Science.gov

Sample records for addition initial results

  1. Care initiation area yields dramatic results.

    PubMed

    2009-03-01

    The ED at Gaston Memorial Hospital in Gastonia, NC, has achieved dramatic results in key department metrics with a Care Initiation Area (CIA) and a physician in triage. Here's how the ED arrived at this winning solution: Leadership was trained in and implemented the Kaizen method, which eliminates redundant or inefficient process steps. Simulation software helped determine additional space needed by analyzing arrival patterns and other key data. After only two days of meetings, new ideas were implemented and tested.

  2. Mars-Analog Evaporite Experiment: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. M.; Bullock, M. A.; Sharp, T.G.; Quinn, R.

    2005-01-01

    This research is part of a multiyear experimental investigation to understand the nature and evolution brines and evaporates on Mars. The spectacular discoveries of the MER rovers, particularly those of Opportunity at Meridiani, both illustrate the relevance, as well as guide the future direction, of this work. Here we report the initial results from our just-completed and tested evaporites apparatus, using a synthetic brine analog to our brine experiment simulating a modern Mars environment in which the brine was subjected to rapid evaporation under modern Martian conditions. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  3. Initial results from MARmara SuperSITE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Necmioglu, Ocal; Favali, Paolo; Douglas, John; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Geli, Louis; Ergintav, Semih; Oguz Ozel, Asım; Tan, Onur; Gurbuz, Cemil; Erdik, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    MARSite Project was initiated in November 2012 under the EC/FP-7 framework as an initiative towards establishment of new directions in seismic hazard assessment through focused earth observation in Marmara Region. Within MARSite, collection of the first comprehensive data set of fluids composition around the Sea of Marmara has been accomplished and first insight in the geochemical features of the fluids are expelled from tectonic structures around the Sea of Marmara. GPS time series and velocity fields are periodically updated and a project proposal has been prepared for Supersite initiative to take SAR data and integrate the results with in-situ data sets, which is accepted by the scientific committee of GEOSS. In the meantime, special focus was given to develop the processing algorithms, starting from low level atmospheric correction to high level modeling routines. Considerable progress has been made in the novel design of a multiparameter borehole system consisting of very wide dynamic range and stable borehole (VBB) broad band seismic sensor also incorporating 3-D strain meter, tilt meter, and temperature and local hydrostatic pressure measuring devices. Borehole and surface array locations and borehole bedrock depth of 137 m has been identified. A modeling scheme for the scenario earthquake simulation has been set up in order to realize processing of real-time high-rate GPS data and simulating of scenario earthquakes. The probability of occurrence for the fault segmentation in the Marmara region were calculated using the Poisson, BPT and BPT with a stress interaction models for time intervals of 5-10-30 and 50 years. High resolution seismic reflection and multibeam data in the easternmost Cinarcik basin obtained during the cruise MARMARA 2013 carried out onboard the CNR R/V Urania ship provided information on diffuse gravitational failures. An in situ multi-parameter observational system for landslide monitoring, including displacement, rainfall and seismic

  4. Initial Results from the Kwajalein Micrometeorite Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Price, M. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ishii, H. A.; Brownlee, D. E.; Dearborn, D.; Jones, T.; Barnett, B.; Yakuma, S.; Letendre, T.; Gonzalez, C.; Bastien, R.; Rodriquez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Micrometeorites are constantly arriving at the Earth's surface, however, they are quickly diluted by the natural and anthropogenic back-ground dust. The successful collection of micromete-orites requires either the employment of a separation technique (e.g. using magnets to separate metal-bearing micrometeorites from deepsea sediments [e.g. 1,2] and dissolved pre-historic limestones and salts [e.g. 3,4]), or an approach that limits contamination by terrestrial dust (e.g. collecting from ice, snow and well water in polar regions - locations where the terrestrial dust flux is so low that micrometeorites repre-sent the major dust component [e.g. 5-7]). We have recently set up a micrometeorite collection station on Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Is-lands in the Pacific Ocean, using high volume air samplers to collect particles directly from the atmosphere. Collecting at this location exploits the considerably reduced anthropogenic background; Kwajalein is >1000 miles from the nearest continent and for much of the year, trade winds blow from the northeast at 15 to 20 knots providing a continuous stream of oceanic aerosol for sampling. By collecting directly from the atmosphere, the terrestrial age of the particles, and hence weathering they experience, is minimal. We therefore anticipate that the Kwajalein col-lection may include particles that are highly susceptible to weathering and either not preserved well or not found at all in other collections. In addition, this collection method allows for particle arrival times to be constrained so that collections can be timed to correlate with celestial events (e.g. meteor showers). Here we describe the collections and their preparation and report on the initial results.

  5. The initiation of subduction: criticality by addition of water?

    PubMed

    Regenauer-Lieb, K; Yuen, D A; Branlund, J

    2001-10-19

    Subduction is a major process of plate tectonics; however, its initiation is not understood. We used high-resolution (less than 1 kilometer) finite-element models based on rheological data of the lithosphere to investigate the role played by water on initiating subduction. A solid-fluid thermomechanical instability is needed to drive a cold, stiff, and negatively buoyant lithosphere into the mantle. This instability can be triggered slowly by sedimentary loading over a time span of 100 million years. Our results indicate that subduction can proceed by a double feedback mechanism (thermoelastic and thermal-rheological) promoted by lubrication due to water.

  6. Radiation exposure of LDEF: Initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Csige, I.; Parnell, T. A.; Watts, J. W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Initial results from LDEF include radiation detector measurements from four experiments, P0006, P0004, M0004, and A0015. The detectors were located on both the leading and trailing edges of the orbiter and also on the Earthside end. This allowed the directional dependence of the incoming radiation to be measured. Total absorbed doses from thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) verified the predicted spatial east-west dose ratio dependence of a factor approx. 2.5, due to trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly. On the trailing edge of the orbiter a range of doses from 6.64 to 2.91 Gy were measured under Al equivalent shielding of 0.42 to 1.11 g/sq cm. A second set of detectors near this location yielded doses of 6.48 to 2.66 Gy under Al equivalent shielding of 0.48 to 15.4 g/sq cm. On the leading edge, doses of 2.58 to 2.10 Gy were found under Al equivalent shielding of 1.37 to 2.90 g/sq cm. Initial charged particle LET (linear energy transfer) spectra, fluxes, doses and dose equivalents, for LET in H2O greater than or = 8 keV/micron, were measured with plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) located in two experiments. Also preliminary data on low energy neutrons were obtained from detectors containing (6)LiF foils.

  7. Aquarius Third Stokes Parameter Measurements: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utku, Cuneyt; Vine, David M Le; Abraham, S.; Piepmeier, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D observatory was launched on June 10, 2011 and the Aquarius instrument has been collecting data continuously since late August. One of the unique features of the L-band radiometers comprising Aquarius is the presence of a polarimetric channel to measure the third Stokes parameter. The purpose is to provide a measure of Faraday rotation, which can be important for remote sensing at L-band, especially in the case of remote sensing of salinity which requires high precision. Initial results are presented here showing a reasonable agreement between retrieved and modeled Faraday rotation and also the "noisy" behavior at land-water boundaries and other mixed scenes predicted by theory.

  8. Radical addition-initiated domino reactions of conjugated oxime ethers.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    The application of conjugated oxime ethers to the synthesis of complex chemical scaffolds using domino radical reactions has been described in detail. The triethylborane-mediated hydroxysulfenylation reaction allows for the regioselective construction of a carbon-sulfur bond and a carbon-oxygen bond in a single operation for the formation of β-hydroxy sulfides. This reaction proceeds via a radical pathway involving regioselective thiyl addition and the subsequent trapping of the resulting α-imino radical with O₂, where the imino group enhances the stability of the intermediate radical. Hydroxyalkylation reactions that occur via a carbon radical addition reaction followed by the hydroxylation of the resulting N-borylenamine with O₂ have also been developed. We investigated sequential radical addition aldol-type reactions in detail to explore the novel domino reactions that occur via the generation of N-borylenamine. The radical reaction of a conjugated oxime ether with triethylborane in the presence of an aldehyde affords γ-butyrolactone via sequential processes including ethyl radical addition, the generation of N-borylenamine, an aldol-type reaction with an aldehyde, and a lactonization reaction. A novel domino reaction has also been developed involving the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of N-boryl-N-phenoxyenamine. The triethylborane-mediated domino reactions of O-phenyl-conjugated oxime ethers afforded the corresponding benzofuro[2,3-b]pyrrol-2-ones via a radical addition/[3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement/cyclization/lactamization cascade.

  9. Thoracoscopic esophagectomy: technique and initial results.

    PubMed

    Gossot, D; Fourquier, P; Celerier, M

    1993-09-01

    To reduce the high morbidity rate associated with esophageal surgery, we have developed a technique of thoracoscopic esophagectomy. A feasibility study was first carried out in an animal model and a specific instrument was developed for this purpose. Esophagectomy using a right thoracoscopic approach was attempted in 15 patients, 13 males and 2 females whose average age was 48 years. Indications consisted of squamous cell carcinoma in 10 patients, adenocarcinoma in 1, and caustic stenosis in 4. We used a technique that consisted of double-lumen tracheal intubation and the creation of five ports. The whole esophagus was mobilized thoracoscopically and the esophagectomy was completed through the abdomen. The reconstruction was achieved using a gastric pull-through, and the anastomosis was made in the neck. There were three failures: in 1 patient there was a large tumor, making the exposure unsafe, and, in 2 patients, incomplete lung collapse made exposure of the posterior mediastinum difficult. These 3 cases were converted into a thoracotomy. The thoracoscopic dissection was successful in the remaining 12 patients. The average time of the thoracoscopic stage was 125 minutes. The postoperative course was uneventful in 10 patients. Two patients had a left atelectasis. Although our series is limited, these initial results indicate that thoracoscopic esophagectomy is feasible. However, further evaluation of the technique is needed to assess its benefit in terms of respiratory morbidity. PMID:8379767

  10. [Immunogenicity of additional varicella vaccination 3-5 years after the initial vaccination].

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Gotoh, Kensei; Funahashi, Keiji; Yoshii, Hironori; Okuno, Yoshinobu

    2013-07-01

    Additional varicella vaccination was carried out targeting 16 subjects who had immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) seroconversion following the initial varicella vaccination and did not contract breakthrough varicella after the initial vaccination. The median ages at the initial and additional vaccination were 2.1 (1.1-6.9) years old and 6.1 (4.4-10.5) years old, respectively. The mean interval between the initial and additional vaccination was 4.0 (3.2-5.2) years. IAHA and glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA) antibody titers were measured just before and 4-6 weeks after the additional vaccination. Side reaction was surveyed at four weeks after the additional vaccination, and compared with the results at the initial vaccination. IAHA and gpELISA seroconversion rates at the initial vaccination were 100% and 88% respectively. Prior to the additional vaccination, IAHA antibody titers significantly decreased in 50% of the subjects, and became negative in 38% of the subjects. On the other hand, a significant increase in IAHA antibody titers was observed in 25% of the subjects, and this is assumed to be the result of a subclinical infection after the initial vaccination. The positive rate of both antibodies after the additional vaccination was 100%, the mean IAHA antibody titer (Log2) after the initial/additional vaccination in seropositive subjects was 4.6/6.5, and the mean gpELISA antibody titer (Log10) was 2.3/4.0. The mean IAHA and gpELISA antibody titers were higher after the additional vaccination than after the initial vaccination (p < 0.01, p < 0.01). This is considered to be the booster effect due to the additional vaccination. At 0-2 days after the additional vaccination, a rash at the injection site was observed in 56% of the subjects, higher than the incidence after the initial vaccination (13%) (p < 0.05), but no severe systemic side reactions were observed at either the initial or the additional vaccination. In conclusion, an

  11. Initial results from VIRUS production spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, Sarah E.; Allen, Richard D.; Chonis, Taylor S.; Cornell, Mark E.; DePoy, Darren L.; Hill, Gary J.; Lee, Hanshin; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Prochaska, Travis; Rafal, Marc D.; Savage, Richard D.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2012-09-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) uses a novel technique of replicated spectrographs (VIRUS) to measure dark energy at intermediate redshifts (2 < z < 4). VIRUS contains over 30,000 fibers and over 160 independent and identical channels. Here we report on the construction and characterization of the initial batch of VIRUS spectrograph cameras. Assembly of the first batch of 16 is in progress. A brief overview of the assembly is presented, and where available performance is compared to specification.

  12. NIF Commissioning and Initial Performance Results

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wonterghem, B M; Burkhart, S C; Haynam, C A; Manes, K R; Marshall, C D; Murray, J E; Spaeth, M L; Speck, D R; Sutton, S B; Wegner, P J

    2003-12-19

    The National Ignition Facility at LLNL recently commissioned the first set of four beam lines into the target chamber. This effort, also called NIF Early Light, demonstrated the entire laser system architecture from master oscillator through target and initial X-ray diagnostics. This paper describes the detailed commissioning and installation steps for one of NIF's 48 beam quads. Using a dedicated single beam line Precision Diagnostic System, performance was explored over the entire power versus energy space from 6.4 TW/beam for sub-nanosecond pulses to 25 kJ/beam for 23 ns pulses at 1 {omega}. NEL also demonstrated record single beam line frequency converted Nd:Glass laser energies of 11.3 kJ at 2 {omega} and 10.4 kJ at 3{omega}.

  13. SDO-AIA DEM: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelz, Joan T.

    2011-01-01

    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has state-of-the-art spatial resolution and shows the most detailed images of coronal loops ever observed. The series of coronal filters peak at different temperatures, which span the range of active regions. These features represent a significant improvement over earlier coronal imagers and make AIA ideal for multi-thermal analysis. Here we targeted a 171-A coronal loop in AR 11092 observed by AIA on 2010 August 3. Isothermal analysis using the 171-to-193 ratio gave a temperature of Log T = 6.1, similar to the results of EIT and TRACE. Differential Emission Measure analysis, however, showed that the plasma was multithermal, not isothermal, with a distribution that peaked between Log T = 6.3 and 6.4. The result from the isothermal analysis, which is the average of the true plasma distribution weighted by the instrument response functions, appears to be deceptively low. These results have potentially serious implications: EIT and TRACE results, which use the same isothermal method, show substantially smaller temperature gradients than predicted by standard models for loops in hydrodynamic equilibrium and have been used as strong evidence in support of footpoint heating models. These implications may have to be re-examined in the wake of new results from AIA.

  14. ACM TOMS replicated computational results initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2015-06-03

    In this study, the scientific community relies on the peer review process for assuring the quality of published material, the goal of which is to build a body of work we can trust. Computational journals such as The ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) use this process for rigorously promoting the clarity and completeness of content, and citation of prior work. At the same time, it is unusual to independently confirm computational results.

  15. ACM TOMS replicated computational results initiative

    DOE PAGES

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2015-06-03

    In this study, the scientific community relies on the peer review process for assuring the quality of published material, the goal of which is to build a body of work we can trust. Computational journals such as The ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) use this process for rigorously promoting the clarity and completeness of content, and citation of prior work. At the same time, it is unusual to independently confirm computational results.

  16. Glenn Pool project: Initial tomographic results

    SciTech Connect

    Vassiliou, A.A.; Savage, C.W.; Liner, C.L.; Bozhurt, G.; Lines, L.R.

    1994-12-31

    Four crosswell seismic surveys were acquired in the Glenn Pool field, the William B. Self Unit, in January 1994. Two of these surveys were acquired between the same pairs of wells. However, it was found (Liner et al., 1994) that the well condition on one of the wells rendered the signal-to-noise ratio very low. The data quality from the three remaining crosswell surveys is good, providing high S/N ratio for the first-arrival traveltimes. The first-arrival traveltimes were picked and inverted using anisotropic traveltime tomography for a TIV medium. Preliminary results indicate continuity of the Glenn sand in all three lines and anisotropy in the shaly sands at a depth of 1360-1410 ft of about 10%.

  17. Initial results of SEPAC scientific achievement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obayashi, T.; Kawashima, N.; Sasaki, S.; Yanagisawa, M.; Kuriki, K.; Nagatomo, M.; Ninomiya, K.; Roberts, W. T.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Williamson, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    Electron beam injection of 5 keV, 300 mA (1.5 kW) and MPD arcjet plasma injection of 2 kJ/shot were successfully performed together with various kinds of diagnostic instruments including a high sensitivity TV camera observation in the Spacelab 1. Major scientific results obtained are studies of: (1) vehicle charge-up due to the electron beam emission and its neutralization by the MPD arcjet plasma; (2) beam-plasma interaction including the plasma wave excitation; (3) beam-atmosphere interaction such as the verification of critical velocity ionization effect; and (4) anomalous enhancement of ionization associated with a neutral gas injection into space.

  18. [Evolocumab and PROFICIO Project: Initial Results].

    PubMed

    Kraml, Pavel

    2015-11-01

    The PROFICIO project includes 20 clinical studies evaluating the effect of evolocumab on the incidence of cardio-vascular disease including its safety profile and tolerance. Most of the included studies follow the average proportional decrease of LDL-cholesterol concentrations over 10 and 12 weeks of administering evolocumab as compared to the input values. The first results were announced at the congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) in London at the end of August and beginning of September 2015. This subanalysis comprised 3146 patients, who underwent one of the selected studies of phase 3 clinical testing and who were administered a dose of 140 mg s.c. evolocumab once in 2 weeks, or 420 mg s.c. once in 4 weeks. LDL-cholesterol levels decreased after evolocumab by 56.5-74.9% in the individual studies as compared to placebo and by 36.9-44.9% compared to ezetimib. The incidence of adverse effects did not differ from the group which used placebo.

  19. Initial Results from Mingantu Ultrawide Spectral Radioheliograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yihua; Chen, Linjie; Yu, Sijie; CSRH TEAM

    2015-04-01

    Radio imaging spectroscopy over wide range wavelength in dm/cm-bands will open new windows on solar flares and coronal mass ejections by tracing the radio emissions from accelerated electrons. The Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph (CSRH) with two arrays in 400MHz-2GHz /2-15GHz ranges with 64/520 frequency channels have just been established in Mingantu Observing Staion, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Inner Mongolia of China. CSRH is re-named as Mingantu Ultralwide Spectral Radioheliograph (MUSER) after its accomplishment. We will introduce the progress and current status of MUSER. Some preliminary results of MUSER will be presented.On 11 Nov. 2014, a burst event was registered by MUSER-I array at 400MHz-2GHz waveband. According to SGD event list there was a C-class flare event at 04:49UT in the disk center and the radio bursts during 04:22-04:24UT was attributed to this flare. However, MUSER-I image observations of the bursts indicate that the radio burst peaked around 04:22UT was due to another eruptive event at the east limb of the Sun, which may be related a CME event afterwards.

  20. SAGE III solar ozone measurements: Initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Jui; Cunnold, Derek M.; Trepte, Chip; Thomason, Larry W.; Zawodny, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Results from two retrieval algorithms, o3-aer and o3-mlr , used for SAGE III solar occultation ozone measurements in the stratosphere and upper troposphere are compared. The main differences between these two retrieved (version 3.0) ozone are found at altitudes above 40 km and below 15 km. Compared to correlative measurements, the SAGE II type ozone retrievals (o3-aer) provide better precisions above 40 km and do not induce artificial hemispheric differences in upper stratospheric ozone. The multiple linear regression technique (o3_mlr), however, can yield slightly more accurate ozone (by a few percent) in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. By using SAGE III (version 3.0) ozone from both algorithms and in their preferred regions, the agreement between SAGE III and correlative measurements is shown to be approx.5% down to 17 km. Below 17 km SAGE III ozone values are systematically higher, by 10% at 13 km, and a small hemispheric difference (a few percent) appears. Compared to SAGE III and HALOE, SAGE II ozone has the best accuracy in the lowest few kilometers of the stratosphere. Estimated precision in SAGE III ozone is about 5% or better between 20 and 40 km and approx.10% at 50 km. The precision below 20 km is difficult to evaluate because of limited coincidences between SAGE III and sondes. SAGE III ozone values are systematically slightly larger (2-3%) than those from SAGE II but the profile shapes are remarkably similar for altitudes above 15 km. There is no evidence of any relative drift or time dependent differences between these two instruments for altitudes above 15-20 km.

  1. Additives initiate selective production of chemicals from biomass pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Leng, Shuai; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Huizhe; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Fengyun; Liu, Jingmei; Wang, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    To improve chemicals selectivity under low temperature, a new method that involves the injection of additives into biomass pyrolysis is introduced. This method allows biomass pyrolysis to achieve high selectivity to chemicals under low temperature (300°C), while nothing was obtained in typical pyrolysis under 300°C. However, by using the new method, the first liquid drop emerged at the interval between 140°C and 240°C. Adding methanol to mushroom scrap pyrolysis obtained high selectivity to acetic acid (98.33%), while adding ethyl acetate gained selectivity to methanol (65.77%) in bagasse pyrolysis and to acetone (72.51%) in corncob pyrolysis. Apart from basic chemicals, one high value-added chemical (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran) was also detected, which obtained the highest selectivity (10.33%) in corncob pyrolysis through the addition of ethyl acetate. Comparison of HZSM-5 and CaCO3 catalysis showed that benzene emerged in the liquid because of the larger degree of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation over HZSM-5. PMID:24508091

  2. Additives initiate selective production of chemicals from biomass pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Leng, Shuai; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Huizhe; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Fengyun; Liu, Jingmei; Wang, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    To improve chemicals selectivity under low temperature, a new method that involves the injection of additives into biomass pyrolysis is introduced. This method allows biomass pyrolysis to achieve high selectivity to chemicals under low temperature (300°C), while nothing was obtained in typical pyrolysis under 300°C. However, by using the new method, the first liquid drop emerged at the interval between 140°C and 240°C. Adding methanol to mushroom scrap pyrolysis obtained high selectivity to acetic acid (98.33%), while adding ethyl acetate gained selectivity to methanol (65.77%) in bagasse pyrolysis and to acetone (72.51%) in corncob pyrolysis. Apart from basic chemicals, one high value-added chemical (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran) was also detected, which obtained the highest selectivity (10.33%) in corncob pyrolysis through the addition of ethyl acetate. Comparison of HZSM-5 and CaCO3 catalysis showed that benzene emerged in the liquid because of the larger degree of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation over HZSM-5.

  3. Initial results of the Global Thermospheric Mapping Study (GTMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, W. L.; Salah, J. E.; Musgrove, R. G.; Holt, J. M.; Wickwar, V. B.; Hernandez, G. J.; Roble, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    The Global Thermospheric Mapping Study (GTMS) is a multi-technique experimental study of the thermosphere designed to map simultaneously its spatial and temporal morphology with a thoroughness and diversity of measurement techniques heretofore unachieved. The GTMS is designed around the Incoherent Scatter Radar Chain in the western hemisphere. The European incoherent scatter radars and the worldwide communities of Fabry-Perot interferometers, meteor wind radars, partial reflection drifts radars, MST radars, and satellite probes are included to extend the spatial coverage and types of measurements available. Theoretical and modeling support in the areas of thermospheric and ionospheric structure, tides, and electric fields are included to aid in program planning and data interpretation. Solar activity was low on the three observation days (F10.7 = 97, 98, 96) and magnetic conditions were unsettled to active (A = 10, 12, 20). All six incoherent scatter radar facilities collected data. Each collected F region data day and night while Saint Santin and Millstone Hill additionally collected E region data during daylight hours. Initial results from Sondrestrom and Millstone Hill are presented. Good quality Fabry Perot data were collected at Fritz Peak and San Jose dos Campos. Weather conditions produced poor results at Arequipa and Arecibo. Initial results from Fritz Peak are presented. Mesosphere/lower-thermosphere observations were conducted under the ATMAP organization. The magnetometer chains also were operational during this campaign. Initial thermospheric general circulation model predictions were made for assumed solar-geophysical conditions, and selected results are presented.

  4. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Additional Information for Initial..., Table 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Additional Information for Initial Notification of... applies to you. For . . . You shall provide this additional information . . . 1. Identification...

  5. The homestake surface-underground scintillators: Initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, M. L.; Corbato, S.; Daily, T.; Fenyves, E. J.; Kieda, D.; Lande, K.; Lee, C. K.

    1986-01-01

    The first 70 tons of the 140-ton Large Area Scintillation Detector (LASD) have been operating since Jan. 1985 at a depth of 4850 ft. (4200 m.w.e.) in the Homestake Gold Mine, Lead, S.D. A total of 4 x 10(4) high-energy muons (E sub mu is approx. 2.7 TeV at the surface) have been detected. The remainder of the detector is scheduled to be in operation by the Fall of 1985. In addition, a surface air shower array is under construction. The first 27 surface counters, spaced out over an area of 270' x 500', began running in June, 1985. The LASD performance, the potential of the combined shower array and underground muon experiment for detecting point sources, and the initial results of a search for periodic emission from Cygnus X-3 are discussed.

  6. Initial Results of Illinois' Shifting Gears Pilot Demonstration Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.; Harmon, Timothy; Kirby, Catherine L.; Kim, Sujung

    2009-01-01

    This report provides initial results of Illinois' Shifting Gears Initiative that operated between July 1, 2007 and June 30, 2009. This mixed method (qualitative and quantitative) evaluation sought to accomplish three goals: (1) to assess program and student outcomes for two models (adult education and developmental education) for two target groups…

  7. The Impact Hydrocode Benchmark and Validation Project: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierazzo, E.; Artemieva, N.; Asphaug, E.; Cazamias, J.; Coker, R.; Collins, G. S.; Gisler, G.; Holsapple, K. A.; Housen, K. R.; Ivanov, B.; Johnson, C.; Korycansky, D. G.; Melosh, H. J.; Taylor, E. A.; Turtle, E. P.; Wünnemann, K.

    2007-03-01

    This work presents initial results of a validation and benchmarking effort from the impact cratering and explosion community. Several impact codes routinely used to model impact and explosion events are being compared using simple benchmark tests.

  8. Thermodynamic Effect of Platinum Addition to beta-NiAl: An Initial Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    An initial investigation was conducted to determine the effect of platinum addition on the activities of aluminum and nickel in beta-NiAl(Pt) over the temperature range 1354 to 1692 K. These measurements were made with a multiple effusion-cell configured mass spectrometer (multi-cell KEMS). The results of this study show that Pt additions act to decreased alpha(Al) and increased the alpha(Ni) in beta-NiAl(Pt) for constant X(sub Ni)/X(sub Al) approx. = 1.13, while at constant X(sub Al) the affect of Pt on Al is greatly reduced. The measured partial enthalpies of mixing indicate Al-atoms have a strong self interaction while Ni- and Pt-atoms in have similar interactions with Al-atoms. Conversely the binding of Ni-atoms in beta-NiAl decreases with Pt addition independent of Al concentration. These initial results prove the technique can be applied to the Ni-Al-Pt system but more activity measurements are required to fully understand the thermodynamics of this system and how Pt additions improved the scaling behavior of nickel-based superalloys. In addition, with the choice of a suitable oxide material for the effusion-cell, the "closed" isothermal nature of the effusion-cell allows the direct investigation of an alloy-oxide equilibrium which resembles the "local-equilibrium" description of the metal-scale interface observed during high temperature oxidation. It is proposed that with an Al(l) + Al2O3(s) experimental reference state together with the route measurement of the relative partial-pressures of Al(g) and Al2O(g) allows the activities of O and Al2O3 to be determined along with the activities of Ni and Al. These measurements provide a direct method of investigating the thermodynamics of the metal-scale interface of a TGO-scale.

  9. Initial operating results 10 MW Salton Sea Geothermal Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, E.

    1983-09-01

    The initial operating results of the 10 MW Salton Sea Geothermal Pilot Plant are discussed. The plant has been on line 84% of the time since initial startup in July of 1982. During this time, the plant has been able to provide essentially full load steam making it possible to achieve a capacity factor of over 80%. The forced and scheduled outages of the plant for the first 9 months operation are listed. During this initial operation, over 50 million kWhs of energy have been delivered to the Imperial Irrigation District. The operating costs for operations and maintenance have been running at a rate of $1 M/year.

  10. Mars-GRAM 2010: Additions and Resulting Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Burns, K. Lee

    2013-01-01

    factors. The adjustment factors generated by this process had to satisfy the gas law as well as the hydrostatic relation and are expressed as a function of height (z), Latitude (Lat) and areocentric solar longitude (Ls). The greatest adjustments are made at large optical depths such as tau greater than 1. The addition of the adjustment factors has led to better correspondence to TES Limb data from 0-60 km altitude as well as better agreement with MGS, ODY and MRO data at approximately 90-130 km altitude. Improved Mars-GRAM atmospheric simulations for various locations, times and dust conditions on Mars will be presented at the workshop session. The latest results validating Mars-GRAM 2010 versus Mars Climate Sounder data will also be presented. Mars-GRAM 2010 updates have resulted in improved atmospheric simulations which will be very important when beginning systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for future aerocapture, aerobraking or landed missions to Mars.

  11. Additional Results of Ice-Accretion Scaling at SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2005-01-01

    To determine scale velocity an additional similarity parameter is needed to supplement the Ruff scaling method. A Weber number based on water droplet MVD has been included in several studies because the effect of droplet splashing on ice accretion was believed to be important, particularly for SLD conditions. In the present study, ice shapes recorded at Appendix-C conditions and recent results at SLD conditions are reviewed to show that droplet diameter cannot be important to main ice shape, and for low airspeeds splashing does not appear to affect SLD ice shapes. Evidence is presented to show that while a supplementary similarity parameter probably has the form of a Weber number, it must be based on a length proportional to model size rather than MVD. Scaling comparisons were made between SLD reference conditions and Appendix-C scale conditions using this Weber number. Scale-to-reference model size ratios were 1:1.7 and 1:3.4. The reference tests used a 91-cm-chord NACA 0012 model with a velocity of approximately 50 m/s and an MVD of 160 m. Freezing fractions of 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 were included in the study.

  12. Non-Shock Initiation Model for Explosive Families: Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. U.; Todd, S. N.; Caipen, T. L.; Jensen, C. B.; Hughs, C. G.

    2009-12-01

    The "DaMaGe-Initiated-Reaction" (DMGIR) computational model has been developed to predict the response of high explosives to non-shock mechanical insults. The distinguishing feature of this model is the introduction of a damage variable, which relates the evolution of damage to the initiation of a reaction in the explosive, and its growth to detonation. Specifically designed experiments were used to study the initiation process of each explosive family with embedded shock sensors and optical diagnostics. The experimental portion of this model development began with a study of PBXN-5 to develop DMGIR model coefficients for the rigid plastic bonded family, followed by studies of the cast, and bulk-moldable explosive families. The experimental results show an initiation mechanism that is related to input energy and material damage, with well defined initiation thresholds for each explosive family. These initiation details will extend the predictive capability of the DMGIR model from the rigid family into the cast and bulk-moldable families.

  13. Non-shock initiation model for explosive families : experimental results.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark U.; Jensen, Charles B.; Todd, Steven N.; Hugh, Chance G.; Caipen, Terry L.

    2010-03-01

    The 'DaMaGe-Initiated-Reaction' (DMGIR) computational model has been developed to predict the response of high explosives to non-shock mechanical insults. The distinguishing feature of this model is the introduction of a damage variable, which relates the evolution of damage to the initiation of a reaction in the explosive, and its growth to detonation. Specifically designed experiments were used to study the initiation process of each explosive family with embedded shock sensors and optical diagnostics. The experimental portion of this model development began with a study of PBXN-5 to develop DMGIR model coefficients for the rigid plastic bonded family, followed by studies of the cast, and bulk-moldable explosive families. The experimental results show an initiation mechanism that is related to input energy and material damage, with well defined initiation thresholds for each explosive family. These initiation details will extend the predictive capability of the DMGIR model from the rigid family into the cast and bulk-moldable families.

  14. Initial Results from the New Stress Map of Texas Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund Snee, J. E.; Zoback, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Modern techniques for characterizing tectonic stress orientation and relative magnitude have been successfully used for more than 35 years. Nevertheless, large areas of North America lack high spatial resolution maps of stress orientation, magnitude, and faulting regime. In Texas, for example, <30 A-C-quality stress orientations are currently registered on the World Stress Map and only 7 of these points also describe the stress regime. Stress data are foundational elements of attempts to characterize tectonic driving forces, understand hazards associated with induced seismicity, and optimize production of oil, gas, and geothermal resources. This year, we launched the Texas Stress Map project to characterize tectonic stress patterns at higher spatial resolution across Texas and nearby areas. Following a successful effort just completed in Oklahoma, we will evaluate borehole breakouts, drilling-induced tensile fractures, shear wave anisotropy, and earthquake data. The principal data source will be FMI (fullbore formation microimager), UBI (ultrasonic borehole imager), cross-dipole sonic, density, and caliper logs provided by private industry. Earthquake moment tensor solutions from the U.S. Geological Survey, Saint Louis University and other sources will also be used. Our initial focus is on the Permian Basin and Barnett Shale petroleum plays due to the availability of data, but we will expand our analysis across the state as the project progresses. In addition, we hope to eventually apply the higher spatial resolution data coverage to understanding tectonic and geodynamic characteristics of the southwestern United States and northeastern Mexico. Here we present early results from our work to constrain stress orientations and faulting regime in and near Texas, and we also provide a roadmap for the ongoing research.

  15. EURECA 11 months in orbit: Initial post flight investigation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dover, Alan; Aceti, Roberto; Drolshagen, Gerhard

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of the European free flying spacecraft 'EURECA' and the initial post flight investigations following its retrieval in June 1993. EURECA was in low earth orbit for 11 months commencing in August 1992, and is the first spacecraft to be retrieved and returned to Earth since the recovery of LDEF. The primary mission objective of EURECA was the investigation of materials and fluids in a very low micro-gravity environment. In addition other experiments were conducted in space science, technology and space environment disciplines. The European Space Agency (ESA) has taken the initiative in conducting a detailed post-flight investigation to ensure the full exploitation of this unique opportunity.

  16. Additional follow-up telephone counselling and initial smoking relapse: a longitudinal, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Fang; Liu, Qinghui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Changxi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking cessation services can help smokers to quit; however, many smoking relapse cases occur over time. Initial relapse prevention should play an important role in achieving the goal of long-term smoking cessation. Several studies have focused on the effect of extended telephone support in relapse prevention, but the conclusions remain conflicting. Design and setting From October 2008 to August 2013, a longitudinal, controlled study was performed in a large general hospital of Beijing. Participants The smokers who sought treatment at our smoking cessation clinic were non-randomised and divided into 2 groups: face-to-face individual counselling group (FC group), and face-to-face individual counselling plus telephone follow-up counselling group (FCF group). No pharmacotherapy was offered. Outcomes The timing of initial smoking relapse was compared between FC and FCF groups. Predictors of initial relapse were investigated during the first 180 days, using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of 547 eligible male smokers who volunteered to participate, 457 participants (117 in FC group and 340 in FCF group) achieved at least 24 h abstinence. The majority of the lapse episodes occurred during the first 2 weeks after the quit date. Smokers who did not receive the follow-up telephone counselling (FC group) tended to relapse to smoking earlier than those smokers who received the additional follow-up telephone counselling (FCF group), and the log-rank test was statistically significant (p=0.003). A Cox regression model showed that, in the FCF group, being married, and having a lower Fagerström test score, normal body mass index and doctor-diagnosed tobacco-related chronic diseases, were significantly independent protective predictors of smoking relapse. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that additional follow-up telephone counselling might be an effective strategy in preventing relapse. Further research is still

  17. Initial Results Derived from JEM-GLIMS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Ushio, T.; Morimoto, T.; Kobayashi, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Inan, U.; Linscott, I.; Hobara, Y.

    2012-12-01

    measured by two radio receivers. JEM-GIMS was successfully launched by H-IIB rocket at 02:06:18 UT on July 21, 2012 and transported to ISS by the HTV-3 cargo transfer spaceship. HTV-3 successfully arrived at ISS on July 27 and our JEM-GLIMS instruments will be installed at JEM-EF on August 9. For the period from September 15 to 21 we will carry out the initial checkout operation, and finally we will start continuous TLE observations from the middle of October. At the presentation we will show the test results obtained during the checkout operations and will present the initial results derived from JEM-GLIMS lightning/TLE observations.

  18. Initial Results from the UAVSAR Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Minchew, B. M.; Holt, B.; Hensley, S.

    2010-12-01

    In June 2010, the UAVSAR platform was deployed to the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in order to collect fully-polarimetric L-band radar data over the open water and along Gulf coastlines. The data from the 2-day campaign is now being used to study the extent and impact of the oil spill, both in the open water and within the coastal ecosystems. The UAVSAR campaign was initiated with three primary goals: (1) Develop and validate algorithms for improved discrimination of oil slicks on water and identification of oil properties from radar backscatter; (2) study the use of radar for determining the extent of oil penetration into sensitive coastal ecological zones, in particular, to map the spread of oil from the coastline into coastal wetlands; and (3) study the use of radar in identifying and monitoring the recovery of vegetation affected by oil. In addition, we intend for the information from this study to inform and enable use of high-resolution radar imagery in future emergency response efforts. A second flight in October 2010 is planned to repeat the collection of marshland and coastal data for the impact and recovery studies. The first deployment occurred while oil was still leaking from the Deepwater Horizon spill site. UAVSAR data was collected over the ocean along 22-km wide swaths covering the rig site and the area around it. Additional data was collected over the gulf extending ocean data extending east from the rig site to an area south of Pensacola, Florida; over the Franklin Eddy in the east-central Gulf of Mexico, and directly east of the Florida Keys. The processed data has a resolution of 7 m x 7 m. We are now using this data to study oil identification and characterization using polarimetric decomposition techniques. The UAVSAR instrument has a noise floor (noise-equivalent σ0) of ~-50 dB, at least 20 dB below that of most radars imaging the oil spill. The radiometric sensitivity of the instrument is allowing us to

  19. The GLOBE Contrail Protocol: Initial Analysis of Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Lin; Duda, David

    2004-01-01

    The GLOBE contrail protocol was launched in March 2003 to obtain surface observer reports of contrail occurrence to complement satellite and model studies underway at NASA Langley, among others. During the first year, more than 30,000 ground observations of contrails were submitted to GLOBE. An initial analysis comparing the GLOBE observations to weather prediction model results for relative humidity at flight altitudes is in progress. This paper reports on the findings to date from this effort.

  20. Crystalline Silicon Short-Circuit Current Degradation Study: Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C. R.; Pruett, J.; Moriarty, T.

    2005-02-01

    Following our observation of slow degradation of short-circuit current (Isc) in crystalline silicon (x-Si) modules that was correlated with ultraviolet (UV) exposure dose, we initiated a new study of individual x-Si cells designed to determine the degradation cause. In this paper, we report the initial results of this study, which has accumulated 1056 MJ/m2 of UV dose from 1-sun metal-halide irradiance, equivalent to 3.8 years at our test site. At this time, the control samples are unchanged, the unencapsulated samples have lost about 2% of Isc, and the samples encapsulated in module-style packages have declined from 1% to 3%, depending on the cell technology.

  1. Initial Results from the ANITA 2006-2007 Balloon Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, P.W.; Allison, P.; Barwick, S.W.; Beatty, J.J.; Besson, D.Z.; Binns, W.R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J.M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P.F.; DuVernois, M.A.; Field, R.C.; Goldstein, D.; Goodhue, A.; Hast, C.; Hebert, C.L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M.H.; Kowalski, J.; Learned, J.G.; /Hawaii U. /Caltech, JPL /Hawaii U. /Minnesota U. /Hawaii U. /Ohio State U. /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /UC, Irvine /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /Caltech, JPL /SLAC /University Coll. London /Ohio State U. /SLAC /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /UCLA /Delaware U. /Hawaii U. /SLAC /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /UC, Irvine

    2011-11-16

    We report initial results of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) 2006-2007 Long Duration Balloon flight, which searched for evidence of the flux of cosmogenic neutrinos. ANITA flew for 35 days looking for radio impulses that might be due to the Askaryan effect in neutrino-induced electromagnetic showers within the Antarctic ice sheets. In our initial high-threshold robust analysis, no neutrino candidates are seen, with no physics background. In a non-signal horizontal-polarization channel, we do detect 6 events consistent with radio impulses from extensive air showers, which helps to validate the effectiveness of our method. Upper limits derived from our analysis now begin to eliminate the highest cosmogenic neutrino models.

  2. Microwave coupling into a slotted cavity. Additional results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeckstroem, M.; Loren, J.

    1994-12-01

    Further evaluation of simple formulas for shielding effectiveness and for absorption cross section of a wire inside a shielded structure have been made. The results give further support to the expressions, derived earlier in FOA report C 30712-8.3,3.2 (PB94-123742). The main objective of the work has been to find and evaluate simple expressions for microwave coupling into electronic compartments. The expressions are intended to be used for bounding calculations in design and analysis of system hardness against intense microwave radiation, e.g. HPM (High Power Microwaves). It is shown that introduction of microwave absorbing material into the cavity gives an expected increase in shielding effectiveness. It is also shown that shielding effectiveness depends only to a little extent on the position and length of the wire. The total transmission area for multiple apertures can be expressed as the sum of the areas of the individual apertures. The absorption cross section for a wire inside the cavity is shown to depend only slightly on wire position and length, even when the wire is located very close to a wall. The results lead to further improvement of the methodology for analysis of system hardness against HPM radiation. It also lays a foundation for a more scientific approach in the design of shielded structures. Such an approach would result in an increased reliability and also in a reduction of costs due to a reduced need for (large) safety margins and fewer late design modifications. The report also proposes a new method to measure shielding effectiveness of apertures.

  3. English as an Additional Language and Initial Teacher Education: Views and Experiences from Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses training for teaching English as an Additional Language (EAL) at initial teacher education (ITE) level in Northern Ireland. This small-scale qualitative study describes 15 primary and post-primary teachers' perspectives on their preparation for teaching EAL in Northern Ireland. It explores reflections on EAL content in ITE…

  4. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  5. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  6. Additional Results of Glaze Icing Scaling in SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    New guidance of acceptable means of compliance with the super-cooled large drops (SLD) conditions has been issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in its Advisory Circular AC 25-28 in November 2014. The Part 25, Appendix O is developed to define a representative icing environment for super-cooled large drops. Super-cooled large drops, which include freezing drizzle and freezing rain conditions, are not included in Appendix C. This paper reports results from recent glaze icing scaling tests conducted in NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the scaling methods recommended for Appendix C conditions might apply to SLD conditions. The models were straight NACA 0012 wing sections. The reference model had a chord of 72 in. and the scale model had a chord of 21 in. Reference tests were run with airspeeds of 100 and 130.3 kn and with MVD's of 85 and 170 micron. Two scaling methods were considered. One was based on the modified Ruff method with scale velocity found by matching the Weber number WeL. The other was proposed and developed by Feo specifically for strong glaze icing conditions, in which the scale liquid water content and velocity were found by matching reference and scale values of the nondimensional water-film thickness expression and the film Weber number Wef. All tests were conducted at 0 deg AOA. Results will be presented for stagnation freezing fractions of 0.2 and 0.3. For nondimensional reference and scale ice shape comparison, a new post-scanning ice shape digitization procedure was developed for extracting 2-D ice shape profiles at any selected span-wise location from the high fidelity 3-D scanned ice shapes obtained in the IRT.

  7. Experimental test accelerator: description and results of initial experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.; Birx, D.; Briggs, R.

    1980-06-02

    The ETA is a high current (10,000 Amp) linear induction accelerator that produces short (30 ns) pulses of electrons at 5 MeV twice per second or in bursts of 5 pulses separated by as little as one millisecond. At this time the machine has operated at 65% of its design current and 90% of the design voltage. This report contains a description of the accelerator and its diagnostics; the results of the initial year of operation; a comparison of design codes with experiments on beam transport; and a discussion of some of the special problems and their status.

  8. The Cloud Physics Lidar: Instrument Description and Initial Measurement Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Spinhirne, James; Scott, V. Stanley; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The new Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft. The purpose of the CPL is to provide multi-wavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. The CPL utilizes state-of-the-art technology with a high repetition rate, a low pulse energy laser, and photon-counting detection. The first deployment for the CPL was the SAFARI-2000 field campaign during August-September 2000. We provide here an overview of the instrument and initial data results to illustrate the measurement capability of the CPL.

  9. Initial diagnostics commissioning results for the APS injector subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumpkin, A.; Chung, Y.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Smith, T.; Wang, X.

    1995-05-01

    In recent months the first beams have been introduced into the various injector subsystems of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). An overview will be given of the diagnostics results on beam profiling, beam position monitors (BPMs), loss rate monitors (LRMs), current monitors (CMs), and photon monitors on the low energy transport lines, positron accumulator ring (PAR), and injector synchrotron (IS). Initial measurements have been done with electron beams at energies from 250 to 450 MeV and 50 to 400 pC per macrobunch. Operations in single turn and stored beam conditions were diagnosed in the PAR and IS.

  10. Effects of additional iron-chelators on Fe(2+)-initiated lipid peroxidation: evidence to support the Fe2+ ... Fe3+ complex as the initiator.

    PubMed

    Tang, L X; Yang, J L; Shen, X

    1997-12-01

    The addition of chelated Fe2+ ions in a liposomal system often results in a short lag period before peroxidation starts. The addition of a second chelator at the end of the lag period results in an inhibition of the lipid peroxidation. The degree of inhibition depends on the stability constants of the chelator in ligating Fe2+ and/or Fe3+. A more striking inhibitory effect was observed for the chelators with higher stability constant for either or both Fe(2+)- and Fe(3+)-complex, but much less inhibition was found for those with lower stability constants for both complexes. Assuming that the "initiator" for iron-dependent lipid peroxidation is formed through the redox process of iron ion and finally emerged at the end of the latent period, the inhibitory effect of the second chelator may be explained as the abstraction of either Fe2+ or Fe3+ from the initiator by an additional free chelator, which results in the decomposition of the initiator. This study supports the hypothesis that a Fe2+ ... Fe3+ complex is responsible for iron-initiated lipid peroxidation. PMID:9397574

  11. Initial Results of an MDO Method Evaluation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Kodiyalam, Srinivas

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Langley MDO method evaluation study seeks to arrive at a set of guidelines for using promising MDO methods by accumulating and analyzing computational data for such methods. The data are collected by conducting a series of re- producible experiments. In the first phase of the study, three MDO methods were implemented in the SIGHT: framework and used to solve a set of ten relatively simple problems. In this paper, we comment on the general considerations for conducting method evaluation studies and report some initial results obtained to date. In particular, although the results are not conclusive because of the small initial test set, other formulations, optimality conditions, and sensitivity of solutions to various perturbations. Optimization algorithms are used to solve a particular MDO formulation. It is then appropriate to speak of local convergence rates and of global convergence properties of an optimization algorithm applied to a specific formulation. An analogous distinction exists in the field of partial differential equations. On the one hand, equations are analyzed in terms of regularity, well-posedness, and the existence and unique- ness of solutions. On the other, one considers numerous algorithms for solving differential equations. The area of MDO methods studies MDO formulations combined with optimization algorithms, although at times the distinction is blurred. It is important to

  12. The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey (GPIES) Campaign Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patience, Jennifer; Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Barman, Travis; De Rosa, Robert; Konopacky, Quinn; Marley, Mark; Marois, Christian; Nielsen, Eric Ludwig; Pueyo, Laurent; Rajan, Abhijith; Rameau, Julien; Saumon, Didier; Wang, Jason

    2015-12-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a next-generation coronagraphic integral field unit with the sensitivity and resolution to detect planetary companions with separations of 0”.2 to 1”.0 around a large set of stars. An 890-hour GPI survey of 600 young, nearby stars commenced in late-2014, and approximately 100 stars have been observed thus far. The central aims of the program are: (1) the discovery of a population of giant planets with orbital radii of 5-50 AU comparable to Solar System gas giant orbits, (2) the characterization of the atmospheric properties of young planetary companions, and (3) the exploration of planet-disk interactions. Initial results from GPI exoplanet observations include the discovery of a new planetary companion to a young F-star; the planet spectrum shows a strong signature of methane absorption, indicating a cooler temperature than previously imaged young planets. An overview of the survey scope, current detection limits, and initial results will be presented.

  13. Frequency Spectrum for New Aviation Data Links: Initial Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matolak, David W.; Branstetter, James R.

    2004-01-01

    We describe results from an initial study to assess the suitability of various spectral bands for supporting the deployment of new aviation data links (ADL). The study focused on systems and spectral bands that can deliver VHF data link (VDL)-or-higher data rates in a two-way communication setting, including air-ground, ground-air, and air-air modes of operation. In the first part of our paper, we briefly discuss the current situation regarding communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS) links and existing spectrum, and the well-known need for new aviation data links. We next provide an overview of related systems, and discuss key factors involved in the use of spectrum in various bands for any future integrated CNS data link, addressing primarily the lower few layers of the communications protocol stack. Desired attributes of a new ADL system are discussed, and the beneficial aspects of a particular transmission technique spread spectrum are summarized. We also provide a short list of several example potential spectral regions, and note that while none of the existing systems will likely meet the full range of desired features of a new ADL, several systems and spectral regions offer promise in terms of one or more characteristics. A detailed discussion and evaluation of these spectral regions is proposed as future work. We include a few brief examples to illustrate initial technical results regarding spread spectrum overlay, also a subject for future work.

  14. The Antarctic POLENET Project: Status, Initial Results, Future Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, T. J.; Wiens, D. A.; Winberry, J.; Smalley, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Nyblade, A.; Huerta, A. D.; Dalziel, I. W.; Bevis, M. G.; Aster, R. C.; Anandakrishnan, S.

    2010-12-01

    Synoptic observational data are being provided by new arrays of GNSS and seismic sensors distributed across West Antarctica from the Antarctic Network (A-NET) component of the IPY Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET). Providing this invaluable new trove of data to the global science community and the major increase in observational capacity are the foremost achievements of POLENET during the IPY. Scientific investigations on a broad range of topics utilizing the new polar geophysical observations are underway and results are beginning to emerge. Initial results of GPS and gravity measurements show that uplift predictions from existing models of glacial isostatic adjustment do not match measured vertical crustal motion rates. These results have important implications for ancient and modern ice mass balance and modeling of sea level change. Seismic methods are revealing thinner crust and slow upper mantle velocities under West Antarctica compared with East Antarctica, compatible with warm, weak mantle beneath rifted crust. These results bear on modeling glacial isostatic adjustment and the dynamics of the west antarctic ice sheet, as well as continental evolution and intraplate deformation processes. Interdisciplinary studies between communities studying geophysical, climate, atmospheric and space weather phenomena have recently been initiated. The new observational capacity of the autonomous remote sensor network has clearly accelerated understanding of large-scale earth system processes, particularly feedbacks between the solid earth and ice sheets. However, enhanced modeling capabilities must be developed to integrate data sets, assimilate the improved data sets and boundary conditions effectively, and improve model predictions. POLENET infrastructure provides a framework for a collaborative, interdisciplinary, international observational network, highlighting a key challenge for future polar research.

  15. Wincs/Swats Initial on-Orbit Performance Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, A. C.; Herrero, F. A.; Stephan, A. W.; Finne, T. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Winds-Ions-Neutral Composition Suite (WINCS) instrument, also know as the Small Wind and Temperature Spectrometer (SWATS), was designed and developed jointly by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for ionosphere-thermosphere investigations in orbit between 120 and 550 km altitude. The WINCS design provides the following measurements in a single package with a low Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP): 7.6 x 7.6 x 7.1 cm outer dimensions, 0.75 kg total mass, and about 1.3 Watt total power: neutral winds, neutral temperature, neutral density, neutral composition, ion drifts, ion temperature, ion density and ion composition. The instrument is currently operating on the International Space Station (Sep. 2013) and on the STP-Sat3 spacecraft (Nov. 2013). Initial on-orbit results of the instrument will be presented.

  16. Initial Results From The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canizares, C. R.; Davis, D. S.; Dewey, D.; Flanagan, K. A.; Houck, J.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Marshall, H. L.; Schattenburg, M. L.; Schulz, N. S.; Wise, M.

    2000-01-01

    The High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) on the Chandra X-ray Observatory provides spectral resolving powers of 200-1000 over the range 0.4-8.0 keV (1.5-30 A) with effective area of 2-200 square centimeters. Initial observations during the activation and calibration phases of the mission show that the HETGS is performing as predicted prior to Chandra launch. The talk presented very preliminary results that illustrate the power of the HETGS for performing detailed studies of a wide range of celestial sources, including plasma diagnostics. This written version gives a brief summary of that talk with examples of preliminary spectra of Capella, the Crab pulsar, SS433 and the SNR E0102-72.

  17. Atmospheric Measurements by the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, J. D.; Palm, S. P.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Mahesh, A.; Welton, E. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System launched in early 2003 is the first satellite instrument in space to globally observe the distribution of clouds and aerosol through laser remote sensing. The instrument is a basic backscatter lidar that operates at two wavelengths, 532 and 1064 nm. The mission data products for atmospheric observations include the calibrated, observed, attenuated backscatter cross section for cloud and aerosol; height detection for multiple cloud layers; planetary boundary layer height; cirrus and aerosol optical depth and the height distribution of aerosol and cloud scattering cross section profiles. The data is expected to significantly enhance knowledge in several areas of atmospheric science, in particular the distribution, transport and influence of atmospheric aerosol. Measurements of the coverage and height of polar and cirrus cloud should be significantly more accurate than previous global measurement. Initial result from the first several months of operation will be presented.

  18. Np Behavior in Synthesized Uranyl Phases: Results of Initial Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Douglas, Matthew; McNamara, Bruce K.; Clark, Sue B.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2004-09-28

    Initial tests were completed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for developing a potential mechanism to retard the mobility of neptunium at the Yucca Mountain repository. Neptunium is of concern because of its mobility in the environment and long half life, contributing a large percentage of the potential dose over extended times at the perimeter of the site. The mobility of neptunium could be retarded by associating with uranium mineral phases. The following four uranium mineral phases were examined and are potential secondary phases expected to form as a result of interactions of spent nuclear fuel with the local environment: meta-schoepite, studtite, uranophane, and sodium boltwoodite. The fate of the neptunium was examined in these synthetic experiments.

  19. Mars Science Laboratory relative humidity observations: Initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Genzer, M.; Kemppinen, O.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Haberle, R.; Polkko, J.; Savijärvi, H.; Rennó, N.; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.; Schmidt, W.; Richardson, M.; Siili, T.; Paton, M.; Torre-Juarez, M. De La; Mäkinen, T.; Newman, C.; Rafkin, S.; Mischna, M.; Merikallio, S.; Haukka, H.; Martin-Torres, J.; Komu, M.; Zorzano, M.-P.; Peinado, V.; Vazquez, L.; Urqui, R.

    2014-09-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (REMS-H), and UV measurements. We concentrate on describing the REMS-H measurement performance and initial observations during the first 100 MSL sols as well as constraining the REMS-H results by comparing them with earlier observations and modeling results. The REMS-H device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc., and it makes use of transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier indirect observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water content. The water mixing ratio in the atmospheric surface layer appears to vary between 30 and 75 ppm. When assuming uniform mixing, the precipitable water content of the atmosphere is ranging from a few to six precipitable micrometers.

  20. Initial Results from the Variable Intensity Sonic Boom Propagation Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Cliatt, Larry J., II; Bunce, Thomas J.; Gabrielson, Thomas B.; Sparrow, Victor W.; Locey, Lance L.

    2008-01-01

    An extensive sonic boom propagation database with low- to normal-intensity booms (overpressures of 0.08 lbf/sq ft to 2.20 lbf/sq ft) was collected for propagation code validation, and initial results and flight research techniques are presented. Several arrays of microphones were used, including a 10 m tall tower to measure shock wave directionality and the effect of height above ground on acoustic level. A sailplane was employed to measure sonic booms above and within the atmospheric turbulent boundary layer, and the sailplane was positioned to intercept the shock waves between the supersonic airplane and the ground sensors. Sailplane and ground-level sonic boom recordings were used to generate atmospheric turbulence filter functions showing excellent agreement with ground measurements. The sonic boom prediction software PCBoom4 was employed as a preflight planning tool using preflight weather data. The measured data of shock wave directionality, arrival time, and overpressure gave excellent agreement with the PCBoom4-calculated results using the measured aircraft and atmospheric data as inputs. C-weighted acoustic levels generally decreased with increasing height above the ground. A-weighted and perceived levels usually were at a minimum for a height where the elevated microphone pressure rise time history was the straightest, which is a result of incident and ground-reflected shock waves interacting.

  1. Mars Science Laboratory relative humidity observations: Initial results

    PubMed Central

    Harri, A-M; Genzer, M; Kemppinen, O; Gomez-Elvira, J; Haberle, R; Polkko, J; Savijärvi, H; Rennó, N; Rodriguez-Manfredi, JA; Schmidt, W; Richardson, M; Siili, T; Paton, M; Torre-Juarez, M De La; Mäkinen, T; Newman, C; Rafkin, S; Mischna, M; Merikallio, S; Haukka, H; Martin-Torres, J; Komu, M; Zorzano, M-P; Peinado, V; Vazquez, L; Urqui, R

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (REMS-H), and UV measurements. We concentrate on describing the REMS-H measurement performance and initial observations during the first 100 MSL sols as well as constraining the REMS-H results by comparing them with earlier observations and modeling results. The REMS-H device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc., and it makes use of transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier indirect observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water content. The water mixing ratio in the atmospheric surface layer appears to vary between 30 and 75 ppm. When assuming uniform mixing, the precipitable water content of the atmosphere is ranging from a few to six precipitable micrometers. Key Points Atmospheric water mixing ratio at Gale crater varies from 30 to 140 ppm MSL relative humidity observation provides good data Highest detected relative humidity reading during first MSL 100 sols is RH75% PMID:26213667

  2. Development of a global tsunami source database - initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    Tsunamis can be triggered by various sources; most commonly earthquakes, volcanoes or landslides. The characterization of tsunami offspring is an important element in the development of tsunami hazard and risk assessments. The world's known tsunami sources have been investigated in various projects and studies, especially with regard to of earthquakes. Some regions have been examined numerous times by researchersand have presented differing results as a result of varying methodologies and data contributions. In addition, certain tsunami sources have very few studies or singular studies associated with them. Thus, the development of a unified, global database which collects all these sources and their so-far identified characteristics is an important step to provide a shared repository for researchers for the development of future models. A collection of more than 50 detailed probabilistic and deterministic tsunami hazard and risk assessments has been taken out and carefully reviewed.This information about tsunami sources has been compiled and geocoded where possible. In addition, paleoseismic and neo-tectonic studies have been used in conjunction with up-to-date instrumental and historic earthquake catalogues to estimate return periods of megathrust earthquake events and to provide sufficiently well constrained estimates of magnitude-dependent earthquake return periods. The variability of these results is also presented within the database. The sources use a simple 3D geometry based on earthquake locations and focal mechanisms which additionally provide information to model characteristic events of each source. The study provides a detailed catalogue of tsunami source geometries, most of which are subduction zone interfaces, spanning from well-studied regions such as the Chile trench to small local sources like the Yap Trench near Palau in the western Pacific or the potentially subducting Northern Algerian front. In addition to earthquake sources, a database of

  3. Effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on MBR performance and effluent trihalomethane formation: At the initial stage of PAC addition.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Ma, Defang; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Huang, Xia

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the MBR was used to treat municipal wastewater for reuse. Effects of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on MBR system in terms of effluent water quality, trihalomethane (THM) formation and membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant at the initial stage of PAC addition were investigated. Effects of chlorine dose and contact time on THM formation and speciation were also studied. PAC addition enhanced the removal of organic matters, especially aromatic components, which improved the UV254 removal rate from 34% to 83%. PAC addition greatly reduced the membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant. PAC addition reduced the MBR effluent trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) from 351.29 to 241.95μg/L, while increased THM formation reactivity by 42%. PAC addition enhanced the formation of higher toxic bromine-containing THMs. High chlorine dose and contact time resulted in higher THM formation but lower proportion of bromine-containing THMs. PMID:27318162

  4. GPS Antenna Characterization Experiment (ACE): Receiver Design and Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martzen, Phillip; Highsmith, Dolan E.; Valdez, Jennifer E.; Parker, Joel J. K.; Moreau, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The GPS Antenna Characterization Experiment (ACE) is a research collaboration between Aerospace and NASA Goddard to characterize the gain patterns of the GPS L1 transmit antennas. High altitude GPS observations are collected at a ground station through a transponder-based or "bent-pipe" architecture where the GPS L1 RF spectrum is received at a platform in geosynchronous orbit and relayed to the ground for processing. The focus of this paper is the unique receiver algorithm design and implementation. The high-sensitivity GPS C/A-code receiver uses high fidelity code and carrier estimates and externally supplied GPS message bit data in a batch algorithm with settings for a 0 dB-Hz threshold. The resulting carrier-to-noise measurements are used in a GPS L1 transmit antenna pattern reconstruction. This paper shows initial transmit gain patterns averaged over each block of GPS satellites, including comparisons to available pre-flight gain measurements from the GPS vehicle contractors. These results provide never-before-seen assessments of the full, in-flight transmit gain patterns.

  5. Initial Results in Global Flood Monitoring Using GPM Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Adler, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Global Flood Monitoring System (GFMS) (http://flood.umd.edu) has been developed and used to provide real-time flood detection and streamflow estimates over the last few years with significant success shown by validation against global flood event data sets and observed streamflow variations. It has become a tool for various national and international organizations to appraise flood conditions in various areas, including where rainfall and hydrology information is limited. The GFMS has been using the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) as its main rainfall input. Now, with the advent of NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission there is an opportunity to significantly improve global flood monitoring and forecasting. GPM's Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) multi-satellite product is designed to take advantage of various technical advances in the field and combine that with an efficient processing system producing "early" (6 hrs) and "late" (16 hrs) products for operational use. The products are also more uniform in results than TMPA among the various satellites going into the analysis and available at finer time and space resolutions. On the road to replacing TMPA with the IMERG in the operational version of the GFMS parallel systems were run for periods to understand the impact of the new type of data on the streamflow and flood estimates. Results of this comparison are the basis for this presentation. It is expected that an improvement will be noted both in the accuracy of the precipitation estimates and a smoother transition in and out of heavy rain events, helping to reduce "shock" in the hydrology model. The finer spatial resolution should also help in this regard. The GFMS will be initially run at its primary resolution of 1/8th degree latitude/longitude with both data sets to isolate the impact of the rain information change. Other aspects will also be examined, including higher latitude events, where GPM

  6. Initial results of NPP VIIRS SST processing at NAVOCEANO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Bruce; May, Doug; Cayula, Jean-Francois; Willis, Keith

    2012-06-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite was placed in orbit October 28, 2011, and began providing advanced imaging and radiometric data from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) in December 2011. The Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) is processing the VIIRS data as part of the generation of sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals for ingest by Navy meteorological and oceanographic analyses and models. This new sensor has an increased number of channels, higher resolution, and larger volume than previous operational polar-orbiting environmental satellites. In order to prepare for processing this new data, a proxy datastream was generated by the Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Testing, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data and provided in near real-time. This allowed for NAVOCEANO to write software to ingest, process, and deliver SST products before the actual data began flowing. A discussion of these preparatory activities and the initial results of processing VIIRS SSTs will be presented, including global drifting buoy matchup statistics.

  7. The Likoma Network Study: Context, data collection, and initial results

    PubMed Central

    Helleringer, Stéphane; Kohler, Hans-Peter; Chimbiri, Agnes; Chatonda, Praise; Mkandawire, James

    2009-01-01

    The extent and structure of sexual networks have important consequences for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV. However, very few datasets currently exist that allow a detailed investigation of sexual networks in sub-Saharan African settings where HIV epidemics have become generalized. In this paper, we describe the context and methods of the Likoma Network Study (LNS), one of the few studies that have collected extensive information on sexual networks in sub-Saharan Africa. We start by reviewing theoretical arguments and empirical studies emphasizing the importance of network structures in the epidemiology of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). The island setting of this study is described, and we argue that the choice of an island as a research site limited potential biases that may make the collection of sexual network data difficult. We then document our empirical strategy for the collection of sexual network data and the subsequent identification of sexual network partners. A description of the protocol for the collection of biomarker data (HIV infection) is provided. Finally, we present initial results relating to the socioeconomic context of the island, the size and composition of sexual networks, the quality of the sexual network data, the determinants of successful contact tracing during the LNS, and the prevalence of HIV in the study population. PMID:20179777

  8. Plasma wave observations near jupiter: initial results from voyager 2.

    PubMed

    Gurnett, D A; Kurth, W S; Scarf, F L

    1979-11-23

    This report provides an initial survey of results from the plasma wave instrument on the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Jupiter on 9 July 1979. Measurements made during the approach to the planet show that low-frequency radio emissions from Jupiter have a strong latitudinal dependence, with a sharply defined shadow zone near the equatorial plane. At the magnetopause a new type of broadband electric field turbulence was detected, and strong electrostatic emissions near the upper hybrid resonance frequency were discovered near the low-frequency cutoff of the continuum radiation. Strong whistler-mode turbulence was again detected in the inner magnetosphere, although in this case extending out to substantially larger radial distances than for Voyager 1. In the predawn tail region, continuum radiation was observed extending down to extremely low frequencies, approximately 30 hertz, an indication that the spacecraft was entering a region of very low density, approximately 1.0 x 10(-5) per cubic centimeter, possibly similar to the lobes of Earth's magnetotail.

