Science.gov

Sample records for addition initial results

  1. ALOS-2 initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankaku, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shimada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) was launched from Tanegashima Space Center by H-IIA rocket successfully on 24th May 2014. ALOS-2 carries the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) as the state-of-the-art L-band SAR system which succeeds to PALSAR onboard ALOS. PALSAR-2 uses almost whole bandwidth allocated for L-band active sensor of Earth Exploration Satellites Service specified by the Radio Regulation in order to realize the high resolution observation, and also, it transmits more than 6 kW power for lower Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero using 180 TRMs driven by Gallium Nitride (GaN) amplifier which is the first use in space. Furthermore, because ALOS-2 carries the SAR system only, PALSAR-2 antenna can be mounted under the satellite body. It enables to observe right-/left-looking observation by satellite maneuvering. And the high accuracy orbit control to maintain the satellite within 500 m radius tube against the reference orbit enables high coherence for the InSAR processing. Using these new technologies, ALOS-2 has been operating to fulfill the mission requirements such as disaster monitoring and so on. This document introduces the initial result of ALOS-2 from the first year operation.

  2. Digital coincidence counting - initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, K. S. A.; Watt, G. C.; Alexiev, D.; van der Gaast, H.; Davies, J.; Mo, Li; Wyllie, H. A.; Keightley, J. D.; Smith, D.; Woods, M. J.

    2000-08-01

    Digital Coincidence Counting (DCC) is a new technique in radiation metrology, based on the older method of analogue coincidence counting. It has been developed by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), in collaboration with the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) of the United Kingdom, as a faster more reliable means of determining the activity of ionising radiation samples. The technique employs a dual channel analogue-to-digital converter acquisition system for collecting pulse information from a 4π beta detector and an NaI(Tl) gamma detector. The digitised pulse information is stored on a high-speed hard disk and timing information for both channels is also stored. The data may subsequently be recalled and analysed using software-based algorithms. In this letter we describe some recent results obtained with the new acquistion hardware being tested at ANSTO. The system is fully operational and is now in routine use. Results for 60Co and 22Na radiation activity calibrations are presented, initial results with 153Sm are also briefly mentioned.

  3. Care initiation area yields dramatic results.

    PubMed

    2009-03-01

    The ED at Gaston Memorial Hospital in Gastonia, NC, has achieved dramatic results in key department metrics with a Care Initiation Area (CIA) and a physician in triage. Here's how the ED arrived at this winning solution: Leadership was trained in and implemented the Kaizen method, which eliminates redundant or inefficient process steps. Simulation software helped determine additional space needed by analyzing arrival patterns and other key data. After only two days of meetings, new ideas were implemented and tested.

  4. Initial Blackbeard power survey results

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.; Devenport, J.; Holden, D.

    1996-06-01

    The Blackbeard broadband VHF radio receiver is in low-earth orbit aboard the ALEXIS satellite. The receiver has been used to measure the transmitted power in four VHF bands (55.2-75.8, 28.0-94.8, 132.3-152.2, and 107.7-166.0 MHz) over quiet and noisy parts of the earth. The authors present the results of the survey and discuss their implications. They find that there are remote ocean areas over which the observed spectrum is largely free of man-made interference, but that the spectrum over most of the earth is dominated by broadcast VHF signals. The signal characteristics observed over a given area are quite constant when observed at different times of day and at intervals of several weeks to months. It appears that in many cases the bulk of the signal power is coming from a small number of sources.

  5. Mars-Analog Evaporite Experiment: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. M.; Bullock, M. A.; Sharp, T.G.; Quinn, R.

    2005-01-01

    This research is part of a multiyear experimental investigation to understand the nature and evolution brines and evaporates on Mars. The spectacular discoveries of the MER rovers, particularly those of Opportunity at Meridiani, both illustrate the relevance, as well as guide the future direction, of this work. Here we report the initial results from our just-completed and tested evaporites apparatus, using a synthetic brine analog to our brine experiment simulating a modern Mars environment in which the brine was subjected to rapid evaporation under modern Martian conditions. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  6. Initial results from MARmara SuperSITE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Necmioglu, Ocal; Favali, Paolo; Douglas, John; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Geli, Louis; Ergintav, Semih; Oguz Ozel, Asım; Tan, Onur; Gurbuz, Cemil; Erdik, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    MARSite Project was initiated in November 2012 under the EC/FP-7 framework as an initiative towards establishment of new directions in seismic hazard assessment through focused earth observation in Marmara Region. Within MARSite, collection of the first comprehensive data set of fluids composition around the Sea of Marmara has been accomplished and first insight in the geochemical features of the fluids are expelled from tectonic structures around the Sea of Marmara. GPS time series and velocity fields are periodically updated and a project proposal has been prepared for Supersite initiative to take SAR data and integrate the results with in-situ data sets, which is accepted by the scientific committee of GEOSS. In the meantime, special focus was given to develop the processing algorithms, starting from low level atmospheric correction to high level modeling routines. Considerable progress has been made in the novel design of a multiparameter borehole system consisting of very wide dynamic range and stable borehole (VBB) broad band seismic sensor also incorporating 3-D strain meter, tilt meter, and temperature and local hydrostatic pressure measuring devices. Borehole and surface array locations and borehole bedrock depth of 137 m has been identified. A modeling scheme for the scenario earthquake simulation has been set up in order to realize processing of real-time high-rate GPS data and simulating of scenario earthquakes. The probability of occurrence for the fault segmentation in the Marmara region were calculated using the Poisson, BPT and BPT with a stress interaction models for time intervals of 5-10-30 and 50 years. High resolution seismic reflection and multibeam data in the easternmost Cinarcik basin obtained during the cruise MARMARA 2013 carried out onboard the CNR R/V Urania ship provided information on diffuse gravitational failures. An in situ multi-parameter observational system for landslide monitoring, including displacement, rainfall and seismic

  7. Initial Results from the Kwajalein Micrometeorite Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Price, M. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ishii, H. A.; Brownlee, D. E.; Dearborn, D.; Jones, T.; Barnett, B.; Yakuma, S.; Letendre, T.; Gonzalez, C.; Bastien, R.; Rodriquez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Micrometeorites are constantly arriving at the Earth's surface, however, they are quickly diluted by the natural and anthropogenic back-ground dust. The successful collection of micromete-orites requires either the employment of a separation technique (e.g. using magnets to separate metal-bearing micrometeorites from deepsea sediments [e.g. 1,2] and dissolved pre-historic limestones and salts [e.g. 3,4]), or an approach that limits contamination by terrestrial dust (e.g. collecting from ice, snow and well water in polar regions - locations where the terrestrial dust flux is so low that micrometeorites repre-sent the major dust component [e.g. 5-7]). We have recently set up a micrometeorite collection station on Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Is-lands in the Pacific Ocean, using high volume air samplers to collect particles directly from the atmosphere. Collecting at this location exploits the considerably reduced anthropogenic background; Kwajalein is >1000 miles from the nearest continent and for much of the year, trade winds blow from the northeast at 15 to 20 knots providing a continuous stream of oceanic aerosol for sampling. By collecting directly from the atmosphere, the terrestrial age of the particles, and hence weathering they experience, is minimal. We therefore anticipate that the Kwajalein col-lection may include particles that are highly susceptible to weathering and either not preserved well or not found at all in other collections. In addition, this collection method allows for particle arrival times to be constrained so that collections can be timed to correlate with celestial events (e.g. meteor showers). Here we describe the collections and their preparation and report on the initial results.

  8. Aquarius: The Instrument and Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vine, David M Le; Lagerloef, G.S.E.; Ruf, C.; Wentz, F.; Yueh, S.; Piepmeier, J.; Lindstrom, E.; Dinnat, E.

    2012-01-01

    Aquarius was launched on June 10, 2011 aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory and the instrument has been operating continuously since the initial turned-on was completed on August 25. The initial observed antenna temperatures were close to predicted and the first salinity map was released in September. In order to map the ocean salinity field, Aquarius includes several special features such as the inclusion of a scatterometer to provide a roughness correction, measurement of the third Stokes parameter to correct for Faraday rotation, and fast sampling to mitigate the effects of RFI. This paper provides an overview of the instrument and an example of initial results. Details are covered in subsequent papers in the session on Aquarius

  9. Decreasing the initial irreversible capacity loss by addition of cyclic sulfate as electrolyte additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Atsushi; Maruyama, Satoshi

    Initial irreversible capacity loss in graphite electrodes was suppressed by 1,3,2-dioxathiolane-2,2-dioxide and its derivatives (cyclic sulfates) in propylene carbonate (PC) containing electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) showed that cyclic sulfates were decomposed at higher potentials than that for electrolyte solvents. In galvanostatic charge and discharge measurement, first cycle efficiency was increased from 58.2% to 90.5% by the addition of 1,3,2-dioxathiolane-2,2-dioxide. Passivation films formed by cyclic sulfates were observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), FT-IR, and pyrolysis/GC/MS (pyro/GC/MS). These results indicate that the surface was covered by a PEO like polymer with the inner layer comprised of Li 2S like compounds.

  10. ALOS-2 launch and initial checkout result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikawa, Yoshihisa; Kankaku, Yukihiro; Saruwatari, Hideki; Hatooka, Yasushi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2014-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) carries the state-of-the-art L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) called PALSAR-2 which succeeds to the ALOS / PALSAR. PALSAR-2 has an enhanced performance in both high resolution and wide swath compared to PALSAR. It will allow comprehensive monitoring of disasters. Wider bandwidth and shorter revisit time will give better conference for interferometry SAR (INSAR) data analysis such as crustal deformation and deforestation. ALOS-2 was launched on 24th May 2014, and has been completed the initial functional verifications of onboard components and systems. This paper describes the initial operation and checkout results including the comparison with the previous SAR satellite image and the disaster monitoring. Some key features of orbit control and determination to improve the coherency of the repeat-pass INSAR observation are evaluated.

  11. Radiation exposure of LDEF: Initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Csige, I.; Parnell, T. A.; Watts, John W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Initial results from Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) include radiation detector measurements from four experiments; P0006, P0004, M0004, and A0015. The detectors were located on both the leading and trailing edges of the orbiter and also at the Earthside end. This allowed the directional dependence of the incoming radiation to be measured. Total absorbed doses from thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) verified the predicted spatial east-west dose dependence of a factor of approx. 2.5, due to trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). On the trailing edge of the orbiter, a range of doses from 664 to 291 rad were measured under nominal shielding of 0.42 to 8.45 g/sq cm. A second set of detectors near this locations results are also given. On the leading edge, doses of 258 to 210 rad were found under shielding of 1.25 to 2.48 g/sq cm. Initial charged particle LET (linear energy transfer) spectra, fluxes, doses, and dose equivalents, for LET in H2O greater than or = 5 keV/micron, were measured with plastic nuclear track detectors located in the four experiments. Also, preliminary data on low energy neutrons were obtained from detectors containing (6)LiF foils.

  12. Overview of the Initial NSTX Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ono; M. Bell; R. E. Bell; T. Bigelow; M. Bitter; et al

    2000-11-16

    The main aim of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current Ip was successfully brought up to the design value of 1 million amperes on December 14, 1999. The planned plasma shaping parameters, k = 1.6 {+-} 2.2 and d = 0.2 {+-} 0.4, were achieved in inner limited, single null and double null configurations. The CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) and HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) experiments were also initiated. A CHI injected current of 27 kA produced up to 260 kA of toroidal current without using an ohmic solenoid. With an injection of 2.3 MW of HHFW power, using twelve antennas connected to six transmitters, electrons were heated from a central temperature of 400 eV to 900 eV at a centraldensity of 3.5 x 1013 cm-3 increasing the plasma energy to 59 kJ and the toroidal beta, bT to 10 %. Finally, the NBI system commenced operatio n in Sept. 2000. The initial results with two ion sources (PNBI = 2.8 MW) shows good heating, producing a total plasma stored energy of 90 kJ corresponding to bT = 18 % at a plasma current of 1.1 MA

  13. Radiation exposure of LDEF: Initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Csige, I.; Parnell, T. A.; Watts, J. W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Initial results from LDEF include radiation detector measurements from four experiments, P0006, P0004, M0004, and A0015. The detectors were located on both the leading and trailing edges of the orbiter and also on the Earthside end. This allowed the directional dependence of the incoming radiation to be measured. Total absorbed doses from thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) verified the predicted spatial east-west dose ratio dependence of a factor approx. 2.5, due to trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly. On the trailing edge of the orbiter a range of doses from 6.64 to 2.91 Gy were measured under Al equivalent shielding of 0.42 to 1.11 g/sq cm. A second set of detectors near this location yielded doses of 6.48 to 2.66 Gy under Al equivalent shielding of 0.48 to 15.4 g/sq cm. On the leading edge, doses of 2.58 to 2.10 Gy were found under Al equivalent shielding of 1.37 to 2.90 g/sq cm. Initial charged particle LET (linear energy transfer) spectra, fluxes, doses and dose equivalents, for LET in H2O greater than or = 8 keV/micron, were measured with plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) located in two experiments. Also preliminary data on low energy neutrons were obtained from detectors containing (6)LiF foils.

  14. Initial Results from the BRAHMS Multiplicity Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, H.

    2000-10-01

    The BRAHMS Multiplicity Array is one of three systems used to characterize the centrality of RHIC collisions at the BRAHMS experiment. Together, these systems, which also include the Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) and Beam-Beam Counter arrays, provide a global characterization of particle multiplicities, with the Multiplicity Array (-2.2<η<2.2) and Beam-Beam Arrays (3.2 <= |η|<= 4.3 ) sensitive to charged-particle multiplicity distributions over a large range of pseudorapidity η, and the ZDC measuring neutron distributions along the beam axis. The Multiplicity Array consists of an inner barrel of 24 modestly segmented Si Strip detectors and an outer barrel of 38 plastic scintillator tiles in a collinear arrangement about the beam axis. This talk will discuss some of the physics to be explored with the Multiplicity Array and present initial results obtained with the array during the first RHIC running period.

  15. Aquarius Third Stokes Parameter Measurements: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utku, Cuneyt; Vine, David M Le; Abraham, S.; Piepmeier, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D observatory was launched on June 10, 2011 and the Aquarius instrument has been collecting data continuously since late August. One of the unique features of the L-band radiometers comprising Aquarius is the presence of a polarimetric channel to measure the third Stokes parameter. The purpose is to provide a measure of Faraday rotation, which can be important for remote sensing at L-band, especially in the case of remote sensing of salinity which requires high precision. Initial results are presented here showing a reasonable agreement between retrieved and modeled Faraday rotation and also the "noisy" behavior at land-water boundaries and other mixed scenes predicted by theory.

  16. Radical addition-initiated domino reactions of conjugated oxime ethers.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    The application of conjugated oxime ethers to the synthesis of complex chemical scaffolds using domino radical reactions has been described in detail. The triethylborane-mediated hydroxysulfenylation reaction allows for the regioselective construction of a carbon-sulfur bond and a carbon-oxygen bond in a single operation for the formation of β-hydroxy sulfides. This reaction proceeds via a radical pathway involving regioselective thiyl addition and the subsequent trapping of the resulting α-imino radical with O₂, where the imino group enhances the stability of the intermediate radical. Hydroxyalkylation reactions that occur via a carbon radical addition reaction followed by the hydroxylation of the resulting N-borylenamine with O₂ have also been developed. We investigated sequential radical addition aldol-type reactions in detail to explore the novel domino reactions that occur via the generation of N-borylenamine. The radical reaction of a conjugated oxime ether with triethylborane in the presence of an aldehyde affords γ-butyrolactone via sequential processes including ethyl radical addition, the generation of N-borylenamine, an aldol-type reaction with an aldehyde, and a lactonization reaction. A novel domino reaction has also been developed involving the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of N-boryl-N-phenoxyenamine. The triethylborane-mediated domino reactions of O-phenyl-conjugated oxime ethers afforded the corresponding benzofuro[2,3-b]pyrrol-2-ones via a radical addition/[3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement/cyclization/lactamization cascade.

  17. The Green Bank Ammonia Survey: Initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Friesen, Rachel; and the GBT Ammonia Survey Team

    2016-01-01

    The past several years have seen a tremendous advancement in our ability to characterize the structure of nearby molecular clouds and the substructures in which dense star-forming cores are born. These advances include identifying and classifying the young protostellar population (Spitzer c2d and Gould Belt surveys) and the dense cores and larger filaments and clumps which form the cores and YSOs (Herschel and JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Surveys). The power of these legacy surveys lies in the large areal coverage and consistency in observing strategies between nearby molecular clouds. A major gap in the present data is a comparable survey to characterize the dense gas properties. Kinematics and gas temperatures are key to understanding the history and future fate of star-forming material, and these are not accessible from the primarily continuum-based measurements in the legacy surveys described above. We have begun an ambitious legacy survey for the GBT, the Green Bank Ammonia Survey (GAS), to map NH3 emission toward all the northern Gould Belt star forming regions where Av > 7. The Gould Belt is a ring of young stars and star-forming regions that contains nearly all the ongoing, predominantly low-mass star formation within 500 pc of the Sun. Here we present the initial results from the survey.

  18. Initial results from the Herschel Oxygen Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, Paul; Encrenaz, Pierre; Liseau, R.; Bell, T. A.; Bergin, T.; Black, J.; Benz, A.; Caselli, P.; Caux, E.; Falgarone, E.; Gerin, M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Hjalmarson, A.; Hollenbach, D.; Kaufman, M.; Larsson, B.; Le Bourlot, J.; Le Petit, F.; Li, D.; Lis, D.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Pagani, L.; Roueff, E.; Sandqvist, A.; Snell, R.; Vastel, C.; van Dishoek, E.; Viti, S.; van der Tak, F.

    Initial Results from the Herschel Oxygen Project (HOP) Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the cosmos, but can be found in many forms. In the gas phase, oxygen can be ionized, atomic, or in molecular form, and it is also incorporated into grains. The molecular form is expected to dominate in cold, well-shielded regions, and in such molecular clouds, oxygen can be found in key species including carbon monoxide and water. Gas phase chemistry models predict molecular oxygen (O2) to be almost as abundant as CO. A number of searches for rotational transitions of O2 have been carried out. These include ground-based searches for the isotopologue 16O18O and searches for 16O2 in galaxies with red shift sufficient to move the line away from terrestrial atmospheric absorption. Searches for Galactic 16O2 carried out with the SWAS and Odin spacecraft have yielded upper limits on the abundance of molecular oxygen typically 1 to 2 orders of magnitude below those predicted by gas-phase models. There has been a statistical detection of O2 in one source, again at a low abundance. A variety of new models have been proposed to explain this low abundance, which involve grain surface and photo effects. To address this important problem in astro-chemistry and molecular cloud structure, we have developed the Open Time Key Project HOP (Herschel Oxygen Project), which exploits the high angular resolution and sensitivity of the HIFI instrument on Herschel to observe 3 rotational transitions of O2 in a broad sample of molecular clouds. We report on the status of HOP and present early results available from Priority Science Phase and Science Definition Phase observations.

  19. Heated Promoted Combustion-Initial Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Carl D.; Herald, Stephen; Davis, S. Eddie

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the STD 6001 test 17 is to determine the flammability of materials in GOX at ambient temperature and at use pressure. The purpose of the new Heated Promoted combustion test is to determine the flammability of material in GOX at use temperature and pressure. The objective is to present the new heated promoted combustion method and show initial data and trends for three representative metals.

  20. Initial results from VIRUS production spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, Sarah E.; Allen, Richard D.; Chonis, Taylor S.; Cornell, Mark E.; DePoy, Darren L.; Hill, Gary J.; Lee, Hanshin; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Prochaska, Travis; Rafal, Marc D.; Savage, Richard D.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2012-09-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) uses a novel technique of replicated spectrographs (VIRUS) to measure dark energy at intermediate redshifts (2 < z < 4). VIRUS contains over 30,000 fibers and over 160 independent and identical channels. Here we report on the construction and characterization of the initial batch of VIRUS spectrograph cameras. Assembly of the first batch of 16 is in progress. A brief overview of the assembly is presented, and where available performance is compared to specification.

  1. NIF Commissioning and Initial Performance Results

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wonterghem, B M; Burkhart, S C; Haynam, C A; Manes, K R; Marshall, C D; Murray, J E; Spaeth, M L; Speck, D R; Sutton, S B; Wegner, P J

    2003-12-19

    The National Ignition Facility at LLNL recently commissioned the first set of four beam lines into the target chamber. This effort, also called NIF Early Light, demonstrated the entire laser system architecture from master oscillator through target and initial X-ray diagnostics. This paper describes the detailed commissioning and installation steps for one of NIF's 48 beam quads. Using a dedicated single beam line Precision Diagnostic System, performance was explored over the entire power versus energy space from 6.4 TW/beam for sub-nanosecond pulses to 25 kJ/beam for 23 ns pulses at 1 {omega}. NEL also demonstrated record single beam line frequency converted Nd:Glass laser energies of 11.3 kJ at 2 {omega} and 10.4 kJ at 3{omega}.

  2. ALEXIS small satellite project: initial flight results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priedhorsky, William C.; Bloch, Jeffrey J.; Holden, Daniel H.; Roussel-Dupre, Diane C.; Smith, Barham W.; Dingler, Robert; Warner, Richard; Huffman, Greg; Miller, Robert; Dill, Bob; Fleeter, Richard

    1993-11-01

    We report the launch and rescue of the ALEXIS small satellite. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. The BLACKBEARD experiment was turned on shortly after contact, and has returned its first data. We discuss preliminary lessons learned from ALEXIS.

  3. SIOExplorer: Overview, Initial Results and Next Steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. P.; Helly, J. J.; Africa, M.; Peckman, U.; Day, D.; Clark, D.

    2002-12-01

    Data, documents and images from 795 expeditions by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) since 1903 are becoming web-accessible for both education and research through the new SIOExplorer project (http://SIOExplorer.ucsd.edu), which is a collection in the overall NSF-funded National Science Digital Library (www.nsdl.org). The collaborative effort includes researchers at SIO, computer scientists from the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), and archivists and librarians from the UCSD Library. The co-authors of this paper tested a shipboard prototype during a Floating Digital Library Workshop from New Zealand to Samoa on R/V Melville in March, 2002. General purpose tools have been developed to automate collection development, manage metadata, and geographically search the library, as discussed in other presentations in this session. In the initial year of operation, the biggest challenge has been wrestling with the volume and variability of data and documents. Shipboard sensors, data volumes, and organizational structures have evolved greatly over the decades, particularly with 244 multibeam expeditions since 1982. Considerable success came after introducing the concept of a Canonical Cruise Data Structure (CCDS) with nine basic categories that seem to capture the essential characteristics of data practices since the 1960's. Automatic software pulls data into the CCDS from diverse source directories and media, guided by a template with rules for priority and filenames. Almost all metadata are harvested automatically into simple "metadata interchange format" (.mif) files, one for each "arbitrary digital object" (ADO) in the CCDS. The metadata are placed in an Oracle database, and the associated data are managed by the SDSC Storage Resource Broker on various disk and automatic tape silo systems. The system is extensible to various domains and data types, including geochemistry, image archives, multibeam bathymetry, reports and publications. A Java Metadata

  4. ACM TOMS replicated computational results initiative

    DOE PAGES

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2015-06-03

    In this study, the scientific community relies on the peer review process for assuring the quality of published material, the goal of which is to build a body of work we can trust. Computational journals such as The ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) use this process for rigorously promoting the clarity and completeness of content, and citation of prior work. At the same time, it is unusual to independently confirm computational results.

