Guillaume; Hunt, William B; Gordon, Ray

    2004-09-01

    Nowadays simulation is taking an important place in training and education of healthcare professionals. The University of Hertfordshire is carrying out a study which aims to determine the effect of realistic scenario-based simulation on nursing students' competence and confidence. This project is sponsored by the British Heart Foundation and takes place in the Hertfordshire Intensive Care and Emergency Simulation Centre (HICESC), a simulated three adult beds Intensive Care Unit. The simulation platform used is a Laerdal SimMan Universal Patient Simulator. A unique and robust study design, and results of the study are presented in this article. Consecutive cohorts of students are being assessed and reassessed after six months using an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Students are randomly divided into a control and experimental group for the period intervening between the two examinations. The experimental group is exposed to simulation training while the other students follow their usual nursing courses. Comparison is made between the OSCE results of the two groups of students. The experimental group had a greater improvement in performance than the control group (13.43% compared with 6.76% (p<0.05)). The results and feedback received from students and lecturers suggest that simulation training in nursing education is beneficial. PMID:19038158

  4. Sea level measurements from inverse modelling of GNSS SNR data - initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strandberg, Joakim; Hobiger, Thomas; Haas, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    The idea that sea level measurements could be done passively using available GNSS signals was proposed already over two decades ago. Since then several methods of using GNSS signals for measuring sea level have been proposed, using various degrees of specialized equipment. We present a new method to retrieve sea level from GNSS SNR data that relies upon inverse modelling of the detrended SNR data from a single off-the-shelf geodetic GNSS receiver. This method can simultaneously use SNR data from both GPS and GLONASS, and both L1 and L2 frequencies, in order to improve the performance with respect to prior studies. Results from the GNSS-R installation at the Onsala Space Observatory are presented and the retrieved sea level results are compared with data collected by a co-located pressure mareograph. The new method is found to give an RMS error of 1.8 cm. The results are also compared against previous implementations of GNSS tide gauges and found to have lower RMS than both the earlier SNR algorithm and also the dual receiver, phase delay method. This shows that inverse modelling for sea level retrieval has a potential to increase the precision of GNSS-R tide gauges, without the need for specialized equipment. Furthermore, since the method is based on SNR analysis, it can continue to operate during high winds and large sea roughness, in which the dual-receiver phase delay algorithm fails since the receiver connected to the nadir looking antenna does not succeed to lock on the satellites signals. This leads to a more stable and reliable operation. The ability to simultaneously use SNR data from different GNSS systems is also seen as a factor to increase the performance, further reducing the RMS. Therefore, in the future it is of interest to add further GNSS systems, such as Galileo and BeiDou.

  5. Coupling Landform Evolution and Soil Pedogenesis - Initial Results From the SSSPAM5D Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willgoose, G. R.; Welivitiya, W. D. D. P.; Hancock, G. R.; Cohen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Evolution of soil on a dynamic landform is a crucial next step in landscape evolution modelling. Some attempts have been taken such as MILESD by Vanwalleghem et al. to develop a first model which is capable of simultaneously evolving both the soil profile and the landform. In previous work we have presented physically based models for soil pedogenesis, mARM and SSSPAM. In this study we present the results of coupling a landform evolution model with our SSSPAM5D soil pedogenesis model. In previous work the SSSPAM5D soil evolution model was used to identify trends of the soil profile evolution on a static landform. Two pedogenetic processes, namely (1) armouring due to erosion, and (2) physical and chemical weathering were used in those simulations to evolve the soil profile. By incorporating elevation changes (due to erosion and deposition) we have advanced the SSSPAM5D modelling framework into the realm of landscape evolution. Simulations have been run using elevation and soil grading data of the engineered landform (spoil heap) at the Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia. The results obtained for the coupled landform-soil evolution simulations predict the erosion of high slope areas, development of rudimentary channel networks in the landform and deposition of sediments in lowland areas, and qualitatively consistent with landform evolution models on their own. Examination of the soil profile characteristics revealed that hill crests are weathering dominated and tend to develop a thick soil layer. The steeper hillslopes at the edge of the landform are erosion dominated with shallow soils while the foot slopes are deposition dominated with thick soil layers. The simulation results of our coupled landform and soil evolution model provide qualitatively correct and timely characterization of the soil evolution on a dynamic landscape. Finally we will compare the characteristics of erosion and deposition predicted by the coupled landform-soil SSSPAM

  6. Seroprevalence of Dengue Fever in US Army Special Operations Forces: Initial Results and the Way Ahead.

    PubMed

    Caci, Jennifer B; Blaylock, Jason M; De La Barrera, Rafael; Griggs, April N; Lin, Leyi; Jarman, Richard G; Thomas, Stephen J; Lyons, Arthur G

    2014-01-01

    The endemicity of dengue fever (DF) and, consequently, sequelae of DF are increasing worldwide. The increases are largely a result of widespread international travel and the increased range of the mosquito vectors. US Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) personnel are at an increased risk of exposure to dengue based on their frequent deployments to and presence in dengue endemic areas worldwide. Repeated deployments to different endemic areas can increase the risk for developing the more serious sequelae of dengue: dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Information about the seroprevalence rate of dengue in USASOC personnel, in particular, is lacking and is critical to assessing the risk, tailoring preventive medicine countermeasures, leveraging field diagnostics, and maintaining mission capability. In the first part of a two-part project to assess baseline seroprevalence in USASOC units, a random, unit-stratified sample of 500 anonymous serum specimens from personnel assigned to the highest-risk units in USASOC were screened for dengue using a microneutralization assay. Of the 500 specimens screened, 56 (11.2%) of 500 had neutralizing titers (NT) (MN₅₀≥10) against at least one DENV serotype. Subsequent sample titration resulted in 48 (85.7%) of 56 of the samples with NT (MN₅₀≥10) against at least one dengue serotype for an overall dengue exposure rate of 9.6% (48 of 500). The second part of the ongoing project, started in 2012, was a multicenter, serosurveillance project using predeployment and postdeployment sera collected from USASOC personnel deployed to South and Central America, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Preliminary results show a 13.2% (55 of 414) seropositivity rate. The significance of these findings as they relate to personal risk and operational impact is discussed. PMID:25344719

  7. Design of a low cost miniaturized SFCW GPR with initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggal, Swati; Sinha, Piyush; Gupta, Manish; Patel, Anand; Vedam, V. V.; Mevada, Pratik; Chavda, Rajesh; Shah, Amita; Putrevu, Deepak

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses about the design &developmental of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), various scientific and commercial applications of GPR along with the testing and results of GPR at Antarctica for Ice thickness measurement. GPR instruments are categorised as per their frequency of operation, which is inversely proportional to the depth of penetration. GPRs are also categorized as per method of operation which is time-domain or frequency-domain. Indian market is presently procuring GPRs from only foreign suppliers. Space Applications Centre (SAC) had taken up GPR as R&D Technological development with a view to benchmark the technology which may be transferred to local industry for mass production of instrument at a relatively cheaper cost (~20 times cheaper). Hence, this instrument presents a viable indigenous alternative. Also, the design and configuration was targeted for terrestrial as well as future interplanetary (Lander/Rover) missions of ISRO to map subsurface features. The developed GPR has a very large bandwidth (100%, i.e. bandwidth of 500MHz with centre-frequency of 500MHz) and high dynamic range along with the advantage of being highly portable (<10kg). The system was configured as a Stepped-Frequency-Continuous-Wave (SFCW) GPR which is a frequency domain GPR with the aim to increase the detection capabilities with respect to current systems. In order to achieve this goal, innovative electronic equipment have been designed and developed. Three prototypes were developed and two of them have been delivered for Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) in 2013 and 2014-15, respectively and promising results have been obtained. The results from the same closely compare with that from commercial GPR too.

  8. Advanced Test Reactor In-Canal Ultrasonic Scanner: Experiment Design and Initial Results on Irradiated Plates

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Wachs; J. M. Wight; D. T. Clark; J. M. Williams; S. C. Taylor; D. J. Utterbeck; G. L. Hawkes; G. S. Chang; R. G. Ambrosek; N. C. Craft

    2008-09-01

    An irradiation test device has been developed to support testing of prototypic scale plate type fuels in the Advanced Test Reactor. The experiment hardware and operating conditions were optimized to provide the irradiation conditions necessary to conduct performance and qualification tests on research reactor type fuels for the RERTR program. The device was designed to allow disassembly and reassembly in the ATR spent fuel canal so that interim inspections could be performed on the fuel plates. An ultrasonic scanner was developed to perform dimensional and transmission inspections during these interim investigations. Example results from the AFIP-2 experiment are presented.

  9. The Floating Potential Probe (FPP) for ISS: Operations and Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Hillard, G. Barry; Morton, Thomas L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we report early results from the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) recently installed on the International Space Station (ISS). The data show that FPP properly measures the electrical potential of ISS structure with respect to the plasma it is flying through. FPP Langmuir probe data seem to give accurate measurements of the ambient plasma density, and are generally consistent with the IRI-90 model. FPP data are used to judge the performance of the ISS Plasma Contacting Units (PCUs), and to evaluate the extent of ISS charging in the absence of the PCUs.

  10. MUlti-Dimensional Spline-Based Estimator (MUSE) for Motion Estimation: Algorithm Development and Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Francesco; Coe, Ryan L.; Owen, Kevin; Guenther, Drake A.; Walker, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Image registration and motion estimation play central roles in many fields, including RADAR, SONAR, light microscopy, and medical imaging. Because of its central significance, estimator accuracy, precision, and computational cost are of critical importance. We have previously presented a highly accurate, spline-based time delay estimator that directly determines sub-sample time delay estimates from sampled data. The algorithm uses cubic splines to produce a continuous representation of a reference signal and then computes an analytical matching function between this reference and a delayed signal. The location of the minima of this function yields estimates of the time delay. In this paper we describe the MUlti-dimensional Spline-based Estimator (MUSE) that allows accurate and precise estimation of multidimensional displacements/strain components from multidimensional data sets. We describe the mathematical formulation for two- and three-dimensional motion/strain estimation and present simulation results to assess the intrinsic bias and standard deviation of this algorithm and compare it to currently available multi-dimensional estimators. In 1000 noise-free simulations of ultrasound data we found that 2D MUSE exhibits maximum bias of 2.6 × 10−4 samples in range and 2.2 × 10−3 samples in azimuth (corresponding to 4.8 and 297 nm, respectively). The maximum simulated standard deviation of estimates in both dimensions was comparable at roughly 2.8 × 10−3 samples (corresponding to 54 nm axially and 378 nm laterally). These results are between two and three orders of magnitude better than currently used 2D tracking methods. Simulation of performance in 3D yielded similar results to those observed in 2D. We also present experimental results obtained using 2D MUSE on data acquired by an Ultrasonix Sonix RP imaging system with an L14-5/38 linear array transducer operating at 6.6 MHz. While our validation of the algorithm was performed using ultrasound data, MUSE

  11. Initial Results of Instrument-Flying Trials Conducted In A Single-Rotor Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crim, Almer D; Reeder, John P; Whitten, James B

    1953-01-01

    Instrument-flying trials have been conducted in a single-rotor helicopter, the maneuver stability of which could be changed from satisfactory to unsatisfactory. The results indicated that existing longitudinal flying-qualities requirements based on contact flight were adequate for instrument flight at speeds above that for minimum power. However, lateral-directional problems were encountered at low speeds and during precision maneuvers. The adequacy, for helicopter use, of standard airplane instruments was also investigated, and the conclusion was reached that special instruments would be desirable under all conditions, and necessary for sustained low-speed instrument flight.

  12. The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission development and initial results (Hannes Alfvén Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuselier, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    The MMS mission is a 4 spacecraft NASA mission designed to unlock the mysteries of magnetic reconnection. The spacecraft measure the ion and electron distributions and the electric and magnetic fields inside the electron and ion diffusion regions in the Earth's magnetosphere. In many ways, this mission is a natural follow-on to the highly successful European Space Agency Cluster mission. This talk focuses on the development of the MMS mission concept with emphasis on the connections to the Cluster mission. Preliminary results from the first phase of the MMS mission will be presented.

  13. Soil processes and functions across an international network of Critical Zone Observatories: Introduction to experimental methods and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banwart, Steven; Menon, Manoj; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Bloem, Jaap; Blum, Winfried E. H.; Souza, Danielle Maia de; Davidsdotir, Brynhildur; Duffy, Christopher; Lair, Georg J.; Kram, Pavel; Lamacova, Anna; Lundin, Lars; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.; Novak, Martin; Panagos, Panos; Ragnarsdottir, Kristin Vala; Reynolds, Brian; Robinson, David; Rousseva, Svetla; de Ruiter, Peter; van Gaans, Pauline; Weng, Liping; White, Tim; Zhang, Bin

    2012-11-01

    Growth in human population and demand for wealth creates ever-increasing pressure on global soils, leading to soil losses and degradation worldwide. Critical Zone science studies the impact linkages between these pressures, the resulting environmental state of soils, and potential interventions to protect soil and reverse degradation. New research on soil processes is being driven by the scientific hypothesis that soil processes can be described along a life cycle of soil development. This begins with formation of new soil from parent material, development of the soil profile, and potential loss of the developed soil functions and the soil itself under overly intensive anthropogenic land use, thus closing the cycle. Four Critical Zone Observatories in Europe have been selected focusing research at sites that represent key stages along the hypothetical soil life cycle; incipient soil formation, productive use of soil for farming and forestry, and decline of soil due to longstanding intensive agriculture. Initial results from the research show that soil develops important biogeochemical properties on the time scale of decades and that soil carbon and the development of favourable soil structure takes place over similar time scales. A new mathematical model of soil aggregate formation and degradation predicts that set-aside land at the most degraded site studied can develop substantially improved soil structure with the accumulation of soil carbon over a period of several years. Further results demonstrate the rapid dynamics of soil carbon; how quickly it can be lost, and also demonstrate how data from the CZOs can be used to determine parameter values for models at catchment scale. A structure for a new integrated Critical Zone model is proposed that combines process descriptions of carbon and nutrient flows, a simplified description of the soil food web, and reactive transport; all coupled with a dynamic model for soil structure and soil aggregation. This approach

  14. Self-Consistent Model of Magnetospheric Electric Field, Ring Current, Plasmasphere, and Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fok, M.-C.; Ridley, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Further development of our self-consistent model of interacting ring current (RC) ions and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is presented. This model incorporates large scale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and treats self-consistently not only EMIC waves and RC ions, but also the magnetospheric electric field, RC, and plasmasphere. Initial simulations indicate that the region beyond geostationary orbit should be included in the simulation of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Additionally, a self-consistent description, based on first principles, of the ionospheric conductance is required. These initial simulations further show that in order to model the EMIC wave distribution and wave spectral properties accurately, the plasmasphere should also be simulated self-consistently, since its fine structure requires as much care as that of the RC. Finally, an effect of the finite time needed to reestablish a new potential pattern throughout the ionosphere and to communicate between the ionosphere and the equatorial magnetosphere cannot be ignored.