  9. Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen Initial Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Swanger, A. M.; Tomsik, T.

    2015-01-01

    NASA operations for handling cryogens in ground support equipment have not changed substantially in 50 years, despite major technology advances in the field of cryogenics. NASA loses approximately 50% of the hydrogen purchased because of a continuous heat leak into ground and flight vessels, transient chill down of warm cryogenic equipment, liquid bleeds, and vent losses. NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) needs to develop energy-efficient cryogenic ground systems to minimize propellant losses, simplify operations, and reduce cost associated with hydrogen usage. The GODU LH2 project has designed, assembled, and started testing of a prototype storage and distribution system for liquid hydrogen that represents an advanced end-to-end cryogenic propellant system for a ground launch complex. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The system is unique because it uses an integrated refrigeration and storage system (IRAS) to control the state of the fluid. This paper will present and discuss the results of the initial phase of testing of the GODU LH2 system.

  10. Initial water quantification results using neutron computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, A. K.; Shi, L.; Brenizer, J. S.; Mench, M. M.

    2009-06-01

    Neutron computed tomography is an important imaging tool in the field of non-destructive testing and in fundamental research for many engineering applications. Contrary to X-rays, neutrons can be attenuated by some light materials, such as hydrogen, but can penetrate many heavy materials. Thus, neutron computed tomography is useful in obtaining important three-dimensional information about a sample's interior structure and material properties that other traditional methods cannot provide. The neutron computed tomography system at the Pennsylvania State University's Radiation Science and Engineering Center is being utilized to develop a water quantification technique for investigation of water distribution in fuel cells under normal conditions. A hollow aluminum cylinder test sample filled with a known volume of water was constructed for purposes of testing the quantification technique. Transmission images of the test sample at different angles were easily acquired through the synthesis of a dedicated image acquisition computer driving a rotary table controller and an in-house developed synchronization software package. After data acquisition, Octopus (version 8.2) and VGStudio Max (version 1.2) were used to perform cross-sectional and three-dimensional reconstructions of the sample, respectively. The initial reconstructions and water quantification results are presented.

  11. Ground operations demonstration unit for liquid hydrogen initial test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Swanger, A. M.; Tomsik, T.

    2015-12-01

    NASA operations for handling cryogens in ground support equipment have not changed substantially in 50 years, despite major technology advances in the field of cryogenics. NASA loses approximately 50% of the hydrogen purchased because of a continuous heat leak into ground and flight vessels, transient chill down of warm cryogenic equipment, liquid bleeds, and vent losses. NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) needs to develop energy-efficient cryogenic ground systems to minimize propellant losses, simplify operations, and reduce cost associated with hydrogen usage. The GODU LH2 project has designed, assembled, and started testing of a prototype storage and distribution system for liquid hydrogen that represents an advanced end-to-end cryogenic propellant system for a ground launch complex. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The system is unique because it uses an integrated refrigeration and storage system (IRAS) to control the state of the fluid. This paper will present and discuss the results of the initial phase of testing of the GODU LH2 system.

  12. MicroRNAs in Breast Cancer -Our Initial Results.

    PubMed

    Popovska-Jankovic, K; Noveski, P; Chakalova, L; Petrusevska, G; Kubelka, K; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2012-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small [∼21 nucleotide (nt)] non coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally. About 3.0% of human genes encode for miRNAs, and up to 30.0% of human protein coding genes may be regulated by miRNAs. Currently, more than 2000 unique human mature microRNAs are known. MicroRNAs play a key role in diverse biological processes including development, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. These processes are commonly dysregulated in cancer, implicating miRNAs in carcinogenesis, where they act as tumor supressors or oncogenes. Several miRNAs are associated with breast cancer. Here we present our initial results of miRNA analyses of breast cancer tissues using quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (ReTi-PCR) (qPCR) involving stem-loop reverse transcriptase (RT) primers combined with TaqMan® PCR and miRNA microarray analysis.

  13. Initial results from a ROSAT deep survey in Lynx

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. F.; Windhorst, R. A.; Maccacaro, T.; Burstein, D.; Franklin, B. E.; Griffiths, R. E.; Koo, D. C.; Mathis, D. F.; Morgan, W. A.; Neuschaefer, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results from a deep (70 ksec) Rosat survey of the high galactic latitude selected area Lynx.3A are presented. Lynx.3A sensitivity was previously studied in both the optical radio, with deep Westerbork surveys and deep multicolor Charge Couple Device (CCD) images form the Palomar 200 inch Four-Shooter. About 70 x-ray sources were detected within the central 40 foot diameter region of the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC), observed surface densities of approximately 200 x-ray sources/sq deg are suggested, and these x-ray sources alone account for approximately 30 percent of the cosmic x-ray background (0.9 to 2.2 keV). An initial look at the observed x-ray logN - logS curve is presented, but a detailed assessment requires further study. The 4 sigma limit of about 7 times 10 to the minus 15th power erg/s.sq cm (0.5 to 2.0 keV) is considerably deeper then the Einstein deep surveys, and of comparable sensitivity to the deepest current Rosat surveys. Cross correlation with our Four Shooter optical catalogs yields at least one likely optical candidate for nearly all of the Rosat x-ray sources; a number of the likely optical identifications have colors of quasi-stellar objects (and stellar PSF), but in other cases galaxies/groups are also viable candidates.

  14. Initial results from the unipolar operation of the RHEPP module

    SciTech Connect

    Harjes, H.C.; Penn, K.J.; Reed, K.W.; McClenahan, C.R.; Laderach, G.E.; Wavrik, R.W.; Adcock, J.L.; Butler, M.E.; Mann, G.A.; Pena, G.E.; Weber, G.J.; VanDeValde, D.; Martinez, L.E.; Muirhead, D.; Kiekel, P.D.; Johnson, D.L.; Neau, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    Several potential applications such as medical waste treatment, chemical waste treatment, food treatment, and flue gas cleanup have been identified for high average power electron beam systems. The technology for such a system is being developed in the RHEPP (Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power) project. The RHEPP module consists of a multistage magnetic pulse compressor driving a linear induction voltage adder with an e-beam diode load. It has been designed to operate continuously, delivering 350 kW of average power to the diode in 60-ns FWHM, 2.5-MV, 2.9-kJ pulses. The module is presently under construction with the first phase scheduled for completion in the summer of 1992. In the first phase, four of ten adder stages are being built so that testing can begin with a I-MV, 160-kW diode with the balance of the power from the compressor diverted to a resistive load. A description of the system and test results from the initial stages of the compressor will be presented.

  15. Initial results from the unipolar operation of the RHEPP module

    SciTech Connect

    Harjes, H.C.; Penn, K.J.; Reed, K.W.; McClenahan, C.R.; Laderach, G.E.; Wavrik, R.W.; Adcock, J.L.; Butler, M.E.; Mann, G.A.; Pena, G.E.; Weber, G.J.; VanDeValde, D.; Martinez, L.E.; Muirhead, D.; Kiekel, P.D.; Johnson, D.L.; Neau, E.L.

    1992-08-01

    Several potential applications such as medical waste treatment, chemical waste treatment, food treatment, and flue gas cleanup have been identified for high average power electron beam systems. The technology for such a system is being developed in the RHEPP (Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power) project. The RHEPP module consists of a multistage magnetic pulse compressor driving a linear induction voltage adder with an e-beam diode load. It has been designed to operate continuously, delivering 350 kW of average power to the diode in 60-ns FWHM, 2.5-MV, 2.9-kJ pulses. The module is presently under construction with the first phase scheduled for completion in the summer of 1992. In the first phase, four of ten adder stages are being built so that testing can begin with a I-MV, 160-kW diode with the balance of the power from the compressor diverted to a resistive load. A description of the system and test results from the initial stages of the compressor will be presented.

  16. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  17. Quantitative MR imaging in fracture dating--Initial results.

    PubMed

    Baron, Katharina; Neumayer, Bernhard; Widek, Thomas; Schick, Fritz; Scheicher, Sylvia; Hassler, Eva; Scheurer, Eva

    2016-04-01

    For exact age determinations of bone fractures in a forensic context (e.g. in cases of child abuse) improved knowledge of the time course of the healing process and use of non-invasive modern imaging technology is of high importance. To date, fracture dating is based on radiographic methods by determining the callus status and thereby relying on an expert's experience. As a novel approach, this study aims to investigate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for bone fracture dating by systematically investigating time-resolved changes in quantitative MR characteristics after a fracture event. Prior to investigating fracture healing in children, adults were examined for this study in order to test the methodology for this application. Altogether, 31 MR examinations in 17 subjects (♀: 11 ♂: 6; median age 34 ± 15 y, scanned 1-5 times over a period of up to 200 days after the fracture event) were performed on a clinical 3T MR scanner (TimTrio, Siemens AG, Germany). All subjects were treated conservatively for a fracture in either a long bone or in the collar bone. Both, qualitative and quantitative MR measurements were performed in all subjects. MR sequences for a quantitative measurement of relaxation times T1 and T2 in the fracture gap and musculature were applied. Maps of quantitative MR parameters T1, T2, and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) were calculated and evaluated by investigating changes over time in the fractured area by defined ROIs. Additionally, muscle areas were examined as reference regions to validate this approach. Quantitative evaluation of 23 MR data sets (12 test subjects, ♀: 7 ♂: 5) showed an initial peak in T1 values in the fractured area (T1=1895 ± 607 ms), which decreased over time to a value of 1094 ± 182 ms (200 days after the fracture event). T2 values also peaked for early-stage fractures (T2=115 ± 80 ms) and decreased to 73 ± 33 ms within 21 days after the fracture event. After that time point, no

  18. Quantitative MR imaging in fracture dating--Initial results.

    PubMed

    Baron, Katharina; Neumayer, Bernhard; Widek, Thomas; Schick, Fritz; Scheicher, Sylvia; Hassler, Eva; Scheurer, Eva

    2016-04-01

    For exact age determinations of bone fractures in a forensic context (e.g. in cases of child abuse) improved knowledge of the time course of the healing process and use of non-invasive modern imaging technology is of high importance. To date, fracture dating is based on radiographic methods by determining the callus status and thereby relying on an expert's experience. As a novel approach, this study aims to investigate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for bone fracture dating by systematically investigating time-resolved changes in quantitative MR characteristics after a fracture event. Prior to investigating fracture healing in children, adults were examined for this study in order to test the methodology for this application. Altogether, 31 MR examinations in 17 subjects (♀: 11 ♂: 6; median age 34 ± 15 y, scanned 1-5 times over a period of up to 200 days after the fracture event) were performed on a clinical 3T MR scanner (TimTrio, Siemens AG, Germany). All subjects were treated conservatively for a fracture in either a long bone or in the collar bone. Both, qualitative and quantitative MR measurements were performed in all subjects. MR sequences for a quantitative measurement of relaxation times T1 and T2 in the fracture gap and musculature were applied. Maps of quantitative MR parameters T1, T2, and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) were calculated and evaluated by investigating changes over time in the fractured area by defined ROIs. Additionally, muscle areas were examined as reference regions to validate this approach. Quantitative evaluation of 23 MR data sets (12 test subjects, ♀: 7 ♂: 5) showed an initial peak in T1 values in the fractured area (T1=1895 ± 607 ms), which decreased over time to a value of 1094 ± 182 ms (200 days after the fracture event). T2 values also peaked for early-stage fractures (T2=115 ± 80 ms) and decreased to 73 ± 33 ms within 21 days after the fracture event. After that time point, no

  19. Initial Results from a Global Database of Mercurian Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, R. R.; Wheeler, E.; Crumpacker, W.; Bates, D.

    2015-12-01

    Using MDIS images, we have compiled a database of all impact craters on Mercury with D > 5 km (36K total craters), excluding obvious secondaries (those in chains and clusters). For craters with D > 10 km (12K craters), we have characterized interior and exterior morphology, degradation state, and the presence of post-impact filling. The database represents a unique resource for understanding the resurfacing history of Mercury, examining regional variations in near-surface rheology, and studying the effects of target and impactor properties on final crater forms. We will present initial results on all of these topics. Here we highlight a couple of the significant results. We have used the database to plot the spatial densities of impact craters in different size ranges. Around several fresh peak ring basins over 150 km in diameter, such as Derain (D = 175 km, attached image), at ~4 crater radii from the rim we see an annulus of high spatial density of craters at 5-10 km in diameter that is not present in spatial density plots of craters 10-20 and 20-50 km in diameter. This confirms the presence of a previously hypothesized population of large (D > 5 km) distal secondaries. By virtue of its proximity to the Sun and a mix of asteroidal and cometary impactors, Mercury is expected to have a wide range of impactor velocities. We have been examining fresh craters in the 30-50 and 100-140 km diameter range and sorting them according to proximity to other similar-sized craters, with the idea that craters formed close to each other likely impacted similar targets. If impactor velocity is a significant factor in determining final crater appearance or depth, then there should be noticeable differences between nearby, same-sized craters. We have observed a few possible exceptions that warrant further examination, but generally we find that close-proximity crater pairs/clusters are identical in appearance and shape.

  20. Site Specific Advisory Board initiative, evaluation survey results supplementary appendix: Summary of individual site results

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This Appendix presents results of the Site-Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) Initiative for each of the 11 sites that participated in the survey. These individual results are a supplement to the June 1996 Summary Report which presented overall survey results. Results are presented in 11 sections, arranged alphabetically by site. Each section includes a series of figures and tables that parallel those presented in the Summary Report. To facilitate comparison, figures are presented both for the individual site and for the overall long survey. The sequence of sections is: Fernald, Hanford, Idaho, Los Alamos, Monticello, Nevada, Pantex, Rocky Flats, St. Louis, Sandia, and Savannah River.

  1. Initial results of the 2011 Geoid Slope Validation Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA), National Geodetic Survey (NGS) has embarked on a ten year project called GRAV-D (Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum).The purpose of this project is to replace the current official vertical datum, NAVD 88 (the North American Vertical Datum of 1988) with a geopotential reference system based on a new survey of the gravity field and a gravimetric geoid. As part of GRAV-D, NGS plans to execute a set of "geoid validation surveys" at various locations of the country.These will be surveys designed to independently measure the geoid to provide a check against both the data and theory used to create the final gravimetric geoid which will be used in the geopotential reference system. The first of these surveys, known as the Geoid Slope Validation Survey of 2011 (GSVS11) was executed between July and October, 2011 in the west central region of Texas.The survey took place over a 330 kilometer line running more or less north-south from Austin to Corpus Christi, Texas.Measurements were taken at 220 marks (one per mile) and included static GPS, RTN GPS, geodetic leveling, astro-geodetic deflections of the vertical using the Swiss DIADEM camera, absolute gravity, gravity gradients and LIDAR.This region was chosen for many factors including the availability of GRAV-D airborne gravity over the area, its relatively low elevation (220 meter orthometric height max), its geoid slope (about 130 cm over 300 km), lack of significant topographic relief, lack of large forestation, availability of good roads, clarity of weather and lack of large water crossings. This talk will outline the initial results of the survey, specifically the comparison of various geoid slopes over this region:gravimetric geoid models (with and without airborne gravity), minimally constrained GPS and leveling and from astro-geodetic deflections of the vertical.

  2. Transient nucleate pool boiling in microgravity: Some initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merte, Herman, Jr.; Lee, H. S.; Ervin, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    Variable gravity provides an opportunity to test the understanding of phenomena which are considered to depend on buoyancy, such as nucleate pool boiling. The active fundamental research in nucleate boiling has sought to determine the mechanisms or physical processes responsible for its high effectiveness, manifested by the high heat flux levels possible with relatively low temperature differences. Earlier research on nucleate pool boiling at high gravity levels under steady conditions demonstrated quantitatively that the heat transfer is degraded as the buoyancy normal to the heater surfaced increases. Correspondingly, it was later shown, qualitatively for short periods of time only, that nucleate boiling heat transfer is enhanced as the buoyancy normal to the heater surface is reduced. It can be deduced that nucleate pool boiling can be sustained as a quasi-steady process provided that some means is available to remove the vapor generated from the immediate vicinity of the heater surface. One of the objectives of the research, the initial results of which are presented here, is to quantify the heat transfer associated with boiling in microgravity. Some quantitative results of nucleate pool boiling in high quality microgravity (a/g approximately 10(exp -5)) of 5s duration, obtained in an evacuated drop tower, are presented here. These experiments were conducted as precursors of longer term space experiments. A transient heating technique is used, in which the heater surface is a transparent gold film sputtered on a qua rtz substrate, simultaneously providing the mean surface temperature from resistance thermometry and viewing of the boiling process both from beneath and across the surface. The measurement of the transient mean heater surface temperature permits the computation, by numerical means, of the transient mean heat transfer coefficient. The preliminary data obtained demonstrates that a quasi-steady boiling process can occur in microgravity if the bulk

  3. Non-Shock Initiation Model for Explosive Families: Numerical Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, S. N.; Anderson, M. U.; Caipen, T. L.; Grady, D. E.

    2009-12-01

    A damage initiated reaction (DMGIR) computational model is being developed for the CTH shock physics code to predict the response of an explosive to non-shock mechanical insults. The distinguishing feature of this model is the introduction of a damage variable, which relates the evolution of damage to the initiation of reaction in the explosive, and its growth to detonation. The DMGIR model is a complement to the History Variable Reactive Burn (HVRB) model embedded in the current CTH code. Specifically designed experiments are supporting the development, implementation, and validation of the DMGIR numerical approach. PBXN-5 was the initial explosive material used experimentally to develop the DMGIR model. This explosive represents a family of plastically bonded explosives with good mechanical strength and rigid body properties. The model has been extended to cast explosives represented by Composition B.

  4. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  5. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  6. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Davis, James M.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Lukins, Craig D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Smith, Dennese M.

    2012-12-01

    rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of this report is to present the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the large-scale test stand. The report includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodology, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging of small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. 2012a. The results of the aerosol measurements in the small-scale test stand are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012b).

  7. Initial results from new Northern Cascadia tide gauge network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, P.; Weldon, R. J.; Livelybrooks, D.; Schmidt, D. A.; Alba, S.; Maciel, T.; Bug, J.; Croes, B.

    2010-12-01

    Research Experiences) program, and present preliminary results. We will also discuss the potential of this network, and its extension south into southwest WA and Oregon for augmenting the long-term NOAA tide gauge records for long-term uplift rate determination and to capture additional slow slip events in southwest Washington and Oregon.

  8. The Montana Behavioral Initiative: Student Results and System Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rude, Harvey; Bailey-Anderson, Susan; Dotter, Susan

    The Montana Behavioral Initiative (MBI) was developed in 1995 in response to increased incidents of student behavior problems. The intent of MBI is to improve educational environments to meet the needs of all students, including those with behavioral challenges. Each participating school conducts needs assessments and develops site-specific goals…

  9. Plasma observations near saturn: initial results from voyager 2.

    PubMed

    Bridge, H S; Bagenal, F; Belcher, J W; Lazarus, A J; McNutt, R L; Sullivan, J D; Gazis, P R; Hartle, R E; Ogilvie, K W; Scudder, J D; Sittler, E C; Eviatar, A; Siscoe, G L; Goertz, C K; Vasyliunas, V M

    1982-01-29

    Results of measurements of plasma electrons and poitive ions made during the Voyager 2 encounter with Saturn have been combined with measurements from Voyager 1 and Pioneer 11 to define more clearly the configuration of plasma in the Saturnian magnetosphere. The general morphology is well represented by four regions: (i) the shocked solar wind plasma in the magnetosheath, observed between about 30 and 22 Saturn radii (RS) near the noon meridian; (ii) a variable density region between approximately 17 RS and the magnetopause; (iii) an extended thick plasma sheet between approximately 17 and approximately 7 RS symmetrical with respect to Saturn's equatorial plane and rotation axis; and (iv) an inner plasma torus that probably originates from local sources and extends inward from L approximately 7 to less than L approximately 2.7 (L is the magnetic shell parameter). In general, the heavy ions, probably O(+), are more closely confined to the equatorial plane than H(+), so that the ratio of heavy to light ions varies along the trajectory according to the distance of the spacecraft from the equatorial plane. The general configuration of the plasma sheet at Saturn found by Voyager 1 is confirmed, with some notable differences and additions. The "extended plasma sheet," observed between L approximately 7 and L approximately 15 by Voyager 1 is considerably thicker as observed by Voyager 2. Inward of L approximately 4, the plasma sheet collapses to a thin region about the equatorial plane. At the ring plane crossing, L approximately 2.7, the observations are consistent with a density of O(+) of approximately 100 per cubic centimeter, with a temperature of approximately 10 electron volts. The location of the bow shock and magnetopause crossings were consistent with those previously observed. The entire magnetosphere was larger during the outbound passage of Voyager 2 than had been previously observed; however, a magnetosphere of this size or larger is expected approximately 3

  10. Changes in science classrooms resulting from collaborative action research initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Phil Seok

    Collaborative action research was undertaken over two years between a Korean science teacher and science education researchers at the University of Iowa. For the purpose of realizing science learning as envisioned by constructivist principles, Group-Investigations were implemented three or five times per project year. In addition, the second year project enacted Peer Assessments among students. Student perceptions of their science classrooms, as measured by the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), provided evidence that the collaborative action research was successful in creating constructivist learning environments. Student attitudes toward science lessons, as examined by the Enjoyment of Science Lessons Scale (ESLS), indicated that the action research also contributed to developing more positive attitudes of students about science learning. Discourse analysis was conducted on video-recordings of in-class presentations and discussions. The results indicated that students in science classrooms which were moving toward constructivist learning environments engaged in such discursive practices as: (1) Communicating their inquiries to others, (2) Seeking and providing information through dialogues, and (3) Negotiating conflicts in their knowledge and beliefs. Based on these practices, science learning was viewed as the process of constructing knowledge and understanding of science as well as the process of engaging in scientific inquiry and discourse. The teacher's discursive practices included: (1) Wrapping up student presentations, (2) Addressing misconceptions, (3) Answering student queries, (4) Coaching, (5) Assessing and advising, (6) Guiding students discursively into new knowledge, and (7) Scaffolding. Science teaching was defined as situated acts of the teacher to facilitate the learning process. In particular, when the classrooms became more constructivist, the teacher intervened more frequently and carefully in student activities to fulfill a

  11. Initial Physics Results From the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bialek, J.

    2001-01-03

    The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to extend the understanding of toroidal physics to low aspect ratio (R/a approximately equal to 1.25) in low collisionality regimes. NSTX is designed to operate with up to 6 MW of High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating and current drive, 5 MW of Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) and Co-Axial Helicity Injection (CHI) for non-inductive startup. Initial experiments focused on establishing conditions that will allow NSTX to achieve its aims of simultaneous high-bt and high-bootstrap current fraction, and to develop methods for non-inductive operation, which will be necessary for Spherical Torus power plants. Ohmic discharges with plasma currents up to 1 MA and with a range of shapes and configurations were produced. Density limits in deuterium and helium reached 80% and 120% of the Greenwald limit respectively. Significant electron heating was observed with up to 2.3 MW of HHFW. Up to 270 kA of toroidal current for up to 200 msec was produced noninductively using CHI. Initial NBI experiments were carried out with up to two beam sources (3.2 MW). Plasmas with stored energies of up to 140 kJ and bt =21% were produced.

  12. Initial Results from the Magnetized Dusty Plasma Experiment (MDPX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edward; Konopka, Uwe; Lynch, Brian; Adams, Stephen; Leblanc, Spencer; Artis, Darrick; Dubois, Ami; Merlino, Robert; Rosenberg, Marlene

    2014-10-01

    The MDPX device is envisioned as a flexible, multi-user, research instrument that can perform a wide range of studies in fundamental and applied plasma physics. The MDPX device consists of two main components. The first is a four-coil, open bore, superconducting magnet system that is designed to produce uniform magnetic fields of up to 4 Tesla and non-uniform magnetic fields with gradients up to up to 2 T/m configurations. Within the warm bore of the magnet is placed an octagonal vacuum chamber that has a 46 cm outer diameter and is 22 cm tall. The primary missions of the MDPX device are to: (1) investigate the structural, thermal, charging, and collective properties of a plasma as the electrons, ions, and finally charged microparticles become magnetized; (2) study the evolution of a dusty plasma containing magnetic particles (paramagnetic, super-paramagnetic, or ferromagnetic particles) in the presence of uniform and non-uniform magnetic fields; and, (3) explore the fundamental properties of strongly magnetized plasmas (``i.e., dust-free'' plasmas). This presentation will summarize the initial characterization of the magnetic field structure, initial plasma parameter measurements, and the development of in-situ and optical diagnostics. This work is supported by funding from the NSF and the DOE.

  13. Promising Breakthroughs: Initial Results of the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation's Breaking Through Initiative. In Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.; Barnett, Elisabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    The Breaking Through (BT) initiative of the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation seeks to prepare low-skilled adults, adult learners who are below college-level in reading, writing and/or mathematics, often lacking a high school diploma, and frequently low-income, to be successful in college and the labor market by strengthening and expanding policies…

  14. Nitrogen addition, not initial phylogenetic diversity, increases litter decomposition by fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Amend, Anthony S; Matulich, Kristin L; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2015-01-01

    Fungi play a critical role in the degradation of organic matter. Because different combinations of fungi result in different rates of decomposition, determining how climate change will affect microbial composition and function is fundamental to predicting future environments. Fungal response to global change is patterned by genetic relatedness, resulting in communities with comparatively low phylogenetic diversity (PD). This may have important implications for the functional capacity of disturbed communities if lineages sensitive to disturbance also contain unique traits important for litter decomposition. Here we tested the relationship between PD and decomposition rates. Leaf litter fungi were isolated from the field and deployed in microcosms as mock communities along a gradient of initial PD, while species richness was held constant. Replicate communities were subject to nitrogen fertilization comparable to anthropogenic deposition levels. Carbon mineralization rates were measured over the course of 66 days. We found that nitrogen fertilization increased cumulative respiration by 24.8%, and that differences in respiration between fertilized and ambient communities diminished over the course of the experiment. Initial PD failed to predict respiration rates or their change in response to nitrogen fertilization, and there was no correlation between community similarity and respiration rates. Last, we detected no phylogenetic signal in the contributions of individual isolates to respiration rates. Our results suggest that the degree to which PD predicts ecosystem function will depend on environmental context. PMID:25741330

  15. Nitrogen addition, not initial phylogenetic diversity, increases litter decomposition by fungal communities

    PubMed Central

    Amend, Anthony S.; Matulich, Kristin L.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi play a critical role in the degradation of organic matter. Because different combinations of fungi result in different rates of decomposition, determining how climate change will affect microbial composition and function is fundamental to predicting future environments. Fungal response to global change is patterned by genetic relatedness, resulting in communities with comparatively low phylogenetic diversity (PD). This may have important implications for the functional capacity of disturbed communities if lineages sensitive to disturbance also contain unique traits important for litter decomposition. Here we tested the relationship between PD and decomposition rates. Leaf litter fungi were isolated from the field and deployed in microcosms as mock communities along a gradient of initial PD, while species richness was held constant. Replicate communities were subject to nitrogen fertilization comparable to anthropogenic deposition levels. Carbon mineralization rates were measured over the course of 66 days. We found that nitrogen fertilization increased cumulative respiration by 24.8%, and that differences in respiration between fertilized and ambient communities diminished over the course of the experiment. Initial PD failed to predict respiration rates or their change in response to nitrogen fertilization, and there was no correlation between community similarity and respiration rates. Last, we detected no phylogenetic signal in the contributions of individual isolates to respiration rates. Our results suggest that the degree to which PD predicts ecosystem function will depend on environmental context. PMID:25741330

  16. Cluster Close Separation at the Bow Shock Campaign: Initial Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balikhin, M. A.; Sagdeev, R.; Walker, S. N.; Malkov, M.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Doss, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Cluster close separation at the terrestrial bow shock campaign was aimed at probing the terrestrial bow shock front using multi-scale spacecraft separations. The closest separation (< 10 km) was achieved between Cluster 3 and Cluster 4. The separation of two other spacecraft from this pair was in the range 100-1000 km. The data from this Cluster campaign have been used to study the fine structure of the magnetic ramp. It is shown that the magnetic field perturbations observed within the ramp along the shock normal possess spatial scales a few times shorter than the ramp region itself, and are accompanied by variations in the electric field with magnitudes of a few tens mV/m. Using dual spacecraft measurements enables us to show that in the plane of the shock front the characteristic width of these structures corresponds to electron scales. Comparison of the magnetic field profile obtained from Cluster 3 and 4 indicates possibility that the initial stage of the front reformation is observed. However alternative explanations ( kinetic instabilities, corrugation instability) are also discussed.

  17. Initial results of a positron tomograph for prostate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.S.; Choong, W.S.; Moses, W.W.; Qi, J.; Hu, J.; Wang,G.C.; Wilson, D.; Oh, S.; Huesman, R.H.; Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.

    2004-11-29

    We present the status and initial images of a positrontomograph for prostate imaging that centers a patient between a pair ofexternal curved detector banks (ellipse: 45 cm minor, 70 cm major axis).The distance between detector banks adjusts to allow patient access andto position the detectors as closely as possible for maximum sensitivitywith patients of various sizes. Each bank is composed of two axial rowsof 20 CTI PET Systems HR+ block detectors for a total of 80 modules inthe camera. Compared to an ECAT HR PET system operating in 3D mode, ourcamera uses about one-quarter the number of detectors and hasapproximately the same sensitivity for a central point source, becauseour detectors are close to the patient. The individual detectors areangled in the plane to point towards the prostate to minimize resolutiondegradation in that region. The detectors are read out by modified CTIdata acquisition electronics. We have completed construction of thegantry and electronics, have developed detector calibration and dataacquisition software, and are taking coincidence data. We demonstratethat we can clearly visualize a "prostate" in a simple phantom.Reconstructed images of two phantoms are shown.

  18. The August 2011 URSI World Day campaign: Initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immel, Thomas J.; Liu, Guiping; England, Scott L.; Goncharenko, Larisa P.; Erickson, Philip J.; Lyashenko, Mykhaylo V.; Milla, Marco; Chau, Jorge; Frey, Harald U.; Mende, Stephen B.; Zhou, Qihou; Stromme, Anja; Paxton, Larry J.

    2015-11-01

    During a 10-day URSI World Day observational campaign beginning on August 1, 2011, an isolated, major geomagnetic storm occurred. On August 5, Kp reached values of 8- and Dst dropped to -113 nT. The occurrence of this isolated storm in the middle of a 10-day URSI World Day campaign provides and unprecedented opportunity to observe the coupling of solar wind energy into the magnetosphere and to evaluate the varied effects that occur in the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. Dramatic changes in the ionosphere are seen at every one of the active radar stations, extending from Greenland down to equatorial Peru in the American sector and at middle latitudes in Ukraine. Data from TIMED and THEMIS are shown to support initial interpretations of the observations, where we focus on processes in the middle latitude afternoon sector during main phase, and the formation of a dense equatorial ionosphere during storm recovery. The combined measurements strongly suggest that the changes in ionospheric conditions observed after the main storm phase can be attributed in large part to changes in the stormtime thermosphere. This is through the generation of disturbance dynamo winds and also global neutral composition changes that either reduce or enhance plasma densities in a manner that depends mainly upon latitude. Unlike larger storms with possibly more sustained forcing, this storm exhibits minimal effects of persistent meridional stormtime wind drag, and little penetration of solar wind electric potentials to low latitudes. It is, therefore, an outstanding example of an impulsive event that exhibits longer-term effects through modification of the background atmosphere.

  19. Critical Risk Results – An Update on International Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Ajzner, E.; Campbell, C.A.; Young, A.

    2016-01-01

    Direct communication of significant (often life-threatening) results is a universally acknowledged role of the pathology laboratory, and an important contributor to patient safety. Amongst the findings of a recent survey of 871 laboratories from 30 countries by the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM), only 3 tests were noted to be common to 90% of alert lists, and only 48% of laboratories consulted clinicians in developing these alert lists despite ISO15189 recommendations to do so. These findings are similar to previous national surveys demonstrating significant variation worldwide in how critical risk results are managed and also in how these protocols are developed. In order to promote “best practice” and harmonization of critical risk results management, guidelines and recommendations have been published, most recently by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB). These statements in particular have placed strong emphasis on patient risk and risk assessment in the management of critical risk results. This focus has resulted in recommendations to adopt new terminology, the consideration of risk assessment when compiling alert tables, consultative involvement of laboratory users in setting up protocols, and the need for outcome-based evidence to support our practices. With time it is expected that emerging evidence and technological improvements will facilitate the advancement of laboratories down this path to harmonization, best practice, and improve patient safety.

  20. Critical Risk Results - An Update on International Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Lam, Q; Ajzner, E; Campbell, C A; Young, A

    2016-02-01

    Direct communication of significant (often life-threatening) results is a universally acknowledged role of the pathology laboratory, and an important contributor to patient safety. Amongst the findings of a recent survey of 871 laboratories from 30 countries by the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM), only 3 tests were noted to be common to 90% of alert lists, and only 48% of laboratories consulted clinicians in developing these alert lists despite ISO15189 recommendations to do so. These findings are similar to previous national surveys demonstrating significant variation worldwide in how critical risk results are managed and also in how these protocols are developed. In order to promote "best practice" and harmonization of critical risk results management, guidelines and recommendations have been published, most recently by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB). These statements in particular have placed strong emphasis on patient risk and risk assessment in the management of critical risk results. This focus has resulted in recommendations to adopt new terminology, the consideration of risk assessment when compiling alert tables, consultative involvement of laboratory users in setting up protocols, and the need for outcome-based evidence to support our practices. With time it is expected that emerging evidence and technological improvements will facilitate the advancement of laboratories down this path to harmonization, best practice, and improve patient safety.

  1. Critical Risk Results - An Update on International Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Lam, Q; Ajzner, E; Campbell, C A; Young, A

    2016-02-01

    Direct communication of significant (often life-threatening) results is a universally acknowledged role of the pathology laboratory, and an important contributor to patient safety. Amongst the findings of a recent survey of 871 laboratories from 30 countries by the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM), only 3 tests were noted to be common to 90% of alert lists, and only 48% of laboratories consulted clinicians in developing these alert lists despite ISO15189 recommendations to do so. These findings are similar to previous national surveys demonstrating significant variation worldwide in how critical risk results are managed and also in how these protocols are developed. In order to promote "best practice" and harmonization of critical risk results management, guidelines and recommendations have been published, most recently by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB). These statements in particular have placed strong emphasis on patient risk and risk assessment in the management of critical risk results. This focus has resulted in recommendations to adopt new terminology, the consideration of risk assessment when compiling alert tables, consultative involvement of laboratory users in setting up protocols, and the need for outcome-based evidence to support our practices. With time it is expected that emerging evidence and technological improvements will facilitate the advancement of laboratories down this path to harmonization, best practice, and improve patient safety. PMID:27683507

  2. Initial Satellite Formation Flight Results from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Ottenstein, Neil; Palmer, Eric; Farahmand, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the underlying dynamics of formation flying in a high-eccentricity orbit such as that of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. The GPS-based results used for MMS navigation is summarized, as well as the procedures that are used to design the maneuvers used to place the spacecraft into a tetrahedron formation and then maintain it. The details of how to carry out these maneuvers are then discussed. Finally, the numerical results that have been obtained concerning formation flying for the MMS mission to date (e.g. tetrahedron sizes flown, maneuver execution error, fuel usage, etc.) are presented in detail.

  3. Los Angeles County drug court programs: initial results.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Jonathan E; Tye, Grace; Ogawa, Patrick L; Imam, Iraj J; Long, Anna M

    2002-10-01

    Los Angeles County established its first drug court program in 1994 in response to escalating criminal activity associated with substance abuse and overcrowded jails. This paper describes results of an evaluation of 803 drug court participants admitted to the program between 1994 and 1997. Of all drug court participants, 76% remained free of any new arrests throughout the one-year followup period, compared to 63% of participants in a drug diversion education program and 49% of the felony defendants not exposed to either program. Of offenders completing the drug court program 80% had no arrests, compared to 67% for non-completers. Drug related re-arrests were significantly lower among drug court graduates (13%) than offenders with no program participation (30%). The study results suggest that drug court participation and graduation decrease the likelihood of repeated arrests, including drug-related arrests. Drug courts represent a promising collaboration between criminal justice and public health agencies.

  4. Initial results from the MAVEN mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Brain, David A.

    2015-11-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) Mars orbiter has been gathering information on the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, and solar and solar wind interactions since its orbit insertion in September 2014. MAVEN's science goals are to understand processes driving the escape of atmospheric gases to space at the present epoch, and their variations with solar and local heliospheric conditions together with geographical and seasonal influences. This introduction and the accompanying articles provide a selection of key results obtained up to the time of writing, including measurements of the overall geometry and variability of the Martian magnetosphere, upper atmosphere, and ionosphere and their responses to interplanetary coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particle influxes. The ultimate goal is to use these results to determine the integrated loss to space through time and its role in overall Mars atmosphere evolution.

  5. Initial test results using the GEOS-3 engineering model altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayne, G. S.; Clary, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Data from a series of experimental tests run on the engineering model of the GEOS 3 radar altimeter using the Test and Measurement System (TAMS) designed for preflight testing of the radar altimeter are presented. These tests were conducted as a means of preparing and checking out a detailed test procedure to be used in running similar tests on the GEOS 3 protoflight model altimeter systems. The test procedures and results are also included.

  6. Initial commissioning results from the APS loss monitor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    The design of the beam loss monitor system for the Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Photon Source is based on using a number of air dielectric coaxial cables as long ionization chambers. Results to date show that the loss monitor is useful in helping to determine the cause of injection losses and losses large enough to limit circulating currents in the storage ring to short lifetimes. Sensitivities ranging from 13 to 240 pC of charge collected in the injector BTS (booster-to-storage-ring) loss monitor per picocoulomb of loss have been measured, depending on the loss location. These results have been used to predict that the storage ring loss monitor leakage current limit of 10 pA per cable should allow detection of losses resulting in beam lifetimes of 100 hours or less with 100 mA stored beam. Significant DC bias levels associated with the presence of stored beam have been observed. These large bias levels are most likely caused by the loss monitor responding to hard x-ray synchrotron radiation. No such response to synchrotron radiation was observed during earlier tests at SSRL. However, the loss monitor response to average stored beam current in APS has provided a reasonable alternative to the DC current transformer (DCCT) for measuring beam lifetimes.

  7. The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer mission - Overview and initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, B.; Bowyer, S.; Malina, R. F.

    1993-01-01

    The history of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy is briefly reviewed, and an overview of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer mission, launched into a near-earth (550 km) orbit on June 7, 1992, is presented. First, the principal objective of the mission are summarized. The instrumentation and operation of the mission are then described, with particular attention given to the sky survey instruments, the deep survey instrument, and the spectrometers. The discussion also covers the current view of the interstellar medium, early results from the mission, and future prospects for EUV astronomy.

  8. Volumetric imaging of the auroral ionosphere: Initial results from PFISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeter, Joshua; Butler, Thomas; Heinselman, Craig; Nicolls, Michael; Kelly, John; Hampton, Donald

    2009-05-01

    The Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) is the first dedicated ISR built with an electronically steerable array. This paper demonstrates the capabilities of PFISR for producing three-dimensional volumetric images of E-region ionization patterns produced by the aurora. The phase table was configured to cycle through 121 beam positions arranged in an 11×11 grid. A 13-baud Barker coded pulse was used, which provided ~1.5-km range resolution out to a maximum range of 250 km. Backscattered power was converted to electron density by correcting for path loss and applying the Buneman approximation assuming equal electron and ion temperatures. The results were then interpolated onto a three-dimensional cartesian grid. Volumetric images are presented at 5-min, 1-min, and 14.6-s integration times (corresponding to 960, 192, and 48 pulses-per-position, respectively) to illustrate the tradeoff between spatio-temporal resolution and data quality. At 14.6 s cadence, variability in plasma density within the volume appears to be fully resolved in space and time, a result that is supported by both observational evidence and theoretical predictions of ionospheric response times. Some potential applications of this mode for studying magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions in the auroral zone are discussed.

  9. GPS interferometric attitude and heading determination: Initial flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangraas, Frank; Braasch, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Attitude and heading determination using GPS interferometry is a well-understood concept. However, efforts have been concentrated mainly in the development of robust algorithms and applications for low dynamic, rigid platforms (e.g., shipboard). This paper presents results of what is believed by the authors to be the first realtime flight test of a GPS attitude and heading determination system. The system is installed in Ohio University's Douglas DC-3 research aircraft. Signals from four antennas are processed by an Ashtech 3DF 24-channel GPS receiver. Data from the receiver are sent to a microcomputer for storage and further computations. Attitude and heading data are sent to a second computer for display on a software generated artificial horizon. Demonstration of this technique proves its candidacy for augmentation of aircraft state estimation for flight control and navigation as well as for numerous other applications.

  10. Weather Forecasting for Ka-band Operations: Initial Study Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D.; Wu, L.; Slobin, S.

    2016-08-01

    As lower frequency bands (e.g., 2.3 GHz and 8.4 GHz) have become oversubscribed during the past several decades, NASA has become interested in using higher frequency bands (e.g., 26 GHz and 32 GHz) for telemetry, thus making use of the available wider bandwidth. However, these bands are more susceptible to atmospheric degradation. Currently, flight projects tend to be conservative in preparing their communications links by using worst-case or conservative assumptions. Such assumptions result in nonoptimum data return. We explore the use of weather forecasting for Goldstone and Madrid for different weather condition scenarios to determine more optimal values of atmospheric attenuation and atmospheric noise temperature for use in telecommunication link design. We find that the use of weather forecasting can provide up to 2 dB or more of increased data return when more favorable conditions are forecast. Future plans involve further developing the technique for operational scenarios with interested flight projects.

  11. Initial results from the Omega Asymmetric Burn Experiment -- ABEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Evan; Wysocki, Frederick; Benage, John; Thomas, Vincent; Kares, Robert; Obrey, Kimberly; Schmidt, Derek

    2011-10-01

    A new experiment has been designed to explore fusion burn degradation mechanisms in asymmetric laser-driven implosions. This presentation will present experimental design considerations, goals for the first series of tests, and a summary of the results from that series conducted at the Omega laser facility on April 5, 2011. The manufacturing technique will be summarized and issues to be addressed with several control capsules will be presented. Example data from time-integrated and time-resolved x-ray self-emission imaging along with time-resolved fusion burn rates and total neutron yield as a function of asymmetry will be presented. The scaling of measured yield degradation with calculated enstrophy derived from hydro-code simulations will be examined. This work is supported by US DOE/NNSA, performed at LANL, operated by LANS LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  12. Initial flight results of the TRMM Kalman filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Stephen F.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.

    1998-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft is a nadir pointing spacecraft that nominally controls attitude based on the Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA) output. After a potential single point failure in the ESA was identified, the contingency attitude determination method chosen to backup the ESA-based system was a sixth-order extended Kalman filter that uses magnetometer and digital sun sensor measurements. A brief description of the TRMM Kalman filter will be given, including some implementation issues and algorithm heritage. Operational aspects of the Kalman filter and some failure detection and correction will be described. The Kalman filter was tested in a sun pointing attitude and in a nadir pointing attitude during the in-orbit checkout period, and results from those tests will be presented. This paper will describe some lessons learned from the experience of the TRMM team.

  13. Initial Flight Results of the TRMM Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Stephen F.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.

    1998-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft is a nadir pointing spacecraft that nominally controls attitude based on the Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA) output. After a potential single point failure in the ESA was identified, the contingency attitude determination method chosen to backup the ESA-based system was a sixth-order extended Kalman filter that uses magnetometer and digital sun sensor measurements. A brief description of the TRMM Kalman filter will be given, including some implementation issues and algorithm heritage. Operational aspects of the Kalman filter and some failure detection and correction will be described. The Kalman filter was tested in a sun pointing attitude and in a nadir pointing attitude during the in-orbit checkout period, and results from those tests will be presented. This paper will describe some lessons learned from the experience of the TRMM team.

  14. Breast vibro-acoustography: initial results show promise

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Vibro-acoustography (VA) is a recently developed imaging modality that is sensitive to the dynamic characteristics of tissue. It detects low-frequency harmonic vibrations in tissue that are induced by the radiation force of ultrasound. Here, we have investigated applications of VA for in vivo breast imaging. Methods A recently developed combined mammography-VA system for in vivo breast imaging was tested on female volunteers, aged 25 years or older, with suspected breast lesions on their clinical examination. After mammography, a set of VA scans was acquired by the experimental device. In a masked assessment, VA images were evaluated independently by 3 reviewers who identified mass lesions and calcifications. The diagnostic accuracy of this imaging method was determined by comparing the reviewers' responses with clinical data. Results We collected images from 57 participants: 7 were used for training and 48 for evaluation of diagnostic accuracy (images from 2 participants were excluded because of unexpected imaging artifacts). In total, 16 malignant and 32 benign lesions were examined. Specificity for diagnostic accuracy was 94% or higher for all 3 reviewers, but sensitivity varied (69% to 100%). All reviewers were able to detect 97% of masses, but sensitivity for detection of calcification was lower (≤ 72% for all reviewers). Conclusions VA can be used to detect various breast abnormalities, including calcifications and benign and malignant masses, with relatively high specificity. VA technology may lead to a new clinical tool for breast imaging applications. PMID:23021305

  15. Initial Results from the MAVEN IUVS Echelle Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, John T.; Mayassi, Majd; McClintock, William; Schneider, Nick; Deighan, Justin; Stewart, Ian; Holsclaw, Greg; Jakosky, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    The study of the evolution of water on Mars includes understanding the high D/ H ratio in the atmosphere and surface water today, believed to be linked to the historic loss of a large volume of primordial water (the lighter H escapes faster than the heavier D). Toward this end, the IUVS instrument on MAVEN contains the first echelle spectrograph to be sent to another planet. The system has a novel optical design to enable long-aperture measurements of emission lines in the absence of continuum, intended primarily to measure the H and D Ly α emission lines and thereby the D/H ratio from the martian upper atmosphere. The system also detects the OI 1304 triplet with the three component lines well resolved. The specific scientific goal of the echelle channel is to measure the H and D Ly α emissions, and to discover how the H and D densities, temperatures, and escape fluxes vary with location, season, topography, etc. Recent IR observations indicate large variations in the D/H ratio in the lower atmosphere from location to location, and possibly seasonal changes [Villanueva et al. 2015]. HST and MEX measurements of the H corona of Mars show large (order of magnitude) changes in the H exosphere and escape flux with changing seasons and/or heliospheric distance [Clarke et al. 2014 Chaffin et al. 2014]. Early results from the echelle channel regarding how these parameters apply to martian deuterium will be presented.

  16. Initial Results from the ASTRAL Helicon Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, Robert

    2003-10-01

    The Auburn Steady sTate Research fAciLity (ASTRAL) is 2 m long Helicon source designed to investigate basic plasma and space plasma processes. The device produces a plasma with the following parameters: ne = 10^10 to 10^13 cm-3, Te = 2 to 20 eV and Ti = 0.03 to 0.1 eV. A series of large coils produce an axial magnetic field up to 1.2 kGauss. Operating pressure varies from 0.1 to 100 mTorr and any gas can be used for the discharge. A fractional helix antenna is used to introduce up to 2 kWatt of RF power into the plasma through a matching pi circuit. A number of diagnostics are presently installed on the plasma device. A RF compensated Langmuir probe is used to measure electron temperature and plasma density. A 0.33 m Criss-Cross Scanning monochromator with a high performance CCD camera is used to measure impurity concentration and to develop novel spectroscopy diagnostic. A diode laser based Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) is used to obtain ion temperature and ion drift in the plasma column. A microwave interferometer is also used to calibrate the Langmuir probe. First experimental results associated with this new facility are presented.

  17. Interventional C-arm tomosynthesis for vascular imaging: initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langan, David A.; Claus, Bernhard E. H.; Al Assad, Omar; Trousset, Yves; Riddell, Cyril; Avignon, Gregoire; Solomon, Stephen B.; Lai, Hao; Wang, Xin

    2015-03-01

    As percutaneous endovascular procedures address more complex and broader disease states, there is an increasing need for intra-procedure 3D vascular imaging. In this paper, we investigate C-Arm 2-axis tomosynthesis ("Tomo") as an alternative to C-Arm Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) for workflow situations in which the CBCT acquisition may be inconvenient or prohibited. We report on our experience in performing tomosynthesis acquisitions with a digital angiographic imaging system (GE Healthcare Innova 4100 Angiographic Imaging System, Milwaukee, WI). During a tomo acquisition the detector and tube each orbit on a plane above and below the table respectively. The tomo orbit may be circular or elliptical, and the tomographic half-angle in our studies varied from approximately 16 to 28 degrees as a function of orbit period. The trajectory, geometric calibration, and gantry performance are presented. We overview a multi-resolution iterative reconstruction employing compressed sensing techniques to mitigate artifacts associated with incomplete data reconstructions. In this work, we focus on the reconstruction of small high contrast objects such as iodinated vasculature and interventional devices. We evaluate the overall performance of the acquisition and reconstruction through phantom acquisitions and a swine study. Both tomo and comparable CBCT acquisitions were performed during the swine study thereby enabling the use of CBCT as a reference in the evaluation of tomo vascular imaging. We close with a discussion of potential clinical applications for tomo, reflecting on the imaging and workflow results achieved.

  18. Initial Satellite Formation Flight Results from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Ottenstein, Neil; Palmer, Eric; Farahmand, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    This paper will describe the results that have been obtained to date concerning MMS formation flying. The MMS spacecraft spin at a rate of 3.1 RPM, with spin axis roughly aligned with Ecliptic North. Several booms are used to deploy instruments: two 5 m magnetometer booms in the spin plane, two rigid booms of length 12.5 m along the positive and negative spin axes, and four flexible wire booms of length 60 m in the spin plane. Minimizing flexible motion of the wire booms requires that reorientation of the spacecraft spin axis be kept to a minimum: this is limited to attitude maneuvers to counteract the effects of gravity-gradient and apparent solar motion. Orbital maneuvers must therefore be carried out in essentially the nominal science attitude. These burns make use of a set of monopropellant hydrazine thrusters: two (of thrust 4.5 N) along the spin axis in each direction, and eight (of thrust 18 N) in the spin plane; the latter are pulsed at the spin rate to produce a net delta-v. An on-board accelerometer-based controller is used to accurately generate a commanded delta-v. Navigation makes use of a weak-signal GPS-based system: this allows signals to be received even when MMS is flying above the GPS orbits, producing a highly accurate determination of the four MMS orbits. This data is downlinked to the MMS Mission Operations Center (MOC) and used by the MOC Flight Dynamics Operations Area (FDOA) for maneuver design. These commands are then uplinked to the spacecraft and executed autonomously using the controller, with the ground monitoring the burns in real time.

  19. Kepler AutoRegressive Planet Search: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caceres, Gabriel; Feigelson, Eric; Jogesh Babu, G.; Bahamonde, Natalia; Bertin, Karine; Christen, Alejandra; Curé, Michel; Meza, Cristian

    2015-08-01

    The statistical analysis procedures of the Kepler AutoRegressive Planet Search (KARPS) project are applied to a portion of the publicly available Kepler light curve data for the full 4-year mission duration. Tests of the methods have been made on a subset of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI) systems, classified both as planetary `candidates' and `false positives' by the Kepler Team, as well as a random sample of unclassified systems. We find that the ARMA-type modeling successfully reduces the stellar variability, by a factor of 10 or more in active stars and by smaller factors in more quiescent stars. A typical quiescent Kepler star has an interquartile range (IQR) of ~10 e-/sec, which may improve slightly after modeling, while those with IQR ranging from 20 to 50 e-/sec, have improvements from 20% up to 70%. High activity stars (IQR exceeding 100) markedly improve, but visual inspection of the residual series shows that significant deviations from Gaussianity remain for many of them. Although the reduction in stellar signal is encouraging, it is important to note that the transit signal is also altered in the resulting residual time series. The periodogram derived from our Transit Comb Filter (TCF) is most effective for shorter period planets with quick ingress/egress times (relative to Kepler's 29-minute sample rate). We do not expect high sensitivity to periods of hundreds of days. Our findings to date on real-data tests of the KARPS methodology will be discussed including confirmation of some Kepler Team `candidate' planets, no confirmation of some `candidate' and `false positive' sytems, and suggestions of mischosen harmonics in the Kepler Team periodograms. We also present cases of new possible planetary signals.

  20. Mars Science Laboratory: Mission, Landing Site, and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotzinger, John; Blake, D.; Crisp, J.; Edgett, K.; Gellert, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Hassler, D.; Mahaffy, P.; Malin, M.; Meyer, M.; Mitrofanov, I.; Vasavada, A.; Wiens, R.

    2012-10-01

    Scheduled to land on August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, will conduct an investigation of modern and ancient environments. Recent mission results will be discussed. Curiosity has a lifetime of at least one Mars year ( 23 months), and drive capability of at least 20 km. The MSL science payload was specifically assembled to assess habitability and includes a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and gas analyzer that will search for organic carbon in rocks, regolith fines, and the atmosphere; an x-ray diffractometer that will determine mineralogical diversity; focusable cameras that can image landscapes and rock/regolith textures in natural color; an alpha-particle x-ray spectrometer for in situ determination of rock and soil chemistry; a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer to remotely sense the chemical composition of rocks and minerals; an active neutron spectrometer designed to search for water in rocks/regolith; a weather station to measure modern-day environmental variables; and a sensor designed for continuous monitoring of background solar and cosmic radiation. The 155-km diameter Gale Crater was chosen as Curiosity’s field site based on several attributes: an interior mound of ancient flat-lying strata extending almost 5 km above the elevation of the landing site; the lower few hundred meters of the mound show a progression with relative age from clay-bearing to sulfate-bearing strata, separated by an unconformity from overlying likely anhydrous strata; the landing ellipse is characterized by a mixture of alluvial fan and high thermal inertia/high albedo stratified deposits; and a number of stratigraphically/geomorphically distinct fluvial features. Gale’s regional context and strong evidence for a progression through multiple potentially habitable environments, represented by a stratigraphic record of extraordinary extent, insure preservation of a rich record of the environmental history of early Mars.

  1. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  2. Influence of Al/CuO reactive multilayer films additives on exploding foil initiator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Xiang; Shen Ruiqi; Ye Yinghua; Zhu Peng; Hu Yan; Wu Lizhi

    2011-11-01

    An investigation on the influence of Al/CuO reactive multilayer films (RMFs) additives on exploding foil initiator was performed in this paper. Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs were produced by using standard microsystem technology and RF magnetron sputtering technology, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy characterization revealed the distinct layer structure of the as-deposited Al/CuO RMFs. Differential scanning calorimetry was employed to ascertain the amount of heat released in the thermite reaction between Al films and CuO films, which was found to be 2024 J/g. Electrical explosion tests showed that 600 V was the most matching voltage for our set of apparatus. The explosion process of two types of films was observed by high speed camera and revealed that compared with Cu film, an extra distinct combustion phenomenon was detected with large numbers of product particles fiercely ejected to a distance of about six millimeters for Cu/Al/CuO RMFs. By using the atomic emission spectroscopy double line technique, the reaction temperature was determined to be about 6000-7000 K and 8000-9000 K for Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs, respectively. The piezoelectricity of polyvinylidene fluoride film was employed to measure the average velocity of the slapper accelerated by the explosion of the films. The average velocities of the slappers were calculated to be 381 m/s and 326 m/s for Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs, respectively, and some probable reasons were discussed with a few suggestions put forward for further work.

  3. Effect of alcohol addition on shock-initiated formation of soot from benzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenklach, Michael; Yuan, Tony

    1988-01-01

    Soot formation in benzene-methanol and benzene-ethanol argon-diluted mixtures was studied behind reflected shock waves by monitoring the attenuation of an He-Ne laser beam. The experiments were performed at temperatures 1580-2250 K, pressures 2.0-3.0 bar, and total carbon atom concentrations (2.0-2.7) x 10 to the 17th atoms/cu cm. The results obtained indicate that the addition of alcohol suppresses the formation of soot from benzene at all temperatures, and that the reduction in soot yields is increased with the amount of alcohol added. The analysis of the results indicates that the suppression effect is probably due to the oxidation of soot and soot precursors by OH and the removal of hydrogen atoms by alcohol and water molecules.

  4. RNA polymerase pausing regulates translation initiation by providing additional time for TRAP-RNA interaction.

    PubMed

    Yakhnin, Alexander V; Yakhnin, Helen; Babitzke, Paul

    2006-11-17

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) pause sites have been identified in several prokaryotic genes. Although the presumed biological function of RNAP pausing is to allow synchronization of RNAP position with regulatory factor binding and/or RNA folding, a direct causal link between pausing and changes in gene expression has been difficult to establish. RNAP pauses at two sites in the Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon leader. Pausing at U107 and U144 participates in transcription attenuation and trpE translation control mechanisms, respectively. Substitution of U144 caused a substantial pausing defect in vitro and in vivo. These mutations led to increased trp operon expression that was suppressed by overproduction of TRAP, indicating that pausing at U144 provides additional time for TRAP to bind to the nascent transcript and promote formation of an RNA structure that blocks translation of trpE. These results establish that pausing is capable of playing a role in regulating translation in bacteria. PMID:17114058

  5. Ash deposits - Initiating the change from empiricism to generic engineering. Part 2: Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Wessel, R.A.; Wagoner, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The goal is to develop and use calculations and measurements from several engineering disciplines that exceed the demonstrated limitations of present empirical techniques for predicting slagging/fouling behavior. In Part I of this paper, general relationships were presented for assessing effects of deposits and sootblowing on the real-time performance of heat transfer surfaces in pilot- and commercial-scale steam generators. In Part 2, these concepts are applied to the gas-side fouling of heat exchanger tubes. Deposition and heat transfer are calculated for superheater tubes in laboratory and utility furnaces. Numerical results for deposit thickness and heat flux are presented. Comparisons with data show agreement, demonstrating that the broad-base engineering approach is promising.

  6. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139... § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility shall... permitted under § 26.75(h), positive test results from initial drug tests at the licensee testing...

  7. Bu4N+ alkoxide-initiated/autocatalytic addition reactions with organotrimethylsilanes.

    PubMed

    Das, Manas; O'Shea, Donal F

    2014-06-20

    The use of Me3SiO(-)/Bu4N(+) as a general activator of organotrimethylsilanes for addition reactions has been established. The broad scope of the method offers trimethylsilanes (including acetate, allyl, propargyl, benzyl, dithiane, heteroaryl, and aryl derivatives) as bench-stable organometallics that can be readily utilized as carbanion equivalents for synthesis. Reactions are achieved at rt without the requirement of specialized precautions that are commonplace for other organometallics.

  8. A colorimetric detection of acrylamide in potato chips based on nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinqin; Fu, Yingchun; Xu, Xiahong; Qiao, Zhaohui; Wang, Ronghui; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanbin

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide (AA), a neurotoxin and a potential carcinogen, has been found in various thermally processed foods such as potato chips, biscuits, and coffee. Simple, cost-effective, and sensitive methods for the rapid detection of AA are needed to ensure food safety. Herein, a novel colorimetric method was proposed for the visual detection of AA based on a nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition reaction. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were aggregated by glutathione (GSH) because of a ligand-replacement, accompanied by a color change from red to purple. In the presence of AA, after the thiol-ene Michael addition reaction between GSH and AA with the catalysis of a nucleophile, the sulfhydryl group of GSH was consumed by AA, which hindered the subsequent ligand-replacement and the aggregation of AuNPs. Therefore, the concentration of AA could be determined by the visible color change caused by dispersion/aggregation of AuNPs. This new method showed high sensitivity with a linear range from 0.1 μmol L(-1) to 80 μmol L(-1) and a detection limit of 28.6 nmol L(-1), and especially revealed better selectivity than the fluorescence sensing method reported previously. Moreover, this new method was used to detect AA in potato chips with a satisfactory result in comparison with the standard methods based on chromatography, which indicated that the colorimetric method can be expanded for the rapid detection of AA in thermally processed foods. PMID:26699696

  9. 34 CFR 350.55 - What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM How Does the... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for funding? 350.55 Section 350.55 Education Regulations of...

  10. 34 CFR 350.55 - What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM How Does the... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for funding? 350.55 Section 350.55 Education Regulations of...

  11. 34 CFR 350.55 - What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM How Does the... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for funding? 350.55 Section 350.55 Education Regulations of...

  12. 34 CFR 350.55 - What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM How Does the... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for funding? 350.55 Section 350.55 Education Regulations of...

  13. Instructions for additional qualitative scoring of the initial-letter Word-association Test.

    PubMed

    Zivković, M

    1994-04-01

    An additional scoring method is based on grouping test-words according to whether the same sign is given by subjects to the test-words. In this way five test-word categories are formed, Eros (test-words with double plus signs), demi-Eros (single plus sign), demi-Thanatos (single minus), Thanatos (double minus), and Deviant (+/- and theta signs). The next step in scoring is to count the number of test-words in a given scoring category whose meanings do not conform. The greater the discrepancy between the test-word category and its meaning, the less well adapted is the subject. Several illustrative protocols are discussed. PMID:8022674

  14. Primary explosives: electrostatic discharge initiation, additive effect and its relation to thermal and explosive characteristics.

    PubMed

    Talawar, M B; Agrawal, A P; Anniyappan, M; Wani, D S; Bansode, M K; Gore, G M

    2006-09-21

    All explosives, under all conditions must be considered vulnerable to generation, accumulation and discharge of static charge. The low energy static hazards of the order as low as 2-3 mJ need to be guarded against in case of highly sensitive compounds namely primary explosives. The hazard is normally associated with manufacturing and filling operations due to discharge of static charge accumulated on a person supplying energy up to 20 mJ. To reduce the risk associated with static initiation hazard in the processing and handling of the explosives, the electrostatic sensitivity tests can provide an important input regarding electrostatic hazards. This paper presents electrostatic sensitivity data in terms of zero ignition probability data (E(SE0)) of some of the initiatory explosives such as nickel/cobalt hydrazinium nitrate, silver azide, lead azide and mercury salt of 5-nitro tetrazole. Similar data has also been presented for samples coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone to study its effect on electrostatic sensitivity. The electrostatic spark sensitivity of some conventional and novel made to explain the increased spark sensitivity behavior on the basis of the possible primary explosives has been studied. The electrostatic spark sensitivity of primary explosives decreased in the order of AgN3 = NHN > PbN6 > MNT > CoHN > BNCP. A possible correlation of spark energy with approximation and assumption has been drawn with thermal, detonation and mechanical properties. The polyvinyl pyrrolidone coated samples followed the same order but interestingly with increased spark sensitivity. An attempt has been reasoning of dielectric nature of the materials or exothermic effects of decomposition products of PVP. The present work also reports the electrostatic spark sensitivity of cap compositions.

  15. [Results of Booster Vaccination in Children with Primary Vaccine Failure after Initial Varicella Vaccination].

    PubMed

    Ozakiv, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Gotoh, Kensei; Funahashi, Keiji; Yoshii, Hironori; Okuno, Yoshinobu

    2016-05-01

    In October 2014, the varicella vaccination policy in Japan was changed from a single voluntary inoculation to two routine inoculations. This paper reports the results of booster vaccination in children who did not show seroconversion after initial vaccination (i.e., primary vaccine failure : PVF) over a 7-year period prior to the introduction of routine varicella vaccination. Between November 2007 and May 2014, 273 healthy children aged between 1.1 and 14.5 years (median : 1.7 years) underwent varicella vaccination. Before and 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination, the antibody titers were measured using an immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) assay and a glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA). In addition, side reactions were examined during the four-week period after vaccination. Children who did not show IAHA seroconversion (PVF) were recommended to receive a booster vaccination, and the measurement of antibody titers and an assessment of side reactions were performed after the booster dose. In May 2015, a questionnaire was mailed to each of the 273 participants to investigate whether they had developed varicella and/or herpes zoster after vaccination. After initial vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 75% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 4.7, while the gpELISA seroconversion rate was 84% and the mean antibody titer (Log10) with seroconversion was 2.4. Among children with PVF, 54 received booster vaccination within 81 to 714 days (median : 139 days) after the initial vaccination. After booster vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 98% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 5.8. Both the seroconversion rate and the antibody titer were higher compared with the values after the initial vaccination (p < 0.01). After booster vaccination, the gpELISA seropositive rate was 100% and the mean positive antibody titer (Log 10) was 3.6 ; similar results were obtained for the IAHA assay, with

  16. [Results of Booster Vaccination in Children with Primary Vaccine Failure after Initial Varicella Vaccination].