  5. ACM TOMS replicated computational results initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2015-06-03

    In this study, the scientific community relies on the peer review process for assuring the quality of published material, the goal of which is to build a body of work we can trust. Computational journals such as The ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) use this process for rigorously promoting the clarity and completeness of content, and citation of prior work. At the same time, it is unusual to independently confirm computational results.

  6. Initial Results from Swift/uvot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, F. E.

    2008-09-01

    The UltraViolet/Optical Telescope on Swift is a 30-cm Richey-Cretien reflector that provides sub-arcsecond positions, light curves on time scales from minutes to days after a GRB, and spectra covering 160 - 700 nm. UVOT is detecting optical afterglows from ~67% of rapidly observed long GRBs that have little extinction in the Milky Way. We consider possible reasons for the non-detections. UVOT is also producing remarkable results on the evolution of GRB afterglows including GRB060218/SN2006aj as well as the evolution of young supernovae.

  7. Initial results of SEPAC scientific achievement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obayashi, T.; Kawashima, N.; Sasaki, S.; Yanagisawa, M.; Kuriki, K.; Nagatomo, M.; Ninomiya, K.; Roberts, W. T.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Williamson, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    Electron beam injection of 5 keV, 300 mA (1.5 kW) and MPD arcjet plasma injection of 2 kJ/shot were successfully performed together with various kinds of diagnostic instruments including a high sensitivity TV camera observation in the Spacelab 1. Major scientific results obtained are studies of: (1) vehicle charge-up due to the electron beam emission and its neutralization by the MPD arcjet plasma; (2) beam-plasma interaction including the plasma wave excitation; (3) beam-atmosphere interaction such as the verification of critical velocity ionization effect; and (4) anomalous enhancement of ionization associated with a neutral gas injection into space.

  8. SAGE III solar ozone measurements: Initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Jui; Cunnold, Derek M.; Trepte, Chip; Thomason, Larry W.; Zawodny, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Results from two retrieval algorithms, o3-aer and o3-mlr , used for SAGE III solar occultation ozone measurements in the stratosphere and upper troposphere are compared. The main differences between these two retrieved (version 3.0) ozone are found at altitudes above 40 km and below 15 km. Compared to correlative measurements, the SAGE II type ozone retrievals (o3-aer) provide better precisions above 40 km and do not induce artificial hemispheric differences in upper stratospheric ozone. The multiple linear regression technique (o3_mlr), however, can yield slightly more accurate ozone (by a few percent) in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. By using SAGE III (version 3.0) ozone from both algorithms and in their preferred regions, the agreement between SAGE III and correlative measurements is shown to be approx.5% down to 17 km. Below 17 km SAGE III ozone values are systematically higher, by 10% at 13 km, and a small hemispheric difference (a few percent) appears. Compared to SAGE III and HALOE, SAGE II ozone has the best accuracy in the lowest few kilometers of the stratosphere. Estimated precision in SAGE III ozone is about 5% or better between 20 and 40 km and approx.10% at 50 km. The precision below 20 km is difficult to evaluate because of limited coincidences between SAGE III and sondes. SAGE III ozone values are systematically slightly larger (2-3%) than those from SAGE II but the profile shapes are remarkably similar for altitudes above 15 km. There is no evidence of any relative drift or time dependent differences between these two instruments for altitudes above 15-20 km.

  9. Additives initiate selective production of chemicals from biomass pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Leng, Shuai; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Huizhe; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Fengyun; Liu, Jingmei; Wang, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    To improve chemicals selectivity under low temperature, a new method that involves the injection of additives into biomass pyrolysis is introduced. This method allows biomass pyrolysis to achieve high selectivity to chemicals under low temperature (300°C), while nothing was obtained in typical pyrolysis under 300°C. However, by using the new method, the first liquid drop emerged at the interval between 140°C and 240°C. Adding methanol to mushroom scrap pyrolysis obtained high selectivity to acetic acid (98.33%), while adding ethyl acetate gained selectivity to methanol (65.77%) in bagasse pyrolysis and to acetone (72.51%) in corncob pyrolysis. Apart from basic chemicals, one high value-added chemical (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran) was also detected, which obtained the highest selectivity (10.33%) in corncob pyrolysis through the addition of ethyl acetate. Comparison of HZSM-5 and CaCO3 catalysis showed that benzene emerged in the liquid because of the larger degree of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation over HZSM-5.

  10. Initial results of the Global Thermospheric Mapping Study (GTMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, W. L.; Salah, J. E.; Musgrove, R. G.; Holt, J. M.; Wickwar, V. B.; Hernandez, G. J.; Roble, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    The Global Thermospheric Mapping Study (GTMS) is a multi-technique experimental study of the thermosphere designed to map simultaneously its spatial and temporal morphology with a thoroughness and diversity of measurement techniques heretofore unachieved. The GTMS is designed around the Incoherent Scatter Radar Chain in the western hemisphere. The European incoherent scatter radars and the worldwide communities of Fabry-Perot interferometers, meteor wind radars, partial reflection drifts radars, MST radars, and satellite probes are included to extend the spatial coverage and types of measurements available. Theoretical and modeling support in the areas of thermospheric and ionospheric structure, tides, and electric fields are included to aid in program planning and data interpretation. Solar activity was low on the three observation days (F10.7 = 97, 98, 96) and magnetic conditions were unsettled to active (A = 10, 12, 20). All six incoherent scatter radar facilities collected data. Each collected F region data day and night while Saint Santin and Millstone Hill additionally collected E region data during daylight hours. Initial results from Sondrestrom and Millstone Hill are presented. Good quality Fabry Perot data were collected at Fritz Peak and San Jose dos Campos. Weather conditions produced poor results at Arequipa and Arecibo. Initial results from Fritz Peak are presented. Mesosphere/lower-thermosphere observations were conducted under the ATMAP organization. The magnetometer chains also were operational during this campaign. Initial thermospheric general circulation model predictions were made for assumed solar-geophysical conditions, and selected results are presented.

  11. The homestake surface-underground scintillators: Initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, M. L.; Corbato, S.; Daily, T.; Fenyves, E. J.; Kieda, D.; Lande, K.; Lee, C. K.

    1986-01-01

    The first 70 tons of the 140-ton Large Area Scintillation Detector (LASD) have been operating since Jan. 1985 at a depth of 4850 ft. (4200 m.w.e.) in the Homestake Gold Mine, Lead, S.D. A total of 4 x 10(4) high-energy muons (E sub mu is approx. 2.7 TeV at the surface) have been detected. The remainder of the detector is scheduled to be in operation by the Fall of 1985. In addition, a surface air shower array is under construction. The first 27 surface counters, spaced out over an area of 270' x 500', began running in June, 1985. The LASD performance, the potential of the combined shower array and underground muon experiment for detecting point sources, and the initial results of a search for periodic emission from Cygnus X-3 are discussed.

  12. Results of initial testing of the four stage RHEPP accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.L.; Reed, K.W.; Harjes, H.C.

    1993-08-01

    The low power checkout of the Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power (RHEPP) pulse forming line (PFL) and linear induction voltage adder (LIVA) is complete. The accelerator has four LIVA cavities driven via coaxial cables from the PFL that utilizes magnetic switching to provide a 250-kV, 60-ns output pulse. The PFL is repetitively charged by a ten stage Marx generator to operate from single shot to five Hz. Results from these tests of the initial four stage RHEPP accelerator are presented and compared with design simulations. Data from a resistive cavity load and from preliminary electron diode experiments are included. While core temperatures remain low during five Hz operation, they are monitored and compared to extrapolated predictions from the design modeling. Performance of the Metglas magnetic switches and blocking cores, the voltage addition in the four LIVA cavities, and system efficiencies are discussed. Sources of discrepancies from the original design models are identified, and improved models that account for the discrepancies are presented. Improved performance potential based on these models is discussed. Plans for future testing of the 1-MV system up to 120 kW at 120 Hz and for the full system with ten LIVA cavities are presented.

  13. Thermodynamic Effect of Platinum Addition to beta-NiAl: An Initial Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    An initial investigation was conducted to determine the effect of platinum addition on the activities of aluminum and nickel in beta-NiAl(Pt) over the temperature range 1354 to 1692 K. These measurements were made with a multiple effusion-cell configured mass spectrometer (multi-cell KEMS). The results of this study show that Pt additions act to decreased alpha(Al) and increased the alpha(Ni) in beta-NiAl(Pt) for constant X(sub Ni)/X(sub Al) approx. = 1.13, while at constant X(sub Al) the affect of Pt on Al is greatly reduced. The measured partial enthalpies of mixing indicate Al-atoms have a strong self interaction while Ni- and Pt-atoms in have similar interactions with Al-atoms. Conversely the binding of Ni-atoms in beta-NiAl decreases with Pt addition independent of Al concentration. These initial results prove the technique can be applied to the Ni-Al-Pt system but more activity measurements are required to fully understand the thermodynamics of this system and how Pt additions improved the scaling behavior of nickel-based superalloys. In addition, with the choice of a suitable oxide material for the effusion-cell, the "closed" isothermal nature of the effusion-cell allows the direct investigation of an alloy-oxide equilibrium which resembles the "local-equilibrium" description of the metal-scale interface observed during high temperature oxidation. It is proposed that with an Al(l) + Al2O3(s) experimental reference state together with the route measurement of the relative partial-pressures of Al(g) and Al2O(g) allows the activities of O and Al2O3 to be determined along with the activities of Ni and Al. These measurements provide a direct method of investigating the thermodynamics of the metal-scale interface of a TGO-scale.

  14. Mars-GRAM 2010: Additions and Resulting Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Burns, K. Lee

    2013-01-01

    factors. The adjustment factors generated by this process had to satisfy the gas law as well as the hydrostatic relation and are expressed as a function of height (z), Latitude (Lat) and areocentric solar longitude (Ls). The greatest adjustments are made at large optical depths such as tau greater than 1. The addition of the adjustment factors has led to better correspondence to TES Limb data from 0-60 km altitude as well as better agreement with MGS, ODY and MRO data at approximately 90-130 km altitude. Improved Mars-GRAM atmospheric simulations for various locations, times and dust conditions on Mars will be presented at the workshop session. The latest results validating Mars-GRAM 2010 versus Mars Climate Sounder data will also be presented. Mars-GRAM 2010 updates have resulted in improved atmospheric simulations which will be very important when beginning systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for future aerocapture, aerobraking or landed missions to Mars.

  15. Additional Results of Ice-Accretion Scaling at SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2005-01-01

    To determine scale velocity an additional similarity parameter is needed to supplement the Ruff scaling method. A Weber number based on water droplet MVD has been included in several studies because the effect of droplet splashing on ice accretion was believed to be important, particularly for SLD conditions. In the present study, ice shapes recorded at Appendix-C conditions and recent results at SLD conditions are reviewed to show that droplet diameter cannot be important to main ice shape, and for low airspeeds splashing does not appear to affect SLD ice shapes. Evidence is presented to show that while a supplementary similarity parameter probably has the form of a Weber number, it must be based on a length proportional to model size rather than MVD. Scaling comparisons were made between SLD reference conditions and Appendix-C scale conditions using this Weber number. Scale-to-reference model size ratios were 1:1.7 and 1:3.4. The reference tests used a 91-cm-chord NACA 0012 model with a velocity of approximately 50 m/s and an MVD of 160 m. Freezing fractions of 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 were included in the study.

  16. Non-shock initiation model for explosive families : experimental results.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark U.; Jensen, Charles B.; Todd, Steven N.; Hugh, Chance G.; Caipen, Terry L.

    2010-03-01

    The 'DaMaGe-Initiated-Reaction' (DMGIR) computational model has been developed to predict the response of high explosives to non-shock mechanical insults. The distinguishing feature of this model is the introduction of a damage variable, which relates the evolution of damage to the initiation of a reaction in the explosive, and its growth to detonation. Specifically designed experiments were used to study the initiation process of each explosive family with embedded shock sensors and optical diagnostics. The experimental portion of this model development began with a study of PBXN-5 to develop DMGIR model coefficients for the rigid plastic bonded family, followed by studies of the cast, and bulk-moldable explosive families. The experimental results show an initiation mechanism that is related to input energy and material damage, with well defined initiation thresholds for each explosive family. These initiation details will extend the predictive capability of the DMGIR model from the rigid family into the cast and bulk-moldable families.

  17. Initial Results from the New Stress Map of Texas Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund Snee, J. E.; Zoback, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Modern techniques for characterizing tectonic stress orientation and relative magnitude have been successfully used for more than 35 years. Nevertheless, large areas of North America lack high spatial resolution maps of stress orientation, magnitude, and faulting regime. In Texas, for example, <30 A-C-quality stress orientations are currently registered on the World Stress Map and only 7 of these points also describe the stress regime. Stress data are foundational elements of attempts to characterize tectonic driving forces, understand hazards associated with induced seismicity, and optimize production of oil, gas, and geothermal resources. This year, we launched the Texas Stress Map project to characterize tectonic stress patterns at higher spatial resolution across Texas and nearby areas. Following a successful effort just completed in Oklahoma, we will evaluate borehole breakouts, drilling-induced tensile fractures, shear wave anisotropy, and earthquake data. The principal data source will be FMI (fullbore formation microimager), UBI (ultrasonic borehole imager), cross-dipole sonic, density, and caliper logs provided by private industry. Earthquake moment tensor solutions from the U.S. Geological Survey, Saint Louis University and other sources will also be used. Our initial focus is on the Permian Basin and Barnett Shale petroleum plays due to the availability of data, but we will expand our analysis across the state as the project progresses. In addition, we hope to eventually apply the higher spatial resolution data coverage to understanding tectonic and geodynamic characteristics of the southwestern United States and northeastern Mexico. Here we present early results from our work to constrain stress orientations and faulting regime in and near Texas, and we also provide a roadmap for the ongoing research.

  18. Cloud physics lidar: instrument description and initial measurement results.

    PubMed

    McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Scott, V Stanley; Spinhirne, James; Schmid, Beat

    2002-06-20

    The new Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The purpose of the CPL is to provide multiwavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. The CPL utilizes state-of-the-art technology with a high repetition rate, a low-pulse-energy laser, and photon-counting detection. The first deployment for the CPL was the Southern African Regional Science Initiative's 2000 field campaign during August and September 2000. We provide here an overview of the instrument and initial data results to illustrate the measurement capability of the CPL.

  19. Initial results using an LCD polarization imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, R. Chris; Eyler, Michael; Puetz, Angela M.; Smith, Phillip

    2009-05-01

    The SALSA camera from Bossa Nova Technologies uses an electronically rotated polarization filter to measure four states of polarization nearly simultaneously. Initial imagery results are presented, with an investigation of polarization invariants, as affected by illumination, sensing geometry, and atmospheric effects. Applications for the system as it is being developed are in change detection and surface characterization. Preliminary results indicate an ability to distinguish new from old asphalt and disturbed earth from undisturbed earth with some image processing.

  20. Initial results from new 3D neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendicino, R.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Laidani, N.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we report the initial results from our second generation of 3D silicon detectors for neutrons. The devices are briefly described and the first functional characterization tests carried out in laboratory before coupling to neutron converter material are reported. Particular emphasis is given to the read-out system used for the suppression of signals induced by γ-rays, that is one of the main issues in neutron detection. Experimental results are discussed with the aid of TCAD simulations.

  1. ADCS Prevention Instrument Project: overview and initial results.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Steven H; Aisen, Paul S; Cummings, Jeffrey; Galasko, Douglas; Salmon, David P; Schneider, Lon; Sano, Mary; Whitehouse, Peter J; Edland, Steven; Thal, Leon J

    2006-01-01

    clinic designed to assess cognitive function and behavior, global change, activities of daily living, quality of life, and resource use. An additional "mail-in cognitive function questionnaire" was obtained separately by mail, 1 month before the other assessments. To evaluate the feasibility, efficiency, and validity of the home-based instruments in comparison with acquiring the same information during a clinic visit, subjects were randomized to 1 of 2 conditions in which the baseline and annual follow-up assessments are completed either at home ("home group") or at the study site during their clinic visits ("clinic group"). This initial report describes the ongoing 4-year longitudinal study and provides baseline results, which confirm the feasibility of obtaining home-based clinical information via mail or telephone. Initial results for the experimental instruments and for the book club are reported in separate accompanying articles.

  2. Initial Results from the UAVSAR Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Minchew, B. M.; Holt, B.; Hensley, S.

    2010-12-01

    In June 2010, the UAVSAR platform was deployed to the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in order to collect fully-polarimetric L-band radar data over the open water and along Gulf coastlines. The data from the 2-day campaign is now being used to study the extent and impact of the oil spill, both in the open water and within the coastal ecosystems. The UAVSAR campaign was initiated with three primary goals: (1) Develop and validate algorithms for improved discrimination of oil slicks on water and identification of oil properties from radar backscatter; (2) study the use of radar for determining the extent of oil penetration into sensitive coastal ecological zones, in particular, to map the spread of oil from the coastline into coastal wetlands; and (3) study the use of radar in identifying and monitoring the recovery of vegetation affected by oil. In addition, we intend for the information from this study to inform and enable use of high-resolution radar imagery in future emergency response efforts. A second flight in October 2010 is planned to repeat the collection of marshland and coastal data for the impact and recovery studies. The first deployment occurred while oil was still leaking from the Deepwater Horizon spill site. UAVSAR data was collected over the ocean along 22-km wide swaths covering the rig site and the area around it. Additional data was collected over the gulf extending ocean data extending east from the rig site to an area south of Pensacola, Florida; over the Franklin Eddy in the east-central Gulf of Mexico, and directly east of the Florida Keys. The processed data has a resolution of 7 m x 7 m. We are now using this data to study oil identification and characterization using polarimetric decomposition techniques. The UAVSAR instrument has a noise floor (noise-equivalent σ0) of ~-50 dB, at least 20 dB below that of most radars imaging the oil spill. The radiometric sensitivity of the instrument is allowing us to

  3. Initial results and field applications of a polarization imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, R. Chris; Eyler, Michael; Puetz, Angela M.; Esterline, Chelsea

    2009-08-01

    The SALSA linear Stokes polarization camera from Bossa Nova Technologies (520-550 nm) uses an electronically rotated polarization filter to measure four states of polarization nearly simultaneously. Some initial imagery results are presented. Preliminary analysis results indicate that the intensity and degree of linear polarization (DOLP) information can be used for image classification purposes. The DOLP images also show that the camera has a good ability to distinguish asphalt patches of different ages. These positive results and the relative simplicity of the camera system show the camera's potential for field applications.

  4. The GLOBE Contrail Protocol: Initial Analysis of Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Lin; Duda, David

    2004-01-01

    The GLOBE contrail protocol was launched in March 2003 to obtain surface observer reports of contrail occurrence to complement satellite and model studies underway at NASA Langley, among others. During the first year, more than 30,000 ground observations of contrails were submitted to GLOBE. An initial analysis comparing the GLOBE observations to weather prediction model results for relative humidity at flight altitudes is in progress. This paper reports on the findings to date from this effort.

  5. Additional Results of Glaze Icing Scaling in SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    This presentation reports results from recent icing scaling tests in NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the scaling method recommended for Appendix C conditions might apply to SLD conditions.

  6. Initial Results from the ANITA 2006-2007 Balloon Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, P.W.; Allison, P.; Barwick, S.W.; Beatty, J.J.; Besson, D.Z.; Binns, W.R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J.M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P.F.; DuVernois, M.A.; Field, R.C.; Goldstein, D.; Goodhue, A.; Hast, C.; Hebert, C.L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M.H.; Kowalski, J.; Learned, J.G.; /Hawaii U. /Caltech, JPL /Hawaii U. /Minnesota U. /Hawaii U. /Ohio State U. /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /UC, Irvine /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /Caltech, JPL /SLAC /University Coll. London /Ohio State U. /SLAC /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /UCLA /Delaware U. /Hawaii U. /SLAC /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /UC, Irvine

    2011-11-16

    We report initial results of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) 2006-2007 Long Duration Balloon flight, which searched for evidence of the flux of cosmogenic neutrinos. ANITA flew for 35 days looking for radio impulses that might be due to the Askaryan effect in neutrino-induced electromagnetic showers within the Antarctic ice sheets. In our initial high-threshold robust analysis, no neutrino candidates are seen, with no physics background. In a non-signal horizontal-polarization channel, we do detect 6 events consistent with radio impulses from extensive air showers, which helps to validate the effectiveness of our method. Upper limits derived from our analysis now begin to eliminate the highest cosmogenic neutrino models.

  7. Crystalline Silicon Short-Circuit Current Degradation Study: Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C. R.; Pruett, J.; Moriarty, T.

    2005-02-01

    Following our observation of slow degradation of short-circuit current (Isc) in crystalline silicon (x-Si) modules that was correlated with ultraviolet (UV) exposure dose, we initiated a new study of individual x-Si cells designed to determine the degradation cause. In this paper, we report the initial results of this study, which has accumulated 1056 MJ/m2 of UV dose from 1-sun metal-halide irradiance, equivalent to 3.8 years at our test site. At this time, the control samples are unchanged, the unencapsulated samples have lost about 2% of Isc, and the samples encapsulated in module-style packages have declined from 1% to 3%, depending on the cell technology.

  8. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  9. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  10. Additional Results of Glaze Icing Scaling in SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    New guidance of acceptable means of compliance with the super-cooled large drops (SLD) conditions has been issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in its Advisory Circular AC 25-28 in November 2014. The Part 25, Appendix O is developed to define a representative icing environment for super-cooled large drops. Super-cooled large drops, which include freezing drizzle and freezing rain conditions, are not included in Appendix C. This paper reports results from recent glaze icing scaling tests conducted in NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the scaling methods recommended for Appendix C conditions might apply to SLD conditions. The models were straight NACA 0012 wing sections. The reference model had a chord of 72 in. and the scale model had a chord of 21 in. Reference tests were run with airspeeds of 100 and 130.3 kn and with MVD's of 85 and 170 micron. Two scaling methods were considered. One was based on the modified Ruff method with scale velocity found by matching the Weber number WeL. The other was proposed and developed by Feo specifically for strong glaze icing conditions, in which the scale liquid water content and velocity were found by matching reference and scale values of the nondimensional water-film thickness expression and the film Weber number Wef. All tests were conducted at 0 deg AOA. Results will be presented for stagnation freezing fractions of 0.2 and 0.3. For nondimensional reference and scale ice shape comparison, a new post-scanning ice shape digitization procedure was developed for extracting 2-D ice shape profiles at any selected span-wise location from the high fidelity 3-D scanned ice shapes obtained in the IRT.