  15. [The TCu380 IUD: initial international experimental results with the latest "T" family IUD].

    PubMed

    Elia, D; Belaisch, J

    1985-09-01

    The Gyne T 380 IUD is similar to the Gyne-T 200 available in France since 1979 except that it contains a ball on the extremity of the vertical arm designed to prevent cervical perforation and it has a higher copper content. A multicenter study found cumulative annual event rates/100 women for the Gyne T 200 and the Gyne T 380 respectively of 4.9 and .7 for pregnancy, 10.1 and 6.8 for expulsion, 13.7 and 21.5 for removal because of pain or bleeding, 4.9 and 4.3 for removal because of other medical reason, and 5.9 and 10.4 removal to achieve pregnancy. The continuation rates were 54.9 and 50.1, while number of months of utilization were 82,800 for the Gyne T 200 and 17,652 for the Gyne T 380. An American study of 3536 insertions of the Gyne T 380 showed rates after 1, 2, and 3 years of use respectively of .7, .8, and 1.1 for pregnancy, 5.5, 7.5, and 8.5, for expulsion, 13.1, 21.8, and 26.7 for removal because of pain or bleeding, 3.0, 4.6, and 5.4 for removal for other medical reasons, and 73.0, 53.7, and 41.1 for continuation. 68.2% of participants in the American study were under 25 and 63.7% were nulliparas. Additional data after 4 years of use of the Gyne T 380 showed a cumulative net pregnancy rate of 1.9. The risk of extrauterine pregnancy was estimated at .38/1000 women after 3 years. The frequency of expulsions appeared to be negatively connected with age and parity. Rates of removal for pain or bleeding appeared to be negatively correlated with age. In the comparative study, rates of removal for pain or bleeding were higher in nulliparas. Most medical reasons for removal other than pain or bleeding referred to pelvic inflammations, salpingitis, endometritis, or vaginitis, and their frequency declined after the 1st 6 months of use. Continuation rates were identical for the Gyne T 380 and for the other T devices in the American study. Among 293 women requesting removal of the device for pregnancy, 78.4% became pregnant within the next 12 months. 1767 women in

  16. Take heart: results from the initial phase of a work-site wellness program.

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, R E; Terborg, J R; Hollis, J F; Severson, H H; Boles, S M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term effects of a low-intensity work-site heart disease risk reduction program using a matched pair design with work site as the unit of analysis. METHODS. Twenty-six heterogeneous work sites with between 125 and 750 employees were matched on key organization characteristics and then randomly assigned to early or delayed intervention conditions. Early intervention consisted of an 18-month multifaceted program that featured an employee steering committee and a menu approach to conducting key intervention activities tailored to each site. RESULTS. Cross-sectional and cohort analyses produced consistent results. At the conclusion of the intervention, early and delayed intervention conditions did not differ on changes in smoking rates, dietary intake, or cholesterol levels. There was considerable variability in outcomes among work sites within each condition. CONCLUSIONS. Despite documented implementation of key intervention activities and organization-level changes in terms of perceived support for health promotion, this intervention did not produce short-term improvements beyond secular trends observed in control work sites. Research is needed to understand determinants of variability between work sites. PMID:7856780

  17. Uncooled IR sensor based on lateral polysilicon pn junction diode: initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, De-hui; Xiong, Bin; Wang, Yue-lin

    2011-08-01

    These days, uncooled IR image sensors utilizing MEMS technologies have been widely studied for night vision and temperature sensing. Compared with other uncooled IR image sensor, uncooled IR image sensor utilizing p-n junction diode detector has merits of good CMOS compatibility, better mass-production, and better detecting uniformity. In this paper, we proposed a novel uncooled IR sensor based on lateral polysilicon p-n junction diode. In the CMOS process, p-type polysilicon is used for PMOS gate electrode material, while n-type polysilicon is used for NMOS gate electrode material. Due to that polysilicon diode is adopted for sensing, the silicon substrate under the microstructure can be completely removed, and a better thermal isolation and a small thermal mass can be achieved. By using the FEM software Ansys, 3D models of the silicon diode and polysilicon diode have been built for thermal simulation. Simulation results verify that a better thermal isolation can be achieved for polysilicon diode. The device was fabricated by standard CMOS process and a XeF2 post-CMOS maskless dry etching step. Measurement results of the fabricated lateral polysilicon p-n junction diode is also reported.

  18. Modeling Asteroid Impacts into a Volatile-Rich Martian Surface: Hydrocode Validation and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesko, C. S.; Wohletz, K. H.; Coker, R. F.; Asphaug, E.; Gittings, M. L.

    2006-09-01

    Impact devolatilization has been proposed by Segura et al. (2002) as a possible mechanism for triggering sporadic but intense precipitation on Mars. We seek to examine this hypothesis, specifically to determine the lower bound on possible energy/size scales, and thus an upper bound on the frequency of such events. To do this, we employ various analytical and numerical modeling techniques. The most sophisticated tool in our box is the RAGE hydrocode. RAGE (Baltrusaitis et al. 1996) is an Eulerian Hydrocode that runs in up to three dimensions and incorporates a variety of detailed equations of state including the temperature-based SESAME tables maintained by LANL. Correct forward modeling requires prior comparison of hydrocode results against analytical models (verification) and laboratory experiments (validation). To that end we compare RAGE against the results of various laboratory experiments (Kato et al. 2001, Nakazawa et al. 2002, Koschny et al. 2001), and analytical crater scaling models (Housen et al. 1983, Holsapple and Schmidt 1982, Holsapple 1993, and Melosh 1989). From there, we begin to examine the potential effects of impacts on water ice in the Martian subsurface. We will begin by examining the evolution of the temperature profile of an impact into a geologically simple, ice-free target, and explore the effects of an increase in ice content and ice layer morphology from there. This effort is supported by LANL/IGPP (CSP, RFC, KHW, MLG) and by NASA PG&G "Small Bodies and Planetary Collisions" (EA).

  19. Initial Results of ISCO for a Large TCE DNAPL Source Area

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, S.L.; Cross, P.E.

    2008-07-01

    This paper will describe the results of an in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) remedial action currently in progress to address subsurface contamination by trichloroethene (TCE) dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for the cleanup of environmental media at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in southern Ohio. The X-701B Solid Waste Management Unit is an unlined surface impoundment at PORTS which was operated from 1954 to 1988. A TCE plume in groundwater emanates from the unit and is approximately 2,200 feet in length. Metals, radioactive inorganics, and other organic chemicals are also present at lower concentrations in the groundwater. An ongoing 1.6-acre TCE DNAPL source area for the plume is believed to exist up-gradient in the vicinity of the X-701B pond. The extent of the source area is inferred from actual recovery of DNAPL in production wells and from detection of TCE concentrations between 100 and 1,000 mg/L in monitoring wells. Previous remedial activities at X-701B have included a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure and a technology demonstration that recirculated permanganate solutions between two horizontal wells. Results of sampling after these remedial activities showed that the permanganate effectively destroyed TCE in portions of the aquifer where adequate contact was achieved, but that uniform distribution by the recirculation system was problematic. As a result, the TCE concentration in the groundwater eventually rebounded after the treatment. To overcome distribution issues and to more aggressively remediate the source, a new remediation approach is being implemented for the unit. The new approach involves the injection of Modified Fenton's Reagent directly into the source area using temporary direct push injection points. This new approach provides the ability to overcome limitations imposed by heterogeneities in the subsurface by injecting relatively small quantities of

  20. Initial results for supercritical cycle experiments using pure and mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Bliem, C.J.; Mines, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    The Heat Cycle Research Program, which is being conducted for the Department of Energy, has as its objective the development of the technology for effecting improved utilization of moderate temperature geothermal resources. Testing at the Heat Cycle Research Facility (HCRF) located at the DOE Geothermal Test Facility (GTF), East Mesa, California, is presently being conducted to meet this objective. Current testing involves a supercritical vaporization and countercurrent in-tube condensing system. The paper presents a brief description of the test facility and a discussion of the test program. Preliminary results on the performance of the supercritical heaters, countercurrent in-tube condenser, and turbine are given for both pure and mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids.

  1. Summary of initial results from the GSFC fluxgate magnetometer on Pioneer 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1975-01-01

    The main magnetic field of Jupiter was measured by the Fluxgate Magnetometer on Pioneer 11 and analysis reveals it to be relatively more complex than expected. In a centered spherical harmonic representation with a maximum order of n = 3 (designated GSFC model 04), the dipole term (with opposite polarity to the Earth's) has a moment of 4.28 Gauss x (Jupiter radius cubed), tilted by 9.6 deg towards a system 111 longitude of 232. The quadrupole and octupole moments are significant, 24% and 21% of the dipole moment respectively, and this leads to deviations of the planetary magnetic field from a simple offset tilted dipole for distances smaller than three Jupiter radii. The GSFC model shows a north polar field strength of 14 Gauss and a south polar field strength of 10.4 Gauss. Enhanced absorption effects in the radiation belts may be predicted as a result of field distortion.

  2. Can crop types be resolved using mixture distribution components - Some initial results and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennington, R. K.; Sorensen, C. T.; Heydorn, R. P.

    1982-01-01

    For the analysis of remotely sensed data, it is frequently necessary to design a classifier in order to locate a ground cover class of interest or to estimate the proportion of this ground cover class. Advantages of a mixture distribution formulation are discussed, and a description is presented of the results of estimating the proportion of small grains in ten Landsat data segments using the mixture model. It is found that the mixture model proportion estimates have a very low variance and coefficient of variation. The discussed investigation implies that the mixtures model is a viable method for determining the distributions of classes of interest in remote sensing problems and in estimating the proportions of these classes directly.

  3. Initial results of sensitivity tests - Performed on the RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Tests have been performed over several years to investigate the dynamics of a free-piston Stirling engine for the purpose of computer code validation. Tests on the 1 kW (1.33 hp) single cylinder engine have involved the determination of the sensitivity of the engine performance to variations in working space pressure, heater and cooler temperatures, regenerator porosity, power piston mass, and displacer dynamics. Maps of engine performance have been recorded with the use of an 81.2 percent porosity regenerator. Both a high-efficiency displacer and a high-power displacer were tested; efficiencies up to 33 percent were recorded, and power output of approximately 1500 W was obtained. Preliminary results of the sensitivity tests are presented, and descriptions of future tests are given.

  4. Initial results from the High Altitude Observatory white light coronagraph on Skylab - A progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macqueen, R. M.; Gosling, J. T.; Hildner, E.; Munro, R. H.; Poland, A. I.; Ross, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Frequent periodic observations by the white-light coronagraph allow an examination of coronal variations over a broad range of temporal scales. Examples of the slowest and most rapid variations are presented. An example of extremely slow coronal variations is the gradual evolution - to a large equatorial streamer - in association with a marked decrease in solar activity, as the total magnetic flux in one hemisphere decreased. Another example is given of a long-lived quasi-stable coronal streamer, apparently associated with a stable filament channel; comparison of this streamer with coronal potential-magnetic-field computations show little correlation. Some results on coronal transients - the most rapid variations observed - are summarized. Characteristic masses and energies involved in mass-ejection transients, their temporal and spatial distributions, their associations with surface phenomena and possible interplanetary signatures, and their role in coronal evolution are briefly noted.

  5. Using multidimensional Rasch to enhance measurement precision: initial results from simulation and empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Xu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect on measurement precision of multidimensional, as compared with unidimensional, Rasch measurement for constructing measures from multidimensional Likert-type scales. Many educational and psychological tests are multidimensional but common practice is to ignore correlations among the latent traits in these multidimensional scales in the measurement process. These practices may have serious validity and reliability implications. This study made use of both empirical data from 208,083 students, and simulated data simulated by 24 systematic combinations, each replicated 1000 times, of three conditions, namely, sample size, degree of dimensionality, and scale length to compare unidimensional and multidimensional approaches and to identify effects of sample size, dimensionality and scale length on measurement precision. Results showed that the multidimensional Rasch approach yielded more precise estimates than did unidimensional approach if the two dimensions were strongly correlated. The effect was more pronounced for long scales. PMID:23442326

  6. Experimental Study of Airfoil Trailing Edge Noise: Instrumentation, Methodology and Initial Results. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manley, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanisms of aerodynamic noise generation at the trailing edge of an airfoil is investigated. Instrumentation was designed, a miniature semiconductor strain-gauge pressure transducer and associated electronic amplifier circuitry were designed and tested and digital signal analysis techniques applied to gain insight into the relationship between the dynamic pressure close to the trailing edge and the sound in the acoustic far-field. Attempts are made to verify some trailing-edge noise generation characteristics as theoretically predicted by several contemporary acousticians. It is found that the noise detected in the far-field is comprised of the sum of many uncorrelated emissions radiating from the vicinity of the trailing edge. These emissions appear to be the result of acoustic energy radiation which has been converted by the trailing-edge noise mechanism from the dynamic fluid energy of independent streamwise 'strips' of the turbulent boundary layer flow.