    PubMed

    Ozakiv, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Gotoh, Kensei; Funahashi, Keiji; Yoshii, Hironori; Okuno, Yoshinobu

    2016-05-01

    In October 2014, the varicella vaccination policy in Japan was changed from a single voluntary inoculation to two routine inoculations. This paper reports the results of booster vaccination in children who did not show seroconversion after initial vaccination (i.e., primary vaccine failure : PVF) over a 7-year period prior to the introduction of routine varicella vaccination. Between November 2007 and May 2014, 273 healthy children aged between 1.1 and 14.5 years (median : 1.7 years) underwent varicella vaccination. Before and 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination, the antibody titers were measured using an immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) assay and a glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA). In addition, side reactions were examined during the four-week period after vaccination. Children who did not show IAHA seroconversion (PVF) were recommended to receive a booster vaccination, and the measurement of antibody titers and an assessment of side reactions were performed after the booster dose. In May 2015, a questionnaire was mailed to each of the 273 participants to investigate whether they had developed varicella and/or herpes zoster after vaccination. After initial vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 75% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 4.7, while the gpELISA seroconversion rate was 84% and the mean antibody titer (Log10) with seroconversion was 2.4. Among children with PVF, 54 received booster vaccination within 81 to 714 days (median : 139 days) after the initial vaccination. After booster vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 98% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 5.8. Both the seroconversion rate and the antibody titer were higher compared with the values after the initial vaccination (p < 0.01). After booster vaccination, the gpELISA seropositive rate was 100% and the mean positive antibody titer (Log 10) was 3.6 ; similar results were obtained for the IAHA assay, with

  17. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell.

    PubMed

    Schüler, Torben; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Neidhardt, Alexander; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bernhart, Simone; la Porta, Laura; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1), the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW) is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate. PMID:26263991

  18. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell

    PubMed Central

    Schüler, Torben; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Neidhardt, Alexander; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bernhart, Simone; la Porta, Laura; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1), the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW) is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate. PMID:26263991

  19. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell.

    PubMed

    Schüler, Torben; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Neidhardt, Alexander; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bernhart, Simone; la Porta, Laura; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2015-07-30

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1), the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW) is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate.

  20. Space and surface power for the space exploration initiative: Results from project outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipbaugh, C.; Solomon, K.; Gonzales, D.; Juncosa, M.; Bauer, T.; Salter, R.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis and evaluations of the Space and Surface Power panel, one of eight panels created by RAND to screen and analyze submissions to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Outreach Program, is documented. In addition to managing and evaluating the responses, or submissions, to this public outreach program, RAND conducted its own analysis and evaluation relevent to SEI mission concepts, systems, and technologies. The Power panel screened and analyzed submissions for which a substantial portion of the concepts involved power generation sources, transmission, distribution, thermal management, and handling of power (including conditioning, conversion, packaging, and enhancements in system components). A background discussion of the areas the Power panel covered and the issues the reviewers considered pertinent to the analysis of power submissions are presented. An overview of each of the highest-ranked submissions and then a discussion of these submissions is presented. The results of the analysis is presented.

  1. [INITIAL RESULTS OF DIAGNOSTIC APPLICATION OF ENDOBRONCHIAL ULTRASOUND IN CLINICAL HOSPITAL DUBRAVA].

    PubMed

    Zivković, Nevenka Piskac; Ostović, Karmen Trutin; Bosnjak, Danica; Tudorić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) enables visualization of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes as well as, in case of clinical indication, its transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA). Simultaneous application of color doppler gives the additional prospects to investigate the blood vessels. The primary indication for EBUS is radiographic finding of mediastinal and/or hilar lymph nodes enlargement as well as the staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this article we present the initial results of application of this valuable diagnostic procedure performed at the Department for pulmonary diseases in Clinical hospital Dubrava in Zagreb. According to its high sensitivity and specificity, and being safe and well tolerated, EBUS-TBNA was positioned as basic diagnostic procedure in patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. PMID:27290812

  2. The Modern U.S. High School Astronomy Course, Its Status and Makeup II: Additional Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumenaker, Larry

    2009-01-01

    A postal survey of high school astronomy teachers strongly confirms many results of an earlier electronic survey. Additional and new results include a measure of the level of inquiry (more structured inquiry and teacher-led) in the classroom as well as data showing that more emphasis is given to traditional topics than to contemporary astronomy…

  3. The breast cancer "plunge" after initial publication of the WHI results: an alternative explanation.

    PubMed

    Simon, James A; Nahum, Gerard G; Stanislaw, Harold; Gaines, Tatiana

    2010-07-01

    From 2002 to 2003, the breast cancer incidence in the United States, as reported by the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER 9) database, appeared to decrease by 6.7%. This phenomenon has been attributed to a reduction in the use of menopausal hormone therapies after the initial publication of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study results in July of 2002. However, attempts to draw a causal association between the use of menopausal hormone therapies and the incidence of breast cancer have not accounted for the facts that prescriptions of estrogen-plus-progestin menopausal therapies, which are associated with increased rates of breast cancer, fell by 53% from 2002 to 2003, while prescriptions of estrogen-only therapies fell by only 27%. To address this issue, we analyzed the effects of the higher rate of discontinuation of estrogen-plus-progestin menopausal therapies relative to estrogen-only treatments during the 2002-2003 time period, based upon the effects of different types of menopausal hormone therapies on breast cancer incidence as determined by the WHI interventional hormone trials. This approach demonstrates that the relative persistence with menopausal estrogen-only therapies - as compared to estrogen-plus-progestin therapies - can explain the reduction in breast cancer incidence from 2002 to 2003. In addition, we point out the incompatibility of the breast cancer incidence rates found in the two WHI interventional hormone trials and the rates reported in the SEER 9 database. Based on these findings, we conclude - as previously demonstrated in the estrogen-only arm of the WHI interventional hormone trials - that menopausal estrogen-only use is not responsible for increasing the risk of breast cancer in menopausal women and may, in fact, be protective. Additional studies are still needed to better define the relationship between different types of menopausal hormone therapies and the incidence of breast cancer.

  4. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility...

  5. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility...

  6. Animation shows promise in initiating timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Attin, Mina; Winslow, Katheryn; Smith, Tyler

    2014-04-01

    Delayed responses during cardiac arrest are common. Timely interventions during cardiac arrest have a direct impact on patient survival. Integration of technology in nursing education is crucial to enhance teaching effectiveness. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of animation on nursing students' response time to cardiac arrest, including initiation of timely chest compression. Nursing students were randomized into experimental and control groups prior to practicing in a high-fidelity simulation laboratory. The experimental group was educated, by discussion and animation, about the importance of starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognizing an unresponsive patient. Afterward, a discussion session allowed students in the experimental group to gain more in-depth knowledge about the most recent changes in the cardiac resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association. A linear mixed model was run to investigate differences in time of response between the experimental and control groups while controlling for differences in those with additional degrees, prior code experience, and basic life support certification. The experimental group had a faster response time compared with the control group and initiated timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognition of deteriorating conditions (P < .0001). The results demonstrated the efficacy of combined teaching modalities for timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Providing opportunities for repetitious practice when a patient's condition is deteriorating is crucial for teaching safe practice.

  7. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. This topical report presents the results from the Task 2 and Task 4 pilot-scale additive tests. The Task 3 and Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2006.

  8. A three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculation of the photon initiated showers and Kiel result

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okada, A.; Muraki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The Kiel experimental results indicate an existence of the ultra high-energy gamma-rays coming from Cyg. X-3. However the result indicates that the number of the muons included in the photon initiated shower is the same as the number included in the proton initiated showers. According to our Monte Carlo calculation as shown in the graph of underpart, the number of muons included in the photon initiated showers should be less than 1/15 of the photon's. The previous simulation was made under one dimensional approximation. This time the result of three dimensional calculation is reported.

  9. Additional results on 'Reducing geometric dilution of precision using ridge regression'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Robert J.

    1990-07-01

    Kelly (1990) presented preliminary results on the feasibility of using ridge regression (RR) to reduce the effects of geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) error inflation in position-fix navigation systems. Recent results indicate that RR will not reduce GDOP bias inflation when biaslike measurement errors last much longer than the aircraft guidance-loop response time. This conclusion precludes the use of RR on navigation systems whose dominant error sources are biaslike; e.g., the GPS selective-availability error source. The simulation results given by Kelly are, however, valid for the conditions defined. Although RR has not yielded a satisfactory solution to the general GDOP problem, it has illuminated the role that multicollinearity plays in navigation signal processors such as the Kalman filter. Bias inflation, initial position guess errors, ridge-parameter selection methodology, and the recursive ridge filter are discussed.

  10. Surface porosity of stone casts resulting from immersion of addition silicone rubber impressions in disinfectant solutions.

    PubMed

    Hiraguchi, Hisako; Kaketani, Masahiro; Hirose, Hideharu; Kikuchi, Hisaji; Yoneyama, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of immersion of addition silicone rubber impressions in disinfectant solutions on the surface porosity of the resulting stone casts. Five brands of type 2 and 3 addition silicone rubber impression materials and one brand of type 4 dental stone were used. Impressions of a master die designed to simulate an abutment tooth were immersed in disinfectant for 30 minutes. The disinfectants used were 2% glutaraldehyde solution and 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde solution. The surface porosities of stone casts obtained from two brands of impression materials immersed in disinfectant for 30 minutes were determined. Results suggest that impression materials immersed in disinfectant solutions need sufficient time before pouring into dental stone.

  11. The IGAC activity for the development of global emissions inventories: Description and initial results. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, C.M.; Graedel, T.E.

    1992-02-01

    Modeling assessments of the atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climatic conditions of the past, present and future require as input inventories of emissions of the appropriate chemical species constructed on appropriate spatial and temporal scales. The task of the Global Emissions Inventories Activity (GEIA) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) is the production of global inventories suitable for a range of research applications. Current GEIA programs are generally based on addressing emissions by species; these include CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}/N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}, CFC, volatile organic compounds and radioisotopes. In addition a separate program to inventory emissions from biomass burning is also being structured, plus an additional program to address data management issues for all the developing inventories. Program priorities are based on current knowledge and tasks needed to produce the desired inventories. This paper will discuss the different types of global inventories to be developed by the GEIA programs, their key characteristics, and areas to be addressed in the compilation of such inventories. Results of the first GEIA task, a survey of existing inventories and auxiliary data, will be presented. The survey included status assessments for the available inventory information for nineteen different atmospheric species or groups of species on global and regional scales and over time. Of this entire body of information, the only inventory regarded as satisfactory was that for the global emissions of CFCs. An implication of the results of these assessments is that properly gridded emissions inventories are badly needed to support atmospheric modeling calculations on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Initial studies in the development of global inventories of sulfur dioxide, currently the most advanced GEIA program, will be presented and discussed.

  12. The IGAC activity for the development of global emissions inventories: Description and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, C.M. ); Graedel, T.E. )

    1992-02-01

    Modeling assessments of the atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climatic conditions of the past, present and future require as input inventories of emissions of the appropriate chemical species constructed on appropriate spatial and temporal scales. The task of the Global Emissions Inventories Activity (GEIA) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) is the production of global inventories suitable for a range of research applications. Current GEIA programs are generally based on addressing emissions by species; these include CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}/N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}, CFC, volatile organic compounds and radioisotopes. In addition a separate program to inventory emissions from biomass burning is also being structured, plus an additional program to address data management issues for all the developing inventories. Program priorities are based on current knowledge and tasks needed to produce the desired inventories. This paper will discuss the different types of global inventories to be developed by the GEIA programs, their key characteristics, and areas to be addressed in the compilation of such inventories. Results of the first GEIA task, a survey of existing inventories and auxiliary data, will be presented. The survey included status assessments for the available inventory information for nineteen different atmospheric species or groups of species on global and regional scales and over time. Of this entire body of information, the only inventory regarded as satisfactory was that for the global emissions of CFCs. An implication of the results of these assessments is that properly gridded emissions inventories are badly needed to support atmospheric modeling calculations on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Initial studies in the development of global inventories of sulfur dioxide, currently the most advanced GEIA program, will be presented and discussed.

  13. Initial Results from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Swenson, Charles; Thompson, Don; Barjatya, Aroh; Koontz, Steven L.; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason; Minow, Joseph; Craven, Paul; Coffey, Victoria; Parker, Linda; Bui, Them

    2007-01-01

    The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) is a multi-probe package designed to measure the floating potential of the 1nternational Space Station (ISS) as well as the density and temperature of the local ionospheric plasma environment. The role oj the FPMU is to provide direct measurements of ISS spacecraft charging as continuing construction leads to dramatic changes in ISS size and configuration. FPMU data are used for refinement and validation of the ISS spacecraft charging models used to evaluate the severity and frequency of occurrence of ISS charging hazards. The FPMU data and the models are also used to evaluate the effectiveness of proposed hazard controls. The FPMU consists of four probes: a floating potential probe, two Langmuir probes. and a plasma impedance probe. These probes measure the floating potential of the ISS, plasma density, and electron temperature. Redundant measurements using different probes support data validation by inter-probe comparisons. The FPMU was installed by ISS crewmembers, during an ExtraVehicular Activity, on the starboard (Sl) truss of the ISS in early August 2006, when the ISS incorporated only one 160V US photovoltaic (PV) array module. The first data campaign began a few hours after installation and continued for over five days. Additional data campaigns were completed in 2007 after a second 160V US PV array module was added to the ISS. This paper discusses the general performance characteristics of the FPMU as integrated on ISS, the functional performance of each probe, the charging behavior of the ISS before and after the addition of a second 160V US PV array module, and initial results from model comparisons.

  14. Initial Surgical Experience with Aortic Valve Repair: Clinical and Echocardiographic Results

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Francisco Diniz Affonso; Colatusso, Daniele de Fátima Fornazari; da Costa, Ana Claudia Brenner Affonso; Balbi Filho, Eduardo Mendel; Cavicchioli, Vinicius Nesi; Lopes, Sergio Augusto Veiga; Ferreira, Andrea Dumsch de Aragon; Collatusso, Claudinei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Due to late complications associated with the use of conventional prosthetic heart valves, several centers have advocated aortic valve repair and/or valve sparing aortic root replacement for patients with aortic valve insufficiency, in order to enhance late survival and minimize adverse postoperative events. Methods From March/2012 thru March 2015, 37 patients consecutively underwent conservative operations of the aortic valve and/or aortic root. Mean age was 48±16 years and 81% were males. The aortic valve was bicuspid in 54% and tricuspid in the remaining. All were operated with the aid of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. Surgical techniques consisted of replacing the aortic root with a Dacron graft whenever it was dilated or aneurysmatic, using either the remodeling or the reimplantation technique, besides correcting leaflet prolapse when present. Patients were sequentially evaluated with clinical and echocardiographic studies and mean follow-up time was 16±5 months. Results Thirty-day mortality was 2.7%. In addition there were two late deaths, with late survival being 85% (CI 95% - 68%-95%) at two years. Two patients were reoperated due to primary structural valve failure. Freedom from reoperation or from primary structural valve failure was 90% (CI 95% - 66%-97%) and 91% (CI 95% - 69%-97%) at 2 years, respectively. During clinical follow-up up to 3 years, there were no cases of thromboembolism, hemorrhage or endocarditis. Conclusions Although this represents an initial series, these data demonstrates that aortic valve repair and/or valve sparing aortic root surgery can be performed with satisfactory immediate and short-term results. PMID:27556321

  15. Quality initiatives: improving patient flow for a bone densitometry practice: results from a Mayo Clinic radiology quality initiative.

    PubMed

    Aakre, Kenneth T; Valley, Timothy B; O'Connor, Michael K

    2010-03-01

    Lean Six Sigma process improvement methodologies have been used in manufacturing for some time. However, Lean Six Sigma process improvement methodologies also are applicable to radiology as a way to identify opportunities for improvement in patient care delivery settings. A multidisciplinary team of physicians and staff conducted a 100-day quality improvement project with the guidance of a quality advisor. By using the framework of DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control), time studies were performed for all aspects of patient and technologist involvement. From these studies, value stream maps for the current state and for the future were developed, and tests of change were implemented. Comprehensive value stream maps showed that before implementation of process changes, an average time of 20.95 minutes was required for completion of a bone densitometry study. Two process changes (ie, tests of change) were undertaken. First, the location for completion of a patient assessment form was moved from inside the imaging room to the waiting area, enabling patients to complete the form while waiting for the technologist. Second, the patient was instructed to sit in a waiting area immediately outside the imaging rooms, rather than in the main reception area, which is far removed from the imaging area. Realignment of these process steps, with reduced technologist travel distances, resulted in a 3-minute average decrease in the patient cycle time. This represented a 15% reduction in the initial patient cycle time with no change in staff or costs. Radiology process improvement projects can yield positive results despite small incremental changes.

  16. Quality initiatives: improving patient flow for a bone densitometry practice: results from a Mayo Clinic radiology quality initiative.

    PubMed

    Aakre, Kenneth T; Valley, Timothy B; O'Connor, Michael K

    2010-03-01

    Lean Six Sigma process improvement methodologies have been used in manufacturing for some time. However, Lean Six Sigma process improvement methodologies also are applicable to radiology as a way to identify opportunities for improvement in patient care delivery settings. A multidisciplinary team of physicians and staff conducted a 100-day quality improvement project with the guidance of a quality advisor. By using the framework of DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control), time studies were performed for all aspects of patient and technologist involvement. From these studies, value stream maps for the current state and for the future were developed, and tests of change were implemented. Comprehensive value stream maps showed that before implementation of process changes, an average time of 20.95 minutes was required for completion of a bone densitometry study. Two process changes (ie, tests of change) were undertaken. First, the location for completion of a patient assessment form was moved from inside the imaging room to the waiting area, enabling patients to complete the form while waiting for the technologist. Second, the patient was instructed to sit in a waiting area immediately outside the imaging rooms, rather than in the main reception area, which is far removed from the imaging area. Realignment of these process steps, with reduced technologist travel distances, resulted in a 3-minute average decrease in the patient cycle time. This represented a 15% reduction in the initial patient cycle time with no change in staff or costs. Radiology process improvement projects can yield positive results despite small incremental changes. PMID:20067999

  17. The post-embryonic development of Remipedia (Crustacea)--additional results and new insights.

    PubMed

    Koenemann, Stefan; Olesen, Jørgen; Alwes, Frederike; Iliffe, Thomas M; Hoenemann, Mario; Ungerer, Petra; Wolff, Carsten; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2009-03-01

    The post-embryonic development of a species of the enigmatic crustacean group Remipedia is described in detail for the first time under various aspects. Applying a molecular approach, we can clearly prove the species identity of the larvae as belonging to Pleomothra apletocheles. We document the cellular level of several larval stages and the differentiation of segments, limbs, and the general body morphology applying the techniques of confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, we document the swimming behavior and the peculiar movements of the naupliar appendages. A comparison of our results with published data on other Crustacea and their larval development tentatively supports ideas about phylogenetic affinities of the Remipedia to the Malacostraca.

  18. Initial results from the ICDP SCOPSCO drilling project, Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, A.; Wagner, B.; Krastel, S.; Lindhorst, K.; Wilke, T.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Grazhdani, A.; Reicherter, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    a glacial/interglacial timescale and also short-term events such as Dansgaard-Oescher cycles during the last glacial period can be inferred from the initial data. Although a high amount of greigite complicates the paleomagnetic dating of the recovered sediments, a robust age model can likely be inferred from numerous tephras and cryptotephras, which are indicated by spikes in the magnetic susceptibility data. Three additional sites at lateral parts of Lake Ohrid were drilled to un-ravel lake level fluctuations, catchment dynamics, biodiversity and evolution processes ('Cerava', deepest drilled depth: 90 m), active tectonics and spring dynamics ('Gradiste', deepest drilled depth: 123 m), and the early development of the Ohrid Basin ('Pestani', deepest drilled depth: 194 m). The composite field recovery is >90% at each site. The initial results obtained from the field campaign indicate that Lake Ohrid provides an extraordinary record of environmental change in the northern Mediterranean and will become a key site for a better understanding of speciation triggers.

  19. Non-Shock Initiation of the Plastic Bonded Explosive PBXN-5: Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappo, K. N.; Todd, S. N.; Anderson, M. U.; Vogler, T. J.

    2007-12-01

    The plastic bonded explosive PBXN-5 was studied under impulsive loading experiments to relate impact-induced mechanical damage to the onset of, and the extent of reaction produced. A small diameter projectile generated shock and release conditions at the impact interface, on the microsecond time scale during the initial portion of the impulsive loading. These shock and release wave interactions generate significant damage, resulting in a porous, powder compaction-type initiation behavior. Experimental measurements show an energy threshold for initiation of reaction which relates to impact-induced kinetic energy. These results are implemented in the model development and validation phases of the damage-induced reaction (DMGIR) model, which is used to simulate impact scenarios of explosives, explosive components, and explosive systems.

  20. Initial Results from NuSTAR Observations of the Norma Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Krivonos, Roman; Stern, Daniel; Bauer, Franz E.; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Mori, Kaya; Zhang, William W.

    2014-08-01

    Results are presented for an initial survey of the Norma Arm gathered with the focusing hard X-Ray Telescope NuSTAR. The survey covers 0.2 deg2 of sky area in the 3-79 keV range with a minimum and maximum raw depth of 15 ks and 135 ks, respectively. Besides a bright black-hole X-ray binary in outburst (4U 1630-47) and a new X-ray transient (NuSTAR J163433-473841), NuSTAR locates three sources from the Chandra survey of this region whose spectra are extended above 10 keV for the first time: CXOU J163329.5-473332, CXOU J163350.9-474638, and CXOU J163355.1-473804. Imaging, timing, and spectral data from a broad X-ray range (0.3-79 keV) are analyzed and interpreted with the aim of classifying these objects. CXOU J163329.5-473332 is either a cataclysmic variable or a faint low-mass X-ray binary. CXOU J163350.9-474638 varies in intensity on year-long timescales, and with no multi-wavelength counterpart, it could be a distant X-ray binary or possibly a magnetar. CXOU J163355.1-473804 features a helium-like iron line at 6.7 keV and is classified as a nearby cataclysmic variable. Additional surveys are planned for the Norma Arm and Galactic Center, and those NuSTAR observations will benefit from the lessons learned during this pilot study.

  1. Initial results from NuSTAR observations of the Norma Arm

    SciTech Connect

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Krivonos, Roman; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Stern, Daniel; Bauer, Franz E.; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Christensen, Finn E.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Zhang, William W.

    2014-08-10

    Results are presented for an initial survey of the Norma Arm gathered with the focusing hard X-Ray Telescope NuSTAR. The survey covers 0.2 deg{sup 2} of sky area in the 3-79 keV range with a minimum and maximum raw depth of 15 ks and 135 ks, respectively. Besides a bright black-hole X-ray binary in outburst (4U 1630–47) and a new X-ray transient (NuSTAR J163433–473841), NuSTAR locates three sources from the Chandra survey of this region whose spectra are extended above 10 keV for the first time: CXOU J163329.5–473332, CXOU J163350.9–474638, and CXOU J163355.1–473804. Imaging, timing, and spectral data from a broad X-ray range (0.3-79 keV) are analyzed and interpreted with the aim of classifying these objects. CXOU J163329.5–473332 is either a cataclysmic variable or a faint low-mass X-ray binary. CXOU J163350.9–474638 varies in intensity on year-long timescales, and with no multi-wavelength counterpart, it could be a distant X-ray binary or possibly a magnetar. CXOU J163355.1–473804 features a helium-like iron line at 6.7 keV and is classified as a nearby cataclysmic variable. Additional surveys are planned for the Norma Arm and Galactic Center, and those NuSTAR observations will benefit from the lessons learned during this pilot study.

  2. The Palomar-Quest Digital Synoptic Sky Survey: Summary and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djorgovski, Stanislav G.; Baltay, C.; Mahabal, A.; Rabinowitz, D.; Drake, A.; Donalek, C.; Glikman, E.; Graham, M.; Williams, R.; Ellman, N.; Scalzo, R.; Bauer, A.; Nugent, P.; PQ Survey Team

    2009-05-01

    The Palomar-Quest (PQ) digital synoptic sky survey was conducted over a period of 5 years, ending in September 2008. The survey is a joint venture between groups at Yale and Caltech, with collaborating groups world-wide. The data were obtained using the Palomar 48-inch Samuel Oschin telescope and QUEST-2 112 CCD camera, with up to 4 distinct filters (Johnson UBRI or Gunn griz systems). Data were taken in the drift scan mode, in 4.6 deg wide strips of a constant declination, typically with 2 passes per night. The survey covered a total area of 15,500 deg2, with up to several tens of passes per location, and with the time baselines ranging from minutes to years. About 15 TB or raw data were collected in the course of about 550 nights (including non-photometric conditions). In addition, a somewhat larger amount of data over a larger number of nights have been taken in the point-and-stare mode, in a single broad-band red filter. The data have been processed using independent pipelines at Yale, Caltech, and LBNL. The survey was fully VO-compliant, and served as a testbed for development of a number of VO-related standards and technologies. All of the data are now in the process of being reprocessed and recalibrated, and will be made fully publicly available. Given the synoptic nature of the survey, most of the initial scientific studies involve exploration of various time-domain phenomena, such as Supernovae, variability of AGN, and high-amplitude variable stars. We have also conducted searches for high-redshift quasars, gravitational lenses, and other projects. We will describe some of the results to date.

  3. Initial Laboratory-Scale Melter Test Results for Combined Fission Product Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Buchmiller, William C.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the methods and results used to vitrify a baseline glass, CSLNTM-C-2.5 in support of the AFCI (Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative) using a Quartz Crucible Scale Melter at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Document number AFCI-WAST-PMO-MI-DV-2009-000184.

  4. 75 FR 71072 - Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... liquids and gases in plumbing and heating systems, air conditioning units, automatic sprinkler systems... Pipe from Korea, 57 FR 49453 (November 2, 1992). On May 17, 2010, both TUNA and Lamina y Placa filed a...: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed- Circumstances Review, 71 FR 14679 (March 23,...

  5. Further results on delay-range-dependent stability with additive time-varying delay systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pin-Lin

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, new conditions for the delay-range-dependent stability analysis of time-varying delay systems are proposed in a Lyapunov-Krasovskii framework. Time delay is considered to be time-varying and has lower and upper bounds. A new method is first presented for a system with two time delays, integral inequality approach (IIA) used to express relationships among terms of Leibniz-Newton formula. Constructing a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional includes information belonging to a given range; new delay-range-dependent criterion is established in term of linear matrix inequality (LMI). The advantage of that criterion lies in its simplicity and less conservative. This paper also presents a new result of stability analysis for continuous systems with two additive time-variant components representing a general class of delay with strong application background in network-based control systems. Resulting criteria are then expressed in terms of convex optimization with LMI constraints, allowing for use of efficient solvers. Finally, three numerical examples show these methods reducing conservatism and improving maximal allowable delay.

  6. Additive effects of pollinators and herbivores result in both conflicting and reinforcing selection on floral traits.

    PubMed

    Sletvold, Nina; Moritz, Kim K; Agren, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Mutualists and antagonists are known to respond to similar floral cues, and may thus cause opposing selection on floral traits. However, we lack a quantitative understanding of their independent and interactive effects. In a population of the orchid Gymnadenia conopsea, we manipulated the intensity of pollination and herbivory in a factorial design to examine whether both interactions influence selection on flowering phenology, floral display, and morphology. Supplemental hand-pollination increased female fitness by 31% and one-quarter of all plants were damaged by herbivores. Both interactions contributed to selection. Pollinators mediated selection for later flowering and herbivores for earlier flowering, while both selected for longer spurs. The strength of selection was similar for both agents, and their effects were additive. As a consequence, there was no. net selection on phenology, whereas selection on spur length was strong. The experimental results demonstrate that both pollinators and herbivores can markedly influence the strength of selection on flowering phenology and floral morphology, and cause both conflicting and reinforcing selection. They also indicate that the direction of selection on phenology will vary with the relative intensity of the mutualistic and antagonistic interaction, potentially resulting in both temporal and among-population variation in optimal flowering time.

  7. The Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative (YETI) and results from the Bulgarian participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, D.; Neuhäuser, R.; Kjurkchieva, D.; YETI Team

    The paper presents the ideas of the international initiative YETI (Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative) for searching for young exoplanets in open clusters, information about the organization of the observational campaigns as well as the preliminary results from the observations of the first cluster Tr 37. It is noted the successful participation of the Bulgarian team in the observational campaigns of Tr 37 (27 observational nights with above 12000 images). Due to the interesting light curves of Tr 37-3132 obtained by the Rozhen telescopes this object was chosen for follow-up spectral observations with large telescopes in the framework of YETI.

  8. Building a taxonomy of integrated palliative care initiatives: results from a focus group

    PubMed Central

    Ewert, Benjamin; Hodiamont, Farina; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen; Payne, Sheila; Groot, Marieke; Hasselaar, Jeroen; Menten, Johann; Radbruch, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Background Empirical evidence suggests that integrated palliative care (IPC) increases the quality of care for palliative patients and supports professional caregivers. Existing IPC initiatives in Europe vary in their design and are hardly comparable. InSuP-C, a European Union research project, aimed to build a taxonomy of IPC initiatives applicable across diseases, healthcare sectors and systems. Methods The taxonomy of IPC initiatives was developed in cooperation with an international and multidisciplinary focus group of 18 experts. Subsequently, a consensus meeting of 10 experts revised a preliminary taxonomy and adopted the final classification system. Results Consisting of eight categories, with two to four items each, the taxonomy covers the process and structure of IPC initiatives. If two items in at least one category apply to an initiative, a minimum level of integration is assumed to have been reached. Categories range from the type of initiative (items: pathway, model or guideline) to patients’ key contact (items: non-pc specialist, pc specialist, general practitioner). Experts recommended the inclusion of two new categories: level of care (items: primary, secondary or tertiary) indicating at which stage palliative care is integrated and primary focus of intervention describing IPC givers’ different roles (items: treating function, advising/consulting or training) in the care process. Conclusions Empirical studies are required to investigate how the taxonomy is used in practice and whether it covers the reality of patients in need of palliative care. The InSuP-C project will test this taxonomy empirically in selected initiatives using IPC. PMID:26647043

  9. 43 CFR 3207.12 - What work am I required to perform each year for BLM to continue the initial and additional...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... year for BLM to continue the initial and additional extensions of the primary term of my lease? 3207.12... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Terms and... additional extensions of the primary term of my lease? (a) To continue the initial extension of the...

  10. 43 CFR 3207.12 - What work am I required to perform each year for BLM to continue the initial and additional...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... year for BLM to continue the initial and additional extensions of the primary term of my lease? 3207.12... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Terms and... additional extensions of the primary term of my lease? (a) To continue the initial extension of the...

  11. 43 CFR 3207.12 - What work am I required to perform each year for BLM to continue the initial and additional...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... year for BLM to continue the initial and additional extensions of the primary term of my lease? 3207.12... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Terms and... additional extensions of the primary term of my lease? (a) To continue the initial extension of the...

  12. 43 CFR 3207.12 - What work am I required to perform each year for BLM to continue the initial and additional...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... year for BLM to continue the initial and additional extensions of the primary term of my lease? 3207.12... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Terms and... additional extensions of the primary term of my lease? (a) To continue the initial extension of the...

  13. Aircraft-Produced Ice Particles (APIPs): Additional Results and Further Insights.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, William L.; Gordon, Glenn; Henderson, Thomas J.; Vonnegut, Bernard; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Detwiler, Andrew

    2003-05-01

    APIPs, when they are created, appear in aircraft wakes in concentrations up to several hundred per liter, which are initially very small and almost uniform in size but grow to larger nearly uniform sizes with time. APIPs production is most likely at low ambient temperatures when an aircraft is flown at maximum power with the gear and flaps extended, resulting in a relatively low airspeed under high-drag conditions. It is predicted that APIPs production of an aircraft can be decreased or eliminated altogether by using a propeller with a larger number of propeller blades, such that the engine thrust is distributed over more blades, thereby decreasing the cooling on each blade. Plans to test this hypothesis using three- and four-bladed King Airs as the test aircraft never came to fruition because of unsatisfactory weather conditions. It is likely that APIPs have confounded the results of some past cloud microphysical investigations, especially those in which repeat passes were made through individual clouds under heavy icing conditions by aircraft known now to be APIPs producers. Aircraft flying under such conditions are forced to use high power settings to overcome the drag of a heavy ice load. These are the conditions that field tests demonstrate are most conducive to the production of APIPs. In these situations, APIPs may have led investigators to conclude that there was more rapid development of ice, and higher concentrations of ice particles in clouds, than actually was the case.

  14. Sensitivity of Structural Results to Initial Configurations and Quench Algorithms of Lead Silicate Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Hemesath, Eric R.; Corrales, Louis R.

    2005-06-15

    The sensitivity of resulting structures to starting configurations and quench algorithms were characterized using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The classical potential model introduced by Damodaran, Rao, and Rao (DRR) Phys. Chem. Glasses 31, 212 (1990) for lead silicate glass was used. Glasses were prepared using five distinct initial configurations and four glass forming algorithms. In previous MD work of bulk lead silicate glasses the ability of this potential model to provide good structural results were established by comparing to experimental results. Here the sensitivity of the results to the simulation methodology and the persistence of clustering with attention to details of molecular structure are determined.

  15. The effect of gravitational acceleration on cardiac diastolic function: a biofluid mechanical perspective with initial results.

    PubMed

    Pantalos, George M; Bennett, Thomas E; Sharp, M Keith; Woodruff, Stewart J; O'Leary, Sean D; Gillars, Kevin J; Schurfranz, Thomas; Everett, Scott D; Lemon, Mark; Schwartz, John

    2005-08-01

    Echocardiographic measurements of astronaut cardiac function have documented an initial increase, followed by a progressive reduction in both left ventricular end-diastolic volume index and stroke volume with entry into microgravity (micro-G). The investigators hypothesize that the observed reduction in cardiac filling may, in part, be due to the absence of a gravitational acceleration dependent, intraventricular hydrostatic pressure difference in micro-G that exists in the ventricle in normal gravity (1-G) due to its size and anatomic orientation. This acceleration-dependent pressure difference, DeltaP(LV), between the base and the apex of the heart for the upright posture can be estimated to be 6660 dynes/cm(2) ( approximately 5 mm Hg) on Earth. DeltaP(LV) promotes cardiac diastolic filling on Earth, but is absent in micro-G. If the proposed hypothesis is correct, cardiac pumping performance would be diminished in micro-G. To test this hypothesis, ventricular function experiments were conducted in the 1-G environment using an artificial ventricle pumping on a mock circulation system with the longitudinal axis anatomically oriented for the upright posture at 45 degrees to the horizon. Additional measurements were made with the ventricle horizontally oriented to null DeltaP(LV)along the apex-base axis of the heart as would be the case for the supine posture, but resulting in a lesser hydrostatic pressure difference along the minor (anterior-posterior) axis. Comparative experiments were also conducted in the micro-G environment of orbital space flight on board the Space Shuttle. This paper reviews the use of an automated cardiovascular simulator flown on STS-85 and STS-95 as a Get Away Special payload to test this hypothesis. The simulator consisted of a pneumatically actuated, artificial ventricle connected to a closed-loop, fluid circuit with adjustable compliance and resistance elements to create physiologic pressure and flow conditions. Ventricular

  16. Plant interspecific differences in arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization as a result of soil carbon addition.

    PubMed

    Eschen, René; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2013-01-01

    Soil nutrient availability and colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are important and potentially interacting factors shaping vegetation composition and succession. We investigated the effect of carbon (C) addition, aimed at reducing soil nutrient availability, on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Seedlings of 27 plant species with different sets of life-history traits (functional group affiliation, life history strategy and nitrophilic status) were grown in pots filled with soil from a nutrient-rich set-aside field and amended with different amounts of C. Mycorrhizal colonization was progressively reduced along the gradient of increasing C addition in 17 out of 27 species, but not in the remaining species. Grasses had lower colonization levels than forbs and legumes and the decline in AM fungal colonization was more pronounced in legumes than in other forbs and grasses. Mycorrhizal colonization did not differ between annual and perennial species, but decreased more rapidly along the gradient of increasing C addition in plants with high Ellenberg N values than in plants with low Ellenberg N values. Soil C addition not only limits plant growth through a reduction in available nutrients, but also reduces mycorrhizal colonization of plant roots. The effect of C addition on mycorrhizal colonization varies among plant functional groups, with legumes experiencing an overproportional reduction in AM fungal colonization along the gradient of increasing C addition. We therefore propose that for a better understanding of vegetation succession on set-aside fields one may consider the interrelationship between plant growth, soil nutrient availability and mycorrhizal colonization of plant roots.

  17. Engine systems analysis results of the Space Shuttle Main Engine redesigned powerhead initial engine level testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, Erik J.; Gosdin, Dennis R.

    1992-01-01

    Engineers regularly analyze SSME ground test and flight data with respect to engine systems performance. Recently, a redesigned SSME powerhead was introduced to engine-level testing in part to increase engine operational margins through optimization of the engine internal environment. This paper presents an overview of the MSFC personnel engine systems analysis results and conclusions reached from initial engine level testing of the redesigned powerhead, and further redesigns incorporated to eliminate accelerated main injector baffle and main combustion chamber hot gas wall degradation. The conclusions are drawn from instrumented engine ground test data and hardware integrity analysis reports and address initial engine test results with respect to the apparent design change effects on engine system and component operation.

  18. RESULTS OF INITIAL ANALYSES OF THE MACROBATCH 5 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-31

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Salt (Macro)Batch 5 for the Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 5 strategy are identified. This report describes the laboratory results of Salt (Macro)Batch 5 preliminary samples from Tank 21H. These results will be used by Tank Farm Engineering for their blend calculations. This work was specified by Technical Task Request (TTR) and by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP).

  19. Penn State geoPebble system: Design,Implementation, and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, J. V.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Bilen, S. G.; Fleishman, A.; Burkett, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Penn State geoPebble system is a new network of wirelessly interconnected seismic and GPS sensor nodes with flexible architecture. This network will be used for studies of ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland, as well as to investigate mountain glaciers. The network will consist of ˜150 geoPebbles that can be deployed in a user-defined spatial geometry. We present our design methodology, which has enabled us to develop these state-of- the art sensors using commercial-off-the-shelf hardware combined with custom-designed hardware and software. Each geoPebble is a self- contained, wirelessly connected sensor for collecting seismic measurements and position information. Key elements of each node encompasses a three-component seismic recorder, which includes an amplifier, filter, and 24- bit analog-to-digital converter that can sample up to 10 kHz. Each unit also includes a microphone channel to record the ground-coupled airwave. The timing for each node is available from GPS measurements and a local precision oscillator that is conditioned by the GPS timing pulses. In addition, we record the carrier-phase measurement of the L1 GPS signal in order to determine location at sub-decimeter accuracy (relative to other geoPebbles within a few kilometers radius). Each geoPebble includes 16 GB of solid-state storage, wireless communications capability to a central supervisory unit, and auxiliary measurements capability (including tilt from accelerometers, absolute orientation from magnetometers and temperature). A novel aspect of the geoPebble is a wireless charging system for the internal battery (using inductive coupling techniques). The geoPebbles include all the sensors (geophones, GPS, microphone), communications (WiFi), and power (battery and charging) internally, so the geoPebble system can operate without any cabling connections (though we do provide an external connector so that different geophones can be used). We report initial field-deployment results and

  20. Theoretical study of the oxidation mechanisms of naphthalene initiated by hydroxyl radicals: the OH-addition pathway.

    PubMed

    Shiroudi, Abolfazl; Deleuze, Michael S; Canneaux, Sébastien

    2014-07-01

    The oxidation mechanisms of naphthalene by OH radicals under inert (He) conditions have been studied using density functional theory along with various exchange-correlation functionals. Comparison has been made with benchmark CBS-QB3 theoretical results. Kinetic rate constants were correspondingly estimated by means of transition state theory and statistical Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory. Comparison with experiment confirms that, on the OH-addition reaction pathway leading to 1-naphthol, the first bimolecular reaction step has an effective negative activation energy around -1.5 kcal mol(-1), whereas this step is characterized by an activation energy around 1 kcal mol(-1) on the OH-addition reaction pathway leading to 2-naphthol. Effective rate constants have been calculated according to a steady state analysis upon a two-step model reaction mechanism. In line with experiment, the correspondingly obtained branching ratios indicate that, at temperatures lower than 410 K, the most abundant product resulting from the oxidation of naphthalene by OH radicals must be 1-naphthol. The regioselectivity of the OH(•)-addition onto naphthalene decreases with increasing temperatures and decreasing pressures. Because of slightly positive or even negative activation energies, the RRKM calculations demonstrate that the transition state approximation breaks down at ambient pressure (1 bar) for the first bimolecular reaction steps. Overwhelmingly high pressures, larger than 10(5) bar, would be required for restoring to some extent (within ∼5% accuracy) the validity of this approximation for all the reaction channels that are involved in the OH-addition pathway. Analysis of the computed structures, bond orders, and free energy profiles demonstrate that all reaction steps involved in the oxidation of naphthalene by OH radicals satisfy Leffler-Hammond's principle. Nucleus independent chemical shift indices and natural bond orbital analysis also show that the computed

  1. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.; Click, D.

    2010-01-06

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass - 14 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  2. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D

    2009-02-26

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass-1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma--mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  3. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  4. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  5. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  6. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  7. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  8. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  9. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  10. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  11. Non-lethal heat treatment of cells results in reduction of tumor initiation and metastatic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoo-Shin; Lee, Tae Hoon; O'Neill, Brian E.

    2015-08-14

    Non-lethal hyperthermia is used clinically as adjuvant treatment to radiation, with mixed results. Denaturation of protein during hyperthermia treatment is expected to synergize with radiation damage to cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Alternatively, hyperthermia is known to cause tissue level changes in blood flow, increasing the oxygenation and radiosensitivity of often hypoxic tumors. In this study, we elucidate a third possibility, that hyperthermia alters cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction, with particular impact on the cancer stem cell population. We demonstrate that cell heating results in a robust but temporary loss of cancer cell aggressiveness and metastatic potential in mouse models. In vitro, this heating results in a temporary loss in cell mobility, adhesion, and proliferation. Our hypothesis is that the loss of cellular adhesion results in suppression of cancer stem cells and loss of tumor virulence and metastatic potential. Our study suggests that the metastatic potential of cancer is particularly reduced by the effects of heat on cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction. If true, this could help explain both the successes and failures of clinical hyperthermia, and suggest ways to target treatments to those who would most benefit. - Highlights: • Non-lethal hyperthermia treatment of cancer cells is shown to cause a reduction in rates of tumor initiation and metastasis. • Dynamic imaging of cells during heat treatment shows temporary changes in cell shape, cell migration, and cell proliferation. • Loss of adhesion may lead to the observed effect, which may disproportionately impact the tumor initiating cell fraction. • Loss or suppression of the tumor initiating cell fraction results in the observed loss of metastatic potential in vivo. • This result may lead to new approaches to synergizing hyperthermia with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.

  12. Speech Perception Results for Children Using Cochlear Implants Who Have Additional Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettman, Shani J.; Fiket, Hayley; Dowell, Richard C.; Charlton, Margaret; Williams, Sarah S.; Tomov, Alexandra M.; Barker, Elizabeth J.

    2004-01-01

    Speech perception outcomes in young children with cochlear implants are affected by a number of variables including the age of implantation, duration of implantation, mode of communication, and the presence of a developmental delay or additional disability. The aim of this study is to examine the association between degree of developmental delay…

  13. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2015-10-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amount of solids, or unusual colors. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  14. Results Of Initial Analyses Of The Salt (Macro) Batch 9 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.

    2015-10-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  15. Leveraging finances for public health system improvement: results from the Turning Point initiative.

    PubMed

    Bekemeier, Betty; Riley, Catharine M; Berkowitz, Bobbie

    2007-01-01

    Reforming the public health infrastructure requires substantial system changes at the state level; state health agencies, however, often lack the resources and support for strategic planning and systemwide improvement. The Turning Point Initiative provided support for states to focus on large-scale system changes that resulted in increased funding for public health capacity and infrastructure development. Turning Point provides a test case for obtaining financial and institutional resources focused on systems change and infrastructure development-areas for which it has been historically difficult to obtain long-term support. The purpose of this exploratory, descriptive survey research was to enumerate the actual resources leveraged toward public health system improvement through the partnerships, planning, and implementation activities funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation as a part of the Turning Point Initiative.

  16. Start and initial results of the Fukushima Prefecture acute myocardial infarction registration survey.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Kijima, Mikihiro; Komatsu, Nobuo; Sugi, Masafumi; Seita, Hiroshi; Kanke, Michito; Saito, Tomiyoshi; Owada, Takayuki; Ono, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Masaharu; Abe, Yukihiko; Sato, Masahiko; Watanabe, Masayuki; Suzuki, Shigebumi; Tsuda, Akihiro; Chiba, Katsumi; Honda, Tsuneo; Tamagawa, Kazuaki; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Abe, Wataru; Maeyama, Tadami; Sagawa, Keiichi; Takahira, Hiroshi; Sodenaga, Yasumori; Ohara, Naoto; Kobayashi, Toshio; Hisa, Shinichi; Suzuki, Sakae; Saito, Yasutoshi; Shineha, Ryuzaburo; Suzuki, Fumio; Matsui, Junichiro; Tsuboi, Masao; Yui, Tokuo; Abe, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Shuichi; Takaya, Yuzou; Maehara, Kazuhira; Maruyama, Yukio; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2013-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains one of the most serious heart diseases and elucidation of its pathogenesis and advances in treatment strategies have been desired. In 2009, to understand the status of AMI in Fukushima Prefecture for improving treatment outcomes, a new AMI registration survey system was conducted throughout the prefecture. A total of 1,556 cases were registered in the initial 2 years from 2009 to 2010. The hospital-based overall incidence of AMI in Fukushima Prefecture was 37.9 people per population of 100,000 per year. Mortality from AMI within 30 days of onset was 10.2%. We report herein the actual situation of AMI onset and treatment in Fukushima Prefecture based on the initial results of the survey.

  17. Hunting the most distant stars in the Milky Way: methods and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Bochanski, John J.; Willman, Beth; West, Andrew A.; Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura

    2014-04-01

    We present a new catalog of 404 M giant candidates found in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). The 2400 deg{sup 2} available in the UKIDSS Large Area Survey Data Release 8 resolve M giants through a volume four times larger than that of the entire Two Micron All Sky Survey. Combining near-infrared photometry with optical photometry and proper motions from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey yields an M giant candidate catalog with less M dwarf and quasar contamination than previous searches for similarly distant M giants. Extensive follow-up spectroscopy of this sample will yield the first map of our Galaxy's outermost reaches over a large area of sky. Our initial spectroscopic follow-up of ∼30 bright candidates yielded the positive identification of five M giants at distances ∼20-90 kpc. Each of these confirmed M giants have positions and velocities consistent with the Sagittarius stream. The fainter M giant candidates in our sample have estimated photometric distances ∼200 kpc (assuming [Fe/H] = 0.0), but require further spectroscopic verification. The photometric distance estimates extend beyond the Milky Way's virial radius, and increase by ∼50% for each 0.5 dex decrease in assumed [Fe/H]. Given the number of M giant candidates, initial selection efficiency, and volume surveyed, we loosely estimate that at least one additional Sagittarius-like accretion event could have contributed to the hierarchical build-up of the Milky Way's outer halo.

  18. Characterization and initial results from the upgraded MST interferometer-polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parke, E.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Duff, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    The FIR interferometer-polarimeter diagnostic on MST is a high-bandwidth system with unique capabilities for measuring high-frequency density and internal magnetic fluctuations. Installation of new planar-diode mixers improves both the signal strength and the noise floor compared to the corner-cube mixers previously used. The new mixer technology also offers a simpler detection configuration that eliminates the need for additional amplifiers. We characterize the bandwidth capabilities of the upgraded heterodyne receiver system and present initial measurements in reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas. High wavenumber resolution becomes possible when operating without focusing elements, using only the 2-3 mm aperture on the mixer to determine the sampled chord width. This configuration will provide better resolution of small-scale fluctuations observed in the RFP during periods of improved, tokamak-like confinement. Finally, cross-correlation techniques between two mixers viewing the same chord further reduce measurement noise and improve the resolution of high-frequency, small-amplitude magnetic and density fluctuations. Initial tests of this technique in neutral-beam heated plasmas will be presented. Work supported by U.S. DOE.

  19. Receiver Function Study of the Peruvian Flat-Slab Region: Initial Results from PULSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, B.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Kumar, A.; Wagner, L. S.; Long, M. D.; Tavera, H.

    2013-12-01

    The largest segment of flat slab subduction in the world occurs beneath Peru where the distribution of slab earthquakes indicates the Nazca plate subducts nearly horizontally below the Andes. The presumably buoyant Nazca Ridge subducts at the southern end of this shallow subduction segment which has been linked to the cessation of active arc volcanism within the segment of the Andes between 3°S and 15°S. We deployed 40 broadband seismic stations as part of the PerU Lithosphere and Slab Experiment (PULSE) to investigate the flat slab subduction processes beneath the Peruvian Andes between 10.5°S and 15°S. As one component of a multi-technique seismological study, we have calculated Receiver Functions from PULSE seismic data to create Common Conversion Point stacks utilizing a 1-D velocity structure with Vp of 6.2 km/s to 60 km depth, 8.1 km/s from 60 to 200 km depth, and a Vp/Vs ratio of 1.8 to provide preliminary constraints on crustal-scale structures near the subducting Nazca Ridge. Forward modeling of results from individual stations was carried out to provide additional constraints on more localized crustal variations. These results provide estimates for the thickness of the continental crust of the overriding South American Plate as well as the first regional images of a discontinuous oceanic Moho of the subducted Nazca Plate. Receiver function results show a strong P-to-S conversion from the continental Moho indicating the presence of significantly thickened crust within the central Peruvian Andes, reaching thicknesses of 50 to more than 60 kilometers and extending eastward into the Subandean region. A significant change in crustal thickness is present in the Eastern Cordillera northeast of Cuzco, stepping from approximately 62 km to 55 km, which matches prior crustal models based on gravity data. A number of high amplitude arrivals indicate the top of a low velocity layer at approximately 12-15 km depth throughout the PULSE study region, roughly

  20. A 10-Year Mechatronics Curriculum Development Initiative: Relevance, Content, and Results--Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, S.; Yost, S. A.; Krishnan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the first phase of a Mechatronics Curriculum Development effort--the design of an "Introduction to Mechatronics" course, the infusion of mechatronics activities throughout the curriculum and in outreach activities, and assessment results. In addition, the relevance and impact of such a curriculum on the education of engineers…

  1. Influence of Initial Geometry and Boundary Conditions on Flat Subduction Models and Resulting Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P.; Moucha, R.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical investigations of surface deformation in response to flat slab subduction began with seminal papers by Bird (1988) and Mitrovica et al. (1989). Recently, a number of numerical studies have begun to explore the complexity in the dynamics of flat-slab subduction initiation and continuation, but did not address the corresponding surface deformation (English et al., 2003; Pérez-Campos et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2010; Jones et al., 2011; Arrial and Billen, 2013; Vogt and Gerya, 2014). Herein, we explore the conditions that lead to flat-slab subduction and characterize the resulting surface deformation using a 2D finite-difference marker-in-cell method. We specifically explore how initial model geometry and boundary conditions affect the evolution of the angle at which a slab subducts in the presence/absence of a buoyant oceanic plateau and the resulting surface topography. In our simulations, the surface is tracked through time as an internal erosion/sedimentation surface. The top boundary of the crust is overlaid by a "sticky" (viscous 10^17 Pa.s) water/air layer with correspondingly stratified densities. We apply a coupled surface processes model that solves the sediment transport/diffusion erosion equation at each time step to account for the corresponding crustal mass flux and its effect on crustal deformation. Model results show the initial angle of subduction has a substantial impact on the subduction angle of the slab and hence the evolution of topography. The results also indicate plate velocity and the presence of an oceanic plateau in a forced subduction only have a moderate effect on the angle of subduction.

  2. Ground testing on the nonvented fill method of orbital propellant transfer: Results of initial test series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of a series of no-vent fill experiments conducted on a 175 cu ft flightweight hydrogen tank. The experiments consisted of the nonvented fill of the tankage with liquid hydrogen using two different inlet systems (top spray, and bottom spray) at different tank initial conditions and inflow rates. Nine tests were completed of which six filled in excess of 94 percent. The experiments demonstrated a consistent and repeatable ability to fill the tank in excess of 94 percent using the nonvented fill technique. Ninety-four percent was established as the high level cutoff due to requirements for some tank ullage to prevent rapid tank pressure rise which occurs in a tank filled entirely with liquid. The best fill was terminated at 94 percent full with a tank internal pressure less than 26 psia. Although the baseline initial tank wall temperature criteria was that all portions of the tank wall be less than 40 R, fills were achieved with initial wall temperatures as high as 227 R.

  3. Convection of Plasmaspheric Plasma into the Outer Magnetosphere and Boundary Layer Region: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ober, Daniel M.; Horwitz, J. L.; Gallagher, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    We present initial results on the modeling of the circulation of plasmaspheric- origin plasma into the outer magnetosphere and low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL), using a dynamic global core plasma model (DGCPM). The DGCPM includes the influences of spatially and temporally varying convection and refilling processes to calculate the equatorial core plasma density distribution throughout the magnetosphere. We have developed an initial description of the electric and magnetic field structures in the outer magnetosphere region. The purpose of this paper is to examine both the losses of plasmaspheric-origin plasma into the magnetopause boundary layer and the convection of this plasma that remains trapped on closed magnetic field lines. For the LLBL electric and magnetic structures we have adopted here, the plasmaspheric plasma reaching the outer magnetosphere is diverted anti-sunward primarily along the dusk flank. These plasmas reach X = -15 R(sub E) in the LLBL approximately 3.2 hours after the initial enhancement of convection and continues to populate the LLBL for 12 hours as the convection electric field diminishes.

  4. Non-Shock Initiation Model for Plastic Bonded Explosive PBXN-5 and Cast Explosive: Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Mark; Todd, Steven; Caipen, Terry; Jensen, Charlie; Hughs, Chance

    2009-06-01

    A damage initiated reaction (DMGIR) computational model is being developed for the CTH shock physics code to predict the response of an explosive to non-shock mechanical insults. The distinguishing feature of this model is the introduction of a damage variable, which relates the evolution of damage to the initiation of reaction in the explosive, and its growth to detonation. The DMGIR model is a complement to the History Variable Reactive Burn (HVRB) model embedded in the current CTH code. Specifically designed experiments are supporting the development, implementation, and validation of the DMGIR numerical approach. PBXN-5 was the initial explosive material used experimentally to develop the DMGIR model. This explosive represents a family of plastically bonded explosives with good mechanical strength and rigid body properties. The model has been extended to cast explosives represented by Composition B. Furthermore, the DMGIR model will extended to predict results of non-shock mechanical insults for moldable plastic explosives such as C4 and PrimaSheet.

  5. Convection of Plasmaspheric Plasma into the Outer Magnetosphere and Boundary Layer Region: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ober, Daniel M.; Horwitz, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    We present initial results on the modeling of the circulation of plasmaspheric-origin plasma into the outer magnetosphere and low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL), using a dynamic global core plasma model (DGCPM). The DGCPM includes the influences of spatially and temporally varying convection and refilling processes to calculate the equatorial core plasma density distribution throughout the magnetosphere. We have developed an initial description of the electric and magnetic field structures in the outer magnetosphere region. The purpose of this paper is to examine both the losses of plasmaspheric-origin plasma into the magnetopause boundary layer and the convection of this plasma that remains trapped on closed magnetic field lines. For the LLBL electric and magnetic structures we have adopted here, the plasmaspheric plasma reaching the outer magnetosphere is diverted anti-sunward primarily along the dusk flank. These plasmas reach X= -15 R(sub E) in the LLBL approximately 3.2 hours after the initial enhancement of convection and continues to populate the LLBL for 12 hours as the convection electric field diminishes.

  6. Spinal epidural neurostimulation for treatment of acute and chronic intractable pain: initial and long term results.

    PubMed

    Richardson, R R; Siqueira, E B; Cerullo, L J

    1979-09-01

    Spinal epidural neurostimulation, which evolved from dorsal column stimulation, has been found to be effective in the treatment of acute and chronic intractable pain. Urban and Hashold have shown that it is a safe, simplified alternative to dorsal column stimulation, especially because laminectomy is not required if the electrodes are inserted percutaneously. Percutaneous epidural neurostimulation is also advantageous because there can be a diagnostic trial period before permanent internalization and implantation. This diagnostic and therapeutic modality has been used in 36 patients during the past 3 years at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. Eleven of these patients had acute intractable pain, which was defined as pain of less than 1 year in duration. Initial postimplantation results from the 36 patients indicate that spinal epidural neurostimulation is most effective in treating the intractable pain of diabetes, arachnoiditis, and post-traumatic and postamputation neuroma. Long term follow-up, varying from 1 year to 3 years postimplantation in the 20 initially responding patients, indicates that the neurostimulation continues to provide significant pain relief (50% or greater) in a majority of the patients who experienced initial significant pain relief.

  7. Initial results obtained from a 3D computational model of the shaped charge jet particulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Zernow, L.; Chapyak, E.J.

    1998-02-01

    In a previous paper, the authors discussed a 3D computational model for the particulation of a stretching shaped charge jet, based on the experimentally observed double-helix surface perturbations on softly recovered jet particles. The 3D problem was derived from the unperturbed 2D problem, which was first used to generate a stretching jet. A portion of this 2D jet was selected for study in the cylindrical 3D mode, and the double-helix perturbations were placed on the cylinder surface. This initial computation was greatly simplified, to make it feasible to run on a CM 200 massively parallel processor. The initial output of this computation, which is being published here for the first time, leads to a significant simplification of the analysis of the particulation process, by avoiding the search for the elusive ``most favored wavelength`` which is characteristic of 2D axi-symmetric analyses. Previously unnoticed characteristics of flash radiographs from Viper jets, appear to support the computational results obtained, despite a counter-intuitive prediction of the location of necking loci, relative to the perturbing helices. The approximations used in this initial computation are discussed critically. Planned improvements are defined. A vision of future fundamental computations, which become possible with more powerful ASCI machines, is projected.

  8. Additional value of F-18 FDG PET/CT for initial staging in breast cancer with clinically negative axillary nodes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do-Young; Yoon, Hyun Jin; Son, Hye Joo

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical impact of the preoperative ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT in the initial workup of breast cancer with clinically negative axillary nodes. Whether the status of the clinical axillary nodal involvement can be considered a parameter for making a decision to omit the preoperative ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT in the situation reported herein was also determined. A total of 178 patients who had newly diagnosed breast cancer and for whom the conventional diagnostic modalities showed no sign of axillary node metastasis were retrospectively enrolled in this study. All the patients underwent preoperative ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT. The images and histologic results that were obtained were analyzed. ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT detected primary lesions in 156 of the 178 patients, with an overall sensitivity of 87.6 %, and false negative results were obtained for 22 patients (12.4 %). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of axillary nodes were 20.8, 86.9, 37.0, 74.8, and 69.1 %, respectively. Extra-axillary node metastasis was identified in two patients (1.1 %) who had internal mammary nodes. There was no distant metastasis, but coexisting primary tumor was detected in five patients (2.8 %). In total, the therapeutic plan was changed based on ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT in seven (3.9 %) of the 178 patients, but considering only the cases confined to breast cancer, the change occurred in only two patients (1.1 %). ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT almost did not affect the initial staging and treatment plan in breast cancer with clinically negative axillary node. If the axillary node is clinically negative in the preoperative workup of breast cancer, then ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT can be omitted.

  9. Spinel dissolution via addition of glass forming chemicals. Results of preliminary experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Johnson, F. C.

    2015-11-01

    Increased loading of high level waste in glass can lead to crystallization within the glass. Some crystalline species, such as spinel, have no practical impact on the chemical durability of the glass, and therefore may be acceptable from both a processing and a product performance standpoint. In order to operate a melter with a controlled amount of crystallization, options must be developed for remediating an unacceptable accumulation of crystals. This report describes preliminary experiments designed to evaluate the ability to dissolve spinel crystals in simulated waste glass melts via the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs).

  10. Initial Checkout Results of the Compact Infrared Camera (circ) for Earth Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, E.; Katayama, H.; Sakai, M.; Nakajima, Y.; Kimura, T.; Nakau, K.; Tonooka, H.

    2015-04-01

    Compact Infrared Camera (CIRC) is a technology-demonstration instrument equipped with an uncooled infrared array detector (microbolometer) for space application. CIRC is the first microbolometer sensor without a calibration function in orbit, like a shutter system or an onboard blackbody. The main objective of the CIRC is to detect wildfires, which are major and chronic disasters affecting various countries of Southeast Asia, particularly considering the effects of global warming and climate change. The CIRC achieves a small size (approximately 200 mm), light mass (approximately 3 kg), and low electrical power consumption (<20 W) by employing athermal optics and a shutterless system. The CIRC can be consequently mounted on multiple satellites to enable highfrequency observation. Installation of CIRCs on the ALOS-2 and on the JEM/CALET is expected to increase observation frequency. We present the initial check-out results of the CIRC onboard ALOS-2. Since the initial check-out phase (July 4-14, 2014), the CIRC has acquired the images of Earth. CIRC was demonstrated to function according to its intended design. After the early calibration validation phase, which confirmed the temperature accuracy of observed data, CIRC data has been available to the public January 2015 onward. We also introduce a few observational results about wildfire, volcanoes, and heat-island.

  11. Hydrocode Modeling of Asteroid Impacts into a Volatile-Rich Martian Surface: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesko, C. S.; Asphaug, E.; Gisler, G. R.; Gittings, M. L.

    2005-08-01

    We present initial results of simulations of asteroid impacts into a volatile-rich Martian surface, and test the RAGE hydrocode (Gittings et al., 2005) in benchmark scenarios relevant to such models. RAGE is an Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamics code that runs in up to three dimensions, using a Godunov method to solve the hydrodynamics equations, and adaptive mesh refinement to increase computational efficiency near shocks and boundaries. It incorporates a large variety of detailed equations of state including the temperature-based SESAME tables maintained by LANL. Our Mars impact modeling effort involves two components: (1) characterizing and validating RAGE models of the propagation of impact shocks in well-characterized laboratory experiments, and (2) building up realistic RAGE models of the Martian surface involving inhomogeneous layers, volatile layers, and atmosphere. The Mars science goals of these efforts are twofold. The first is to arrive at a robust quantitative examination of impact devolatilization, which has been proposed (Segura et al., Science 2002) as a mechanism for triggering sporadic but intense Martian hydrologic cycles. The second goal is to attempt to relate the geological expression of Martian craters to the nature of sub-surface layering. Comparison of hydrocode results against analytical and laboratory results are imperative for correct forward modeling, so we have begun by putting RAGE through a series of validation tests. We present model results that show good agreement with laboratory experiments and analytical models, and initial results for Mars crater formation. This effort is supported by LANL/IGPP (CSP, GRG, MLG) and by NASA PG&G "Small Bodies and Planetary Collisions" (EA).

  12. Results Of Initial Analyses Of The Macrobatch 7 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-07-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Salt (Macro) Batch 7 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) through ARP/MCU. This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 7 strategy are identified, other than the presence of visible quantities of dark colored solids. Based upon a SRNL settling test, the solids should settle well within the months-long settling period to be employed in Tank 21H. However, SRNL recommends analyzing the solids to provide input to OLI modeling in order to evaluate the impacts of these solids to present and future salt batches.

  13. Initial Results From the 3D Hybrid Heliospheric Modeling System With Pickup Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detman, T. R.; Intriligator, D.; Dryer, M.; Sun, W.; Deehr, C.; Intriligator, J.

    2008-12-01

    Interstellar neutral hydrogen flows into the heliosphere and becomes ionized by photoionization and by charge exchange with solar wind protons. These "pickup" protons cause a slowing and heating of the solar wind flow in the outer heliosphere. We are adding the physics of these processes to our time-dependent 3D Hybrid Heliospheric Modeling System. We plan to present initial results for the "Halloween" 2003 events, and to show comparisons with both ACE and Ulysses observations and with our previous results (without pickup protons). This work is sponsored by NASA Grant NNX08AE40G and by Carmel Research Center. Detman et al., 2006, A hybrid heliospheric modeling system: Background solar wind, J. Geophys. Res., V 111, doi:10.1029/2005JA011340

  14. Implementation of STUD Pulses at the Trident Laser and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. P.; Shimada, T.; Montgomery, D. S.; Afeyan, B.; Hüller, S.