  11. Additional Results of Glaze Icing Scaling in SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    New guidance of acceptable means of compliance with the super-cooled large drops (SLD) conditions has been issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in its Advisory Circular AC 25-28 in November 2014. The Part 25, Appendix O is developed to define a representative icing environment for super-cooled large drops. Super-cooled large drops, which include freezing drizzle and freezing rain conditions, are not included in Appendix C. This paper reports results from recent glaze icing scaling tests conducted in NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the scaling methods recommended for Appendix C conditions might apply to SLD conditions. The models were straight NACA 0012 wing sections. The reference model had a chord of 72 inches and the scale model had a chord of 21 inches. Reference tests were run with airspeeds of 100 and 130.3 knots and with MVD's of 85 and 170 microns. Two scaling methods were considered. One was based on the modified Ruff method with scale velocity found by matching the Weber number W (sub eL). The other was proposed and developed by Feo specifically for strong glaze icing conditions, in which the scale liquid water content and velocity were found by matching reference and scale values of the non-dimensional water-film thickness expression and the film Weber number W (sub ef). All tests were conducted at 0 degrees angle of arrival. Results will be presented for stagnation freezing fractions of 0.2 and 0.3. For non-dimensional reference and scale ice shape comparison, a new post-scanning ice shape digitization procedure was developed for extracting 2-dimensional ice shape profiles at any selected span-wise location from the high fidelity 3-dimensional scanned ice shapes obtained in the IRT.

  12. The Cloud Physics Lidar: Instrument Description and Initial Measurement Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Spinhirne, James; Scott, V. Stanley; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The new Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft. The purpose of the CPL is to provide multi-wavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. The CPL utilizes state-of-the-art technology with a high repetition rate, a low pulse energy laser, and photon-counting detection. The first deployment for the CPL was the SAFARI-2000 field campaign during August-September 2000. We provide here an overview of the instrument and initial data results to illustrate the measurement capability of the CPL.

  13. Experimental test accelerator: description and results of initial experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.; Birx, D.; Briggs, R.

    1980-06-02

    The ETA is a high current (10,000 Amp) linear induction accelerator that produces short (30 ns) pulses of electrons at 5 MeV twice per second or in bursts of 5 pulses separated by as little as one millisecond. At this time the machine has operated at 65% of its design current and 90% of the design voltage. This report contains a description of the accelerator and its diagnostics; the results of the initial year of operation; a comparison of design codes with experiments on beam transport; and a discussion of some of the special problems and their status.

  14. The Askaryan Radio Array (ARA): status and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ming-Yuan; Askaryan Radio Array Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Ultra-high energy (UHE) cosmogenic neutrinos are expected through photohadronic interactions of UHE cosmic rays with CMB photons. The Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) is a neutrino observatory located near the South Pole aimed at detecting these neutrinos via their interactions with Antarctic ice and subsequent electromagnetic emission in radio frequencies. At the end of 2014, 3 ARA stations have been deployed. When completed, ARA is projected to consist of 37 in-ice stations and cover up to 200 km2 while providing high sensitivity from 10 PeV to 10 EeV. We report here the current status of operation and preliminary results of initial data analysis.

  15. Initial results from the Sherbrooke avalanche photodiode positron tomograph

    SciTech Connect

    Lecomte, R.; Cadorette, J.; Rodrigue, S.; Lapointe, D.; Rouleau, D.; Bentourkia, M.; Yao, R.; Msaki, P.

    1996-06-01

    The design features and engineering constraints of a PET system based on avalanche photodiode (APD) detectors have been described in a previous report. In this paper, the authors present the initial results obtained with the Sherbrooke APD-PET scanner, a very high spatial resolution device designed for dynamic imaging of small and medium-sized laboratory animals such as rats, cats, rabbits and small monkeys. Its physical performance has been evaluated in terms of resolution, sensitivity, count rate, random and scatter fractions, contrast and relative activity recovery as a function of object size. The capabilities of the scanner for biomedical research applications have been demonstrated using phantom and animal studies.

  16. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... applicable emission limit and the continuous opacity or that the emission monitoring system meets...

  17. The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey (GPIES) Campaign Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patience, Jennifer; Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Barman, Travis; De Rosa, Robert; Konopacky, Quinn; Marley, Mark; Marois, Christian; Nielsen, Eric Ludwig; Pueyo, Laurent; Rajan, Abhijith; Rameau, Julien; Saumon, Didier; Wang, Jason

    2015-12-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a next-generation coronagraphic integral field unit with the sensitivity and resolution to detect planetary companions with separations of 0”.2 to 1”.0 around a large set of stars. An 890-hour GPI survey of 600 young, nearby stars commenced in late-2014, and approximately 100 stars have been observed thus far. The central aims of the program are: (1) the discovery of a population of giant planets with orbital radii of 5-50 AU comparable to Solar System gas giant orbits, (2) the characterization of the atmospheric properties of young planetary companions, and (3) the exploration of planet-disk interactions. Initial results from GPI exoplanet observations include the discovery of a new planetary companion to a young F-star; the planet spectrum shows a strong signature of methane absorption, indicating a cooler temperature than previously imaged young planets. An overview of the survey scope, current detection limits, and initial results will be presented.

  18. Initial results with a multisource inverse-geometry CT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Jongduk; Pelc, Norbert J.; Deman, Bruno; Uribe, Jorge; Harrison, Daniel; Reynolds, Joseph; Neculaes, Bogdan; Inzinna, Louis; Caiafa, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    The multi-source inverse-geometry CT(MS-IGCT) system is composed of multiple sources and a small 2D detector array. An experimental MS-IGCT system was built and we report initial results with 2×4 x-ray sources, a 75 mm inplane field-of-view (FOV) and 160 mm z-coverage in a single gantry rotation. To evaluate the system performance, experimental data were acquired from several phantoms and a post-mortem rat. Before image reconstruction, geometric calibration, data normalization, beam hardening correction and detector spectral calibration were performed. For reconstruction, the projection data were rebinned into two full cone beam data sets, and the FDK algorithm was used. The reconstructed volumes from the upper and lower source rows shared an overlap volume which was combined in image space. The reconstructed images of the uniform cylinder phantom showed good uniformity of the reconstructed values without any artifacts. The rat data were also reconstructed reliably. The initial experimental results from this rotating-gantry MS-IGCT system demonstrated its ability to image a complex anatomical object without any significant image artifacts and to ultimately achieve large volumetric coverage in a single gantry rotation.

  19. Initial Results from the Controlled Shear Decorrelation Experiment (CSDX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tynan, George; Yun, Seok-Min; Burin, Michael; George, Jonathan

    2000-10-01

    The controlled shear de-correlation experiment (CSDX) has been designed to study the effect of sheared flows on: (1) known linear pressure gradient-driven drift and/or effective gravity-driven flute eigenmodes; (2) the nonlinear three-wave coupling of a finite number of large amplitude coherent modes; and (3) on the rate of electrostatic turbulent fluctuation energy cascades. In CSDX the plasma state (i.e. quiescent, single small-amplitude drift wave, nonlinearly coupled modes, or strongly turbulent) is controlled by varying the magnetic field strength, collisionality, parallel current, and/or effective gravity due to solid-body plasma rotation driven by azimuthal ExB drifts. The radial electric field strength and shear rate is controlled independently of the plasma state by the application of externally controlled voltages to concentric annular rings which will form the ends of the experimental region. Machine construction has been completed and initial results demonstrating all of these capabilities are summarized in this paper. From the fluid equations we show that bispectral analysis of turbulence-scaled processes can yield insight into the key nonlinear physics of shear flow-fluctuation interactions. Initial results and plans using this technique on CSDX data will be discussed.

  20. Initial Results of an MDO Method Evaluation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Kodiyalam, Srinivas

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Langley MDO method evaluation study seeks to arrive at a set of guidelines for using promising MDO methods by accumulating and analyzing computational data for such methods. The data are collected by conducting a series of re- producible experiments. In the first phase of the study, three MDO methods were implemented in the SIGHT: framework and used to solve a set of ten relatively simple problems. In this paper, we comment on the general considerations for conducting method evaluation studies and report some initial results obtained to date. In particular, although the results are not conclusive because of the small initial test set, other formulations, optimality conditions, and sensitivity of solutions to various perturbations. Optimization algorithms are used to solve a particular MDO formulation. It is then appropriate to speak of local convergence rates and of global convergence properties of an optimization algorithm applied to a specific formulation. An analogous distinction exists in the field of partial differential equations. On the one hand, equations are analyzed in terms of regularity, well-posedness, and the existence and unique- ness of solutions. On the other, one considers numerous algorithms for solving differential equations. The area of MDO methods studies MDO formulations combined with optimization algorithms, although at times the distinction is blurred. It is important to

  1. Frequency Spectrum for New Aviation Data Links: Initial Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matolak, David W.; Branstetter, James R.

    2004-01-01

    We describe results from an initial study to assess the suitability of various spectral bands for supporting the deployment of new aviation data links (ADL). The study focused on systems and spectral bands that can deliver VHF data link (VDL)-or-higher data rates in a two-way communication setting, including air-ground, ground-air, and air-air modes of operation. In the first part of our paper, we briefly discuss the current situation regarding communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS) links and existing spectrum, and the well-known need for new aviation data links. We next provide an overview of related systems, and discuss key factors involved in the use of spectrum in various bands for any future integrated CNS data link, addressing primarily the lower few layers of the communications protocol stack. Desired attributes of a new ADL system are discussed, and the beneficial aspects of a particular transmission technique spread spectrum are summarized. We also provide a short list of several example potential spectral regions, and note that while none of the existing systems will likely meet the full range of desired features of a new ADL, several systems and spectral regions offer promise in terms of one or more characteristics. A detailed discussion and evaluation of these spectral regions is proposed as future work. We include a few brief examples to illustrate initial technical results regarding spread spectrum overlay, also a subject for future work.

  2. Plasma waves near Saturn: Initial results from Voyager 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Scarf, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager 1 encounter with Saturn provided the first opportunity to investigate plasma wave interactions in the magnetosphere of Saturn. An overview of the principal results from the Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument is presented starting with the initial detection of Saturn and ending about four weeks after closest approach. A survey plot of the electric field intensities detected during the Saturn encounter is shown starting shortly before the inbound shock crossing and ending shortly after the outbound magnetopause crossing. Many intense waves were observed in the vicinity of Saturn. To provide a framework for presenting the observations, the results are discussed more or less according to the sequence in which the data were obtained.

  3. Initial results on positron confinement in a magnetospheric configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Haruhiko; Yoshida, Zensho; Yano, Yoshihisa; Morikawa, Junji

    2011-10-01

    Creation of positron-electron plasma in a laboratory is an interesting and challenging subject, which may open many scientific applications. Although single-component plasma is stably confined in linear traps, for example Penning-Malmberg trap, it is not straightforward to simultaneously confine electrons and positrons as plasma. Toroidal geometries have advantages for solving this problem. For this purpose, studies on toroidal non-neutral plasma have been conducted in the levitated magnetospheric configuration, RT-1. Stable confinement and self-organization of toroidal non-neutral plasma was realized in RT-1; rigid-rotating pure electron plasma is confined for more than 300s [Z. Yoshida et al., PRL 104, 235004 (2010)]. As the initial step toward the formation of magnetospheric antimatter plasmas, we installed a 1MBq Na-22 radiation source in RT-1. Annihilation gamma-rays were observed by a NaI(TI) scintillator detector, for the estimation of basic injection and confinement properties of positrons in the magnetospheric configuration. Numerical analysis of positron orbits in RT-1 and the initial experimental results will be presented. Work funded by MEXT of Japan (23224014, 23654201).

  4. Initial results from the DSPlanar experiments on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, E. S.; Merritt, E. C.; Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W.; Schmidt, D. W.; Cardenas, T.; Wilson, D. C.; Batha, S. H.

    2016-10-01

    Recently, LANL has begun a project aimed ultimately at fielding a neutron-producing double-shell capsule at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Initial experiments have begun at both the NIF and OMEGA laser facilities over the last year. At OMEGA, halfraum-driven planar targets will be used to study physics issues important to double shell implosions, but outside of a convergent geometry. In particular, side-on radiography through a tube has advantages over imaging through the hohlraum and double-shell capsule at NIF. We plan to study a number physics issues with this platform, including both 1-d and higher dimensional effects. In 1-d, momentum transfer from the ablator to the inner shell, and the effect of pre-heat on the inner shell can be studied. Higher dimensional effects, in the form of hydrodynamic instabilities, can also be studied. Pre-heat expansion of the inner shell can lead to an unstable interface, which can be mitigated by a tamper layer. Manufacturing tolerances can be used to mitigate against feature-driven instability growth, such as from a glue joint or fill tube. Initial results on the amount pre-heat from various ablator materials will be given, along with a discussion of future plans. Supported under the US DOE by the LANS, LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. LA-UR-16-25044.

  5. Aquarius Retrieval of Sea Ice Thickness: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Matthaeis, Paolo; Utku, C.; Le Vine, David M.; Moyer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aquarius brightness temperature data are used to calculate sea ice thickness in the Arctic region. The method is based on the inversion of a radiative transfer model for icecovered sea. Using this technique, the initial sea ice thickness values retrieved from Aquarius data are compared to the SMOSIce Data as well as to estimates from NASA's Operation IceBridge. The results show similar trends between the SMOS- and Aquarius-derived sea ice thickness, however the Aquarius estimates tend to be higher and noisier than the corresponding SMOS values. The accuracy of retrieved Aquarius ice thickness is possibly influenced by uncertainties in the ancillary input parameters and by the coarser resolutions of Aquarius.

  6. Np Behavior in Synthesized Uranyl Phases: Results of Initial Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Douglas, Matthew; McNamara, Bruce K.; Clark, Sue B.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2004-09-28

    Initial tests were completed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for developing a potential mechanism to retard the mobility of neptunium at the Yucca Mountain repository. Neptunium is of concern because of its mobility in the environment and long half life, contributing a large percentage of the potential dose over extended times at the perimeter of the site. The mobility of neptunium could be retarded by associating with uranium mineral phases. The following four uranium mineral phases were examined and are potential secondary phases expected to form as a result of interactions of spent nuclear fuel with the local environment: meta-schoepite, studtite, uranophane, and sodium boltwoodite. The fate of the neptunium was examined in these synthetic experiments.

  7. Initial Results From The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canizares, C. R.; Davis, D. S.; Dewey, D.; Flanagan, K. A.; Houck, J.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Marshall, H. L.; Schattenburg, M. L.; Schulz, N. S.; Wise, M.

    2000-01-01

    The High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) on the Chandra X-ray Observatory provides spectral resolving powers of 200-1000 over the range 0.4-8.0 keV (1.5-30 A) with effective area of 2-200 square centimeters. Initial observations during the activation and calibration phases of the mission show that the HETGS is performing as predicted prior to Chandra launch. The talk presented very preliminary results that illustrate the power of the HETGS for performing detailed studies of a wide range of celestial sources, including plasma diagnostics. This written version gives a brief summary of that talk with examples of preliminary spectra of Capella, the Crab pulsar, SS433 and the SNR E0102-72.

  8. Initial second-generation PFB carbonizer pilot plant test results

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Van Hook, J. ); Froehlich, R. ); Bonk, D.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) plants promise higher efficiency with lower costs of electricity and lower stack emissions. With a l6.55 MPa/538{degree}C/538{degree}C/63.5-mm Hg(2400-psig/1000{degree} F/1000{degree}F/2.5-in.Hg) conventional steam cycle and a 3-percent sulfur Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, a 45-percent efficiency and a cost of electricity {approximately} 20 percent lower than that of a pulverized-coal-fired plant with stack gas scrubbing are being projected. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation has constructed and is operating a second-generation PFB pilot plant at the Foster Wheeler research facility (the John Blizard Research Center) in Livingston, New Jersey. Initial results of the pilot plant carbonizer test program supporting the development of this new type of plant are presented.

  9. Initial Results from the Variable Intensity Sonic Boom Propagation Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Cliatt, Larry J., II; Bunce, Thomas J.; Gabrielson, Thomas B.; Sparrow, Victor W.; Locey, Lance L.

    2008-01-01

    An extensive sonic boom propagation database with low- to normal-intensity booms (overpressures of 0.08 lbf/sq ft to 2.20 lbf/sq ft) was collected for propagation code validation, and initial results and flight research techniques are presented. Several arrays of microphones were used, including a 10 m tall tower to measure shock wave directionality and the effect of height above ground on acoustic level. A sailplane was employed to measure sonic booms above and within the atmospheric turbulent boundary layer, and the sailplane was positioned to intercept the shock waves between the supersonic airplane and the ground sensors. Sailplane and ground-level sonic boom recordings were used to generate atmospheric turbulence filter functions showing excellent agreement with ground measurements. The sonic boom prediction software PCBoom4 was employed as a preflight planning tool using preflight weather data. The measured data of shock wave directionality, arrival time, and overpressure gave excellent agreement with the PCBoom4-calculated results using the measured aircraft and atmospheric data as inputs. C-weighted acoustic levels generally decreased with increasing height above the ground. A-weighted and perceived levels usually were at a minimum for a height where the elevated microphone pressure rise time history was the straightest, which is a result of incident and ground-reflected shock waves interacting.

  10. Mars Science Laboratory relative humidity observations: Initial results

    PubMed Central

    Harri, A-M; Genzer, M; Kemppinen, O; Gomez-Elvira, J; Haberle, R; Polkko, J; Savijärvi, H; Rennó, N; Rodriguez-Manfredi, JA; Schmidt, W; Richardson, M; Siili, T; Paton, M; Torre-Juarez, M De La; Mäkinen, T; Newman, C; Rafkin, S; Mischna, M; Merikallio, S; Haukka, H; Martin-Torres, J; Komu, M; Zorzano, M-P; Peinado, V; Vazquez, L; Urqui, R

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (REMS-H), and UV measurements. We concentrate on describing the REMS-H measurement performance and initial observations during the first 100 MSL sols as well as constraining the REMS-H results by comparing them with earlier observations and modeling results. The REMS-H device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc., and it makes use of transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier indirect observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water content. The water mixing ratio in the atmospheric surface layer appears to vary between 30 and 75 ppm. When assuming uniform mixing, the precipitable water content of the atmosphere is ranging from a few to six precipitable micrometers. Key Points Atmospheric water mixing ratio at Gale crater varies from 30 to 140 ppm MSL relative humidity observation provides good data Highest detected relative humidity reading during first MSL 100 sols is RH75% PMID:26213667

  11. Mars Science Laboratory relative humidity observations: Initial results.

    PubMed

    Harri, A-M; Genzer, M; Kemppinen, O; Gomez-Elvira, J; Haberle, R; Polkko, J; Savijärvi, H; Rennó, N; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J A; Schmidt, W; Richardson, M; Siili, T; Paton, M; Torre-Juarez, M De La; Mäkinen, T; Newman, C; Rafkin, S; Mischna, M; Merikallio, S; Haukka, H; Martin-Torres, J; Komu, M; Zorzano, M-P; Peinado, V; Vazquez, L; Urqui, R

    2014-09-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (REMS-H), and UV measurements. We concentrate on describing the REMS-H measurement performance and initial observations during the first 100 MSL sols as well as constraining the REMS-H results by comparing them with earlier observations and modeling results. The REMS-H device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc., and it makes use of transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier indirect observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water content. The water mixing ratio in the atmospheric surface layer appears to vary between 30 and 75 ppm. When assuming uniform mixing, the precipitable water content of the atmosphere is ranging from a few to six precipitable micrometers.

  12. Development of a global tsunami source database - initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    Tsunamis can be triggered by various sources; most commonly earthquakes, volcanoes or landslides. The characterization of tsunami offspring is an important element in the development of tsunami hazard and risk assessments. The world's known tsunami sources have been investigated in various projects and studies, especially with regard to of earthquakes. Some regions have been examined numerous times by researchersand have presented differing results as a result of varying methodologies and data contributions. In addition, certain tsunami sources have very few studies or singular studies associated with them. Thus, the development of a unified, global database which collects all these sources and their so-far identified characteristics is an important step to provide a shared repository for researchers for the development of future models. A collection of more than 50 detailed probabilistic and deterministic tsunami hazard and risk assessments has been taken out and carefully reviewed.This information about tsunami sources has been compiled and geocoded where possible. In addition, paleoseismic and neo-tectonic studies have been used in conjunction with up-to-date instrumental and historic earthquake catalogues to estimate return periods of megathrust earthquake events and to provide sufficiently well constrained estimates of magnitude-dependent earthquake return periods. The variability of these results is also presented within the database. The sources use a simple 3D geometry based on earthquake locations and focal mechanisms which additionally provide information to model characteristic events of each source. The study provides a detailed catalogue of tsunami source geometries, most of which are subduction zone interfaces, spanning from well-studied regions such as the Chile trench to small local sources like the Yap Trench near Palau in the western Pacific or the potentially subducting Northern Algerian front. In addition to earthquake sources, a database of

  13. Rotated 4-strap ICRF antenna: design and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wukitch, S. J.; Beck, W.; Doody, J.; Garret, M.; Koert, P.; Lin, Y.; Vieira, R.; Terry, J.; The Alcator C-MOD Team

    2011-10-01

    Previously, we have utilized low Z thin films to mitigate impurities related to ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antenna operation. A new rotated antenna is has been designed and installed to minimize impurity production by imposing symmetry along the total magnetic field line. The antenna is aligned to a 10° field pitch where the typical discharge range is 7-13° in C-Mod. Compared to our standard antennas (0° pitch), the power density (MW/m2) for the rotated antenna is ~50% higher for a given injected power for the rotated antenna due a decrease in available surface area. Due to geometric limitations, two locations have the RF electric field aligned with the total magnetic field and have potential to limit the antenna voltage handling. Initial results from experiments characterizing the power and voltage limits of the antenna will be presented. Using the standard antennas as reference, we will also present results from comparison of antenna impurity characteristics and their impact on the scrape off layer transport. Supported by US DOE award DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  14. Wuhan Atmospheric Radio Exploration (WARE) radar: implementation and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C.; Qing, H.; Chen, G.; Gu, X.; Ni, B.; Yang, G.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Z.

    2014-11-01

    The recently constructed Wuhan Atmospheric Radio Exploration (WARE) radar is the first mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar in the mainland of China, located at Chongyang, Hubei Province (114°8'8'' E, 29°31'58'' N, ∼ 23° geomagnetic latitude). WARE radar has a capability of probing the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere at the altitudes from 3 to 100 km (excluding 25-60 km). With fine temporal and spatial resolution, WARE radar provides an outstanding opportunity for the first time to extensively and intensively investigate various atmospheric phenomena at the regions of mid-latitude China. In this paper, we present the main configuration and technical specifications of WARE radar system. For the first time, we also report some initial results obtained by the WARE radar: (1) wind field observations from 69 to 85 km and from 3.2 to 16.9 km together with their comparisons with the rawinsonde results, (2) tropopause heights determined by radar echo power and comparisons between radar tropopause and rawinsonde tropopause, (3) atmospheric gravity waves in the troposphere with the wave length and propagation direction analyzed using the hodograph method, (4) aspect sensitivity of echo power at six specified heights in the troposphere and stratosphere, and (5) diurnal and semi-diurnal tides at the tropospheric and low stratospheric heights analyzed by the Lomb-Scargle periodogram method.