  7. Handling Qualities Results of an Initial Geared Flap Tilt Wing Piloted Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerrero, Lourdes M.; Corliss, Lloyd D.

    1991-01-01

    An exploratory simulation study of a novel approach to pitch control for a tilt wing aircraft was conducted in 1990 on the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator. The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the handling qualities of both a conventional and a geared flap tilt wing control configuration. The geared flap is an innovative control concept which has the potential for reducing or eliminating the horizontal pitch control tail rotor or reaction jets required by prior tilt wing designs. The handling qualities results of the geared flap control configuration are presented in this paper and compared to the conventional (programmed flap) tilt wing control configuration. This paper also describes the geared flap concept, the tilt wing aircraft, the simulation model, the simulation facility and experiment setup, and the pilot evaluation tasks and procedures.

  8. Spectral transmissometer and radiometer - Design and initial results. [of free drifting experiment in Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, Kendall L.; Steward, Robert G.; Peacock, Thomas G.; Payne, Paul R.; Peck, Wayne

    1988-01-01

    A new solid-state spectral transmissometer and radiometer is described. The radiometer measures upwelling radiance, downwelling irradiance, and beam transmittance from 390 to 750 nm with channel widths of 2.35 nm. The spectrometer consists of a 256 element CCD linear array collecting light dispersed by a reflection grating in a modified Littrow configuration. The spectrometer is time and space-shared among the three signal types. The instrument has been deployed as a free-drifting buoy and in the profiling mode, with data stored internally on a magnetic bubble memory or sent up a conducting cable as desired. Power can be supplied either by a detachable external battery pack or through conducting cable. The instrument has been deployed in the oligotrophic North Pacific Central Gyre and in the eutrophic Straits of Juan de Fuca, and preliminary results for each region are discussed.

  9. Byggmeister Test Home: Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, C.

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals and verified implementation. With the high exposure of energy efficiency and retrofit terminology being used in the general media at this time, it is important to have evidence that measures being proposed will in fact benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. There are several basic areas of research to which the technical report for these test homes can be expected to contribute. These include the combination of measures that is feasible, affordable and acceptable to homeowners as well as expectations versus results. Two Byggmeister multi-family test homes in Massachusetts are examined with the goal of providing case studies that could be applied to other similar New England homes.

  10. Initial Experimental Results of a Laboratory Mini-Magnetosphere for Astronaut Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamford, R. A.; Bingham, R.; Gibson, K.; Thornton, A.; Bradford, J.; Hapgood, M.; Gargate, L.; Silva, L.; Norberg, C.; Todd, T.; Wilson, H.; Stamper, R.

    2007-12-01

    Radiation is a major scientific and technological challenge for manned missions to Mars. With an interplanetary flight time of months to years there is a high probability of Solar Energetic Particle events during the flight. Radiation damage to human tissue could result in acute sickness or death of the occupants of an unprotected spacecraft. Thus there is much interest in techniques to mitigate the effects of these events and of the exposure to cosmic rays. The experimental and modelling work presented here concerns one of several innovative "Active Shield" solutions being proposed [1]. The idea of generating an artificial magnetosphere to recreate the protective shield of the Earth's magnetic field for space craft travelling to the Moon or Mars was considered seriously in the 1960's during the Apollo era. With most of the space agencies around the world setting their sights returning to the Moon and then on to Mars, the idea of some sort of active field solution is experiencing a resurgence. Results from the laboratory experiment to determine the effectiveness of a mini-magnetosphere barrier to be able to expel a flowing energetic "solar wind" plasma will be presented. This is compared to a 3D hybrid simulation code that has been successfully compared to other astrophysical situations e.g. AMPTE artificial comet releases [2]. The experiment and modelling comparisons will demonstrate the scalability between the laboratory and astrophysical scale. [1] Adams, J.H. et al., "Revolutionary Concepts of Radiation Shielding for Human Exploration of Space", NASA/TM- 2005-213688, March 2005. [2] Gargate, L.; Bingham, R.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O., "dHybrid: A massively parallel code for hybrid simulations of space plasmas", Computer Physics Communications, Volume 176, Issue 6, Pages 419-425, 15 March 2007, doi:10.1016/j.cpc.2006.11.013

  11. Initial Continuous Chemistry Results From The Roosevelt Island Ice Core (RICE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjær, H. A.; Vallelonga, P. T.; Simonsen, M. F.; Neff, P. D.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Svensson, A.; Dahl-Jensen, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Roosevelt Island ice core (79.36° S, -161.71° W) was drilled in 2011-13 at the top of the Roosevelt Island ice dome, a location surrounded by the Ross ice shelf. The RICE ice core provides a unique opportunity to look into the past evolution of the West Antarctic Ice sheet. Further the site has high accumulation; 0.26 m of ice equivalent is deposited annually allowing annual layer determination for many chemical parameters. The RICE core was drilled to bedrock and has a total length of 763 metres. Preliminary results derived from water isotopes suggest that the oldest ice reaches back to the Eemian, with the last glacial being compressed in the bottom 60 metres. We present preliminary results from the RICE ice core including continuous measurements of acidity using an optical dye method, insoluble dust particles, conductivity and calcium. The core was analyzed at the New Zealand National Ice Core Research Facility at GNS Science in Wellington. The analytical set up used to determine climate proxies in the ice core was a modified version of the Copenhagen CFA system (Bigler et al., 2011). Key volcanic layers have been matched to those from the WAIS record (Sigl et al., 2013). A significant anti-correlation between acidity and calcium was seen in the Holocene part of the record. Due to the proximity to the ocean a large fraction of the calcium originates from sea salt and is in phase with total conductivity and sodium. In combination with the insoluble dust record, calcium has been apportioned into ocean-related and dust-related sources. Variability over the Holocene is presented and attributed to changing inputs of marine and dust aerosols.

  12. Biplane correlation imaging for lung nodule detection: initial human subject results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majdi Nasab, Nariman; Samei, Ehsan; Dobbins, James T., III

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, we present performance of biplane correlation imaging (BCI) on set of chest x-ray projections of human data. BCI significantly minimizes the number of false positives (FPs) when used in conjunction with computer aided detection (CAD) by eliminating non-correlated nodule candidates. Sixty-one low exposure posterior projections were acquired from more than 20 human subjects with small angular separations (0.32 degree) over a range of 20 degrees along the vertical axis. All patients were previously diagnosed for the presence of lung nodules based on computed tomography (CT) examination. Images were processed following two steps. First, all images were analyzed using our CAD routine for chest radiography. This process proceeded with a BCI processing in which the results of CAD on each single projection were examined in terms of their geometrical correlation with those found in the other 60 projections based on the predetermined shift of possible nodule locations in each projection. The suspect entities with a geometrical correlation that coincided with the known location of the lesions were selected as nodules; otherwise they were ignored. An expert radiologist with reference to the associated CT dataset determined the truth regarding nodule location and sizes, which were then used to determine if the found nodules are true positive or false positive. The preliminary results indicated that the best performance was obtained when the angular separation of the projection pair was greater than about 6.7 degrees. Within the range of optimum angular separation, the number of FPs per image was 0-1 without impacting the number of true positives (TPs), averaged around 92%.

  13. Initial results of the National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Poskus, Tomas; Strupas, Kestutis; Mikalauskas, Saulius; Bitinaitė, Dominyka; Kavaliauskas, Augustas; Samalavicius, Narimantas E; Saladzinskas, Zilvinas

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to review the National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program (the Program) in Lithuania according to the criteria set by the European Union. In Lithuania, screening services are provided free of charge to the population. The National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) reimburses the institutions for performing each service; each procedure within the Program has its own administrative code. All the information about the performance of the Program is collected in one institution - the NHIF. The results of the Program were retrieved from the database of NHIF from the start of the Program from 1 July 2009 to 1 July 2012. Descriptive analysis of epidemiological indicators was carried out. Results were compared with the references in the guidelines of the European Union for quality assurance in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and diagnosis. Information service [which involves fecal immunochemical test (FIT)] was provided to 271,396 of 890,309 50-74-year-old residents. The screening uptake was 46.0% over 3 years. During this period, 19,455 (7.2%) FITs were positive and 251,941 (92.8%) FITs were negative. Referral for colonoscopy was performed in 10,190 (52.4%) patients. Colonoscopy was performed in 12,864 (66.1%) patients. Colonoscopy did not indicate any pathological findings in 8613 (67.0%) patients. Biopsies were performed in 4251 (33.0%) patients. The rate of high-grade neoplasia reported by pathologists was 3.9%; the rate of cancer was 3.1% of all colonoscopies. The rate of CRC detected by the Program was 0.2%. The CRC screening program in Lithuania meets most of the requirements for standardized CRC screening programs. The invitation coverage and rate of referral for colonoscopy after positive FIT should be improved. PMID:25370682

  14. Usefulness of low iodine diet in managing patients with differentiated thyroid cancer - initial results

    PubMed Central

    Dobrenic, Margareta; Huic, Drazen; Zuvic, Marijan; Grosev, Darko; Petrovic, Ratimir; Samardzic, Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    Background Low iodine diet (LID) is recommended in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer before radioiodine administration. Patients with increased thyroglobulin (Tg) level, but negative 131I whole body scan present diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. This study was designed to evaluate the benefit of a two-week LID in patients with elevated serum Tg levels and negative 131I whole body scans. Patients and methods. For the impact assessment of two-week LID on radioiodine tissue avidity, radioiodine scans before and after LID were compared. Sixteen patients with serum Tg > 2 μg/L, negative Tg-antibodies, and negative radioiodine scans underwent two-week LID before the 131I administration. Fourteen patients underwent diagnostic scanning and two patients received radioiodine therapy. Iodine concentration in the morning urine specimens were measured in each patient, a day before and 15th day after starting LID. Results Following self-managed LID, patients were able to significantly reduce their iodine body content by 50% (range 28–65%, p<0,001). 13 patients (82%) accomplished mild iodine deficiency (50-99 μg/L) and one patient (6%) achieved targeted moderate iodine deficient state (<50 μg/L). All diagnostic post-LID scans were negative. Both post-therapy 131I scans showed radioiodine accumulation outside of normal 131I distribution (neck region and diffuse hepatic uptake). This study demonstrated that two-week LID is effective way to decrease total body iodine content, although without a visible effect on post-LID diagnostic 131I scans. Conclusions A more stringent dietary protocol and longer iodine restriction period are probably needed to achieve targeted moderate iodine deficiency in patients preparing for 131I administration. This might result in higher radioiodine avidity of thyroid remnant/metastases. PMID:22933955

  15. 42 CFR 476.94 - Notice of QIO initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of QIO initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.94 Section 476.94 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW...

  16. 42 CFR 476.93 - Opportunity to discuss proposed initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opportunity to discuss proposed initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.93 Section 476.93 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY...

  17. 42 CFR 476.85 - Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.85 Section 476.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL...

  18. 42 CFR 476.85 - Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.85 Section 476.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT...

  19. 42 CFR 476.93 - Opportunity to discuss proposed initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opportunity to discuss proposed initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.93 Section 476.93 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY...

  20. 42 CFR 476.93 - Opportunity to discuss proposed initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opportunity to discuss proposed initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.93 Section 476.93 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS QUALITY...

  1. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY...

  2. 42 CFR 476.85 - Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.85 Section 476.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL...

  3. 42 CFR 476.94 - Notice of QIO initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of QIO initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.94 Section 476.94 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW...

  4. 42 CFR 476.94 - Notice of QIO initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of QIO initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.94 Section 476.94 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATION REVIEW...

  5. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT...

  6. Stage by Stage Integration of Theory and Practice in the Initiation to Technology Course (Results and Analysis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Gurbax S.