    2012-10-01

    Controlling and mitigating laser-plasma instabilities such as stimulated Brillouin scattering, stimulated Raman scattering, and crossed-beam energy transfer is important to achieve high-gain inertial fusion using laser drivers. Recent theory and simulations show that these instabilities can be largely controlled using laser pulses consisting of spike trains of uneven duration and delay (STUD) by modulating the laser on a picosecond time scale [1,2]. We have designed and implemented a STUD pulse generator at the LANL Trident Laser Facility using Fourier synthesis to produce a 0.5-ns envelope of psec-duration STUD pulses using a spatial light modulator. Initial results from laser propagation tests and measurements as well as initial laser-plasma characterization experiments will be presented.[4pt] [1] B. Afeyan and S. H"uller, ``Optimal Control of Laser Plasma Instabilities using STUD pulses,'' IFSA 2011, P.Mo.1, to appear in Euro. Phys. J. Web of Conf. (2012).[2] S. H"uller and B. Afeyan, ``Simulations of drastically reduced SBS with STUD pulses,'' IFSA 2011, O.Tu8-1, to appear in Euro. Phys. J. Web of Conf. (2012).

  15. Shock timing experiments on the National Ignition Facility: Initial results and comparison with simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robey, H. F.; Boehly, T. R.; Celliers, P. M.; Eggert, J. H.; Hicks, D.; Smith, R. F.; Collins, R.; Bowers, M. W.; Krauter, K. G.; Datte, P. S.; Munro, D. H.; Milovich, J. L.; Jones, O. S.; Michel, P. A.; Thomas, C. A.; Olson, R. E.; Pollaine, S.; Town, R. P. J.; Haan, S.; Callahan, D.; Clark, D.; Edwards, J.; Kline, J. L.; Dixit, S.; Schneider, M. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Widmann, K.; Moody, J. D.; Döppner, T.; Radousky, H. B.; Throop, A.; Kalantar, D.; DiNicola, P.; Nikroo, A.; Kroll, J. J.; Hamza, A. V.; Horner, J. B.; Bhandarkar, S. D.; Dzenitis, E.; Alger, E.; Giraldez, E.; Castro, C.; Moreno, K.; Haynam, C.; LaFortune, K. N.; Widmayer, C.; Shaw, M.; Jancaitis, K.; Parham, T.; Holunga, D. M.; Walters, C. F.; Haid, B.; Mapoles, E. R.; Sater, J.; Gibson, C. R.; Malsbury, T.; Fair, J.; Trummer, D.; Coffee, K. R.; Burr, B.; Berzins, L. V.; Choate, C.; Brereton, S. J.; Azevedo, S.; Chandrasekaran, H.; Eder, D. C.; Masters, N. D.; Fisher, A. C.; Sterne, P. A.; Young, B. K.; Landen, O. L.; Van Wonterghem, B. M.; MacGowan, B. J.; Atherton, J.; Lindl, J. D.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Moses, E.

    2012-04-01

    Capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)] are underway with the goal of compressing deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel to a sufficiently high areal density (ρR) to sustain a self-propagating burn wave required for fusion power gain greater than unity. These implosions are driven with a carefully tailored sequence of four shock waves that must be timed to very high precision in order to keep the DT fuel on a low adiabat. Initial experiments to measure the strength and relative timing of these shocks have been conducted on NIF in a specially designed surrogate target platform known as the keyhole target. This target geometry and the associated diagnostics are described in detail. The initial data are presented and compared with numerical simulations. As the primary goal of these experiments is to assess and minimize the adiabat in related DT implosions, a methodology is described for quantifying the adiabat from the shock velocity measurements. Results are contrasted between early experiments that exhibited very poor shock timing and subsequent experiments where a modified target geometry demonstrated significant improvement.

  16. Status, Plans and Initial Results for Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, L. D.; Hall, R. M.; Haynes, D. A.; Pamadi, B. N.; Taylor, T. L.; Seaford, C. M.

    Following the completion of NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture Study in August 2004 for the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), the Ares Projects Office at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was assigned project management responsibilities for the design and development of the first vehicle in the architecture, the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will be used to launch astronauts to low earth orbit and rendezvous with either the International Space Station or the ESMD's earth departure stage for lunar or other future missions beyond low Earth orbit. The primary elements of the Ares I CLV project are the first stage, the upper stage, the upper stage engine, and vehicle integration. Within vehicle integration is an effort in integrated design and analysis which is comprised of a number of technical disciplines needed to support vehicle design and development. One of the important disciplines throughout the life of the project is aerodynamics. This paper will present the status, plans, and initial results of Ares I CLV aerodynamics as the project was preparing for the Ares I CLV Systems Requirements Review. Following a discussion of the specific interactions with other technical panels and a status of the current activities, the plans for aerodynamic support of the Ares I CLV until the initial crewed flights will be presented.

  17. The 110 GHz ECH installation on DII-D: Status and initial experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, J.; Callis, R.W.; O`Neill, R.C.

    1997-05-01

    Two 110 GHz gyrotrons with nominal output power of 1 MW each have been installed on the DIII-D tokamak. The gyrotrons, produced by Gycom and Communications and Power Industries, are connected to the tokamak by windowless evacuated transmission lines using circular corrugated waveguide carrying the HE{sub 11} mode. Initial experiments with the Gycom gyrotron showed good central heating efficiency at the second harmonic resonance with record central electron temperatures for DIII-D in excess of 10 keV achieved. The beam spot in the DIII-D vacuum vessel was well focused, with a diameter of approximately 8 cm, and it could be steered poloidally by a remotely adjustable mirror. The injection was at 19 deg off-perpendicular for current drive and the beams could be modulated for studies of energy transport and power deposition. The system will be described and the initial physics results will be presented. A third gyrotron, also at 110 GHz, will be installed later this year. Progress with this CPI tube will be discussed and future plans for the ECH installation and physics experiments using it will be presented.

  18. The European Network for Translational Research in Atrial Fibrillation (EUTRAF): objectives and initial results.

    PubMed

    Schotten, Ulrich; Hatem, Stephane; Ravens, Ursula; Jaïs, Pierre; Müller, Frank-Ulrich; Goette, Andres; Rohr, Stephan; Antoons, Gudrun; Pieske, Burkert; Scherr, Daniel; Oto, Ali; Casadei, Barbara; Verheule, Sander; Cartlidge, David; Steinmeyer, Klaus; Götsche, Thorsten; Dobrev, Dobromir; Kockskämper, Jens; Lendeckel, Uwe; Fabritz, Larissa; Kirchhof, Paulus; Camm, A John

    2015-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia in the general population. As an age-related arrhythmia AF is becoming a huge socio-economic burden for European healthcare systems. Despite significant progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of AF, therapeutic strategies for AF have not changed substantially and the major challenges in the management of AF are still unmet. This lack of progress may be related to the multifactorial pathogenesis of atrial remodelling and AF that hampers the identification of causative pathophysiological alterations in individual patients. Also, again new mechanisms have been identified and the relative contribution of these mechanisms still has to be established. In November 2010, the European Union launched the large collaborative project EUTRAF (European Network of Translational Research in Atrial Fibrillation) to address these challenges. The main aims of EUTRAF are to study the main mechanisms of initiation and perpetuation of AF, to identify the molecular alterations underlying atrial remodelling, to develop markers allowing to monitor this processes, and suggest strategies to treat AF based on insights in newly defined disease mechanisms. This article reports on the objectives, the structure, and initial results of this network. PMID:26364316

  19. Status, Plans, and Initial Results for ARES 1 Crew Launch Vehicle Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Haynes, Davy A.; Taylor, Terry L.; Hall, Robert M.; Pamadi, Bandu N.; Seaford, C. Mark

    2006-01-01

    Following the completion of NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture Study in August 2004 for the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), the Exploration Launch Office at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was assigned project management responsibilities for the design and development of the first vehicle in the architecture, the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will be used to launch astronauts to low earth orbit and rendezvous with either the International Space Station or the ESMD s earth departure stage for lunar or other future missions beyond low Earth orbit. The primary elements of the Ares I CLV project are the first stage, the upper stage, the upper stage engine, and vehicle integration. Within vehicle integration is an effort in integrated design and analysis which is comprised of a number of technical disciplines needed to support vehicle design and development. One of the important disciplines throughout the life of the project is aerodynamics. This paper will present the status, plans, and initial results of Ares I CLV aerodynamics as the project was preparing for the Ares I CLV Systems Requirements Review. Following a discussion of the specific interactions with other technical panels and a status of the current activities, the plans for aerodynamic support of the Ares I CLV until the initial crewed flights will be presented.

  20. First multipoint in situ observations of electron microbursts: Initial results from the NSF FIREBIRD II mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crew, Alexander B.; Spence, Harlan E.; Blake, J. Bernard; Klumpar, David M.; Larsen, Brian A.; O'Brien, T. Paul; Driscoll, Shane; Handley, Matthew; Legere, Jason; Longworth, Stephen; Mashburn, Keith; Mosleh, Ehson; Ryhajlo, Nicholas; Smith, Sonya; Springer, Larry; Widholm, Mark

    2016-06-01

    We present initial dual spacecraft observations that for the first time both constrain the spatial scale size and provide spectral properties at medium energies of electron microbursts. We explore individual microburst events that occurred on 2 February 2015 using simultaneous observations made by the twin CubeSats which comprise the National Science Foundation (NSF) Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Bursts: Intensity, Range, and Dynamics (FIREBIRD II). During these microburst events, the two identically instrumented FIREBIRD II CubeSats were separated by as little as 11 km while traversing electron precipitation regions in low-Earth orbit. These coincident microburst events map to size scales >120 km at the equator. Given the prevalence of coincident and noncoincident events we conclude that this is of the same order of magnitude as that of the spatial scale size of electron microburst, an unknown property that is critical for quantifying their overall role in radiation belt dynamics. Finally, we present measurements of electron microbursts showing that precipitation often occurs simultaneously across a broad energy range spanning 200 keV to 1 MeV, a new form of empirical evidence that provides additional insights into the physics of microburst generation mechanisms.

  1. Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions for the Pliocene (Plio-QUMP): Initial results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, J.O.; Collins, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Dowsett, H.J.; Hunter, S.J.; Lunt, D.J.; Pickering, S.J.; Pound, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Examination of the mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP; ~. 3.3 to 3.0. Ma BP) provides an excellent opportunity to test the ability of climate models to reproduce warm climate states, thereby assessing our confidence in model predictions. To do this it is necessary to relate the uncertainty in model simulations of mPWP climate to uncertainties in projections of future climate change. The uncertainties introduced by the model can be estimated through the use of a Perturbed Physics Ensemble (PPE). Developing on the UK Met Office Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions (QUMP) Project, this paper presents the results from an initial investigation using the end members of a PPE in a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model (HadCM3) running with appropriate mPWP boundary conditions. Prior work has shown that the unperturbed version of HadCM3 may underestimate mPWP sea surface temperatures at higher latitudes. Initial results indicate that neither the low sensitivity nor the high sensitivity simulations produce unequivocally improved mPWP climatology relative to the standard. Whilst the high sensitivity simulation was able to reconcile up to 6 ??C of the data/model mismatch in sea surface temperatures in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (relative to the standard simulation), it did not produce a better prediction of global vegetation than the standard simulation. Overall the low sensitivity simulation was degraded compared to the standard and high sensitivity simulations in all aspects of the data/model comparison. The results have shown that a PPE has the potential to explore weaknesses in mPWP modelling simulations which have been identified by geological proxies, but that a 'best fit' simulation will more likely come from a full ensemble in which simulations that contain the strengths of the two end member simulations shown here are combined. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  2. MER Field Geologic Traverse in Gusev Crater, Mars: Initial Results From the Perspective of Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L.; Cabrol, N.; desMarais, D.; Farmer, J.; Golmbek, M.; Grant, J.; Greely, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Haskin, L.; Arvidson, R.

    2004-01-01

    This report casts the initial results of the traverse and science investigations by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit at Gusev crater [1] in terms of data sets commonly used in field geologic investigations: Local mapping of geologic features, analyses of selected samples, and their location within the local map, and the regional context of the field traverse in terms of the larger geologic and physiographic region. These elements of the field method are represented in the MER characterization of the Gusev traverse by perspective-based geologic/morphologic maps, the placement of the results from Mossbauer, APXS, Microscopic Imager, Mini-TES and Pancam multispectral studies in context within this geologic/ morphologic map, and the placement of the overall traverse in the context of narrow-angle MOC (Mars Orbiter Camera) and descent images. A major campaign over a significance fraction of the mission will be the first robotic traverse of the ejecta from a Martian impact crater along an approximate radial from the crater center. The Mars Exploration Rovers have been conceptually described as 'robotic field geologists', that is, a suite of instruments with mobility that enables far-field traverses to multiple sites located within a regional map/image base at which in situ analyses may be done. Initial results from MER, where the field geologic method has been used throughout the initial course of the investigation, confirm that this field geologic model is applicable for remote planetary surface exploration. The field geologic method makes use of near-field geologic characteristics ('outcrops') to develop an understanding of the larger geologic context through continuous loop of rational steps focused on real-time hypothesis identification and testing. This poster equates 'outcrops' with the locations of in situ investigations and 'regional context' with the geology over distance of several kilometers. Using this fundamental field geologic method, we have

  3. Optical design and initial results from NIST's AMMT/TEMPS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, Steven; Lane, Brandon; Neira, Jorge; Mekhontsev, Sergey; Vlasea, Mihaela; Hanssen, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    NIST's Physical Measurement and Engineering Laboratories are jointly developing the Additive Manufacturing Measurement Test bed (AMMT)/ Temperature and Emittance of Melts, Powders and Solids (TEMPS) facilities. These facilities will be co-located on an open architecture laser-based powder bed fusion system allowing users full access to the system's operation parameters. This will provide users with access to machine-independent monitoring and control of the powder bed fusion process. In this paper there will be emphasis on the AMMT, which incorporates in-line visible light collection optics for monitoring and feedback control of the powder bed fusion process. We shall present an overview of the AMMT/TEMPs program and it goals. The optical and mechanical design of the open architecture powder-bed fusion system and the AMMT will be also be described. In addition, preliminary measurement results from the system along with the current system status of the system the will be described.

  4. XLF deficiency results in reduced N-nucleotide addition during V(D)J recombination

    PubMed Central

    IJspeert, Hanna; Rozmus, Jacob; Schwarz, Klaus; Warren, René L.; van Zessen, David; Holt, Robert A.; Pico-Knijnenburg, Ingrid; Simons, Erik; Jerchel, Isabel; Wawer, Angela; Lorenz, Myriam; Patıroğlu, Turkan; Akar, Himmet Haluk; Leite, Ricardo; Verkaik, Nicole S.; Stubbs, Andrew P.; van Gent, Dik C.; van Dongen, Jacques J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the nonhomologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ) is important not only for repair of spontaneous breaks but also for breaks induced in developing lymphocytes during V(D)J (variable [V], diversity [D], and joining [J] genes) recombination of their antigen receptor loci to create a diverse repertoire. Mutations in the NHEJ factor XLF result in extreme sensitivity for ionizing radiation, microcephaly, and growth retardation comparable to mutations in LIG4 and XRCC4, which together form the NHEJ ligation complex. However, the effect on the immune system is variable (mild to severe immunodeficiency) and less prominent than that seen in deficiencies of NHEJ factors ARTEMIS and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, with defects in the hairpin opening step, which is crucial and unique for V(D)J recombination. Therefore, we aimed to study the role of XLF during V(D)J recombination. We obtained clinical data from 9 XLF-deficient patients and performed immune phenotyping and antigen receptor repertoire analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TR) rearrangements, using next-generation sequencing in 6 patients. The results were compared with XRCC4 and LIG4 deficiency. Both Ig and TR rearrangements showed a significant decrease in the number of nontemplated (N) nucleotides inserted by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, which resulted in a decrease of 2 to 3 amino acids in the CDR3. Such a reduction in the number of N-nucleotides has a great effect on the junctional diversity, and thereby on the total diversity of the Ig and TR repertoire. This shows that XLF has an important role during V(D)J recombination in creating diversity of the repertoire by stimulating N-nucleotide insertion. PMID:27281794

  5. XLF deficiency results in reduced N-nucleotide addition during V(D)J recombination.

    PubMed

    IJspeert, Hanna; Rozmus, Jacob; Schwarz, Klaus; Warren, René L; van Zessen, David; Holt, Robert A; Pico-Knijnenburg, Ingrid; Simons, Erik; Jerchel, Isabel; Wawer, Angela; Lorenz, Myriam; Patıroğlu, Turkan; Akar, Himmet Haluk; Leite, Ricardo; Verkaik, Nicole S; Stubbs, Andrew P; van Gent, Dik C; van Dongen, Jacques J M; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2016-08-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the nonhomologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ) is important not only for repair of spontaneous breaks but also for breaks induced in developing lymphocytes during V(D)J (variable [V], diversity [D], and joining [J] genes) recombination of their antigen receptor loci to create a diverse repertoire. Mutations in the NHEJ factor XLF result in extreme sensitivity for ionizing radiation, microcephaly, and growth retardation comparable to mutations in LIG4 and XRCC4, which together form the NHEJ ligation complex. However, the effect on the immune system is variable (mild to severe immunodeficiency) and less prominent than that seen in deficiencies of NHEJ factors ARTEMIS and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, with defects in the hairpin opening step, which is crucial and unique for V(D)J recombination. Therefore, we aimed to study the role of XLF during V(D)J recombination. We obtained clinical data from 9 XLF-deficient patients and performed immune phenotyping and antigen receptor repertoire analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TR) rearrangements, using next-generation sequencing in 6 patients. The results were compared with XRCC4 and LIG4 deficiency. Both Ig and TR rearrangements showed a significant decrease in the number of nontemplated (N) nucleotides inserted by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, which resulted in a decrease of 2 to 3 amino acids in the CDR3. Such a reduction in the number of N-nucleotides has a great effect on the junctional diversity, and thereby on the total diversity of the Ig and TR repertoire. This shows that XLF has an important role during V(D)J recombination in creating diversity of the repertoire by stimulating N-nucleotide insertion.

  6. Gas dynamics, accretion, and evolution of Algols: Initial results for three representative systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gimenez, A.; Gonzalez-Riestra, Rosario; Guinan, Edward F.; Kondo, Yoji; Mccluskey, G.; Bradstreet, D. H.; Mccook, G. P.; Dorren, J. D.; Johansson, S.; Sahade, J.

    1990-01-01

    IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) observations were made around the orbits of three Algol-type binaries: R Arae, U Cephei and Algol. These stars were selected to represent, respectively, the rapid, moderate and slow phases of mass transfer and mass loss in Algols. The data was obtained to derive maps of gas flow and mass loss, to study accretion processes and kinetic heating, and to investigate the importance of magnetic fields in these systems. Continuous observations were made from GSFC and VILSPA over 4 1/3 consecutive days during 10 to 14 Sep. 1989. A total of 100 spectra are obtained. This is the first time that Algol systems are observed continuously over their orbits with IUE. Initial results from this program are discussed.

  7. Initial cathode processing experiences and results for the treatment of spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, B.R.; Laug, D.V.; Brunsvold, A.R.; Roach, P.D.

    1996-05-01

    As part of the spent fuel treatment demonstration at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, primarily consisting of a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a batch operation termed ``cathode processing.`` Cathode processing is performed in a retort furnace which enables the production of a stable uranium product that can be isotopically diluted and stored. To date, experiments have been performed with two distillation units; one for prototypical testing and the other for actual spent fuel treatment operations. The results and experiences from these initial experiments with both units will be discussed as well as problems encountered and their resolution.

  8. Initial results of the high resolution edge Thomson scattering upgrade at DIII-Da)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldon, D.; Bray, B. D.; Deterly, T. M.; Liu, C.; Watkins, M.; Groebner, R. J.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.; Snyder, P. B.; Boivin, R. L.; Tynan, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    Validation of models of pedestal structure is an important part of predicting pedestal height and performance in future tokamaks. The Thomson scattering diagnostic at DIII-D has been upgraded in support of validating these models. Spatial and temporal resolution, as well as signal to noise ratio, have all been specifically enhanced in the pedestal region. This region is now diagnosed by 20 view-chords with a spacing of 6 mm and a scattering length of just under 5 mm sampled at a nominal rate of 250 Hz. When mapped to the outboard midplane, this corresponds to ˜3 mm spacing. These measurements are being used to test critical gradient models, in which pedestal gradients increase in time until a threshold is reached. This paper will describe the specifications of the upgrade and present initial results of the system.

  9. Initial Results of Multi-Frequency Electron Cyclotron Heating in the Levitated Dipole Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.K.; Garnier, D.T.; Mauel, M.; Ortiz, E.E.; Mahar, S.; Boxer, A.C.; Ellsworth, J.L.; Karim, I.; Kesner, J.

    2005-09-26

    The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) has created high-beta, hot-electron plasmas that are confined by a strong dipole electromagnet via multiple-frequency electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). Multiple frequency ECRH is used to investigate how variation of the power deposition profile may be used to adjust the plasma density and pressure profiles. The initial experiments have been performed using up to 3 kW at 2.45 GHz and 3 kW at 6.4 GHz. Variations included switching on and off a single source while injecting constant power with the other source. We have also investigated the role of magnetic shaping, using external coils, on ECRH phenomena and plasma profile control. The preliminary results of these experiments will be presented.

  10. Plasma potential control: initial results from tandem mirror experiment-upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, E.B. Jr.

    1984-02-28

    Initial plasma potential control experiments used plates in the end fan, insulated from the end walls of TMX-U, which mapped along field lines to the plasma core (r/sub c/ less than or equal to 12.9 cm). Measurements in which these plates are shorted to ground during plugging demonstrate that floating the plates increases the buildup rate of the central cell plasma, steepens the core density profile, and affects the plasma throughout the entire cross section. Floating the plates decreases the ion radial transport rate in the core by a factor of at least 1.5. Because of these encouraging results, in the next series of experiments more plates will be added, extending to a larger radius (r/sub c/ less than or equal to 19.4 cm).

  11. Federating Clinical Data from Six Pediatric Hospitals: Process and Initial Results from the PHIS+ Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Narus, Scott P.; Srivastava, Rajendu; Gouripeddi, Ramkiran; Livne, Oren E.; Mo, Peter; Bickel, Jonathan P.; de Regt, David; Hales, Joseph W.; Kirkendall, Eric; Stepanek, Richard L.; Toth, Jamie; Keren, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Integrating clinical data with administrative data across disparate electronic medical record systems will help improve the internal and external validity of comparative effectiveness research. The Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) currently collects administrative information from 43 pediatric hospital members of the Child Health Corporation of America (CHCA). Members of the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) network have partnered with CHCA and the University of Utah Biomedical Informatics Core to create an enhanced version of PHIS that includes clinical data. A specialized version of a data federation architecture from the University of Utah (“FURTHeR”) is being developed to integrate the clinical data from the member hospitals into a common repository (“PHIS+”) that is joined with the existing administrative data. We report here on our process for the first phase of federating lab data, and present initial results. PMID:22195159

  12. Initial results for urban metal distributions in house dusts of Syracuse, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D L; Hager, J; Hunt, A; Griffith, D A; Blount, S; Ellsworth, S; Hintz, J; Lucci, R; Mittiga, A; Prokhorova, D; Tidd, L; Millones, M M; Vincent, M

    2005-05-01

    A program of house dust sample collection and analysis has begun in Syracuse, New York, USA, in order to determine the feasibility of a geography-based exposure assessment for urban metals. The sampling program, and the protocols it employs, is described for two different types of wipe media, Ghost Wipes and Whatman Filters. Preliminary results show that strong spatial patterns of floor dust loading (mg dust per square foot) can be observed for data aggregated at a spatial scale of about 1600 m (approximately 2.5 km2). Floor dust metal concentrations were similar to those found in other urban environments, with some regional variation. The median floor dust Pb concentration was approximately 108 mg x kg(-1) for this initial data set of approximately 264 sampled residential locations, and varied from 50 to 1100 mg Pb x kg(-1).

  13. Gravitational Waves from Known Pulsars: Results from the Initial Detector Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Ceron, E. A.; Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. B.; Gehrels, N.; Graff, P. B.; Kanner, J. B.; Hobbs, G. B.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of searches for gravitational waves from a large selection of pulsars using data from the most recent science runs (S6, VSR2 and VSR4) of the initial generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory) and Virgo. We do not see evidence for gravitational wave emission from any of the targeted sources but produce upper limits on the emission amplitude. We highlight the results from seven young pulsars with large spin-down luminosities. We reach within a factor of five of the canonical spin-down limit for all seven of these, whilst for the Crab and Vela pulsars we further surpass their spin-down limits. We present new or updated limits for 172 other pulsars (including both young and millisecond pulsars). Now that the detectors are undergoing major upgrades, and, for completeness, we bring together all of the most up-to-date results from all pulsars searched for during the operations of the first-generation LIGO, Virgo and GEO600 detectors. This gives a total of 195 pulsars including the most recent results described in this paper.

  14. Gravitational Waves from Known Pulsars: Results from the Initial Detector Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, R. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S. H.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Belopolski, I.; Bergmann, G.; Berliner, J. M.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Bessis, D.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhadbhade, T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bowers, J.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brannen, C. A.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castiglia, A.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Deleeuw, E.; Deléglise, S.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Dmitry, K.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W.; Favata, M.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R.; Flaminio, R.; Foley, E.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Griffo, C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B.; Hall, E.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Horrom, T.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Hua, Z.; Huang, V.; Huerta, E. A.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of searches for gravitational waves from a large selection of pulsars using data from the most recent science runs (S6, VSR2 and VSR4) of the initial generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory) and Virgo. We do not see evidence for gravitational wave emission from any of the targeted sources but produce upper limits on the emission amplitude. We highlight the results from seven young pulsars with large spin-down luminosities. We reach within a factor of five of the canonical spin-down limit for all seven of these, whilst for the Crab and Vela pulsars we further surpass their spin-down limits. We present new or updated limits for 172 other pulsars (including both young and millisecond pulsars). Now that the detectors are undergoing major upgrades, and, for completeness, we bring together all of the most up-to-date results from all pulsars searched for during the operations of the first-generation LIGO, Virgo and GEO600 detectors. This gives a total of 195 pulsars including the most recent results described in this paper.

  15. Sensitivity Analysis of FEAST-Metal Fuel Performance Code: Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Edelmann, Paul Guy; Williams, Brian J.; Unal, Cetin; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2012-06-27

    This memo documents the completion of the LANL milestone, M3FT-12LA0202041, describing methodologies and initial results using FEAST-Metal. The FEAST-Metal code calculations for this work are being conducted at LANL in support of on-going activities related to sensitivity analysis of fuel performance codes. The objective is to identify important macroscopic parameters of interest to modeling and simulation of metallic fuel performance. This report summarizes our preliminary results for the sensitivity analysis using 6 calibration datasets for metallic fuel developed at ANL for EBR-II experiments. Sensitivity ranking methodology was deployed to narrow down the selected parameters for the current study. There are approximately 84 calibration parameters in the FEAST-Metal code, of which 32 were ultimately used in Phase II of this study. Preliminary results of this sensitivity analysis led to the following ranking of FEAST models for future calibration and improvements: fuel conductivity, fission gas transport/release, fuel creep, and precipitation kinetics. More validation data is needed to validate calibrated parameter distributions for future uncertainty quantification studies with FEAST-Metal. Results of this study also served to point out some code deficiencies and possible errors, and these are being investigated in order to determine root causes and to improve upon the existing code models.

  16. Gravitational waves from known pulsars: Results from the initial detector era

    SciTech Connect

    Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M. R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Ajith, P.; Abbott, T.; Accadia, T.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Affeldt, C.; Allen, B.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Allocca, A.; Ceron, E. Amador; Amariutei, D.; Collaboration: LIGO Scientific Collaboration and The Virgo Collaboration; and others

    2014-04-20

    We present the results of searches for gravitational waves from a large selection of pulsars using data from the most recent science runs (S6, VSR2 and VSR4) of the initial generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory) and Virgo. We do not see evidence for gravitational wave emission from any of the targeted sources but produce upper limits on the emission amplitude. We highlight the results from seven young pulsars with large spin-down luminosities. We reach within a factor of five of the canonical spin-down limit for all seven of these, whilst for the Crab and Vela pulsars we further surpass their spin-down limits. We present new or updated limits for 172 other pulsars (including both young and millisecond pulsars). Now that the detectors are undergoing major upgrades, and, for completeness, we bring together all of the most up-to-date results from all pulsars searched for during the operations of the first-generation LIGO, Virgo and GEO600 detectors. This gives a total of 195 pulsars including the most recent results described in this paper.

  17. Initial results from a multiple monoenergetic gamma radiography system for nuclear security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Day, Buckley E.; Hartwig, Zachary S.; Lanza, Richard C.; Danagoulian, Areg

    2016-10-01

    The detection of assembled nuclear devices and concealed special nuclear materials (SNM) such as plutonium or uranium in commercial cargo traffic is a major challenge in mitigating the threat of nuclear terrorism. Currently available radiographic and active interrogation systems use ∼1-10 MeV bremsstrahlung photon beams. Although simple to build and operate, bremsstrahlung-based systems deliver high radiation doses to the cargo and to potential stowaways. To eliminate problematic issues of high dose, we are developing a novel technique known as multiple monoenergetic gamma radiography (MMGR). MMGR uses ion-induced nuclear reactions to produce two monoenergetic gammas for dual-energy radiography. This allows us to image the areal density and effective atomic number (Zeff) of scanned cargo. We present initial results from the proof-of-concept experiment, which was conducted at the MIT Bates Research and Engineering Center. The purpose of the experiment was to assess the capabilities of MMGR to measure areal density and Zeff of container cargo mockups. The experiment used a 3.0 MeV radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator to create sources of 4.44 MeV and 15.11 MeV gammas from the 11B(d,nγ)12C reaction in a thick natural boron target; the gammas are detected by an array of NaI(Tl) detectors after transmission through cargo mockups . The measured fluxes of transmitted 4.44 MeV and 15.11 MeV gammas were used to assess the areal density and Zeff. Initial results show that MMGR is capable of discriminating the presence of high-Z materials concealed in up to 30 cm of iron shielding from low- and mid-Z materials present in the cargo mockup.

  18. 34 CFR 350.55 - What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM How Does the... Field-Initiated Project applications for funding? 350.55 Section 350.55 Education Regulations of the... Project applications for funding? (a) The Secretary reserves funds to support some or all of the...

  19. 40 CFR 60.5411 - What additional requirements must I meet to determine initial compliance for my closed vent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meet to determine initial compliance for my closed vent systems routing materials from storage vessels... for my closed vent systems routing materials from storage vessels and centrifugal compressor wet seal... system used to comply with the emission standards for your storage vessel or centrifugal...

  20. MC2AQ: Preliminary Results With the Addition of a Bulk Model of Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neary, L.; Kaminski, J.; Yang, R.; Michelangeli, D. V.; McConnell, J.

    2001-12-01

    MC2 (Mesoscale Compressible Community model) is a mesoscale model developed by collaborators at the University of Quebec at Montreal and the Meteorological Service of Canada. MC2AQ is an on-line air quality version of MC2 that was developed at York University. The AQ part of the model includes complex oxidant gas-phase chemistry, deposition, anthropogenic and on-line biogenic emissions. MC2AQ has been used successfully to calculate ozone concentrations in Eastern Canada and the United States and also for Europe. The model can be run down to urban scales of a kilometer or less. The long-term goal of this project is to modify MC2AQ to include aerosol and aqueous chemistry, and the detailed microphysics of the formation and evolution of size distributed particles in an on-line fashion. As a first step, the model has recently been updated to include a new Canadian emissions inventory that includes bulk primary sources of PM2.5 and PM10. Secondary sulphate and nitrate chemical production mechanisms have also been included. In this first phase of the work bulk aerosols were included along with dry deposition for aerosols and rain out in MC2AQ. Results of this first phase showing ozone and PM concentrations and 24 hour accumulated depositions of total PM will be presented, and compared to some field observations in Southern Ontario.

  1. Characterization of explosive devices in luggage: Initial results of the ART-IIC test series

    SciTech Connect

    Akerman, M.A.; Kass, M.D.; Clough, B.T.

    1993-12-31

    Characteristics and damage associated with exploded luggage aboard aircraft are presented in this paper. Plastic-sided suitcases filled with typical travel possessions were exploded inside the fuselage of decomissioned B-52 aircraft. Multilayered shield panels, mounted to one side of the fuselage, served to protect the aircraft body and flight system components from both the blast wave and exploded fragments. The resulting damage produced by the explosions was characterized and the absorbing characteristics of the shielding were evaluated. In addition, the energy of the luggage fragments was estimated.

  2. Dual Beam FIB for Imaging, Nano-Sectioning and Sample Preparation of Spores: Initial Results.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, M A; Fluss, M J; Schaldach, C

    2004-04-26

    Results from the first use of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technology to section Bacillus spores at LLNL in a dual-beam (electron and ion) instrument is presented and discussed. With the use of a dual-beam instrument, high resolution imaging of single spores using low voltage scanning electron microscopy followed by FIB sectioning, SEM imaging of internal structure of the same spore is demonstrated to be possible. Additionally, FIB is shown to be able to precisely micro-machine spores thus potentially facilitating micro-scale experiments on single spores.

  3. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. First topical report, Results of laboratory screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of {le} 10 {mu}m dia.

  4. [Initial results in man of immunolymphoscintigraphy of cancer of the prostate].

    PubMed

    Teillac, P; Leroy, M; Rain, J D; Bruneau, J; Cheval, E; Ketels, F; Rabaud, B; Saccavini, J C; Najean, Y; Le Duc, A

    1989-01-01

    The loco-regional investigation of carcinoma of the prostate usually comprises ilio-obturator lymphadenectomy. This procedure carries a significant morbidity. Immunolymphoscintigraphy may provide a non-invasive alternative to this operation. Monoclonal (MAB) 227 A anti-prostatic acid phosphatase antibodies have been produced and selected for their affinity and specificity. This MAB was fragmented to its F (ab')2 form and marked with Iodine 123. Fifteen patients with prostate cancer were given 100 to 400 micrograms of the MAB by periprostatic perineal injection. The region was scanned 1 hr, 3 hrs, 6 hrs and 24 hrs after the injection. The results of the immunolymphoscintigraphy were compared with the histology of the ganglia removed at surgery or needle biopsy guided by CT scanning. In 13 cases the results were concordant for the two techniques (10 negatives and 3 positives). Two patients showed extra-prostatic fixation whilst the histology remained negative. Immunolymphoscintigraphy may therefore provide a simple method of detecting local metastases of carcinoma of the prostate if these initial results are confirmed.

  5. Towards a BCI for sensorimotor training: initial results from simultaneous fNIRS and biosignal recordings.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Raphael; Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Lambercy, Olivier; Fluet, Marie-Christine; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Martin; Gassert, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the concept and initial results of a novel approach for robot assisted sensorimotor training in stroke rehabilitation. It is based on a brain-body-robot interface (B(2)RI), combining both neural and physiological recordings, that detects the intention to perform a motor task. By directly including the injured brain into the therapy, we ultimately aim at providing a new method for severely impaired patients to engage in active movement therapy. In the present study, seven healthy subjects performed an isometric finger pinching task while functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals from motor cortical areas and biosignals were recorded simultaneously. Results showed an insignificant increase in the blood pressure during the preparation period prior to motor execution. During the execution period, significant changes in oxy-and deoxyhemoglobin were found in the primary motor cortex, accompanied by an increase in blood pressure, respiration rate and galvanic skin response (GSR). Cortical measurements of premotor areas and heart rate revealed significant changes at the subject level with large inter-subject variability. The results presented here will serve as priors for the design of further studies to test the efficacy of the concept with stroke patients, and the found effects will provide a basis for the development of a classifier for a future B(2)RI.

  6. Reference Alloy Waste Form Fabrication and Initiation of Reducing Atmosphere and Reductive Additives Study on Alloy Waste Form Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Frank; T.P. O'Holleran; P.A. Hahn

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the fabrication of two reference alloy waste forms, RAW-1(Re) and RAW-(Tc) using an optimized loading and heating method. The composition of the alloy materials was based on a generalized formulation to process various proposed feed streams resulting from the processing of used fuel. Waste elements are introduced into molten steel during alloy fabrication and, upon solidification, become incorporated into durable iron-based intermetallic phases of the alloy waste form. The first alloy ingot contained surrogate (non-radioactive), transition-metal fission products with rhenium acting as a surrogate for technetium. The second alloy ingot contained the same components as the first ingot, but included radioactive Tc-99 instead of rhenium. Understanding technetium behavior in the waste form is of particular importance due the longevity of Tc-99 and its mobility in the biosphere in the oxide form. RAW-1(Re) and RAW-1(Tc) are currently being used as test specimens in the comprehensive testing program investigating the corrosion and radionuclide release mechanisms of the representative alloy waste form. Also described in this report is the experimental plan to study the effects of reducing atmospheres and reducing additives to the alloy material during fabrication in an attempt to maximize the oxide content of waste streams that can be accommodated in the alloy waste form. Activities described in the experimental plan will be performed in FY12. The first aspect of the experimental plan is to study oxide formation on the alloy by introducing O2 impurities in the melt cover gas or from added oxide impurities in the feed materials. Reducing atmospheres will then be introduced to the melt cover gas in an attempt to minimize oxide formation during alloy fabrication. The second phase of the experimental plan is to investigate melting parameters associated with alloy fabrication to allow the separation of slag and alloy components of the melt.

  7. Initial experimental results from the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alling, A.; Allen, J.; Dempster, W.; Nelson, M.; Silverstone, S.; van Thillo, M.

    Results from the closure and initial closed ecological system research in the "Laboratory Biosphere" facility in Santa Fe, New Mexico (USA) will be presented. The facility was initially sealed in April 2002; and the first crop experiments with soybeans commenced in May 2002. The Laboratory Biosphere was created by the team which invented, built and operated Biosphere 2 during its years of closed ecological system functioning (1991-94) and is a testbed to build upon the lessons learned. It is an opportunity to continue experiments with a sustainable soil based agriculture system unlike most bioregenerative systems which use hydroponic systems dependent on a supply of nutrient solution. Because of the small volume of the system (34-45 m3), developing mechanisms to keep parameters like carbon dioxide within acceptable limits will be critical. Recycle of nutrients within the system to maintain soil fertility; and the ability of the inherent complex ecology of soils and a soil bed reactor to handle trace gas buildups are primary research goals. Other research goals are determination of short and long-term exchanges between soil, plants and atmosphere, especially for carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, NOX, and methane, impact of cultivation (tillage) on soil/atmospheric exchanges., investigation and development of strategies to return nutrients to the soil to maintain fertility, e.g. shredding biomass vs. composting, impact on soil chemistry of returning leachate water to the soil as irrigation water. The microbiological status of soils prior to experiments and over time will allow measurement of changes in microbial diversity and the determination of the role of soil microbes in biogeochemical cycles. Integration of automated sensor and control in the system with real-time modeling has importance for operation, research and educational outreach programs. The Laboratory Biosphere is intended to test and develop a "cybersphere" (network of shared intelligence) that may be

  8. Regional Collaboration Among Urban Area Security Initiative Regions: Results of the Johns Hopkins Urban Area Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J.; Resnick, Beth A.; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration–related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments. PMID:25398073

  9. Regional collaboration among Urban Area Security Initiative regions: results of the Johns Hopkins urban area survey.

    PubMed

    Errett, Nicole A; Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J; Resnick, Beth A; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration-related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments.

  10. Regional collaboration among Urban Area Security Initiative regions: results of the Johns Hopkins urban area survey.

    PubMed

    Errett, Nicole A; Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J; Resnick, Beth A; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration-related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments. PMID:25398073

  11. Initial Results of Endoscopic Gastrocutaneous Fistula Closure in Children Using an Over-the-Scope Clip

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Robert; Abrajano, Claire; Koppolu, Raji; Stevens, Megan; Nyznyk, Sarah; Chao, Stephanie; Bruzoni, Matias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gastrocutaneous fistula (GCF) occurs commonly in pediatric patients after removal of long-term gastrostomy tubes. Although open repair is generally successful, endoscopic approaches may offer benefits in terms of incisional complications, postoperative pain, and procedure time. In addition, endoscopic approaches may offer particular benefit in patients with varied degrees of skin irritation or erosion surrounding a GCF, making surgical repair difficult, or patients with significant comorbidities, making minimal intervention and anesthesia time preferable. Over-the-scope (OSC) clips are a new technology that enables endoscopic closure of intestinal fistulas up to 2 cm in diameter. Six pediatric patients underwent endoscopic GCF closure using OSC clips under Institutional Review Board approval. The procedure was technically successful in 5 of 6 cases with an average operating time of 29 minutes. The technical failure required an open revision, whereas all other patients reported full healing of the GCF site at 1 month. All successful cases were performed as outpatients without postoperative narcotics. In addition, all patients reported high satisfaction with the procedure and cosmetic results. Endoscopic GCF closure using an OSC clip is technically feasible in the pediatric population. Based on limited cases with a 1-month follow-up, the functional and cosmetic results of technically successful cases are excellent. Endoscopic GCF closure is a potential alternative to standard surgical closure in patients with skin irritation or erosion and/or significant comorbidities. PMID:25531644

  12. Epistemology and expectations survey about experimental physics: Development and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hirokawa, Takako; Finkelstein, Noah; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2014-06-01

    In response to national calls to better align physics laboratory courses with the way physicists engage in research, we have developed an epistemology and expectations survey to assess how students perceive the nature of physics experiments in the contexts of laboratory courses and the professional research laboratory. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS) evaluates students' epistemology at the beginning and end of a semester. Students respond to paired questions about how they personally perceive doing experiments in laboratory courses and how they perceive an experimental physicist might respond regarding their research. Also, at the end of the semester, the E-CLASS assesses a third dimension of laboratory instruction, students' reflections on their course's expectations for earning a good grade. By basing survey statements on widely embraced learning goals and common critiques of teaching labs, the E-CLASS serves as an assessment tool for lab courses across the undergraduate curriculum and as a tool for physics education research. We present the development, evidence of validation, and initial formative assessment results from a sample that includes 45 classes at 20 institutions. We also discuss feedback from instructors and reflect on the challenges of large-scale online administration and distribution of results.

  13. Evaluation of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for remote wetland monitoring: design and initial results.

    PubMed

    Watras, Carl J; Morrow, Michael; Morrison, Ken; Scannell, Sean; Yaziciaglu, Steve; Read, Jordan S; Hu, Yu-Hen; Hanson, Paul C; Kratz, Tim

    2014-02-01

    Here, we describe and evaluate two low-power wireless sensor networks (WSNs) designed to remotely monitor wetland hydrochemical dynamics over time scales ranging from minutes to decades. Each WSN (one student-built and one commercial) has multiple nodes to monitor water level, precipitation, evapotranspiration, temperature, and major solutes at user-defined time intervals. Both WSNs can be configured to report data in near real time via the internet. Based on deployments in two isolated wetlands, we report highly resolved water budgets, transient reversals of flow path, rates of transpiration from peatlands and the dynamics of chromophoric-dissolved organic matter and bulk ionic solutes (specific conductivity)-all on daily or subdaily time scales. Initial results indicate that direct precipitation and evapotranspiration dominate the hydrologic budget of both study wetlands, despite their relatively flat geomorphology and proximity to elevated uplands. Rates of transpiration from peatland sites were typically greater than evaporation from open waters but were more challenging to integrate spatially. Due to the high specific yield of peat, the hydrologic gradient between peatland and open water varied with precipitation events and intervening periods of dry out. The resultant flow path reversals implied that the flux of solutes across the riparian boundary varied over daily time scales. We conclude that WSNs can be deployed in remote wetland-dominated ecosystems at relatively low cost to assess the hydrochemical impacts of weather, climate, and other perturbations. PMID:24046241

  14. Evaluation of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for remote wetland monitoring: design and initial results.

    PubMed

    Watras, Carl J; Morrow, Michael; Morrison, Ken; Scannell, Sean; Yaziciaglu, Steve; Read, Jordan S; Hu, Yu-Hen; Hanson, Paul C; Kratz, Tim

    2014-02-01

    Here, we describe and evaluate two low-power wireless sensor networks (WSNs) designed to remotely monitor wetland hydrochemical dynamics over time scales ranging from minutes to decades. Each WSN (one student-built and one commercial) has multiple nodes to monitor water level, precipitation, evapotranspiration, temperature, and major solutes at user-defined time intervals. Both WSNs can be configured to report data in near real time via the internet. Based on deployments in two isolated wetlands, we report highly resolved water budgets, transient reversals of flow path, rates of transpiration from peatlands and the dynamics of chromophoric-dissolved organic matter and bulk ionic solutes (specific conductivity)-all on daily or subdaily time scales. Initial results indicate that direct precipitation and evapotranspiration dominate the hydrologic budget of both study wetlands, despite their relatively flat geomorphology and proximity to elevated uplands. Rates of transpiration from peatland sites were typically greater than evaporation from open waters but were more challenging to integrate spatially. Due to the high specific yield of peat, the hydrologic gradient between peatland and open water varied with precipitation events and intervening periods of dry out. The resultant flow path reversals implied that the flux of solutes across the riparian boundary varied over daily time scales. We conclude that WSNs can be deployed in remote wetland-dominated ecosystems at relatively low cost to assess the hydrochemical impacts of weather, climate, and other perturbations.

  15. 42 CFR 476.93 - Opportunity to discuss proposed initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.93 Section 476.93 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation. Before a QIO reaches an initial denial determination or makes a change as a result of a DRG validation, it must— (a) Promptly notify...

  16. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. (a) General timeframe. A QIO or... initial denial determination or a change as a result of a DRG validation. (b) Extended timeframes. (1)...

  17. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Second topical report, Results of bench-scale screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-08-13

    ADA Technologies, Inc. (ADA) has completed the bench-scale testing phase of a program to evaluate additives that will improve the collection of fine particles in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A bench-scale ESP was installed at the Consolidation Coal Company (CONSOL) combustion research and development facility in Library, PA in order to conduct the evaluation. During a two-week test, four candidate additives were injected into the flue gas ahead of a 100 acfm ESP to determine the effect on fly ash collectability. Two additives were found to reduce the emissions from the ESP. Additives ``C`` and ``D`` performed better than initially anticipated -- reducing emissions initially by 17%. Emissions were reduced by 27% after the ESP was modified by the installation of baffles to minimize sneakage. In addition to the measured improvements in performance, no detrimental effects (i.e., electrode fouling) were observed in the operation of the ESP during the testing. The measures of success identified for the bench-scale phase of the program have been surpassed. Since the additives will affect only non-rapping reentrainment particle losses, it is expected that an even greater improvement in particle collection will be observed in larger-scale ESPs. Therefore, positive results are anticipated during the pilot-scale phase of the program and during a future full-scale demonstration test. A preliminary economic analysis was performed to evaluate the cost of the additive process and to compare its costs against alternative means for reducing emissions from ESPs. The results show that conditioning with additive C at a rate of 0.05% (wt. additive to wt. fly ash) is much less expensive than adding new ESP capacity, and more cost competitive than existing chemical conditioning processes. Preliminary chemical analysis of conditioned fly ash shows that it passes the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure criteria.

  18. Results & Lessons Learned from 1:1 Laptop Initiatives: A Collective Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Lori B.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last ten years, the emergence of 1:1 programs has grown increasingly in popularity. More and more schools are implementing 1:1 programs as a means for increasing student achievement and performance. In fact, few modern educational initiatives have been as widespread and costly as the integration of laptop initiatives into education. As a…

  19. Joint NASA/EPA AVIRIS Analysis in the Chesapeake Bay Region: Plans and Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Lee; Stokely, Peter; Lobitz, Brad; Shelton, Gary

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center is performing an AVIRIS demonstration project in conjunction with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (Region 3). NASA and EPA scientists have jointly defined a Study Area in eastern Virginia to include portions of the Chesapeake Bay, southern Delmarva Peninsula, and the mouths of the York and James Rivers. Several environmental issues have been identified for study. These include, by priority: 1) water constituent analysis in the Chesapeake Bay, 2) mapping of submerged aquatic vegetation in the Bay, 3) detection of vegetation stress related to Superfund sites at the Yorktown Naval Weapons Station, and 4) wetland species analysis in the York River vicinity. In support of this project, three lines of AVIRIS data were collected during the Wallops Island deployment on 17 August 1997. The remote sensing payload included AVIRIS, MODIS Airborne Simulator and an RC-10 color infrared film camera. The AVIRIS data were delivered to Ames from the JPL AVIRIS Data Facility, on 29 September 1997. Quicklook images indicate nominal data acquisition, and at the current time an atmospheric correction is being applied. Water constituent analysis of the Bay is our highest priority based on EPA interest and available collateral data, both from the surface and from other remote sensing instruments. Constituents of interest include suspended sediments, chlorophyll-a and accessory pigments, Analysis steps will include: verification of data quality, location of study sites in imagery, incorporation of relevant field data from EPA and other Chesapeake Bay cooperators, processing of imagery to show phenomenon of interest, verification of results with cooperators. By 1st quarter CY98 we plan to circulate initial results to NASA and EPA management for review. In the longer term we will finalize documentation, prepare results for publication, and complete any needed technology transfer to EPA remote sensing personnel.

  20. Predicting episodic memory performance using different biomarkers: results from Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Russo, María Julieta; Cohen, Gabriela; Chrem Mendez, Patricio; Campos, Jorge; Nahas, Federico E; Surace, Ezequiel I; Vazquez, Silvia; Gustafson, Deborah; Guinjoan, Salvador; Allegri, Ricardo F; Sevlever, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (Arg-ADNI) is the first ADNI study to be performed in Latin America at a medical center with the appropriate infrastructure. Our objective was to describe baseline characteristics and to examine whether biomarkers related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) physiopathology were associated with worse memory performance. Patients and methods Fifteen controls and 28 mild cognitive impairment and 13 AD dementia subjects were included. For Arg-ADNI, all biomarker parameters and neuropsychological tests of ADNI-II were adopted. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorodeoxyglucose and 11C-Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB-PET) were available from all participants. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker results were available from 39 subjects. Results A total of 56 participants were included and underwent baseline evaluation. The three groups were similar with respect to years of education and sex, and they differed in age (F=5.10, P=0.01). Mean scores for the baseline measurements of the neuropsychological evaluation differed significantly among the three groups at P<0.001, showing a continuum in their neuropsychological performance. No significant correlations were found between the principal measures (long-delay recall, C-Pittsburgh compound-B scan, left hippocampal volume, and APOEε4) and either age, sex, or education (P>0.1). Baseline amyloid deposition and left hippocampal volume separated the three diagnostic groups and correlated with the memory performance (P<0.001). Conclusion Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data revealed links between cognition, structural changes, and biomarkers. Follow-up of a larger and more representative cohort, particularly analyzing cerebrospinal fluid and brain biomarkers, will allow better characterization of AD in our country.

  1. Predicting episodic memory performance using different biomarkers: results from Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Russo, María Julieta; Cohen, Gabriela; Chrem Mendez, Patricio; Campos, Jorge; Nahas, Federico E; Surace, Ezequiel I; Vazquez, Silvia; Gustafson, Deborah; Guinjoan, Salvador; Allegri, Ricardo F; Sevlever, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (Arg-ADNI) is the first ADNI study to be performed in Latin America at a medical center with the appropriate infrastructure. Our objective was to describe baseline characteristics and to examine whether biomarkers related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) physiopathology were associated with worse memory performance. Patients and methods Fifteen controls and 28 mild cognitive impairment and 13 AD dementia subjects were included. For Arg-ADNI, all biomarker parameters and neuropsychological tests of ADNI-II were adopted. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorodeoxyglucose and 11C-Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB-PET) were available from all participants. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker results were available from 39 subjects. Results A total of 56 participants were included and underwent baseline evaluation. The three groups were similar with respect to years of education and sex, and they differed in age (F=5.10, P=0.01). Mean scores for the baseline measurements of the neuropsychological evaluation differed significantly among the three groups at P<0.001, showing a continuum in their neuropsychological performance. No significant correlations were found between the principal measures (long-delay recall, C-Pittsburgh compound-B scan, left hippocampal volume, and APOEε4) and either age, sex, or education (P>0.1). Baseline amyloid deposition and left hippocampal volume separated the three diagnostic groups and correlated with the memory performance (P<0.001). Conclusion Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data revealed links between cognition, structural changes, and biomarkers. Follow-up of a larger and more representative cohort, particularly analyzing cerebrospinal fluid and brain biomarkers, will allow better characterization of AD in our country. PMID:27695331

  2. Energetic neutral atom imaging with the Polar CEPPAD/IPS instrument: Initial forward modeling results

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, M.G.; Reeves, G.D.; Moore, K.R.; Spence, H.E.; Jorgensen, A.M.; Fennell, J.F.; Blake, J.B.; Roelof, E.C.

    1997-12-31

    Although the primary function of the CEP-PAD/IPS instrument on Polar is the measurement of energetic ions in-situ, it has also proven to be a very capable Energetic neutral Atom (ENA) imager. Raw ENA images are currently being constructed on a routine basis with a temporal resolution of minutes during both active and quiet times. However, while analyses of these images by themselves provide much information on the spatial distribution and dynamics of the energetic ion population in the ring current, detailed modeling is required to extract the actual ion distributions. In this paper, the authors present the initial results of forward modeling an IPS ENA image obtained during a small geo-magnetic storm on June 9, 1997. The equatorial ion distribution inferred with this technique reproduces the expected large noon/midnight and dawn/dusk asymmetries. The limitations of the model are discussed and a number of modifications to the basic forward modeling technique are proposed which should significantly improve its performance in future studies.

  3. Initial test results of the Los Alamos proton-storage-ring bump-magnet system

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, C.R.; Barlow, D.B.; Redd, D.B.

    1997-09-01

    An upgrade program for increasing the stored beam current in the LANSCE Proton Storage is presently under way. Part of the upgrade effort has been to design, specify, and add four bump-magnet/modulator systems to the ring. This paper describes the initial test results of the first bump-magnet/modulator system. The paper begins with an overview of the pulsed-power system including important specifications of the modulator, magnet, cabling, and control system. In the main portion of the paper, waveforms and test data are included showing the accuracy, repeatability, and stability of the magnet-current pulses. These magnet pulses are programmable both in rise and fall time as well as in amplitude. The amplitude can be set between 50 and 300 A, the rise-time is fixed at 1 ms, and the linear fall-time can be varied between 500 {mu}s and 1500 {mu}s. Other issues such as loading effects and power dissipation in the magnet-bore beamtube are examined and reported.

  4. Cosmic noise absorption and ionospheric currents at the South Pole and Frobisher Bay: Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, T.J. ); Wolfe, A. AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ ); Lanzerotti, L.J. )

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the conjugacy of auroral and ionospheric phenomena at very high latitudes are an important aspect of magnetospheric physics research. The extent to which auroral phenomena in opposite hemispheres are similar in occurrence and in the details of their temporal, spatial, and spectral characteristics can be used to infer the commonality of the source(s) of the disturbances. At one extreme in this consideration is the questions of whether sources lie on open or closed magnetic field lines. The University of Maryland and AT T Bell Laboratories have operated riometers and fluxgate magnetometers, respectively, at South Pole since 1982. Corresponding measurements at Frobisher Bay were begun in mid-1985. Riometers record the absorption of cosmic radio noise in the ionosphere produced by the enhances precipitation of energetic charged particles. The studies of the riometer data relate mainly to the effects of the influx of magnetospheric electrons, which give rise to auroral absorption of the cosmic signals. Intense currents (electrojets) that often flow in the ionosphere in association with auroral absorption events produce magnetic field changes that can be recorded on the ground by appropriately sited magnetometers. This report presents some initial results of the comparison of the two data sets.

  5. Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging with the POLAR CEPPAD/ IPS Instrument : Initial Forward Modeling Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, M. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Moore, K. R.; Spence, H. E.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Roelof, E. C.

    1999-01-01

    Although the primary function of the CEPPAD/IPS instrument on Polar is the measurement of energetic ions in-situ, it has also proven to be a very capable Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imager. Raw ENA images are currently being constructed on a routine basis with a temporal resolution of minutes during both active and quiet times. However, while analyses of these images by themselves provide much information on the spatial distribution and dynamics of the energetic ion population in the ring current. detailed modeling is required to extract the actual ion distributions. In this paper. we present the initial results of forward modeling an IPS ENA image obtained during a small geo-magnetic storm on June 9, 1997. The equatorial ion distribution inferred with this technique reproduces the expected large noon/midnight and dawn/dusk asymmetries. The limitations of the model are discussed and a number of modifications to the basic forward modeling technique are proposed which should significantly improve its performance in future studies.

  6. Divergent LIN28-mRNA associations result in translational suppression upon the initiation of differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shen Mynn; Altschuler, Gabriel; Zhao, Tian Yun; Ang, Haw Siang; Yang, Henry; Lim, Bing; Vardy, Leah; Hide, Winston; Thomson, Andrew M; Lareu, Ricky R

    2014-07-01

    LIN28 function is fundamental to the activity and behavior of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells. Its main roles in these cell types are the regulation of translational efficiency and let-7 miRNA maturation. However, LIN28-associated mRNA cargo shifting and resultant regulation of translational efficiency upon the initiation of differentiation remain unknown. An RNA-immunoprecipitation and microarray analysis protocol, eRIP, that has high specificity and sensitivity was developed to test endogenous LIN28-associated mRNA cargo shifting. A combined eRIP and polysome analysis of early stage differentiation of hESCs with two distinct differentiation cues revealed close similarities between the dynamics of LIN28 association and translational modulation of genes involved in the Wnt signaling, cell cycle, RNA metabolism and proteasomal pathways. Our data demonstrate that change in translational efficiency is a major contributor to early stages of differentiation of hESCs, in which LIN28 plays a central role. This implies that eRIP analysis of LIN28-associated RNA cargoes may be used for rapid functional quality control of pluripotent stem cells under manufacture for therapeutic applications.

  7. Initial results from a cryogenic proton irradiation of a p-channel CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gow, J. P. D.; Wood, D.; Burt, D.; Hall, D. J.; Dryer, B.; Holland, A. D.; Murray, N. J.

    2015-08-01

    The displacement damage hardness that can be achieved using p-channel charge coupled devices (CCD) was originally demonstrated in 1997 and since then a number of other studies have demonstrated an improved tolerance to radiationinduced CTI when compared to n-channel CCDs. A number of recent studies have also shown that the temperature history of the device after the irradiation impacts the performance of the detector, linked to the mobility of defects at different temperatures. This study describes the initial results from an e2v technologies p-channel CCD204 irradiated at 153 K with a 10 MeV equivalent proton fluences of 1.24×109 and 1.24×1011 protons.cm-2. The number of defects identified using trap pumping, dark current and cosmetic quality immediately after irradiation and over a period of 150 hours after the irradiation with the device held at 153 K and then after different periods of time at room temperature are described. The device also exhibited a flatband voltage shift of around 30 mV per krad, determined by the reduction in full well capacity.

  8. MicroRNAs in Breast Cancer —Our Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Popovska-Jankovic, K; Noveski, P; Chakalova, L; Petrusevska, G; Kubelka, K; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small [∼21 nucleotide (nt)] non coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally. About 3.0% of human genes encode for miRNAs, and up to 30.0% of human protein coding genes may be regulated by miRNAs. Currently, more than 2000 unique human mature microRNAs are known. MicroRNAs play a key role in diverse biological processes including development, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. These processes are commonly dysregulated in cancer, implicating miRNAs in carcinogenesis, where they act as tumor supressors or oncogenes. Several miRNAs are associated with breast cancer. Here we present our initial results of miRNA analyses of breast cancer tissues using quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (ReTi-PCR) (qPCR) involving stem-loop reverse transcriptase (RT) primers combined with TaqMan® PCR and miRNA microarray analysis. PMID:24052751

  9. Initial results from the rebuilt EXTRAP T2R RFP device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.; Gravestijn, R. M.; Hedqvist\\ad{2 }, A.; Malmberg, J.-A.

    2001-11-01

    The EXTRAP T2R thin shell reversed-field pinch (RFP) device has recently resumed operation after a major rebuild including the replacement of the graphite armour with molybdenum limiters, a fourfold increase of the shell time constant, and the replacement of the helical coil used for the toroidal field with a conventional solenoid-type coil. Wall-conditioning using hydrogen glow discharge cleaning was instrumental for successful RFP operation. Carbon was permanently removed from the walls during the first week of operation. The initial results from RFP operation with relatively low plasma currents in the range Ip = 70-100 kA are reported. RFP discharges are sustained for more than three shell times. Significant improvements in plasma parameters are observed, compared to operation before the rebuild. There is a substantial reduction in the carbon impurity level. The electron density behaviour is more shot-to-shot reproducible. The typical density is ne = 0.5-1×1019 m-3. Monitors of Hα line radiation indicate that the plasma wall interaction is more toroidally symmetric and that there is less transient gas release from the wall. The minimum loop voltage is in the range Vt = 28-35 V, corresponding to a reduction by a factor of two to three compared to the value before the rebuild.

  10. Circular Couette cell for two-dimensional turbulence experiments in sheared flow: initial results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmen, John V.; Fontana, Paul W.; Kearney-Fischer, Martin

    2006-03-01

    An experiment to study turbulence in quasi-two-dimensional flows with a controlled mean flow shear has been built. Experiments are underway to investigate the suppression of turbulent transport by sheared flow as seen in geostrophic flows and laboratory fusion plasmas. The apparatus, a circular Couette cell, uses a liquid film of dilute soap solution suspended freely in an annular channel with a rotating outer boundary. The channel is 7 cm wide with an average radius of 46.5 cm, and can be rotated at angular speeds exceeding 10 rad/s. Mean flow profiles will be presented showing the effect of air resistance on the flow; damping lengths on the order of 1 mm are observed. Turbulence is driven independently via electromagnetic forcing. The rate of turbulence injection can be varied continuously, and its spatial scale corresponds to the spatial frequency of an array of NdFeB magnets. Diagnostics include particle imaging velocimetry, two-point laser Doppler velocimetry, and thickness measurements via reflection interferometry. Initial results and plans for upcoming measurements will be presented.

  11. Experimental study of two-dimensional turbulence in sheared flow: initial results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Paul W.

    2005-11-01

    An experiment to study turbulence in quasi-two-dimensional flows with a controlled mean flow shear has been built. Experiments are underway to investigate the suppression of turbulent transport by sheared flow as seen in geostrophic flows and laboratory fusion plasmas. The apparatus, a two-dimensional Couette cell, uses a liquid film of dilute soap solution suspended freely in an annular channel with a rotating outer boundary. The channel is 7 cm wide with an average radius of 46.5 cm, and can be rotated at angular speeds exceeding 10 rad/s. Mean flow profiles will be presented showing the effect of air resistance on the flow. Turbulence is driven independently via electromagnetic forcing. The rate of turbulence injection can be varied continuously, and its spatial scale can be varied over an order of magnitude by selecting one of several arrays of NdFeB magnets. Diagnostics include particle imaging velocimetry, two-point laser Doppler velocimetry, and thickness measurements via reflection interferometry. Initial results and plans for upcoming measurements will be presented.

  12. Initial Results of Optical Vortex Laser Absorption Spectroscopy in the HYPER-I Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Asai, Shoma; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Ozawa, Naoya; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Morisaki, Tomohiro

    2015-11-01

    Optical vortex beams have a potential to make a new Doppler measurement, because not only parallel but perpendicular movement of atoms against the beam axis causes the Doppler shift of their resonant absorption frequency. As the first step of a proof-of-principle experiment, we have performed the optical vortex laser absorption spectroscopy for metastable argon neutrals in an ECR plasma produced in the HYPER-I device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. An external cavity diode laser (TOPTICA, DL100) of which center wavelength was 696.735 nm in vacuum was used for the light source. The Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam was converted into the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam (optical vortex) by a computer-generated hologram displayed on the spatial light modulator (Hamamatsu, LCOS-SLM X10468-07). In order to make fast neutral flow across the LG beam, a high speed solenoid valve system was installed on the HYPER-I device. Initial results including the comparison of absorption spectra for HG and LG beams will be presented. This study was supported by NINS young scientists collaboration program for cross-disciplinary study, NIFS collaboration research program (NIFS13KOAP026), and JSPS KAKENHI grant number 15K05365.

  13. Space Borne Cloud and Aerosol Measurements by the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James D.; Palm, Steven P.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Hart, William D.; Mahesh, Ashwin; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2003-01-01

    In January 2003 the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) was successfully launched into orbit. Beginning in March 2003 GLAS will provide global coverage lidar measurement of the height distribution of clouds and aerosol in the atmosphere for up to five years. The characteristic and value of the unique data will be presented. The instrument is a basic backscatter lidar that operates at two wavelengths, 532 and 1064 nm. The mission data products for atmospheric observations include the calibrated, observed, attenuated backscatter cross section for cloud and aerosol; height detection for multiple cloud layers; planetary boundary layer height; cirrus and aerosol optical depth and the height distribution of aerosol and cloud scattering cross section profiles. The data is expected to significantly enhance knowledge in several areas of atmospheric science, in particular the distribution, transport and influence of atmospheric aerosol and thin clouds. Measurements of the coverage and height of polar and cirrus cloud should be significantly more accurate than previous global observations. In March and April 2003, airborne and ground based data verification experiments will be carried out. Initial results from the verification experiments and the first several months of operation will be presented.