  15. Effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on MBR performance and effluent trihalomethane formation: At the initial stage of PAC addition.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Ma, Defang; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Huang, Xia

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the MBR was used to treat municipal wastewater for reuse. Effects of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on MBR system in terms of effluent water quality, trihalomethane (THM) formation and membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant at the initial stage of PAC addition were investigated. Effects of chlorine dose and contact time on THM formation and speciation were also studied. PAC addition enhanced the removal of organic matters, especially aromatic components, which improved the UV254 removal rate from 34% to 83%. PAC addition greatly reduced the membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant. PAC addition reduced the MBR effluent trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) from 351.29 to 241.95μg/L, while increased THM formation reactivity by 42%. PAC addition enhanced the formation of higher toxic bromine-containing THMs. High chlorine dose and contact time resulted in higher THM formation but lower proportion of bromine-containing THMs.

  16. Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen Initial Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Swanger, A. M.; Tomsik, T.

    2015-01-01

    NASA operations for handling cryogens in ground support equipment have not changed substantially in 50 years, despite major technology advances in the field of cryogenics. NASA loses approximately 50% of the hydrogen purchased because of a continuous heat leak into ground and flight vessels, transient chill down of warm cryogenic equipment, liquid bleeds, and vent losses. NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) needs to develop energy-efficient cryogenic ground systems to minimize propellant losses, simplify operations, and reduce cost associated with hydrogen usage. The GODU LH2 project has designed, assembled, and started testing of a prototype storage and distribution system for liquid hydrogen that represents an advanced end-to-end cryogenic propellant system for a ground launch complex. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The system is unique because it uses an integrated refrigeration and storage system (IRAS) to control the state of the fluid. This paper will present and discuss the results of the initial phase of testing of the GODU LH2 system.

  17. Initial Science Results And Operations Procedures At The Etelman Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laquiere, Robert; Neff, J. E.; Gomez-Martin, C.

    2009-05-01

    At 18 degrees north and 65 degrees west, the Etelman Observatory of the University of the Virgin Islands is the southernmost and easternmost optical observatory in the United States. The observatory is located at an elevation of 420 meters on the island of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. The site has exceptionally good seeing, dark skies, and the ability to reach deep into the southern hemisphere and to plug the northern-hemisphere longitude gap between the US and Europe. Astronomers at the College of Charleston, South Carolina State University, and the University of the Virgin Islands have formed a consortium to install a new 0.5-meter telescope and instrumentation. We have also established collaborative programs with astronomers at Clemson University, the University of North Carolina Asheville, and the Sierra Stars Observatory Network. Our operations mode (manual, remote-controlled, or fully robotic) simultaneously supports our research, participation in multi-site campaigns, and the educational and outreach missions of our institutions. We will describe the characteristics of the telescope, instrumentation, and site. We will also provide an overview of the initial science results and of the science plans of the members of the consortium. Further details are available at http://astro.uvi.edu/.

  18. Initial results from the unipolar operation of the RHEPP module

    SciTech Connect

    Harjes, H.C.; Penn, K.J.; Reed, K.W.; McClenahan, C.R.; Laderach, G.E.; Wavrik, R.W.; Adcock, J.L.; Butler, M.E.; Mann, G.A.; Pena, G.E.; Weber, G.J.; VanDeValde, D.; Martinez, L.E.; Muirhead, D.; Kiekel, P.D.; Johnson, D.L.; Neau, E.L.

    1992-08-01

    Several potential applications such as medical waste treatment, chemical waste treatment, food treatment, and flue gas cleanup have been identified for high average power electron beam systems. The technology for such a system is being developed in the RHEPP (Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power) project. The RHEPP module consists of a multistage magnetic pulse compressor driving a linear induction voltage adder with an e-beam diode load. It has been designed to operate continuously, delivering 350 kW of average power to the diode in 60-ns FWHM, 2.5-MV, 2.9-kJ pulses. The module is presently under construction with the first phase scheduled for completion in the summer of 1992. In the first phase, four of ten adder stages are being built so that testing can begin with a I-MV, 160-kW diode with the balance of the power from the compressor diverted to a resistive load. A description of the system and test results from the initial stages of the compressor will be presented.

  19. Initial results from the unipolar operation of the RHEPP module

    SciTech Connect

    Harjes, H.C.; Penn, K.J.; Reed, K.W.; McClenahan, C.R.; Laderach, G.E.; Wavrik, R.W.; Adcock, J.L.; Butler, M.E.; Mann, G.A.; Pena, G.E.; Weber, G.J.; VanDeValde, D.; Martinez, L.E.; Muirhead, D.; Kiekel, P.D.; Johnson, D.L.; Neau, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    Several potential applications such as medical waste treatment, chemical waste treatment, food treatment, and flue gas cleanup have been identified for high average power electron beam systems. The technology for such a system is being developed in the RHEPP (Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power) project. The RHEPP module consists of a multistage magnetic pulse compressor driving a linear induction voltage adder with an e-beam diode load. It has been designed to operate continuously, delivering 350 kW of average power to the diode in 60-ns FWHM, 2.5-MV, 2.9-kJ pulses. The module is presently under construction with the first phase scheduled for completion in the summer of 1992. In the first phase, four of ten adder stages are being built so that testing can begin with a I-MV, 160-kW diode with the balance of the power from the compressor diverted to a resistive load. A description of the system and test results from the initial stages of the compressor will be presented.

  20. Initial results from a ROSAT deep survey in Lynx

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. F.; Windhorst, R. A.; Maccacaro, T.; Burstein, D.; Franklin, B. E.; Griffiths, R. E.; Koo, D. C.; Mathis, D. F.; Morgan, W. A.; Neuschaefer, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results from a deep (70 ksec) Rosat survey of the high galactic latitude selected area Lynx.3A are presented. Lynx.3A sensitivity was previously studied in both the optical radio, with deep Westerbork surveys and deep multicolor Charge Couple Device (CCD) images form the Palomar 200 inch Four-Shooter. About 70 x-ray sources were detected within the central 40 foot diameter region of the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC), observed surface densities of approximately 200 x-ray sources/sq deg are suggested, and these x-ray sources alone account for approximately 30 percent of the cosmic x-ray background (0.9 to 2.2 keV). An initial look at the observed x-ray logN - logS curve is presented, but a detailed assessment requires further study. The 4 sigma limit of about 7 times 10 to the minus 15th power erg/s.sq cm (0.5 to 2.0 keV) is considerably deeper then the Einstein deep surveys, and of comparable sensitivity to the deepest current Rosat surveys. Cross correlation with our Four Shooter optical catalogs yields at least one likely optical candidate for nearly all of the Rosat x-ray sources; a number of the likely optical identifications have colors of quasi-stellar objects (and stellar PSF), but in other cases galaxies/groups are also viable candidates.

  1. Initial water quantification results using neutron computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, A. K.; Shi, L.; Brenizer, J. S.; Mench, M. M.

    2009-06-01

    Neutron computed tomography is an important imaging tool in the field of non-destructive testing and in fundamental research for many engineering applications. Contrary to X-rays, neutrons can be attenuated by some light materials, such as hydrogen, but can penetrate many heavy materials. Thus, neutron computed tomography is useful in obtaining important three-dimensional information about a sample's interior structure and material properties that other traditional methods cannot provide. The neutron computed tomography system at the Pennsylvania State University's Radiation Science and Engineering Center is being utilized to develop a water quantification technique for investigation of water distribution in fuel cells under normal conditions. A hollow aluminum cylinder test sample filled with a known volume of water was constructed for purposes of testing the quantification technique. Transmission images of the test sample at different angles were easily acquired through the synthesis of a dedicated image acquisition computer driving a rotary table controller and an in-house developed synchronization software package. After data acquisition, Octopus (version 8.2) and VGStudio Max (version 1.2) were used to perform cross-sectional and three-dimensional reconstructions of the sample, respectively. The initial reconstructions and water quantification results are presented.

  2. Ground operations demonstration unit for liquid hydrogen initial test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Swanger, A. M.; Tomsik, T.

    2015-12-01

    NASA operations for handling cryogens in ground support equipment have not changed substantially in 50 years, despite major technology advances in the field of cryogenics. NASA loses approximately 50% of the hydrogen purchased because of a continuous heat leak into ground and flight vessels, transient chill down of warm cryogenic equipment, liquid bleeds, and vent losses. NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) needs to develop energy-efficient cryogenic ground systems to minimize propellant losses, simplify operations, and reduce cost associated with hydrogen usage. The GODU LH2 project has designed, assembled, and started testing of a prototype storage and distribution system for liquid hydrogen that represents an advanced end-to-end cryogenic propellant system for a ground launch complex. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The system is unique because it uses an integrated refrigeration and storage system (IRAS) to control the state of the fluid. This paper will present and discuss the results of the initial phase of testing of the GODU LH2 system.

  3. The status and initial results of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoyu; MAJORANA Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is an ultra-low background experiment searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. The search for neutrinoless double-beta decay could determine the Dirac vs Majorana nature of neutrino mass and provide insight to the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe. The DEMONSTRATOR is comprised of 44.8 kg (30 kg enriched in 76Ge) of high purity Ge detectors separated into two modules. Construction and commissioning of both modules completed in Summer 2016 and both modules are now acquiring physics data. In my talk, I will discuss the initial results of the first physics run utilizing both modules focusing primarily on the studies of the background and projections to a ton-scale experiment. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  4. Quantitative MR imaging in fracture dating--Initial results.

    PubMed

    Baron, Katharina; Neumayer, Bernhard; Widek, Thomas; Schick, Fritz; Scheicher, Sylvia; Hassler, Eva; Scheurer, Eva

    2016-04-01

    For exact age determinations of bone fractures in a forensic context (e.g. in cases of child abuse) improved knowledge of the time course of the healing process and use of non-invasive modern imaging technology is of high importance. To date, fracture dating is based on radiographic methods by determining the callus status and thereby relying on an expert's experience. As a novel approach, this study aims to investigate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for bone fracture dating by systematically investigating time-resolved changes in quantitative MR characteristics after a fracture event. Prior to investigating fracture healing in children, adults were examined for this study in order to test the methodology for this application. Altogether, 31 MR examinations in 17 subjects (♀: 11 ♂: 6; median age 34 ± 15 y, scanned 1-5 times over a period of up to 200 days after the fracture event) were performed on a clinical 3T MR scanner (TimTrio, Siemens AG, Germany). All subjects were treated conservatively for a fracture in either a long bone or in the collar bone. Both, qualitative and quantitative MR measurements were performed in all subjects. MR sequences for a quantitative measurement of relaxation times T1 and T2 in the fracture gap and musculature were applied. Maps of quantitative MR parameters T1, T2, and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) were calculated and evaluated by investigating changes over time in the fractured area by defined ROIs. Additionally, muscle areas were examined as reference regions to validate this approach. Quantitative evaluation of 23 MR data sets (12 test subjects, ♀: 7 ♂: 5) showed an initial peak in T1 values in the fractured area (T1=1895 ± 607 ms), which decreased over time to a value of 1094 ± 182 ms (200 days after the fracture event). T2 values also peaked for early-stage fractures (T2=115 ± 80 ms) and decreased to 73 ± 33 ms within 21 days after the fracture event. After that time point, no

  5. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  6. The Frontier Fields: Survey Design and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotz, J. M.; Koekemoer, A.; Coe, D.; Grogin, N.; Capak, P.; Mack, J.; Anderson, J.; Avila, R.; Barker, E. A.; Borncamp, D.; Brammer, G.; Durbin, M.; Gunning, H.; Hilbert, B.; Jenkner, H.; Khandrika, H.; Levay, Z.; Lucas, R. A.; MacKenty, J.; Ogaz, S.; Porterfield, B.; Reid, N.; Robberto, M.; Royle, P.; Smith, L. J.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.; Sunnquist, B.; Surace, J.; Taylor, D. C.; Williams, R.; Bullock, J.; Dickinson, M.; Finkelstein, S.; Natarajan, P.; Richard, J.; Robertson, B.; Tumlinson, J.; Zitrin, A.; Flanagan, K.; Sembach, K.; Soifer, B. T.; Mountain, M.

    2017-03-01

    What are the faintest distant galaxies we can see with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) now, before the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope? This is the challenge taken up by the Frontier Fields, a Director’s discretionary time campaign with HST and the Spitzer Space Telescope to see deeper into the universe than ever before. The Frontier Fields combines the power of HST and Spitzer with the natural gravitational telescopes of massive high-magnification clusters of galaxies to produce the deepest observations of clusters and their lensed galaxies ever obtained. Six clusters—Abell 2744, MACSJ0416.1-2403, MACSJ0717.5+3745, MACSJ1149.5+2223, Abell S1063, and Abell 370—have been targeted by the HST ACS/WFC and WFC3/IR cameras with coordinated parallel fields for over 840 HST orbits. The parallel fields are the second-deepest observations thus far by HST with 5σ point-source depths of ∼29th ABmag. Galaxies behind the clusters experience typical magnification factors of a few, with small regions magnified by factors of 10–100. Therefore, the Frontier Field cluster HST images achieve intrinsic depths of ∼30–33 mag over very small volumes. Spitzer has obtained over 1000 hr of Director’s discretionary imaging of the Frontier Field cluster and parallels in IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands to 5σ point-source depths of ∼26.5, 26.0 ABmag. We demonstrate the exceptional sensitivity of the HST Frontier Field images to faint high-redshift galaxies, and review the initial results related to the primary science goals.

  7. Initial results of the 2011 Geoid Slope Validation Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA), National Geodetic Survey (NGS) has embarked on a ten year project called GRAV-D (Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum).The purpose of this project is to replace the current official vertical datum, NAVD 88 (the North American Vertical Datum of 1988) with a geopotential reference system based on a new survey of the gravity field and a gravimetric geoid. As part of GRAV-D, NGS plans to execute a set of "geoid validation surveys" at various locations of the country.These will be surveys designed to independently measure the geoid to provide a check against both the data and theory used to create the final gravimetric geoid which will be used in the geopotential reference system. The first of these surveys, known as the Geoid Slope Validation Survey of 2011 (GSVS11) was executed between July and October, 2011 in the west central region of Texas.The survey took place over a 330 kilometer line running more or less north-south from Austin to Corpus Christi, Texas.Measurements were taken at 220 marks (one per mile) and included static GPS, RTN GPS, geodetic leveling, astro-geodetic deflections of the vertical using the Swiss DIADEM camera, absolute gravity, gravity gradients and LIDAR.This region was chosen for many factors including the availability of GRAV-D airborne gravity over the area, its relatively low elevation (220 meter orthometric height max), its geoid slope (about 130 cm over 300 km), lack of significant topographic relief, lack of large forestation, availability of good roads, clarity of weather and lack of large water crossings. This talk will outline the initial results of the survey, specifically the comparison of various geoid slopes over this region:gravimetric geoid models (with and without airborne gravity), minimally constrained GPS and leveling and from astro-geodetic deflections of the vertical.

  8. Initial results from the NASA-Lewis wave rotor experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jack; Fronek, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Wave rotors may play a role as topping cycles for jet engines, since by their use, the combustion temperature can be raised without increasing the turbine inlet temperature. In order to design a wave rotor for this, or any other application, knowledge of the loss mechanisms is required, and also how the design parameters affect those losses. At NASA LeRC, a 3-port wave rotor experiment operating on the flow-divider cycle, has been started with the objective of determining the losses. The experimental scheme is a three factor Box-Behnken design, with passage opening time, friction factor, and leakage gap as the factors. Variation of these factors is provided by using two rotors, of different length, two different passage widths for each rotor, and adjustable leakage gap. In the experiment, pressure transducers are mounted on the rotor, and give pressure traces as a function of rotational angle at the entrance and exit of a rotor passage. In addition, pitot rakes monitor the stagnation pressures for each port, and orifice meters measure the mass flows. The results show that leakage losses are very significant in the present experiment, but can be reduced considerably by decreasing the rotor to wall clearance spacing.

  9. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  10. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  11. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Davis, James M.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Lukins, Craig D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Smith, Dennese M.

    2012-12-01

    rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of this report is to present the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the large-scale test stand. The report includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodology, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging of small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. 2012a. The results of the aerosol measurements in the small-scale test stand are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012b).

  12. Initial results from Topo-Iberia continuous GPS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio, Eva; Khazaradze, Giorgi

    2010-05-01

    Topo-Iberia GPS network consists of 26 continuous GPS reference stations located in the Spanish part of the Iberian Peninsula (22 stations) and northern Morocco (4 stations). The first station was installed at Cabo Busto (Asturias) in March 2008 and the last one at Sierra Nevada (Betics) in October 2008. Since this date all the stations are fully operational. The network has been designed as two X-shaped transects crossing the Iberian Peninsula from NE to SW and NW to SE, with denser coverage in the seismically active areas of the Betics, Pyrenees and Cantabrian chains. During the design of the spatial distribution of the network, we took into account the existence of the already functioning GPS networks, especially ones which had high-quality monumentations that could satisfy the high-precision geodetic standards, required for tectonic deformation monitoring. For this reason, due to the existence of the CatNet CGPS network in Catalonia (www.icc.cat), we have not installed any new stations in this part of Spain. A major objective behind the establishment of this array is to monitor millimeter level deformation of the crust due to the collision of African and Eurasian (including Iberian micro-plate) tectonic plates. More specific goals of the project include the identification of the areas and/or specific seismic faults which exhibit higher deformation rates, which could imply an increased seismic hazard in these specifics areas. Here we report the initial results of data analysis performed at the University of Barcelona using GAMIT/GLOBK software from MIT (Herring et al. 2006; King & Bock 2004). The analysis was performed in a network mode strategy using double-differences. In this processing mode all the stations are analyzed together and the ambiguities are resolved. In total we have processed daily data from more than 120 continuous GPS sites, that included the 26 Topo-Iberia CGPS sites; 22 core stations of IGS and EUREF, as well as, the data from the Spanish

  13. Update and Initial Results from The COHERENT Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Taking advantage of technologies which have come to maturity and the availability of a world-class pulsed neutrino source, the COHERENT collaboration seeks to make the first unambiguous measurement of coherent, elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS). Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutron Source is, as a by-product of the spallation process, an intense, pulsed neutrino source. The high beam power of the SNS results in a high neutrino flux, and the energy spectrum of emitted neutrinos is well-suited for CEvNS detection: coherence is preserved in nearly all scattering events while generating nuclear recoil events above threshold for a number of established detector technologies. Additionally, the pulsed nature and short duty cycle of the SNS beam allow for powerful reduction of backgrounds not associated with the beam. The COHERENT Collaboration is deploying a suite of low threshold detectors (CsI[Na] scintillator, high-purity Ge detector array, 2-phase Xe TPC) at the SNS to detect CEvNS, in a manner that limits systematic uncertainties and observes the N2-dependence on the cross section. The current status of the efforts of the collaboration's efforts will be discussed and longer-term physics goals of the collaboration will be addressed, including searches for non-standard neutrino interactions and a measurement of the Weak mixing angle. Assessments of the backgrounds present in the detector locations will be discussed, including new measurements of neutrino-induced neutron production in candidate shielding materials. Preliminary measurements will be presented from existing deployments, as will implementation plans for upcoming detector systems.

  14. Changes in science classrooms resulting from collaborative action research initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Phil Seok

    Collaborative action research was undertaken over two years between a Korean science teacher and science education researchers at the University of Iowa. For the purpose of realizing science learning as envisioned by constructivist principles, Group-Investigations were implemented three or five times per project year. In addition, the second year project enacted Peer Assessments among students. Student perceptions of their science classrooms, as measured by the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), provided evidence that the collaborative action research was successful in creating constructivist learning environments. Student attitudes toward science lessons, as examined by the Enjoyment of Science Lessons Scale (ESLS), indicated that the action research also contributed to developing more positive attitudes of students about science learning. Discourse analysis was conducted on video-recordings of in-class presentations and discussions. The results indicated that students in science classrooms which were moving toward constructivist learning environments engaged in such discursive practices as: (1) Communicating their inquiries to others, (2) Seeking and providing information through dialogues, and (3) Negotiating conflicts in their knowledge and beliefs. Based on these practices, science learning was viewed as the process of constructing knowledge and understanding of science as well as the process of engaging in scientific inquiry and discourse. The teacher's discursive practices included: (1) Wrapping up student presentations, (2) Addressing misconceptions, (3) Answering student queries, (4) Coaching, (5) Assessing and advising, (6) Guiding students discursively into new knowledge, and (7) Scaffolding. Science teaching was defined as situated acts of the teacher to facilitate the learning process. In particular, when the classrooms became more constructivist, the teacher intervened more frequently and carefully in student activities to fulfill a

  15. Initial hot plasma composition results from the Dynamics Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, E. G.; Johnson, R. G.; Peterson, W. K.; Sharp, R. D.; Balsiger, H.; Eberhardt, P.; Geiss, J.; Ghielmetti, A.; Whalen, B. A.; Young, D. T.

    1983-01-01

    Initial observations from the energetic ion composition spectrometer on the DE-1 spacecraft have found mass or charge dependent processes to be operating in the vicinity of an inverted-V event in the auroral acceleration region, above the polar cap ionosphere, and in the mid-altitude dayside cusp. Separate color spectrograms for the different ion species provide a synoptic picture of these processes that can contribute significantly to our understanding of both the solar wind and the ionosphere as sources of energetic magnetospheric ions.

  16. PAH growth initiated by propargyl addition: mechanism development and computational kinetics.

    PubMed

    Raj, Abhijeet; Al Rashidi, Mariam J; Chung, Suk Ho; Sarathy, S Mani

    2014-04-24

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) growth is known to be the principal pathway to soot formation during fuel combustion, as such, a physical understanding of the PAH growth mechanism is needed to effectively assess, predict, and control soot formation in flames. Although the hydrogen abstraction C2H2 addition (HACA) mechanism is believed to be the main contributor to PAH growth, it has been shown to under-predict some of the experimental data on PAHs and soot concentrations in flames. This article presents a submechanism of PAH growth that is initiated by propargyl (C3H3) addition onto naphthalene (A2) and the naphthyl radical. C3H3 has been chosen since it is known to be a precursor of benzene in combustion and has appreciable concentrations in flames. This mechanism has been developed up to the formation of pyrene (A4), and the temperature-dependent kinetics of each elementary reaction has been determined using density functional theory (DFT) computations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory and transition state theory (TST). H-abstraction, H-addition, H-migration, β-scission, and intramolecular addition reactions have been taken into account. The energy barriers of the two main pathways (H-abstraction and H-addition) were found to be relatively small if not negative, whereas the energy barriers of the other pathways were in the range of (6-89 kcal·mol(-1)). The rates reported in this study may be extrapolated to larger PAH molecules that have a zigzag site similar to that in naphthalene, and the mechanism presented herein may be used as a complement to the HACA mechanism to improve prediction of PAH and soot formation.