    1987-01-01

    The didactical material developed for the course Initiation to Technology at Laval University was tested by four teachers at Les Etchemins School with a group of 500 students in the area of mechanics. Software was developed to analyze the results, which proved encouraging. (Author/CH)

  7. Model assessment of additional contamination of water bodies as a result of wildfires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Yu I; Navumau, A D; Nikitin, A N; Brown, J; Dowdall, M

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires and wild fires are recognized as a possible cause of resuspension and redistribution of radioactive substances when occurring on lands contaminated with such materials, and as such are a matter of concern within the regions of Belarus and the Ukraine which were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Modelling the effects of such fires on radioactive contaminants is a complex matter given the number of variables involved. In this paper, a probabilistic model was developed using empirical data drawn from the Polessie State Radiation-Ecological Reserve (PSRER), Belarus, and the Maximum Entropy Method. Using the model, it was possible to derive estimates of the contribution of fire events to overall variability in the levels of (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu in ground air as well as estimates of the deposition of these radionuclides to specific water bodies within the contaminated areas of Belarus. Results indicate that fire events are potentially significant redistributors of radioactive contaminants within the study area and may result in additional contamination being introduced to water bodies. PMID:25240987

  8. Can homeopathy bring additional benefits to thalassemic patients on hydroxyurea therapy? Encouraging results of a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Antara; Chakrabarty, Sudipa Basu; Karmakar, Susanta Roy; Chakrabarty, Amit; Biswas, Surjyo Jyoti; Haque, Saiful; Das, Debarsi; Paul, Saili; Mandal, Biswapati; Naoual, Boujedaini; Belon, Philippe; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2010-03-01

    Several homeopathic remedies, namely, Pulsatilla Nigricans (30th potency), Ceanothus Americanus (both mother tincture and 6th potency) and Ferrum Metallicum (30th potency) selected as per similia principles were administered to 38 thalassemic patients receiving Hydroxyurea (HU) therapy for a varying period of time. Levels of serum ferritin (SF), fetal hemoglobin (HbF), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet count (PC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), white blood cell (WBC) count, bilirubin content, alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and serum total protein content of patients were determined before and 3 months after administration of the homeopathic remedies in combination with HU to evaluate additional benefits, if any, derived by the homeopathic remedies, by comparing the data with those of 38 subjects receiving only HU therapy. Preliminary results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the SF and increase in HbF levels in the combined, treated subjects. Although the changes in other parameters were not so significant, there was a significant decrease in size of spleen in most patients with spleenomegaly and improvement in general health conditions along with an increased gap between transfusions in most patients receiving the combined homeopathic treatment. The homeopathic remedies being inexpensive and without any known side-effects seem to have great potentials in bringing additional benefits to thalassemic patients; particularly in the developing world where blood transfusions suffer from inadequate screening and fall short of the stringent safety standards followed in the developed countries. Further independent studies are encouraged. PMID:18955271

  9. Experimental warming delays autumn senescence in a boreal spruce bog: Initial results from the SPRUCE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Andrew; Furze, Morgan; Aubrecht, Donald; Milliman, Thomas; Nettles, Robert; Krassovski, Misha; Hanson, Paul

    2016-04-01

    August through December. These patterns can also be seen in other daily images recorded at the site since January 2012. Air warming treatments at SPRUCE began in August 2015, and had a substantial influence on autumn senescence of the plant community, as a whole, within each chamber. Generally, vegetation in the warmed chambers stayed green longer than that in the unwarmed chambers. We characterized the seasonality by fitting a sigmoid curve to the Gcc time series data, and we used the autumn half-maximum date of the sigmoid as an indicator of the timing of senescence. We found a strong linear relationship between senescence date and temperature treatment (r2 = 0.71,n = 10). Overall, senescence was delayed by 3.5 ± 0.7 days per 1° C of warming. Thus, although photoperiod is widely believed to be the key trigger for autumn senescence, our results do not indicate that the autumn response to warming is in any way constrained by day length. The SPRUCE experiment is planned to running through 2025. Looking forward, we anticipate that different results may be obtained in year 2 of the SPRUCE experiment if warming treatments result in earlier spring onset, and increased evapotranspiration during spring and early summer, leading to drought conditions by late summer.

  10. Screening pharmaceuticals for possible carcinogenic effects: initial positive results for drugs not previously screened

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gary D.; Udaltsova, Natalia; Chan, James; Quesenberry, Charles P; Habel, Laurel A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We screened commonly used prescription drugs for possible carcinogenic effects. Methods In a large health care program we identified 105 commonly used drugs, not previously screened. Recipients were followed for up to 12½ years for incident cancer. Nested case-control analyses of 55 cancer sites and all combined included up to ten matched controls per case, with lag of at least two years between drug dispensing and cancer. Positive associations entailed a relative risk (RR) of 1.50, with p≤ 0.01 and higher risk for three or more, than for one prescription. Evaluation included further analyses, searches of the literature, and clinical judgment. Results There were 101 associations of interest for 61 drugs. Sixty-six associations were judged to have involved substantial confounding. We found evidence that of the remaining 35, the following associations may not be due to chance: sulindac with gallbladder cancer and leukemia, hyoscyamine with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, nortriptyline with esophageal and hepatic cancer, oxazepam with lung cancer, both fluoxetine and paroxetine with testicular cancer, hydrochlorothiazide with renal and lip cancer, and nifedipine with lip cancer. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that further studies are indicated regarding sulindac, hyoscyamine, nortriptyline, oxazepam, fluoxetine, paroxetine, hydrochlorothiazide and nifedipine. PMID:19582585

  11. Initial communication survey results for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.

    1991-03-01

    To support the public communication efforts of the Technical Steering Panel of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, a public survey was conducted. The survey was intended to provide information about the public's knowledge and interest in the project and the best ways to communicate project results. Questions about the project were included as part of an omnibus survey conducted by Washington State University. The survey was conducted by phone to Washington State residents in the spring of 1990. This report gives the HEDR-related questions and summary data of responses. Questions associated with the HEDR Project were grouped into four categories: knowledge of the HEDR Project; interest in the project; preferred ways of receiving information about the project (including public information meetings, a newsletter mailed to homes, presentations to civic groups in the respondent's community, a computer bulletin board respondent could access with a modem, information displays at public buildings and shopping malls, and an information video sent to respondent); and level of concern over past exposure from Hanford operations. Questions abut whom state residents are most likely to trust about radiation issues were also part of the omnibus survey, and responses are included in this report.

  12. Time-Domain Optimized Near-Field Estimator for Ultrasound Imaging: Initial Development and Results

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Michael A.; Walker, William F.

    2009-01-01

    For nearly four decades, adaptive beamforming (ABF) algorithms have been applied in RADAR and SONAR signal processing. These algorithms reduce the contribution of undesired off-axis signals while maintaining a desired response along a specific look direction. Typically, higher resolution and contrast is attainable using adaptive beamforming at the price of an increased computational load. In this paper, we describe a novel ABF designed for medical ultrasound, named the Time-domain Optimized Near-field Estimator (TONE). We performed a series of simulations using synthetic ultrasound data to test the performance of this algorithm and compared it to conventional, data independent, delay and sum beamforming (CBF) method. We also performed experiments using a Philips SONOS 5500 phased array imaging system. CBF was applied using the default parameters of the Philips scanner, whereas TONE was applied on per channel, unfocused data using an unfocused transmit beam. TONE images were reconstructed at a sampling of 67 µm laterally and 19 µm axially. The results obtained for a series of five 20-µm wires in a water tank show a significant improvement in spatial resolution when compared to CBF. We also analyzed the performance of TONE as a function of speed of sound errors and array sparsity, finding it robust to both. PMID:18270066

  13. Initial comparison of single cylinder Stirling engine computer model predictions with test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, R. C., Jr.; Thieme, L. G.; Miao, D.

    1979-01-01

    A NASA developed digital computer code for a Stirling engine, modelling the performance of a single cylinder rhombic drive ground performance unit (GPU), is presented and its predictions are compared to test results. The GPU engine incorporates eight regenerator/cooler units and the engine working space is modelled by thirteen control volumes. The model calculates indicated power and efficiency for a given engine speed, mean pressure, heater and expansion space metal temperatures and cooler water inlet temperature and flow rate. Comparison of predicted and observed powers implies that the reference pressure drop calculations underestimate actual pressure drop, possibly due to oil contamination in the regenerator/cooler units, methane contamination in the working gas or the underestimation of mechanical loss. For a working gas of hydrogen, the predicted values of brake power are from 0 to 6% higher than experimental values, and brake efficiency is 6 to 16% higher, while for helium the predicted brake power and efficiency are 2 to 15% higher than the experimental.

  14. The Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar: Initial Results and Future Opportunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeter, J. L.; Dahlgren, H.; Sundberg, T.; Perry, G. W.; St-Maurice, J.; Shiokawa, K.; Hosokawa, K.; Zettergren, M. D.; Donovan, E.; Nicolls, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR) is the most recent facility developed under the NSF Advanced Modular ISR (AMISR) program, and the first ever ISR deployed to the geomagnetic polar cap region. The AMISR radars are electronically steerable, enabling the acquisition of three-dimensional, time-dependent, information over a significant regional volume. This paper provides a review of science results from the first two years of RISR operations. Of particular interest are studies that synthesize the new information about the intrinsic state variables (Ne, Te, Ti) with measurements by extant common-volume sensors (HF radar, all-sky imager, Fabry-Perot interferometer). The careful co-registration of these heterogeneous measurements is shown to provide new constraints on the nature of time-dependent solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions in open magnetic-field regions. This capability will be further enhanced with the commissioning of the collocated Canadian facility (RISR-C) and the launch of the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP), both expected in 2013.

  15. Establishment of a Comprehensive Epilepsy Center in Pakistan: Initial Experiences, Results, and Reflections

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, M. Zubair; Sobani, Zain A.; Quadri, S. A.; Ahmed, S. Nizam; Sheerani, Mughis; Siddiqui, Fowzia; Boling, Warren W.; Enam, Syed Ather

    2012-01-01

    Background. Developing countries, home to 80% of epilepsy patients, do not have comprehensive epilepsy surgery programs. Considering these needs we set up first epilepsy surgery center in Pakistan. Methods. Seventeen teleconferences focused on setting up an epilepsy center at the Aga Khan University (AKU), Karachi, Pakistan were arranged with experts from the University of Alberta Hospital, Alberta, Canada and the University of West Virginia, USA over a two-year period. Subsequently, the experts visited the proposed center to provide hands on training. During this period several interactive teaching sessions, a nationwide workshop, and various public awareness events were organized. Results. Sixteen patients underwent surgery, functional hemispherectomy (HS) was done in six, anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in six, and neuronavigation-guided selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) using keyhole technique in four patients. Minimal morbidity was observed in ATL and, SAH groups. All patients in SAH group (100%) had Grade 1 control, while only 5 patients (83%) in ATL group, and 4 patients (66%) in HS group had Grade 1 control according to Engel's classification, in average followups of 12 months, 24 months and 48 months for SAH, ATL, and HS, respectively. Conclusion. As we share our experience we hope to set a practical example for economically constrained countries that successful epilepsy surgery centers can be managed with limited resources. PMID:22957232

  16. Initial Results of Global Lunar Gravity Field Recovery from SELENE tracking data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Goossens, Sander; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Liu, Qinghui; Iwata, Takahiro; Namiki, Noriyuki; Noda, Hirotomo; Hanada, Hideo; Kikuchi, Fuyuhiko; Kawano, Nobuyuki; Tsuruta, Seiitsu; Asari, Kazuyoshi; Ishikawa, Toshiaki; Sasaki, Sho

    Two small spin-stabilized sub-satellites, Rstar (OKINA) and Vstar (OUNA), have successfully been separated from Main satellite of SELENE (KAGUYA) and inserted into planned elliptical orbits on October 9 and 12, 2007, respectively. These spacecraft are dedicated to improving our knowledge of the global lunar gravity field with the mission instruments on-board, i.e., RSAT (a satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking sub-system) and VRAD (artificial radio sources for VLBI). We have started collecting new types of tracking data for the lunar-orbiting satellites, i.e., 4-way Doppler tracking between the Main satellite and Rstar (i.e., a direct far-side gravity observation), and multi-frequency differential VLBI tracking between Rstar and Vstar. A global lunar gravity field with unprecedented accuracy is expected to be estimated through precision orbit determination by using these tracking data. A preliminary global lunar gravity field model (degree and order up to 60) was developed from about 3-month of SELENE tracking data which include 2-way Doppler, 2-way range, and 4-way Doppler data. Although the current far-side data coverage is incomplete and a Kaula-type a priori constraint is necessary for meaningful inversion, some of ring-shaped gravity anomalies are more clearly resolved in the far-side compared with existing lunar gravity models. We will present concept of tracking data acquisition scheduling, current status of tracking data acquisition, and preliminary results of global lunar gravity filed recovery.

  17. Event-Based Surveillance During EXPO Milan 2015: Rationale, Tools, Procedures, and Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Manso, Martina Del; Caporali, Maria Grazia; Napoli, Christian; Linge, Jens P.; Mantica, Eleonora; Verile, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Vellucci, Loredana; Costanzo, Virgilio; Bastiampillai, Anan Judina; Gabrielli, Eugenia; Gramegna, Maria; Declich, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    More than 21 million participants attended EXPO Milan from May to October 2015, making it one of the largest protracted mass gathering events in Europe. Given the expected national and international population movement and health security issues associated with this event, Italy fully implemented, for the first time, an event-based surveillance (EBS) system focusing on naturally occurring infectious diseases and the monitoring of biological agents with potential for intentional release. The system started its pilot phase in March 2015 and was fully operational between April and November 2015. In order to set the specific objectives of the EBS system, and its complementary role to indicator-based surveillance, we defined a list of priority diseases and conditions. This list was designed on the basis of the probability and possible public health impact of infectious disease transmission, existing statutory surveillance systems in place, and any surveillance enhancements during the mass gathering event. This article reports the methodology used to design the EBS system for EXPO Milan and the results of 8 months of surveillance. PMID:27314656

  18. Strain accumulation in the Shumagin Islands: Results of initial GPS measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Lisowski, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Deformation in the Shumagin seismic gap has been monitored with repeated trilateration (EDM) in the 1980-1987 interval and with the Global Positioning System (GPS) in the 1987-1991 interval. The geodetic network extends for 100-km across the Shumagin Islands to the Alaska Peninsula. Results from the GPS surveys are consistent with those previously reported for the EDM surveys: we failed to detect significant strain accumulation in the N30 deg W direction of plate convergence. Using the method of simultaneous reduction for position and strain rates, we found the average rate of extension in the direction of plate convergence to be -25 +/- 25 nanostrain/yr (nstrain/yr) during the 1987-1991 interval of GPS surveys compared with -20 +/- 15 nstrain/yr during the 1981-1987 interval of complete EDM surveys. We found a marginally significant -26 +/- 12 nstrain/yr extension rate in the 1981-1991 interval covered by the combined EDM and GPS surveys. Strain rates are higher, but not significantly so, in the part of the network closest to the trench. Spatial variation in the deformation is observed in the 1980-1991 average station velocities, where three of the four stations closest to the trench have an arcward velocity of a few mm/yr. The observed strain rates are an order of magnitude lower than the -200 nstrain/yr rate predicted by dislocation models.