  14. Initial Field Deployment Results of Green PCB Removal from Sediment Systems (GPRSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVor, Robert William

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this task order was to complete optimization and development of the Green PCB Remediation from Sediment Systems(GPRSSs) technology, culminating in the production of functioning demonstration test units which would be deployed at a suitable demonstration location. This location would be selected in conjunction with Toxicological & Ecological Associates who have entered into a SAA with NASA to partner with and further develop this technology. The GPRSSs technology was initially developed under ESC Task Order 83 with the purpose of providing a green remediation technology capable of in-situ removal and remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from contaminated sediments. The core concept of the technology, a polymeric blanket capable of absorbing PCBs when in contact with contaminated sediments was then transitioned to Task Order 165 where the primary objective was to fully design and optimize a functioning test unit capable of testing the theoretical and laboratory scale concepts in a real world situation. Results from both task orders are included in this report for completeness, although Task Order 165 focused on the blanket design and the small scale field demonstration in which is currently still ongoing in Altavista, VA.

  15. Research Initiatives and Preliminary Results In Automation Design In Airspace Management in Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA and the FAA have entered into a joint venture to explore, define, design and implement a new airspace management operating concept. The fundamental premise of that concept is that technologies and procedures need to be developed for flight deck and ground operations to improve the efficiency, the predictability, the flexibility and the safety of airspace management and operations. To that end NASA Ames has undertaken an initial development and exploration of "key concepts" in the free flight airspace management technology development. Human Factors issues in automation aiding design, coupled aiding systems between air and ground, communication protocols in distributed decision making, and analytic techniques for definition of concepts of airspace density and operator cognitive load have been undertaken. This paper reports the progress of these efforts, which are not intended to definitively solve the many evolving issues of design for future ATM systems, but to provide preliminary results to chart the parameters of performance and the topology of the analytic effort required. The preliminary research in provision of cockpit display of traffic information, dynamic density definition, distributed decision making, situation awareness models and human performance models is discussed as they focus on the theme of "design requirements".

  16. Initial Results of Scientific Drilling on Lake Malawi, East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, C. A.; Johnson, T. C.; King, J.; Cohen, A. S.; Lyons, R. P.; Kalindekafe, L.; Forman, S. L.; McHargue, L. R.; Singer, B. S.

    2005-12-01

    Lake Malawi is one of the largest and oldest lakes in the southern hemisphere and in the tropical latitudes, measuring more than 580 km in length, with a maximum depth of 700 m, and with an estimated age of more than 7 Ma. The lake water column is anoxic below 200 m, thus preserving an extensive record of laminated (varved) sediments. The lake's hydrologic budget is hypersensitive to minor changes in precipitation:evaporation, and signals of lake level and limnologic change respond markedly to regional climate variations. During February-March 2005 a scientific drilling program was conducted on the deep, open waters of Lake Malawi, using a converted local fuel barge outfitted with a deep-water-capable geotechnical drilling rig, a portable dynamic positioning system, and a suite of sampling tools designed for deep lake coring. A total of 623 m of core was recovered in seven holes at two sites on the lake. The high-resolution North Basin site (water depth 359 m) was triple-cored, providing redundant sampling of the sedimentary section representing the past ~75-100 kyr; the Central Basin deep site (592 m water depth) was double cored over the period of the past ~200 kyr, and single-cored to 380 m, covering perhaps 1.5 million years. The North Basin high-resolution site targeted a hemipelagic sequence, which in core samples consists of alternating zones of laminated and homogenous silty mud. At the base of these cores we observe well-sorted medium-grained shoreface sand deposits, that we interpret to be a transgressive surface deposited following a severe (500 m) lake lowstand. Density, magnetic susceptibility, TOC, and C/N profiles closely follow lithologic changes, and correspond to periods of enhanced or diminished productivity and dramatically varying lake level. Initial dating of the North Basin site (total core length 38 m) is underway using a combination of Radiocarbon, Tephra Ar-Ar, and Optically-Stimulated Luminescence methods, and initial results indicate a

  17. Worksite characteristics and changes in worksite tobacco-control initiatives. Results from the COMMIT study.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, G; Glasgow, R E; Topor, M; Corbett, K

    1997-06-01

    Few studies have prospectively examined the characteristics associated with worksite adoption of tobacco-control initiatives. Data were collected as part of the Community Intervention Trial (COMMIT) for Smoking Cessation, which conducted interventions in 11 communities. This smoking cessation intervention was based on community organization principles and delivered through multiple community channels, including worksites, health care providers, the media, and cessation resources. This article reports results from telephone interviews of intervention community worksites having 50 or more employees, conducted at baseline and the end of the intervention period. Among worksites that responded to both baseline and final surveys, 83% had not adopted a smoke-free policy at baseline, and 61% did not offer any cessation aid or quitting resources at baseline. By the final survey, 34% of those with no smoking ban at baseline had become smoke-free, and 36% of those offering no cessation assistance at baseline were offering cessation resources at the follow-up. The prevalence of policy adoption was higher among worksites employing more female employees and offering other health-promotion activities; manufacturing businesses were significantly less likely than businesses other than service and wholesale/retail businesses to adopt policies. Adoption of cessation programs was significantly more likely among worksites employing 100 to 249 workers, compared with those employing 50 to 99 workers; those predominantly employing men; those offering other types of health-promotion activities; and those with a higher rate of turnover. These results provide important information about the characteristics of worksites likely to engage in tobacco-control efforts. Health educators and others may choose to target those worksites most ready for adoption of tobacco control policies and programs, as indicated by these findings.

  18. Quantitative assessment of breast lesion viscoelasticity: initial clinical results using supersonic shear imaging.

    PubMed

    Tanter, Mickael; Bercoff, Jeremy; Athanasiou, Alexandra; Deffieux, Thomas; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Montaldo, Gabriel; Muller, Marie; Tardivon, Anne; Fink, Mathias

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents an initial clinical evaluation of in vivo elastography for breast lesion imaging using the concept of supersonic shear imaging. This technique is based on the combination of a radiation force induced in tissue by an ultrasonic beam and an ultrafast imaging sequence capable of catching in real time the propagation of the resulting shear waves. The local shear wave velocity is recovered using a time-offlight technique and enables the 2-D mapping of shear elasticity. This imaging modality is implemented on a conventional linear probe driven by a dedicated ultrafast echographic device. Consequently, it can be performed during a standard echographic examination. The clinical investigation was performed on 15 patients, which corresponded to 15 lesions (4 cases BI-RADS 3, 7 cases BI-RADS 4 and 4 cases BI-RADS 5). The ability of the supersonic shear imaging technique to provide a quantitative and local estimation of the shear modulus of abnormalities with a millimetric resolution is illustrated on several malignant (invasive ductal and lobular carcinoma) and benign cases (fibrocystic changes and viscous cysts). In the investigated cases, malignant lesions were found to be significantly different from benign solid lesions with respect to their elasticity values. Cystic lesions have shown no shear wave propagate at all in the lesion (because shear waves do not propage in liquid). These preliminary clinical results directly demonstrate the clinical feasibility of this new elastography technique in providing quantitative assessment of relative stiffness of breast tissues. This technique of evaluating tissue elasticity gives valuable information that is complementary to the B-mode morphologic information. More extensive studies are necessary to validate the assumption that this new mode potentially helps the physician in both false-positive and false-negative rejection.

  19. Structure and Rotation of the Solar Interior: Initial Results from the MDI Medium-L Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosovichev, A. G.; Schou, J.; Scherrer, P. H.; Bogart, R. S.; Bush, R. I.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Aloise, J.; Bacon, L.; Burnette, A.; DeForest, C.; Giles, P. M.; Leibrand, K.; Nigam, R.; Rubin, M.; Scott, K.; Williams, S. D.; Basu, Sarbani; Christensen-Dalsgaard J.; Daeppen W.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The medium-l program of the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on board SOHO provides continuous observations of oscillation modes of angular degree, l, from 0 to approximately 300. The data for the program are partly processed on board because only about 3% of MDI observations can be transmitted continuously to the ground. The on-board data processing, the main component of which is Gaussian-weighted binning, has been optimized to reduce the negative influence of spatial aliasing of the high-degree oscillation modes. The data processing is completed in a data analysis pipeline at the SOI Stanford Support Center to determine the mean multiplet frequencies and splitting coefficients. The initial results show that the noise in the medium-l oscillation power spectrum is substantially lower than in ground-based measurements. This enables us to detect lower amplitude modes and, thus, to extend the range of measured mode frequencies. This is important for inferring the Sun's internal structure and rotation. The MDI observations also reveal the asymmetry of oscillation spectral lines. The line asymmetries agree with the theory of mode excitation by acoustic sources localized in the upper convective boundary layer. The sound-speed profile inferred from the mean frequencies gives evidence for a sharp variation at the edge of the energy-generating core. The results also confirm the previous finding by the GONG (Gough et al., 1996) that, in a thin layer just beneath the convection zone, helium appears to be less abundant than predicted by theory. Inverting the multiplet frequency splittings from MDI, we detect significant rotational shear in this thin layer. This layer is likely to be the place where the solar dynamo operates. In order to understand how the Sun works, it is extremely important to observe the evolution of this transition layer throughout the 11-year activity cycle.

  20. High Fidelity Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing: Analysis and Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David

    2007-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power system, providing system characterization data and allowing one to work through various fabrication, assembly and integration issues without the cost and time associated with a full ground nuclear test. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Testing with non-optimized heater elements allows one to assess thermal, heat transfer, and stress related attributes of a given system, but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. High fidelity thermal simulators that match both the static and the dynamic fuel pin performance that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor can vastly increase the value of non-nuclear test results. With optimized simulators, the integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronie response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and fueled nuclear testing, providing a better assessment of system integration issues, characterization of integrated system response times and response characteristics, and assessment of potential design improvements' at a relatively small fiscal investment. Initial conceptual thermal simulator designs are determined by simple one-dimensional analysis at a single axial location and at steady state conditions; feasible concepts are then input into a detailed three-dimensional model for comparison to expected fuel pin performance. Static and dynamic fuel pin performance for a proposed reactor design is determined using SINDA/FLUINT thermal analysis software, and comparison is made between the expected nuclear performance and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs. Through a series of iterative analyses, a conceptual high fidelity design can developed. Test results presented in this paper correspond to a "first cut" simulator design for a potential

  1. Diet Quality and Survival After Ovarian Cancer: Results From the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Tracy E.; Wertheim, Betsy C.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Li, Wenjun; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Basen-Engquist, Karen M.; Zhou, Yang; Irwin, Melinda L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Survival after an ovarian cancer diagnosis is poor. Given the high mortality in these patients, efforts to identify modifiable lifestyle behaviors that could influence survival are needed. Earlier evidence suggests a protective role for vegetables, but no prior studies have evaluated overall dietary quality and ovarian cancer survival. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the role of prediagnosis diet quality in ovarian cancer survival. Methods We identified 636 centrally adjudicated cases of ovarian cancer within the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study or Clinical Trials of 161808 postmenopausal women followed from 1995 to 2012. Dietary quality was assessed for the Healthy Eating Index (2005) using a food frequency questionnaire, covariables were obtained from standardized questionnaires, and adiposity was measured by clinic-based measurements of height, weight, and waist circumference. The association between diet quality and mortality was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for potential confounders, and stratified by waist circumference, physical activity level, and diabetes status. Tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Results Overall, higher diet quality was associated with lower all-cause mortality after ovarian cancer (hazard ratio [HR] for highest vs lowest tertile = 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.55 to 0.97, P trend = .03). The effect was strongest among women with waist circumference of 88cm or less and with no history of diabetes (HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.98). Physical activity level did not modify the association between diet quality and survival. Conclusion Our results suggest that overall higher prediagnosis diet quality may protect against mortality after ovarian cancer. PMID:25335480

  2. Multi-Channel Seismic Images of the Mariana Forearc: EW0202 Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, A. J.; Goodliffe, A. M.; Taylor, B.; Moore, G. F.; Fryer, P.

    2002-12-01

    During the Spring of 2002, the Mariana Subduction Factory was surveyed using multi-channel seismics (MCS) as the first major phase of a US-Japanese collaborative NSF-MARGINS funded project. The resulting geophysical transects extend from the Pacific Plate to the West Mariana remnant arc. For details of this survey, including the results from the back-arc, refer to Taylor et al. (this session). The incoming Pacific Plate and its accompanying seamounts are deformed by plate flexure, resulting in extension of the upper crust as it enters the subduction zone. The resultant trench parallel faults dominate the bathymetry and MCS data. Beneath the forearc, in the southern transects near Saipan, the subducting slab is imaged to a distance of 50-60 km arcward. In addition to ubiquitous trench parallel normal faulting, a N-S transect of the forearc clearly shows normal faults perpendicular to the trench resulting from N-S extension. On the east side of the Mariana Ridge, thick sediment packages extend into the forearc. Directly east of Saipan and Tinian, a large, deeply scouring slide mass is imaged. Several serpentine mud volcanoes (Big Blue, Turquoise and Celestial) were imaged on the Mariana Forearc. Deep horizontal reflectors (likely original forearc crust) are imaged under the flanks of some of these seamounts. A possible "throat" reflector is resolved on multiple profiles at the summit of Big Blue, the northern-most seamount in the study area. The flanks of Turquoise seamount terminate in toe thrusts that represent uplift and rotation of surrounding sediments as the volcano grows outward. These thrusts form a basal ridge around the seamount similar to that previously noted encircling Conical Seamount. Furthermore, MCS data has revealed that some forearc highs previously thought to be fault blocks are in actuality mud volcanoes.

  3. SUMMARY REPORT ON RESEARCH RESULTS FROM THE ADVANCE MEASUREMENT INITIATIVE (AMI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA created the Advanced Measurement Initiative (AMI) to permit the early and inexpensive evaluation of innovative advanced technology and to encourage broad and rapid application in EPA operations. The AMI program focused on improving EPA's technological capabilities and acceler...

  4. An Enhanced Box-Wing Solar Radiation pressure model for BDS and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qunhe; Wang, Xiaoya; Hu, Xiaogong; Guo, Rui; Shang, Lin; Tang, Chengpan; Shao, Fan

    2016-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure forces are the largest non-gravitational perturbations acting on GNSS satellites, which is difficult to be accurately modeled due to the complicated and changing satellite attitude and unknown surface material characteristics. By the end of 2015, there are more than 50 stations of the Multi-GNSS Experiment(MGEX) set-up by the IGS. The simple box-plate model relies on coarse assumptions about the dimensions and optical properties of the satellite due to lack of more detailed information. So, a physical model based on BOX-WING model is developed, which is more sophisticated and more detailed physical structure has been taken into account, then calculating pressure forces according to the geometric relations between light rays and surfaces. All the MGEX stations and IGS core stations had been processed for precise orbit determination tests with GPS and BDS observations. Calculation range covers all the two kinds of Eclipsing and non-eclipsing periods in 2015, and we adopted the un-differential observation mode and more accurate values of satellite phase centers. At first, we tried nine parameters model, and then eliminated the parameters with strong correlation between them, came into being five parameters of the model. Five parameters were estimated, such as solar scale, y-bias, three material coefficients of solar panel, x-axis and z-axis panels. Initial results showed that, in the period of yaw-steering mode, use of Enhanced ADBOXW model results in small improvement for IGSO and MEO satellites, and the Root-Mean-Square(RMS) error value of one-day arc orbit decreased by about 10%~30% except for C08 and C14. The new model mainly improved the along track acceleration, up to 30% while in the radial track was not obvious. The Satellite Laser Ranging(SLR) validation showed, however, that this model had higher prediction accuracy in the period of orbit-normal mode, compared to GFZ multi-GNSS orbit products, as well with relative post

  5. Connecting the disconnected: Preliminary results and lessons learned from a telepsychology initiative with special management inmates.

    PubMed

    Batastini, Ashley B; Morgan, Robert D

    2016-08-01

    The use of telepsychology, such as videoconferencing (VC) systems, has been rapidly increasing as a tool for the provision of mental health services to underserved clients in difficult to access settings. Inmates detained in restrictive housing appear to be at an increased risk of experiencing emotional and behavioral disturbances compared to their general population counterparts, yet they are less likely to receive appropriate treatment due to security constraints. The primary purpose of this article is to describe the process of implementing a novel telepsychology intervention specifically designed to offer group therapy to high-security, administratively segregated inmates. In addition, preliminary results on treatment and therapeutic process outcomes in a sample of 49 participants are reported. Although some evidence indicated that telepsychology was less preferred than in-person sessions, group differences on measures of psychological functioning and criminal thinking were not found across 3 conditions (telepsychology, in-person, and a no-treatment control). Furthermore, a number of limitations associated with program implementation and study design suggest that results be interpreted with caution and should not be used to discount the use of telepsychology as a viable treatment delivery option. Recommendations for future development and evaluation of telepsychological programs are discussed within the context of correctional settings and beyond. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504646

  6. Tomographic study of the East African Rift in Mozambique - Initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, A.; Chamussa, J. R.; Antunes, E.; Custodio, S.; Silveira, M. M.; Helffrich, G. R.; Ferreira, A. M.; Fonseca, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    Extensively investigated from the Red Sea to southern Tanzania, the East African Rift (EAR) structure is still unknown on its southern tip, Mozambique. The M7 Machaze earthquake of 2006, in central Mozambique, shed new light on the location of the rifting activity, motivating the current initiative. During 2011, project MOZART (funded by FCT, Lisbon, PI J. Fonseca) deployed a network of 30 broadband (120s) seismic stations from the SEIS-UK Pool in central Mozambique and NE South Africa, to investigate the structure of the southernmost section of the EAR through a number of techniques. We present preliminary results of data quality control based on full-waveform modeling, hypocentral locations, and regional structure based on the analysis of ambient noise. Data quality control based on full-waveform modeling relies on comparisons between MOZART waveform data and synthetic seismograms computed with a spectral element method (Komatitsch and Tromp, 2002). These comparisons allow an understanding of how well existing global 3D and 1D Earth models, which were built from independent data, explain MOZART data, and how suitable MOZART data are for waveform tomography. The 3D Earth model synthetics explain the surface wave phases well, but are more limited at matching amplitudes, showing that there is still scope for improvement of the Earth model. The 1D Earth PREM synthetics explain surface wave amplitudes broadly as well as the 3D Earth model, but lead to much poorer phase fits. We will also present preliminary results of the analysis of local seismicity. Local hypocenters are determined using the SEISAN software. The hypocenter inversion is a modified version of HYPOCENTER (Lienert et al., 1986, Lienert,1991, Lienert and Havskov, 1995). The current version uses different seismic phases for earthquake location. The hypocentral locations of small to moderate earthquakes help to identify the most seismically active regions. Finally, we present the first results of the

  7. Cloud Base Height Measurements at Manila Observatory: Initial Results from Constructed Paired Sky Imaging Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagrosas, N.; Tan, F.; Antioquia, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Fabricated all sky imagers are efficient and cost effective instruments for cloud detection and classification. Continuous operation of this instrument can result in the determination of cloud occurrence and cloud base heights for the paired system. In this study, a fabricated paired sky imaging system - consisting two commercial digital cameras (Canon Powershot A2300) enclosed in weatherproof containers - is developed in Manila Observatory for the purpose of determining cloud base heights at the Manila Observatory area. One of the cameras is placed on the rooftop of Manila Observatory and the other is placed on the rooftop of the university dormitory, 489m from the first camera. The cameras are programmed to simultaneously gather pictures every 5 min. Continuous operation of these cameras were implemented since the end of May of 2014 but data collection started end of October 2013. The data were processed following the algorithm proposed by Kassianov et al (2005). The processing involves the calculation of the merit function that determines the area of overlap of the two pictures. When two pictures are overlapped, the minimum of the merit function corresponds to the pixel column positions where the pictures have the best overlap. In this study, pictures of overcast sky prove to be difficult to process for cloud base height and were excluded from processing. The figure below shows the initial results of the hourly average of cloud base heights from data collected from November 2013 to July 2014. Measured cloud base heights ranged from 250m to 1.5km. These are the heights of cumulus and nimbus clouds that are dominant in this part of the world. Cloud base heights are low in the early hours of the day indicating low convection process during these times. However, the increase in the convection process in the atmosphere can be deduced from higher cloud base heights in the afternoon. The decrease of cloud base heights after 15:00 follows the trend of decreasing solar

  8. 41 CFR 302-7.9 - What are some reasons that would justify the additional storage beyond the initial 90-day limit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that would justify the additional storage beyond the initial 90-day limit? 302-7.9 Section 302-7.9 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND...

  9. Initial results from NuSTAR observations of the Norma Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John; Krivonos, Roman; Stern, Daniel; Bauer, Franz E.; Fornasini, Francesca; Barrière, Nicolas M; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn; Craig, William W.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles James; Harrison, Fiona; Hong, JaeSub; Mori, Kaya; Zhang, William

    2014-08-01

    Results are presented for an initial survey of the Norma Arm gathered with the focusing hard X-ray telescope NuSTAR. The survey covers 0.2 degrees-squared of sky area in the 3--79 keV range with a minimum and maximum raw exposure time of 15 ks and 135 ks, respectively. Besides a bright black-hole X-ray binary in outburst (4U 1630-47) and a new X-ray transient (NuSTAR J163433-473841), NuSTAR locates three sources from the Chandra survey of this region whose spectra are extended above 10 keV for the first time. Imaging, timing, and spectral data from a broad X-ray range (0.3--79 keV) are analyzed and interpreted with the aim of classifying these objects. CXOU J163329.5-473332 is either a cataclysmic variable or a faint low-mass X-ray binary. CXOU J163350.9-474638 varies in intensity on year-long timescales, and with no multi-wavelength counterpart, it could be a magnetar. CXOU J163355.1-473804 features a helium-like iron line at 6.7 keV and is classified as a nearby cataclysmic variable. We close by discussing some challenges inherent in imaging crowded regions with NuSTAR, and how the lessons learned in this pilot study can help scientists who wish to use NuSTAR to observe their favorite targets.

  10. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies survey (SLUGGS): sample definition, methods, and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Woodley, Kristin A.; Strader, Jay; Forbes, Duncan A.; Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S.; Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R.

    2014-11-20

    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin{sup 2} field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ∼8 R {sub e}, and to ∼15 R {sub e} in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (∼2-3 R {sub e}) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  11. Radium decay series dating of barite deposition in the Gulf of Mexico: Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gent, D.L.; Scott, L.M.; Fu, B.

    1995-12-31

    Barite deposits consisting of chimneys and crusts were recently documented and recovered by submersible from hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico offshore Louisiana at water depths of 510-670 m in the Garden Banks and Mississippi Canyon areas. This is the first discovery of barite deposits associated with cold hydrocarbon seeps. The outer part of the chimneys are dominated by barite whereas the inner part of the chimneys are dominated by barite with pyrite as accessory mineral. The crusts are about 5-8 cm thick and their surficial layers are composed of barite coexisting with carbonate whereas the lower part of the crusts consists of barite, carbonate, and pyrite. A program of radiometric dating by Ra decay series isotopes was initiated in order to derive a chronology of barite deposition in association with the hydrocarbon seeps. Chimneys and crusts were analyzed for NORM using a high purity intrinsic germanium gamma spectroscopy system. The deposits were found to contain {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra at concentrations comparable to those found in scale associated with oil production in the Gulf States Region (approximately 500 pCi/gm and 250 pCi/gm, respectively). The deposits were subjected to two separate age dating techniques. The primary technique utilized gamma spectroscopy for determination of {sup 210}Pb/{sup 226}Ra ratios. The second technique utilized gamma spectroscopy for determination of {sup 226}Th/{sup 228}Ra ratios. Ages as determined by {sup 210}Pb/{sup 226}Ra ranged from 2 years to 40 years. The {sup 228}Th/{sup 228}Ra methodology tended to validate the primary dating technique, although the useful range of dating for this method does not exceed 15 years. Sulfide-rich layers in the barite deposits tended to give anomalous and biased results when dated by the primary method. Both methodologies also appear valid for age dating scale deposits {le} 100 years old that are generated in oil production operations.

  12. Electron density profiles obtained from CHAMP GPS radio occultation measurements: Initial results from GFZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arras, Christina; Schmidt, Torsten; Lee, Woo-Kyoung; Wickert, Jens; Heise, Stefan; Beyerle, Georg; Rothacher, Markus; Jakowski, Norbert

    GPS radio occultation signals received by Low Earth Orbit satellites provide global information about vertical distribution of lower atmospheric parameters (e.g., temperature and water vapour) and electron density in the ionosphere. Since its launch in July 2000 the German geoscience satellite CHAMP has collected about 400,000 occultation measurements. These data form a first and unique long-term dataset of ionospheric profiles, but also of other geophysical variables as temperature, pressure and water vapour in the lower atmosphere. We present initial results of the ionospheric occultation data analyses at GFZ. Vertical electron density profiles from CHAMP are derived using a recently developed software package. To obtain electron densities from calibrated TEC (Total Electron Content) data the so-called onion peeling method is used. The application of this technique allows for the derivation of the electron density profile iteratively starting from the top altitude. The derived profiles are compared with corresponding data processed by UCAR (University Corporation of Atmospheric Research) and DLR Neustrelitz, but also with independent PLP (Planar Langmuir Probe) measurements from CHAMP. These investigations are complemented by case studies comparing the profiles with ground based ionosonde measurements. The high vertical resolution of the derived ionospheric profiles reveals thin vertical ionospheric structures such as sporadic E layers. We investigate the occurrence distribution of these layers in more detail. Sporadic E appears predominantly during summer in the lower ionosphere and has a considerable effect on the propagation of the GPS radio occultation signals. This feature is used to derive information on the altitude and on the intensity of these irregularities.

  13. Initial Results from CASSIOPE/ePOP Satellite Overpasses above HAARP in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J., Jr.; James, H. G.; Yau, A. W.; Knudsen, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility was operated in conjunction with overpasses of the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP) instruments on the Canadian CASSIOPE satellite. During these overpasses HAARP was operated in several different heating modes and regimes as diagnosed by the characteristics of Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (SEE) using ground-based receivers while simultaneously ePOP monitored in-situ HF and VLF signals, looked for ion and electron heating, and provided VHF and UHF signals for propagation effects studies. The e-POP suite of instruments and particularly the ePOP Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) offer a unique combination diagnostics appropriate for studying the non-linear plasma effects generated high-power HF waves in the ionosphere. In this presentation, the initial results from ePOP observations from two separate 2014 measurement campaigns at HAARP (April 16 to April 29 and May 25 to June 9) will be discussed. Several innovative experiments were performed during the campaign. Experiments explored a wide range of ionospheric effects. These include: 1) Penetration of HF pump waves into the ionosphere via large and small scale irregularities, 2) effects of gyro-harmonic heating and artificial ionization layers, 3) effects of HAARP beam shape with O- and X-mode transmissions, 4) coupling of Lower Hybrid modes into Whistler waves, 5) D/E-region VLF generation in the ionosphere using VLF modulation of the HF pump 6) scattering of VHF and UHF signals and 7) scattering and non-linear modulation of a 9.5 MHz probe wave propagating through the region of the ionosphere modified by HAARP. This work supported by the Naval Research Laboratory Base Program.

  14. Local Electrical Dyssynchrony during Atrial Fibrillation: Theoretical Considerations and Initial Catheter Ablation Results

    PubMed Central

    Schäffer, Benjamin; Hoffmann, Boris A.; Ganesan, Anand N.; Schreiber, Doreen; Moser, Julia M.; Akbulak, Ruken Ö.; Sultan, Arian; Steven, Daniel; Maesen, Bart; Schotten, Ulrich; Meyer, Christian; Willems, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Background Electrogram-based identification of the regions maintaining persistent Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is a subject of ongoing debate. Here, we explore the concept of local electrical dyssynchrony to identify AF drivers. Methods and Results Local electrical dyssynchrony was calculated using mean phase coherence. High-density epicardial mapping along with mathematical model were used to explore the link between local dyssynchrony and properties of wave conduction. High-density mapping showed a positive correlation between the dyssynchrony and number of fibrillatory waves (R2 = 0.68, p<0.001). In the mathematical model, virtual ablation at high dyssynchrony regions resulted in conduction regularization. The clinical study consisted of eighteen patients undergoing catheter ablation of persistent AF. High-density maps of left atrial (LA) were constructed using a circular mapping catheter. After pulmonary vein isolation, regions with the top 10% of the highest dyssynchrony in LA were targeted during ablation and followed with ablation of complex atrial electrograms. Catheter ablation resulted in termination during ablation at high dyssynchrony regions in 7 (41%) patients. In another 4 (24%) patients, transient organization was observed. In 6 (35%) there was no clear effect. Long-term follow-up showed 65% AF freedom at 1 year and 22% at 2 years. Conclusions Local electrical dyssynchrony provides a reasonable estimator of regional AF complexity defined as the number of fibrillatory waves. Additionally, it points to regions of dynamical instability related with action potential alternans. However, despite those characteristics, its utility in guiding catheter ablation of AF is limited suggesting other factors are responsible for AF persistence. PMID:27780243

  15. The Boulby Geoscience Project Underground Research Laboratory: Initial Results of a Rock Mechanics Laboratory Testing Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brain, M. J.; Petley, D. N.; Rosser, N.; Lim, M.; Sapsford, M.; Barlow, J.; Norman, E.; Williams, A.; Pybus, D.

    2009-12-01

    The Boulby Mine, which is situated on the northeast coast of England, is a major source of potash, primarily for use as a fertiliser, with a secondary product of rock salt (halite), used in highway deicing. The deposits are part of the Zechstein formation and are found at depths of between c.1100 and 1135 m below sea level. The evaporite sequence also contains a range of further lithologies, including anhydrite, dolomite and a mixed evaporate deposit. From a scientific perspective the dry, uncontaminated nature of the deposits, the range of lithologies present and the high stress conditions at the mine provide a unique opportunity to observe rock deformation in situ in varying geological and stress environments. To this end the Boulby Geoscience Project was established to examine the feasibility of developing an underground research laboratory at the mine. Information regarding the mechanical properties of the strata at the Boulby Mine is required to develop our understanding of the strength and deformation behaviour of the rock over differing timescales in response to variations in the magnitude and duration of applied stresses. As such data are currently limited, we have developed a laboratory testing programme that examines the behaviour of the deposits during the application of differential compressive stresses. We present the initial results of this testing programme here. Experiments have been carried out using a high pressure Virtual Infinite Strain (VIS) triaxial apparatus (250 kN maximum axial load; 64 MPa maximum cell pressure) manufactured by GDS Instruments. Conventional compression tests under uniaxial and triaxial conditions have been undertaken to determine the effects of axial stress application rate, axial strain rate and confining pressure on behaviour and failure mechanisms. The experimental programme also includes advanced testing into time-dependent creep behaviour under constant deviatoric stress; the effects of variations in temperature and

  16. Exploratory X-ray monitoring of luminous radio-quiet quasars at high redshift: Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Shemmer, Ohad; Stein, Matthew S.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Paolillo, Maurizio; Kaspi, Shai; Vignali, Cristian; Lira, Paulina; Gibson, Robert R.

    2014-03-10

    We present initial results from an exploratory X-ray monitoring project of two groups of comparably luminous radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). The first consists of four sources at 4.10 ≤ z ≤ 4.35, monitored by Chandra, and the second is a comparison sample of three sources at 1.33 ≤ z ≤ 2.74, monitored by Swift. Together with archival X-ray data, the total rest-frame temporal baseline spans ∼2-4 yr and ∼5-13 yr for the first and second group, respectively. Six of these sources show significant X-ray variability over rest-frame timescales of ∼10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} days; three of these also show significant X-ray variability on rest-frame timescales of ∼1-10 days. The X-ray variability properties of our variable sources are similar to those exhibited by nearby and far less luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). While we do not directly detect a trend of increasing X-ray variability with redshift, we do confirm previous reports of luminous AGNs exhibiting X-ray variability above that expected from their luminosities, based on simplistic extrapolation from lower luminosity sources. This result may be attributed to luminous sources at the highest redshifts having relatively high accretion rates. Complementary UV-optical monitoring of our sources shows that variations in their optical-X-ray spectral energy distribution are dominated by the X-ray variations. We confirm previous reports of X-ray spectral variations in one of our sources, HS 1700+6416, but do not detect such variations in any of our other sources in spite of X-ray flux variations of up to a factor of ∼4. This project is designed to provide a basic assessment of the X-ray variability properties of RQQs at the highest accessible redshifts that will serve as a benchmark for more systematic monitoring of such sources with future X-ray missions.

  17. Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3): Mission Summary and Initial Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, S. A.; Newman, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    conducted and summarize early results related to: • Nadine's (2012) interaction with the Saharan Air Layer • Outflow structure as revealed by dropsondes and CPL • Environmental conditions in weakly developing and non-developing storms in 2013 • Initial results for 2014 cases

  18. Non-Shock Initiation Model for Plastic Bonded Explosive PBXN-5: Theoretical Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, S. N.; Vogler, T. J.; Caipen, T. L.; Grady, D. E.

    2007-12-01

    A "damage-initiated reaction" (DMGIR) computational model is presented for prediction of explosive response to non-shock mechanical insults. The distinguishing feature of this model is the introduction of a damage variable, which relates the evolution of damage to the initiation of reaction in the explosive, and the growth to detonation. The DMGIR model was embedded into an existing shock-physics computational code to utilize those existing, predictive capabilities as the basis for these non-shock predictions. The numerical approach is presented, with comparisons of DMGIR predictions to recent experiments utilizing non-shock initiation of the plastic bonded explosive PBXN-5. This model has been developed, and is presently being validated for plastic bonded explosives. Extension of the DMGIR model is planned for cast- and moldable-type explosives.

  19. Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing in NASA: An Overview of Current Projects and Future Initiatives for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    NASA, including each Mission Directorate, is investing in, experimenting with, and/or utilizing AM across a broad spectrum of applications and projects; Centers have created and are continuing to create partnerships with industry, other Government Agencies, other Centers, and Universities; In-house additive manufacturing capability enables rapid iteration of the entire design, development and testing process, increasing innovation and reducing risk and cost to projects; For deep space exploration, AM offers significant reduction to logistics costs and risk by providing ability to create on demand; There are challenges: Overwhelming message from recent JANNAF AM for Propulsion Applications TIM was "certification."; NASA will continue to work with our partners to address this and other challenges to advance the state of the art in AM and incorporate these capabilities into an array of applications from aerospace to science missions to deep space exploration.

  20. A Fragmentation-Coalescence Model for the Initial Stellar Mass Function: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshii, Y.; Saio, H.

    The authors have derived the initial stellar mass function, taking into account both effects of fragmentation of the gas clouds and coalescence among the fragments themselves. Protostars formed in a parent cloud establish a mean radiation field which interacts with grains to heat the gas, hence the next-generation protostars are necessarily massive. The coalescence among the fragments modifies the massive part of the mass spectrum. If one assumes L(m) ∝ m3 for protostars, a Salpeter-like initial stellar mass function is obtained.

  1. The MARIA Helicon Plasma Experiment at UW Madison: Upgrade, Initial Scientific Goals Mission and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Victoria; Green, Jonathan; Hershkowitz, Noah; Schmitz, Oliver; Severn, Greg

    2015-11-01

    The versatile helicon plasma device, MARIA (Magnetized AnisotRopic Ion-distribution Apparatus), was upgraded with stronger magnetic field B <= 1200G. The main focus is to understand the neutral particle dynamics and ionization mechanism with helicon waves to establish a high-density plasma (10 ∧ 20/m ∧ 3) at substantial electron (Te ~5-15eV) and ion (Ti ~1-3eV) temperature. To achieve this, installation of higher RF Power <= 15kW is planned as well as design of an ion cyclotron-heating antenna. To quantify the plasma characteristics, diagnostics including a Triple Langmuir Probe, Emissive Probe, and Laser Induced Fluorescence were established. We show first results from characterization of the device. The coupling of the helicon mode in the electron temperature and density parameter space in Argon was mapped out with regard to neutral pressure, B-field and RF power. In addition, validity of the Bohm Criterion and of the Chodura model starting in the weakly collisional regime is tested. A key goal in all efforts is to develop methods of quantitative spectroscopy based on cutting-edge models and active laser spectroscopy. This work was funded by Startup funds of the Department of Engineering Physics at UW Madison, the NSF CAREER award PHY-1455210 and NSF grant PHY-1206421.

  2. Human support issues and systems for the space exploration initiative: Results from Project Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aroesty, J.; Zimmerman, R.; Logan, J.

    1991-01-01

    The analyses and evaluations of the Human Support panel are discussed. The Human Support panel is one of eight panels created by RAND to screen and analyze submissions to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Outreach Program. Submissions to the Human Support panel were in the following areas: radiation protection; microgravity; life support systems; medical care; and human factors (behavior and performance).

  3. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... tests, or both, and are negative on the initial tests for drugs and drug metabolites. Except as... more stringent cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. If the FFD program tests for drugs and drug metabolites that are not specified in § 26.31(d)(1), the summary must also include the number...

  4. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... tests, or both, and are negative on the initial tests for drugs and drug metabolites. Except as... more stringent cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. If the FFD program tests for drugs and drug metabolites that are not specified in § 26.31(d)(1), the summary must also include the number...

  5. Getting Results: Outcomes Management and the Annie E. Casey Foundations Jobs Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giloth, Robert; Phillips, William

    The Anne E. Casey Foundation (AECF) funded replications of effective jobs projects to achieve better job placement and retention for low-income, young adults. The six projects funded, collectively called the Jobs Initiative (JI), in Denver, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Philadelphia, Seattle, and St. Louis, used an outcomes framework developed by The…

  6. Recidivism among Child Sexual Abusers: Initial Results of a 13-Year Longitudinal Random Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Steven; Marsh, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In the initial analysis of data from a random sample of all those charged with child sexual abuse in Idaho over a 13-year period, only one predictive variable was found that related to recidivism of those convicted. Variables such as ethnicity, relationship, gender, and age differences did not show a significant or even large association with…

  7. Initial results from the Pawnee eddy correlation system for acid deposition research

    SciTech Connect

    Zeller, K.; Massman, W.; Stocker, D.; Fox, D.G.; Stellman, D.; Hazlett, D.

    1989-01-01

    The Pawnee grassland eddy correlation dry deposition project is described. Instrumentation, methods of analysis, and initial data and research findings are presented. Data from this eddy correlation system show agreement with previous observations of deposition velocities for atmospheric ozone, NO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x}; micrometeorological theory; and micrometeorological site characteristics.

  8. Smile Alabama! Initiative: Interim Results from a Program To Increase Children's Access to Dental Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene-McIntyre, Mary; Finch, Mary Hayes; Searcy, John

    2003-01-01

    An Alabama initiative aimed to improve access to oral health care for Medicaid-eligible children through four components: improved Medicaid claims processing, increased reimbursement for providers, outreach and educational activities to support providers, and parent and patient education about children's oral health. In the first 3 program years,…

  9. Human percutaneous and intraoperative laser thermal angioplasty: initial clinical results as an adjunct to balloon angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Sanborn, T A; Greenfield, A J; Guben, J K; Menzoian, J O; LoGerfo, F W

    1987-01-01

    In this study, the safety and efficacy of percutaneous laser thermal angioplasty as an adjunct to balloon angioplasty were investigated in 13 patients with severe peripheral vascular disease. By means of a novel fiberoptic laser delivery system (Laserprobe) in which argon laser energy is converted to heat in a metallic tip at the end of the fiberoptic fiber, improvement in the angiographic luminal diameter was noted in 14 of 15 femoropopliteal vessels (93%) by delivering 8 to 13 watts of continuous argon laser energy as the Laserprobe was advanced through the lesion. Initial clinical success (indicated by relief of symptoms and increase in Doppler index) for the combined laser and balloon angioplasty procedures was obtained in 12 of 15 vessels (80%), with inadequate balloon dilatation being the limiting factor in three patients. No significant complications of vessel perforation, dissection, pain, spasm, or embolization of debris occurred. Of the 12 patients who had procedures with initial angiographic and clinical success, 10 (83%) were asymptomatic in the initial follow-up period of 1 to 9 months (mean 6 months). Thus, laser thermal angioplasty with a Laserprobe is a safe and effective adjunct to peripheral balloon angioplasty. This technique has the potential to increase the initial success rate of angioplasty for lesions that are difficult or impossible to treat by conventional means. By removing most of the obstructing lesion, this technique may also reduce recurrent stenosis.

  10. Mining Student Data Captured from a Web-Based Tutoring Tool: Initial Exploration and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merceron, Agathe; Yacef, Kalina

    2004-01-01

    In this article we describe the initial investigations that we have conducted on student data collected from a web-based tutoring tool. We have used some data mining techniques such as association rule and symbolic data analysis, as well as traditional SQL queries to gain further insight on the students' learning and deduce information to improve…

  11. Review of dWindDS Model Initial Results; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, Ian; Gleason, Michael; Preus, Robert; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-06-17

    The dWindDS model analyses the market diffusion of distributed wind generation for behind the meter applications. It is consumer decision based and uses a variety of data sets including a high resolution wind data set. It projects market development through 2050 based on input on specified by the user. This presentation covers some initial runs with draft base case assumptions.

  12. Child Sexual Abuse and Psychological Impairment in Victims: Results of an Online Study Initiated by Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Gerard A.; Mundt, Ingrid A.; Ahlers, Christoph J.; Bahls, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims…

  13. A Unique Test Facility to Measure Liner Performance with a Summary of Initial Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Gaeta, R. J., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A very ambitious study was initiated to obtain detailed acoustic and flow data with and without a liner in a duct containing a mean flow so that available theoretical models of duct liners can be validated. A unique flow-duct facility equipped with a sound source, liner box, flush-walled microphones, traversable microphones and traversable pressure and temperature probes was built. A unique set of instrumentation boxes equipped with computer controlled traverses were designed and built that allowed measurements of Mach number, temperature, SPLs and phases in two planes upstream of a liner section and two planes downstream at a large number of measurement points. Each pair of planes provided acoustic pressure gradients for use in estimating the particle velocities. Specially-built microphone probes were employed to make measurements in the presence of the flow. A microphone traverse was also designed to measure the distribution of SPLs and phases from the beginning of the liner to its end along the duct axis. All measurements were made with the help of cross-correlation techniques to reject flow noise and/or other obtrusive noise, if any. The facility was designed for future use at temperatures as high as 1500 F. In order to validate 2-D models in the presence of mean flow, the flow duct was equipped with a device to modify boundary layer flow on the smaller sides of a rectangular duct to simulate 2-D flow. A massive amount of data was acquired for use in validating duct liner models and will be provided to NASA in an electronic form. It was found that the sound in the plane-wave regime is well behaved within the duct and the results are repeatable from one run to another. At the higher frequencies corresponding to the higher-order modes, the SPLs within a duct are not repeatable from run to run. In fact, when two or more modes have the same frequency (i.e., for the degenerate modes), the SPLs in the duct varied between 2 dB to 12 dB from run to run. This made the

  14. Effect of Microgravity on Sinorhizobium meliloti: Initial Results from the SyNRGE Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Michael S.; Stutte, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIe) hardware to study the effect of microgravity on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species of the legume family, was innoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe early events associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFUs). Two sets of experiments were conducted in orbit and in 24-hour delayed ground controls. Experiment one was designed to determine if S. meliloti infect M. truncatula and initiate physiological changes associated with nodule formation. Roots of five-day-old M. truncatula cultivar Jemalong A17 (Enodll::gus) were innoculated 24 hr before launch with either S. meliloti strain 1021 or strain ABS7 and integrated into BRIC-PDFU hardware placed in a 4 C Cold Bag for launch on Atlantis. Innoculated plants and uninoculated controls were maintained in the dark at ambient temperature in the middeck of STS-135 for 11 days before fixation in RNA/ate/M by crew activation of the PDFU. Experiment two was designed to determine if microgravity altered the process of bacterial infection and host plant nodule formation. Seeds of two M. truncatula cultivar Jemalong A17 lines, the Enodll::gus used in experiment 1, and SUNN, a super-nodulating mutant of A17, were germinated on orbit for 11 days in the middeck cabin and returned to Earth alive inside of BRIC-PDFU's at 4 C S. meliloti strains 1021 and ABS7 were cultivated separately in broth culture on orbit and also returned to Earth alive. After landing, flight- and ground-grown plants and bacteria were transferred from BRIC-PDFU's into Nunc(TradeMark) 4-well plates for reciprocity crosses. Rates of plant growth and nodule development on Buffered Nodulation Medium (lacking nitrogen) were measured for 14 days. Bacteria cultivated in microgravity in the

  15. Initial Results from the Vector Electric Field Investigation on the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.; Acuna, M.; Le, G.; Farrell, W.; Holzworth, R.; Wilson, G.; Burke, W.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; Liebrecht, C.; Martin, S.; Kujawski, J.; Uribe, P.; Fourre, R.; McCarthy, M.; Maynard, N.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Steigies, C.

    2009-01-01

    Initial results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. The DC electric field detector has revealed zonal and meridional electric fields that undergo a diurnal variation, typically displaying eastward and outward-directed fields during the day and westward and downward-directed fields at night. In general, the measured DC electric field amplitudes are in the 0.5-2 mV/m range, corresponding to I3 x B drifts of the order of 30-150 m/s. What is surprising is the high degree of large-scale (10's to 100's of km) structure in the DC electric field, particularly at night, regardless of whether well-defined spread-F plasma density depletions are present. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. On some occasions, localized regions of low frequency (< 8 Hz) magnetic field broadband irregularities have been detected, suggestive of filamentary currents, although there is no one-to-one correspondence of these waves with the observed plasma density depletions, at least within the data examined thus far. Finally, the data set includes a wide range of ELF/VLF/HF waves corresponding to a variety of plasma waves, in particular banded ELF hiss, whistlers, and lower hybrid wave turbulence

  16. Storage-and-release flux rope eruptions in the laboratory: initial results and experimental plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, C. E.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Yoo, J.; Jara-Almonte, J.; Lawrence, E. E.

    2012-12-01

    Solar eruptive events such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are thought to be driven by a sudden release of magnetic energy stored in the corona. In many cases, the pre-eruptive configuration is a non-potential magnetic structure that can be modeled as a line-tied magnetic flux rope. In spite of ever-improving observational capabilities, directly studying the evolution of coronal flux ropes remains a significant challenge. Thus, in order to further explore the mechanisms that drive solar eruptions, we must find novel ways to simulate the relevant physical system. To this end, we have constructed a new laboratory experiment to study storage-and-release flux rope eruptions. This experiment contains a carefully designed set of ``sub-photospheric" coils that produces an active-region-like potential field configuration that remains static throughout the discharge. An arched magnetic flux rope plasma is formed within this potential field configuration by driving electric current through two line-tied footpoints (copper electrodes). Over the course of the discharge, the plasma current is quasi-statically increased (to tens of kiloamperes over many Alfvén times) in order to slowly build up magnetic energy in the system. As the flux rope gains energy, it will expand away from the electrodes to a point where it is expected to undergo a dynamic eruption due to the onset of a loss-of-equilibrium [Forbes & Isenberg, Astrophys. J. 373, 294 (1991)] or the torus instability [Kliem & Török, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 255002 (2006)]. In these experiments, the structure of the background potential field configuration (i.e., the field decay index) can be varied to study its effect on the observed flux rope eruptions. Initial results from these experiment are presented, including images from a fast visible light camera and direct measurements from internal magnetic diagnostics. This research is supported by DoE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by the Center for Magnetic Self

  17. Nitrogen addition and harvest frequency rather than initial plant species composition determine vertical structure and light interception in grasslands.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Ute; Isselstein, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In biodiversity experiments based on seeded experimental communities, species richness and species composition exert a strong influence on canopy structure and can lead to an improved use of aboveground resources. In this study, we want to explore whether these findings are applicable to agriculturally managed permanent grassland. Vertical layered profiles of biomass, leaf area (LA) and light intensity were measured in a removal-type biodiversity experiment (GrassMan) to compare the canopy structure in grassland vegetation of different plant species composition (called sward types). Additionally, the altered sward types were subjected to four different management regimes by a combination of the factors fertilization (unfertilized, NPK fertilized) and cutting frequency (one late cut or three cuts). In spite of large compositional differences (ratio grasses : non-leguminous forbs : leguminous forbs ranging from 93 : 7 : 0 to 39 : 52 : 9), the vegetation of the same management regime hardly differed in its canopy structure, whereas the different management regimes led to distinct vertical profiles in the vegetation. However, the allocation of biomass in response to cutting and fertilization differed among the sward types. Vegetation dominated by grasses was denser and had more LA when fertilized compared with vegetation rich in dicots which merely grew taller. In functionally more diverse vegetation, light interception was not increased compared with vegetation consisting of more than 90 % of grasses in terms of biomass. Management had a much stronger influence on structure and light interception than plant species composition in this grassland experiment. PMID:26199402

  18. Rapid screening test for gestational diabetes: public health need, market requirement, initial product design, and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Zwisler, Greg; Peck, Roger; Abu-Haydar, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Gestational diabetes is a global epidemic where many urban areas in Southeast Asia have found prevalence rates as high as 20%, exceeding the highest prevalence rates in the developed world. It can have serious and life-threatening consequences for mothers and babies. We are developing two variants of a new, simple, low-cost rapid test for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus for use primarily in low-resource settings. The pair of assays, both semiquantitative rapid diagnostic strip tests for glycated albumin, require neither fasting nor an oral glucose challenge test. One variant is an extremely simple strip test to estimate the level of total glycated albumin in blood. The other, which is slightly more complex and expensive, is a test that determines the ratio of glycated albumin to total albumin. The screening results can be used to refer women to receive additional care during delivery to avoid birth complications as well as counseling on diet and exercise during and after pregnancy. Results with the latter test may also be used to start treatment with glucose-lowering drugs. Both assays will be read visually. We present initial results of a preliminary cost-performance comparison model evaluating the proposed test versus existing alternatives. We also evaluated user needs and schematic paper microfluidics-based designs aimed at overcoming the challenge of visualizing relatively narrow differences between normal and elevated levels of glycated albumin in blood.

  19. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests were completed in 2005 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 3 full-scale additive tests, conducted at IPL's Petersburg Station Unit 2. The Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2007.

  20. The 21-SPONGE HI Absorption Survey I: Techniques and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John M.; Heiles, Carl; Lindner, Robert R.; Babler, Brian; Pingel, Nickolas M.; Lawrence, Allen; Jencson, Jacob; Hennebelle, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    We present methods and results from “21 cm Spectral Line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA” (21-SPONGE), a large survey for Galactic neutral hydrogen (H i) absorption with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). With the upgraded capabilities of the VLA, we reach median rms noise in optical depth of {{σ }τ }=9× {{10}-4} per 0.42 km {{s}-1} channel for the 31 sources presented here. Upon completion, 21-SPONGE will be the largest H i absorption survey with this high sensitivity. We discuss the observations and data reduction strategies, as well as line fitting techniques. We prove that the VLA bandpass (BP) is stable enough to detect broad, shallow lines associated with warm H i, and we show that BP observations can be combined in time to reduce spectral noise. In combination with matching H i emission profiles from the Arecibo Observatory (∼ 3.‧5 angular resolution), we estimate excitation (or spin) temperatures (Ts) and column densities for Gaussian components fitted to sightlines along which we detect H i absorption (30/31). We measure temperatures up to {{T}s}∼ 1500 K for individual lines, showing that we can probe the thermally unstable interstellar medium (ISM) directly. However, we detect fewer of these thermally unstable components than expected from previous observational studies. We probe a wide range in column density between ∼ {{10}16} and \\gt {{10}21} c{{m}-2} for individual H i clouds. In addition, we reproduce the trend between cold gas fraction and average Ts found by the Kim et al. synthetic observations of a hydrodynamic ISM simulation. Finally, we compare methods for estimating Ts using H i observations.

  1. Petrophysical Characterization of Stony Meteorites Using Low Field Magnetic Susceptibility: Initial Results From Anisotropy Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. L.; Ernst, R. E.; Herd, R. K.; Claire, S.

    2004-05-01

    Low field magnetic susceptibility represents a fast, systematic and non-destructive technique of meteorite classification [1-4]. We previously reported measurements of bulk susceptibility, and its frequency dependence, along with a `proxy' measure of anisotropy, on 204 specimens from 108 different meteorites in the National Meteorite Collection of Canada [5,6]. Measurements were performed on a Sapphire Instruments Model 2B. Bulk susceptibility values followed expected trends, governed by metal content, with values increasing from LL, to L, to H, to E chondrites. Frequency dependence (19000 vs 825 Hz) was greatest in H and C chondrites. Aubrites (AUB) and Howardites (HOW) had the lowest. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) was measured using a `proxy' approach: the mean value determined from a series of random sample orientations was compared with repeated measurements in one orientation. AUB, E chondrites and Martian SNCs had the largest inferred anisotropies, while LL and C chondrites had the lowest. Here we report initial results from a follow-up study. Quantitative measurements of the AMS were made on 67 stony meteorite specimens. AMS measurements [3,5,6,7,8,9] can provide information on the physical fabric of the meteorite, and may relate to its deformational history. Samples measured show significant degrees of anisotropy ranging from 1-50 % for an individual specimen (in parentheses is the number of specimens used in the class mean): AUB (5), Acapulcoites (1) and E chondrites (10) display the largest degrees of anisotropy, 40±11 (1 standard deviation), 34, and 24±10, respectively. These classes are followed by Diogenite (1) 20, H (13) 14±7 and L (10) 13±6 chondrites, Brachinite (1) 11, Ureilite (2) 8, Eucrite (4) 7±4, C chondrites (14) 6±3, and Rumurutiite (1) 4. These results match a similar trend based on the `proxy' method [5,6]: AUB and E chondrites were found to have the highest inferred anisotropies followed by tightly grouped H and L

  2. What really went wrong? Root cause determination study and improvement initiative results.

    PubMed

    Kiihne, Gregg M

    2008-11-15

    Many incident investigations stop before identifying the real root cause or all root causes. In 2004 with the implementation of a new corporate-wide incident reporting electronic database, an evaluation was made possible as to the quality of incident investigations and reports at all sites within the case study organization. After reviewing almost 1,000 incident reports, the Occupational and Process Safety expertise teams in this organization determined a need for improvement in the determination of the real Root Causes of the incidents and development of appropriate Corrective Actions. A communication and training initiative across multiple functional groups ensued to enable all sites within the organization to better understand why incidents were happening and to develop Corrective Actions to successfully prevent recurrence of the same or related incidents. This paper will give a brief background of the initiative, demonstrate what activities were undertaken and illustrate the success of this approach. PMID:18374484

  3. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED...

  4. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD...

  5. Long time existence results for bore-type initial data for BBM-Boussinesq systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtea, Cosmin

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we deal with the long time existence for the Cauchy problem associated to BBM-type Boussinesq systems of equations which are asymptotic models for long wave, small amplitude gravity surface water waves. As opposed to previous papers devoted to the long time existence issue, we consider initial data with nontrivial behavior at infinity which may be used to model bore propagation.

  6. The Vega balloon experiment - Initial results from the global radio tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, R. A.; Hildebrand, C. E.; Purcell, G. H., Jr.; Finley, S. G.; Stelzried, C. T.; Ellis, J.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Matveenko, L. I.; Linkin, V. M.; Kerzhanovich, V. V.

    1986-01-01

    A unique global array of 20 radio telescopes provided 24-h telemetry acquisition of meteorological data from the Vega balloons and differential VLBI measurements of their trajectories. Initial Doppler-tracking analysis indicates mean zonal wind velocities of 69 + or - 1 and 66 + or - 1 m/sec at the Vega 1 and Vega 2 float heights, and discloses an anomaly in the Vega 2 trajectory above the mountains in Aphrodite Terra.

  7. Beauty and the Beast: Results of the Rhode Island Smokefree Shop Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Linnan, Laura A.; Emmons, Karen M.; Abrams, David B.

    2002-01-01

    Licensed hairdressing facilities are prevalent in communities nationwide and represent a unique and promising channel for delivering public health interventions. The Rhode Island Smokefree Shop Initiative tested the feasibility of using these facilities to deliver smoking policy interventions statewide. A statewide survey of hairdressing facilities was followed by interventions targeted to the readiness level (high/low) of respondents to adopt smoke-free policies. PMID:11772752

  8. Initial Results from the MER Athena Science Investigation at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squyres, S.

    2004-05-01

    of orbital data. Mini-TES data have confirmed the presence of this hematite in the soil. The soil within the crater has several components. Microscopic images of undisturbed surface soil show that one component is fine (~100 micron) sand. Mössbauer spectra of the sand show two ferrous doublets (one of them due to olivine), a ferric doublet, and a weak magnetic sextet. APXS and Mini-TES data on this sand are consistent with a composition dominated by basalt. Another component of the soil consists of coarse (several mm) granules. These range in shape from subangular to rounded to remarkably spherical. In some locations, granules have been pressed down into the soil by the impact of the landers airbags. At those locations the concentration of hematite as determined by Mini-TES is sharply reduced, suggesting that at least some of the granules are hematite-bearing. The bedrock outcrop is finely laminated, with typical layer thicknesses of only a few mm. The texture of the outcrop as viewed in miroscopic images suggests that it is fine-grained, with well-expressed structure that is revealed by varying degrees of mechanical abrasion of layers of varying induration. Initial APXS results on this fine-grained matrix indicate sulfur concentrations significantly higher than any observed elsewhere on Mars. Embedded within the outcrop and weathering out of it are highly spherical granules with diameters of several mm. The visible to near-IR spectral properties of these embedded spherical granules, as determined by Pancam, are distinctly different from those of the matrix in which they are embedded.

  9. The IAEA Coordinated Research Program on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis: Phase I Status and Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Strydom, Gerhard; Bostelmann, Friederike; Ivanov, Kostadin

    2014-10-01

    The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of HTGR design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. One way to address the uncertainties in the HTGR analysis tools is to assess the sensitivity of critical parameters (such as the calculated maximum fuel temperature during loss of coolant accidents) to a few important input uncertainties. The input parameters were identified by engineering judgement in the past but are today typically based on a Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT) process. The input parameters can also be derived from sensitivity studies and are then varied in the analysis to find a spread in the parameter of importance. However, there is often no easy way to compensate for these uncertainties. In engineering system design, a common approach for addressing performance uncertainties is to add compensating margins to the system, but with passive properties credited it is not so clear how to apply it in the case of modular HTGR heat removal path. Other more sophisticated uncertainty modelling approaches, including Monte Carlo analysis, have also been proposed and applied. Ideally one wishes to apply a more fundamental approach to determine the predictive capability and accuracies of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and depletion simulations used for reactor design and safety assessment. Today there is a broader acceptance of the use of uncertainty analysis even in safety studies, and it has been accepted by regulators in some cases to replace the traditional conservative analysis. Therefore some safety analysis calculations may use a mixture of these approaches for different parameters depending upon the particular requirements of the analysis problem involved. Sensitivity analysis can for example be used to provide information as part of an uncertainty analysis to determine best estimate plus uncertainty results to the

  10. Preliminary Results from Initial Investigations of Ceres' Cratering Record from Dawn Imaging Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmedemann, Nico; Michael, Gregory; Ivanov, Boris A.; Kneissl, Thomas; Neesemann, Adrian; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2015-04-01

    The highly successful Dawn mission [1] finished data collection at Vesta in 2012 and is now on its way to the dwarf planet Ceres. According to the current Ceres approach timeline of the Dawn mission, the ground resolution of the Dawn FC camera [2] will be about 10 times better than Hubble data [3] at the time of the presentation of this work. This may allow for identification of craters about 15 km in diameter. Initial mapping of sample areas may provide enough information of the cratering record in order to compare it with the theoretical Ceres crater production function we present at the 46th LPSC conference (March 16-20, 2015, The Woodlands, Texas) [4]. Our preliminary crater production function for Ceres is derived from the assumption of an icy crust just below a thin surface layer of dust [5], and a projectile population that is very similar to the one that impacted the Moon [6]. In order to scale the lunar cratering record to Ceres we use the Ivanov scaling laws [7], which allow for crater scaling based on parameters that can be derived from observations. The lunar-like approach gave reasonable good results for the crater production function on the asteroids Vesta, Ida, Lutetia and Gaspra [8]. Since the lunar surface is of basaltic composition, the correct scaling between the different materials is challenging. One crucial parameter is the transition diameter from simple to complex craters. Based on the simple to complex transition diameter on Iapetus, an icy satellite of Saturn, we expect this transition at about 12 km crater size at Ceres. This value may be slightly different due to the different temperatures at Ceres and Iapetus. If the simple to complex transition is observed at much larger diameters, the reason could be a substantial fraction of rock in the shallow subsurface of Ceres. In an ice-rich surface material high relaxation rates may also be expected that could change the shape of the crater production function. A thorough geological mapping

  11. Initial results from a CO2 monitoring network in the Los Angeles megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S.; Hsu, Y. K.; Kort, E. A.; Sander, S. P.; Eldering, A.; Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Yung, Y. L.

    2012-04-01

    Urban regions, such as Los Angeles, CA, contain more than half of the world's population and contribute an even larger fraction of its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One practical method for tracking these emissions is by high-resolution space-borne remote-sensing instruments, such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2, spatial resolution of ~3 km2). In conjunction with space-borne measurements, in situ measurements can be used to elucidate the details of urban emission patterns and trends. Indeed, to understand GHG emissions in complex urban regions, we must sample in multiple locations with the goal of obtaining specific information from each site. We have studied CO2 in Los Angeles from three sites that form the anchor points of a developing megacity monitoring network. The sites form a ~45 km transect that extends from the Pacific Ocean coastline to the southwest, over the Los Angeles basin, to the San Gabriel Mountains that form the northern boundary of the basin. Using in situ measurements of CO2 from Palos Verdes peninsula (PV), Pasadena, and Mt. Wilson (MW), from May 2010 - April 2011, with additional analysis of data since 2001 in Pasadena, we determined the seasonal variations of boundary layer CO2 mixing ratios. The amplitude of the seasonal and diurnal variations is much larger in Pasadena than at the other two sites, and the PV site shows more variability than the MW site. PV is on the coast, with dominant westerly breezes bringing air from the ocean, except when unusual weather patterns occur. The average patterns here reflect the global clean-air pattern, with lowest mixing ratios during the summer and highest during the winter. Pasadena is inland, in the San Gabriel Valley close to the mountains, and is a good receptor site for receiving the emissions signal from the Los Angeles basin. The CO2 signal here is strongly affected by diurnal changes in boundary layer height, reflected in diurnal variations averaging 70 ppm during winter, with the

  12. Mechanistic Insights into the Initiation Step of the Base Promoted Direct C-H Arylation of Benzene in the Presence of Additive.

    PubMed

    Patil, Mahendra

    2016-01-15

    The direct arylation of unactivated arenes is a very practical and highly convenient procedure for the construction of biaryl scaffolds. Recently, a direct arylation of unactivated benzene has been achieved in the presence of base (tBuOK or tBuONa) and organic additive such as 1,10-phenanthroline. However, details of intimate mechanism of reaction as well as the role of additive have remained elusive until date. The present work explores various mechanistic possibilities of the key electron transfer step of the reaction in order to identify a probable route for the initiation of phenyl radical from iodobenzene. A detailed DFT (M06-2X functional) investigation indicates that the reaction of additive and base can be crucial to generate an electron acceptor-donor pair that can facilitate electron transfer mechanism. This computational model provides a satisfactory explanation for experimental observations, clearly defining the roles of additive and base in the reaction.

  13. Initial results from the Solar Dynamic (SD) Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) project at NASA Lewis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.; Boyle, Robert V.

    1995-01-01

    A government/industry team designed, built, and tested a 2 kWe solar dynamic space power system in a large thermal/vacuum facility with a simulated sun at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Lewis facility provides an accurate simulation of temperatures, high vacuum, and solar flux as encountered in low earth orbit. This paper reviews the goals and status of the Solar Dynamic (SD) Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) program and describes the initial testing, including both operational and performance data. This SD technology has the potential as a future power source for the International Space Station Alpha.

  14. Automation and robotics for the Space Exploration Initiative: Results from Project Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, D.; Criswell, D.; Heer, E.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 52 submissions were received in the Automation and Robotics (A&R) area during Project Outreach. About half of the submissions (24) contained concepts that were judged to have high utility for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) and were analyzed further by the robotics panel. These 24 submissions are analyzed here. Three types of robots were proposed in the high scoring submissions: structured task robots (STRs), teleoperated robots (TORs), and surface exploration robots. Several advanced TOR control interface technologies were proposed in the submissions. Many A&R concepts or potential standards were presented or alluded to by the submitters, but few specific technologies or systems were suggested.

  15. The Ulysses solar wind plasma investigation: Description and initial in-ecliptic results

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, S. J.; Phillips, J. L.; McComas, D. J.; Gosling, J. T.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1991-01-01

    During the in-ecliptic flight of Ulysses from the Earth toward its encounter with Jupiter, the Los Alamos solar wind plasma experiment has performed well. Briefly described, the instrumentation contains two independent electrostatic analyzers, one for ions and one for electrons. Initial analysis of solar wind electron core temperatures obtained between 1.15 and 3.76 AU yields a gradient of T {proportional to} R{sup {minus}0.7} which is flatter than expected for adiabatic expansion of a single-temperature Maxwellian velocity distribution and steeper than that obtained from Mariner-Voyager.