  17. Initial Physics Results From the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bialek, J.

    2001-01-03

    The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to extend the understanding of toroidal physics to low aspect ratio (R/a approximately equal to 1.25) in low collisionality regimes. NSTX is designed to operate with up to 6 MW of High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating and current drive, 5 MW of Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) and Co-Axial Helicity Injection (CHI) for non-inductive startup. Initial experiments focused on establishing conditions that will allow NSTX to achieve its aims of simultaneous high-bt and high-bootstrap current fraction, and to develop methods for non-inductive operation, which will be necessary for Spherical Torus power plants. Ohmic discharges with plasma currents up to 1 MA and with a range of shapes and configurations were produced. Density limits in deuterium and helium reached 80% and 120% of the Greenwald limit respectively. Significant electron heating was observed with up to 2.3 MW of HHFW. Up to 270 kA of toroidal current for up to 200 msec was produced noninductively using CHI. Initial NBI experiments were carried out with up to two beam sources (3.2 MW). Plasmas with stored energies of up to 140 kJ and bt =21% were produced.

  18. [Initial results with bright light (phototherapy) in affective psychoses].

    PubMed

    Peter, K; Räbiger, U; Kowalik, A

    1986-07-01

    The biological foundations of light-treatment and their relation to neurophysiological and biochemical mechanisms were discussed. We developed an apparatus for treatment and report of first experiences in affective psychosis. In addition to a decrease of depressivity and anxiety we found an unequivocal tendency to normalization of sleep-behaviour. The farther clinical and paraclinical investigations has to show the position of this method of treatment in the total conception of a biological therapy.

  19. Promising Breakthroughs: Initial Results of the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation's Breaking Through Initiative. In Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.; Barnett, Elisabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    The Breaking Through (BT) initiative of the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation seeks to prepare low-skilled adults, adult learners who are below college-level in reading, writing and/or mathematics, often lacking a high school diploma, and frequently low-income, to be successful in college and the labor market by strengthening and expanding policies…

  20. Initial results from the VPI&SU SIRIO diversity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towner, G. C.; Marshall, R. E.; Stutzman, W. L.; Bostian, C. W.; Pratt, T.; Manus, E. A.; Wiley, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    The first year of observations of the precipitation effects on the 11.6-GHz beacon signal from the SIRIO satellite are reported. This experiment is unique in that it uses dual-polarized receivers in a diversity configuration and a low path elevation angle. Rain rate, attenuation, and isolation statistics are presented for both sites. In addition, attenuation diversity gain is plotted and compared to current models. Isolation diversity gain is also discussed. It was found that little improvement in dual-channel isolation is obtained with site diversity at this low elevation angle. The influence of ice clouds was noted in the months of October and November.

  1. Initial results of a positron tomograph for prostate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.S.; Choong, W.S.; Moses, W.W.; Qi, J.; Hu, J.; Wang,G.C.; Wilson, D.; Oh, S.; Huesman, R.H.; Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.

    2004-11-29

    We present the status and initial images of a positrontomograph for prostate imaging that centers a patient between a pair ofexternal curved detector banks (ellipse: 45 cm minor, 70 cm major axis).The distance between detector banks adjusts to allow patient access andto position the detectors as closely as possible for maximum sensitivitywith patients of various sizes. Each bank is composed of two axial rowsof 20 CTI PET Systems HR+ block detectors for a total of 80 modules inthe camera. Compared to an ECAT HR PET system operating in 3D mode, ourcamera uses about one-quarter the number of detectors and hasapproximately the same sensitivity for a central point source, becauseour detectors are close to the patient. The individual detectors areangled in the plane to point towards the prostate to minimize resolutiondegradation in that region. The detectors are read out by modified CTIdata acquisition electronics. We have completed construction of thegantry and electronics, have developed detector calibration and dataacquisition software, and are taking coincidence data. We demonstratethat we can clearly visualize a "prostate" in a simple phantom.Reconstructed images of two phantoms are shown.

  2. Initial results from a folded waveguide ICRF antenna development project

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, T.S.; Cole, M.J.; Fadnek, A.; Carter, M.D.; Fogelman, C.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Ryan, P.M.; Sparks, D.O.; Taylor, D.J.; Yugo, J.J.; Wilson, J.R.; Bernabei, S.; Kugel, H.

    1997-04-01

    A folded waveguide (FWG) ICRF launcher has been built and preliminary high power tests completed. This project is intended to provide a proof-of-principle test, using a high density plasma load, of the high power density capability and other ITER-relevant advanced features of the FWG. The design is a 12 vane, 57 MHz unit with a quarter-wavelength resonator configuration. This FWG has a 0.31 m square cross section that can be installed with either fast wave or ion-Bernstein wave polarization and can also be retracted behind a vacuum isolation valve. A primary issue to be addressed by this project is the plasma loading and maximum power capability of the FWG. Initial high power tests on the ORNL Radio Frequency Test Facility have been conducted. Modeling of the FWG electromagnetic fields and calculations of loading have been performed as well as an investigation of alternate face plate designs that improve the coupling by allowing greater magnetic field penetration into the plasma. This FWG was originally designed for TFTR or PBX-M and is now being considered for the DIII-D tokamak at GA, the NSTX small aspect ratio device under construction at PPPL and the possible FSX experiment at PPPL. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Initial results from a folded waveguide ICRF antenna development project

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, T.S.; Cole, M.J.; Fadnek, A.

    1997-08-01

    A folded waveguide (FWG) ICRF launcher has been built and preliminary high power tests completed. This project is intended to provide a proof-of-principle test, using a high density plasma load, of the high power density capability and other ITER-relevant advanced features of the FWG. The design is a 12 vane, 57 MHz unit with a quarter-wavelength resonator configuration. This FWG has a 0.31 m square cross section that can be installed with either fast wave or ion-Bernstein wave polarization and can also be retracted behind a vacuum isolation valve. A primary issue to be addressed by this project is the plasma loading and maximum power capability of the FWG. Initial high power tests on the ORNL Radio Frequency Test Facility have been conducted. Modeling of the FWG electromagnetic fields and calculations of loading have been performed as well as an investigation of alternate face plate designs that improve the coupling by allowing greater magnetic field penetration into the plasma. This FWG was originally designed for TFTR or PBX-M and is now being considered for the DIII-D tokamak at GA, the NSTX small aspect ratio device under construction at PPPL and the possible FSX experiment at PPPL.

  4. Initial results of Pakistan's first road traffic injury surveillance project.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Shahzad; Razzak, Junaid A; Jooma, Rashid; Khan, Uzma

    2011-09-01

    Our aim is to report the findings of the initial three years of road traffic injuries (RTI) surveillance at Karachi and to compare it with previously published RTI-related data from Pakistan and other low-and middle-income countries. Data were collected through the RTI surveillance programme at Karachi (RTIRP) from the five biggest emergency departments of the city, which receive almost all the major emergencies of the city for the period September 2006 till September 2009. A total of 99,272 victims were enlisted by the RTIRP during the study period. Annual incidence of RTI is calculated to be 184.3 per 100,000 populations and mortality is 5.7 per 100,000 populations. Eighty nine per cent of victims are male and 73% are between 15 and 44 years of age. Commonest road user to be affected is riders of two wheelers (45%). Only 7% of affected motorcyclists were found to be wearing helmets at the time of the accident. Trends of injuries remained uniform over the years. Most frequent injuries were external wounds, followed by orthopaedic injuries. On the basis of our surveillance system, we have presented the largest RTI-related data from a metropolitan city of Pakistan to date.

  5. The August 2011 URSI World Day campaign: Initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immel, Thomas J.; Liu, Guiping; England, Scott L.; Goncharenko, Larisa P.; Erickson, Philip J.; Lyashenko, Mykhaylo V.; Milla, Marco; Chau, Jorge; Frey, Harald U.; Mende, Stephen B.; Zhou, Qihou; Stromme, Anja; Paxton, Larry J.

    2015-11-01

    During a 10-day URSI World Day observational campaign beginning on August 1, 2011, an isolated, major geomagnetic storm occurred. On August 5, Kp reached values of 8- and Dst dropped to -113 nT. The occurrence of this isolated storm in the middle of a 10-day URSI World Day campaign provides and unprecedented opportunity to observe the coupling of solar wind energy into the magnetosphere and to evaluate the varied effects that occur in the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. Dramatic changes in the ionosphere are seen at every one of the active radar stations, extending from Greenland down to equatorial Peru in the American sector and at middle latitudes in Ukraine. Data from TIMED and THEMIS are shown to support initial interpretations of the observations, where we focus on processes in the middle latitude afternoon sector during main phase, and the formation of a dense equatorial ionosphere during storm recovery. The combined measurements strongly suggest that the changes in ionospheric conditions observed after the main storm phase can be attributed in large part to changes in the stormtime thermosphere. This is through the generation of disturbance dynamo winds and also global neutral composition changes that either reduce or enhance plasma densities in a manner that depends mainly upon latitude. Unlike larger storms with possibly more sustained forcing, this storm exhibits minimal effects of persistent meridional stormtime wind drag, and little penetration of solar wind electric potentials to low latitudes. It is, therefore, an outstanding example of an impulsive event that exhibits longer-term effects through modification of the background atmosphere.

  6. Nitrogen addition, not initial phylogenetic diversity, increases litter decomposition by fungal communities

    PubMed Central

    Amend, Anthony S.; Matulich, Kristin L.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi play a critical role in the degradation of organic matter. Because different combinations of fungi result in different rates of decomposition, determining how climate change will affect microbial composition and function is fundamental to predicting future environments. Fungal response to global change is patterned by genetic relatedness, resulting in communities with comparatively low phylogenetic diversity (PD). This may have important implications for the functional capacity of disturbed communities if lineages sensitive to disturbance also contain unique traits important for litter decomposition. Here we tested the relationship between PD and decomposition rates. Leaf litter fungi were isolated from the field and deployed in microcosms as mock communities along a gradient of initial PD, while species richness was held constant. Replicate communities were subject to nitrogen fertilization comparable to anthropogenic deposition levels. Carbon mineralization rates were measured over the course of 66 days. We found that nitrogen fertilization increased cumulative respiration by 24.8%, and that differences in respiration between fertilized and ambient communities diminished over the course of the experiment. Initial PD failed to predict respiration rates or their change in response to nitrogen fertilization, and there was no correlation between community similarity and respiration rates. Last, we detected no phylogenetic signal in the contributions of individual isolates to respiration rates. Our results suggest that the degree to which PD predicts ecosystem function will depend on environmental context. PMID:25741330

  7. Nitrogen addition, not initial phylogenetic diversity, increases litter decomposition by fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Amend, Anthony S; Matulich, Kristin L; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2015-01-01

    Fungi play a critical role in the degradation of organic matter. Because different combinations of fungi result in different rates of decomposition, determining how climate change will affect microbial composition and function is fundamental to predicting future environments. Fungal response to global change is patterned by genetic relatedness, resulting in communities with comparatively low phylogenetic diversity (PD). This may have important implications for the functional capacity of disturbed communities if lineages sensitive to disturbance also contain unique traits important for litter decomposition. Here we tested the relationship between PD and decomposition rates. Leaf litter fungi were isolated from the field and deployed in microcosms as mock communities along a gradient of initial PD, while species richness was held constant. Replicate communities were subject to nitrogen fertilization comparable to anthropogenic deposition levels. Carbon mineralization rates were measured over the course of 66 days. We found that nitrogen fertilization increased cumulative respiration by 24.8%, and that differences in respiration between fertilized and ambient communities diminished over the course of the experiment. Initial PD failed to predict respiration rates or their change in response to nitrogen fertilization, and there was no correlation between community similarity and respiration rates. Last, we detected no phylogenetic signal in the contributions of individual isolates to respiration rates. Our results suggest that the degree to which PD predicts ecosystem function will depend on environmental context.

  8. Initial test results with single cylinder rhombic drive Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairelli, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    A brief description is given of the GPU 3-2 hardware, the test methods used, and the result of these tests. Comparison is made to unpublished data from similar hydrogen tests performed by the U.S. Army.

  9. The Performance and Initial Results of the ARIANNA Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Jordan Christian

    The Antarctic Ross Ice-shelf Antenna Neutrino Array (ARIANNA) experiment exploits serendipitous properties of the Ross Ice Shelf in Western Antarctica. The ice shelf forms the fiducial volume of an ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrino detector capable of observing cosmogenic neutrinos with energies in excess of 1017 eV. The clarity of the shelf ice and the reflectivity of the ocean-ice interface enhance the detection of radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic pulses created by neutrino interactions via the Askaryan effect. An array of autonomous electronics stations outfitted with radio antennas listen for these pulses. A prototype station was designed in 2009, using sustainable power and RF trigger and digitization electronics. It was deployed in Moore's Bay in December 2009 during the Austral summer, and additional data was collected in two subsequent seasons after the system rebooted automatically during Austral spring. This data located and helped to remove local anthropogenic noise. A total of 90.4 days of live-time was achieved, with thermal noise as the single background. Additionally, data characterizing the environment of Moore's Bay was collected and used in the development of future power systems and RF electronics. The depth and dielectric properties of the ice beneath the detectors were calculated using data taken during the expeditions. The linear fit to the frequency-dependent, temperature-averaged attenuation length of radio waves is = (500 +/- 30 - (0.18 +/- 0.05)nu[MHz]) m, and the reflection coefficient at the oceanic interface is 0.70 ≤ R ≤ 1.0 at 68% C.L. The depth of the shelf is 576 +/- 2 m. The possibility of surface effects capable of boosting detector sensitivity was also revealed in these studies. Finally, the RF data collected by the first ARIANNA station was analyzed and compared to Monte Carlo simulations modeling the detector response. These studies have produced the first upper limit on the differential UHE neutrino flux from

  10. Critical Risk Results - An Update on International Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Lam, Q; Ajzner, E; Campbell, C A; Young, A

    2016-02-01

    Direct communication of significant (often life-threatening) results is a universally acknowledged role of the pathology laboratory, and an important contributor to patient safety. Amongst the findings of a recent survey of 871 laboratories from 30 countries by the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM), only 3 tests were noted to be common to 90% of alert lists, and only 48% of laboratories consulted clinicians in developing these alert lists despite ISO15189 recommendations to do so. These findings are similar to previous national surveys demonstrating significant variation worldwide in how critical risk results are managed and also in how these protocols are developed. In order to promote "best practice" and harmonization of critical risk results management, guidelines and recommendations have been published, most recently by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB). These statements in particular have placed strong emphasis on patient risk and risk assessment in the management of critical risk results. This focus has resulted in recommendations to adopt new terminology, the consideration of risk assessment when compiling alert tables, consultative involvement of laboratory users in setting up protocols, and the need for outcome-based evidence to support our practices. With time it is expected that emerging evidence and technological improvements will facilitate the advancement of laboratories down this path to harmonization, best practice, and improve patient safety.

  11. Critical Risk Results – An Update on International Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Ajzner, E.; Campbell, C.A.; Young, A.

    2016-01-01

    Direct communication of significant (often life-threatening) results is a universally acknowledged role of the pathology laboratory, and an important contributor to patient safety. Amongst the findings of a recent survey of 871 laboratories from 30 countries by the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM), only 3 tests were noted to be common to 90% of alert lists, and only 48% of laboratories consulted clinicians in developing these alert lists despite ISO15189 recommendations to do so. These findings are similar to previous national surveys demonstrating significant variation worldwide in how critical risk results are managed and also in how these protocols are developed. In order to promote “best practice” and harmonization of critical risk results management, guidelines and recommendations have been published, most recently by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB). These statements in particular have placed strong emphasis on patient risk and risk assessment in the management of critical risk results. This focus has resulted in recommendations to adopt new terminology, the consideration of risk assessment when compiling alert tables, consultative involvement of laboratory users in setting up protocols, and the need for outcome-based evidence to support our practices. With time it is expected that emerging evidence and technological improvements will facilitate the advancement of laboratories down this path to harmonization, best practice, and improve patient safety. PMID:27683507

  12. Initial Satellite Formation Flight Results from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Ottenstein, Neil; Palmer, Eric; Farahmand, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the underlying dynamics of formation flying in a high-eccentricity orbit such as that of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. The GPS-based results used for MMS navigation is summarized, as well as the procedures that are used to design the maneuvers used to place the spacecraft into a tetrahedron formation and then maintain it. The details of how to carry out these maneuvers are then discussed. Finally, the numerical results that have been obtained concerning formation flying for the MMS mission to date (e.g. tetrahedron sizes flown, maneuver execution error, fuel usage, etc.) are presented in detail.

  13. Initial Results from a COS Survey of PG Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh To, Anthony; Rupke, David; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    We investigate 27 low-redshift (z<0.3) quasars in the far ultraviolet with high signal-to-noise spectra from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. One quarter of these galaxies are found to have O VI (1032, 1038 Å) or N V (1239, 1243 Å) doublet absorption features, often with corresponding Ly α and Ly β absorption. Some of these profiles are indicative of outflowing, highly-ionized gas. We find both narrow and broad, blended features. We will present the results from preliminary fits of the absorption profiles.

  14. Initial Results from Awesome VLF Receiver Installed in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Ericson

    2012-07-01

    In this work we present the first results that we have derived from analysis of data obtained using the Atmospheric Weather Electromagnetic System for Observation Modeling and Education (Awesome) VLF receiver, designed and developed by Stanford University, USA. The receiver was installed under inter-institutional cooperation in the emerging Space Science division of the Quito Astronomical Observatory, and it is working properly since 2010. We have describe the performance characteristic of the Awesome system and the importance of having receivers at equator for monitoring the ionosphere and magnetosphere, recepting extremely low frequencies (ELF;30-3000 Hz) and very low frequencies (VLF; 3-30 KHz) electromagnetic waves, in order to better understanding the physical processes which take place in these media.

  15. Initial flight results of the TRMM Kalman filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Stephen F.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.

    1998-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft is a nadir pointing spacecraft that nominally controls attitude based on the Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA) output. After a potential single point failure in the ESA was identified, the contingency attitude determination method chosen to backup the ESA-based system was a sixth-order extended Kalman filter that uses magnetometer and digital sun sensor measurements. A brief description of the TRMM Kalman filter will be given, including some implementation issues and algorithm heritage. Operational aspects of the Kalman filter and some failure detection and correction will be described. The Kalman filter was tested in a sun pointing attitude and in a nadir pointing attitude during the in-orbit checkout period, and results from those tests will be presented. This paper will describe some lessons learned from the experience of the TRMM team.

  16. Initial Flight Results of the TRMM Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Stephen F.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.

    1998-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft is a nadir pointing spacecraft that nominally controls attitude based on the Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA) output. After a potential single point failure in the ESA was identified, the contingency attitude determination method chosen to backup the ESA-based system was a sixth-order extended Kalman filter that uses magnetometer and digital sun sensor measurements. A brief description of the TRMM Kalman filter will be given, including some implementation issues and algorithm heritage. Operational aspects of the Kalman filter and some failure detection and correction will be described. The Kalman filter was tested in a sun pointing attitude and in a nadir pointing attitude during the in-orbit checkout period, and results from those tests will be presented. This paper will describe some lessons learned from the experience of the TRMM team.

  17. Plasma observations near Jupiter - Initial results from Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridge, H. S.; Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.; Sullivan, J. D.; Bagenal, F.; Mcnutt, R. L., Jr.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.; Sittler, E. D.; Vasyliunas, V. M.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary report is presented of the results obtained by the Voyager 2 plasma experiment during the encounter of Voyager 2 with Jupiter from about 100 Jupiter radii before periapsis to about 300 Jupiter radii after periapsis, the instrument being identical to that on Voyager 1. The discussion covers the following: (1) the crossings of the bow shock and magnetopause observed on the inbound and outbound passes; (2) the radial variation of plasma properties in the magnetosphere; (3) variations in plasma properties near Ganymede; (4) corotation and composition of the plasma in the dayside magnetosphere; and (5) plasma sheet crossings observed on the inbound and outbound passes. From the planetary spin modulation of the plasma-electron intensity it is inferred that the plasma sheet is centered at the dipole magnetic equator out to a distance of 40-50 Jupiter radii and deviates from it toward the rotational equator at larger distances.

  18. Voyager spacecraft radio observations of Jupiter - Initial cruise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.; Thieman, J. R.; Riddle, A. C.; Pearce, J. B.; Warwick, J. W.; Lecacheux, A.

    1979-01-01

    Low frequency (below 1326 kHz) observations of Jupiter obtained from November, 1977 through June, 1978 by the radio astronomy receivers carried by the two Voyager spacecraft are reported and compared with a large body of higher-frequency ground-based observations. Although the morphology of hectometric wavelength (HOM) emissions strongly resembles that of decametric (DAM) wavelength radio noise, they display opposite polarization. DAM emissions are strongly modulated by Io, whereas HOM emissions exhibit little or no influence from any satellite and appear to be modulated by the rotation phase of the planet. Several single-source models could possibly account for these results, including a model assuming emission at two well-separated frequencies above and below the local electron plasma frequency and the model proposed by Barbosa (1976) in which electrostatic waves at twice the upper hybrid frequency couple to both the ordinary and extraordinary electromagnetic modes. However, neither of these is entirely satisfactory.

  19. GPS interferometric attitude and heading determination: Initial flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangraas, Frank; Braasch, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Attitude and heading determination using GPS interferometry is a well-understood concept. However, efforts have been concentrated mainly in the development of robust algorithms and applications for low dynamic, rigid platforms (e.g., shipboard). This paper presents results of what is believed by the authors to be the first realtime flight test of a GPS attitude and heading determination system. The system is installed in Ohio University's Douglas DC-3 research aircraft. Signals from four antennas are processed by an Ashtech 3DF 24-channel GPS receiver. Data from the receiver are sent to a microcomputer for storage and further computations. Attitude and heading data are sent to a second computer for display on a software generated artificial horizon. Demonstration of this technique proves its candidacy for augmentation of aircraft state estimation for flight control and navigation as well as for numerous other applications.

  20. GPS interferometric attitude and heading determination - Initial flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Graas, Frank; Braasch, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Attitude and heading determination using GPS interferometry is a well-understood concept. However, efforts have been concentrated mainly in the development of robust algorithms and applications for low-dynamic, rigid platforms (e.g., shipboard). This paper presents results of what is believed to be the first real-time flight test of a GPS attitude and heading determination system. Signals from four antennas are processed by a 24-channel GPS receiver. Data from the receiver are sent to a microcomputer for storage and further computations. Attitude and heading data are sent to a second computer for display on a software-generated artificial horizon. Demonstration of this technique proves its candidacy for augmentation of aircraft state estimation for flight control and navigation, as well as for numerous other applications.

  1. Initial Results from the MAVEN IUVS Echelle Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, John T.; Mayassi, Majd; McClintock, William; Schneider, Nick; Deighan, Justin; Stewart, Ian; Holsclaw, Greg; Jakosky, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    The study of the evolution of water on Mars includes understanding the high D/ H ratio in the atmosphere and surface water today, believed to be linked to the historic loss of a large volume of primordial water (the lighter H escapes faster than the heavier D). Toward this end, the IUVS instrument on MAVEN contains the first echelle spectrograph to be sent to another planet. The system has a novel optical design to enable long-aperture measurements of emission lines in the absence of continuum, intended primarily to measure the H and D Ly α emission lines and thereby the D/H ratio from the martian upper atmosphere. The system also detects the OI 1304 triplet with the three component lines well resolved. The specific scientific goal of the echelle channel is to measure the H and D Ly α emissions, and to discover how the H and D densities, temperatures, and escape fluxes vary with location, season, topography, etc. Recent IR observations indicate large variations in the D/H ratio in the lower atmosphere from location to location, and possibly seasonal changes [Villanueva et al. 2015]. HST and MEX measurements of the H corona of Mars show large (order of magnitude) changes in the H exosphere and escape flux with changing seasons and/or heliospheric distance [Clarke et al. 2014 Chaffin et al. 2014]. Early results from the echelle channel regarding how these parameters apply to martian deuterium will be presented.