  19. The Pluto System: Initial Results from the Exploration by New Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, S. A.; Weaver, Harold; Young, Leslie; Olkin, Catherine; Ennico, Kimberly; Moore, Jeff; Grundy, Will; Gladstone, Randall; Bagenal, Fran

    2015-11-01

    The Pluto system was recently explored by NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft, which made closest approach on 14 July 2015. Pluto’s surface is found to be remarkably diverse in landforms, terrain ages, and albedo, color, and composition gradients. Strong evidence is found for a water-ice crust, geologically young surface units, ice convection, wind streaks, and glacial flow. Pluto’s atmosphere is found to be very extended, and contains newly discovered trace hydrocarbons, has an extensive global haze layer, and a surprisingly low surface pressure of ~10 microbars. Pluto’s wide range of surface expressions and long term activity raises fundamental questions about how small planets can have active processes billions of years after their formation. The geology of Pluto’s large moon Charon’s is also surprisingly diverse, displaying tectonics and evidence for a heterogeneous crustal composition; the north pole displays puzzling dark terrain. No evidence for a Charon atmosphere is found. Pluto’s small satellites Hydra and Nix are small, elongated objects with higher albedos than expected. Surprisingly, despite much improved diameter limits, no new satellites are found. We will present an overview of the New Horizons flyby, payload, and results. This work was supported by the NASA New Horizons project.

  20. Initial Test Results from a 6 K-10 K Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, W. L.; Zagarola, M. V.; Breedlove, J. J.; McCormick, J. A.; Sixsmith, H.

    2004-06-01

    In March 2002, a single-stage turbo-Brayton cryocooler was installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to re-establish cooling to the detectors in the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrograph (NICMOS). The system has maintained the detectors at their operating temperature near 77 K since that time. Future NASA space missions require comparable low-vibration cooling for periods of five to ten years in the 6 K-10 K temperature range. Creare is extending the NICMOS cryocooler technology to meet these lower temperatures. The primary activities address the need for smaller turbomachines. Two helium compressors for a 6 K turbo-Brayton cycle have been developed and tested in a cryogenic test facility. They have met performance goals at design speeds of about 9,500 rev/s. A miniature, dual-temperature high specific speed turboalternator has been installed in this test facility and has been used to obtain extended operational life data during low temperature cryogenic tests. A smaller, low specific speed turboalternator using advanced gas bearings is under development to replace the original dual-temperature design. This machine should provide improvements in the thermodynamic performance of the cycle. This paper presents life test results for the low temperature system and discusses the development of the smaller turboalternator.

  1. Initial results from a prototype whole-body photon-counting computed tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z.; Leng, S.; Jorgensen, S. M.; Li, Z.; Gutjahr, R.; Chen, B.; Duan, X.; Halaweish, A. F.; Yu, L.; Ritman, E. L.; McCollough, C. H.

    2015-03-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) with energy-discriminating capabilities presents exciting opportunities for increased dose efficiency and improved material decomposition analyses. However, due to constraints imposed by the inability of photon-counting detectors (PCD) to respond accurately at high photon flux, to date there has been no clinical application of PCD-CT. Recently, our lab installed a research prototype system consisting of two x-ray sources and two corresponding detectors, one using an energy-integrating detector (EID) and the other using a PCD. In this work, we report the first third-party evaluation of this prototype CT system using both phantoms and a cadaver head. The phantom studies demonstrated several promising characteristics of the PCD sub-system, including improved longitudinal spatial resolution and reduced beam hardening artifacts, relative to the EID sub-system. More importantly, we found that the PCD sub-system offers excellent pulse pileup control in cases of x-ray flux up to 550 mA at 140 kV, which corresponds to approximately 2.5×1011 photons per cm2 per second. In an anthropomorphic phantom and a cadaver head, the PCD sub-system provided image quality comparable to the EID sub-system for the same dose level. Our results demonstrate the potential of the prototype system to produce clinically-acceptable images in vivo.

  2. A web application for moderation training: initial results of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hester, Reid K; Delaney, Harold D; Campbell, William; Handmaker, Nancy

    2009-10-01

    Eighty-four heavy drinkers who responded to a newspaper recruitment advertisement were randomly assigned to receive either (a) training in a Moderate Drinking protocol via an Internet-based program (www.moderatedrinking.com) and use of the online resources of Moderation Management (MM; www.moderation.org) or (b) use of the online resources of MM alone. Follow-ups are being conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results of the recently completed 3-month follow-up (86% follow-up) indicated both groups significantly reduced their drinking based on these variables: standard drinks per week, percent days abstinent, and mean estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) per drinking day. Both groups also significantly reduced their alcohol-related problems. Relative to the control group, the experimental group had better outcomes on percent days abstinent and log drinks per drinking day. These short-term outcome data provide evidence for the effectiveness of both the Moderate Drinking Web application and of the resources available online at MM in helping heavy drinkers reduce their drinking and alcohol-related problems. PMID:19339137

  3. Spatial harmonic imaging of X-ray scattering--initial results.

    PubMed

    Wen, Han; Bennett, Eric E; Hegedus, Monica M; Carroll, Stefanie C

    2008-08-01

    Coherent X-ray scattering is related to the electron density distribution by a Fourier transform, and therefore a window into the microscopic structures of biological samples. Current techniques of scattering rely on small-angle measurements from highly collimated X-ray beams produced from synchrotron light sources. Imaging of the distribution of scattering provides a new contrast mechanism which is different from absorption radiography, but is a lengthy process of raster or line scans of the beam over the object. Here, we describe an imaging technique in the spatial frequency domain capable of acquiring both the scattering and absorption distributions in a single exposure. We present first results obtained with conventional X-ray equipment. This method interposes a grid between the X-ray source and the imaged object, so that the grid-modulated image contains a primary image and a grid harmonic image. The ratio between the harmonic and primary images is shown to be a pure scattering image. It is the auto-correlation of the electron density distribution at a specific distance. We tested a number of samples at 60-200 nm autocorrelation distance, and found the scattering images to be distinct from the absorption images and reveal new features. This technique is simple to implement, and should help broaden the imaging applications of X-ray scattering. PMID:18672418

  4. Chemotherapy for urothelial carcinoma in renal transplantation patients: Initial results from a single center

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, YICHEN; XIAO, JING; GUO, YUWEN; LIN, JUN; ZHANG, LEI; TIAN, YE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of gemcitabine plus cisplatin/carboplatin (GC/GCa) chemotherapy in renal transplantation (RT) patients with urothelial carcinoma (UC). We reviewed the records of 12 RT patients with metastatic or locally advanced UC who received chemotherapy at our institution since January, 2013. All the patients received intravenous gemcitabine (800 mg/m2) on days 1, 8 and 15, plus cisplatin (70 mg/m2) or carboplatin (area under the curve = 5) on day 2, every 28 days. A total of 10 patients completed all the cycles, while 1 patient discontinued treatment due to disease progression and 1 patient discontinued due to non-medical reasons. In total, 12 patients received a median of four cycles of chemotherapy. The overall response rate was 50% (4/8 cases) in patients with measurable lesions. At the time of the study, 5 patients had succumbed to the disease (overall survival, 9.2 months), while 7 patients remained alive (follow-up time, 13.3 months). The most common toxicities were myelosuppression and gastrointestinal effects. Therefore, the GC/GCa regimen was found to be effective and tolerable in RT patients with UC. However, further studies involving more patients and control groups are required to confirm our results. PMID:26807252

  5. Event-Based Surveillance During EXPO Milan 2015: Rationale, Tools, Procedures, and Initial Results.

    PubMed

    Riccardo, Flavia; Manso, Martina Del; Caporali, Maria Grazia; Napoli, Christian; Linge, Jens P; Mantica, Eleonora; Verile, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Vellucci, Loredana; Costanzo, Virgilio; Bastiampillai, Anan Judina; Gabrielli, Eugenia; Gramegna, Maria; Declich, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    More than 21 million participants attended EXPO Milan from May to October 2015, making it one of the largest protracted mass gathering events in Europe. Given the expected national and international population movement and health security issues associated with this event, Italy fully implemented, for the first time, an event-based surveillance (EBS) system focusing on naturally occurring infectious diseases and the monitoring of biological agents with potential for intentional release. The system started its pilot phase in March 2015 and was fully operational between April and November 2015. In order to set the specific objectives of the EBS system, and its complementary role to indicator-based surveillance, we defined a list of priority diseases and conditions. This list was designed on the basis of the probability and possible public health impact of infectious disease transmission, existing statutory surveillance systems in place, and any surveillance enhancements during the mass gathering event. This article reports the methodology used to design the EBS system for EXPO Milan and the results of 8 months of surveillance. PMID:27314656

  6. Four-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Axial Body Area as Respiratory Surrogate: Initial Patient Results

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Juan; Cai, Jing; Wang, Hongjun; Chang, Zheng; Czito, Brian G.; Bashir, Mustafa R.; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a retrospective binning technique for 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) using body area (BA) as a respiratory surrogate. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (4 of 7) or liver metastases (3 of 7) were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved prospective study. All patients were simulated with both computed tomography (CT) and MRI to acquire 3-dimensinal and 4D images for treatment planning. Multiple-slice multiple-phase cine-MR images were acquired in the axial plane for 4D-MRI reconstruction. Image acquisition time per slice was set to 10-15 seconds. Single-slice 2-dimensinal cine-MR images were also acquired across the center of the tumor in orthogonal planes. Tumor motion trajectories from 4D-MRI, cine-MRI, and 4D-CT were analyzed in the superior–inferior (SI), anterior–posterior (AP), and medial–lateral (ML) directions, respectively. Their correlation coefficients (CC) and differences in tumor motion amplitude were determined. Tumor-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured and compared between 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, and conventional T2-weighted fast spin echo MRI. Results: The means (±standard deviations) of CC comparing 4D-MRI with cine-MRI were 0.97 ± 0.03, 0.97 ± 0.02, and 0.99 ± 0.04 in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean differences were 0.61 ± 0.17 mm, 0.32 ± 0.17 mm, and 0.14 ± 0.06 mm in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The means of CC comparing 4D-MRI and 4D-CT were 0.95 ± 0.02, 0.94 ± 0.02, and 0.96 ± 0.02 in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean differences were 0.74 ± 0.02 mm, 0.33 ± 0.13 mm, and 0.18 ± 0.07 mm in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean tumor-to-tissue CNRs were 2.94 ± 1.51, 19.44 ± 14.63, and 39.47 ± 20.81 in 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, and T2-weighted MRI, respectively. Conclusions: The preliminary evaluation of our 4D-MRI technique results in oncologic patients demonstrates its

  7. Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture in Normal Monkey Eyes Part 1: Methods and Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Howard; Reynaud, Juan; Gardiner, Stuart; Grimm, Jonathan; Libertiaux, Vincent; Downs, J. Crawford; Yang, Hongli; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To introduce quantitative postmortem lamina cribrosa (LC) microarchitecture (LMA) assessment and characterize beam diameter (BD), pore diameter (PD), and connective tissue volume fraction (CTVF) in 21 normal monkey eyes. Methods. Optic nerve heads (ONHs) underwent digital three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and LC beam segmentation. Each beam and pore voxel was assigned a diameter based on the largest sphere that contained it before transformation to one of twelve 30° sectors in a common cylinder. Mean BD, PD, and CTVF within 12 central and 12 peripheral subsectors and within inner, middle, and outer LC depths were assessed for sector, subsector, and depth effects by analysis of variance using general estimating equations. Eye-specific LMA discordance (the pattern of lowest connective tissue density) was plotted for each parameter. Results. The ranges of mean BD, PD, and CTVF were 14.0 to 23.1 μm, 20.0 to 35.6 μm, and 0.247 to 0.638, respectively. Sector, subsector, and depth effects were significant (P < 0.01) for all parameters except subsector on CTVF. Beam diameter and CTVF were smaller and PD was larger within the superior-temporal (ST) and inferior-temporal (IT) sectors (P < 0.05). These differences were enhanced within the central versus peripheral subsectors. Beam diameter and CTVF were larger and PD was smaller (P < 0.05) within the middle LC layer. Lamina cribrosa microarchitecture discordance most commonly occurred within the ST and IT sectors, varied by eye, and generally diminished as CTVF increased. Conclusions. Our data support previous characterizations of diminished connective tissue density within the ST and IT ONH regions. The clinical importance of eye-specific LMA discordance warrants further study. PMID:25650423

  8. Initial quality performance results using a phantom to simulate chest computed radiography.

    PubMed

    Muhogora, Wilbroad; Padovani, Renato; Msaki, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a homemade phantom for quantitative quality control in chest computed radiography (CR). The phantom was constructed from copper, aluminium, and polymenthylmethacrylate (PMMA) plates as well as Styrofoam materials. Depending on combinations, the literature suggests that these materials can simulate the attenuation and scattering characteristics of lung, heart, and mediastinum. The lung, heart, and mediastinum regions were simulated by 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm, 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm and 10 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm copper plates, respectively. A test object of 100 mm x 100 mm and 0.2 mm thick copper was positioned to each region for CNR measurements. The phantom was exposed to x-rays generated by different tube potentials that covered settings in clinical use: 110-120 kVp (HVL=4.26-4.66 mm Al) at a source image distance (SID) of 180 cm. An approach similar to the recommended method in digital mammography was applied to determine the CNR values of phantom images produced by a Kodak CR 850A system with post-processing turned off. Subjective contrast-detail studies were also carried out by using images of Leeds TOR CDR test object acquired under similar exposure conditions as during CNR measurements. For clinical kVp conditions relevant to chest radiography, the CNR was highest over 90-100 kVp range. The CNR data correlated with the results of contrast detail observations. The values of clinical tube potentials at which CNR is the highest are regarded to be optimal kVp settings. The simplicity in phantom construction can offer easy implementation of related quality control program. PMID:21430855