  16. The Edison Environmental Center Permeable Pavement Site: Initial Results from a Stormwater Control Designed for Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are few detailed studies of full-scale, replicated, actively-used permeable pavement systems. Practitioners need additional studies of permeable pavement systems in its intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditio...

  17. Piotron. II. Methods and initial results of dynamic pion therapy in phase II studies

    SciTech Connect

    von Essen, C.F.; Blattmann, H.; Bodendoerfer, G.; Mizoe, J.; Pedroni, E.; Walder, E.; Zimmermann, A.

    1985-02-01

    Negative pi-meson (pion) therapy employing dynamic scanning with a focused spot of convergent beams has been in use since 1981 at SIN. Three-dimensional conformation of the treatment volume to the target volume can thus be achieved. Following previously reported Phase I and Ib clinical trials, a Phase II trial was initiated with the goal of treating primary deep-seated tumors in a dose optimization schedule which included stepwise increase of total pion dose and of target volume. Patients with multicentric superficial bladder tumors who were cystectomy candidates were initially selected. Since then, more invasive cases have been treated. Treatment reactions ranged from a faint erythema and increase of bladder frequency to dry desquamation, mild nausea, moderate dysuria, and moderate proctitis or diarrhea with mucus. These reactions were closely related to treatment volume and site. One severe late cystitis has occurred in a patient treated with 2 courses of pions (4475 rad). Mild to moderate late proctitis has been seen in 4 patients. Ten of 13 bladder cancer patients had local control of disease while all 3 pancreas or biliary tract cancer patients had microscopic residual disease locally at time of death from metastasis. A total of 11 of 17 patients are thus clinically or pathologically free of local tumor to time of last observation.

  18. Virtual Iraq: initial results from a VR exposure therapy application for combat-related PTSD.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Albert A; Graap, Ken; Perlman, Karen; McLay, Robert N; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Reger, Greg; Parsons, Thomas; Difede, Joann; Pair, Jarrell

    2008-01-01

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is reported to be caused by traumatic events that are outside the range of usual human experience including (but not limited to) military combat, violent personal assault, being kidnapped or taken hostage and terrorist attacks. Initial data suggests that at least 1 out of 6 Iraq War veterans are exhibiting symptoms of depression, anxiety and PTSD. Virtual Reality (VR) delivered exposure therapy for PTSD has been used with reports of positive outcomes. The aim of the current paper is to present the rationale and brief description of a Virtual Iraq PTSD VR therapy application and present initial findings from its use with PTSD patients. Thus far, Virtual Iraq consists of a series of customizable virtual scenarios designed to represent relevant Middle Eastern VR contexts for exposure therapy, including a city and desert road convoy environment. User-centered design feedback needed to iteratively evolve the system was gathered from returning Iraq War veterans in the USA and from a system deployed in Iraq and tested by an Army Combat Stress Control Team. Clinical trials are currently underway at Ft. Lewis, Camp Pendleton, Emory University, Weill Cornell Medical College, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, San Diego Naval Medical Center and 12 other sites. PMID:18391334

  19. Sofosbuvir Inhibits Hepatitis E Virus Replication In Vitro and Results in an Additive Effect When Combined With Ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Dao Thi, Viet Loan; Debing, Yannick; Wu, Xianfang; Rice, Charles M; Neyts, Johan; Moradpour, Darius; Gouttenoire, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis E virus genotype 3 may result in chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. Reduction of immunosuppression or treatment with ribavirin or pegylated interferon-α can result in viral clearance. However, safer and more effective treatment options are needed. Here, we show that sofosbuvir inhibits the replication of hepatitis E virus genotype 3 both in subgenomic replicon systems as well as a full-length infectious clone. Moreover, the combination of sofosbuvir and ribavirin results in an additive antiviral effect. Sofosbuvir may be considered as an add-on therapy to ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis E in immunocompromised patients.

  20. Test results of the Chrysler upgraded automotive gas turbine engine: Initial design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, D.; Ribble, G. H., Jr.; Warren, E. L.; Wood, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The upgraded engine as built to the original design was deficient in power and had excessive specific fuel consumption. A high instrumented version of the engine was tested to identify the sources of the engine problems. Analysis of the data shows the major problems to be low compressor and power turbine efficiency and excessive interstage duct losses. In addition, high HC and CO emission were measured at idle, and high NOx emissions at high energy speeds.

  1. Additional road markings as an indication of speed limits: results of a field experiment and a driving simulator study.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Stijn; Vanrie, Jan; Dreesen, An; Brijs, Tom

    2010-05-01

    Although speed limits are indicated by road signs, road users are not always aware, while driving, of the actual speed limit on a given road segment. The Roads and Traffic Agency developed additional road markings in order to support driver decisions on speed on 70 km/h roads in Flanders-Belgium. In this paper the results are presented of two evaluation studies, both a field study and a simulator study, on the effects of the additional road markings on speed behaviour. The results of the field study showed no substantial effect of the markings on speed behaviour. Neither did the simulator study, with slightly different stimuli. Nevertheless an effect on lateral position was noticed in the simulator study, showing at least some effect of the markings. The role of conspicuity of design elements and expectations towards traffic environments is discussed. Both studies illustrate well some strengths and weaknesses of observational field studies compared to experimental simulator studies.

  2. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal were completed in 2005 and 2006 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 5 full-scale additive tests, conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1. Both additives were tested there.

  3. Setup and initial results from the magnetic flux surface diagnostics at Wendelstein 7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otte, M.; Aßmus, D.; Biedermann, C.; Bozhenkov, S.; Bräuer, T.; Dudek, A.; Geiger, J.; Kocsis, G.; Lazerson, S.; Pedersen, T. S.; Schauer, F.; Szepesi, T.; Standley, B.; the W7-X Team

    2016-06-01

    Wendelstein 7-X is an optimized stellarator with superconducting magnetic field coils that just started plasma operation at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP) Greifswald. Utilizing the electron beam technique the first vacuum flux surface measurements were performed during the commissioning of the magnet system. For the magnetic configurations investigated so far the existence of closed and nested flux surfaces has been validated. All features of the configuration designed for the initial plasma operation phase, including a predicted island chain, were confirmed. No evidence on significant magnetic field errors was found. Furthermore, the effect of the elastic deformation of the non-planar coils was confirmed by the measurements.

  4. [Prediction and prevention of type 1 diabetes mellitus: initial results and recent prospects].

    PubMed

    Madácsy, László

    2011-11-27

    Epidemiological studies indicate that the incidence and prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus is rising worldwide. The increase in incidence has been most prominent in the youngest age group of childhood. Prediction of type 1a autoimmune diabetes can be established by a positive family history or by genetic, immunological or metabolic markers. Prevention of type 1 diabetes can be implemented at three different levels of pathogenesis: primary prevention in individuals without any sign of beta-cell damage, secondary prevention in individuals with signs of beta-cell destruction and tertiary prevention in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. In recent years our knowledge of the disease pathogenesis has grown quickly, and several new prevention trials have been initiated worldwide. Immunologic intervention for type 1 diabetes will prove to be probably the most effective.

  5. Radiation doses in adult computed tomography practice in Serbia: initial results.

    PubMed

    Arandjic, Danijela; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Hadnadjev, Darka; Stojanovic, Sanja; Bozovic, Predrag; Ceklic, Sandra; Lazarevic, Djordje

    2014-11-01

    This work presents initial data on radiation doses in adult computed tomography (CT) in Serbia. Data were collected in terms of CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) values for head, chest and abdomen examination. The range of CTDIvol values was found to be 53-98, 11-34 and 8.5-227 mGy whereas for DLP was 803-1066, 350-845 and 1066-3078 mGy cm(-1) for head, chest and abdomen examination, respectively. Except for abdomen on one CT unit, all estimated values were in line with the reported data. This work also presents simple method on how to reduce radiation doses when scanning head. Using axial (step-and-shot) instead of helical mode and decreasing tube current-time product leads to significant dose reduction. CTDIvol was decreased by 20 % whereas DLP was reduced for a factor 2. PMID:25063787

  6. Performance of the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Facility and initial experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, W.; Conde, M.; Cox, G.; Konecny, R.; Power, J.; Schoessow, P.; Simpson, J.; Barov, N.

    1996-10-01

    The Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility has begun its experimental program. It is designed to address advanced acceleration research requiring very short, intense electron bunches. It incorporates two photocathode based electron sources. One produces up to 100 nC, multi-kiloamp `drive` bunches which are used to excite wakefields in dielectric loaded structures and in plasma. The second source produces much lower intensity `witness` pulses which are used to probe the fields produced by the drive. The drive and witness pulses can be precisely timed as well as laterally positioned with respect to each other. This paper discusses commissioning, initial experiments, and outline plans for a proposed 1 GeV demonstration accelerator.

  7. Design of an Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Performance prediction of turbomachines is a significant part of aircraft propulsion design. In the conceptual design stage, there is an important need to quantify compressor and turbine aerodynamic performance and develop initial geometry parameters at the 2-D level prior to more extensive Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses. The Object-oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (OTAC) is being developed to perform 2-D meridional flowthrough analysis of turbomachines using an implicit formulation of the governing equations to solve for the conditions at the exit of each blade row. OTAC is designed to perform meanline or streamline calculations; for streamline analyses simple radial equilibrium is used as a governing equation to solve for spanwise property variations. While the goal for OTAC is to allow simulation of physical effects and architectural features unavailable in other existing codes, it must first prove capable of performing calculations for conventional turbomachines. OTAC is being developed using the interpreted language features available in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code described by Claus et al (1991). Using the NPSS framework came with several distinct advantages, including access to the pre-existing NPSS thermodynamic property packages and the NPSS Newton-Raphson solver. The remaining objects necessary for OTAC were written in the NPSS framework interpreted language. These new objects form the core of OTAC and are the BladeRow, BladeSegment, TransitionSection, Expander, Reducer, and OTACstart Elements. The BladeRow and BladeSegment consumed the initial bulk of the development effort and required determining the equations applicable to flow through turbomachinery blade rows given specific assumptions about the nature of that flow. Once these objects were completed, OTAC was tested and found to agree with existing solutions from other codes; these tests included various meanline and streamline comparisons of axial

  8. Ten Years of Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI): Results and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, P. Y.; Gutman, G.; Gulev, S.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    During recent decades, Northern Eurasia was affected by unprecedented climate and environmental changes. Several droughts and heat waves alternated with hazardous extreme precipitation and flood events. Permafrost thaw, retreating Arctic sea ice, increasing areas of forest fire, and dramatic regional warming buffeted this region, tossing northern Eurasia from one extreme condition to the next. The region stores nearly half of the Earth's terrestrial carbon in permafrost, wetlands, and forested land, so ecosystem changes that release stored carbon could profoundly affect the world's climate. Furthermore, changes to climate and to hydrological and biogeochemical cycles are starting to affect daily life. For example, infrastructure is collapsing as permafrost thaws, severe winter storms increasingly bring businesses to a halt, and a growing water deficit is beginning to strain agricultural production and forestry. To pool resources and facilitate research, the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI, http://neespi.org) was launched in 2004. With its multidisciplinary focus, the internationally funded NEESPI (more than165 individual international projects during the past decade) has challenged participants to research climate-ecosystem interactions, societal impacts from extreme events in Northern Eurasia, and the feedbacks of these interactions and impacts to the global Earth system. Among the numerous Institutional and private sponsors from the United States, European Union, Russia, China, and Japan, the cornerstone support for the NEESPI studies was provided by the NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change Program and the Russian Academy of Sciences. At this presentation we shall overview the environmental studies conducted by the NEESPI community, brief the audience about the main achievements of the NEESPI researchers, and lay down the plans for the future studies. At the side event of the Meeting, we are going to initiate preparation of the book

  9. Design of an Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Performance prediction of turbomachines is a significant part of aircraft propulsion design. In the conceptual design stage, there is an important need to quantify compressor and turbine aerodynamic performance and develop initial geometry parameters at the 2-D level prior to more extensive Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses. The Object-oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (OTAC) is being developed to perform 2-D meridional flowthrough analysis of turbomachines using an implicit formulation of the governing equations to solve for the conditions at the exit of each blade row. OTAC is designed to perform meanline or streamline calculations; for streamline analyses simple radial equilibrium is used as a governing equation to solve for spanwise property variations. While the goal for OTAC is to allow simulation of physical effects and architectural features unavailable in other existing codes, it must first prove capable of performing calculations for conventional turbomachines.OTAC is being developed using the interpreted language features available in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code described by Claus et al (1991). Using the NPSS framework came with several distinct advantages, including access to the pre-existing NPSS thermodynamic property packages and the NPSS Newton-Raphson solver. The remaining objects necessary for OTAC were written in the NPSS framework interpreted language. These new objects form the core of OTAC and are the BladeRow, BladeSegment, TransitionSection, Expander, Reducer, and OTACstart Elements. The BladeRow and BladeSegment consumed the initial bulk of the development effort and required determining the equations applicable to flow through turbomachinery blade rows given specific assumptions about the nature of that flow. Once these objects were completed, OTAC was tested and found to agree with existing solutions from other codes; these tests included various meanline and streamline comparisons of axial

  10. 42 CFR 476.85 - Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.85 Section 476.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR... denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. A QIO initial denial determination or change as a result of DRG validation is final and binding unless, in accordance with the procedures...

  11. 'If at first you don't succeed, try again'. Looking beyond the initial results of a failed tuberculosis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    von Braun, A; Sekaggya, C; Henning, L; Nakijoba, R; Kambugu, A; Fehr, J; Castelnuovo, B

    2015-09-21

    We report the outcome of investigations conducted in 73 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected Ugandan adults presumed to have pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Following initial investigations, 32 of 73 patients were diagnosed with PTB. Of the remaining 41 patients initially classified as 'non-PTB', six had a delayed PTB diagnosis after a median of 6 weeks. Of the six patients lost to follow-up, four (66%) were reported to have died. Active tracking and close monitoring of HIV-infected patients presumed to have PTB independently of initial investigation results may reduce morbidity and mortality among this vulnerable patient group.

  12. Effect of Partition of Photo-Initiator Components and Addition of Iodonium Salt on the Photopolymerization of Phase-Separated Dental Adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedin, Farhana; Ye, Qiang; Song, Linyong; Ge, Xueping; Camarda, Kyle; Spencer, Paulette

    2016-04-01

    The polymerization kinetics of physically separated hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-rich phases of a model dental adhesive have been investigated. The two phases were prepared from neat resin containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA) in the ratio of 45:55 (wt./wt.). Neat resins containing various combinations of popular photo-initiating compounds, e.g., camphoquinone (CQ), ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (EDMAB), 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate (DPIHP), were prepared. To obtain the two phases, 33 wt.% of deuterium oxide (D2O) was added to the neat resins. This amount of D2O exceeded the miscibility limit for the resins. The concentration of each component of the photo-initiating system in the two phases was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). When combined with CQ, DMAEMA is less efficient as a co-initiator compared to EDMAB. The addition of DPIHP as the third component into either CQ/EDMAB or CQ/DMAEMA photo-initiating systems led to comparable performance in both the hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-rich phases. The addition of the iodonium salt significantly improved the photopolymerization of the hydrophilic-rich phase; the latter exhibited extremely poor polymerization when the iodonium salt was not included in the formulation. The partition concentration of EDMAB in the hydrophilic-rich phase was significantly lower than that of DMAEMA or DPIHP. This study indicates the need for a combination of hydrophobic/hydrophilic photosensitizer and addition of iodonium salt to improve polymerization within the hydrophilic-rich phase of the dental adhesive.

  13. Semiclassical theory of electronically nonadiabatic dynamics: Results of a linearized approximation to the initial value representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiong; Wang, Haobin; Miller, William H.

    1998-11-01

    A linearized approximation to the semiclassical initial value representation (SC-IVR), referred to herein as the LSC-IVR, was used by us in a recent paper [J. Chem. Phys. 108, 9726 (1998)] to calculate reactive flux correlation functions for a model of a chemical reaction on a single potential energy surface. This paper shows how the LSC-IVR—which is much easier to apply than the full SC-IVR because it linearizes the phase difference between interfering classical trajectories—can be applied to electronically nonadiabatic processes, i.e., those involving transitions between different potential-energy surfaces. Applications to several model problems are presented to show its usefulness: These are the nonadiabatic scattering problems used by Tully to test surface-hopping models, and also the spin-boson model of coupled electronic states in a condensed phase environment. Though not as accurate as the full SC-IVR, the LSC-IVR does a reasonably good job for all these applications, even describing correctly Stuckelberg oscillations (interference between nonadiabatic transitions) and the transition between coherent and incoherent behavior in the spin-boson example.

  14. Semiclassical theory of electronically nonadiabatic dynamics: Results of a linearized approximation to the initial value representation

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, X.; Wang, H.; Miller, W.H. |

    1998-11-01

    A linearized approximation to the semiclassical initial value representation (SC-IVR), referred to herein as the LSC-IVR, was used by us in a recent paper [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 108}, 9726 (1998)] to calculate reactive flux correlation functions for a model of a chemical reaction on a single potential energy surface. This paper shows how the LSC-IVR{emdash}which is much easier to apply than the full SC-IVR because it linearizes the phase difference between interfering classical trajectories{emdash}can be applied to {ital electronically nonadiabatic} processes, i.e., those involving transitions between different potential-energy surfaces. Applications to several model problems are presented to show its usefulness: These are the nonadiabatic scattering problems used by Tully to test surface-hopping models, and also the spin{endash}boson model of coupled electronic states in a condensed phase environment. Though not as accurate as the full SC-IVR, the LSC-IVR does a reasonably good job for all these applications, even describing correctly Stuckelberg oscillations (interference between nonadiabatic transitions) and the transition between coherent and incoherent behavior in the spin{endash}boson example. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.} thinsp

  15. Aquarius Satellite Salinity Measurement Mission Status, and Science Results from the initial 3-Year Prime Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Kao, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Aquarius satellite microwave sensor, launched June 2011, as part of the US-Argentina joint Aquarius/SAC-D mission, and commenced observations on 25 Aug2011, and completed three years of ocean surface salinity measurements in late August 2014. The Aquarius measurement objectives are to describe unknown features in the sea surface salinity (SSS) field, and document seasonal and interannual variations on regional and basin scales. This presentation will first describe the structure of the mean annual global salinity field compared with the previous in situ climatology and contemporary in situ measurements , including small persistent biases of opposite sign in high latitudes versus low latitudes, currently under intense investigation, as well as global and regional error statistics. Then we summarize highlights of various studies and papers submitted to the JGR-Oceans special section on satellite salinity (2014). The most prominent seasonal variations, most notably the extant and variability of the SSS signature of the Atlantic and Pacific inter-tropical convergence zones, Amazon-Orinoco and other major rivers, and other important regional patterns of seasonal variability. Lastly we will examine the trends observed during the three Sep-Aug measurement years beginning Sep2011, Sep2012 and Sep2013, respectively, in relation to ENSO and other climate indices, as the first step in analyzing interannual SSS variability. An outline for extended mission operations beyond the initial three-year prime mission will be presented.

  16. The Antarctic Ozone Hole: Initial Results from Aura / OMI Compared with TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Newman, P.

    2004-01-01

    A series of TOMS instruments (on November 7 , Meteor 3, and Earth Probe) has been monitoring the annual development of the Antarctic ozone hole since the 1980s. The ozone mapping instrument on Aura, OMI, is expected to take over this record of observation from the aging Earth Probe TOMS instrument. The area of the ozone hole can be taken as a sensitive indicator of the magnitude of ozone destruction each year. The timing of initial formation of the ozone hole and its duration are sensitive to the atmospheric dynamics of the southern polar regions. The entire TOMS data record (1978 - 2004) has recently been reprocessed with the new version 8 algorithm, which includes a revised calibration. The effect has been to slightly increase ozone hole area over earlier estimates, but only by 23%. OMI (ozone monitoring instrument) on Aura is a hyperspectral imaging instrument that operates in a pushbroom mode to measure solar backscattered radiation in the ultraviolet and visible. OMI has higher spatial resolution than TOMS - 14 x 24 km versus 38 km x 38 km from TOMS. OMI has now begin mapping total column ozone on a global basis in a measurement similar to TOMS. The ozone hole measurements for 2003 are compared with those from Earth Probe TOMS.

  17. Initial results for a 170 GHz high power ITER waveguide component test stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Timothy; Barker, Alan; Dukes, Carl; Killough, Stephen; Kaufman, Michael; White, John; Bell, Gary; Hanson, Greg; Rasmussen, Dave

    2014-10-01

    A high power microwave test stand is being setup at ORNL to enable prototype testing of 170 GHz cw waveguide components being developed for the ITER ECH system. The ITER ECH system will utilize 63.5 mm diameter evacuated corrugated waveguide and will have 24 >150 m long runs. A 170 GHz 1 MW class gyrotron is being developed by Communications and Power Industries and is nearing completion. A HVDC power supply, water-cooling and control system has been partially tested in preparation for arrival of the gyrotron. The power supply and water-cooling system are being designed to operate for >3600 second pulses to simulate the operating conditions planned for the ITER ECH system. The gyrotron Gaussian beam output has a single mirror for focusing into a 63.5 mm corrugated waveguide in the vertical plane. The output beam and mirror are enclosed in an evacuated duct with absorber for stray radiation. Beam alignment with the waveguide is a critical task so a combination of mirror tilt adjustments and a bellows for offsets will be provided. Analysis of thermal patterns on thin witness plates will provide gyrotron mode purity and waveguide coupling efficiency data. Pre-prototype waveguide components and two dummy loads are available for initial operational testing of the gyrotron. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under Contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  18. Facilitating Change in Undergraduate STEM: Initial Results from an Interdisciplinary Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Charles; Beach, Andrea; Finkelstein, Noah; Larson, R. Sam

    2008-10-01

    Although decades of research have identified effective instructional practices for improving Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education, these practices are not widely implemented. Scholars in three fields are interested in promoting these practices and have engaged in research on pedagogical change: Disciplinary-based STEM Education Researchers, Faculty Development Researchers, and Higher Education Researchers. There is little interaction between the fields and efforts in all areas have met with only modest success. In this paper we present an initial examination of 130 randomly chosen articles from a set of 295 we identified as addressing efforts to promote change in the instructional practices of STEM faculty. We identify four core change strategies and note that change strategies differ by fields. Articles in all fields frequently do not provide enough evidence to convincingly argue for the success of the change strategy studied and have few connections to theoretical or empirical literature related to change. This literature review and related efforts sit within broader efforts to promote interdisciplinary directed at facilitating lasting change.

  19. Two-dimensional turbulence experiments in sheared flow using circular Couette cell: initial results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney-Fischer, Martin; Fontana, Paul; Windell, Simon; Rogers, Sean

    2007-03-01

    An experiment to study turbulence in quasi-two-dimensional flows with a controlled mean flow shear has been built. Experiments are underway to investigate the suppression of turbulent transport by sheared flow as seen in geostrophic flows and laboratory fusion plasmas. The apparatus, a circular Couette cell, uses a liquid film of dilute soap solution suspended freely in an annular channel with a rotating outer boundary. The channel is 7 cm wide with an average radius of 46.5 cm, and can be rotated at angular speeds exceeding 10 rad/s. Turbulence is driven independently via electromagnetic forcing. The rate of turbulence injection can be varied continuously, and its spatial scale corresponds to the spatial frequency of an array of NdFeB magnets. Diagnostics include particle imaging velocimetry, two-point laser Doppler velocimetry, and thickness measurements via reflection interferometry. Initial analysis will be presented which indicates the existence of both turbulent suppression and expansion in high and low frequency regimes respectively. Plans for further analysis will also be presented.

  20. Design Architecture and Initial Results from an FPGA Based Digital Receiver for Multistatic Meteor Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palo, Scott; Vaudrin, Cody

    Defined by a minimal RF front-end followed by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and con-trolled by a reconfigurable logic device (FPGA), the digital receiver will replace conventional heterodyning analog receivers currently in use by the COBRA meteor radar. A basic hardware overview touches on the major digital receiver components, theory of operation and data han-dling strategies. We address concerns within the community regarding the implementation of digital receivers in small-scale scientific radars, and outline the numerous benefits with a focus on reconfigurability. From a remote sensing viewpoint, having complete visibility into a band of the EM spectrum allows an experiment designer to focus on parameter estimation rather than hardware limitations. Finally, we show some basic multistatic receiver configurations enabled through GPS time synchronization. Currently, the digital receiver is configured to facilitate range and radial velocity determination of meteors in the MLT region for use with the COBRA meteor radar. Initial measurements from data acquired at Platteville, Colorado and Tierra Del Fuego in Argentina will be presented. We show an improvement in detection rates compared to conventional analog systems. Scientific justification for a digital receiver is clearly made by the presentation of RTI plots created using data acquired from the receiver. These plots reveal an interesting phenomenon concerning vacillating power structures in a select number of meteor trails.

  1. The green bank northern celestial cap pulsar survey. I. Survey description, data analysis, and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, K.; Dartez, L. P.; Ford, A. J.; Garcia, A.; Hinojosa, J.; Jenet, F. A.; Leake, S.; Lynch, R. S.; Archibald, A. M.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Ransom, S. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Day, D.; Flanigan, J.; Kaplan, D. L.; Boyles, J.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kondratiev, V. I.; and others

    2014-08-10

    We describe an ongoing search for pulsars and dispersed pulses of radio emission, such as those from rotating radio transients (RRATs) and fast radio bursts, at 350 MHz using the Green Bank Telescope. With the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument, we record 100 MHz of bandwidth divided into 4096 channels every 81.92 μs. This survey will cover the entire sky visible to the Green Bank Telescope (δ > –40°, or 82% of the sky) and outside of the Galactic Plane will be sensitive enough to detect slow pulsars and low dispersion measure (<30 pc cm{sup –3}) millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with a 0.08 duty cycle down to 1.1 mJy. For pulsars with a spectral index of –1.6, we will be 2.5 times more sensitive than previous and ongoing surveys over much of our survey region. Here we describe the survey, the data analysis pipeline, initial discovery parameters for 62 pulsars, and timing solutions for 5 new pulsars. PSR J0214+5222 is an MSP in a long-period (512 days) orbit and has an optical counterpart identified in archival data. PSR J0636+5129 is an MSP in a very short-period (96 minutes) orbit with a very low mass companion (8 M{sub J}). PSR J0645+5158 is an isolated MSP with a timing residual RMS of 500 ns and has been added to pulsar timing array experiments. PSR J1434+7257 is an isolated, intermediate-period pulsar that has been partially recycled. PSR J1816+4510 is an eclipsing MSP in a short-period orbit (8.7 hr) and may have recently completed its spin-up phase.

  2. Initial results from geophysical surveys and shallow coring of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallelonga, P.; Christianson, K.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Christian, J. E. M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Gkinis, V.; Holme, C.; Jacobel, R. W.; Karlsson, N.; Keisling, B. A.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kjær, H. A.; Kristensen, M. E. L.; Muto, A.; Peters, L. E.; Popp, T.; Riverman, K. L.; Svensson, A. M.; Tibuleac, C.; Vinther, B. M.; Weng, Y.; Winstrup, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) is the sole interior Greenlandic ice stream. Fast flow initiates near the summit dome, and the ice stream terminates approximately 1000 km downstream in three large outlet glaciers that calve into the Greenland Sea. To better understand this important system, in the summer of 2012 we drilled a 67 m firn core and conducted ground-based radio-echo sounding (RES) and active-source seismic surveys at a site approximately 150 km downstream from the onset of streaming flow (NEGIS firn core, 75° 37.61' N, 35°56.49' W). The site is representative of the upper part of the ice stream, while also being in a crevasse-free area for safe surface operations. Annual cycles were observed for insoluble dust, sodium and ammonium concentrations and for electrolytic conductivity, allowing a seasonally resolved chronology covering the past 400 yr. Annual layer thicknesses averaged 0.11 m ice equivalent (i.e.) for the period 1607-2011, although accumulation varied between 0.08 and 0.14 m i.e., likely due to flow-related changes in surface topography. Tracing of RES layers from the NGRIP ice core site shows that the ice at NEGIS preserves a climatic record of at least the past 51 kyr. We demonstrate that a deep ice core drilling in this location can provide a reliable Holocene and late-glacial climate record, as well as helping to constrain the past dynamics and ice-lithosphere interactions of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  3. Initial results from geophysical surveys and shallow coring of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallelonga, P.; Christianson, K.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Christian, J. E. M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Gkinis, V.; Holme, C.; Jacobel, R. W.; Karlsson, N. B.; Keisling, B. A.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kjær, H. A.; Kristensen, M. E. L.; Muto, A.; Peters, L. E.; Popp, T.; Riverman, K. L.; Svensson, A. M.; Tibuleac, C.; Vinther, B. M.; Weng, Y.; Winstrup, M.

    2014-07-01

    The Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) is the sole interior Greenlandic ice stream. Fast flow initiates near the summit dome, and the ice stream terminates approximately 1000 km downstream in three large outlet glaciers that calve into the Greenland Sea. To better understand this important system, in the summer of 2012 we drilled a 67 m firn core and conducted ground-based radio-echo sounding (RES) and active-source seismic surveys at a site approximately 150 km downstream from the onset of streaming flow (NEGIS firn core, 75°37.61' N, 35°56.49' W). The site is representative of the upper part of the ice stream, while also being in a crevasse-free area for safe surface operations. Annual cycles were observed for insoluble dust, sodium and ammonium concentrations and for electrolytic conductivity, allowing a seasonally resolved chronology covering the past 400 yr. Annual layer thicknesses averaged 0.11 m ice equivalent (i.e.) for the period 1607-2011, although accumulation varied between 0.08 and 0.14 m i.e., likely due to flow-related changes in surface topography. Tracing of RES layers from the NGRIP (North Greenland Ice Core Project) ice core site shows that the ice at NEGIS preserves a climatic record of at least the past 51 kyr. We demonstrate that deep ice core drilling in this location can provide a reliable Holocene and late-glacial climate record, as well as helping to constrain the past dynamics and ice-lithosphere interactions of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  4. THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM ABSORPTION LINE SPECTROSCOPY. II. RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Charlie; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2012-11-20

    The spectral absorption lines in early-type galaxies contain a wealth of information regarding the detailed abundance pattern, star formation history, and stellar initial mass function (IMF) of the underlying stellar population. Using our new population synthesis model that accounts for the effect of variable abundance ratios of 11 elements, we analyze very high quality absorption line spectra of 38 early-type galaxies and the nuclear bulge of M31. These data extend to 1 {mu}m and they therefore include the IMF-sensitive spectral features Na I, Ca II, and FeH at 0.82 {mu}m, 0.86 {mu}m, and 0.99 {mu}m, respectively. The models fit the data well, with typical rms residuals {approx}< 1%. Strong constraints on the IMF and therefore the stellar mass-to-light ratio, (M/L){sub stars}, are derived for individual galaxies. We find that the IMF becomes increasingly bottom-heavy with increasing velocity dispersion and [Mg/Fe]. At the lowest dispersions and [Mg/Fe] values the derived IMF is consistent with the Milky Way (MW) IMF, while at the highest dispersions and [Mg/Fe] values the derived IMF contains more low-mass stars (is more bottom-heavy) than even a Salpeter IMF. Our best-fit (M/L){sub stars} values do not exceed dynamically based M/L values. We also apply our models to stacked spectra of four metal-rich globular clusters in M31 and find an (M/L){sub stars} that implies fewer low-mass stars than a MW IMF, again agreeing with dynamical constraints. We discuss other possible explanations for the observed trends and conclude that variation in the IMF is the simplest and most plausible.

  5. Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission: Mission Status and Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission is a component of the NASA Discovery Program. GRAIL is a twin-spacecraft lunar gravity mission that has two primary objectives: to determine the structure of the lunar interior, from crust to core; and to advance understanding of the thermal evolution of the Moon. GRAIL launched successfully from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 10, 2011, executed a low-energy trajectory to the Moon, and inserted the twin spacecraft into lunar orbit on December 31, 2011 and January 1, 2012. A series of maneuvers brought both spacecraft into low-altitude (55-km), near-circular, polar lunar orbits, from which they perform high-precision satellite-to-satellite ranging using a Ka-band payload along with an S-band link for time synchronization. Precise measurements of distance changes between the spacecraft are used to map the lunar gravity field. GRAIL completed its primary mapping mission on May 29, 2012, collecting and transmitting to Earth >99.99% of the possible data. Spacecraft and instrument performance were nominal and has led to the production of a high-resolution and high-accuracy global gravity field, improved over all previous models by two orders of magnitude on the nearside and nearly three orders of magnitude over the farside. The field is being used to understand the thickness, density and porosity of the lunar crust, the mechanics of formation and compensation states of lunar impact basins, and the structure of the mantle and core. GRAIL s three month-long-extended mission will initiate on August 30, 2012 and will consist of global gravity field mapping from an average altitude of 22 km.

  6. First breast cancer mammography screening program in Mexico: initial results 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cuevas, Sergio; Guisa-Hohenstein, Fernando; Labastida-Almendaro, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant neoplasia worldwide. In emergent countries as Mexico, an increase has been shown in frequency and mortality, unfortunately, most cases in advanced loco-regional stages developed in young women. The success of breast screening in mortality reduction has been observed since 1995 in Western Europe and the United States, where as many as 40% mortality reduction has been achieved. Most countries guidelines recommends an annual or biannual mammography for all women >40 years of age. In 2005, FUCAM, a nonlucrative civil foundation in Mexico join with Mexico City government, initiated the first voluntary mammography screening program for women >40 years of age residing in Mexico City's Federal District. Mammographies were carried out with analogical mammographs in specially designed mobile units and were performed in the area of women's domiciles. This report includes data from the first 96,828 mammographies performed between March 2005 and December 2006. There were 1% of mammographies in Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 0, 4, or 5 and 208 out of 949 women with abnormal mammographies (27.7%) had breast cancer, a rate of 2.1 per thousand, most of them in situ or stage I (29.4%) or stage II (42.2%) nevertheless 21% of those women with abnormal mammography did not present for further clinical and radiologic evaluation despite being personally notified at their home addresses. The breast cancer rate of Mexican women submitted to screening mammography is lower than in European or North American women. Family history of breast cancer, nulliparity, absence of breast feeding, and increasing age are factors that increase the risk of breast cancer. Most cancers were diagnosed in women's age below 60 years (68.5%) with a mean age of 53.55 corroborating previous data published. It is mandatory to sensitize and educate our population with regard to accepting to visit the Specialized Breast Centers.

  7. 42 CFR 476.94 - Notice of QIO initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.94 Section 476.94 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... changes as a result of a DRG validation. (a) Notice of initial denial determination—(1) Parties to be... retrospective review, (excluding DRG validation and post procedure review), within 3 working days of the...

  8. 42 CFR 476.94 - Notice of QIO initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.94 Section 476.94 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... changes as a result of a DRG validation. (a) Notice of initial denial determination—(1) Parties to be... retrospective review, (excluding DRG validation and post procedure review), within 3 working days of the...

  9. Developing Methodologies for Applying TRMM-Estimated Precipitation Data to Hydrological Modeling of a South TX Watershed - Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, K. J.; Bennett, M. E.

    2007-05-01

    Previous experience with hydrological modeling in South Texas, which is located along the Texas-Mexico border, suggests that NWS ground measurements are too widely scattered to provide reliable precipitation input for modeling. In addition, a significant fraction of the study region is located at the edge of the coverage envelopes of the NWS NEXRAD weather radars present in the region limiting the accuracy of these systems to provide reliable precipitation estimates. Therefore, we are exploring whether TRMM estimated-precipitation data (3B42), in some form, can be used to support hydrological modeling in the Middle Rio Grande and Nueces River Basin watersheds. We have begun our modeling efforts by focusing on the middle Nueces watershed (7770 sq km). To model this largely rural watershed we selected the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Three precipitation datasets were selected for our initial model runs that include: (1) nearest NWS cooperative hourly rain gauge data, (2) three hourly TRMM 3B42 estimated precipitation, and (3) combination TRMM 3B42/NWS rain gauge datasets in which ground measurements are used for three hourly periods lacking high quality satellite microwave precipitation estimates as determined from TRMM 3G68 data. Three dataset were aggregated into an average daily estimate of precipitation for each TRMM grid cell. Manual calibration of was completed achieving model results that yield realistic monthly and annual water balances with both gauge and satellite estimate precipitation datasets. In the future, we plan to use the newly developed automatic calibration routine for SWAT, which is based on the Shuffled Complex Evolution algorithm, to optimize modeled discharge results from this study.

  10. Space Technology 5 Measurements of the Near-Earth Magnetic Field: Initial Science Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    Space Technology 5 (ST-5) returned high quality multi-point measurements of the near-Earth magnetic field throughout its three month long mission. The three ST-5 micro-satellites were launched into a 300 x 4500 km, dawn dusk, sun synchronous orbit (inclination = 105.6 deg) orbit with a period of 138 min by a Pegasus launch vehicle on March 22, 2006. The spacecraft were maintained in a "pearls on a sting" constellation with controlled spacings ranging from just over 5000 km down to under 50 km. The individual micro-satellites were 48 cm tall octagons with diameters of 50 cm. They were spin-stabilized at approximately 20 rpm at deployment and slowly spun-down to about 15 rpm by the end of the mission. Each spacecraft carried a miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer (MAG) provided by the University of California at Los Angeles (Instrument Scientist R. Strangeway) mounted at the end of a ultra-low mass 72 cm boom. The MAG had two dynamic ranges: 0 - ±64,000 nT (Full-field) and 0 - ±16,000 nT (Low-field) with digital resolutions of 1.3 nT (Full-field) and 0.3 nT (Low-field), respectively. The MAG sample rate was 16 vectors/s. Pre-launch measurements in the GSFC Magnetic Coil Facility showed that the magnetic cleanliness program was very successful with the predicted spacecraft field at the MAG sensors for all three micro-satellites being < 1 nT. Initial analyses of the ST-5 MAG measurements indicate that measurement accuracies of +/- 0.1 deg in direction and +/- 0.1% in field strength were achieved. Using the ST-5 magnetic field measurements we present the first observations of field-aligned current (FAC) temporal variability on time scales less than 10 min, the first direct measurements of FAC motion and thickness, the first multi-point measurements of wave-like cusp field-aligned current filaments and the first geomagnetic crustal anomaly measurements by a multi- spacecraft constellation.

  11. Initial test results on bolometers for the Planck high frequency instrument.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Warren A; Bock, James J; Crill, Brendan P; Koch, Timothy C; Jones, William C; Lange, Andrew E; Paine, Christopher G

    2008-11-10

    We summarize the fabrication, flight qualification, and dark performance of bolometers completed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) of the joint ESA/NASA Herschel/Planck mission to be launched in 2009. The HFI is a multicolor focal plane which consists of 52 bolometers operated at 100 mK. Each bolometer is mounted to a feedhorn-filter assembly which defines one of six frequency bands centered between 100-857 GHz. Four detectors in each of five bands from 143-857 GHz are coupled to both linear polarizations and thus measure the total intensity. In addition, eight detectors in each of four bands (100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz) couple only to a single linear polarization and thus provide measurements of the Stokes parameters, Q and U, as well as the total intensity. The measured noise equivalent power (NEP) of all detectors is at or below the background limit for the telescope and time constants are a few ms, short enough to resolve point sources as the 5 to 9 arc min beams move across the sky at 1 rpm.

  12. Model-based reasoning in the physics laboratory: Framework and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hu, Dehui; Finkelstein, Noah; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] We review and extend existing frameworks on modeling to develop a new framework that describes model-based reasoning in introductory and upper-division physics laboratories. Constructing and using models are core scientific practices that have gained significant attention within K-12 and higher education. Although modeling is a broadly applicable process, within physics education, it has been preferentially applied to the iterative development of broadly applicable principles (e.g., Newton's laws of motion in introductory mechanics). A significant feature of the new framework is that measurement tools (in addition to the physical system being studied) are subjected to the process of modeling. Think-aloud interviews were used to refine the framework and demonstrate its utility by documenting examples of model-based reasoning in the laboratory. When applied to the think-aloud interviews, the framework captures and differentiates students' model-based reasoning and helps identify areas of future research. The interviews showed how students productively applied similar facets of modeling to the physical system and measurement tools: construction, prediction, interpretation of data, identification of model limitations, and revision. Finally, we document students' challenges in explicitly articulating assumptions when constructing models of experimental systems and further challenges in model construction due to students' insufficient prior conceptual understanding. A modeling perspective reframes many of the seemingly arbitrary technical details of measurement tools and apparatus as an opportunity for authentic and engaging scientific sense making.

  13. Initial results of a statewide extension program in calf and heifer management in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, A J; Kiernan, N E

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate changes in calf and heifer management in a sample of Pennsylvania dairy farms in conjunction with a statewide extension program on dairy replacements. The extension program reached dairy farmers in addition to individuals in agribusiness, veterinarians, and others who have frequent contact with dairy farmers through a multiplicity of information channels. An extensive survey was conducted during the 1st yr of the project on 329 commercial dairy farms throughout Pennsylvania. The same farms were contacted 2.5 to 3 yr later for comparison. Most (84.7%) of the farmers in the original random sample learned new information about calf and heifer management during this time, and 77.3% reported that they received all or part of this new information from extension. Sources of information most often used by the farmers in this study were dairy magazines, extension newsletters, and meetings organized either through extension or agribusiness. Adoption by farmers of many of the targeted practices specific to calving management, preweaned calves, and health management increased over this period.

  14. Initial results from a reconnaissance of cyanobacteria and associated toxins in Illinois, August--October 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terrio, Paul J.; Ostrodka, Lenna M.; Loftin, Keith A.; Good, Gregg; Holland, Teri

    2013-01-01

    Ten lakes and two rivers in Illinois were sampled in August–October 2012 to determine the concentrations and spatial distribution of cyanobacteria and associated cyanotoxins throughout the State. The reconnaissance was a collaborative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Sample results indicated that concentrations of both total cyanobacterial cells and microcystin were commonly at levels likely to result in adverse human health effects, according to World Health Organization guidance values. Concentrations generally decreased from August to October following precipitation events and lower temperatures.

  15. Development, installation, and initial results of fiber optic chloride sensors embedded into bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhr, Peter L.

    1999-01-01

    FIber optic sensors have repeatedly been shown to provide measurement capabilities of parameters within such reinforced concrete structures. Development of a fiber optic chloride sensor capable of being embedded within a roadway or bridge deck is reported. Once the specific chemistry of the fiber optic sensor was developed and tested, multiple iterations occurred in order to result in a sensor system capable of being embedded into roadway bridges. During the summer and fall of 1997, a total of 64 fiber optic sensors were then embedded into 3 roadway bridges which spanned rivers in northern Vermont. Installation details as well as results are presented.

  16. Initial results of precise orbit and clock determination for COMPASS navigation satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qile; Guo, Jing; Li, Min; Qu, Lizhong; Hu, Zhigang; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2013-05-01

    The development of the COMPASS satellite system is introduced, and the regional tracking network and data availability are described. The precise orbit determination strategy of COMPASS satellites is presented. Data of June 2012 are processed. The obtained orbits are evaluated by analysis of post-fit residuals, orbit overlap comparison and SLR (satellite laser ranging) validation. The RMS (root mean square) values of post-fit residuals for one month's data are smaller than 2.0 cm for ionosphere-free phase measurements and 2.6 m for ionosphere-free code observations. The 48-h orbit overlap comparison shows that the RMS values of differences in the radial component are much smaller than 10 cm and those of the cross-track component are smaller than 20 cm. The SLR validation shows that the overall RMS of observed minus computed residuals is 68.5 cm for G01 and 10.8 cm for I03. The static and kinematic PPP solutions are produced to further evaluate the accuracy of COMPASS orbit and clock products. The static daily COMPASS PPP solutions achieve an accuracy of better than 1 cm in horizontal and 3 cm in vertical. The accuracy of the COMPASS kinematic PPP solutions is within 1-2 cm in the horizontal and 4-7 cm in the vertical. In addition, we find that the COMPASS kinematic solutions are generally better than the GPS ones for the selected location. Furthermore, the COMPASS/GPS combinations significantly improve the accuracy of GPS only PPP solutions. The RMS values are basically smaller than 1 cm in the horizontal components and 3-4 cm in the vertical component.

  17. Installation and Initial Results of Borehole Strainmeters around the Marmara Sea in Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, David; Bohnhoff, Marco; Ozener, Haluk; Mattioli, Glen; Bilham, Roger; Johnson, Wade; Gottlieb, Mike; Van Boskirk, Elizabeth; Aracel, Digdem; Bulut, Fatih; Bal, Osman

    2016-04-01

    Twice in the past 1000 years a sequence of damaging earthquakes has propagated during the course of a few decades along the North Anatolian fault (NAF) in Turkey towards Istanbul, with the final earthquake in the sequence catastrophically destroying the city. This occurred most recently in 1509 when the population was only about 200,000 yet ten thousand people died. The population of greater Istanbul is now 20 million, building stock more fragile, and the last earthquake of the current westward propagating sequence is considered geologically imminent. An opportunity to enhance the detection capability of a suite of deep seismometers installed near Istanbul has arisen, that will permit us to observe, characterize, and possibly predict the moment of imminent failure along the NAF, as well as monitor the tectonic processes leading to this failure. As an augmentation of the Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault (GONAF), UNAVCO installed two continuous creepmeters and six borehole strainmeters between July 2014 and October 2015 into boreholes provided by the several international sponsors, including NSF, GFZ, AFAD and Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory. The entire geophysical sensor network is collectively referred to as GeoGONAF. The borehole strainmeters enhance the ability of the scientific instrumentation to monitor ultra-slow process near the probable source zone of the Mw>7 earthquake that is soon expected beneath the Marmara Sea. The strainmeters and creepmeters allow us to make geodetic observations of this segment of the fault before, during and after a large earthquake, which combined with the seismic data from GONAF will provide valuable data for understanding earthquake processes. Installed instruments have already recorded both local and teleseismic events and observed creep events on the on-shore segments of the NAF to the East of the Marmara. In addition we have seen typical hydrological loading signals associated with normal modes of

  18. Tether dynamics and control results for tethered satellite system's initial flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapel, Jim D.; Flanders, Howard

    The recent Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) mission has provided a wealth of data concerning the dynamics of tethered systems in space and has demonstrated the effectiveness of operational techniques designed to control these dynamics. In this paper, we review control techniques developed for managing tether dynamics, and discuss the results of using these techniques for the Tethered Satellite System's maiden flight on STS-46. In particular, the flight results of controlling libration dynamics, string dynamics, and slack tether are presented. These results show that tether dynamics can be safely managed. The overall stability of the system was found to be surprisingly good even at relatively short tether lengths. In fact, the system operated in passive mode at a tether length of 256 meters for over 9 hours. Only monitoring of the system was required during this time. Although flight anomalies prevented the planned deployment to 20 km, the extended operations at shorter tether lengths have proven the viability of using tethers in space. These results should prove invaluable in preparing for future missions with tethered objects in space.

  19. 75 FR 67685 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Steel Wire Rod From Mexico, 70 FR 25809 (May 16, 2005); see also Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico, 71 FR 27989 (May 15... of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 57 FR 20460, 20462 (May 13, 1992) and Certain...

  20. Initial Comparison of Single Cylinder Stirling Engine Computer Model Predictions with Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, R. C., Jr.; Thieme, L. G.; Miao, D.

    1979-01-01

    A Stirling engine digital computer model developed at NASA Lewis Research Center was configured to predict the performance of the GPU-3 single-cylinder rhombic drive engine. Revisions to the basic equations and assumptions are discussed. Model predictions with the early results of the Lewis Research Center GPU-3 tests are compared.

  1. 75 FR 4044 - Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Duty Orders: Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the Republic of Korea and Taiwan, 65 FR 33807 (May 25... Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 18348 (April 22, 2009). FET has... Changed Circumstances Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan, 67 FR...

  2. Initial results from seismic monitoring at the Aquistore CO2 storage site, Saskatchewan, Canada

    DOE PAGES

    White, D. J.; Roach, L. A.N.; Roberts, B.; Daley, T. M.

    2014-12-31

    from 2012 shows excellent repeatability (NRMS less than 10%) which will provide enhanced monitoring sensitivity to smaller amounts of CO2. The permanent array also provides continuous passive monitoring for injection-related microseismicity. Passive monitoring has been ongoing since the summer of 2012 in order to establish levels of background seismicity before CO2 injection starts in 2014. Microseismic monitoring was augmented in 2013 by the installation of 3 broadband seismograph stations surrounding the Aquistore site. These surface installations should provide a detection capability of seismic events with magnitudes as low as ~0. Downhole seismic methods are also being utilized for CO2 monitoring at the Aquistore site. Baseline crosswell tomographic images depict details (meters-scale) of the reservoir in the 150-m interval between the observation and injection wells. This level of resolution is designed to track the CO2 migration between the wells during the initial injection period. A baseline 3D vertical seismic profile (VSP) was acquired in the fall of 2013 to provide seismic images with resolution on a scale between that provided by the surface seismic array and the downhole tomography. The 3D VSP was recorded simultaneously using both a conventional array of downhole geophones (60-levels) and an optical fibre system. The latter utilized an optical fiber cable deployed on the outside of the monitor well casing and cemented in place. A direct comparison of these two methodologies will determine the suitability of using the fiber cable for ongoing time-lapse VSP monitoring.« less

  3. Upslope walking with a powered knee and ankle prosthesis: initial results with an amputee subject.

    PubMed

    Sup, Frank; Varol, Huseyin Atakan; Goldfarb, Michael

    2011-02-01

    This paper extends a previously developed level- ground walking control methodology to enable an above knee amputee to walk up slopes using a powered knee and ankle prosthesis. Experimental results corresponding to walking on level ground and two different slope angles (5 (°) and 10 (°)) with the powered prosthesis using the control method are compared to walking under the same conditions with a passive prosthesis. The data indicate that the powered prosthesis with the upslope walking controller is able to reproduce several kinematic characteristics of healthy upslope walking that the passive prosthesis does not (such as knee flexion after heel strike and a powered ankle plantarflexion during push-off). Finally, results are shown that demonstrate the ability of the prosthesis to generate a slope estimate, which is in turn utilized to adapt the underlying control parameters to the corresponding slope.

  4. Initial Diagnostics and First Experimental Results of the Pulsed High Density (PHD) FRC Experiment*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gota, Hiroshi

    2005-10-01

    The source region for the Pulsed High Density Experiment (PHDX) has been constructed, and Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmas are being produced. The several diagnostic systems include and axial array of 20 pairs of magnetic probes and flux loops, and a 64 channel array optical measurement system for visible bremstrahlung tomography. The tomographic system will be capable of reconstructing the plasma shape and mode structure, and will incorporate information from end-on imaging for improved resolution. This array consists of collimator, optical fiber, optical filter (λ=520 nm, FWHM= 1 to 10 nm), and Photomultiplier Tube (PMT). The tomographic system and magnetic loop array will be used to investigate the equilibrium and tilt stability of FRCs at high s/E (>3) where s is the ion collisionless skin depth and E is the plasma elongation. The separatrix radius (rs) of FRC plasma is determined by the excluded flux measurement, and it is found that rs=0.04-0.05 m (rs/rw=0.16-0.2) just after the RMF current drive start-up. The time sequence of separatrix shape relatively agrees with the result of that estimated from the line-integrated radiation intensity at different axial positions. We will present the result of both simulation and experimental results from measured FRC plasmas as well as future plans. *Research funded by the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences

  5. Design of a digital beam attenuation system for computed tomography. Part II. Performance study and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Mistretta, Charles A.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to present a performance study of the digital beam attenuator (DBA) for implementing fluence field modulated CT (FFMCT) using a simulation framework developed to model the incorporation of the DBA into an existing CT system. Additionally, initial results will be presented using a prototype DBA and the realization of the prototype will be described. To our knowledge, this study represents the first experimental use of a device capable of modulating x-ray fluence as a function of fan angle using a CT geometry. Methods: To realize FFMCT, the authors propose to use a wedge design in which one wedge is held stationary and another wedge is moved over the stationary wedge. Due to the wedge shape, the composite thickness of the two wedges changes as a function of the amount of overlap between the wedges. This design allows for the wedges to modulate the photon fluence incident onto a patient. Using a simulation environment, the effect of changing the number of wedges has on dose, scatter, detector dynamic range, and noise uniformity is explored. Experimental results are presented using a prototype DBA having ten Fe wedges and a c-arm CT system geometry. The experimental DBA results are compared to non-DBA scans using scatter and detector dynamic range as metrics. Both flat field and bowtie filtered CT acquisitions were simulated for comparison with the DBA. Results: Numerical results suggest that substantial gains in noise uniformity and scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) can be obtained using only seven wedges. After seven wedges, the decrease in noise ununiformity and SPR falls off at a lower rate. Simulations comparing CT acquisitions between flat field, bowtie enabled, and DBA CT acquisitions suggest DBA-FFMCT can reduce dose relative to flat field CT by Almost-Equal-To 3 times. A bowtie filter under the same imaging conditions was shown to only allow a dose reduction of 1.65 times. Experimentally, a 10 wedge DBA prototype result showed

  6. Seismic refraction profile, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: field operations, instrumentation, and initial results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blank, H. Richard; Healy, J.H.; Roller, John; Lamson, Ralph; Fisher, Fred; McClearn, Robert; Allen, Steve

    1979-01-01

    onto a single shot tape, and to provide hard copy for monitoring recorder performance so that any problems can be corrected prior to the next deployment. Composite digital record sections were produced from the dubbed tapes for each shot point by a portable processing and plotting system. The heart of this system is a DEC PDP 11VO3 computer, which controls a cassette playback unit identical to those used in the recorders and dubbers, a set of discriminators, a time-code translator, a digitizer, and a digital plotter. The system was used to maintain various informational data sets and to produce tabulations and listings of various sorts during the field operations, in addition to its main task of producing digital record sections. Two master clocks, both set to time signals broadcast by the British Broadcasting Corporation, provided absolute time for the recording operations. One was located on the ship and the other was stationed at a base camp on the mainland. The land-based master clock was used to set three additional master clocks located at the other active shot points a few days in advance of each firing, and these clocks were then used to set the internal clocks in the portable seismic stations via the hand-held tester. A master clock signal was also linked to the firing system at each shot point for determination of the absolute shot instant. It is possible to construct a generalized crustal model from examination of the six shot point composite record sections obtained in the field. Such a model rests upon a number of simplifying assumptions and will almost certainly be modified at a later stage of interpretation. The main assumptions are that the crust consists of two homogeneous isotropic layers having no velocity inversion,, that the Mohorovicic discontinuity is sharp, and that effects of surface inhomogeneities and elevation changes can be ignored. The main characteristics of the tentative model are the following: (1) The thickness of th

  7. Screening for antibodies against Aleutian disease virus (ADV) in mink. Elucidation of dubious results by additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Uttenthal, A

    1992-01-01

    In order to distinguish true positive results in counterimmunoelectrophoresis from false positive ones an additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis was developed. The method was tested on selected mink serum samples as part of a routine testing for antibodies towards Aleutian disease virus on 3 million blood samples. The procedure of the method is, that a known positive serum sample is mixed with the patient serum to be tested. The result from a false positive sample will be one precipitin line towards virus and one nonspecific line. If the serum sample is a true positive one, the antibodies originating from the patient serum will be added to the antibodies in the standard positive serum giving only one precipitin line. The system is further extended by testing the serum samples towards an antigen preparation containing all the cellular components but free from virus. PMID:1335756

  8. Seroprevalence of Dengue Fever in US Army Special Operations Forces: Initial Results and the Way Ahead.

    PubMed

    Caci, Jennifer B; Blaylock, Jason M; De La Barrera, Rafael; Griggs, April N; Lin, Leyi; Jarman, Richard G; Thomas, Stephen J; Lyons, Arthur G

    2014-01-01

    The endemicity of dengue fever (DF) and, consequently, sequelae of DF are increasing worldwide. The increases are largely a result of widespread international travel and the increased range of the mosquito vectors. US Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) personnel are at an increased risk of exposure to dengue based on their frequent deployments to and presence in dengue endemic areas worldwide. Repeated deployments to different endemic areas can increase the risk for developing the more serious sequelae of dengue: dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Information about the seroprevalence rate of dengue in USASOC personnel, in particular, is lacking and is critical to assessing the risk, tailoring preventive medicine countermeasures, leveraging field diagnostics, and maintaining mission capability. In the first part of a two-part project to assess baseline seroprevalence in USASOC units, a random, unit-stratified sample of 500 anonymous serum specimens from personnel assigned to the highest-risk units in USASOC were screened for dengue using a microneutralization assay. Of the 500 specimens screened, 56 (11.2%) of 500 had neutralizing titers (NT) (MN₅₀≥10) against at least one DENV serotype. Subsequent sample titration resulted in 48 (85.7%) of 56 of the samples with NT (MN₅₀≥10) against at least one dengue serotype for an overall dengue exposure rate of 9.6% (48 of 500). The second part of the ongoing project, started in 2012, was a multicenter, serosurveillance project using predeployment and postdeployment sera collected from USASOC personnel deployed to South and Central America, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Preliminary results show a 13.2% (55 of 414) seropositivity rate. The significance of these findings as they relate to personal risk and operational impact is discussed.

  9. Coupling Landform Evolution and Soil Pedogenesis - Initial Results From the SSSPAM5D Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willgoose, G. R.; Welivitiya, W. D. D. P.; Hancock, G. R.; Cohen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Evolution of soil on a dynamic landform is a crucial next step in landscape evolution modelling. Some attempts have been taken such as MILESD by Vanwalleghem et al. to develop a first model which is capable of simultaneously evolving both the soil profile and the landform. In previous work we have presented physically based models for soil pedogenesis, mARM and SSSPAM. In this study we present the results of coupling a landform evolution model with our SSSPAM5D soil pedogenesis model. In previous work the SSSPAM5D soil evolution model was used to identify trends of the soil profile evolution on a static landform. Two pedogenetic processes, namely (1) armouring due to erosion, and (2) physical and chemical weathering were used in those simulations to evolve the soil profile. By incorporating elevation changes (due to erosion and deposition) we have advanced the SSSPAM5D modelling framework into the realm of landscape evolution. Simulations have been run using elevation and soil grading data of the engineered landform (spoil heap) at the Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia. The results obtained for the coupled landform-soil evolution simulations predict the erosion of high slope areas, development of rudimentary channel networks in the landform and deposition of sediments in lowland areas, and qualitatively consistent with landform evolution models on their own. Examination of the soil profile characteristics revealed that hill crests are weathering dominated and tend to develop a thick soil layer. The steeper hillslopes at the edge of the landform are erosion dominated with shallow soils while the foot slopes are deposition dominated with thick soil layers. The simulation results of our coupled landform and soil evolution model provide qualitatively correct and timely characterization of the soil evolution on a dynamic landscape. Finally we will compare the characteristics of erosion and deposition predicted by the coupled landform-soil SSSPAM

  10. Design of a low cost miniaturized SFCW GPR with initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggal, Swati; Sinha, Piyush; Gupta, Manish; Patel, Anand; Vedam, V. V.; Mevada, Pratik; Chavda, Rajesh; Shah, Amita; Putrevu, Deepak

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses about the design &developmental of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), various scientific and commercial applications of GPR along with the testing and results of GPR at Antarctica for Ice thickness measurement. GPR instruments are categorised as per their frequency of operation, which is inversely proportional to the depth of penetration. GPRs are also categorized as per method of operation which is time-domain or frequency-domain. Indian market is presently procuring GPRs from only foreign suppliers. Space Applications Centre (SAC) had taken up GPR as R&D Technological development with a view to benchmark the technology which may be transferred to local industry for mass production of instrument at a relatively cheaper cost (~20 times cheaper). Hence, this instrument presents a viable indigenous alternative. Also, the design and configuration was targeted for terrestrial as well as future interplanetary (Lander/Rover) missions of ISRO to map subsurface features. The developed GPR has a very large bandwidth (100%, i.e. bandwidth of 500MHz with centre-frequency of 500MHz) and high dynamic range along with the advantage of being highly portable (<10kg). The system was configured as a Stepped-Frequency-Continuous-Wave (SFCW) GPR which is a frequency domain GPR with the aim to increase the detection capabilities with respect to current systems. In order to achieve this goal, innovative electronic equipment have been designed and developed. Three prototypes were developed and two of them have been delivered for Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) in 2013 and 2014-15, respectively and promising results have been obtained. The results from the same closely compare with that from commercial GPR too.

  11. Initial results of the commissioning of the HRIBF recoil mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, C.J.; Akovali, Y.A.; Brinkman, M.J.; Mas, J.; McConnell, J.W.; Milner, W.T.; Shapira, D.; Ginter, T.N.; James, A.N.

    1996-10-01

    The recoil mass spectrometer at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility is currently undergoing commissioning tests. This new spectrometer is designed to transmit ions with rigidities of K = 100 resulting from fusion-evaporation reactions using inverse-kinematics. The device consists of two sections: a momentum separator to provide beam rejection and a mass separator for product identification. Using normal-kinematic and symmetric reactions, the commissioning tests have shown that the A/Q acceptance is almost {+-}5%, the energy acceptance is approximately {+-}12%, and there has been little, if any, primary beam observed on the focal plane. Commissioning tests are presently underway with reactions using inverse-kinematics.

  12. Advanced Test Reactor In-Canal Ultrasonic Scanner: Experiment Design and Initial Results on Irradiated Plates

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Wachs; J. M. Wight; D. T. Clark; J. M. Williams; S. C. Taylor; D. J. Utterbeck; G. L. Hawkes; G. S. Chang; R. G. Ambrosek; N. C. Craft

    2008-09-01

    An irradiation test device has been developed to support testing of prototypic scale plate type fuels in the Advanced Test Reactor. The experiment hardware and operating conditions were optimized to provide the irradiation conditions necessary to conduct performance and qualification tests on research reactor type fuels for the RERTR program. The device was designed to allow disassembly and reassembly in the ATR spent fuel canal so that interim inspections could be performed on the fuel plates. An ultrasonic scanner was developed to perform dimensional and transmission inspections during these interim investigations. Example results from the AFIP-2 experiment are presented.

  13. MUlti-Dimensional Spline-Based Estimator (MUSE) for motion estimation: algorithm development and initial results.

    PubMed

    Viola, Francesco; Coe, Ryan L; Owen, Kevin; Guenther, Drake A; Walker, William F

    2008-12-01

    Image registration and motion estimation play central roles in many fields, including RADAR, SONAR, light microscopy, and medical imaging. Because of its central significance, estimator accuracy, precision, and computational cost are of critical importance. We have previously presented a highly accurate, spline-based time delay estimator that directly determines sub-sample time delay estimates from sampled data. The algorithm uses cubic splines to produce a continuous representation of a reference signal and then computes an analytical matching function between this reference and a delayed signal. The location of the minima of this function yields estimates of the time delay. In this paper we describe the MUlti-dimensional Spline-based Estimator (MUSE) that allows accurate and precise estimation of multi-dimensional displacements/strain components from multi-dimensional data sets. We describe the mathematical formulation for two- and three-dimensional motion/strain estimation and present simulation results to assess the intrinsic bias and standard deviation of this algorithm and compare it to currently available multi-dimensional estimators. In 1000 noise-free simulations of ultrasound data we found that 2D MUSE exhibits maximum bias of 2.6 x 10(-4) samples in range and 2.2 x 10(-3) samples in azimuth (corresponding to 4.8 and 297 nm, respectively). The maximum simulated standard deviation of estimates in both dimensions was comparable at roughly 2.8 x 10(-3) samples (corresponding to 54 nm axially and 378 nm laterally). These results are between two and three orders of magnitude better than currently used 2D tracking methods. Simulation of performance in 3D yielded similar results to those observed in 2D. We also present experimental results obtained using 2D MUSE on data acquired by an Ultrasonix Sonix RP imaging system with an L14-5/38 linear array transducer operating at 6.6 MHz. While our validation of the algorithm was performed using ultrasound data, MUSE is

  14. The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission development and initial results (Hannes Alfvén Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuselier, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    The MMS mission is a 4 spacecraft NASA mission designed to unlock the mysteries of magnetic reconnection. The spacecraft measure the ion and electron distributions and the electric and magnetic fields inside the electron and ion diffusion regions in the Earth's magnetosphere. In many ways, this mission is a natural follow-on to the highly successful European Space Agency Cluster mission. This talk focuses on the development of the MMS mission concept with emphasis on the connections to the Cluster mission. Preliminary results from the first phase of the MMS mission will be presented.

  15. Initial results of a real-time, quad-frequency, polarization-sensitive THz line camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roedig, Christoph A.; Burdette, Don J.; Law, Jeremy J.; Trichopoulos, Georgios C.; Sertel, Kubilay; Mosbacker, Howard L.