  2. Initial results on ionosphere sounding based on GOLPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, V.; Soria, F.; de Haro, B.

    After SAC-C has been successfully launched on 16 November 2000, the GPS flight receiver tracks up to 8 satellites simultaneously for precision orbit determination by GPS O ccultation and Passive Reflection Experiment (GOLPE) . Since these navigation data are measured with a sampling rate of 10s, the dual frequency GPS signals provide valuable information on the ionisation state of the topside ionosphere. Combining differential carrier and code phases, absolute values of the total electron content (TEC) along the numerous radio links are estimated after calibrating the instrumental biases of each SAC-C receiver - GPS transmitter combination in a separate way. The calibration is carried out by applying a model assisted technique under nighttime ionospheric conditions that promises a low ionization level and therefore small calibration errors. The calibrated TEC data derived for a full SAC-C revolution are then assimilated into the Parameterized Ionospheric Model (PIM). The assimilation technique and preliminary results that provide a 2D-reconstruction of the ionosphere electron density in the SAC-C orbit plane from the SAC -C altitude up to GPS orbit heights will be discussed. First order validation checks will be presented using electron density in situ measurements by the Digisonde 256 of Tucumán for selected coincidence cases.

  3. Interventional C-arm tomosynthesis for vascular imaging: initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langan, David A.; Claus, Bernhard E. H.; Al Assad, Omar; Trousset, Yves; Riddell, Cyril; Avignon, Gregoire; Solomon, Stephen B.; Lai, Hao; Wang, Xin

    2015-03-01

    As percutaneous endovascular procedures address more complex and broader disease states, there is an increasing need for intra-procedure 3D vascular imaging. In this paper, we investigate C-Arm 2-axis tomosynthesis ("Tomo") as an alternative to C-Arm Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) for workflow situations in which the CBCT acquisition may be inconvenient or prohibited. We report on our experience in performing tomosynthesis acquisitions with a digital angiographic imaging system (GE Healthcare Innova 4100 Angiographic Imaging System, Milwaukee, WI). During a tomo acquisition the detector and tube each orbit on a plane above and below the table respectively. The tomo orbit may be circular or elliptical, and the tomographic half-angle in our studies varied from approximately 16 to 28 degrees as a function of orbit period. The trajectory, geometric calibration, and gantry performance are presented. We overview a multi-resolution iterative reconstruction employing compressed sensing techniques to mitigate artifacts associated with incomplete data reconstructions. In this work, we focus on the reconstruction of small high contrast objects such as iodinated vasculature and interventional devices. We evaluate the overall performance of the acquisition and reconstruction through phantom acquisitions and a swine study. Both tomo and comparable CBCT acquisitions were performed during the swine study thereby enabling the use of CBCT as a reference in the evaluation of tomo vascular imaging. We close with a discussion of potential clinical applications for tomo, reflecting on the imaging and workflow results achieved.

  4. A prototype tap test imaging system: Initial field test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, J. J.; Barnard, D. J.; Hudelson, N. A.; Simpson, T. S.; Hsu, D. K.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a simple, field-worthy tap test imaging system that gives quantitative information about the size, shape, and severity of defects and damages. The system consists of an accelerometer, electronic circuits for conditioning the signal and measuring the impact duration, a laptop PC and data acquisition and processing software. The images are generated manually by tapping on a grid printed on a plastic sheet laid over the part's surface. A mechanized scanner is currently under development. The prototype has produced images for a variety of aircraft composite and metal honeycomb structures containing flaws, damages, and repairs. Images of the local contact stiffness, deduced from the impact duration using a spring model, revealed quantitatively the stiffness reduction due to flaws and damages, as well as the stiffness enhancement due to substructures. The system has been field tested on commercial and military aircraft as well as rotor blades and engine decks on helicopters. Field test results will be shown and the operation of the system will be demonstrated.—This material is based upon work supported by the Federal Aviation Administration under Contract #DTFA03-98-D-00008, Delivery Order No. IA016 and performed at Iowa State University's Center for NDE as part of the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability program.

  5. Initial Satellite Formation Flight Results from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Ottenstein, Neil; Palmer, Eric; Farahmand, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    This paper will describe the results that have been obtained to date concerning MMS formation flying. The MMS spacecraft spin at a rate of 3.1 RPM, with spin axis roughly aligned with Ecliptic North. Several booms are used to deploy instruments: two 5 m magnetometer booms in the spin plane, two rigid booms of length 12.5 m along the positive and negative spin axes, and four flexible wire booms of length 60 m in the spin plane. Minimizing flexible motion of the wire booms requires that reorientation of the spacecraft spin axis be kept to a minimum: this is limited to attitude maneuvers to counteract the effects of gravity-gradient and apparent solar motion. Orbital maneuvers must therefore be carried out in essentially the nominal science attitude. These burns make use of a set of monopropellant hydrazine thrusters: two (of thrust 4.5 N) along the spin axis in each direction, and eight (of thrust 18 N) in the spin plane; the latter are pulsed at the spin rate to produce a net delta-v. An on-board accelerometer-based controller is used to accurately generate a commanded delta-v. Navigation makes use of a weak-signal GPS-based system: this allows signals to be received even when MMS is flying above the GPS orbits, producing a highly accurate determination of the four MMS orbits. This data is downlinked to the MMS Mission Operations Center (MOC) and used by the MOC Flight Dynamics Operations Area (FDOA) for maneuver design. These commands are then uplinked to the spacecraft and executed autonomously using the controller, with the ground monitoring the burns in real time.

  6. Kepler AutoRegressive Planet Search: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caceres, Gabriel; Feigelson, Eric; Jogesh Babu, G.; Bahamonde, Natalia; Bertin, Karine; Christen, Alejandra; Curé, Michel; Meza, Cristian

    2015-08-01

    The statistical analysis procedures of the Kepler AutoRegressive Planet Search (KARPS) project are applied to a portion of the publicly available Kepler light curve data for the full 4-year mission duration. Tests of the methods have been made on a subset of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI) systems, classified both as planetary `candidates' and `false positives' by the Kepler Team, as well as a random sample of unclassified systems. We find that the ARMA-type modeling successfully reduces the stellar variability, by a factor of 10 or more in active stars and by smaller factors in more quiescent stars. A typical quiescent Kepler star has an interquartile range (IQR) of ~10 e-/sec, which may improve slightly after modeling, while those with IQR ranging from 20 to 50 e-/sec, have improvements from 20% up to 70%. High activity stars (IQR exceeding 100) markedly improve, but visual inspection of the residual series shows that significant deviations from Gaussianity remain for many of them. Although the reduction in stellar signal is encouraging, it is important to note that the transit signal is also altered in the resulting residual time series. The periodogram derived from our Transit Comb Filter (TCF) is most effective for shorter period planets with quick ingress/egress times (relative to Kepler's 29-minute sample rate). We do not expect high sensitivity to periods of hundreds of days. Our findings to date on real-data tests of the KARPS methodology will be discussed including confirmation of some Kepler Team `candidate' planets, no confirmation of some `candidate' and `false positive' sytems, and suggestions of mischosen harmonics in the Kepler Team periodograms. We also present cases of new possible planetary signals.

  7. Mars Science Laboratory: Mission, Landing Site, and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotzinger, John; Blake, D.; Crisp, J.; Edgett, K.; Gellert, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Hassler, D.; Mahaffy, P.; Malin, M.; Meyer, M.; Mitrofanov, I.; Vasavada, A.; Wiens, R.

    2012-10-01

    Scheduled to land on August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, will conduct an investigation of modern and ancient environments. Recent mission results will be discussed. Curiosity has a lifetime of at least one Mars year ( 23 months), and drive capability of at least 20 km. The MSL science payload was specifically assembled to assess habitability and includes a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and gas analyzer that will search for organic carbon in rocks, regolith fines, and the atmosphere; an x-ray diffractometer that will determine mineralogical diversity; focusable cameras that can image landscapes and rock/regolith textures in natural color; an alpha-particle x-ray spectrometer for in situ determination of rock and soil chemistry; a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer to remotely sense the chemical composition of rocks and minerals; an active neutron spectrometer designed to search for water in rocks/regolith; a weather station to measure modern-day environmental variables; and a sensor designed for continuous monitoring of background solar and cosmic radiation. The 155-km diameter Gale Crater was chosen as Curiosity’s field site based on several attributes: an interior mound of ancient flat-lying strata extending almost 5 km above the elevation of the landing site; the lower few hundred meters of the mound show a progression with relative age from clay-bearing to sulfate-bearing strata, separated by an unconformity from overlying likely anhydrous strata; the landing ellipse is characterized by a mixture of alluvial fan and high thermal inertia/high albedo stratified deposits; and a number of stratigraphically/geomorphically distinct fluvial features. Gale’s regional context and strong evidence for a progression through multiple potentially habitable environments, represented by a stratigraphic record of extraordinary extent, insure preservation of a rich record of the environmental history of early Mars.

  8. Initial results from the mission to really early earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, T. M.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Mtree Team

    2003-04-01

    raises the possibility that an earlier report of such an age reflects later U-Pb mobility (see Tera, 2002, EOS 83). \\underline{Inclusion mineralogy}: Many ˜10-100-μm-sized inclusions have been found in >4 Ga zircons, including peraluminous mineral assemblages and sulfide crystals (targeted for Δ33S analysis). \\underline{Geodynamo origin}: Ultra-sensitive analysis methods demonstrate that a Jack Hills zircon carries an intrinsic remenant magnetism raising the possibility of constraining the time of geodynamo activation. \\underline{Extinct radioactivities}: RELAX Xe isotope analyses using 4.15 Ga zircons yield plutogenic 136Xe as high as 35% and indicate a terrestrial Pu/U ratio indistinguishable from chondritic. This result has implications for interpreting mantle-derived Xe isotopes in terms of mantle evolution and the age of the atmosphere.

  9. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  10. Effect of alcohol addition on shock-initiated formation of soot from benzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenklach, Michael; Yuan, Tony

    1988-01-01

    Soot formation in benzene-methanol and benzene-ethanol argon-diluted mixtures was studied behind reflected shock waves by monitoring the attenuation of an He-Ne laser beam. The experiments were performed at temperatures 1580-2250 K, pressures 2.0-3.0 bar, and total carbon atom concentrations (2.0-2.7) x 10 to the 17th atoms/cu cm. The results obtained indicate that the addition of alcohol suppresses the formation of soot from benzene at all temperatures, and that the reduction in soot yields is increased with the amount of alcohol added. The analysis of the results indicates that the suppression effect is probably due to the oxidation of soot and soot precursors by OH and the removal of hydrogen atoms by alcohol and water molecules.

  11. Ash deposits - Initiating the change from empiricism to generic engineering. Part 2: Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Wessel, R.A.; Wagoner, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The goal is to develop and use calculations and measurements from several engineering disciplines that exceed the demonstrated limitations of present empirical techniques for predicting slagging/fouling behavior. In Part I of this paper, general relationships were presented for assessing effects of deposits and sootblowing on the real-time performance of heat transfer surfaces in pilot- and commercial-scale steam generators. In Part 2, these concepts are applied to the gas-side fouling of heat exchanger tubes. Deposition and heat transfer are calculated for superheater tubes in laboratory and utility furnaces. Numerical results for deposit thickness and heat flux are presented. Comparisons with data show agreement, demonstrating that the broad-base engineering approach is promising.

  12. Addition of cysteamine to thymine and thymidine monophosphate, initiated by. gamma. -irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Grachev, S.A.; Kropachev, E.V.; Litvyakova, G.I.

    1986-04-20

    On radiolysis of deaerated solutions containing thymine and cysteamine, or thymidine monophosphate and cysteamine, coupling products of these compounds are formed resulting from the addition of cysteamine to the double bond of the base. The radiochemical yields of the coupling products are dependent on the ratio of the concentration thymine (T) to that of cysteamine (RSH), or of thymidine monophosphate (TMP) to cysteamine in the irradiated solutions, and are at a maximum when (T)/(RSH) = 5-10, and (TMP)/(RSH) = 15-20. The mode of formation of coupling products involves reaction of H-, OH-, and e/sub aq//sup -/-adducts of thymine or thymidine monophosphate with cysteamine thiyl radicals.

  13. Investigating controls on debris-flow initiation and surge frequency at Chalk Cliffs, USA: initial results from monitoring and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kean, J. W.; McCoy, S. W.; Tucker, G. E.; Staley, D. M.; Coe, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    grows in height with the addition of sediment from upstream, while water runoff is sieved through the porous dam. A simple Mohr-Coulomb slope stability model is used to evaluate the balance of forces on the dam and determine when the dam begins to move as a debris flow. Initial model results are in qualitative agreement with our field observations of surge characteristics. The calculations show that, given sufficient sediment supply, multiple episodes of dam failure could occur at the relatively low transport stages associated with moderate intensity rainfall. Rapid in-channel accumulation of sediment needed for dam formation and debris-flow initiation is less likely during the increased runoff associated with high rainfall intensity, because the high shear stress and transport stage inhibit deposition. These observations highlight that for runoff-generated debris flows, moderate rainfall can produce deep and destructive debris flows due to the likely initiation of granular surges.

  14. Bu4N+ alkoxide-initiated/autocatalytic addition reactions with organotrimethylsilanes.

    PubMed

    Das, Manas; O'Shea, Donal F

    2014-06-20

    The use of Me3SiO(-)/Bu4N(+) as a general activator of organotrimethylsilanes for addition reactions has been established. The broad scope of the method offers trimethylsilanes (including acetate, allyl, propargyl, benzyl, dithiane, heteroaryl, and aryl derivatives) as bench-stable organometallics that can be readily utilized as carbanion equivalents for synthesis. Reactions are achieved at rt without the requirement of specialized precautions that are commonplace for other organometallics.

  15. Initiation and Modification of Reaction by Energy Addition: Kinetic and Transport Phenomena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    MODIFICATION OF REACTION BY ENERGY ADDITION: KINETIC AND TRANSPORT PHENOMENA by Francis E. Fendell and Mau-Song Chou Center for Propulsion Technology...TA - A2 L AUHOWAC - F49620-90-C-0070 Francis E. Fendell and Mau-Song Chou 7. PEMOS101IG ORGANIZATION NAME(S AND...a gaseous mixture is more pertinent for the supersonic-combustor applications of interest to the Air Force (compare Figs. 1 and 2) (Carrier, Fendell

  16. A colorimetric detection of acrylamide in potato chips based on nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinqin; Fu, Yingchun; Xu, Xiahong; Qiao, Zhaohui; Wang, Ronghui; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanbin

    2016-02-07

    Acrylamide (AA), a neurotoxin and a potential carcinogen, has been found in various thermally processed foods such as potato chips, biscuits, and coffee. Simple, cost-effective, and sensitive methods for the rapid detection of AA are needed to ensure food safety. Herein, a novel colorimetric method was proposed for the visual detection of AA based on a nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition reaction. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were aggregated by glutathione (GSH) because of a ligand-replacement, accompanied by a color change from red to purple. In the presence of AA, after the thiol-ene Michael addition reaction between GSH and AA with the catalysis of a nucleophile, the sulfhydryl group of GSH was consumed by AA, which hindered the subsequent ligand-replacement and the aggregation of AuNPs. Therefore, the concentration of AA could be determined by the visible color change caused by dispersion/aggregation of AuNPs. This new method showed high sensitivity with a linear range from 0.1 μmol L(-1) to 80 μmol L(-1) and a detection limit of 28.6 nmol L(-1), and especially revealed better selectivity than the fluorescence sensing method reported previously. Moreover, this new method was used to detect AA in potato chips with a satisfactory result in comparison with the standard methods based on chromatography, which indicated that the colorimetric method can be expanded for the rapid detection of AA in thermally processed foods.

  17. 34 CFR 350.55 - What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for funding? 350.55 Section 350.55 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY...

  18. 34 CFR 350.55 - What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Field-Initiated Project applications for funding? 350.55 Section 350.55 Education Regulations of the..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make an Award? § 350.55 What are the additional considerations for selecting...

  19. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell.

    PubMed

    Schüler, Torben; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Neidhardt, Alexander; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bernhart, Simone; la Porta, Laura; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2015-07-30

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1), the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW) is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate.

  20. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell

    PubMed Central

    Schüler, Torben; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Neidhardt, Alexander; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bernhart, Simone; la Porta, Laura; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1), the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW) is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate. PMID:26263991

  1. Primary explosives: electrostatic discharge initiation, additive effect and its relation to thermal and explosive characteristics.

    PubMed

    Talawar, M B; Agrawal, A P; Anniyappan, M; Wani, D S; Bansode, M K; Gore, G M

    2006-09-21

    All explosives, under all conditions must be considered vulnerable to generation, accumulation and discharge of static charge. The low energy static hazards of the order as low as 2-3 mJ need to be guarded against in case of highly sensitive compounds namely primary explosives. The hazard is normally associated with manufacturing and filling operations due to discharge of static charge accumulated on a person supplying energy up to 20 mJ. To reduce the risk associated with static initiation hazard in the processing and handling of the explosives, the electrostatic sensitivity tests can provide an important input regarding electrostatic hazards. This paper presents electrostatic sensitivity data in terms of zero ignition probability data (E(SE0)) of some of the initiatory explosives such as nickel/cobalt hydrazinium nitrate, silver azide, lead azide and mercury salt of 5-nitro tetrazole. Similar data has also been presented for samples coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone to study its effect on electrostatic sensitivity. The electrostatic spark sensitivity of some conventional and novel made to explain the increased spark sensitivity behavior on the basis of the possible primary explosives has been studied. The electrostatic spark sensitivity of primary explosives decreased in the order of AgN3 = NHN > PbN6 > MNT > CoHN > BNCP. A possible correlation of spark energy with approximation and assumption has been drawn with thermal, detonation and mechanical properties. The polyvinyl pyrrolidone coated samples followed the same order but interestingly with increased spark sensitivity. An attempt has been reasoning of dielectric nature of the materials or exothermic effects of decomposition products of PVP. The present work also reports the electrostatic spark sensitivity of cap compositions.

  2. Space and surface power for the space exploration initiative: Results from project outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipbaugh, C.; Solomon, K.; Gonzales, D.; Juncosa, M.; Bauer, T.; Salter, R.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis and evaluations of the Space and Surface Power panel, one of eight panels created by RAND to screen and analyze submissions to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Outreach Program, is documented. In addition to managing and evaluating the responses, or submissions, to this public outreach program, RAND conducted its own analysis and evaluation relevent to SEI mission concepts, systems, and technologies. The Power panel screened and analyzed submissions for which a substantial portion of the concepts involved power generation sources, transmission, distribution, thermal management, and handling of power (including conditioning, conversion, packaging, and enhancements in system components). A background discussion of the areas the Power panel covered and the issues the reviewers considered pertinent to the analysis of power submissions are presented. An overview of each of the highest-ranked submissions and then a discussion of these submissions is presented. The results of the analysis is presented.

  3. Pursuing scale and quality in STI interventions with sex workers: initial results from Avahan India AIDS Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Steen, R; Mogasale, V; Wi, T; Singh, A K; Das, A; Daly, C; George, B; Neilsen, G; Loo, V; Dallabetta, G

    2006-01-01

    Background Migration, population mobility, and sex work continue to drive sexually transmitted epidemics in India. Yet interventions targeting high incidence networks are rarely implemented at sufficient scale to have impact. India AIDS Initiative (Avahan), funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, is scaling up interventions with sex workers (SWs) and other high risk populations in India's six highest HIV prevalence states. Methods Avahan resources are channelled through state level partners (SLPs) to local level non‐governmental organisations (NGOs) who organise outreach, community mobilisation, and dedicated clinics for SWs. These clinics provide services for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Condom Promotion, syndromic case management, regular check‐ups, and treatment of asymptomatic infections. SWs take an active role in service delivery. STI capacity building support functions on three levels. A central capacity building team developed guidelines and standards, trains state level STI coordinators, monitors outcomes, and conducts operations research. Standards are documented in an Avahan‐wide manual. State level STI coordinators train NGO clinic staff and conduct supervision of clinics based on these standards and related quality monitoring tools. Clinic and outreach staff report on indicators that guide additional capacity building inputs. Results In 2 years, clinics with community outreach for SWs have been established in 274 settings covering 77 districts. Mapping and size estimation have identified 187 000 SWs. In a subset of four large states covered by six SLPs (183 000 estimated SWs, 65 districts), 128 326 (70%) of the SWs have been contacted through peer outreach and 74 265 (41%) have attended the clinic at least once. A total of 127 630 clinic visits have been reported, an increasing proportion for recommended routine check ups. Supervision and monitoring facilitate standardisation of services across sites

  4. The Modern U.S. High School Astronomy Course, Its Status and Makeup II: Additional Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumenaker, Larry

    2009-01-01

    A postal survey of high school astronomy teachers strongly confirms many results of an earlier electronic survey. Additional and new results include a measure of the level of inquiry (more structured inquiry and teacher-led) in the classroom as well as data showing that more emphasis is given to traditional topics than to contemporary astronomy…

  5. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility...

  6. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility...

  7. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility...

  8. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility...

  9. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility...

  10. Animation shows promise in initiating timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Attin, Mina; Winslow, Katheryn; Smith, Tyler

    2014-04-01

    Delayed responses during cardiac arrest are common. Timely interventions during cardiac arrest have a direct impact on patient survival. Integration of technology in nursing education is crucial to enhance teaching effectiveness. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of animation on nursing students' response time to cardiac arrest, including initiation of timely chest compression. Nursing students were randomized into experimental and control groups prior to practicing in a high-fidelity simulation laboratory. The experimental group was educated, by discussion and animation, about the importance of starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognizing an unresponsive patient. Afterward, a discussion session allowed students in the experimental group to gain more in-depth knowledge about the most recent changes in the cardiac resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association. A linear mixed model was run to investigate differences in time of response between the experimental and control groups while controlling for differences in those with additional degrees, prior code experience, and basic life support certification. The experimental group had a faster response time compared with the control group and initiated timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognition of deteriorating conditions (P < .0001). The results demonstrated the efficacy of combined teaching modalities for timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Providing opportunities for repetitious practice when a patient's condition is deteriorating is crucial for teaching safe practice.

  11. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. This topical report presents the results from the Task 2 and Task 4 pilot-scale additive tests. The Task 3 and Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2006.