  9. The Vermont oxford neonatal encephalopathy registry: rationale, methods, and initial results

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2006, the Vermont Oxford Network (VON) established the Neonatal Encephalopathy Registry (NER) to characterize infants born with neonatal encephalopathy, describe evaluations and medical treatments, monitor hypothermic therapy (HT) dissemination, define clinical research questions, and identify opportunities for improved care. Methods Eligible infants were ≥ 36 weeks with seizures, altered consciousness (stupor, coma) during the first 72 hours of life, a 5 minute Apgar score of ≤ 3, or receiving HT. Infants with central nervous system birth defects were excluded. Results From 2006–2010, 95 centers registered 4232 infants. Of those, 59% suffered a seizure, 50% had a 5 minute Apgar score of ≤ 3, 38% received HT, and 18% had stupor/coma documented on neurologic exam. Some infants experienced more than one eligibility criterion. Only 53% had a cord gas obtained and only 63% had a blood gas obtained within 24 hours of birth, important components for determining HT eligibility. Sixty-four percent received ventilator support, 65% received anticonvulsants, 66% had a head MRI, 23% had a cranial CT, 67% had a full channel encephalogram (EEG) and 33% amplitude integrated EEG. Of all infants, 87% survived. Conclusions The VON NER describes the heterogeneous population of infants with NE, the subset that received HT, their patterns of care, and outcomes. The optimal routine care of infants with neonatal encephalopathy is unknown. The registry method is well suited to identify opportunities for improvement in the care of infants affected by NE and study interventions such as HT as they are implemented in clinical practice. PMID:22726296

  10. Initial quality performance results using a phantom to simulate chest computed radiography

    PubMed Central

    Muhogora, Wilbroad; Padovani, Renato; Msaki, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a homemade phantom for quantitative quality control in chest computed radiography (CR). The phantom was constructed from copper, aluminium, and polymenthylmethacrylate (PMMA) plates as well as Styrofoam materials. Depending on combinations, the literature suggests that these materials can simulate the attenuation and scattering characteristics of lung, heart, and mediastinum. The lung, heart, and mediastinum regions were simulated by 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm, 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm and 10 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm copper plates, respectively. A test object of 100 mm x 100 mm and 0.2 mm thick copper was positioned to each region for CNR measurements. The phantom was exposed to x-rays generated by different tube potentials that covered settings in clinical use: 110-120 kVp (HVL=4.26-4.66 mm Al) at a source image distance (SID) of 180 cm. An approach similar to the recommended method in digital mammography was applied to determine the CNR values of phantom images produced by a Kodak CR 850A system with post-processing turned off. Subjective contrast-detail studies were also carried out by using images of Leeds TOR CDR test object acquired under similar exposure conditions as during CNR measurements. For clinical kVp conditions relevant to chest radiography, the CNR was highest over 90-100 kVp range. The CNR data correlated with the results of contrast detail observations. The values of clinical tube potentials at which CNR is the highest are regarded to be optimal kVp settings. The simplicity in phantom construction can offer easy implementation of related quality control program. PMID:21430855

  11. Radiation control coatings installed on rough-surfaced built-up roofs -- Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have tracked the solar reflectance and thermal performance of small samples of various radiation control coatings on smooth surfaces for several years on a roof test facility in East Tennessee. The focus is on white coatings because of their potential to weather, causing the solar reflectance to decrease as the coatings age. Support of the federal New Technology Demonstration Program allowed them to extend the study to more samples on smooth surfaces and entire rough-surfaced roofs at a federal facility in the Panhandle of Florida. Two rough-surfaced, moderately well-insulated, low solar reflectance built-up roofs (BURs) were spray-coated with a latex-based product with ceramic beads added to improve solar reflectance. In the first three months after installation, the fresh BUR coatings showed a significant decrease in both the outside-surface temperature and the heat flux through the roof insulation. Average sunlit values were generated to exclude nighttime data, data on cloudy days, and data when the uncoated patch on one roof was more strongly shaded in mid-afternoon on sunny days. The average power demand during occupied periods for the first month with the coating for the building with the thermally massive roof deck was 13% less than during the previous month without the coating. For the other buildings with a lightweight roof deck but high internal loads, there were no clear average power savings due to the coating. The authors are continuing to monitor electricity use in these all-electric buildings to calibrate a model for the peak power and annual energy use of the buildings. Modeling results to be given at the end of the two year project will address the effect of roof R-value, geographic location, and solar reflectance, including the effect of weathering, on the performance of coated roofs. The calibrated models should allow one to segregate site-specific effects such as shading and large thermal mass.

  12. Sequential Blood Filtration for Extracorporeal Circulation: Initial Results from a Proof-of-Concept Prototype

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Micropore filters are used during extracorporeal circulation to prevent gaseous and solid particles from entering the patient’s systemic circulation. Although these devices improve patient safety, limitations in current designs have prompted the development of a new concept in micropore filtration. A prototype of the new design was made using 40-μm filter screens and compared against four commercially available filters for performance in pressure loss and gross air handling. Pre- and postfilter bubble counts for 5- and 10-mL bolus injections in an ex vivo test circuit were recorded using a Doppler ultrasound bubble counter. Statistical analysis of results for bubble volume reduction between test filters was performed with one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance using Bonferroni post hoc tests. Changes in filter performance with changes in microbubble load were also assessed with dependent t tests using the 5- and 10-mL bolus injections as the paired sample for each filter. Significance was set at p < .05. All filters in the test group were comparable in pressure loss performance, showing a range of 26–33 mmHg at a flow rate of 6 L/min. In gross air-handling studies, the prototype showed improved bubble volume reduction, reaching statistical significance with three of the four commercial filters. All test filters showed decreased performance in bubble volume reduction when the microbubble load was increased. Findings from this research support the underpinning theories of a sequential arterial-line filter design and suggest that improvements in microbubble filtration may be possible using this technique. PMID:26357790

  13. Tucumán ionospheric model (TIM): Initial results for STEC predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scidá, L. A.; Ezquer, R. G.; Cabrera, M. A.; Jadur, C.; Sfer, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Most ionospheric models can calculate vertical total electron content (VTEC) predictions, but only a few are suitable for calculating slant total electron content (STEC). This ionospheric magnitude is generally measured for electron content determinations, with VTEC particularly corresponding to an elevation of 90°. This is generally obtained by applying a mapping function to STEC measurements, which leads to important calculation errors. Moreover, the equatorial region has unique characteristics, such as the fountain effect and the equatorial electrojet, which lead to significant errors in the model's calculations. In this paper, the Tucumán ionospheric model (TIM) is presented as a novel alternative for calculating the STEC in low-latitude regions (-24 to 24 dip latitude). The model is based on spatial geometry where the considered trajectory is segmented, and the corresponding electron density calculations for the resulting segment end points are determined using the semi-empirical low-latitude ionospheric model (SLIM) with reference to their corresponding magnetic coordinates and height. Finally, the electron density values are integrated along the path to obtain the STEC. This work describes the TIM and tests their STEC predictions for five ray paths around the world (totaling 16 cases under study), which are compared with experimental data from satellites and with those calculated by the NeQuick model. Moreover, the TIM performance for VTEC predictions is also checked and compared with VTEC data obtained from Global Positioning System (GPS) signals, IRI model, and NeQuick model predictions, for six GPS receiver stations during the equinox and solstice (totaling 12 cases studied). Comparisons of the TIM predictions with experimental data show that 53% of the calculation has, in general, deviations <30%. For the considered cases, TIM reproduces the experimental data better than the other models.

  14. Toward Hydrocode Models of an Impact-Generated Martian Greenhouse: Model Validation and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesko, C. S.; Wohletz, K. H.; Coker, R. F.; Asphaug, E.; Korycansky, D. G.; Gittings, M. L.

    2006-12-01

    Large impacts have been suggested by Carr (1996) and Segura et al. (2002) as a possible trigger of warm and wet climate episodes early in Martian history. Our goal is to model impacts into stratigraphically complicated media, and specifically targets containing water ice in various morphologies, in order to determine a lower bound on the energy and size scales of impact events that could trigger such a climate shift, and thus establish an upper bound on the frequency of such events. To do this, we use various analytical and numerical modeling techniques, including the RAGE hydrocode. RAGE (Baltrusaitis et al. 1996) is an Eulerian hydrocode that runs in up to three dimensions and incorporates a variety of detailed equations of state including the temperature-based SESAME tables maintained by LANL. In order to test the accuracy of RAGE predictions before applying this hydrocode to the problem of interest, we compare code results against analytical models (verification) and laboratory experiments (validation) that are related to the problem of interest. We compare RAGE against various laboratory experiments (Kato et al. 2001, Nakazawa et al. 2002, Koschny et al. 2001), and analytical crater scaling models (Housen et al. 1983, Holsapple and Schmidt 1982, Holsapple 1993, and Melosh 1989). From there, we begin to examine the potential effects of impacts on water ice in the Martian subsurface, first by examining the evolution of the temperature and pressure profiles of an impact into a geologically simple, ice-free target, and then exploring the effects of increased ice content and ice layer morphology. This effort is supported by LANL/IGPP (CSP, RFC, KHW, MLG) and by NASA PG&G (EA). LA-UR-06-6233

  15. A blood sampling microsystem for pharmacokinetic applications: design, fabrication, and initial results.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Barnett, Adam; Rogers, Karen L; Gianchandani, Yogesh B

    2009-12-21

    This paper describes a microsystem for automated blood sampling from laboratory mice used in pharmacokinetic studies. Intended to be mounted as a "backpack" on a mouse, it uses a microneedle, reservoir, and an actuator to instantaneously prick the animal for a time-point sample, eliminating the need for a tethered catheter with large dead volume. The blood is collected by capillary effect through a 31-33 gauge microneedle (250-210 microm OD) into a approximately 1 microL micromachined steel reservoir. The voice coil actuator provides a peak force of approximately 300 mN, which amply exceeds the measured piercing force of mouse skin (i.e., 60-85 mN for a 31-gauge needle with 12 degrees bevel). The sampling system was tested in vitro using a mock vessel with adjustable pressure; the reservoir was filled in <0.15 s by a combination of the capillary effect and blood pressure. The system may also be used to sample interstitial fluid, but the absence of blood pressure makes it necessary to enhance the capillary effect of the needle. This is accomplished by either electropolishing the inner surface to make it more hydrophilic or using a polymer wire insert to increase the surface area. The steel surface of the reservoir is also coated with silicon oxynitride by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to improve its hydrophilicity. Blood from fresh bovine tissue was collected into the reservoir to simulate interstitial fluid sampling. In vivo tests on live, anesthetized mice resulted in successful collection of blood into the reservoir. The possible integration of the device in microanalytical systems and the device scalability for multisampling are discussed. PMID:20024028

  16. English language usage pattern in China mainland doctors: AME survey-001 initial analysis results

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose English is the most widely used language in medical community worldwide. Till now there is no study yet on how English language is being used among mainland Chinese doctors. The present survey aimed to address this question. Methods An online cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of 23 Oct 2014 to 13 November 2014, totaling 22 days. This survey was conducted on the platform provided by DXY (www.dxy.cn), which is the largest medical and paramedical related website in China with registered medical doctor users of slightly more than one million. E-mails were sent to all DXY registered users to invite them to participate the survey which lasts approximately five-minute. The questionnaire included three major aspects: (I) the demographic characteristics of participants; (II) English reading pattern; and (III) paper publishing experience in international journals. To accommodate the complexity of relationships among variables, structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to build the model. Results In total 1,663 DXY users completed the survey, which counted for ≈1% of the total registered medical doctor users. There were more participants from relatively economically developed eastern coast areas. The age of participants was 33.6±7.4 years. There were 910 respondents from teaching hospitals (54.72%), followed by tertiary care hospitals (class-III hospital, 22.37%). Mainland Chinese doctors were more likely to consult medical materials in Chinese (63.5%) when they encounter clinical difficulties. Participants who were able to list English journals of their own specialty up to four were 44.02% for 0, 13.77% for one journal, 13.89% for two journals, 9.26% for three journals, and 19.06% for four journals. Most participants (82.86%) have read at least one English paper or one professional book in English, while 17.14% responded they never read a single English paper or professorial book in English. About 30.42% participants published at least

  17. Features and Initial Results of the DIII-D Advanced Tokamak Radiative Divertor

    SciTech Connect

    R.C. O'Neill; A.S. Bozek; M.E. Friend; C.B. Baxi; E.E. Reis; M.A. Mahdavi; D.G. Nilson; S.L. Allen; W.P. West

    1999-11-01

    into the designs of the structures is the capability to withstand the thermal gradient across the structures and the DIII-D vacuum vessel during operations and bakeout in which temperatures reach as high as 350 C. The performance of the diagnostics and divertor systems with experimental results of the two existing systems are reported in this paper along with the baseline of the designs of the three divertor systems.