    2014-05-01

    We have developed a cost-effective, quad-frequency band THz imager for real-time THz imaging applications operating at 220GHz, 320GHz, 420GHz, and 520GHz frequency bands. The new sensor is based on antimonide-based heterostructure backward diodes impedance matched and monolithically integrated with high-gain, narrowband planar antennas. The antennas are dual-linearly polarized to allow direct measurement of beam polarization. This paper details the fabricated THz detector array and the high-speed, low-noise readout electronic chain. Experimental results on the performance of the readout chain and simulations of the expected THz detector performance are presented.

  16. Numerical approach to constructing the lunar physical libration: results of the initial stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagidullin, A.; Petrova, N.; Nefediev, Yu.; Usanin, V.; Glushkov, M.

    2015-10-01

    So called "main problem" it is taken as a model to develop the numerical approach in the theory of lunar physical libration. For the chosen model, there are both a good methodological basis and results obtained at the Kazan University as an outcome of the analytic theory construction. Results of the first stage in numerical approach are presented in this report. Three main limitation are taken to describe the main problem: -independent consideration of orbital and rotational motion of the Moon; - a rigid body model for the lunar body is taken and its dynamical figure is described by inertia ellipsoid, which gives us the mass distribution inside the Moon. - only gravitational interaction with the Earth and the Sun is considered. Development of selenopotential is limited on this stage by the second harmonic only. Inclusion of the 3-rd and 4-th order harmonics is the nearest task for the next stage.The full solution of libration problem consists of removing the below specified limitations: consideration of the fine effects, caused by planet perturbations, by visco-elastic properties of the lunar body, by the presence of a two-layer lunar core, by the Earth obliquity, by ecliptic rotation, if it is taken as a reference plane.

  17. Uncooled IR sensor based on lateral polysilicon pn junction diode: initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, De-hui; Xiong, Bin; Wang, Yue-lin

    2011-08-01

    These days, uncooled IR image sensors utilizing MEMS technologies have been widely studied for night vision and temperature sensing. Compared with other uncooled IR image sensor, uncooled IR image sensor utilizing p-n junction diode detector has merits of good CMOS compatibility, better mass-production, and better detecting uniformity. In this paper, we proposed a novel uncooled IR sensor based on lateral polysilicon p-n junction diode. In the CMOS process, p-type polysilicon is used for PMOS gate electrode material, while n-type polysilicon is used for NMOS gate electrode material. Due to that polysilicon diode is adopted for sensing, the silicon substrate under the microstructure can be completely removed, and a better thermal isolation and a small thermal mass can be achieved. By using the FEM software Ansys, 3D models of the silicon diode and polysilicon diode have been built for thermal simulation. Simulation results verify that a better thermal isolation can be achieved for polysilicon diode. The device was fabricated by standard CMOS process and a XeF2 post-CMOS maskless dry etching step. Measurement results of the fabricated lateral polysilicon p-n junction diode is also reported.

  18. Rectangular computed tomography using a stationary array of CNT emitters: initial experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, Brian; Spronk, Derrek; Cheng, Yuan; Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Xiaochuan; Beckmann, Moritz; Zhou, Otto; Lu, Jianping

    2013-03-01

    XinRay Systems Inc has a rectangular x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging setup using multibeam x-ray tubes. These multibeam x-ray tubes are based on cold cathodes using carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitters. Due to their unique design, a CNT x-ray tube can contain a dense array of independently controlled electron emitters which generate a linear array of x-ray focal spots. XinRay uses a set of linear CNT x-ray tubes to design and construct a stationary CT setup which achieves sufficient CT coverage from a fixed set of views. The CT system has no moving gantry, enabling it to be enclosed in a compact rectangular tunnel. The fixed locations of the x-ray focal spots were optimized through simulations. The rectangular shape creates significant variation in path length from the focal spots to the detector for different x-ray views. The shape also results in unequal x-ray coverage in the imaged space. We discuss the impact of this variation on the reconstruction. XinRay uses an iterative reconstruction algorithm to account for this unique geometry, which is implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU). The fixed focal spots prohibit the use of an antiscatter grid. Quantitative measure of the scatter and its impact on the reconstruction will be discussed. These results represent the first known implementation of a completely stationary CT setup using CNT x-ray emitter arrays.

  19. Modeling Asteroid Impacts into a Volatile-Rich Martian Surface: Hydrocode Validation and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesko, C. S.; Wohletz, K. H.; Coker, R. F.; Asphaug, E.; Gittings, M. L.

    2006-09-01

    Impact devolatilization has been proposed by Segura et al. (2002) as a possible mechanism for triggering sporadic but intense precipitation on Mars. We seek to examine this hypothesis, specifically to determine the lower bound on possible energy/size scales, and thus an upper bound on the frequency of such events. To do this, we employ various analytical and numerical modeling techniques. The most sophisticated tool in our box is the RAGE hydrocode. RAGE (Baltrusaitis et al. 1996) is an Eulerian Hydrocode that runs in up to three dimensions and incorporates a variety of detailed equations of state including the temperature-based SESAME tables maintained by LANL. Correct forward modeling requires prior comparison of hydrocode results against analytical models (verification) and laboratory experiments (validation). To that end we compare RAGE against the results of various laboratory experiments (Kato et al. 2001, Nakazawa et al. 2002, Koschny et al. 2001), and analytical crater scaling models (Housen et al. 1983, Holsapple and Schmidt 1982, Holsapple 1993, and Melosh 1989). From there, we begin to examine the potential effects of impacts on water ice in the Martian subsurface. We will begin by examining the evolution of the temperature profile of an impact into a geologically simple, ice-free target, and explore the effects of an increase in ice content and ice layer morphology from there. This effort is supported by LANL/IGPP (CSP, RFC, KHW, MLG) and by NASA PG&G "Small Bodies and Planetary Collisions" (EA).

  20. Self-Consistent Model of Magnetospheric Electric Field, Ring Current, Plasmasphere, and Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fok, M.-C.; Ridley, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Further development of our self-consistent model of interacting ring current (RC) ions and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is presented. This model incorporates large scale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and treats self-consistently not only EMIC waves and RC ions, but also the magnetospheric electric field, RC, and plasmasphere. Initial simulations indicate that the region beyond geostationary orbit should be included in the simulation of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Additionally, a self-consistent description, based on first principles, of the ionospheric conductance is required. These initial simulations further show that in order to model the EMIC wave distribution and wave spectral properties accurately, the plasmasphere should also be simulated self-consistently, since its fine structure requires as much care as that of the RC. Finally, an effect of the finite time needed to reestablish a new potential pattern throughout the ionosphere and to communicate between the ionosphere and the equatorial magnetosphere cannot be ignored.

  1. Experimental Study of Airfoil Trailing Edge Noise: Instrumentation, Methodology and Initial Results. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manley, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanisms of aerodynamic noise generation at the trailing edge of an airfoil is investigated. Instrumentation was designed, a miniature semiconductor strain-gauge pressure transducer and associated electronic amplifier circuitry were designed and tested and digital signal analysis techniques applied to gain insight into the relationship between the dynamic pressure close to the trailing edge and the sound in the acoustic far-field. Attempts are made to verify some trailing-edge noise generation characteristics as theoretically predicted by several contemporary acousticians. It is found that the noise detected in the far-field is comprised of the sum of many uncorrelated emissions radiating from the vicinity of the trailing edge. These emissions appear to be the result of acoustic energy radiation which has been converted by the trailing-edge noise mechanism from the dynamic fluid energy of independent streamwise 'strips' of the turbulent boundary layer flow.

  2. Laboratory verification of the lunar orbital X-ray fluorescence experiment - Initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, N.; King, B.-S.

    1980-01-01

    The combined use of remote sensing and returned sample chemical data in lunar studies presumes a direct link between the two types of data. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that within the precision of the lunar orbital X-ray fluorescence data there is a direct relationship between the fluorescence K-series X-radiation emitted from Mg, Al and Si in the surfaces of lunar soil samples and the concentrations of these elements in the bulk soil samples. This relationship encompasses both mare and terra soils. The degree of maturity is not an important variable for the existing orbital X-ray data. It is argued that these results are directly applicable to the lunar surface analyzed by the Apollo orbital X-ray fluorescence experiment.

  3. Byggmeister Test Home: Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, C.

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals and verified implementation. With the high exposure of energy efficiency and retrofit terminology being used in the general media at this time, it is important to have evidence that measures being proposed will in fact benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. There are several basic areas of research to which the technical report for these test homes can be expected to contribute. These include the combination of measures that is feasible, affordable and acceptable to homeowners as well as expectations versus results. Two Byggmeister multi-family test homes in Massachusetts are examined with the goal of providing case studies that could be applied to other similar New England homes.

  4. Initial results for supercritical cycle experiments using pure and mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Bliem, C.J.; Mines, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    The Heat Cycle Research Program, which is being conducted for the Department of Energy, has as its objective the development of the technology for effecting improved utilization of moderate temperature geothermal resources. Testing at the Heat Cycle Research Facility (HCRF) located at the DOE Geothermal Test Facility (GTF), East Mesa, California, is presently being conducted to meet this objective. Current testing involves a supercritical vaporization and countercurrent in-tube condensing system. The paper presents a brief description of the test facility and a discussion of the test program. Preliminary results on the performance of the supercritical heaters, countercurrent in-tube condenser, and turbine are given for both pure and mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids.

  5. Spectral transmissometer and radiometer - Design and initial results. [of free drifting experiment in Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, Kendall L.; Steward, Robert G.; Peacock, Thomas G.; Payne, Paul R.; Peck, Wayne

    1988-01-01

    A new solid-state spectral transmissometer and radiometer is described. The radiometer measures upwelling radiance, downwelling irradiance, and beam transmittance from 390 to 750 nm with channel widths of 2.35 nm. The spectrometer consists of a 256 element CCD linear array collecting light dispersed by a reflection grating in a modified Littrow configuration. The spectrometer is time and space-shared among the three signal types. The instrument has been deployed as a free-drifting buoy and in the profiling mode, with data stored internally on a magnetic bubble memory or sent up a conducting cable as desired. Power can be supplied either by a detachable external battery pack or through conducting cable. The instrument has been deployed in the oligotrophic North Pacific Central Gyre and in the eutrophic Straits of Juan de Fuca, and preliminary results for each region are discussed.

  6. Excimer Laser Angioplasty: Initial Clinical Results With A Percutaneous Transluminal Procedure In Total Peripheral Artery Occlusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollenek, Gregor; Laufer, Guenter; Hohla, Kristian L.; Grabenwoeger, Florian; Klepetko, Walter

    1989-04-01

    Laser energy has the potential to recanalize obstructive atherosclerotic vessels as an alternative or an adjunct to either bypass surgery or balloon angioplasty. But conventional lasers cause thermal side effects which may lead to extensive damage to neighboring layers. In contrast, excimer laser irradiation in the far ultraviolet range has proved to minimize or avoid these injuries to vessel walls. To evaluate the clinical feasibility of excimer laser angioplasty (ELA), we have performed basic investigations including histologic examination by light microscopy, scanning and electron microscopy, and temperature measurements, and later on in vivo animal trials. Using 308 nm irradiation (XeCl) we have treated the first patient ever to undergo ELA, and the procedure was successful: after recanalization of a total occlusion of a superficial femoral artery, dilatation resulted in sufficient blood supply to the periphery.

  7. Improvement in cardioplegic perfusion technique in single aortic clamping - initial results

    PubMed Central

    Sobral, Marcelo Luiz Peixoto; dos Santos Júnior, Sérgio Francisco; de Sá, Juliano Cavalcante; Terrazas, Anderson da Silva; Trompieri, Daniel Francisco de Mendonça; de Sousa, Thierry Araújo Nunes; dos Santos, Gilmar Geraldo; Stolf, Noedir Antonio Groppo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The most common method used for myocardial protection is administering cardioplegic solution in the coronary circulation. Nevertheless, protection may be achieved by intermittent perfusion of the coronary system with patient's own blood. The intermittent perfusion may be performed by multiple sequences of clamping and opening of the aortic clamp or due single clamping and accessory cannulation of the aortic root as in the improved technique proposed in this study, reperfusion without the need for multiple clamping of the aorta. Objective To evaluate the clinical outcome and the occurrence of neurological events in in-hospital patients submitted to myocardial revascularization surgery with the "improved technique" of intermittent perfusion of the aortic root with single clamping. Methods This is a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study that describes a myocardial management technique that consists of intermittent perfusion of the aortic root with single clamping in which 50 patients (mean age 58.5±7.19 years old) have been submitted to the myocardial revasculrization surgery under the proposed technique. Clinical and laboratory variables, pre- and post-surgery, have been assessed. Results The mean peak level of post-surgery CKMB was 51.64±27.10 U/L in the second post-surgery and of troponin I was 3.35±4.39 ng/ml in the fourth post-surgery, within normal limits. No deaths have occurred and one patient presented mild neurological disorder. Hemodynamic monitoring has not indicated any changes. Conclusion The myocardial revascularization surgery by perfusion with the improved technique with intermittent aortic root with single clamping proved to be safe, enabling satisfactory clinical results. PMID:25140473

  8. Biplane correlation imaging for lung nodule detection: initial human subject results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majdi Nasab, Nariman; Samei, Ehsan; Dobbins, James T., III

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, we present performance of biplane correlation imaging (BCI) on set of chest x-ray projections of human data. BCI significantly minimizes the number of false positives (FPs) when used in conjunction with computer aided detection (CAD) by eliminating non-correlated nodule candidates. Sixty-one low exposure posterior projections were acquired from more than 20 human subjects with small angular separations (0.32 degree) over a range of 20 degrees along the vertical axis. All patients were previously diagnosed for the presence of lung nodules based on computed tomography (CT) examination. Images were processed following two steps. First, all images were analyzed using our CAD routine for chest radiography. This process proceeded with a BCI processing in which the results of CAD on each single projection were examined in terms of their geometrical correlation with those found in the other 60 projections based on the predetermined shift of possible nodule locations in each projection. The suspect entities with a geometrical correlation that coincided with the known location of the lesions were selected as nodules; otherwise they were ignored. An expert radiologist with reference to the associated CT dataset determined the truth regarding nodule location and sizes, which were then used to determine if the found nodules are true positive or false positive. The preliminary results indicated that the best performance was obtained when the angular separation of the projection pair was greater than about 6.7 degrees. Within the range of optimum angular separation, the number of FPs per image was 0-1 without impacting the number of true positives (TPs), averaged around 92%.

  9. Initial Experimental Results of a Laboratory Mini-Magnetosphere for Astronaut Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamford, R. A.; Bingham, R.; Gibson, K.; Thornton, A.; Bradford, J.; Hapgood, M.; Gargate, L.; Silva, L.; Norberg, C.; Todd, T.; Wilson, H.; Stamper, R.

    2007-12-01

    Radiation is a major scientific and technological challenge for manned missions to Mars. With an interplanetary flight time of months to years there is a high probability of Solar Energetic Particle events during the flight. Radiation damage to human tissue could result in acute sickness or death of the occupants of an unprotected spacecraft. Thus there is much interest in techniques to mitigate the effects of these events and of the exposure to cosmic rays. The experimental and modelling work presented here concerns one of several innovative "Active Shield" solutions being proposed [1]. The idea of generating an artificial magnetosphere to recreate the protective shield of the Earth's magnetic field for space craft travelling to the Moon or Mars was considered seriously in the 1960's during the Apollo era. With most of the space agencies around the world setting their sights returning to the Moon and then on to Mars, the idea of some sort of active field solution is experiencing a resurgence. Results from the laboratory experiment to determine the effectiveness of a mini-magnetosphere barrier to be able to expel a flowing energetic "solar wind" plasma will be presented. This is compared to a 3D hybrid simulation code that has been successfully compared to other astrophysical situations e.g. AMPTE artificial comet releases [2]. The experiment and modelling comparisons will demonstrate the scalability between the laboratory and astrophysical scale. [1] Adams, J.H. et al., "Revolutionary Concepts of Radiation Shielding for Human Exploration of Space", NASA/TM- 2005-213688, March 2005. [2] Gargate, L.; Bingham, R.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O., "dHybrid: A massively parallel code for hybrid simulations of space plasmas", Computer Physics Communications, Volume 176, Issue 6, Pages 419-425, 15 March 2007, doi:10.1016/j.cpc.2006.11.013

  10. Initial Continuous Chemistry Results From The Roosevelt Island Ice Core (RICE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjær, H. A.; Vallelonga, P. T.; Simonsen, M. F.; Neff, P. D.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Svensson, A.; Dahl-Jensen, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Roosevelt Island ice core (79.36° S, -161.71° W) was drilled in 2011-13 at the top of the Roosevelt Island ice dome, a location surrounded by the Ross ice shelf. The RICE ice core provides a unique opportunity to look into the past evolution of the West Antarctic Ice sheet. Further the site has high accumulation; 0.26 m of ice equivalent is deposited annually allowing annual layer determination for many chemical parameters. The RICE core was drilled to bedrock and has a total length of 763 metres. Preliminary results derived from water isotopes suggest that the oldest ice reaches back to the Eemian, with the last glacial being compressed in the bottom 60 metres. We present preliminary results from the RICE ice core including continuous measurements of acidity using an optical dye method, insoluble dust particles, conductivity and calcium. The core was analyzed at the New Zealand National Ice Core Research Facility at GNS Science in Wellington. The analytical set up used to determine climate proxies in the ice core was a modified version of the Copenhagen CFA system (Bigler et al., 2011). Key volcanic layers have been matched to those from the WAIS record (Sigl et al., 2013). A significant anti-correlation between acidity and calcium was seen in the Holocene part of the record. Due to the proximity to the ocean a large fraction of the calcium originates from sea salt and is in phase with total conductivity and sodium. In combination with the insoluble dust record, calcium has been apportioned into ocean-related and dust-related sources. Variability over the Holocene is presented and attributed to changing inputs of marine and dust aerosols.

  11. Experimental warming delays autumn senescence in a boreal spruce bog: Initial results from the SPRUCE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Andrew; Furze, Morgan; Aubrecht, Donald; Milliman, Thomas; Nettles, Robert; Krassovski, Misha; Hanson, Paul

    2016-04-01

    August through December. These patterns can also be seen in other daily images recorded at the site since January 2012. Air warming treatments at SPRUCE began in August 2015, and had a substantial influence on autumn senescence of the plant community, as a whole, within each chamber. Generally, vegetation in the warmed chambers stayed green longer than that in the unwarmed chambers. We characterized the seasonality by fitting a sigmoid curve to the Gcc time series data, and we used the autumn half-maximum date of the sigmoid as an indicator of the timing of senescence. We found a strong linear relationship between senescence date and temperature treatment (r2 = 0.71,n = 10). Overall, senescence was delayed by 3.5 ± 0.7 days per 1° C of warming. Thus, although photoperiod is widely believed to be the key trigger for autumn senescence, our results do not indicate that the autumn response to warming is in any way constrained by day length. The SPRUCE experiment is planned to running through 2025. Looking forward, we anticipate that different results may be obtained in year 2 of the SPRUCE experiment if warming treatments result in earlier spring onset, and increased evapotranspiration during spring and early summer, leading to drought conditions by late summer.

  12. Understanding Extension Within a Convergent Orogen: Initial Results From the Carpathian Basins Seismic Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G.; Dando, B.; Hegedus, E.; Brueckl, E.; Radovanovic, S.; Falus, G.; Kovacs, A.; Hausmann, H.; Brisbourne, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) aims to understand the origin of Miocene-age extensional basins, of which the Pannonian Basin is the largest, within the arc of the Alpine-Carpathian Mountain Ranges - a compressional structure. Analysis of the subsidence history of the Pannonian Basin shows that its mantle lithosphere has undergone a much greater degree of extension than the overlying crust. We describe the results of a temporary seismic deployment to test competing theories of how the continental lithosphere evolved in the region. We deployed a 46-element seismic network, 450 km x 80 km, oriented in a NW-SE direction, crossing the Vienna and western Pannonian Basins in Austria, Hungary and Serbia. The network ran for 14 months from early May 2006. The stations were broadband to 30s and spaced at ~30 km along 3 parallel lines, which are 40 km apart. The principal object of this network is to use P and S-wave teleseismic tomography to image the upper mantle. P- wave residuals from sources perpendicular to the tectonic grain show a ~1s variation across the Mid-Hungarian High in to the Pannonian Basin. This delay cannot be explained by sedimentary or crustal thickness variations, which are well-controlled by boreholes, deep seismic soundings and our own receiver function analyses. We must infer significant lithospheric thinning and anomalously low asthenospheric velocities underlying the Pannonian Basin to explain our observations. These travel time delays are accompanied by a dramatic change in the orientation of SKS splitting measurements from E-W to NW-SE across the Mid-Hungarian High. We have also installed a more broadly distributed regional broadband array of 10 instruments (broadband to 120 sec) for 2 years from September 2005, spaced at ~100km within Hungary, Croatia and Serbia to augment the data available from permanent broadband networks in central Europe. Preliminary interstation surface wave dispersion results from across the Pannonian Basin imply

  13. Strain accumulation in the Shumagin Islands: Results of initial GPS measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Lisowski, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Deformation in the Shumagin seismic gap has been monitored with repeated trilateration (EDM) in the 1980-1987 interval and with the Global Positioning System (GPS) in the 1987-1991 interval. The geodetic network extends for 100-km across the Shumagin Islands to the Alaska Peninsula. Results from the GPS surveys are consistent with those previously reported for the EDM surveys: we failed to detect significant strain accumulation in the N30 deg W direction of plate convergence. Using the method of simultaneous reduction for position and strain rates, we found the average rate of extension in the direction of plate convergence to be -25 +/- 25 nanostrain/yr (nstrain/yr) during the 1987-1991 interval of GPS surveys compared with -20 +/- 15 nstrain/yr during the 1981-1987 interval of complete EDM surveys. We found a marginally significant -26 +/- 12 nstrain/yr extension rate in the 1981-1991 interval covered by the combined EDM and GPS surveys. Strain rates are higher, but not significantly so, in the part of the network closest to the trench. Spatial variation in the deformation is observed in the 1980-1991 average station velocities, where three of the four stations closest to the trench have an arcward velocity of a few mm/yr. The observed strain rates are an order of magnitude lower than the -200 nstrain/yr rate predicted by dislocation models.

  14. GEMINI: Initial behavioral results after full severance of the cervical spinal cord in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, C-Yoon; Oh, Hanseul; Hwang, In-Kyu; Hong, Ki-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Background: The GEMINI spinal cord fusion protocol has been developed to achieve a successful cephalosomatic anastomosis. Here, we report the preliminary data on the use of a fusogen [polyethylene glycol (PEG)] after full cervical cord transection in mice to facilitate the fusion of both ends of a sharply transected spinal cord. Methods: Cervical laminectomy and a complete, visually confirmed cervical cord (C 5) transection was performed on female albino mice (n = 16). In Group 1 (n = 8), a fusogen, (PEG) was used to bridge the gap between the cut ends of the spinal cord. Group 2 received the same spinal cord transection but was treated with saline. Outcome was assessed daily using a standard scale (modified 22-point Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale) and filmed on camera. Results: The PEG group (group 1) showed partial restoration of motor function after 4 weeks of observation; group 2 (placebo) did not recover any useful motor activity. Conclusion: In this preliminary experiment, PEG, but not saline, promoted partial motor recovery in mice submitted to full cervical transection. PMID:27656325

  15. Time-domain optimized near-field estimator for ultrasound imaging: initial development and results.

    PubMed

    Viola, F; Ellis, M A; Walker, W F

    2008-01-01

    For nearly four decades, adaptive beamforming (ABF) algorithms have been applied in RADAR and SONAR signal processing. These algorithms reduce the contribution of undesired off-axis signals while maintaining a desired response along a specific look direction. Typically, higher resolution and contrast is attainable using adaptive beamforming at the price of an increased computational load. In this paper, we describe a novel ABF designed for medical ultrasound, named the Time-domain Optimized Near-field Estimator (TONE). We performed a series of simulations using synthetic ultrasound data to test the performance of this algorithm and compared it to conventional, data independent, delay and sum beamforming (CBF) method. We also performed experiments using a Philips SONOS 5500 phased array imaging system. CBF was applied using the default parameters of the Philips scanner, whereas TONE was applied on per channel, unfocused data using an unfocused transmit beam. TONE images were reconstructed at a sampling of 67 microm laterally and 19 microm axially. The results obtained for a series of five 20-microm wires in a water tank show a significant improvement in spatial resolution when compared to CBF. We also analyzed the performance of TONE as a function of speed of sound errors and array sparsity, finding it robust to both.

  16. Screening pharmaceuticals for possible carcinogenic effects: initial positive results for drugs not previously screened

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gary D.; Udaltsova, Natalia; Chan, James; Quesenberry, Charles P; Habel, Laurel A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We screened commonly used prescription drugs for possible carcinogenic effects. Methods In a large health care program we identified 105 commonly used drugs, not previously screened. Recipients were followed for up to 12½ years for incident cancer. Nested case-control analyses of 55 cancer sites and all combined included up to ten matched controls per case, with lag of at least two years between drug dispensing and cancer. Positive associations entailed a relative risk (RR) of 1.50, with p≤ 0.01 and higher risk for three or more, than for one prescription. Evaluation included further analyses, searches of the literature, and clinical judgment. Results There were 101 associations of interest for 61 drugs. Sixty-six associations were judged to have involved substantial confounding. We found evidence that of the remaining 35, the following associations may not be due to chance: sulindac with gallbladder cancer and leukemia, hyoscyamine with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, nortriptyline with esophageal and hepatic cancer, oxazepam with lung cancer, both fluoxetine and paroxetine with testicular cancer, hydrochlorothiazide with renal and lip cancer, and nifedipine with lip cancer. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that further studies are indicated regarding sulindac, hyoscyamine, nortriptyline, oxazepam, fluoxetine, paroxetine, hydrochlorothiazide and nifedipine. PMID:19582585

  17. GEMINI: Initial behavioral results after full severance of the cervical spinal cord in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, C-Yoon; Oh, Hanseul; Hwang, In-Kyu; Hong, Ki-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Background: The GEMINI spinal cord fusion protocol has been developed to achieve a successful cephalosomatic anastomosis. Here, we report the preliminary data on the use of a fusogen [polyethylene glycol (PEG)] after full cervical cord transection in mice to facilitate the fusion of both ends of a sharply transected spinal cord. Methods: Cervical laminectomy and a complete, visually confirmed cervical cord (C 5) transection was performed on female albino mice (n = 16). In Group 1 (n = 8), a fusogen, (PEG) was used to bridge the gap between the cut ends of the spinal cord. Group 2 received the same spinal cord transection but was treated with saline. Outcome was assessed daily using a standard scale (modified 22-point Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale) and filmed on camera. Results: The PEG group (group 1) showed partial restoration of motor function after 4 weeks of observation; group 2 (placebo) did not recover any useful motor activity. Conclusion: In this preliminary experiment, PEG, but not saline, promoted partial motor recovery in mice submitted to full cervical transection.

  18. Initial results from a prototype whole-body photon-counting computed tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z.; Leng, S.; Jorgensen, S. M.; Li, Z.; Gutjahr, R.; Chen, B.; Duan, X.; Halaweish, A. F.; Yu, L.; Ritman, E. L.; McCollough, C. H.

    2015-03-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) with energy-discriminating capabilities presents exciting opportunities for increased dose efficiency and improved material decomposition analyses. However, due to constraints imposed by the inability of photon-counting detectors (PCD) to respond accurately at high photon flux, to date there has been no clinical application of PCD-CT. Recently, our lab installed a research prototype system consisting of two x-ray sources and two corresponding detectors, one using an energy-integrating detector (EID) and the other using a PCD. In this work, we report the first third-party evaluation of this prototype CT system using both phantoms and a cadaver head. The phantom studies demonstrated several promising characteristics of the PCD sub-system, including improved longitudinal spatial resolution and reduced beam hardening artifacts, relative to the EID sub-system. More importantly, we found that the PCD sub-system offers excellent pulse pileup control in cases of x-ray flux up to 550 mA at 140 kV, which corresponds to approximately 2.5×1011 photons per cm2 per second. In an anthropomorphic phantom and a cadaver head, the PCD sub-system provided image quality comparable to the EID sub-system for the same dose level. Our results demonstrate the potential of the prototype system to produce clinically-acceptable images in vivo.

  19. Event-Based Surveillance During EXPO Milan 2015: Rationale, Tools, Procedures, and Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Manso, Martina Del; Caporali, Maria Grazia; Napoli, Christian; Linge, Jens P.; Mantica, Eleonora; Verile, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Vellucci, Loredana; Costanzo, Virgilio; Bastiampillai, Anan Judina; Gabrielli, Eugenia; Gramegna, Maria; Declich, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    More than 21 million participants attended EXPO Milan from May to October 2015, making it one of the largest protracted mass gathering events in Europe. Given the expected national and international population movement and health security issues associated with this event, Italy fully implemented, for the first time, an event-based surveillance (EBS) system focusing on naturally occurring infectious diseases and the monitoring of biological agents with potential for intentional release. The system started its pilot phase in March 2015 and was fully operational between April and November 2015. In order to set the specific objectives of the EBS system, and its complementary role to indicator-based surveillance, we defined a list of priority diseases and conditions. This list was designed on the basis of the probability and possible public health impact of infectious disease transmission, existing statutory surveillance systems in place, and any surveillance enhancements during the mass gathering event. This article reports the methodology used to design the EBS system for EXPO Milan and the results of 8 months of surveillance. PMID:27314656

  20. Commissioning of an ECR Plasma Source for Lithium Surface Science Studies and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norval, Ryan; Capece, Angie; Faroranti, Oluseyi; Skinner, Charles; Koel, Bruce

    2012-10-01

    Lithium-conditioned plasma facing components reduce hydrogen recycling in plasmas by readily forming hydride compounds, which results in improved plasma confinement and performance. A new ultrahigh vacuum (UHV)-compatible electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source, which allows surface spectroscopic studies, was recently commissioned at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to study the uptake of deuterium by lithium coatings on single crystal molybdenum as a precursor to NSTX experiments. The ECR plasma source is capable of delivering deuterium ions to the surface at energies of 50-2000 eV and current densities between 0.05 and 2.0 mA/cm^2. Surface science studies will be performed on clean Li films on Mo(100) substrates before and after D+ irradiation under UHV conditions at base pressures of 10-10 Torr. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy will be used to determine the chemical state of lithium, and thermal desorption spectroscopy will be used to measure the amount of deuterium retained in the sample as a function of ion fluence and temperature.

  1. Initial Results of Global Lunar Gravity Field Recovery from SELENE tracking data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Goossens, Sander; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Liu, Qinghui; Iwata, Takahiro; Namiki, Noriyuki; Noda, Hirotomo; Hanada, Hideo; Kikuchi, Fuyuhiko; Kawano, Nobuyuki; Tsuruta, Seiitsu; Asari, Kazuyoshi; Ishikawa, Toshiaki; Sasaki, Sho

    Two small spin-stabilized sub-satellites, Rstar (OKINA) and Vstar (OUNA), have successfully been separated from Main satellite of SELENE (KAGUYA) and inserted into planned elliptical orbits on October 9 and 12, 2007, respectively. These spacecraft are dedicated to improving our knowledge of the global lunar gravity field with the mission instruments on-board, i.e., RSAT (a satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking sub-system) and VRAD (artificial radio sources for VLBI). We have started collecting new types of tracking data for the lunar-orbiting satellites, i.e., 4-way Doppler tracking between the Main satellite and Rstar (i.e., a direct far-side gravity observation), and multi-frequency differential VLBI tracking between Rstar and Vstar. A global lunar gravity field with unprecedented accuracy is expected to be estimated through precision orbit determination by using these tracking data. A preliminary global lunar gravity field model (degree and order up to 60) was developed from about 3-month of SELENE tracking data which include 2-way Doppler, 2-way range, and 4-way Doppler data. Although the current far-side data coverage is incomplete and a Kaula-type a priori constraint is necessary for meaningful inversion, some of ring-shaped gravity anomalies are more clearly resolved in the far-side compared with existing lunar gravity models. We will present concept of tracking data acquisition scheduling, current status of tracking data acquisition, and preliminary results of global lunar gravity filed recovery.

  2. [The department budget, in the context of the hospital global budget. Initial results in general medicine].

    PubMed

    Besançon, F

    1984-02-23

    In a general hospital (Hôtel-Dieu, in the center of Paris), run with a global budget, budgets determined for each unit were introduced as an experiment in 1980. Physicians were in charge of certain expenses, mainly: linen, drugs, transportation of patients to and from other hospitals within Paris, and blood fractions. The whole does not exceed 4% of the turnover (FF 20 millions in 1980) of a 67 bed internal medicine unit. Other accounts deal with the stays, admissions, prescriptions of technical acts, laboratory analyses, and X-rays. In 1980, expenses were 11% more than budgeted, but the increase in stays and particularly in admissions was significantly greater. The resulting savings were 8.8% and 18.7% for stays and admissions respectively. Psychic reactions were variable. The subsequent budgets followed the fluctuations of recorded expenses, which were fairly important in both directions. The unit budget may be an advance or a regression, in a restrictive and past-perpetuating context. The coherence between the unit budget and the global hospital budget is questionable. Physicians were willing to take part in accounting and saving. They have good reason for not enlarging their financial responsibilities. Conversely, they may give more attention to diseases of public opinion.

  3. A new device concept for directly modulating spinal cord pathways: initial in vivo experimental results.

    PubMed

    Flouty, Oliver; Oya, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Wilson, Saul; Reddy, Chandan G; Jeffery, Nicholas D; Brennan, Timothy J; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Utz, Marcel; Gillies, George T; Howard, Matthew A

    2012-12-01

    We describe a novel spinal cord (SC) stimulator that is designed to overcome a major shortcoming of existing stimulator devices: their restricted capacity to selectively activate targeted axons within the dorsal columns. This device overcomes that limitation by delivering electrical stimuli directly to the pial surface of the SC. Our goal in testing this device was to measure its ability to physiologically activate the SC and examine its capacity to modulate somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) triggered by peripheral stimulation. In this acute study on adult sheep (n = 7), local field potentials were recorded from a grid placed in the subdural space of the right hemisphere during electrical stimulation of the left tibial nerve and the spinal cord. Large amplitude SSEPs (>200 µV) in response to SC stimulation were consistently obtained at stimulation strengths well below the thresholds inducing neural injury. Moreover, stimulation of the dorsal columns with signals employed routinely by devices in standard clinical use, e.g., 50 Hz, 0.2 ms pulse width, produced long-lasting changes (>4.5 h) in the SSEP patterns produced by subsequent tibial nerve stimulation. The results of these acute experiments demonstrate that this device can be safely secured to the SC surface and effectively activate somatosensory pathways. PMID:23151433

  4. Collagen Microstructure in the Vocal Ligament: Initial Results on the Potential Effects of Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, Jordan E.; Siegmund, Thomas; Chan, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This investigation quantitatively characterizes the collagenous microstructure of human vocal ligament specimens excised postmortem from non-smokers and smokers. Study Design Retrospective Cohort Study Methods Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging was performed at three anatomical locations of vocal ligament specimens: anterior, mid-membranous, and posterior regions. Two microstructural parameters were extracted from the SHG images: (1) normalized fiber density, and (2) fiber dispersion coefficient, quantifying the degree of collagen fiber dispersion about a preferred direction. Results For both the non-smoker and smoker subjects, the fiber dispersion coefficient was heterogeneous. Differences in the collagenous structure of non-smokers and smoker subjects were pronounced at the mid-membranous location. However, the directionality of the heterogeneity in the smoker subjects was opposite to that in the non-smoker subjects. Specifically, the fiber dispersion coefficient in the non-smoker subjects was lower in the midmembranous region (indicating more fiber alignment) than at the anterior/posterior regions, but for the smoker subjects the fiber dispersion coefficient was higher at the mid-membranous region. The normalized fiber density was near constant in the non-smoker subjects, but the smoker subjects had fewer fibers in the mid-membranous region than at the anterior/posterior regions. Conclusion Spatial microstructural variations may exist in the vocal fold ligament both in non-smokers and smokers. Smoking appears to influence the degree and direction of microstructure heterogeneity in the vocal fold ligament. PMID:24473992

  5. The Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar: Initial Results and Future Opportunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeter, J. L.; Dahlgren, H.; Sundberg, T.; Perry, G. W.; St-Maurice, J.; Shiokawa, K.; Hosokawa, K.; Zettergren, M. D.; Donovan, E.; Nicolls, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR) is the most recent facility developed under the NSF Advanced Modular ISR (AMISR) program, and the first ever ISR deployed to the geomagnetic polar cap region. The AMISR radars are electronically steerable, enabling the acquisition of three-dimensional, time-dependent, information over a significant regional volume. This paper provides a review of science results from the first two years of RISR operations. Of particular interest are studies that synthesize the new information about the intrinsic state variables (Ne, Te, Ti) with measurements by extant common-volume sensors (HF radar, all-sky imager, Fabry-Perot interferometer). The careful co-registration of these heterogeneous measurements is shown to provide new constraints on the nature of time-dependent solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions in open magnetic-field regions. This capability will be further enhanced with the commissioning of the collocated Canadian facility (RISR-C) and the launch of the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP), both expected in 2013.

  6. Crustal evolution across the southern Appalachians: Initial results from the SESAME broadband array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, E. Horry; Hawman, Robert B.; Fischer, Karen M.; Wagner, Lara S.

    2013-08-01

    functions from the EarthScope Southeastern Suture of the Appalachian Margin Experiment broadband deployment and U.S. Transportable Array were analyzed to constrain average crustal thickness and composition across the southern Appalachians. Low Vp/Vs ratios (1.69-1.72) across the Carolina terrane and parts of the Inner Piedmont indicate that the crust has a felsic average composition. The results are consistent with models of thin-skinned thrusting of Carolina arc fragments over Laurentian basement, whereas arc collision models require significant crustal modification to explain the low Vp/Vs. New crustal thickness estimates provide constraints on the extent of the Blue Ridge crustal root. The present root may be a remnant of a broader structure formed by Alleghanian thrust loading. Root preservation is attributed to Mesozoic heating and thinning of the lower crust beneath outboard terranes, leaving colder Blue Ridge crust largely intact. However, thickened crust (50-55 km) across the region may also be inherited from continental collision during the Proterozoic Grenville orogeny.

  7. Initial communication survey results for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.

    1991-03-01

    To support the public communication efforts of the Technical Steering Panel of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, a public survey was conducted. The survey was intended to provide information about the public's knowledge and interest in the project and the best ways to communicate project results. Questions about the project were included as part of an omnibus survey conducted by Washington State University. The survey was conducted by phone to Washington State residents in the spring of 1990. This report gives the HEDR-related questions and summary data of responses. Questions associated with the HEDR Project were grouped into four categories: knowledge of the HEDR Project; interest in the project; preferred ways of receiving information about the project (including public information meetings, a newsletter mailed to homes, presentations to civic groups in the respondent's community, a computer bulletin board respondent could access with a modem, information displays at public buildings and shopping malls, and an information video sent to respondent); and level of concern over past exposure from Hanford operations. Questions abut whom state residents are most likely to trust about radiation issues were also part of the omnibus survey, and responses are included in this report.

  8. [The department budget, in the context of the hospital global budget. Initial results in general medicine].

    PubMed

    Besançon, F

    1984-02-23

    In a general hospital (Hôtel-Dieu, in the center of Paris), run with a global budget, budgets determined for each unit were introduced as an experiment in 1980. Physicians were in charge of certain expenses, mainly: linen, drugs, transportation of patients to and from other hospitals within Paris, and blood fractions. The whole does not exceed 4% of the turnover (FF 20 millions in 1980) of a 67 bed internal medicine unit. Other accounts deal with the stays, admissions, prescriptions of technical acts, laboratory analyses, and X-rays. In 1980, expenses were 11% more than budgeted, but the increase in stays and particularly in admissions was significantly greater. The resulting savings were 8.8% and 18.7% for stays and admissions respectively. Psychic reactions were variable. The subsequent budgets followed the fluctuations of recorded expenses, which were fairly important in both directions. The unit budget may be an advance or a regression, in a restrictive and past-perpetuating context. The coherence between the unit budget and the global hospital budget is questionable. Physicians were willing to take part in accounting and saving. They have good reason for not enlarging their financial responsibilities. Conversely, they may give more attention to diseases of public opinion. PMID:6324373

  9. 20 CFR 408.1015 - What procedures apply if you request reconsideration of an initial determination that results in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... are going to suspend, reduce or terminate your benefit payments, you can appeal our determination... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What procedures apply if you request... What procedures apply if you request reconsideration of an initial determination that results...

  10. 20 CFR 408.1015 - What procedures apply if you request reconsideration of an initial determination that results in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... are going to suspend, reduce or terminate your benefit payments, you can appeal our determination... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What procedures apply if you request... What procedures apply if you request reconsideration of an initial determination that results...

  11. 20 CFR 408.1015 - What procedures apply if you request reconsideration of an initial determination that results in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... are going to suspend, reduce or terminate your benefit payments, you can appeal our determination... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What procedures apply if you request... What procedures apply if you request reconsideration of an initial determination that results...

  12. 20 CFR 408.1015 - What procedures apply if you request reconsideration of an initial determination that results in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... are going to suspend, reduce or terminate your benefit payments, you can appeal our determination... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What procedures apply if you request... What procedures apply if you request reconsideration of an initial determination that results...

  13. 20 CFR 408.1015 - What procedures apply if you request reconsideration of an initial determination that results in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... are going to suspend, reduce or terminate your benefit payments, you can appeal our determination... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What procedures apply if you request... What procedures apply if you request reconsideration of an initial determination that results...

  14. Four-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Axial Body Area as Respiratory Surrogate: Initial Patient Results

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Juan; Cai, Jing; Wang, Hongjun; Chang, Zheng; Czito, Brian G.; Bashir, Mustafa R.; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a retrospective binning technique for 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) using body area (BA) as a respiratory surrogate. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (4 of 7) or liver metastases (3 of 7) were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved prospective study. All patients were simulated with both computed tomography (CT) and MRI to acquire 3-dimensinal and 4D images for treatment planning. Multiple-slice multiple-phase cine-MR images were acquired in the axial plane for 4D-MRI reconstruction. Image acquisition time per slice was set to 10-15 seconds. Single-slice 2-dimensinal cine-MR images were also acquired across the center of the tumor in orthogonal planes. Tumor motion trajectories from 4D-MRI, cine-MRI, and 4D-CT were analyzed in the superior–inferior (SI), anterior–posterior (AP), and medial–lateral (ML) directions, respectively. Their correlation coefficients (CC) and differences in tumor motion amplitude were determined. Tumor-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured and compared between 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, and conventional T2-weighted fast spin echo MRI. Results: The means (±standard deviations) of CC comparing 4D-MRI with cine-MRI were 0.97 ± 0.03, 0.97 ± 0.02, and 0.99 ± 0.04 in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean differences were 0.61 ± 0.17 mm, 0.32 ± 0.17 mm, and 0.14 ± 0.06 mm in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The means of CC comparing 4D-MRI and 4D-CT were 0.95 ± 0.02, 0.94 ± 0.02, and 0.96 ± 0.02 in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean differences were 0.74 ± 0.02 mm, 0.33 ± 0.13 mm, and 0.18 ± 0.07 mm in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean tumor-to-tissue CNRs were 2.94 ± 1.51, 19.44 ± 14.63, and 39.47 ± 20.81 in 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, and T2-weighted MRI, respectively. Conclusions: The preliminary evaluation of our 4D-MRI technique results in oncologic patients demonstrates its

  15. Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture in Normal Monkey Eyes Part 1: Methods and Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Howard; Reynaud, Juan; Gardiner, Stuart; Grimm, Jonathan; Libertiaux, Vincent; Downs, J. Crawford; Yang, Hongli; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To introduce quantitative postmortem lamina cribrosa (LC) microarchitecture (LMA) assessment and characterize beam diameter (BD), pore diameter (PD), and connective tissue volume fraction (CTVF) in 21 normal monkey eyes. Methods. Optic nerve heads (ONHs) underwent digital three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and LC beam segmentation. Each beam and pore voxel was assigned a diameter based on the largest sphere that contained it before transformation to one of twelve 30° sectors in a common cylinder. Mean BD, PD, and CTVF within 12 central and 12 peripheral subsectors and within inner, middle, and outer LC depths were assessed for sector, subsector, and depth effects by analysis of variance using general estimating equations. Eye-specific LMA discordance (the pattern of lowest connective tissue density) was plotted for each parameter. Results. The ranges of mean BD, PD, and CTVF were 14.0 to 23.1 μm, 20.0 to 35.6 μm, and 0.247 to 0.638, respectively. Sector, subsector, and depth effects were significant (P < 0.01) for all parameters except subsector on CTVF. Beam diameter and CTVF were smaller and PD was larger within the superior-temporal (ST) and inferior-temporal (IT) sectors (P < 0.05). These differences were enhanced within the central versus peripheral subsectors. Beam diameter and CTVF were larger and PD was smaller (P < 0.05) within the middle LC layer. Lamina cribrosa microarchitecture discordance most commonly occurred within the ST and IT sectors, varied by eye, and generally diminished as CTVF increased. Conclusions. Our data support previous characterizations of diminished connective tissue density within the ST and IT ONH regions. The clinical importance of eye-specific LMA discordance warrants further study. PMID:25650423

  16. Tucumán ionospheric model (TIM): Initial results for STEC predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scidá, L. A.; Ezquer, R. G.; Cabrera, M. A.; Jadur, C.; Sfer, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Most ionospheric models can calculate vertical total electron content (VTEC) predictions, but only a few are suitable for calculating slant total electron content (STEC). This ionospheric magnitude is generally measured for electron content determinations, with VTEC particularly corresponding to an elevation of 90°. This is generally obtained by applying a mapping function to STEC measurements, which leads to important calculation errors. Moreover, the equatorial region has unique characteristics, such as the fountain effect and the equatorial electrojet, which lead to significant errors in the model's calculations. In this paper, the Tucumán ionospheric model (TIM) is presented as a novel alternative for calculating the STEC in low-latitude regions (-24 to 24 dip latitude). The model is based on spatial geometry where the considered trajectory is segmented, and the corresponding electron density calculations for the resulting segment end points are determined using the semi-empirical low-latitude ionospheric model (SLIM) with reference to their corresponding magnetic coordinates and height. Finally, the electron density values are integrated along the path to obtain the STEC. This work describes the TIM and tests their STEC predictions for five ray paths around the world (totaling 16 cases under study), which are compared with experimental data from satellites and with those calculated by the NeQuick model. Moreover, the TIM performance for VTEC predictions is also checked and compared with VTEC data obtained from Global Positioning System (GPS) signals, IRI model, and NeQuick model predictions, for six GPS receiver stations during the equinox and solstice (totaling 12 cases studied). Comparisons of the TIM predictions with experimental data show that 53% of the calculation has, in general, deviations <30%. For the considered cases, TIM reproduces the experimental data better than the other models.

  17. Endoscopic endonasal skull base approach for parasellar lesions: Initial experiences, results, efficacy, and complications

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Shigetoshi; Hide, Takuichiro; Shinojima, Naoki; Hasegawa, Yu; Kawano, Takayuki; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic surgery is suitable for the transsphenoidal approach; it is minimally invasive and provides a well-lit operative field. The endoscopic skull base approach through the large opening of the sphenoid sinus through both nostrils has extended the surgical indication for various skull base lesions. In this study, we describe the efficacy and complications associated with the endoscopic skull base approach for extra- or intradural parasellar lesions based on our experiences. Methods: Seventy-four cases were treated by an endoscopic skull base approach. The indications for these procedures included 55 anterior extended approaches, 10 clival approaches, and 9 cavernous approaches. The operations were performed through both the nostrils using a rigid endoscope. After tumor removal, the skull base was reconstructed by a multilayered method using a polyglactin acid (PGA) sheet. Results: Gross total resection was achieved in 82% of pituitary adenomas, 68.8% of meningiomas, and 60% of craniopharyngiomas in anterior extended approach and in 83.3% of chordomas in clival approach, but only in 50% of the tumors in cavernous approach. Tumor consistency, adhesion, and/or extension were significant limitations. Visual function improvements were achieved in 37 of 41 (90.2%) cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage (9.5%), infections (5.4%), neural injuries (4.1%), and vascular injuries (2.7%) were the major complications. Conclusions: Our experiences show that the endoscopic skull base approach is a safe and effective procedure for various parasellar lesions. Selection of patients who are unlikely to develop complications seems to be an important factor for procedure efficacy and good outcome. PMID:24818058

  18. Radiation control coatings installed on rough-surfaced built-up roofs -- Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have tracked the solar reflectance and thermal performance of small samples of various radiation control coatings on smooth surfaces for several years on a roof test facility in East Tennessee. The focus is on white coatings because of their potential to weather, causing the solar reflectance to decrease as the coatings age. Support of the federal New Technology Demonstration Program allowed them to extend the study to more samples on smooth surfaces and entire rough-surfaced roofs at a federal facility in the Panhandle of Florida. Two rough-surfaced, moderately well-insulated, low solar reflectance built-up roofs (BURs) were spray-coated with a latex-based product with ceramic beads added to improve solar reflectance. In the first three months after installation, the fresh BUR coatings showed a significant decrease in both the outside-surface temperature and the heat flux through the roof insulation. Average sunlit values were generated to exclude nighttime data, data on cloudy days, and data when the uncoated patch on one roof was more strongly shaded in mid-afternoon on sunny days. The average power demand during occupied periods for the first month with the coating for the building with the thermally massive roof deck was 13% less than during the previous month without the coating. For the other buildings with a lightweight roof deck but high internal loads, there were no clear average power savings due to the coating. The authors are continuing to monitor electricity use in these all-electric buildings to calibrate a model for the peak power and annual energy use of the buildings. Modeling results to be given at the end of the two year project will address the effect of roof R-value, geographic location, and solar reflectance, including the effect of weathering, on the performance of coated roofs. The calibrated models should allow one to segregate site-specific effects such as shading and large thermal mass.

  19. Initial quality performance results using a phantom to simulate chest computed radiography.

    PubMed

    Muhogora, Wilbroad; Padovani, Renato; Msaki, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a homemade phantom for quantitative quality control in chest computed radiography (CR). The phantom was constructed from copper, aluminium, and polymenthylmethacrylate (PMMA) plates as well as Styrofoam materials. Depending on combinations, the literature suggests that these materials can simulate the attenuation and scattering characteristics of lung, heart, and mediastinum. The lung, heart, and mediastinum regions were simulated by 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm, 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm and 10 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm copper plates, respectively. A test object of 100 mm x 100 mm and 0.2 mm thick copper was positioned to each region for CNR measurements. The phantom was exposed to x-rays generated by different tube potentials that covered settings in clinical use: 110-120 kVp (HVL=4.26-4.66 mm Al) at a source image distance (SID) of 180 cm. An approach similar to the recommended method in digital mammography was applied to determine the CNR values of phantom images produced by a Kodak CR 850A system with post-processing turned off. Subjective contrast-detail studies were also carried out by using images of Leeds TOR CDR test object acquired under similar exposure conditions as during CNR measurements. For clinical kVp conditions relevant to chest radiography, the CNR was highest over 90-100 kVp range. The CNR data correlated with the results of contrast detail observations. The values of clinical tube potentials at which CNR is the highest are regarded to be optimal kVp settings. The simplicity in phantom construction can offer easy implementation of related quality control program. PMID:21430855

  20. Initial results from a multi-institutional collaboration to monitor harmful algal blooms in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Lewitus, Alan J; Holland, A Fred

    2003-01-01

    The rapid rate of development in the South Carolina (SC) coastal zone has heightened public concern for the condition of the state's estuaries, and alerted scientists to the potential that novel and adverse effects on estuarine ecosystems may result. Although well-developed databases from long-term monitoring programs exist for many variables valuable in predicting and following system responses, information on phytoplankton distributions in SC estuaries has lagged. Knowledge of the dynamical relationship between environmental (e.g., nutrient quantity and quality) and biological (e.g., grazing) regulation, and phytoplankton biomass and composition is critical to understanding estuarine susceptibility to eutrophication or harmful algal blooms (HABs). Recently, SC scientists from federal, state, and academic institutions established a collaborative monitoring program to assess HAB distribution and ecology statewide. The South Carolina Harmful Algal Bloom Program includes: a) intensive temporal monitoring at areas of known HAB occurrence or those exhibiting symptoms potentially related to HABs (e.g., prevalent fish lesions), b) extensive spatial monitoring in coordination with existing statewide efforts, c) a citizen volunteer monitoring network, d) nutrient response bioassays, and e) laboratory-based physiological experiments on HAB isolates. By combining "trip-wire" surveillance and rapid response systems, routine monitoring of environmental parameters and HAB distribution, and process-oriented studies examining the physiological functioning of HAB species, an enhanced understanding of the impact and environmental control of HABs in SC estuaries will be achieved. The application of this approach to studies on the distribution and physiological ecology of a new widespread SC red tide, and to the discovery of several potentially toxic blooms (including Pfiesteria) in SC holding ponds, are described.

  1. Toward Hydrocode Models of an Impact-Generated Martian Greenhouse: Model Validation and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesko, C. S.; Wohletz, K. H.; Coker, R. F.; Asphaug, E.; Korycansky, D. G.; Gittings, M. L.

    2006-12-01

    Large impacts have been suggested by Carr (1996) and Segura et al. (2002) as a possible trigger of warm and wet climate episodes early in Martian history. Our goal is to model impacts into stratigraphically complicated media, and specifically targets containing water ice in various morphologies, in order to determine a lower bound on the energy and size scales of impact events that could trigger such a climate shift, and thus establish an upper bound on the frequency of such events. To do this, we use various analytical and numerical modeling techniques, including the RAGE hydrocode. RAGE (Baltrusaitis et al. 1996) is an Eulerian hydrocode that runs in up to three dimensions and incorporates a variety of detailed equations of state including the temperature-based SESAME tables maintained by LANL. In order to test the accuracy of RAGE predictions before applying this hydrocode to the problem of interest, we compare code results against analytical models (verification) and laboratory experiments (validation) that are related to the problem of interest. We compare RAGE against various laboratory experiments (Kato et al. 2001, Nakazawa et al. 2002, Koschny et al. 2001), and analytical crater scaling models (Housen et al. 1983, Holsapple and Schmidt 1982, Holsapple 1993, and Melosh 1989). From there, we begin to examine the potential effects of impacts on water ice in the Martian subsurface, first by examining the evolution of the temperature and pressure profiles of an impact into a geologically simple, ice-free target, and then exploring the effects of increased ice content and ice layer morphology. This effort is supported by LANL/IGPP (CSP, RFC, KHW, MLG) and by NASA PG&G (EA). LA-UR-06-6233

  2. TU-A-BRD-01: Outcomes of Hypofractionated Treatments - Initial Results of the WGSBRT

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X; Lee, P; Ohri, N; Joiner, M; Kong, F; Jackson, A

    2014-06-15

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) has emerged in recent decades as a treatment paradigm that is becoming increasingly important in clinical practice. Clinical outcomes data are rapidly accumulating. Although published relations between outcomes and dose distributions are still sparse, the field has progressed to the point where evidence-based normal tissue dose-volume constraints, prescription strategies, and Tumor Control Probability (TCP) and Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) models can be developed. The Working Group on SBRT (WGSBRT), under the Biological Effects Subcommittee of AAPM, is a group of physicists and physicians working in the area of SBRT. It is currently performing critical literature reviews to extract and synthesize usable data and to develop guidelines and models to aid with safe and effective treatment. The group is investigating clinically relevant findings from SBRT in six anatomical regions: Cranial, Head and Neck, Thoracic, Abdominal, Pelvic, and Spinal. In this session of AAPM 2014, interim results are presented on TCP for lung and liver, NTCP for thoracic organs, and radiobiological foundations:• Lung TCP: Detailed modeling of TCP data from 118 published studies on early stage lung SBRT investigates dose response and hypothesized mechanisms to explain the improved outcomes of SBRT. This is presented from the perspective of a physicist, a physician, and a radiobiologist.• Liver TCP: For primary and metastatic liver tumors, individual patient data were extracted from published reports to examine the effects of biologically effective dose on local control.• Thoracic NTCP: Clinically significant SBRT toxicity of lung, rib / chest wall and other structures are evaluated and compared among published clinical data, in terms of risk, risk factors, and safe practice.• Improving the clinical utility of published toxicity reports from SBRT and Hypofractionated treatments. What do we want, and how do we get it? Methods

  3. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, dur-ing the government shutdown. The spacecraft impact-ed the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE's science objectives were twofold: (1) De-termine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for parti-cles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exo-spheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) ac-quired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wave-length range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. The following are preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longi-tudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lu-nar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization process-es. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent "shroud" of small dust particles

  4. English language usage pattern in China mainland doctors: AME survey-001 initial analysis results

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose English is the most widely used language in medical community worldwide. Till now there is no study yet on how English language is being used among mainland Chinese doctors. The present survey aimed to address this question. Methods An online cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of 23 Oct 2014 to 13 November 2014, totaling 22 days. This survey was conducted on the platform provided by DXY (www.dxy.cn), which is the largest medical and paramedical related website in China with registered medical doctor users of slightly more than one million. E-mails were sent to all DXY registered users to invite them to participate the survey which lasts approximately five-minute. The questionnaire included three major aspects: (I) the demographic characteristics of participants; (II) English reading pattern; and (III) paper publishing experience in international journals. To accommodate the complexity of relationships among variables, structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to build the model. Results In total 1,663 DXY users completed the survey, which counted for ≈1% of the total registered medical doctor users. There were more participants from relatively economically developed eastern coast areas. The age of participants was 33.6±7.4 years. There were 910 respondents from teaching hospitals (54.72%), followed by tertiary care hospitals (class-III hospital, 22.37%). Mainland Chinese doctors were more likely to consult medical materials in Chinese (63.5%) when they encounter clinical difficulties. Participants who were able to list English journals of their own specialty up to four were 44.02% for 0, 13.77% for one journal, 13.89% for two journals, 9.26% for three journals, and 19.06% for four journals. Most participants (82.86%) have read at least one English paper or one professional book in English, while 17.14% responded they never read a single English paper or professorial book in English. About 30.42% participants published at least

  5. Factors initiating phytoplankton blooms and resulting effects on dissolved oxygen in Duwamish River estuary, Seattle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Eugene Brummer

    1969-01-01

    , as shown by studies of other estuarine environments by other workers, phytoplankton production increases when the zone of vertical turbulent mixing is not markedly deeper than the compensation depth. Phytoplankton cells produced in the surface waters sink, thereby contributing oxidizable organic matter to the bottom saline-water wedge. The maximum BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) in this bottom wedge occurs in the same section of the estuary and ,at the same time as the maximum phytoplankton biomass (as indicated by chlorophyll a) and minimum DO (dissolved oxygen). Other sources of BOD occur in the estuary, and conditions of minimum discharge and tidal exchange assist in reducing DO. Nonetheless, the highly significant correlation of chlorophyll a with BOD throughout the summer indicates that respiration and decomposition of phytoplankton cells is dearly an important contributor of BOD. Increases in the biomass and resultant B0D of blooms because of increased effluent nutrients presumably would further decrease the concentration of DO. This possible effect of effluent nutrients was evaluated by laboratory .bioassays and by a comparison of mean annual biomasses in the estuary. A green algal population in vitro did increase in response to added effluent nutrients; however, the available field data suggest that a 46-percent increase in effluent discharge between 1965 and 1966 did not increase the estuary's phytoplankton biomass significantly.

  6. Lanthanum Tricyanide-Catalyzed Acyl Silane-Ketone Benzoin Additions and Kinetic Resolution of Resultant α-Silyloxyketones

    PubMed Central

    Tarr, James C.

    2010-01-01

    We report the full account of our efforts on the lanthanum tricyanide-catalyzed acyl silane-ketone benzoin reaction. The reaction exhibits a wide scope in both acyl silane (aryl, alkyl) and ketone (aryl-alkyl, alkyl-alkyl, aryl-aryl, alkenyl-alkyl, alkynyl-alkyl) coupling partners. The diastereoselectivity of the reaction has been examined in both cyclic and acyclic systems. Cyclohexanones give products arising from equatorial attack by the acyl silane. The diastereoselectivity of acyl silane addition to acyclic α-hydroxy ketones can be controlled by varying the protecting group to obtain either Felkin-Ahn or chelation control. The resultant α-silyloxyketone products can be resolved with selectivity factors from 10 to 15 by subjecting racemic ketone benzoin products to CBS reduction. PMID:20392127

  7. Divergent targets of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation result in additive effects of metformin and starvation in colon and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Marini, Cecilia; Bianchi, Giovanna; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Ravera, Silvia; Martella, Roberto; Bottoni, Gianluca; Petretto, Andrea; Emionite, Laura; Monteverde, Elena; Capitanio, Selene; Inglese, Elvira; Fabbi, Marina; Bongioanni, Francesca; Garaboldi, Lucia; Bruzzi, Paolo; Orengo, Anna Maria; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Sambuceti, Gianmario

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates that targeting energy metabolism is a promising strategy to fight cancer. Here we show that combining metformin and short-term starvation markedly impairs metabolism and growth of colon and breast cancer. The impairment in glycolytic flux caused by starvation is enhanced by metformin through its interference with hexokinase II activity, as documented by measurement of 18F-fluorodeoxyglycose uptake. Oxidative phosphorylation is additively compromised by combined treatment: metformin virtually abolishes Complex I function; starvation determines an uncoupled status of OXPHOS and amplifies the activity of respiratory Complexes II and IV thus combining a massive ATP depletion with a significant increase in reactive oxygen species. More importantly, the combined treatment profoundly impairs cancer glucose metabolism and virtually abolishes lesion growth in experimental models of breast and colon carcinoma. Our results strongly suggest that energy metabolism is a promising target to reduce cancer progression. PMID:26794854

  8. Organocatalytic conjugate-addition polymerization of linear and cyclic acrylic monomers by N-heterocyclic carbenes: mechanisms of chain initiation, propagation, and termination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuetao; Schmitt, Meghan; Falivene, Laura; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Chen, Eugene Y-X

    2013-11-27

    This contribution presents a full account of experimental and theoretical/computational investigations into the mechanisms of chain initiation, propagation, and termination of the recently discovered N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-mediated organocatalytic conjugate-addition polymerization of acrylic monomers. The current study specifically focuses on three commonly used NHCs of vastly different nucleophilicity, 1,3-di-tert-butylimidazolin-2-ylidene (I(t)Bu), 1,3-dimesitylimidazolin-2-ylidene (IMes), and 1,3,4-triphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene (TPT), and two representative acrylic monomers, the linear methyl methacrylate (MMA) and its cyclic analog, biomass-derived renewable γ-methyl-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MMBL). For MMA, there exhibits an exquisite selectivity of the NHC structure for the three types of reactions it promotes: enamine formation (single-monomer addition) by IMes, dimerization (tail-to-tail) by TPT, and polymerization by I(t)Bu. For MMBL, all three NHCs promote no dimerization but polymerization, with the polymerization activity being highly sensitive to the NHC structure and the solvent polarity. Thus, I(t)Bu is the most active catalyst of the series and converts quantitatively 1000-3000 equiv of MMBL in 1 min or 10,000 equiv in 5 min at room temperature to MMBL-based bioplastics with a narrow range of molecular weights of M(n) = 70-85 kg/mol, regardless of the [MMBL]/[I(t)Bu] ratio employed. The I(t)Bu-catalyzed MMBL polymerization reaches an exceptionally high turnover frequency up to 122 s(-1) and a high initiator efficiency value up to 1600%. Unique chain-termination mechanisms have been revealed, accounting for the production of relative high-molecular-weight linear polymers and the catalytic nature of this NHC-mediated conjugate-addition polymerization. Computational studies have provided mechanistic insights into reactivity and selectivity between two competing pathways for each NHC-monomer zwitterionic adduct, namely

  9. Use of Polyacrylamide to Reduce Seepage From Unlined Irrigation Canals: Initial Results From Small Scale Test Troughs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susfalk, R. B.; Young, M. H.; Schmidt, M.; Epstein, B. J.; Goreham, J.; Swhihart, J.; Smith, D.

    2005-12-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) is a class of long-chain synthetic polymers that are used extensively in food packaging, paper manufacturing, wastewater treatment, and as a soil amendment to reduce erosion. Recent empirical evidence has shown that applying linear, anionic PAM seepage can also reduce seepage from unlined irrigation canals. A diverse set of experiments has been initiated to understand the efficacy of PAM usage in ditch environments. The experiments span multiple scales, from small-scale bench top and artificial furrow experiments, to larger engineered furrows and irrigation ditches. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of different PAM application methods and concentrations on seepage reductions in small scale, artificial Test Troughs (TT). The TT consists of two 24 m long, 10 cm deep furrows formed from native ASTM C-33 sand. During water application, inflows, outflows, and seepage from under the furrows were continuously measured. PAM in either granular or partially hydrated form was applied at various rates. The results presented here cover one facet of the research program. The application of granular PAM to the TT reduced seepage from 49 L/min to less than 22 L/min, depending on treatment. A PAM application rate of 44 kg/(canal ha) reduced seepage by 69+/-9 percent, and was more effective than an application rate of 11 kg/(canal ha) that reduced seepage by 56+/-22 percent. Seepage reduction was calculated using flow rates between 400 and 600 elapsed minutes. Inclusion of later data (up to 1440 min) into seepage calculations was complicated by a reduction in seepage at the control trough caused either by a reduction in head or deposition of suspended sediment. We hypothesize that the PAM-sediment layer present in the treated trough exerted a greater control on seepage than sediment deposition alone. However, heavy suspended sediment loads associated with hydrologic events reduced seepage rates within both the control and treated troughs, somewhat

  10. Federating clinical data from six pediatric hospitals: process and initial results for microbiology from the PHIS+ consortium.