  12. Additional results on space environmental effects on polymer matrix composites: Experiment A0180

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Additional experimental results on the atomic oxygen erosion of boron, Kevlar, and graphite fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composites are presented. Damage of composite laminates due to micrometeoroid/debris impacts is also examined with particular emphasis on the relationship between damage area and actual hole size due to particle penetration. Special attention is given to one micrometeoroid impact on an aluminum base plate which resulted in ejecta visible on an adjoining vertical flange structure.

  13. Effect of additive metals, Sn, Ga, and In in Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloys on initial bond strength of 4-META adhesive cement to these alloys.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shin-ichi; Churnjitapirom, Pornkiat; Miyagawa, Yukio; Ogura, Hideo

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three additives, Sn, Ga, and In, as well as the main constituents, Pd and Cu, of Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloys on the initial bond strength of 4-META adhesive cement to these alloys. The Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloys consisted of 20%, 30% or 40% Pd, and 10%, 15% or 20% Cu, 20% Au, and Ag as balance. Besides, additive metals (Sn, Ga, and In) of 2% and 4% were added to these compositions. The addition of three additives, in general, increased the initial bond strength of the cement in comparison to the mother compositions (0% additives), although the degrees of effectiveness of the three additives were different and varied with their contents. Among these additives, a remarkable increase in bond strength was observed with the addition of In. The increase in Cu content, in many cases, resulted in an increase in bond strength at high Pd contents (30% and 40%), but a decrease at low Pd content (20%) in some cases. The positive effects of the three additives and Cu could be due to the formation of a suitable oxide layer for strong bonding with 4-META.

  14. Additional results on 'Reducing geometric dilution of precision using ridge regression'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Robert J.

    1990-07-01

    Kelly (1990) presented preliminary results on the feasibility of using ridge regression (RR) to reduce the effects of geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) error inflation in position-fix navigation systems. Recent results indicate that RR will not reduce GDOP bias inflation when biaslike measurement errors last much longer than the aircraft guidance-loop response time. This conclusion precludes the use of RR on navigation systems whose dominant error sources are biaslike; e.g., the GPS selective-availability error source. The simulation results given by Kelly are, however, valid for the conditions defined. Although RR has not yielded a satisfactory solution to the general GDOP problem, it has illuminated the role that multicollinearity plays in navigation signal processors such as the Kalman filter. Bias inflation, initial position guess errors, ridge-parameter selection methodology, and the recursive ridge filter are discussed.

  15. Clast Selection and Metallographic Cooling Rates: Initial Results on Type 1A and 2A Mesosiderites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baecker, B.; Cohen, B. A.; Rubin, A. E.; Frasl, B.; Corrigan, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    We initiated a comprehensive study on selected clasts and metal of mesosiderites using SEM, electron microprobe and the complete suite of noble gases. Here we report initial results on the petrography of selected clasts and metallographic cooling rates using the central Ni method used in sev-eral publications. We focus on the approach of selecting grains in least recrystallized mesosiderites. Hence, especially (lithic) clasts in type 1A, 1B, 2A and 2B are the first choice. They provide highest primitive-ness and least annealing/metamorphism. All grains selected should be in close proximity to each other. Lithic clasts in mesosiderites are of high interest be-cause of their igneous texture and similarity to eucrites and howardite petrography. We find pyrox-enes (px) and plagioclase (plag) attached to each other which implies a common formation history. It will be interesting to see differences and similarities in their noble gas inventory (CRE ages, trapped components and closure temperature). In addition, we will investi-gate variations of the lithic clasts toward similar grains in the thick sections which are not igneous. Plag grains are the best bases for noble gas measurements con-cerning He to Ar and Ar-Ar dating since it delivers im-portant target elements. We focus on plag grains in close contact to olivine (olv) / px grains to assess weth-er both grains show noble gas patterns being similar or different. Phosphate grains are suitable for Kr and Xe measurements since they yield REE abundances (tar-get elements).

  16. Initial Results from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Swenson, Charles; Thompson, Don; Barjatya, Aroh; Koontz, Steven L.; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason; Minow, Joseph; Craven, Paul; Coffey, Victoria; Parker, Linda; Bui, Them

    2007-01-01

    The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) is a multi-probe package designed to measure the floating potential of the 1nternational Space Station (ISS) as well as the density and temperature of the local ionospheric plasma environment. The role oj the FPMU is to provide direct measurements of ISS spacecraft charging as continuing construction leads to dramatic changes in ISS size and configuration. FPMU data are used for refinement and validation of the ISS spacecraft charging models used to evaluate the severity and frequency of occurrence of ISS charging hazards. The FPMU data and the models are also used to evaluate the effectiveness of proposed hazard controls. The FPMU consists of four probes: a floating potential probe, two Langmuir probes. and a plasma impedance probe. These probes measure the floating potential of the ISS, plasma density, and electron temperature. Redundant measurements using different probes support data validation by inter-probe comparisons. The FPMU was installed by ISS crewmembers, during an ExtraVehicular Activity, on the starboard (Sl) truss of the ISS in early August 2006, when the ISS incorporated only one 160V US photovoltaic (PV) array module. The first data campaign began a few hours after installation and continued for over five days. Additional data campaigns were completed in 2007 after a second 160V US PV array module was added to the ISS. This paper discusses the general performance characteristics of the FPMU as integrated on ISS, the functional performance of each probe, the charging behavior of the ISS before and after the addition of a second 160V US PV array module, and initial results from model comparisons.

  17. Dying Pulse Trains in Cygnus XR-1: Initial Results of X-Ray Searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, Joseph F.

    2003-01-01

    Dying pulse trains (DPT's) are a signature of a black hole as described by general relativity. Detecting DPT's would establish the existence of black holes by ruling out more exotic objects in systems in which a neutron star or white dwarf component has already been excluded by maximum mass arguments. The positive identification of a black hole would also be an additional test of general relativity. Two possible DPT's were detected in W photometry of Cygnus XR-1, the leading candidate for a stellar mass sized BH, in 3 hours of observational data. A search of X-ray photometry of Cygnus XR-1 from the Ross1 X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) has begun. No DPT's have been detected in the first 4 hours of data searched. Because of the low event rate detected in the W data, these initial results are consistent with such disparate scenarios as the rate of DPT occurrence being dependent on the luminosity state of the system; or being more difficult to detect in the X-ray region relative to the W region; or occurring at the same rate in the W and X-ray regions; or even not occurring at all from Cygnus XR-1. The search for DPT's in RXTE photometry is continuing.

  18. Visible-Light-Initiated Thiol-Michael Addition Polymerizations with Coumarin-Based Photobase Generators: Another Photoclick Reaction Strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinpeng; Xi, Weixian; Wang, Chen; Podgórski, Maciej; Bowman, Christopher N

    2016-02-16

    An efficient visible-light-sensitive photobase generator for thiol-Michael addition reactions was synthesized and evaluated. This highly reactive catalyst was designed by protecting a strong base (tetramethyl guanidine, TMG) with a visible-light-responsive group which was a coumarin derivative. The coumarin-coupled TMG was shown to exhibit extraordinary catalytic activity toward initiation of the thiol-Michael reaction, including thiol-Michael addition-based polymerization, upon visible-light irradiation, leading to a stoichiometric reaction of both thiol and vinyl functional groups. Owing to its features, this visible-light photobase generator enables homogeneous network formation in thiol-Michael polymerizations and also has the potential to be exploited in other visible-light-induced, base-catalyzed thiol-click processes such as thiol-isocynate and thiol-epoxy network-forming reactions.

  19. Effect of product form upon fatigue-crack growth behavior in Alloy 718: additional results

    SciTech Connect

    James, L A

    1980-08-01

    A previous study had characterized the fatigue-crack growth behavior of four wrought product forms (sheet, plate, bar and forging) from a single heat of Alloy 718 and concluded that there were no consistent trends in the crack growth rate results that could be attributed to product form variability. The present study adds one additional product form (gas-tungsten-arc weldments) from the same heat, and compares the behavior to that exhibited by the wrought product forms. Two different precipitation heat-treatments were employed at each of five test temperatures (24, 316, 427, 538, and 649{sup 0}C).

  20. The effect of product form upon fatigue-crack growth behavior in Alloy 718: Additional results

    SciTech Connect

    James, L.A.

    1980-08-01

    A previous study had characterized the fatigue-crack growth behavior of four wrought product forms (sheet, plate, bar and forging) from a single heat of Alloy 718 and concluded that there were no consistent trends in the crack growth rate results that could be attributed to product form variability. The present study adds one additional product form (gas-tungsten-arc weldments) from the same heat, and compares the behavior to that exhibited by the wrought product forms. Two different precipitation heat-treatments were employed at each of five test temperatures. 11 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Results of investigations of Ethernet network fault-tolerance parameters by using additional analysis subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultanov, Albert H.; Gayfulin, Renat R.; Vinogradova, Irina L.

    2008-04-01

    Fiber optic telecommunication systems with duplex data transmitting over single fiber require reflection minimization. Moreover reflections may be so high that causes system deactivating by misoperation of conventional alarm, and system can not automatically adjudge the collision, so operator manual control is required. In this paper we proposed technical solution of mentioned problem based on additional analysis subsystem, realized on the installed Ufa-city fiber optic CTV system "Crystal". Experience of it's maintenance and results of investigations of the fault tolerance parameters are represented

  2. A Large-Scale Initiative Inviting Patients to Share Personal Fitness Tracker Data with Their Providers: Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Pevnick, Joshua M.; Fuller, Garth; Duncan, Ray; Spiegel, Brennan M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Personal fitness trackers (PFT) have substantial potential to improve healthcare. Objective To quantify and characterize early adopters who shared their PFT data with providers. Methods We used bivariate statistics and logistic regression to compare patients who shared any PFT data vs. patients who did not. Results A patient portal was used to invite 79,953 registered portal users to share their data. Of 66,105 users included in our analysis, 499 (0.8%) uploaded data during an initial 37-day study period. Bivariate and regression analysis showed that early adopters were more likely than non-adopters to be younger, male, white, health system employees, and to have higher BMIs. Neither comorbidities nor utilization predicted adoption. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that patients had little intrinsic desire to share PFT data with their providers, and suggest that patients most at risk for poor health outcomes are least likely to share PFT data. Marketing, incentives, and/or cultural change may be needed to induce such data-sharing. PMID:27846287

  3. Rates of False-Positive Classification Resulting From the Analysis of Additional Embedded Performance Validity Measures.

    PubMed

    Silk-Eglit, Graham M; Stenclik, Jessica H; Miele, Andrea S; Lynch, Julie K; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have documented improvements in the classification accuracy of performance validity tests (PVTs) when they are combined to form aggregated models. Fewer studies have evaluated the impact of aggregating additional PVTs and changing the classification threshold within these models. A recent Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that to maintain a false-positive rate (FPR) of ≤.10, only 1, 4, 8, 10, and 15 PVTs should be analyzed at classification thresholds of failing at least 1, at least 2, at least 3, at least 4, and at least 5 PVTs, respectively. The current study sought to evaluate these findings with embedded PVTs in a sample of real-life litigants and to highlight a potential danger in analytic flexibility with embedded PVTs. Results demonstrated that to maintain an FPR of ≤.10, only 3, 7, 10, 14, and 15 PVTs should be analyzed at classification thresholds of failing at least 1, at least 2, at least 3, at least 4, and at least 5 PVTs, respectively. Analyzing more than these numbers of PVTs resulted in a dramatic increase in the FPR. In addition, in the most extreme case, flexibility in analyzing and reporting embedded PVTs increased the FPR by 67%. Given these findings, a more objective approach to analyzing and reporting embedded PVTs should be introduced.

  4. Initial Surgical Experience with Aortic Valve Repair: Clinical and Echocardiographic Results

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Francisco Diniz Affonso; Colatusso, Daniele de Fátima Fornazari; da Costa, Ana Claudia Brenner Affonso; Balbi Filho, Eduardo Mendel; Cavicchioli, Vinicius Nesi; Lopes, Sergio Augusto Veiga; Ferreira, Andrea Dumsch de Aragon; Collatusso, Claudinei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Due to late complications associated with the use of conventional prosthetic heart valves, several centers have advocated aortic valve repair and/or valve sparing aortic root replacement for patients with aortic valve insufficiency, in order to enhance late survival and minimize adverse postoperative events. Methods From March/2012 thru March 2015, 37 patients consecutively underwent conservative operations of the aortic valve and/or aortic root. Mean age was 48±16 years and 81% were males. The aortic valve was bicuspid in 54% and tricuspid in the remaining. All were operated with the aid of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. Surgical techniques consisted of replacing the aortic root with a Dacron graft whenever it was dilated or aneurysmatic, using either the remodeling or the reimplantation technique, besides correcting leaflet prolapse when present. Patients were sequentially evaluated with clinical and echocardiographic studies and mean follow-up time was 16±5 months. Results Thirty-day mortality was 2.7%. In addition there were two late deaths, with late survival being 85% (CI 95% - 68%-95%) at two years. Two patients were reoperated due to primary structural valve failure. Freedom from reoperation or from primary structural valve failure was 90% (CI 95% - 66%-97%) and 91% (CI 95% - 69%-97%) at 2 years, respectively. During clinical follow-up up to 3 years, there were no cases of thromboembolism, hemorrhage or endocarditis. Conclusions Although this represents an initial series, these data demonstrates that aortic valve repair and/or valve sparing aortic root surgery can be performed with satisfactory immediate and short-term results. PMID:27556321

  5. Initial results from the ICDP SCOPSCO drilling project, Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, A.; Wagner, B.; Krastel, S.; Lindhorst, K.; Wilke, T.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Grazhdani, A.; Reicherter, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    a glacial/interglacial timescale and also short-term events such as Dansgaard-Oescher cycles during the last glacial period can be inferred from the initial data. Although a high amount of greigite complicates the paleomagnetic dating of the recovered sediments, a robust age model can likely be inferred from numerous tephras and cryptotephras, which are indicated by spikes in the magnetic susceptibility data. Three additional sites at lateral parts of Lake Ohrid were drilled to un-ravel lake level fluctuations, catchment dynamics, biodiversity and evolution processes ('Cerava', deepest drilled depth: 90 m), active tectonics and spring dynamics ('Gradiste', deepest drilled depth: 123 m), and the early development of the Ohrid Basin ('Pestani', deepest drilled depth: 194 m). The composite field recovery is >90% at each site. The initial results obtained from the field campaign indicate that Lake Ohrid provides an extraordinary record of environmental change in the northern Mediterranean and will become a key site for a better understanding of speciation triggers.

  6. Initial results from NuSTAR observations of the Norma Arm

    SciTech Connect

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Krivonos, Roman; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Stern, Daniel; Bauer, Franz E.; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Christensen, Finn E.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Zhang, William W.

    2014-08-10

    Results are presented for an initial survey of the Norma Arm gathered with the focusing hard X-Ray Telescope NuSTAR. The survey covers 0.2 deg{sup 2} of sky area in the 3-79 keV range with a minimum and maximum raw depth of 15 ks and 135 ks, respectively. Besides a bright black-hole X-ray binary in outburst (4U 1630–47) and a new X-ray transient (NuSTAR J163433–473841), NuSTAR locates three sources from the Chandra survey of this region whose spectra are extended above 10 keV for the first time: CXOU J163329.5–473332, CXOU J163350.9–474638, and CXOU J163355.1–473804. Imaging, timing, and spectral data from a broad X-ray range (0.3-79 keV) are analyzed and interpreted with the aim of classifying these objects. CXOU J163329.5–473332 is either a cataclysmic variable or a faint low-mass X-ray binary. CXOU J163350.9–474638 varies in intensity on year-long timescales, and with no multi-wavelength counterpart, it could be a distant X-ray binary or possibly a magnetar. CXOU J163355.1–473804 features a helium-like iron line at 6.7 keV and is classified as a nearby cataclysmic variable. Additional surveys are planned for the Norma Arm and Galactic Center, and those NuSTAR observations will benefit from the lessons learned during this pilot study.

  7. The Palomar-Quest Digital Synoptic Sky Survey: Summary and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djorgovski, Stanislav G.; Baltay, C.; Mahabal, A.; Rabinowitz, D.; Drake, A.; Donalek, C.; Glikman, E.; Graham, M.; Williams, R.; Ellman, N.; Scalzo, R.; Bauer, A.; Nugent, P.; PQ Survey Team

    2009-05-01

    The Palomar-Quest (PQ) digital synoptic sky survey was conducted over a period of 5 years, ending in September 2008. The survey is a joint venture between groups at Yale and Caltech, with collaborating groups world-wide. The data were obtained using the Palomar 48-inch Samuel Oschin telescope and QUEST-2 112 CCD camera, with up to 4 distinct filters (Johnson UBRI or Gunn griz systems). Data were taken in the drift scan mode, in 4.6 deg wide strips of a constant declination, typically with 2 passes per night. The survey covered a total area of 15,500 deg2, with up to several tens of passes per location, and with the time baselines ranging from minutes to years. About 15 TB or raw data were collected in the course of about 550 nights (including non-photometric conditions). In addition, a somewhat larger amount of data over a larger number of nights have been taken in the point-and-stare mode, in a single broad-band red filter. The data have been processed using independent pipelines at Yale, Caltech, and LBNL. The survey was fully VO-compliant, and served as a testbed for development of a number of VO-related standards and technologies. All of the data are now in the process of being reprocessed and recalibrated, and will be made fully publicly available. Given the synoptic nature of the survey, most of the initial scientific studies involve exploration of various time-domain phenomena, such as Supernovae, variability of AGN, and high-amplitude variable stars. We have also conducted searches for high-redshift quasars, gravitational lenses, and other projects. We will describe some of the results to date.

  8. Initial Laboratory-Scale Melter Test Results for Combined Fission Product Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Buchmiller, William C.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the methods and results used to vitrify a baseline glass, CSLNTM-C-2.5 in support of the AFCI (Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative) using a Quartz Crucible Scale Melter at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Document number AFCI-WAST-PMO-MI-DV-2009-000184.

  9. 75 FR 4044 - Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Century Corporation, the Department of Commerce is initiating a changed- circumstances review of the... New Century Corporation is the successor-in-interest to Far Eastern Textile Limited and, as a result... Department that on October 13, 2009, it had legally changed its name to Far Eastern New Century...

  10. 75 FR 71072 - Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ..., 1992) and Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from Romania: Initiation and Preliminary Results of... Romania). While no single factor or combination of factors will necessarily be dispositive, the Department... 14, 1994), and Plate from Romania, 70 FR 22847. ] Thus, if the record evidence demonstrates the...

  11. Building a taxonomy of integrated palliative care initiatives: results from a focus group

    PubMed Central

    Ewert, Benjamin; Hodiamont, Farina; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen; Payne, Sheila; Groot, Marieke; Hasselaar, Jeroen; Menten, Johann; Radbruch, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Background Empirical evidence suggests that integrated palliative care (IPC) increases the quality of care for palliative patients and supports professional caregivers. Existing IPC initiatives in Europe vary in their design and are hardly comparable. InSuP-C, a European Union research project, aimed to build a taxonomy of IPC initiatives applicable across diseases, healthcare sectors and systems. Methods The taxonomy of IPC initiatives was developed in cooperation with an international and multidisciplinary focus group of 18 experts. Subsequently, a consensus meeting of 10 experts revised a preliminary taxonomy and adopted the final classification system. Results Consisting of eight categories, with two to four items each, the taxonomy covers the process and structure of IPC initiatives. If two items in at least one category apply to an initiative, a minimum level of integration is assumed to have been reached. Categories range from the type of initiative (items: pathway, model or guideline) to patients’ key contact (items: non-pc specialist, pc specialist, general practitioner). Experts recommended the inclusion of two new categories: level of care (items: primary, secondary or tertiary) indicating at which stage palliative care is integrated and primary focus of intervention describing IPC givers’ different roles (items: treating function, advising/consulting or training) in the care process. Conclusions Empirical studies are required to investigate how the taxonomy is used in practice and whether it covers the reality of patients in need of palliative care. The InSuP-C project will test this taxonomy empirically in selected initiatives using IPC. PMID:26647043

  12. Addition of prothrombin to plasma can result in a paradoxical increase in activated partial thromboplastin time.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Kenny M; Björkqvist, Jenny; Deinum, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    In the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay, a variety of nonphysiological reagents is used to induce contact activation. The sensitivity of the APTT response for different thrombin inhibitors has previously been found to be dependent on the used reagent. Recently, infusion of prothrombin (FII) has been used in in-vivo coagulopathy models and its effect has been analyzed in different assays. Therefore, we investigated whether the FII plasma concentration might affect APTT using different commercial reagents, applying both turbidimetry and viscometry. We compared both plasma-derived human FII (pd-hFII) and recombinant human FII (r-hFII). Similar results were found for pd-hFII and r-hFII with different APTT reagents. As expected, no effect on APTT was found by increasing the plasma concentration of FII using APTT reagents consisting of ellagic acid (Actin FS or Actin). Although with Pathromtin SL, consisting of SiO2, only a slight increase was found, with most other commercial APTT reagents, consisting of SiO2 or kaolin, APTT dose-dependently increased by increasing concentration of FII. Therefore, both Pathromtin SL and Actin FS were used to compare r-hFII and pd-hFII by determining the KM at 37C using FII-depleted plasma, providing values of 6 ± 0.3 nmol/l FII for both. Thus, at normal plasma concentrations of FII, the maximal initial thrombin generation rate should be reached and no effect on the coagulation time is expected at higher FII concentrations. To completely avoid the paradoxical effect in the APTT assay at FII concentrations higher than normal, Actin or Actin FS is the preferable reagent.

  13. INITIAL RESULTS FROM INVESTIGATIONS TO ENHANCE THE PERFORMANCE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE IRRADIATION-RESISTANT THERMOCOUPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Crepeau, John; Rempe, Joy; Wilkins, S. Curtis; Knudson, Darrell L.; Condie, Keith G.; Daw, Joshua

    2007-04-01

    New fuel, cladding, and structural materials offer the potential for safer and more economic energy from existing reactor and advanced nuclear reactor designs. However, insufficient data are available to characterize these materials in high temperature, radiation conditions. To evaluate candidate material performance, robust instrumentation is needed that can survive these conditions. However, traditional thermocouples either drift due to degradation at high temperatures (above 1100 °C) or due to transmutation of thermocouple components. Thermocouples are needed which can withstand both high temperature and high radiation environments. To address this instrumentation need, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) recently developed the design and evaluated the performance of a high temperature radiation-resistant thermocouple that contains commercially-available alloys of molybdenum and niobium (Rempe, 2006). Candidate thermocouple component materials were first identified based on their ability to withstand high temperature and radiation. Then, components were selected based on data obtained from materials interaction tests, ductility investigations, and resolution evaluations. Results from long duration (over 4000 hours) tests at high temperatures (up to 1400 °C) and thermal cycling tests demonstrate the stability and reliability of the INL-developed design. Tests in INL’s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) are underway to demonstrate the in-pile performance of these thermocouples. However, several options have been identified that could further enhance the lifetime and reliability of the INL-developed thermocouples, allowing their use in higher temperature applications (up to at least 1700 °C). A joint University of Idaho (UI) and INL University Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (UNERI) is underway to investigate these options and ultimately, provide recommendations for an enhanced thermocouple design. This paper presents preliminary results from this UI/INL effort

  14. Bragg's rule of stopping power additivity: a compilation and summary of results

    SciTech Connect

    Thwaites, D.I.