  18. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, dur-ing the government shutdown. The spacecraft impact-ed the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE's science objectives were twofold: (1) De-termine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for parti-cles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exo-spheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) ac-quired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wave-length range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. The following are preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longi-tudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lu-nar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization process-es. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent "shroud" of small dust particles

  19. TU-A-BRD-01: Outcomes of Hypofractionated Treatments - Initial Results of the WGSBRT

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X; Lee, P; Ohri, N; Joiner, M; Kong, F; Jackson, A

    2014-06-15

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) has emerged in recent decades as a treatment paradigm that is becoming increasingly important in clinical practice. Clinical outcomes data are rapidly accumulating. Although published relations between outcomes and dose distributions are still sparse, the field has progressed to the point where evidence-based normal tissue dose-volume constraints, prescription strategies, and Tumor Control Probability (TCP) and Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) models can be developed. The Working Group on SBRT (WGSBRT), under the Biological Effects Subcommittee of AAPM, is a group of physicists and physicians working in the area of SBRT. It is currently performing critical literature reviews to extract and synthesize usable data and to develop guidelines and models to aid with safe and effective treatment. The group is investigating clinically relevant findings from SBRT in six anatomical regions: Cranial, Head and Neck, Thoracic, Abdominal, Pelvic, and Spinal. In this session of AAPM 2014, interim results are presented on TCP for lung and liver, NTCP for thoracic organs, and radiobiological foundations:• Lung TCP: Detailed modeling of TCP data from 118 published studies on early stage lung SBRT investigates dose response and hypothesized mechanisms to explain the improved outcomes of SBRT. This is presented from the perspective of a physicist, a physician, and a radiobiologist.• Liver TCP: For primary and metastatic liver tumors, individual patient data were extracted from published reports to examine the effects of biologically effective dose on local control.• Thoracic NTCP: Clinically significant SBRT toxicity of lung, rib / chest wall and other structures are evaluated and compared among published clinical data, in terms of risk, risk factors, and safe practice.• Improving the clinical utility of published toxicity reports from SBRT and Hypofractionated treatments. What do we want, and how do we get it? Methods

  20. Factors initiating phytoplankton blooms and resulting effects on dissolved oxygen in Duwamish River estuary, Seattle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Eugene Brummer

    1969-01-01

    , as shown by studies of other estuarine environments by other workers, phytoplankton production increases when the zone of vertical turbulent mixing is not markedly deeper than the compensation depth. Phytoplankton cells produced in the surface waters sink, thereby contributing oxidizable organic matter to the bottom saline-water wedge. The maximum BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) in this bottom wedge occurs in the same section of the estuary and ,at the same time as the maximum phytoplankton biomass (as indicated by chlorophyll a) and minimum DO (dissolved oxygen). Other sources of BOD occur in the estuary, and conditions of minimum discharge and tidal exchange assist in reducing DO. Nonetheless, the highly significant correlation of chlorophyll a with BOD throughout the summer indicates that respiration and decomposition of phytoplankton cells is dearly an important contributor of BOD. Increases in the biomass and resultant B0D of blooms because of increased effluent nutrients presumably would further decrease the concentration of DO. This possible effect of effluent nutrients was evaluated by laboratory .bioassays and by a comparison of mean annual biomasses in the estuary. A green algal population in vitro did increase in response to added effluent nutrients; however, the available field data suggest that a 46-percent increase in effluent discharge between 1965 and 1966 did not increase the estuary's phytoplankton biomass significantly.

  1. Validating continuous digital light processing (cDLP) additive manufacturing accuracy and tissue engineering utility of a dye-initiator package.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jonathan; Wang, Martha O; Thompson, Paul; Busso, Mallory; Belle, Vaijayantee; Mammoser, Nicole; Kim, Kyobum; Fisher, John P; Siblani, Ali; Xu, Yueshuo; Welter, Jean F; Lennon, Donald P; Sun, Jiayang; Caplan, Arnold I; Dean, David

    2014-03-01

    This study tested the accuracy of tissue engineering scaffold rendering via the continuous digital light processing (cDLP) light-based additive manufacturing technology. High accuracy (i.e., <50 µm) allows the designed performance of features relevant to three scale spaces: cell-scaffold, scaffold-tissue, and tissue-organ interactions. The biodegradable polymer poly (propylene fumarate) was used to render highly accurate scaffolds through the use of a dye-initiator package, TiO2 and bis (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phenylphosphine oxide. This dye-initiator package facilitates high accuracy in the Z dimension. Linear, round, and right-angle features were measured to gauge accuracy. Most features showed accuracies between 5.4-15% of the design. However, one feature, an 800 µm diameter circular pore, exhibited a 35.7% average reduction of patency. Light scattered in the x, y directions by the dye may have reduced this feature's accuracy. Our new fine-grained understanding of accuracy could be used to make further improvements by including corrections in the scaffold design software. Successful cell attachment occurred with both canine and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Highly accurate cDLP scaffold rendering is critical to the design of scaffolds that both guide bone regeneration and that fully resorb. Scaffold resorption must occur for regenerated bone to be remodeled and, thereby, achieve optimal strength. PMID:24429508

  2. Accuracy and Precision in the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Dataset in Light of the JOSIE-2000 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Thompson, Anne M.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Smit, H. G. J.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1998 the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has provided over 2000 ozone profiles over eleven southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are used to measure ozone. The data are archived at: &ttp://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz>. In analysis of ozonesonde imprecision within the SHADOZ dataset, Thompson et al. [JGR, 108,8238,20031 we pointed out that variations in ozonesonde technique (sensor solution strength, instrument manufacturer, data processing) could lead to station-to-station biases within the SHADOZ dataset. Imprecisions and accuracy in the SHADOZ dataset are examined in light of new data. First, SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are compared to version 8 TOMS (2004 release). As for TOMS version 7, satellite total ozone is usually higher than the integrated column amount from the sounding. Discrepancies between the sonde and satellite datasets decline two percentage points on average, compared to version 7 TOMS offsets. Second, the SHADOZ station data are compared to results of chamber simulations (JOSE-2000, Juelich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment) in which the various SHADOZ techniques were evaluated. The range of JOSE column deviations from a standard instrument (-10%) in the chamber resembles that of the SHADOZ station data. It appears that some systematic variations in the SHADOZ ozone record are accounted for by differences in solution strength, data processing and instrument type (manufacturer).

  3. Federating Clinical Data from Six Pediatric Hospitals: Process and Initial Results for Microbiology from the PHIS+ Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Gouripeddi, Ramkiran; Warner, Phillip B.; Mo, Peter; Levin, James E.; Srivastava, Rajendu; Shah, Samir S.; de Regt, David; Kirkendall, Eric; Bickel, Jonathan; Korgenski, E. Kent; Precourt, Michelle; Stepanek, Richard L.; Mitchell, Joyce A.; Narus, Scott P.; Keren, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Microbiology study results are necessary for conducting many comparative effectiveness research studies. Unlike core laboratory test results, microbiology results have a complex structure. Federating and integrating microbiology data from six disparate electronic medical record systems is challenging and requires a team of varied skills. The PHIS+ consortium which is partnership between members of the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) network, the Children’s Hospital Association and the University of Utah, have used “FURTHeR’ for federating laboratory data. We present our process and initial results for federating microbiology data from six pediatric hospitals. PMID:23304298

  4. Initial design and results from an ion current collection diagnostic for the triggered plasma opening switch experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Daniel Peter Jr.; Seidel, David Bruce; Gilmore, Mark; Mendel, Clifford Will, Jr.

    2005-06-01

    Study of the triggered plasma opening switch (TPOS) characteristics is in progress via an ion current collection diagnostic (ICCD), in addition to offline apparatus. This initial ion current collection diagnostic has been designed, fabricated, and tested on the TPOS in order to explore the opening profile of the main switch. The initial ion current collection device utilizes five collectors which are positioned perpendicularly to the main switch stage in order to collect radially traveling ions. It has been shown through analytical prowess that this specific geometry can be treated as a planar case of the Child-Langmuir law with only a 6% deviation from the cylindrical case. Additionally, magnetostatic simulations with self consistent space charge emitting surfaces of the main switch using the Trak code are under way. It is hoped that the simulations will provide evidence in support of both the analytical derivations and experimental data. Finally, an improved design of the ICCD (containing 12 collectors in the axial direction) is presently being implemented.

  5. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers synthesized by surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization for the enrichment and determination of synthetic estrogens in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangfang; Zhang, Jingjing; Wang, Minjun; Kong, Jie

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers have attracted significant interest because of their multifunctionality of selective recognition of target molecules and rapid magnetic response. In this contribution, magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized via surface-initiated reversible addition addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization using diethylstilbestrol as the template for the enrichment of synthetic estrogens. The uniform imprinted surface layer and the magnetic property of the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers favored a fast binding kinetics and rapid analysis of target molecules. The static and selective binding experiments demonstrated a desirable adsorption capacity and good selectivity of the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers in comparison to magnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymers. Accordingly, a corresponding analytical method was developed in which magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were employed as magnetic solid-phase extraction materials for the concentration and determination of four synthetic estrogens (diethylstilbestrol, hexestrol, dienestrol, and bisphenol A) in fish pond water. The recoveries of these synthetic estrogens in spiked fish pond water samples ranged from 61.2 to 99.1% with a relative standard deviation of lower than 6.3%. This study provides a versatile approach to prepare well-defined magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers sorbents for the analysis of synthetic estrogens in water solution. PMID:25989155

  6. Delays in antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-positive individuals: results of the positive living with HIV study

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Krishna C.; Buchanan, David R.; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Background Lack of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a major health concern due to increased risk of premature mortality and further HIV transmission. This study explored CD4+ cell count monitoring in relation to delays in ART initiation among HIV-positive individuals in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, where ART coverage was only 23.7% in 2011. Design We recruited a total of 87 ART-naïve, HIV-positive individuals aged 18 to 60 years through the networks of five non-government organizations working with HIV-positive individuals. We collected data on the history of ART initiation, CD4+ cell count monitoring, socio-demographic variables, perceived family support (measured with 10-item Nepali Family Support and Difficulty Scale), depression, and HIV symptom burden. Correlates of ART eligibility were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 72 of the 87 ART-naïve participants (82.8%) had monitored their CD4+ cell count in the past 6 months. Of these, 36 (50%) participants were eligible for ART initiation with CD4+ cell count <350 cells/mm3. A total of 12 participants had CD4+ cell count <200 cells/mm3. Lower level of perceived family support was associated with 6.05-fold higher odds (95% confidence interval =1.95 to 18.73) of being ART eligible with a CD4+ cell count <350 cells/mm3. Conclusions High rate of delays in ART initiation and the strong association of low perceived family support with ART eligibility in our study participants suggest that HIV service providers should consider the role and impact of family support in influencing individual decisions to initiate ART among eligible HIV-positive individuals. PMID:27369221

  7. How protonation and deprotonation of 9-methylguanine alter its singlet O2 addition path: about the initial stage of guanine nucleoside oxidation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenchao; Teng, Huayu; Liu, Jianbo

    2016-06-01

    Mutagenicity of singlet O2 is due to its oxidatively generated damage to the guanine nucleobases of DNA. Oxidation of neutral guanosine has been assumed to be initiated by the formation of a transient 4,8-endoperoxide via a Diels-Alder cycloaddition of singlet O2. Protonation and deprotonation of guanosine represent another factor related to DNA damage and repair. Herein, 9-methylguanine was utilized as a model substrate to mimic the correlation between singlet O2 oxidation of the nucleoside and its ionization states, both in the absence and in the presence of water ligands. We used guided-ion-beam scattering tandem mass spectrometry to detect and quantify transient intermediates at room temperature. To provide a reliable description of reaction potential surfaces, different levels of theory including restricted and unrestricted density functional theory, CCSD(T), MP2, and multi-reference CASSCF and CASMP2 were applied. By means of molecular potential, kinetic and direct dynamics simulations, two reaction pathways were identified and neither follows the mechanism for neutral guanosine. Singlet O2 oxidation of protonated 9-methylguanine begins by a concerted cycloaddition; but it is mediated by a 5,8-endoperoxide. By contrast, a concerted cycloaddition does not occur for deprotonated 9-methylguanine. The latter involves a stepwise addition starting with the formation of an 8-peroxide, which subsequently evolves to a 4,8-endoperoxide. This dichotomy implies that acidic and basic media may lead to different chemistries for guanosine oxidation in aqueous solutions, starting from initial stage. The comparison with oxidation of protonated/deprotonated guanine illustrates the different mechanisms and products and particularly the suppressed oxidizability of 9-methylguanine vs. free guanine. PMID:27211529

  8. Factors Driving the Adoption of Quality Improvement Initiatives in Local Health Departments: Results From the 2010 Profile Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Huabin; Sotnikov, Sergey; McLees, Anita; Stokes, Shereitte

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, quality improvement (QI) has become a major focus in advancing the goal of improving performance of local health departments (LHDs). However, limited empirical data exists on the current implementation of QI initiatives in LHDs and factors associated with adoption of QI initiatives. Objectives (1) To examine the current implementation of QI implementation initiatives by LHDs and (2) to identify factors contributing to LHDs’ decision to implement QI initiatives. Methods In this study, a novel theoretical framework based on analysis of QI in medicine was applied to analyze QI by LHDs. LHDs’ QI adoption was assessed by the number of formal QI projects reported by LHDs that responded to module 1 of the 2010 National Profile of Local Health Department Study (Profile Study) conducted by the National Association of County & City Health Officials. The Profile Study data were merged with data from the Health Resources and Services Administration’s Area Resource Files and the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials’ 2010 Survey. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using Stata 11 SVY procedure to account for the complex sampling design. Results The Profile Study data indicated that about 73% of the LHDs reported implementing 1 or more QI projects. LHDs with large jurisdiction population (>50 000), higher per capita public health expenditure, a designated QI staff member, or prior participation in performance improvement programs were more likely to have undertaken QI initiatives. Conclusion According to the Profile Study, more than a quarter of LHDs surveyed did not report implementing any formal QI projects. Greater investments in QI programs and designation of QI staff can be effective strategies to promote QI adoption. The validity of the definition of a formal QI project needs to be established. More research to identify the barriers to successful QI implementation at LHDs is also needed. PMID:24978615

  9. Anesthetic vaporizer mount malfunction resulting in oxygenation failure after initiating cardiopulmonary bypass: specific recommendations for the pre-bypass checklist.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Nischal K; Schmitz, Michael L; Zabala, Luis M; White, Michael W; Mckamie, Wesley A; Lutz, Alyssa; Johnson, Charles E

    2009-09-01

    Modern technologic advances in medicine have allowed commonly used machines to perform safely with very low risk and a high degree of success. To detect or prevent potential malfunctions, professionals routinely perform pre-use checks for equipment such as anesthesia machines and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) machines. These machine checklists are not only critical for a safe operation but also have large impacts on outcomes. For example, when malfunctions are encountered that could have potential negative ramifications or adverse outcomes, multi-approach strategies should be used to identify rectifiable causes and find solutions that are practical. This information can be used to promulgate safe practice guidelines. This case report identifies a machine-based contributing factor to precipitous hypoxia on initiation of bypass in one of our patients. After a detailed approach to identify preventable root causes, we made simple additions to our pre-bypass checklist and recommend these changes to other institutions. PMID:19806803

  10. Initial results from the multi-megawatt 110 GHz ECH system for the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Callis, R.W.; Lohr, J.; O`Neill, R.C.; Ponce, D.; Luce, T.C.; Prater, R.; Austin, M.E.