    PubMed

    Gouripeddi, Ramkiran; Warner, Phillip B; Mo, Peter; Levin, James E; Srivastava, Rajendu; Shah, Samir S; de Regt, David; Kirkendall, Eric; Bickel, Jonathan; Korgenski, E Kent; Precourt, Michelle; Stepanek, Richard L; Mitchell, Joyce A; Narus, Scott P; Keren, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Microbiology study results are necessary for conducting many comparative effectiveness research studies. Unlike core laboratory test results, microbiology results have a complex structure. Federating and integrating microbiology data from six disparate electronic medical record systems is challenging and requires a team of varied skills. The PHIS+ consortium which is partnership between members of the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) network, the Children's Hospital Association and the University of Utah, have used "FURTHeR' for federating laboratory data. We present our process and initial results for federating microbiology data from six pediatric hospitals.

  11. Initial design and results from an ion current collection diagnostic for the triggered plasma opening switch experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Daniel Peter Jr.; Seidel, David Bruce; Gilmore, Mark; Mendel, Clifford Will, Jr.

    2005-06-01

    Study of the triggered plasma opening switch (TPOS) characteristics is in progress via an ion current collection diagnostic (ICCD), in addition to offline apparatus. This initial ion current collection diagnostic has been designed, fabricated, and tested on the TPOS in order to explore the opening profile of the main switch. The initial ion current collection device utilizes five collectors which are positioned perpendicularly to the main switch stage in order to collect radially traveling ions. It has been shown through analytical prowess that this specific geometry can be treated as a planar case of the Child-Langmuir law with only a 6% deviation from the cylindrical case. Additionally, magnetostatic simulations with self consistent space charge emitting surfaces of the main switch using the Trak code are under way. It is hoped that the simulations will provide evidence in support of both the analytical derivations and experimental data. Finally, an improved design of the ICCD (containing 12 collectors in the axial direction) is presently being implemented.

  12. Review of Results and Recommendations from the GCMRC 2000-2003 Remote-Sensing Initiative for Monitoring Environmental Resources Within the Colorado River Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2004-01-01

    In mid-2000, the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) began a remote-sensing initiative to evaluate all remote-sensing technologies and methods that had potential for providing improved data (capability) for its various programs that monitor the Colorado River ecosystem (CRE). The primary objective of the initiative was to determine the most cost-effective data collection protocols for GCMRC programs that (1) provide the accuracies required for currently measured parameters, (2) provide additional parameters for ecological monitoring, (3) reduce environmental impact by being less invasive than current methods, and (4) expand geographic extent of current ground approaches. The initial phase of the remote-sensing initiative determined the types of sampling parameters and their required accuracies for monitoring. This information was used to determine the most appropriate sensors for evaluation. The initiative evaluated 25 different data collections over a three-year period; many more remote-sensing instruments were considered, but were not evaluated because they could not meet the basic requirements on spatial resolution, wavelength, positional accuracy, or elevation accuracy. It was hoped that the evaluations would lead to a minimum set of technologies that would satisfy many program requirements. The results from all of our evaluations are reviewed in this report and are briefly summarized in this report.

  13. Model assessment of additional contamination of water bodies as a result of wildfires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Yu I; Navumau, A D; Nikitin, A N; Brown, J; Dowdall, M

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires and wild fires are recognized as a possible cause of resuspension and redistribution of radioactive substances when occurring on lands contaminated with such materials, and as such are a matter of concern within the regions of Belarus and the Ukraine which were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Modelling the effects of such fires on radioactive contaminants is a complex matter given the number of variables involved. In this paper, a probabilistic model was developed using empirical data drawn from the Polessie State Radiation-Ecological Reserve (PSRER), Belarus, and the Maximum Entropy Method. Using the model, it was possible to derive estimates of the contribution of fire events to overall variability in the levels of (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu in ground air as well as estimates of the deposition of these radionuclides to specific water bodies within the contaminated areas of Belarus. Results indicate that fire events are potentially significant redistributors of radioactive contaminants within the study area and may result in additional contamination being introduced to water bodies.

  14. Delays in antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-positive individuals: results of the positive living with HIV study

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Krishna C.; Buchanan, David R.; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Background Lack of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a major health concern due to increased risk of premature mortality and further HIV transmission. This study explored CD4+ cell count monitoring in relation to delays in ART initiation among HIV-positive individuals in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, where ART coverage was only 23.7% in 2011. Design We recruited a total of 87 ART-naïve, HIV-positive individuals aged 18 to 60 years through the networks of five non-government organizations working with HIV-positive individuals. We collected data on the history of ART initiation, CD4+ cell count monitoring, socio-demographic variables, perceived family support (measured with 10-item Nepali Family Support and Difficulty Scale), depression, and HIV symptom burden. Correlates of ART eligibility were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 72 of the 87 ART-naïve participants (82.8%) had monitored their CD4+ cell count in the past 6 months. Of these, 36 (50%) participants were eligible for ART initiation with CD4+ cell count <350 cells/mm3. A total of 12 participants had CD4+ cell count <200 cells/mm3. Lower level of perceived family support was associated with 6.05-fold higher odds (95% confidence interval =1.95 to 18.73) of being ART eligible with a CD4+ cell count <350 cells/mm3. Conclusions High rate of delays in ART initiation and the strong association of low perceived family support with ART eligibility in our study participants suggest that HIV service providers should consider the role and impact of family support in influencing individual decisions to initiate ART among eligible HIV-positive individuals. PMID:27369221

  15. Validating continuous digital light processing (cDLP) additive manufacturing accuracy and tissue engineering utility of a dye-initiator package.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jonathan; Wang, Martha O; Thompson, Paul; Busso, Mallory; Belle, Vaijayantee; Mammoser, Nicole; Kim, Kyobum; Fisher, John P; Siblani, Ali; Xu, Yueshuo; Welter, Jean F; Lennon, Donald P; Sun, Jiayang; Caplan, Arnold I; Dean, David

    2014-03-01

    This study tested the accuracy of tissue engineering scaffold rendering via the continuous digital light processing (cDLP) light-based additive manufacturing technology. High accuracy (i.e., <50 µm) allows the designed performance of features relevant to three scale spaces: cell-scaffold, scaffold-tissue, and tissue-organ interactions. The biodegradable polymer poly (propylene fumarate) was used to render highly accurate scaffolds through the use of a dye-initiator package, TiO2 and bis (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phenylphosphine oxide. This dye-initiator package facilitates high accuracy in the Z dimension. Linear, round, and right-angle features were measured to gauge accuracy. Most features showed accuracies between 5.4-15% of the design. However, one feature, an 800 µm diameter circular pore, exhibited a 35.7% average reduction of patency. Light scattered in the x, y directions by the dye may have reduced this feature's accuracy. Our new fine-grained understanding of accuracy could be used to make further improvements by including corrections in the scaffold design software. Successful cell attachment occurred with both canine and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Highly accurate cDLP scaffold rendering is critical to the design of scaffolds that both guide bone regeneration and that fully resorb. Scaffold resorption must occur for regenerated bone to be remodeled and, thereby, achieve optimal strength.

  16. Accuracy and Precision in the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Dataset in Light of the JOSIE-2000 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Thompson, Anne M.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Smit, H. G. J.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1998 the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has provided over 2000 ozone profiles over eleven southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are used to measure ozone. The data are archived at: &ttp://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz>. In analysis of ozonesonde imprecision within the SHADOZ dataset, Thompson et al. [JGR, 108,8238,20031 we pointed out that variations in ozonesonde technique (sensor solution strength, instrument manufacturer, data processing) could lead to station-to-station biases within the SHADOZ dataset. Imprecisions and accuracy in the SHADOZ dataset are examined in light of new data. First, SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are compared to version 8 TOMS (2004 release). As for TOMS version 7, satellite total ozone is usually higher than the integrated column amount from the sounding. Discrepancies between the sonde and satellite datasets decline two percentage points on average, compared to version 7 TOMS offsets. Second, the SHADOZ station data are compared to results of chamber simulations (JOSE-2000, Juelich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment) in which the various SHADOZ techniques were evaluated. The range of JOSE column deviations from a standard instrument (-10%) in the chamber resembles that of the SHADOZ station data. It appears that some systematic variations in the SHADOZ ozone record are accounted for by differences in solution strength, data processing and instrument type (manufacturer).

  17. Factors Driving the Adoption of Quality Improvement Initiatives in Local Health Departments: Results From the 2010 Profile Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Huabin; Sotnikov, Sergey; McLees, Anita; Stokes, Shereitte

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, quality improvement (QI) has become a major focus in advancing the goal of improving performance of local health departments (LHDs). However, limited empirical data exists on the current implementation of QI initiatives in LHDs and factors associated with adoption of QI initiatives. Objectives (1) To examine the current implementation of QI implementation initiatives by LHDs and (2) to identify factors contributing to LHDs’ decision to implement QI initiatives. Methods In this study, a novel theoretical framework based on analysis of QI in medicine was applied to analyze QI by LHDs. LHDs’ QI adoption was assessed by the number of formal QI projects reported by LHDs that responded to module 1 of the 2010 National Profile of Local Health Department Study (Profile Study) conducted by the National Association of County & City Health Officials. The Profile Study data were merged with data from the Health Resources and Services Administration’s Area Resource Files and the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials’ 2010 Survey. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using Stata 11 SVY procedure to account for the complex sampling design. Results The Profile Study data indicated that about 73% of the LHDs reported implementing 1 or more QI projects. LHDs with large jurisdiction population (>50 000), higher per capita public health expenditure, a designated QI staff member, or prior participation in performance improvement programs were more likely to have undertaken QI initiatives. Conclusion According to the Profile Study, more than a quarter of LHDs surveyed did not report implementing any formal QI projects. Greater investments in QI programs and designation of QI staff can be effective strategies to promote QI adoption. The validity of the definition of a formal QI project needs to be established. More research to identify the barriers to successful QI implementation at LHDs is also needed. PMID:24978615

  18. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers synthesized by surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization for the enrichment and determination of synthetic estrogens in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangfang; Zhang, Jingjing; Wang, Minjun; Kong, Jie

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers have attracted significant interest because of their multifunctionality of selective recognition of target molecules and rapid magnetic response. In this contribution, magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized via surface-initiated reversible addition addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization using diethylstilbestrol as the template for the enrichment of synthetic estrogens. The uniform imprinted surface layer and the magnetic property of the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers favored a fast binding kinetics and rapid analysis of target molecules. The static and selective binding experiments demonstrated a desirable adsorption capacity and good selectivity of the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers in comparison to magnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymers. Accordingly, a corresponding analytical method was developed in which magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were employed as magnetic solid-phase extraction materials for the concentration and determination of four synthetic estrogens (diethylstilbestrol, hexestrol, dienestrol, and bisphenol A) in fish pond water. The recoveries of these synthetic estrogens in spiked fish pond water samples ranged from 61.2 to 99.1% with a relative standard deviation of lower than 6.3%. This study provides a versatile approach to prepare well-defined magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers sorbents for the analysis of synthetic estrogens in water solution. PMID:25989155

  19. Vertical extended hemi crico-laryngectomy and reconstruction with a prefabricated tracheal free flap--initial results.

    PubMed

    Cox, G J; Goodacre, T E; Corbridge, R

    2000-01-01

    We describe our experiences of treating three patients with recurrent T3 squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, following initial treatment with radiotherapy; using the technique of partial crico-laryngectomy and autologous pre-fabricated tracheal flap reconstruction as described in 1998 by Delaere (1). We have found the technique to be technically challenging. The patients require extensive speech and swallowing rehabilitation following surgery, but the functional result offers significant advantages over the other surgical salvage procedures of total or near-total laryngectomy. We describe our early results of three patients that we have treated using this technique. PMID:10865483

  20. Experimental Studies of Brines and Evaporites as Applied to Mars: Initial Results from 1998-1999 Runs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. M.; Bullock, M. A.; Mellon, M. T.; Woosley, C. R.; Zent, A. P.

    1999-01-01

    We are performing laboratory experiments to determine the concentrations and rates of dissolution of ions that could occur in closed, juvenile groundwater systems on Mars. Our approach is to incubate unaltered Mars-analog minerals in initially pure liquid water in contact with a Mars gas mixture for one year. At exponentially increasing time intervals, aliquots of the solutions at three different temperatures are extracted and analyzed using standard terrestrial laboratory geochemical techniques. Ultimately, our experiments will produce Mars analog brines which will be freeze dried to create evaporites. The physical and chemical properties of these evaporites will be compared with spacecraft remote sensing and in situ compositional and physical data. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. What Lies beneath Seemingly Positive Campus Climate Results: Institutional Sexism, Racism, and Male Hostility toward Equity Initiatives and Liberal Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents qualitative results from a campus climate study at one predominately white university. Data analysis uncovered "what lies beneath" a seemingly positive campus climate. Gender differences in survey responses suggest that men and women experienced the climate in vastly different ways. Additionally, lack of deep diversity…

  2. Infraspinatus/Teres Minor Transfer Biceps In Situ Tenodesis Procedure: Initial Results of a Technique for Massive Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Matt D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Massive rotator cuff tears may not be primarily repairable with salvage options not necessarily providing acceptable results. Extrinsic tendon transfer is a significant undertaking with prolonged rehabilitation and variable outcome. A novel technique for the reconstruction of massive tears, not amenable to primary repair, by performing a transfer of the intrinsic posterior rotator cuff onto an intact, tenodesed long head of biceps tendon acting as a scaffold for the intrinsic transfer is described. The clinical results at short to medium term in 17 initial patients are presented. Encouraging results from this study suggest that this is a viable option for the management of massive rotator cuff tears with an intact posterior cuff with results equal or superior to other reconstructive techniques. PMID:24967113

  3. 49 CFR 1155.23 - Additional requirements when filing after an unsatisfactory result from a State, local, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... required in 49 CFR 1155.23(b). The petition shall be filed simultaneously with the land-use-exemption... Procedures Governing Applications for a Land-Use-Exemption Permit § 1155.23 Additional requirements when... siting of the facility, the applicant may petition the Board to accept an application for a...

  4. Effects of Additional Elements on the Evolution of Second Phases in 9-12% cr Steel and Resulting Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jiling; Yu, Hui; Yoo, Dae-Hwang; Huynh, Quocbao; Shin, Keesam; Kim, Minsoo; Kang, Sungtae

    Investigated in this study are precipitate evolution with and without addition of W, Co, and B in two kinds of 9-12% Cr steels (named as A and B) used for power plants after various aging time and temperature using OM, SEM, TEM, etc. Three kinds of precipitates (Cr-rich M23C6, Nb-rich and V-rich MX, W-rich and Mo-rich Laves phase) were observed and investigated in the two alloys. Upon aging, the area fraction of M23C6 increased whereas that of Laves phases decreased despite of increase in size. The area fraction of W-rich Laves phase was much higher than that of Mo-rich Laves phase, indicating that W addition, compared to that of Mo addition, is more powerful in the formation of Laves phase precipitation (specimen A). The martensitic microstructure of specimen B was more stable than that of specimen A due to the addition of cobalt and boron. The tensile test and impact test were measured and studied in relation to the long term aging effect.

  5. Implementation of a 3-D-Var system for atmospheric profiling data assimilation into the RAMS model: initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, S.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the current status of development of a three-dimensional variational data assimilation system. The system can be used with different numerical weather prediction models, but it is mainly designed to be coupled with the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS). Analyses are given for the following parameters: zonal and meridional wind components, temperature, relative humidity, and geopotential height. Important features of the data assimilation system are the use of incremental formulation of the cost-function, and the use of an analysis space represented by recursive filters and eigenmodes of the vertical background error matrix. This matrix and the length-scale of the recursive filters are estimated by the National Meteorological Center (NMC) method. The data assimilation and forecasting system is applied to the real context of atmospheric profiling data assimilation, and in particular to the short-term wind prediction. The analyses are produced at 20 km horizontal resolution over central Europe and extend over the whole troposphere. Assimilated data are vertical soundings of wind, temperature, and relative humidity from radiosondes, and wind measurements of the European wind profiler network. Results show the validity of the analysis solutions because they are closer to the observations (lower RMSE) compared to the background (higher RMSE), and the differences of the RMSEs are consistent with the data assimilation settings. To quantify the impact of improved initial conditions on the short-term forecast, the analyses are used as initial conditions of a three-hours forecast of the RAMS model. In particular two sets of forecasts are produced: (a) the first uses the ECMWF analysis/forecast cycle as initial and boundary conditions; (b) the second uses the analyses produced by the 3-D-Var scheme as initial conditions, then is driven by the ECMWF forecast. The improvement is quantified by considering the horizontal components of the wind, which

  6. Implementation of a 3D-Var system for atmospheric profiling data assimilation into the RAMS model: initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, S.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the current status of development of a three-dimensional variational data assimilation system (3D-Var). The system can be used with different numerical weather prediction models, but it is mainly designed to be coupled with the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS). Analyses are given for the following parameters: zonal and meridional wind components, temperature, relative humidity, and geopotential height. Important features of the data assimilation system are the use of incremental formulation of the cost function, and the representation of the background error by recursive filters and the eigenmodes of the vertical component of the background error covariance matrix. This matrix is estimated by the National Meteorological Center (NMC) method. The data assimilation and forecasting system is applied to the real context of atmospheric profiling data assimilation, and in particular to the short-term wind prediction. The analyses are produced at 20 km horizontal resolution over central Europe and extend over the whole troposphere. Assimilated data are vertical soundings of wind, temperature, and relative humidity from radiosondes, and wind measurements of the European wind profiler network. Results show the validity of the analyses because they are closer to the observations (lower root mean square error (RMSE)) compared to the background (higher RMSE), and the differences of the RMSEs are in agreement with the data assimilation settings. To quantify the impact of improved initial conditions on the short-term forecast, the analyses are used as initial conditions of three-hours forecasts of the RAMS model. In particular two sets of forecasts are produced: (a) the first uses the ECMWF analysis/forecast cycle as initial and boundary conditions; (b) the second uses the analyses produced by the 3D-Var as initial conditions, then it is driven by the ECMWF forecast. The improvement is quantified by considering the horizontal components of the wind

  7. Involving local health departments in community health partnerships: evaluation results from the partnership for the public's health initiative.

    PubMed

    Cheadle, Allen; Hsu, Clarissa; Schwartz, Pamela M; Pearson, David; Greenwald, Howard P; Beery, William L; Flores, George; Casey, Maria Campbell

    2008-03-01

    Improving community health "from the ground up" entails a comprehensive ecological approach, deep involvement of community-based entities, and addressing social determinants of population health status. Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Office of the Surgeon General, and other authorities have called for public health to be an "inter-sector" enterprise, few models have surfaced that feature local health departments as a key part of the collaborative model for effecting community-level change. This paper presents evaluation findings and lessons learned from the Partnership for the Public's Health (PPH), a comprehensive community initiative that featured a central role for local health departments with their community partners. Funded by The California Endowment, PPH provided technical and financial resources to 39 community partnerships in 14 local health department jurisdictions in California to promote community and health department capacity building and community-level policy and systems change designed to produce long-term improvements in population health. The evaluation used multiple data sources to create progress ratings for each partnership in five goal areas related to capacity building, community health improvement programs, and policy and systems change. Overall results were generally positive; in particular, of the 37 partnerships funded continuously throughout the 5 years of the initiative, between 25% and 40% were able to make a high level of progress in each of the Initiative's five goal areas. Factors associated with partnership success were also identified by local evaluators. These results showed that health departments able to work effectively with community groups had strong, committed leaders who used creative financing mechanisms, inclusive planning processes, organizational changes, and open communication to promote collaboration with the communities they served. PMID:18259870

  8. Involving local health departments in community health partnerships: evaluation results from the partnership for the public's health initiative.

    PubMed

    Cheadle, Allen; Hsu, Clarissa; Schwartz, Pamela M; Pearson, David; Greenwald, Howard P; Beery, William L; Flores, George; Casey, Maria Campbell

    2008-03-01

    Improving community health "from the ground up" entails a comprehensive ecological approach, deep involvement of community-based entities, and addressing social determinants of population health status. Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Office of the Surgeon General, and other authorities have called for public health to be an "inter-sector" enterprise, few models have surfaced that feature local health departments as a key part of the collaborative model for effecting community-level change. This paper presents evaluation findings and lessons learned from the Partnership for the Public's Health (PPH), a comprehensive community initiative that featured a central role for local health departments with their community partners. Funded by The California Endowment, PPH provided technical and financial resources to 39 community partnerships in 14 local health department jurisdictions in California to promote community and health department capacity building and community-level policy and systems change designed to produce long-term improvements in population health. The evaluation used multiple data sources to create progress ratings for each partnership in five goal areas related to capacity building, community health improvement programs, and policy and systems change. Overall results were generally positive; in particular, of the 37 partnerships funded continuously throughout the 5 years of the initiative, between 25% and 40% were able to make a high level of progress in each of the Initiative's five goal areas. Factors associated with partnership success were also identified by local evaluators. These results showed that health departments able to work effectively with community groups had strong, committed leaders who used creative financing mechanisms, inclusive planning processes, organizational changes, and open communication to promote collaboration with the communities they served.

  9. Paleomagnetic results from IODP Expedition 344 Site U1381 and implications for the initial subduction of the Cocos Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong-Xiang; Zhao, Xixi; Jovane, Luigi; Petronotis, Katerina; Gong, Zheng; Xie, Siyi

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the processes that govern the strength, nature, and distribution of slip along subduction zones is a fundamental and societally relevant goal of modern earth science. The Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) is specially designed to understand the processes that control nucleation and seismic rupture of large earthquakes at erosional subduction zones. Drilling directly on the Cocos Ridge (CR) during International Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 344 discovered a sedimentary hiatus in Site U1381 cores. In this study, we conducted a magnetostratigraphic and rock magnetic study on the Cenozoic sedimentary sequences of site U1381. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data from sediments above and below the hiatus show oblate fabrcis, but the Kmin axes of the AMS data from sediments below the hiatus are more dispersed than those from sediments above the hiatus, implying that formation of hiatus may have affected AMS. Paleomagnetic results of the U1381 core, together with available Ar-Ar dates of ash layers from sediments below the hiatus, allow us to establish a geomagnetic polarity timescale that brackets the hiatus between ca. 9.61 and 1.52 Ma. Analyses of sedimentary records from ODP/IODP cores in the vicinity reveal that the hiatus appears to be regional, spanning the northeastern end of the CR. Also, the hiatus appears to occur only at certain locations. Its regional occurrence at unique locations implies a link to the initial shallow subduction of the Cocos Ridge. The hiatus was probably produced by either bottom current erosion or the CR buckling upon its initial collision with the Middle American trench (MAT). Thus, the initial subduction of the CR must have taken place on or before 1.52 Ma.

  10. BMP Inhibition in Seminomas Initiates Acquisition of Pluripotency via NODAL Signaling Resulting in Reprogramming to an Embryonal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nettersheim, Daniel; Jostes, Sina; Sharma, Rakesh; Schneider, Simon; Hofmann, Andrea; Ferreira, Humberto J.; Hoffmann, Per; Kristiansen, Glen; Esteller, Manel B.; Schorle, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Type II germ cell cancers (GCC) can be subdivided into seminomas and non-seminomas. Seminomas are similar to carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells, the common precursor of type II GCCs, with regard to epigenetics and expression, while embryonal carcinomas (EC) are totipotent and differentiate into teratomas, yolk-sac tumors and choriocarcinomas. GCCs can present as seminomas with a non-seminoma component, raising the question if a CIS gives rise to seminomas and ECs at the same time or whether seminomas can be reprogrammed to ECs. In this study, we utilized the seminoma cell line TCam-2 that acquires an EC-like status after xenografting into the murine flank as a model for a seminoma to EC transition and screened for factors initiating and driving this process. Analysis of expression and DNA methylation dynamics during transition of TCam-2 revealed that many pluripotency- and reprogramming-associated genes were upregulated while seminoma-markers were downregulated. Changes in expression level of 53 genes inversely correlated to changes in DNA methylation. Interestingly, after xenotransplantation 6 genes (GDF3, NODAL, DNMT3B, DPPA3, GAL, AK3L1) were rapidly induced, followed by demethylation of their genomic loci, suggesting that these 6 genes are poised for expression driving the reprogramming. We demonstrate that inhibition of BMP signaling is the initial event in reprogramming, resulting in activation of the pluripotency-associated genes and NODAL signaling. We propose that reprogramming of seminomas to ECs is a multi-step process. Initially, the microenvironment causes inhibition of BMP signaling, leading to induction of NODAL signaling. During a maturation phase, a fast acting NODAL loop stimulates its own activity and temporarily inhibits BMP signaling. During the stabilization phase, a slow acting NODAL loop, involving WNTs re-establishes BMP signaling and the pluripotency circuitry. In parallel, DNMT3B-driven de novo methylation silences seminoma-associated genes

  11. Results of applying a non-evaporative mitigation technique to laser-initiated surface damage on fused-silica

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J J; Bolourchi, M; Bude, J D; Guss, G M; Matthews, M J; Nostrand, M C

    2010-10-26

    We present results from a study to determine an acceptable CO{sub 2} laser-based non-evaporative mitigation protocol for use on surface damage sites in fused-silica optics. A promising protocol is identified and evaluated on a set of surface damage sites created under ICF-type laser conditions. Mitigation protocol acceptability criteria for damage re-initiation and growth, downstream intensification, and residual stress are discussed. In previous work, we found that a power ramp at the end of the protocol effectively minimizes the residual stress (<25 MPa) left in the substrate. However, the biggest difficulty in determining an acceptable protocol was balancing between low re-initiation and problematic downstream intensification. Typical growing surface damage sites mitigated with a candidate CO{sub 2} laser-based mitigation protocol all survived 351 nm, 5 ns damage testing to fluences >12.5 J/cm{sup 2}. The downstream intensification arising from the mitigated sites is evaluated, and all but one of the sites has 100% passing downstream damage expectation values. We demonstrate, for the first time, a successful non-evaporative 10.6 {micro}m CO{sub 2} laser mitigation protocol applicable to fused-silica optics used on fusion-class lasers like the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  12. Additional results on palaeomagnetic stratigraphy of the Koobi Fora Formation, east of Lake Turkana (Lake Rudolf), Kenya

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.; Ndombi, J.W.M.; Cox, A.; Brock, A.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetostratigraphy of the hominid-bearing sediments exposed east of Lake Turkana has been strengthened by new palaeomagnetic results. Ages obtained from several tuffs by the 40Ar/39Ar method suggest an approxmate match between the observed magnetozones and the geomagnetic polarity time scale; however, the palaeomagnetic results are also compatible with a younger chronology suggested by conventional K-Ar dating of the KBS Tuff. ?? 1977 Nature Publishing Group.

  13. Results of the 3rd Workshop of the Interdisciplinary Biomass Burning Initiative IBBI of WMO, IGAC & iLEAPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Johannes; Keywood, Melita

    2014-05-01

    IGAC, iLEAPS and WMO founded the Interdisciplinary Biomass Burning Initiative (IBBI) in 2013. Its primary goal is to foster interdisciplinary research on biomass burning (BB), to improve atmospheric composition and air quality monitoring and forecasting through better scientific understanding of the various processes around BB. IBBI has organised a workshop that is being held on 23-26 April 2014 at Schloss Ringberg in Germany. It is the third and final in a series of workshops for the establishment of IBBI, the first in Geneva during July 2012, the second in Vienna during May 2013. The aims of the third workshop are to (1) Identify secondary goals for IBBI (2) Develop strategies to achieve the goals (3) Plan a COST action (4) Plan a special issue of Atmospheric Environment for publication on emerging issues in BB research (5) Identify members of the IBBI scientific steering committee. We report highlights and results from this workshop.

  14. Cold Helium Pressurization for Liquid Oxygen / Liquid Methane Propulsion Systems: Fully-Integrated Initial Hot-Fire Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morehead, R. L.; Atwell, M. J.; Melcher, J. C.; Hurlbert, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    A prototype cold helium active pressurization system was incorporated into an existing liquid oxygen (LOX) / liquid methane (LCH4) prototype planetary lander and hot-fire tested to collect vehicle-level performance data. Results from this hot-fire test series were used to validate integrated models of the vehicle helium and propulsion systems and demonstrate system effectiveness for a throttling lander. Pressurization systems vary greatly in complexity and efficiency between vehicles, so a pressurization performance metric was also developed as a means to compare different active pressurization schemes. This implementation of an active repress system is an initial sizing draft. Refined implementations will be tested in the future, improving the general knowledge base for a cryogenic lander-based cold helium system.

  15. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I–VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI. PMID:25473496

  16. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I-VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P 95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI.

  17. A re-examination of paleomagnetic results from NA Jurassic sedimentary rocks: Additional evidence for proposed Jurassic MUTO?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Kent and Irving, 2010; and Kent et al, 2015 propose a monster shift in the position of Jurassic (160 to 145 Ma) paleopoles for North America- defined by results from igneous rocks. This monster shift is likely an unrecognized true polar wander occurrence. Although subject to inclination error, results from sedimentary rocks from North America, if corrected for these effects, can be used to supplement the available data for this time period. Steiner (2003) reported results from 48 stratigraphic horizons sampled from the Callovian Summerville Fm, from NE New Mexico. A recalculated mean of these results yields a mean direction of D = 332, I = 39, n=48, k = 15, α95 = 5.4°. These data were analyzed for possible inclination error-although the dataset is small, the E-I results yielded a corrected I = 53. This yields a corrected paleopole for NA at ~165 Ma located at 67° N and 168° E.Paleomagnetic results from the Black Hills- Kilanowski (2002) for the Callovian Hulett Mbr of the Sundance Fm, and Gregiore (2001) the Oxfordian-Tithonian Morrison Fm (Gregiore, 2001) have previously been interpreted to represent Eocene-aged remagnetizations- due to the nearly exact coincidence between the in-situ pole positions of these Jurassic units with the Eocene pole for NA. Both of the tilt-corrected results for these units have high latitude poles (Sundance Fm: 79° N, 146° E; Morrison Fm: 89° N, 165° E). An E-I analysis of these data will be presented- using a provisional inclination error of 10°, corrected paleopoles are: (Sundance Fm: 76° N, 220° E; Morrison Fm: 77° N, 266° E). The Black Hills 165 Ma (Sundance Fm) and 145 Ma (Morrison Fm) poles, provisionally corrected for 10° inclination error- occur fairly close to the NA APWP proposed by Kent et al, 2015- using an updated set of results from kimberlites- the agreement between the Sundance Fm and the Triple-B (158 Ma) pole would be nearly exact with a slightly lesser inclination error. The Summerville Fm- which is

  18. Mean PB To Failure - Initial results from a long-term study of disk storage patterns at the RACF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caramarcu, C.; Hollowell, C.; Rao, T.; Strecker-Kellogg, W.; Wong, A.; Zaytsev, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    The RACF (RHIC-ATLAS Computing Facility) has operated a large, multi-purpose dedicated computing facility since the mid-1990’s, serving a worldwide, geographically diverse scientific community that is a major contributor to various HEPN projects. A central component of the RACF is the Linux-based worker node cluster that is used for both computing and data storage purposes. It currently has nearly 50,000 computing cores and over 23 PB of storage capacity distributed over 12,000+ (non-SSD) disk drives. The majority of the 12,000+ disk drives provide a cost-effective solution for dCache/XRootD-managed storage, and a key concern is the reliability of this solution over the lifetime of the hardware, particularly as the number of disk drives and the storage capacity of individual drives grow. We report initial results of a long-term study to measure lifetime PB read/written to disk drives in the worker node cluster. We discuss the historical disk drive mortality rate, disk drive manufacturers' published MPTF (Mean PB to Failure) data and how they are correlated to our results. The results help the RACF understand the productivity and reliability of its storage solutions and have implications for other highly-available storage systems (NFS, GPFS, CVMFS, etc) with large I/O requirements.

  19. Full Life-Cycle Defect Management Assessment: Initial Inspection Data Collection Results and Research Questions for Further Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Forrest; Feldmann, Raimund; Haingaertner, Ralf; Regardie, Myrna; Seaman, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    It is often the case in software projects that when schedule and budget resources are limited, the Verification and Validation (V&V) activities suffer. Fewer V&V activities can be afforded and moreover, short-term challenges can result in V&V activities being scaled back or dropped altogether. As a result, too often the default solution is to save activities for improving software quality until too late in the life-cycle, relying on late-term code inspections followed by thorough testing activities to reduce defect counts to acceptable levels. As many project managers realize, however, this is a resource-intensive way of achieving the required quality for software. The Full Life-cycle Defect Management Assessment Initiative, funded by NASA s Office of Safety and Mission Assurance under the Software Assurance Research Program, aims to address these problems by: Improving the effectiveness of early life-cycle V&V activities to make their benefits more attractive to team leads. Specifically, we focus on software inspection, a proven method that can be applied to any software work product, long before executable code has been developed; Better communicating this effectiveness to software development teams, along with suggestions for parameters to improve in the future to increase effectiveness; Analyzing the impact of early life-cycle V&V on the effectiveness and cost required for late life-cycle V&V activities, such as testing, in order to make the tradeoffs more apparent. This white paper reports on an initial milestone in this work, the development of a preliminary model of inspection effectiveness across multiple NASA Centers. This model contributes toward reaching our project goals by: Allowing an examination of inspection parameters, across different types of projects and different work products, for an analysis of factors that impact defect detection effectiveness. Allowing a comparison of this NASA-specific model to existing recommendations in the literature

  20. A novel, integrated PET-guided MRS technique resulting in more accurate initial diagnosis of high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ellen S; Satter, Martin; Reed, Marilyn; Fadell, Ronald; Kardan, Arash

    2016-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal malignant glioma in adults. Currently, the modality of choice for diagnosing brain tumor is high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast, which provides anatomic detail and localization. Studies have demonstrated, however, that MRI may have limited utility in delineating the full tumor extent precisely. Studies suggest that MR spectroscopy (MRS) can also be used to distinguish high-grade from low-grade gliomas. However, due to operator dependent variables and the heterogeneous nature of gliomas, the potential for error in diagnostic accuracy with MRS is a concern. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (11)C-methionine (MET) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been shown to add additional information with respect to tumor grade, extent, and prognosis based on the premise of biochemical changes preceding anatomic changes. Combined PET/MRS is a technique that integrates information from PET in guiding the location for the most accurate metabolic characterization of a lesion via MRS. We describe a case of glioblastoma multiforme in which MRS was initially non-diagnostic for malignancy, but when MRS was repeated with PET guidance, demonstrated elevated choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA) ratio in the right parietal mass consistent with a high-grade malignancy. Stereotactic biopsy, followed by PET image-guided resection, confirmed the diagnosis of grade IV GBM. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an integrated PET/MRS technique for the voxel placement of MRS. Our findings suggest that integrated PET/MRS may potentially improve diagnostic accuracy in high-grade gliomas.

  1. Additive reductions in zebrafish PRPS1 activity result in a spectrum of deficiencies modeling several human PRPS1-associated diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Wuhong; Xu, Lisha; Varshney, Gaurav K.; Carrington, Blake; Bishop, Kevin; Jones, MaryPat; Huang, Sunny C.; Idol, Jennifer; Pretorius, Pamela R.; Beirl, Alisha; Schimmenti, Lisa A.; Kindt, Katie S.; Sood, Raman; Burgess, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase-1 (PRPS1) is a key enzyme in nucleotide biosynthesis, and mutations in PRPS1 are found in several human diseases including nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-5, and Arts Syndrome. We utilized zebrafish as a model to confirm that mutations in PRPS1 result in phenotypic deficiencies in zebrafish similar to those in the associated human diseases. We found two paralogs in zebrafish, prps1a and prps1b and characterized each paralogous mutant individually as well as the double mutant fish. Zebrafish prps1a mutants and prps1a;prps1b double mutants showed similar morphological phenotypes with increasingly severe phenotypes as the number of mutant alleles increased. Phenotypes included smaller eyes and reduced hair cell numbers, consistent with the optic atrophy and hearing impairment observed in human patients. The double mutant also showed abnormal development of primary motor neurons, hair cell innervation, and reduced leukocytes, consistent with the neuropathy and recurrent infection of the human patients possessing the most severe reductions of PRPS1 activity. Further analyses indicated the phenotypes were associated with a prolonged cell cycle likely resulting from reduced nucleotide synthesis and energy production in the mutant embryos. We further demonstrated the phenotypes were caused by delays in the tissues most highly expressing the prps1 genes. PMID:27425195

  2. Prospective Evaluation of Dual-Energy Imaging in Patients Undergoing Image Guided Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer: Initial Clinical Results

    SciTech Connect

    Sherertz, Tracy; Hoggarth, Mark; Luce, Jason; Block, Alec M.; Nagda, Suneel; Harkenrider, Matthew M.; Emami, Bahman; Roeske, John C.

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: A prospective feasibility study was conducted to investigate the utility of dual-energy (DE) imaging compared to conventional x-ray imaging for patients undergoing kV-based image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for lung cancer. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved feasibility study enrolled patients with lung cancer undergoing IGRT and was initiated in September 2011. During daily setup, 2 sequential respiration-gated x-ray images were obtained using an on-board imager. Imaging was composed of 1 standard x-ray image at 120 kVp (1 mAs) and a second image obtained at 60 kVp (4 mAs). Weighted logarithmic subtraction of the 2 images was performed offline to create a soft tissue-selective DE image. Conventional and DE images were evaluated by measuring relative contrast and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and also by comparing spatial localization, using both approaches. Imaging dose was assessed using a calibrated ion chamber. Results: To date, 10 patients with stage IA to IIIA lung cancer were enrolled and 57 DE images were analyzed. DE subtraction resulted in complete suppression of overlying bone in all 57 DE images, with an average improvement in relative contrast of 4.7 ± 3.3 over that of 120 kVp x-ray images (P<.0002). The improvement in relative contrast with DE imaging was seen for both smaller (gross tumor volume [GTV] ≤5 cc) and larger tumors (GTV >5 cc), with average relative contrast improvement ratios of 3.4 ± 4.1 and 5.4 ± 3.6, respectively. Moreover, the GTV was reliably localized in 95% of the DE images versus 74% of the single energy (SE images, (P=.004). Mean skin dose per DE image set was 0.44 ± 0.03 mGy versus 0.43 ± 0.03 mGy, using conventional kV imaging parameters. Conclusions: Initial results of this feasibility study suggest that DE thoracic imaging may enhance tumor localization in lung cancer patients receiving kV-based IGRT without increasing imaging dose.

  3. Lattice strain measurements of deuteride (hydride) formation in epitaxial Nb: Additional results and further insights into past measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Allain, Monica M.C.; Heuser, Brent J.

    2005-08-01

    The evolution of lattice strain during in situ gas-phase deuterium loading of epitaxial (110) Nb films on the (1120) sapphire was measured with x-ray diffraction. Two samples with film thicknesses 208 and 1102 A were driven through the miscibility gap. Strains in three orthogonal directions were recorded, permitting the complete set of unit cell parameters to be determined for both the solid solution and deuteride phases. The overall film thickness was simultaneously measured by recording the glancing angle reflectivity response. The behavior of the two films was markedly different, with the thicker film exhibiting a much more compliant behavior and concomitant irreversible plastic deformation. The correlation between out-of-plane lattice and film expansion for both films is also consistent with this observation. These results help explain past inconsistencies observed by others.

  4. Living in space: results from Biosphere 2's initial closure, an early testbed for closed ecological systems on Mars.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M; Dempster, W F

    1995-01-01

    The following summary of results from the first 2-year closure experiment (September 26, 1991 to September 26, 1993) in Biosphere 2 is excerpted from a chapter written by William Dempster and myself for a book, Strategies for Mars, edited by Carol Stoker and Carter Emmart of NASA Ames Research Center. The book will be published later this year by Krieger Publishers. It brings together a number of the most striking initial results, including food production and nutrition; ecosystem changes; oxygen and carbon dioxide dynamics; and the human role and response to living in a small, recycling life support system. The references cited are useful as a guide to currently available articles in journals. Hopefully, the next year will see a proliferation of papers presenting more data from the first 2 years of Biosphere 2's operation. There was a wealth of data collected during the closure and by teams of researchers who had access to the facility during the 5-month transition period following the departure of the first crew and the commencement of the second closure experiment in March, 1994.

  5. Investigating the Present Day Cosmic Dust Flux at the Earth's Surface: Initial Results from the Kwajalein Micrometeorite Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Price, M. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ishii, H. A.; Brownlee, D. E.; Russell, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of impact craters on the Long Duration Exposure Facility satellite indicate a present day micrometeoroid flux of approx. 30,000 tonnes [1 after 2]. But what portion of this material arrives at the Earth's surface as micrometeorites? Studies of available micrometeorite collections from deep sea sediments [e.g. 3], Greenland blue ice [e.g. 4] and the South Pole water well [e.g. 1] may be complicated by terrestrial weathering and, in some cases, collection bias (magnetic separation for deep sea sediments) and poorly constrained ages. We have recently set up a micrometeorite collection station on Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean, using high volume air samplers to collect particles directly from the atmosphere. By collecting in this way, the terrestrial age of the particles is known, the weathering they experience is minimal, and we are able to constrain particle arrival times. Collecting at this location also exploits the considerably reduced anthropogenic background [5]. Method: High volume air samplers were installed on top of the two-story airport building on Kwajalein. These were fitted with polycarbonate membrane filters with 5µm diameter perforations. The flow rates were set to 0.5m3/min, and filters were changed once a week. After collection, filters were washed to remove salt and concentrate particles [see 5] in preparation for analysis by SEM. Results and Discussion: A selection of filters have been prepared and surveyed. Due to their ease of identification our initial investigations have focused on particles resembling cosmic spherules. The spheres can be divided into three main groups: 1. Silicate spherules rich in Al, Ca, K and Na (to varying degrees), 2. Silicate spherules rich in Mg and Fe and 3. Fe-rich spherules. Group 1 spherules are often vesiculated and can occur as aggregates. They are similar in appearance and composition to volcanic microspheres [e.g. 6] and are thus likely terrestrial in

  6. INDEX - A New United States and Republic of Indonesia Partnership For Exploration of Indonesia's Seas: 2010 Initial Results Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, S. R.; Wirasantosa, S.; Baker, E. T.; Brainard, R. E.; Butterfield, D.; Djamaluddin, R.; Fryer, P.; Holden, J.; McDonough, J.; Potter, J.; Russell, C. W.; Shank, T. M.; Tunnicliffe, V.

    2010-12-01

    INDEX - A New United States and Republic of Indonesia Partnership For Exploration of Indonesia’s Seas: 2010 Initial Results Overview S. Hammond, S. Wirasantosa, E. Baker, R. Brainard, D. Butterfield, R. Djamaluddin, P. Fryer, J. Holden, J. McDonough, J. Potter, C. Russell, T. Shank, V. Tunnicliffe Through a Memorandum of Understanding between the Republic of Indonesia’s (RI) Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,the NOAA Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research has begun a formal 5-year partnership with the RI’s Agency for Marine and Fisheries Research for the purpose of exploring Indonesia’s seas. This summer, a US and Indonesian science and technical team, using the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer and the RI Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology's ship Baruna Jaya IV, conducted the first year’s cruises to areas in the Sulawesi and Maluku seas. These were the maiden international expeditions for the Okeanos Explorer (EX) and the first international implementation of the ship’s broad-band, high-definition video “telepresence” system which enabled members of an onshore science and technical team to participate in real-time from Exploration Command Centers in the US and in Jakarta. The EX operated in two areas, one along the western flanks of the Sangihe Arc and the other north of the Talaud Islands. The principal objectives of the cruises were to, (1) produce high-resolution bathymetric maps of both areas using the EX’s EM302 sonar, (2) conduct CTD/rosette surveys of the water column in areas that appeared to have the potential for volcanic and/or hydrothermal activity, and (3) use a two-body ROV system to acquire high-definition video of selected seafloor features and benthic fauna. Among the most interesting features acoustically and visually mapped along the western flank of the Sangihe Arc were several discrete volcanic cones with varying surficial morphologies and

  7. Plant functional type classification for earth system models: results from the European Space Agency's Land Cover Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulter, B.; MacBean, N.; Hartley, A.; Khlystova, I.; Arino, O.; Betts, R.; Bontemps, S.; Boettcher, M.; Brockmann, C.; Defourny, P.; Hagemann, S.; Herold, M.; Kirches, G.; Lamarche, C.; Lederer, D.; Ottlé, C.; Peters, M.; Peylin, P.

    2015-07-01

    Global land cover is a key variable in the earth system with feedbacks on climate, biodiversity and natural resources. However, global land cover data sets presently fall short of user needs in providing detailed spatial and thematic information that is consistently mapped over time and easily transferable to the requirements of earth system models. In 2009, the European Space Agency launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI), with land cover (LC_CCI) as 1 of 13 essential climate variables targeted for research development. The LC_CCI was implemented in three phases: first responding to a survey of user needs; developing a global, moderate-resolution land cover data set for three time periods, or epochs (2000, 2005, and 2010); and the last phase resulting in a user tool for converting land cover to plant functional type equivalents. Here we present the results of the LC_CCI project with a focus on the mapping approach used to convert the United Nations Land Cover Classification System to plant functional types (PFTs). The translation was performed as part of consultative process among map producers and users, and resulted in an open-source conversion tool. A comparison with existing PFT maps used by three earth system modeling teams shows significant differences between the LC_CCI PFT data set and those currently used in earth system models with likely consequences for modeling terrestrial biogeochemistry and land-atmosphere interactions. The main difference between the new LC_CCI product and PFT data sets used currently by three different dynamic global vegetation modeling teams is a reduction in high-latitude grassland cover, a reduction in tropical tree cover and an expansion in temperate forest cover in Europe. The LC_CCI tool is flexible for users to modify land cover to PFT conversions and will evolve as phase 2 of the European Space Agency CCI program continues.

  8. Initial and Long-Term Results of Endovascular Therapy for Chronic Total Occlusion of the Subclavian Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Babic, Srdjan; Sagic, Dragan; Radak, Djordje; Antonic, Zelimir; Otasevic, Petar; Kovacevic, Vladimir; Tanaskovic, Slobodan; Ruzicic, Dusan; Aleksic, Nikola; Vucurevic, Goran

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: To study the initial and long-term results of angioplasty and primary stenting for the treatment of chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the subclavian artery (SA). Materials and Methods: From January 1999 to February 2010, 56 patients (25 men with a mean age of 58 {+-} 8 years) underwent endovascular treatment for CTO of the SA. Duplex scans and arteriograms confirmed occlusion in all cases. Indications for recanalization were subclavian steal syndrome in 33 patients (58.1%), arm claudication in 13 patients (23.2%), and coronary ischemia in 7 patients (12.5%) who had a history of previous coronary artery bypass grafting that included left internal thoracic artery graft. Three patients (5.4%) were treated before the scheduled coronary artery bypass surgery, which included left internal thoracic artery graft. After successful recanalization, all arteries were stented, and all of the patients were followed-up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery and annually thereafter. Results: Successful recanalization of the SA was achieved in 46 patients (82.1%), and the complication rate was 7.1%. During follow-up (mean 40 {+-} 26 months; range 2 to 125), the primary patency rates after 1 and 3 years were 97.9% and 82.7%, respectively. At the end of follow-up, 76% of the arteries showed no evidence of restenosis. Univariate analysis failed to identify any variable predictive of long-term patency of successfully recanalized SA. Conclusion: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting of the complete total occlusion of the SA is a safe and effective procedure associated with low risks and good long-term results.

  9. Atmospheric dynamics and bioregenerative technologies in a soil-based ecological life support system: initial results from Biosphere 2.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M; Dempster, W; Alvarez-Romo, N; MacCallum, T

    1994-11-01

    Biosphere 2 is the first man-made, soil-based, bioregenerative life support system to be developed and tested. The utilization and amendment of local space resources, e.g. martian soil or lunar regolith, for agricultural and other purposes will be necessary if we are to minimize the requirement for Earth materials in the creation of long-term off-planet bases and habitations. Several of the roles soil plays in Biosphere 2 are 1) for air purification 2) as a key component in created wetland systems to recycle human and animal wastes and 3) as nutrient base for a sustainable agricultural cropping program. Initial results from the Biosphere 2 closure experiment are presented. These include the accelerated cycling rates due to small reservoir sizes, strong diurnal and seasonal fluxes in atmospheric CO2, an unexpected and continuing decline in atmospheric oxygen, overall maintenance of low levels of trace gases, recycling of waste waters through biological regeneration systems, and operation of an agriculture designed to provide diverse and nutritionally adequate diets for the crew members.

  10. Initial clinical results of laser prostatectomy procedure for symptomatic BPH using a new 50-watt diode laser (wavelength 1000 nm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, Krishna M.

    1995-05-01

    Lasers have been used for symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in both contact and non-contact modes with reported success rates equivalent to that of Transurethral Resection of Prostate (TURP). A new high power diode laser (Phototome), capable of delivering up to 50 watts of 1000 nm wavelength laser power via a 1 mm quartz fiber, was used to treat 15 patients with symptomatic BPH. Five patients had acute retention, 3 had long term catheter (7 - 48 months), and 8 had severe prostatism. Spinal anesthesia was used in 11 patients, and 4 patients had local anesthesia and intravenous sedation. Four quadrant coagulation with an angle firing probe delivering 50 watts of laser power for 60 seconds in one quadrant was used as the core of the treatment in 11 patients, contact vaporization of BPH tissue was performed in one patient using a 4.5 mm ball tip was used in one patient and three patients with bladder neck stenosis had bladder neck incision performed using a 1 mm quartz fiber delivering 30 watts of laser power. A foley catheter was left indwelling and removed after 5 - 7 days. All patients except one were catheter free after a mean of 8 days. One patient continued to have severe prostatism and had a TURP performed with good results after 3 months of his laser prostatectomy procedure. AUA symptom scores available in 11 patients was found to be 4 after 1 - 3 months of the initial procedure.

  11. Atmospheric dynamics and bioregenerative technologies in a soil-based ecological life support system: Initial results from biosphere 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W.; Alvarez-Romo, N.; MacCallum, T.

    1994-11-01

    Biosphere 2 is the first man-made, soil-based, bioregenerative life support system to be developed and tested. The utilization and amendment of local space resources, e.g. martian soil or lunar regolith, for agricultural and other purposes will be necesary if we are to minimize the requirement for Earth materials in the creation of long-term off-planet bases and habitations. Several of the roles soil plays in Biosphere 2 are 1) for air purification 2) as a key component in created wetland systems to recycle human and animal wastes and 3) as nutrient base for a sustainable agricultural cropping program. Initial results from the Biosphere 2 closure experiment are presented. These include the accelerated cycling rates due to small reservoir sizes, strong diurnal and seasonal fluxes in atmospheric CO2, an unexpected and continuing decline in atmospheric oxygen, overall maintenance of low levels of trace gases, recycling of waste waters through biological regeneration systems, and operation of an agriculture designed to provide diverse and nutritionally adequate diets for the crew members.

  12. Determining the Timing and Magnitude of Quaternary Ice Elevation Changes in the Southern Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, A.; Sugden, D.; Marrero, S.; Woodward, J.; Dunning, S.

    2013-12-01

    Well-dated geologic data that reflects past changes in the thickness of the Antarctic Ice Sheet are needed to reconstruct ice sheet dynamics and provide constraints for numerical ice sheet models used to predict future change. Cosmogenic nuclides that accumulate within rock minerals at the Earth's surface can be used to directly date rock surfaces which have been deposited or eroded by glaciers, enabling the tracking of ice sheet change through time. Successful application of the technique requires a detailed understanding of the local geomorphology. Here we present new geomorphological mapping of glacial landforms and associated deposits in the Patriot, Independence and Marble Hills of the southern Ellsworth Mountains resulting from a recent field campaign earlier this year. Surface exposure dating with cosmogenic 36Cl and 10Be on local carbonates and exotic lithologies provides an initial chronology that ranges from 0 to more than 400 ka. The details of this new mapping and cosmogenic nuclide dating and their implications for the glacial history of the southern Ellsworth Mountains will be the focus of discussion.

  13. Rotor Wake Vortex Definition: Initial Evaluation of 3-C PIV Results of the Hart-II Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; vanderWall, Berend; Richard, Hughes; Raffel, Markus; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Lim, Joon W.; Yu, Yung H.; Tung, Chee

    2002-01-01

    An initial evaluation is made of extensive three-component (3C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements within the wake across a rotor disk plane. The model is a 40 percent scale BO-105 helicopter main rotor in forward flight simulation. This study is part of the HART II test program conducted in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). Included are wake vortex field measurements over the advancing and retreating sides of the rotor operating at a typical descent landing condition important for impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. Also included are advancing side results for rotor angle variations from climb to steep descent. Using detailed PIV vector maps of the vortex fields, methods of extracting key vortex parameters are examined and a new method was developed and evaluated. An objective processing method, involving a center-of-vorticity criterion and a vorticity 'disk' integration, was used to determine vortex core size, strength, core velocity distribution characteristics, and unsteadiness. These parameters are mapped over the rotor disk and offer unique physical insight for these parameters of importance for rotor noise and vibration prediction.

  14. Initial Results of Reynolds Number Testing at LaRC's NTF Using the 2.2% Reference H Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R., Jr. (Editor); Wahls, Richard A. (Editor); Hamner, Marvine

    1999-01-01

    To develop full scale flight performance predictions an understanding of Reynolds number effects on HSCT-class configurations is essential. A wind tunnel database utilizing a 2.2% scale Reference H model in NASA Langley Research Centers National Transonic Facility is being developed to assess these Reynolds number effects. In developing this database temperature and aeroelastic corrections to the wind tunnel data have been identified and are being analyzed. Once final corrections have been developed and applied, then pure Reynolds number effects can be determined. In addition, final corrections will yield the data required for CFD validation at q = 0. Presented in this report are the results of seven tests involving the wing/body configuration. This includes summaries of data acquired in these tests, uncorrected Reynolds number effects, and temperature and aeroelastic corrections. The data presented herein illustrates the successes achieved to date as well as the challenges that will be faced in obtaining full scale flight performance predictions.

  15. Crustal Structure Across the Okavango Rift Zone, Botswana: Initial Results From the PRIDE-SEISORZ Active-Source Seismic Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales, J. P.; Moffat, L.; Lizarralde, D.; Laletsang, K.; Harder, S. H.; Kaip, G.; Modisi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The PRIDE project aims to understand the processes of continental rift initiation and evolution by analyzing along-axis trends in the southern portion of the East Africa Rift System, from Botswana through Zambia and Malawi. The SEISORZ active-source seismic component of PRIDE focused on the Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) in northwestern Botswana, with the main goal of imaging the crustal structure across the ORZ. This will allow us to estimate total crustal extension, determine the pattern and amount of thinning, assess the possible presence of melt within the rift zone, and assess the contrasts in crustal blocks across the rift, which closely follows the trend of a fold belt. In November 2014 we conducted a crustal-scale, 450-km-long seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile consisting of 19 sources (shots in 30-m-deep boreholes) spaced ~25 km apart from each other, and 900 receivers (IRIS/PASSCAL "Texan" dataloggers and 4.5Hz geophones) with ~500 m spacing. From NW to SE, the profile crosses several tectonic domains: the Congo craton, the Damara metamorphic belt and the Ghanzi-Chobe fold belt where the axis of the ORZ is located, and continues into the Kalahari craton. The record sections display clear crustal refraction (Pg) and wide-angle Moho reflection (PmP) phases for all 17 of the good-quality shots, and a mantle refraction arrival (Pn), with the Pg-PmP-Pn triplication appearing at 175 km offset. There are distinct changes in the traveltime and amplitude of these phases along the transect, and on either side of the axis, that seem to correlate with sharp transitions across tectonic terrains. Initial modeling suggests: (1) the presence of a sedimentary half-graben structure at the rift axis beneath the Okavango delta, bounded to the SE by the Kunyere-Thamalakane fault system; (2) faster crustal Vp in the domains to the NW of the ORZ; and (3) thicker crust (45-50 km) at both ends of the profile within the Congo and Kalahari craton domains than at the ORZ and

  16. Seafloor Geodetic Monitoring of the North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara: System Installation and its Initial Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kido, M.

    2015-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) get across the mainland of Turkey is known as a quite active strike slip fault. The earthquake recurrence period for individual segment is estimated roughly 300 years based on historical records. The Marmara Segment is the major seismic gap since the last earthquake in 1766, while the Murefte earthquake occurred in 1912 at its west side and the Izmit earthquake in 1999 at its east side. The relative motion across the NAF is ~22 mm/yr based on the data from space geodesy. Investigating how much degree of this displacement is released by aseismic creep or accumulated by slip deficit in the Marmara Segment is crucial to know the total seismic risk in this region. Because the NAF is submerged in the Sea of Marmara and is inaccessible by space geodesy, we employed seafloor geodetic technique using extensometers, which acoustically monitor baseline length across a strain-localized zone, such as surface trace of a fault. In 2014, we installed five extensometers at the Western High crossing the NAF one after the other, where the surface trace of the NAF is prominent and gas emission from the seafloor is reported in. Totally four beselines of ~1 km range are successfully formed and quality of initial test data was promising. Based on the initial data, detectable level of the baseline change is estimated to be ~2mm, which owing to quite stable seawater near the bottom due to strong density stratification in the Sea of Marmara. The extensometers are designed that data can be recovered via acoustic modem without disrupt the monitoring. Since the installation, we have visited the site twice and have recovered the data for ten months in total. Temperature measured by thermistor equipped on each extensometer showed coherent change and gradual increase by 0.007 degree during the period. This reflects apparent beseline shortening due to the corresponding increase of the sound speed. In the preliminary temperature correction, difference of the change

  17. Diabetes, metformin and incidence of and death from invasive cancer in postmenopausal women: Results from the women's health initiative.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihong; Aragaki, Aaron K; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Manson, JoAnn E; Rohan, Thomas E; Chen, Chu; Vitolins, Mara Z; Tinker, Lesley F; LeBlanc, Erin S; Kuller, Lewis H; Hou, Lifang; LaMonte, Michael J; Luo, Juhua; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2016-04-15

    Findings from studies of metformin use with risk of cancer incidence and outcome provide mixed results; with few studies examined associations by recency of diabetes diagnosis or duration of medication use. Thus, in the Women's Health Initiative, we examined these associations and further explored whether associations differ by recency of diabetes and duration of metformin use. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals. Diabetes was associated with higher risk of total invasive cancer (HR, 1.13; p < 0.001) and of several site-specific cancers (HR, 1.2-1.4, and up to over twofold). Diabetes was also associated with higher risk of death from cancer (HR, 1.46; p < 0.001). There was no overall difference in cancer incidence by diabetes therapy (p = 0.66). However, there was a lower risk of death from cancer for metformin users, compared to users of other medications, relative to women without diabetes, overall (HRs, 1.08 vs. 1.45; p = 0.007) and for breast cancer (HRs, 0.50 vs. 1.29; p = 0.05). Results also suggested that lower cancer risk associated with metformin may be evident only for a longer duration of use in certain cancer sites or subgroup populations. We provide further evidence that postmenopausal women with diabetes are at higher risk of invasive cancer and cancer death. Metformin users, particularly long-term users, may be at lower risk of developing certain cancers and dying from cancer, compared to users of other anti-diabetes medications. Future studies are needed to determine the long-term effect of metformin in cancer risk and survival from cancer. PMID:26616262

  18. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways and Prevalent Hypertension Among Postmenopausal Women: Results From the Women's Health Initiative San Diego Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kirwa, Kipruto; Eliot, Melissa N.; Wang, Yi; Adams, Marc A.; Morgan, Cindy G.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Norman, Gregory J.; Eaton, Charles B.; Allison, Matthew A.; Wellenius, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Living near major roadways has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular events and worse prognosis. Residential proximity to major roadways may also be associated with increased risk of hypertension, but few studies have evaluated this hypothesis. Methods and Results We examined the cross‐sectional association between residential proximity to major roadways and prevalent hypertension among 5401 postmenopausal women enrolled into the San Diego cohort of the Women's Health Initiative. We used modified Poisson regression with robust error variance to estimate the association between prevalence of hypertension and residential distance to nearest major roadway, adjusting for participant demographics, medical history, indicators of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status, and for local supermarket/grocery and fast food/convenience store density. The adjusted prevalence ratios for hypertension were 1.22 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.39), 1.13 (1.00, 1.27), and 1.05 (0.99, 1.12) for women living ≤100, >100 to 200, and >200 to 1000 versus >1000 m from a major roadway (P for trend=0.006). In a model treating the natural log of distance to major roadway as a continuous variable, a shift in distance from 1000 to 100 m from a major roadway was associated with a 9% (3%, 16%) higher prevalence of hypertension. Conclusions In this cohort of postmenopausal women, residential proximity to major roadways was positively associated with the prevalence of hypertension. If causal, these results suggest that living close to major roadways may be an important novel risk factor for hypertension. PMID:25274494

  19. Initial Results from the Miniature Imager for Neutral Ionospheric Atoms and Magnetospheric Electrons (MINI-ME) on the FASTSAT Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Rowland, Douglas; Keller, John W.; Chornay, Dennis; Khazanov, George; Herrero, Federico; Moore, Thomas E.; Kujawski, Joseph; Casas, Joseph C.; Wilson, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    The MINI-ME instrument is a collaborative effort between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the U.S. Naval Academy, funded solely through GSFC Internal Research and Development (IRAD) awards. It detects neutral atoms from about 10 eV to about 700 eV (in 30 energy steps) in its current operating configuration with an approximately 10 degree by 360 degree field-of-view, divided into six sectors. The instrument was delivered on August 3, 2009 to Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for integration with the FASTSAT-HSV01 small spacecraft bus developed by MSFC and a commercial partner, one of six Space Experiment Review Board (SERB) experiments on FASTSAT and one of three GSFC instruments (PISA and TTI being the other two). The FASTSAT spacecraft was launched on November 21, 2010 from Kodiak, Alaska on a Minotaur IV as a secondary payload and inserted into a 650 km, 72 degree inclination orbit, very nearly circular. MINI-ME has been collecting science data, as spacecraft resources would permit, in "optimal science mode" since January 20, 2011. In this presentation, we report initial science results including the potential first observations of neutral molecular ionospheric outflow. At the time of this abstract, we have identified 15 possible molecular outflow events. All these events occur between about 65 and 82 degrees geomagnetic latitude and most map to the auroral oval. The MINI-ME results provide an excellent framework for interpretation of the MILENA data, two instruments almost identical to MINI-ME that will launch on the VISIONS suborbital mission

  20. Diabetes, metformin and incidence of and death from invasive cancer in postmenopausal women: Results from the women's health initiative.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihong; Aragaki, Aaron K; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Manson, JoAnn E; Rohan, Thomas E; Chen, Chu; Vitolins, Mara Z; Tinker, Lesley F; LeBlanc, Erin S; Kuller, Lewis H; Hou, Lifang; LaMonte, Michael J; Luo, Juhua; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2016-04-15

    Findings from studies of metformin use with risk of cancer incidence and outcome provide mixed results; with few studies examined associations by recency of diabetes diagnosis or duration of medication use. Thus, in the Women's Health Initiative, we examined these associations and further explored whether associations differ by recency of diabetes and duration of metformin use. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals. Diabetes was associated with higher risk of total invasive cancer (HR, 1.13; p < 0.001) and of several site-specific cancers (HR, 1.2-1.4, and up to over twofold). Diabetes was also associated with higher risk of death from cancer (HR, 1.46; p < 0.001). There was no overall difference in cancer incidence by diabetes therapy (p = 0.66). However, there was a lower risk of death from cancer for metformin users, compared to users of other medications, relative to women without diabetes, overall (HRs, 1.08 vs. 1.45; p = 0.007) and for breast cancer (HRs, 0.50 vs. 1.29; p = 0.05). Results also suggested that lower cancer risk associated with metformin may be evident only for a longer duration of use in certain cancer sites or subgroup populations. We provide further evidence that postmenopausal women with diabetes are at higher risk of invasive cancer and cancer death. Metformin users, particularly long-term users, may be at lower risk of developing certain cancers and dying from cancer, compared to users of other anti-diabetes medications. Future studies are needed to determine the long-term effect of metformin in cancer risk and survival from cancer.