    1997-04-01

    The first of three MW-level 110 GHz gyrotrons was operated into the DIII-D tokamak in late 1996. Two additional units will be commissioned during 1997. Each gyrotron is connected to the tokamak by a low loss, windowless, evacuated transmission line using circular corrugated waveguide carrying the HE{sub 11} mode. The microwave beam spot is well focused with a spot size of approximately 6 cm and can be steered poloidally from the center to the outer edge of the plasma. The initial operation with about 0.5 MW delivered to a low density plasma for 0.5 s showed good central electron heating, with peak temperature in excess of 10 keV. The injection was 19{degree} off perpendicular for current drive.

  11. Initial results from the multi-megawatt 110 GHz ECH system for the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Callis, R.W.; Lohr, J.; ONeill, R.C.; Ponce, D.; Prater, R.; Austin, M.E.; Luce, T.C.

    1997-04-01

    The first of three MW-level 110 GHz gyrotrons was operated into the DIII-D tokamak in late 1996. Two additional units will be commissioned during 1997. Each gyrotron is connected to the tokamak by a low loss, windowless, evacuated transmission line using circular corrugated waveguide carrying the HE{sub 11} mode. The microwave beam spot is well focused with a spot size of approximately 6 cm and can be steered poloidally from the center to the outer edge of the plasma. The initial operation with about 0.5 MW delivered to a low density plasma for 0.5 s showed good central electron heating, with peak temperature in excess of 10 keV. The injection was 19{degree} off perpendicular for current drive. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Prognosis of Slagging and Fouling Properties of Coals Based on Widely Available Data and Results of Additional Measuraments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekhnovich, Alexander N.; Artemjeva, Natalja V.; Bogomolov, Vladimir V.; Shchelokov, Vyacheslav I.; Petukhov, Vasilij G.

    Ranging of coals according to the slagging properties of similar type and investigated coals could be made on the basis of the available reference data. However, to define the slagging and fouling properties of a random coal it is necessary to carry out additional laboratory research.

  13. CpsE from Type 2 Streptococcus pneumoniae Catalyzes the Reversible Addition of Glucose-1-Phosphate to a Polyprenyl Phosphate Acceptor, Initiating Type 2 Capsule Repeat Unit Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cartee, Robert T.; Forsee, W. Thomas; Bender, Matthew H.; Ambrose, Karita D.; Yother, Janet

    2005-01-01

    The majority of the 90 capsule types made by the gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae are assembled by a block-type mechanism similar to that utilized by the Wzy-dependent O antigens and capsules of gram-negative bacteria. In this mechanism, initiation of repeat unit formation occurs by the transfer of a sugar to a lipid acceptor. In S. pneumoniae, this step is catalyzed by CpsE, a protein conserved among the majority of capsule types. Membranes from S. pneumoniae type 2 strain D39 and Escherichia coli containing recombinant Cps2E catalyzed incorporation of [14C]Glc from UDP-[14C]Glc into a lipid fraction in a Cps2E-dependent manner. The Cps2E-dependent glycolipid product from both membranes was sensitive to mild acid hydrolysis, suggesting that Cps2E was catalyzing the formation of a polyprenyl pyrophosphate Glc. Addition of exogenous polyprenyl phosphates ranging in size from 35 to 105 carbons to D39 and E. coli membranes stimulated Cps2E activity. The stimulation was due, in part, to utilization of the exogenous polyprenyl phosphates as an acceptor. The glycolipid product synthesized in the absence of exogenous polyprenyl phosphates comigrated with a 60-carbon polyprenyl pyrophosphate Glc. When 10 or 100 μM UMP was added to reaction mixtures containing D39 membranes, Cps2E activity was inhibited 40% and 80%, respectively. UMP, which acted as a competitive inhibitor of UDP-Glc, also stimulated Cps2E to catalyze the reverse reaction, with synthesis of UDP-Glc from the polyprenyl pyrophosphate Glc. These data indicated that Cps2E was catalyzing the addition of Glc-1-P to a polyprenyl phosphate acceptor, likely undecaprenyl phosphate. PMID:16237026

  14. Temporal and spatial variations of pulsating auroras obtained from ground-based observations at Poker Flat Research Range: Initial result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, T.; Sakanoi, T.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kataoka, R.; Katoh, Y.; Asamura, K.; Sato, M.; Okano, S.

    2011-12-01

    Pulsating Aurora(PA) is characterized by the periodically changing emission amplitudes with the rectangular pulses of a few seconds to a few tens of seconds [e.g., Oguti et al., 1981; Yamamoto, 1988]. PAs tend to appear in the recovery phase of substorm between postmidnight and dawn sector. The horizontal size of PAs are known to be 10-200 km, based on the optical observations. Recently, some ground-satellite coordinated observations suggested the generation mechanisms of PAs as a result of pitch angle scatterings due to whistler mode chorus waves and/or the electron cyclotron harmonics[Nishimura et al., 2010; Liang et al., 2010]. Time-varying field aligned potential was also suggested by Sato et al. [2004]. The dominant mechanisms and the origin of the periodicity remain unclear. Ground-based all-sky observations have been made for a long time, although they were not enough for a quantitative discussion about small-scale characteristics of PAs such as the shapes and dynamics due to their limited spatial resolutions. The fast temporal variations of intensity known as quasi-3Hz modulations, which was reported by a number of rocket/satellite observations about precipitating electrons[e.g., Sandahl et al., 1980], has been hardly discussed in detail using the ground instruments because of the limited temporal resolutions and sensitivities. We have carried out ground-based observations using a suit of instruments, consisting of an EMCCD camera, an all-sky video camera, a photometer, and a search coil magnetometer covering the frequency range of ELF-VLF. We installed the instruments at Poker Flat Research Range between November 2010 and March 2011. Our EMCCD camera has narrow field of view corresponding to 100km × 100km at altitude of 110 km and high sampling rate up to 100 frames per second. An initial analysis result of event on March 4th 2011 around 1100UT revealed two important features of PAs in small scale. One is PAs in the FOV can be categorized into three

  15. Can community retail pharmacist and diabetes expert support facilitate insulin initiation by family physicians? Results of the AIM@GP randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of external diabetes support provided by diabetes specialists and community retail pharmacists to facilitate insulin-prescribing in family practice. Methods A stratified, parallel group, randomized control study was conducted in 15 sites across Canada. Family physicians received insulin initiation/titration education, a physician-specific ‘report card’ on the characteristics of their type 2 diabetes (T2DM) population, and a registry of insulin-eligible patients at a workshop. Intervention physicians in addition received: (1) diabetes specialist/educator consultation support (active diabetes specialist/educator consultation support for 2 months [the educator initiated contact every 2 weeks] and passive consultation support for 10 months [family physician initiated as needed]); and (2) community retail pharmacist support (option to refer patients to the pharmacist(s) for a 1-hour insulin-initiation session). The primary outcome was the insulin prescribing rate (IPR) per physician defined as the number of insulin starts of insulin-eligible patients during the 12-month strategy. Results Consenting, eligible physicians (n = 151) participated with 15 specialist sites and 107 community pharmacists providing the intervention. Most physicians were male (74%), and had an average of 81 patients with T2DM. Few (9%) routinely initiated patients on insulin. Physicians were randomly allocated to usual care (n = 78) or the intervention (n = 73). Intervention physicians had a mean (SE) IPR of 2.28 (0.27) compared to 2.29 (0.25) for control physicians, with an estimated adjusted RR (95% CI) of 0.99 (0.80 to 1.24), p = 0.96. Conclusions An insulin support program utilizing diabetes experts and community retail pharmacists to enhance insulin prescribing in family practice was not successful. Too few physicians are appropriately intensifying diabetes management through insulin initiation, and aggressive

  16. What Lies beneath Seemingly Positive Campus Climate Results: Institutional Sexism, Racism, and Male Hostility toward Equity Initiatives and Liberal Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents qualitative results from a campus climate study at one predominately white university. Data analysis uncovered "what lies beneath" a seemingly positive campus climate. Gender differences in survey responses suggest that men and women experienced the climate in vastly different ways. Additionally, lack of deep diversity…

  17. Additive effect of calreticulin and translation initiation factor eIF4E on secreted protein production in the baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Teng, Chao-Yi; van Oers, Monique M; Wu, Tzong-Yuan

    2013-10-01

    The baculovirus expression vector system is widely used for the production of recombinant proteins. However, the yield of membrane-bound or secreted proteins is relatively low when compared with intracellular or nuclear proteins. In a previous study, we had demonstrated that the co-expression of the human chaperones calreticulin (CALR) or β-synuclein (β-syn) increased the production of a secreted protein considerably. A similar effect was also seen when co-expressing insect translation initiation factor eIF4E. In this study, different combinations of the three genes were tested (CALR alone, β-syn + CALR, or β-syn + CALR + eIF4E) to further improve secretory protein production by assessing the expression level of a recombinant secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEFP). An additional 1.8-fold increment of SEFP production was obtained when cells co-expressed all the three "helper" genes, compared to cells, in which only CALR was co-produced with SEFP. Moreover, the duration of the SEFP production lasted much longer in cells that co-expressed these three "helper" genes, up to 10 dpi was observed. Utilization of this "triple-supporters" containing vector offers significant advantages when producing secreted proteins and is likely to have benefits for the production of viral vaccines and other pharmaceutical products. PMID:23900798

  18. Changes in lipid composition of Escherichia coli resulting from growth with organic solvents and with food additives.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, L O

    1977-01-01

    Cells of Escherichia coli contain an altered fatty acid and phospholipid composition when grown in the presence of sublethal concentrations of a variety of organic solvents and food additives. The diversity of compounds examined which caused these changes indicates that no single catabolic pathway is involved. Many of the observed changes are consistent with the hypothesis that cells adapt their membrane lipids to compensate for the presence of these compounds in the environment. Both sodium benzoate and calcium propionate caused the synthesis of unusual fatty acids. PMID:327934

  19. Implementation of a 3-D-Var system for atmospheric profiling data assimilation into the RAMS model: initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, S.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the current status of development of a three-dimensional variational data assimilation system. The system can be used with different numerical weather prediction models, but it is mainly designed to be coupled with the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS). Analyses are given for the following parameters: zonal and meridional wind components, temperature, relative humidity, and geopotential height. Important features of the data assimilation system are the use of incremental formulation of the cost-function, and the use of an analysis space represented by recursive filters and eigenmodes of the vertical background error matrix. This matrix and the length-scale of the recursive filters are estimated by the National Meteorological Center (NMC) method. The data assimilation and forecasting system is applied to the real context of atmospheric profiling data assimilation, and in particular to the short-term wind prediction. The analyses are produced at 20 km horizontal resolution over central Europe and extend over the whole troposphere. Assimilated data are vertical soundings of wind, temperature, and relative humidity from radiosondes, and wind measurements of the European wind profiler network. Results show the validity of the analysis solutions because they are closer to the observations (lower RMSE) compared to the background (higher RMSE), and the differences of the RMSEs are consistent with the data assimilation settings. To quantify the impact of improved initial conditions on the short-term forecast, the analyses are used as initial conditions of a three-hours forecast of the RAMS model. In particular two sets of forecasts are produced: (a) the first uses the ECMWF analysis/forecast cycle as initial and boundary conditions; (b) the second uses the analyses produced by the 3-D-Var scheme as initial conditions, then is driven by the ECMWF forecast. The improvement is quantified by considering the horizontal components of the wind, which

  20. Implementation of a 3D-Var system for atmospheric profiling data assimilation into the RAMS model: initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, S.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the current status of development of a three-dimensional variational data assimilation system (3D-Var). The system can be used with different numerical weather prediction models, but it is mainly designed to be coupled with the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS). Analyses are given for the following parameters: zonal and meridional wind components, temperature, relative humidity, and geopotential height. Important features of the data assimilation system are the use of incremental formulation of the cost function, and the representation of the background error by recursive filters and the eigenmodes of the vertical component of the background error covariance matrix. This matrix is estimated by the National Meteorological Center (NMC) method. The data assimilation and forecasting system is applied to the real context of atmospheric profiling data assimilation, and in particular to the short-term wind prediction. The analyses are produced at 20 km horizontal resolution over central Europe and extend over the whole troposphere. Assimilated data are vertical soundings of wind, temperature, and relative humidity from radiosondes, and wind measurements of the European wind profiler network. Results show the validity of the analyses because they are closer to the observations (lower root mean square error (RMSE)) compared to the background (higher RMSE), and the differences of the RMSEs are in agreement with the data assimilation settings. To quantify the impact of improved initial conditions on the short-term forecast, the analyses are used as initial conditions of three-hours forecasts of the RAMS model. In particular two sets of forecasts are produced: (a) the first uses the ECMWF analysis/forecast cycle as initial and boundary conditions; (b) the second uses the analyses produced by the 3D-Var as initial conditions, then it is driven by the ECMWF forecast. The improvement is quantified by considering the horizontal components of the wind