    1983-09-01

    Stopping power additivity, as expressed by Bragg's rule, is an important concept in many practical situations involving charged particles. Its validity has been investigated in a large number of studies and the wide range of data is confusing and at times conflicting. No previous comprehensive survey of the data has been undertaken. Thus a compilation is attempted here of a hundred or so papers which have included tests of Bragg's rule. Their main results are indicated and a summary is given of the effects of chemical binding and phase on the stopping power of heavy charged particles. Such effects are confirmed on the evidence available. Chemical binding effects become more significant for materials containing low-Z constituents and as energy falls into and through the transition region. Deviations of up to 50% have been observed in atomic stopping cross sections extracted from measurements on hydrocarbons. There is still some conflicting evidence appearing on phase effects. However, in general a broad consensus is emerging indicating significant differences in H/sub 2/O and organic and similar materials. Stopping cross sections in the vapor phase are greater by up to approx. 5 or 10% at energies around those of the stopping power maximum for protons and He ions. The effects decrease as energy increases.

  15. Initial Results From The Micro-pulse Lidar Network (MPL-Net)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Berkoff, T. A.; Spinhirne, J. D.; Ginoux, P.

    2001-12-01

    The micro-pulse lidar system (MPL) was developed in the early 1990s and was the first small, eye-safe, and autonomous lidar built for fulltime monitoring of cloud and aerosol vertical distributions. In 2000, a new project using MPL systems was started at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This new project, the Micro-pulse Lidar Network or MPL-Net, was created to provide long-term observations of aerosol and cloud vertical profiles at key sites around the world. This is accomplished using both NASA operated sites and partnerships with other organizations owning MPL systems. The MPL-Net sites are co-located with NASA AERONET sunphotometers to provide aerosol optical depth data needed for calibration of the MPL. In addition to the long-term sites, MPL-Net provides lidar support for a limited number of field experiments and ocean cruises each year. We will present an overview of the MPL-Net project and show initial results from the first two MPL-Net sites at the South Pole and at Goddard Space Flight Center. Observations of dust layers transported from the desert regions of China, across the Pacific Ocean, to the east coast of the United States will also be shown. MPL-Net affiliated instruments were in place at the desert source region in China, on a research vessel in the Sea of Japan, at ARM sites in Alaska and Oklahoma, and finally at our home site in Maryland (GSFC) during the massive dust storms that occurred in April 2001. The MPL observations of dust layers at each location are shown in comparison to dust layers predicted using the Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model (GOCART). Finally, the MPL-Net project is the primary ground-validation program for the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) satellite lidar project (launch date 2002). We will present an overview demonstrating how MPL-Net results are used to help prepare the GLAS data processing algorithms and assist in the calibration/validation of the GLAS data

  16. Importance of independent evaluation of initial anatomic results after endovascular coiling for ruptured cerebral aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Taki, Waro; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2013-04-01

    Initial incomplete occlusion is been an important predictor of aneurysm recurrence, rebleeding or retreatment after endovascular coiling. In 129 patients in the Prospective Registry of Subarachnoid Aneurysms Treatment (PRESAT) cohort, ruptured aneurysms were coiled within 14days of onset, and initial post-coiling and 1-year follow-up aneurysm-occlusion status were evaluated by both local investigators and independent reviewers. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reported evaluations of initial aneurysm occlusion by treating physicians predicted incomplete aneurysm occlusion at 1year after coiling for ruptured cerebral aneurysms as well as that done by independent evaluations. The relationships between self-reported or independent evaluations of initial anatomic results and 1-year incomplete aneurysm occlusion (retreatment within 1year, or residual aneurysms at 1year) were determined. Both initial and 1-year aneurysm-occlusion status were judged significantly worse by independent reviewers than by local investigators (p<0.001). One-year incomplete aneurysm occlusion was identified in 59 patients: 10 patients, including two patients with re-ruptured aneurysms, were retreated and 49 other patients were judged to have residual aneurysms by independent reviewers. On immediate post-coiling angiograms, both residual neck or aneurysm judged by local investigators, and residual aneurysm judged by independent reviewers, were predictive for 1-year incomplete aneurysm occlusion on univariate analyses. However, multivariate analyses found that the initial aneurysm occlusion status judged by independent reviewers (p=0.02, odds ratio=2.83, 95% confidence interval=1.15-6.95), but not by local investigators, was a significant predictor for 1-year incomplete aneurysm occlusion. This study demonstrates the importance of independent evaluations of aneurysm occlusion status for management of coiled aneurysms.

  17. EPA Update on Gold King Mine Response: Additional Data Results and Public Records

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released an update on water quality and sediment data for the Animas and San Juan Rivers, as well as additional public records on the Gold King Mine response.

  18. Atom-probe tomography of tribological boundary films resulting from boron-based oil additives

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoon-Jun; Baik, Sung-Il; Bertolucci-Coelho, Leonardo; Mazzaferro, Lucca; Ramirez, Giovanni; Erdemir, Ali; Seidman, D K

    2016-01-15

    Correlative characterization using atom-probe tomography (APT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on a tribofilm formed during sliding frictional testing with a fully formulated engine oil, which also contains a boron-based additive. The tribofilm formed is ~15 nm thick and consists of oxides of iron and compounds of B, Ca, P, and S, which are present in the additive. This study provides strong evidence for boron being embedded in the tribofilm, which effectively reduces friction and wear losses.

  19. Plant interspecific differences in arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization as a result of soil carbon addition.

    PubMed

    Eschen, René; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2013-01-01

    Soil nutrient availability and colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are important and potentially interacting factors shaping vegetation composition and succession. We investigated the effect of carbon (C) addition, aimed at reducing soil nutrient availability, on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Seedlings of 27 plant species with different sets of life-history traits (functional group affiliation, life history strategy and nitrophilic status) were grown in pots filled with soil from a nutrient-rich set-aside field and amended with different amounts of C. Mycorrhizal colonization was progressively reduced along the gradient of increasing C addition in 17 out of 27 species, but not in the remaining species. Grasses had lower colonization levels than forbs and legumes and the decline in AM fungal colonization was more pronounced in legumes than in other forbs and grasses. Mycorrhizal colonization did not differ between annual and perennial species, but decreased more rapidly along the gradient of increasing C addition in plants with high Ellenberg N values than in plants with low Ellenberg N values. Soil C addition not only limits plant growth through a reduction in available nutrients, but also reduces mycorrhizal colonization of plant roots. The effect of C addition on mycorrhizal colonization varies among plant functional groups, with legumes experiencing an overproportional reduction in AM fungal colonization along the gradient of increasing C addition. We therefore propose that for a better understanding of vegetation succession on set-aside fields one may consider the interrelationship between plant growth, soil nutrient availability and mycorrhizal colonization of plant roots.

  20. Penn State geoPebble system: Design,Implementation, and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, J. V.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Bilen, S. G.; Fleishman, A.; Burkett, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Penn State geoPebble system is a new network of wirelessly interconnected seismic and GPS sensor nodes with flexible architecture. This network will be used for studies of ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland, as well as to investigate mountain glaciers. The network will consist of ˜150 geoPebbles that can be deployed in a user-defined spatial geometry. We present our design methodology, which has enabled us to develop these state-of- the art sensors using commercial-off-the-shelf hardware combined with custom-designed hardware and software. Each geoPebble is a self- contained, wirelessly connected sensor for collecting seismic measurements and position information. Key elements of each node encompasses a three-component seismic recorder, which includes an amplifier, filter, and 24- bit analog-to-digital converter that can sample up to 10 kHz. Each unit also includes a microphone channel to record the ground-coupled airwave. The timing for each node is available from GPS measurements and a local precision oscillator that is conditioned by the GPS timing pulses. In addition, we record the carrier-phase measurement of the L1 GPS signal in order to determine location at sub-decimeter accuracy (relative to other geoPebbles within a few kilometers radius). Each geoPebble includes 16 GB of solid-state storage, wireless communications capability to a central supervisory unit, and auxiliary measurements capability (including tilt from accelerometers, absolute orientation from magnetometers and temperature). A novel aspect of the geoPebble is a wireless charging system for the internal battery (using inductive coupling techniques). The geoPebbles include all the sensors (geophones, GPS, microphone), communications (WiFi), and power (battery and charging) internally, so the geoPebble system can operate without any cabling connections (though we do provide an external connector so that different geophones can be used). We report initial field-deployment results and

  1. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.; Click, D.

    2010-01-06

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass - 14 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  2. Cage occupancy and structural changes during hydrate formation from initial stages to resulting hydrate phase.

    PubMed

    Schicks, Judith M; Luzi-Helbing, Manja

    2013-11-01

    Hydrate formation processes and kinetics are still not sufficiently understood on a molecular level based on experimental data. In particular, the cavity formation and occupancy during the initial formation and growth processes of mixed gas hydrates are rarely investigated. In this study, we present the results of our time-depending Raman spectroscopic measurements during the formation of hydrates from ice and gases or gas mixtures such as CH4, CH4-CO2, CH4-H2S, CH4-C3H8, CH4-iso-C4H10, and CH4-neo-C5H12 at constant pressure and temperature conditions and constant composition of the feed gas phase. All investigated systems in this study show the incorporation of CH4 into the 5(12) cavities as first step in the initial stages of hydrate formation. Furthermore, the results imply that the initial hydrate phases differ from the resulting hydrate phase having reached a steady state regarding the occupancy and ratio of the small and large cavities of the hydrate.

  3. Statistical analyses of the U.S. Air Force Bioventing Initiative results

    SciTech Connect

    Leeson, A.; Kumar, P.; Hinchee, R.E.; Downey, D.; Vogel, C.M.; Sayles, G.D.; Miller, R.N.

    1995-12-31

    The US Air Force`s Bioventing Initiative has involved conducting field treatability studies to evaluate bioventing feasibility at more than 120 sites throughout the US. At those sites where feasibility studies produced positive results, pilot-scale bioventing systems were installed and operated for 1 year. The results from the pilot-scale bioventing systems have been used to develop a large database from which to determine the most important parameters to be used in evaluating whether to implement bioventing. Data generated from the Bioventing Initiative were subjected to a thorough statistical analysis to determine which parameters correlate with BTEX and TPH biodegradation rates. The study involved in situ respiration test data, soil gas permeability test data, and soil chemistry and nutrient data from each site. Results from the Bioventing Initiative demonstrated that some biodegradation occurred at virtually all sites regardless of site conditions. Data collected from the sites demonstrate that even sites with low nutrient levels exhibit significant microbial activity and will therefore respond well to bioventing.

  4. Initial results of an ensemble data assimilation system for a hemispheric air quality model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, J. D.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.

    2012-04-01

    Data assimilation can be used with air quality models to improve historical simulations or initial conditions for forecasts. The ensemble Kalman filter is an assimilation technique that uses a low-dimensional representation of the background error covariances. We have coupled an offline chemical transport model, the DEHM (the Danish Eulerian hemispheric model), with an asynchronous ensemble Kalman filter (AEnKF), which accounts for timing discrepancies between observation and the analysis time. We will present the structure and initial results using this simulation-assimilation framework. To evaluate the DEHM-AEnKF system, we assimilated a single species, carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is a moderately long-lived atmospheric trace gas, and its concentration is measured routinely from a number of different measurement platforms. The chemistry of CO is simpler than other well-studied species (e.g., ozone). Thus CO is a good candidate species for the initial testing of a chemical data assimilation system. We assimilated retrieved CO column concentrations from MOPITT (an instrument aboard the polar orbiting NASA satellite Terra) and from surface measurements from the Global Atmosphere Watch monitoring network. Simulations were evaluated against measurements from the AirBase network of European monitoring stations. The initial results show that the simulations without assimilation grossly underestimate surface CO concentrations, and the DEHM-AEnKF system eliminates this large and systematic bias. Furthermore, the temporal variability of the DEHM-AEnKF CO concentrations were far more consistent with surface measurements (compared to the simulations without assimilation). While these preliminary results are promising, this is a single-species assimilation for a moderately long-lived atmospheric trace gas, and thus represents a relatively simple assimilation challenge. We will discuss how the DEHM-AEnKF system can be scaled to accommodate multi-species assimilation, as

  5. Non-lethal heat treatment of cells results in reduction of tumor initiation and metastatic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoo-Shin; Lee, Tae Hoon; O'Neill, Brian E.

    2015-08-14

    Non-lethal hyperthermia is used clinically as adjuvant treatment to radiation, with mixed results. Denaturation of protein during hyperthermia treatment is expected to synergize with radiation damage to cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Alternatively, hyperthermia is known to cause tissue level changes in blood flow, increasing the oxygenation and radiosensitivity of often hypoxic tumors. In this study, we elucidate a third possibility, that hyperthermia alters cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction, with particular impact on the cancer stem cell population. We demonstrate that cell heating results in a robust but temporary loss of cancer cell aggressiveness and metastatic potential in mouse models. In vitro, this heating results in a temporary loss in cell mobility, adhesion, and proliferation. Our hypothesis is that the loss of cellular adhesion results in suppression of cancer stem cells and loss of tumor virulence and metastatic potential. Our study suggests that the metastatic potential of cancer is particularly reduced by the effects of heat on cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction. If true, this could help explain both the successes and failures of clinical hyperthermia, and suggest ways to target treatments to those who would most benefit. - Highlights: • Non-lethal hyperthermia treatment of cancer cells is shown to cause a reduction in rates of tumor initiation and metastasis. • Dynamic imaging of cells during heat treatment shows temporary changes in cell shape, cell migration, and cell proliferation. • Loss of adhesion may lead to the observed effect, which may disproportionately impact the tumor initiating cell fraction. • Loss or suppression of the tumor initiating cell fraction results in the observed loss of metastatic potential in vivo. • This result may lead to new approaches to synergizing hyperthermia with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.

  6. Performance on Addition and Subtraction Problems: Results from Individual Interviews - Sandy Bay Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to relate children's cognitive processing capabilities and their grade level to their performance and to the strategies they used when working addition and subtraction problems. From two sets of data which assessed memory capacity and cognitive processing capacities, six groups of children with different cognitive…

  7. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  8. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  9. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  10. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  11. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  12. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  13. Initial results from a test of the NASA EAARL lidar in the Tampa Bay region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, Wayne C.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Clayton, Tonya; Hansen, Mark; Longenecker, John; Gesch, Dean B.; Crane, Michael; Dutton, S.

    2002-01-01

    An initial test of the performance of the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) over coastal environments around the margins of an urbanized Gulf of Mexico estuary was performed over Tampa Bay in January 2002. The EAARL is a raster-scanning, water-penetrating, full-waveform adaptive lidar that is coupled to aircraft positioning systems and a downlooking color digital camera. The EAARL has unique capabilities for simultaneously mapping topography, shallow bathymetry, and vegetation. Initial analysis within 2 Tampa Bay subregions traversed by the survey flightlines has revealed that the EAARL can survey shallow bathymetry and variables associated with benthic cover in remarkable detail. The results of this ongoing study will aid in developing recommendations on the appropriate use of NASA EAARL surveys for mapping bathymetry and benthic habitats in estuaries around the Gulf of Mexico.

  14. The Initial Mass Function of Young Open Clusters in the Galaxy: A Preliminary Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Beomdu; Sung, Hwankyung; Hur, Hyeonoh; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2017-03-01

    The initial mass function (IMF) is an essential tool with which to study star formation processes. We have initiated the photometric survey of young open clusters in the Galaxy, from which the stellar IMFs are obtained in a homogeneous way. A total of 16 famous young open clusters have preferentially been studied up to now. These clusters have a wide range of surface densities (log σ = -1 to 3 [stars pc-2] for stars with mass larger than 5M ⊙) and cluster masses (M cl = 165 to 50, 000M ⊙), and also are distributed in five different spiral arms in the Galaxy. It is possible to test the dependence of star formation processes on the global properties of individual clusters or environmental conditions. We present a preliminary result on the variation of the IMF in this paper.

  15. Results Of Initial Analyses Of The Salt (Macro) Batch 9 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.

    2015-10-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  16. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2015-10-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amount of solids, or unusual colors. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  17. Characterization and initial results from the upgraded MST interferometer-polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parke, E.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Duff, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    The FIR interferometer-polarimeter diagnostic on MST is a high-bandwidth system with unique capabilities for measuring high-frequency density and internal magnetic fluctuations. Installation of new planar-diode mixers improves both the signal strength and the noise floor compared to the corner-cube mixers previously used. The new mixer technology also offers a simpler detection configuration that eliminates the need for additional amplifiers. We characterize the bandwidth capabilities of the upgraded heterodyne receiver system and present initial measurements in reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas. High wavenumber resolution becomes possible when operating without focusing elements, using only the 2-3 mm aperture on the mixer to determine the sampled chord width. This configuration will provide better resolution of small-scale fluctuations observed in the RFP during periods of improved, tokamak-like confinement. Finally, cross-correlation techniques between two mixers viewing the same chord further reduce measurement noise and improve the resolution of high-frequency, small-amplitude magnetic and density fluctuations. Initial tests of this technique in neutral-beam heated plasmas will be presented. Work supported by U.S. DOE.

  18. Hunting the most distant stars in the Milky Way: methods and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Bochanski, John J.; Willman, Beth; West, Andrew A.; Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura

    2014-04-01

    We present a new catalog of 404 M giant candidates found in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). The 2400 deg{sup 2} available in the UKIDSS Large Area Survey Data Release 8 resolve M giants through a volume four times larger than that of the entire Two Micron All Sky Survey. Combining near-infrared photometry with optical photometry and proper motions from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey yields an M giant candidate catalog with less M dwarf and quasar contamination than previous searches for similarly distant M giants. Extensive follow-up spectroscopy of this sample will yield the first map of our Galaxy's outermost reaches over a large area of sky. Our initial spectroscopic follow-up of ∼30 bright candidates yielded the positive identification of five M giants at distances ∼20-90 kpc. Each of these confirmed M giants have positions and velocities consistent with the Sagittarius stream. The fainter M giant candidates in our sample have estimated photometric distances ∼200 kpc (assuming [Fe/H] = 0.0), but require further spectroscopic verification. The photometric distance estimates extend beyond the Milky Way's virial radius, and increase by ∼50% for each 0.5 dex decrease in assumed [Fe/H]. Given the number of M giant candidates, initial selection efficiency, and volume surveyed, we loosely estimate that at least one additional Sagittarius-like accretion event could have contributed to the hierarchical build-up of the Milky Way's outer halo.

  19. Preliminary result on the enhancement of Ufer electrodes using recycle additives materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, Muhammad Haziq Aniq Bin; Ahmad, Hussein Bin

    2016-11-01

    Ground building pillars is to be used as ground rod. The pillars are design, fabricated, and formulated with new ground fillers. The additives will be used from recycle waste materials mainly from the palm oil plant process. Micro scale building pillars will be fabricated and install in the test ground at all of the location. Earth tester meter are used to measure and collect the data of the soil resistivity when the research is conducted. In collecting these data, 3-terminal methods are used to carry the measurements. This experiment will be conducted for 30 weeks and regular measurements at the test ground copper grids will be conducted to measure the ground electrode resistance. The study will mainly base on IEC 62503-3. The used of reinforcing rods and mixture of recycle additives could produce a better grounding system that are suitable and can be used in all kind of soil condition and large industries.

  20. A 10-Year Mechatronics Curriculum Development Initiative: Relevance, Content, and Results--Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, S.; Yost, S. A.; Krishnan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the first phase of a Mechatronics Curriculum Development effort--the design of an "Introduction to Mechatronics" course, the infusion of mechatronics activities throughout the curriculum and in outreach activities, and assessment results. In addition, the relevance and impact of such a curriculum on the education of engineers…

  1. Convection of Plasmaspheric Plasma into the Outer Magnetosphere and Boundary Layer Region: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ober, Daniel M.; Horwitz, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    We present initial results on the modeling of the circulation of plasmaspheric-origin plasma into the outer magnetosphere and low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL), using a dynamic global core plasma model (DGCPM). The DGCPM includes the influences of spatially and temporally varying convection and refilling processes to calculate the equatorial core plasma density distribution throughout the magnetosphere. We have developed an initial description of the electric and magnetic field structures in the outer magnetosphere region. The purpose of this paper is to examine both the losses of plasmaspheric-origin plasma into the magnetopause boundary layer and the convection of this plasma that remains trapped on closed magnetic field lines. For the LLBL electric and magnetic structures we have adopted here, the plasmaspheric plasma reaching the outer magnetosphere is diverted anti-sunward primarily along the dusk flank. These plasmas reach X= -15 R(sub E) in the LLBL approximately 3.2 hours after the initial enhancement of convection and continues to populate the LLBL for 12 hours as the convection electric field diminishes.

  2. Initial results obtained from a 3D computational model of the shaped charge jet particulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Zernow, L.; Chapyak, E.J.

    1998-02-01

    In a previous paper, the authors discussed a 3D computational model for the particulation of a stretching shaped charge jet, based on the experimentally observed double-helix surface perturbations on softly recovered jet particles. The 3D problem was derived from the unperturbed 2D problem, which was first used to generate a stretching jet. A portion of this 2D jet was selected for study in the cylindrical 3D mode, and the double-helix perturbations were placed on the cylinder surface. This initial computation was greatly simplified, to make it feasible to run on a CM 200 massively parallel processor. The initial output of this computation, which is being published here for the first time, leads to a significant simplification of the analysis of the particulation process, by avoiding the search for the elusive ``most favored wavelength`` which is characteristic of 2D axi-symmetric analyses. Previously unnoticed characteristics of flash radiographs from Viper jets, appear to support the computational results obtained, despite a counter-intuitive prediction of the location of necking loci, relative to the perturbing helices. The approximations used in this initial computation are discussed critically. Planned improvements are defined. A vision of future fundamental computations, which become possible with more powerful ASCI machines, is projected.

  3. Ultrasonographic features of vascular closure devices: initial and 6-month follow-up results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings for various types of vascular closure devices (VCDs) immediately after the angiographic procedure and at 6-month follow-up. Methods: We included 18 VCDs including Angio-Seal (n=4), FemoSeal (n=8), ExoSeal (n=3), Perclose (n=2), and StarClose (n=1) in this study. Four patients were implanted with 2 VCDs at the each side of bilateral femoral arteries, while the remaining 8 patients were inserted 1 VCD at the right femoral artery. Ultrasonography was performed within 10 days and at approximately 6 months after the angiographic procedure. Ultrasonographic morphology of the attached VCD and its relationship with the arterial wall were analyzed. Results: Initial ultrasonography revealed the attached VCD as the relevant unique structure with successful deployment and hemostasis. Follow-up ultrasonography demonstrated partial absorption of hemostatic materials in cases of Angio-Seal (n=3), FemoSeal (n=5), and ExoSeal (n=3), changes in the soft tissue surrounding the femoral artery in case of Angio-Seal (n=1), arterial intimal hyperplasia in cases of FemoSeal (n=3), and no gross changes as compared with the initial ultrasonographic findings in cases of Perclose (n=2) and StarClose (n=1). Conclusion: Initial ultrasonographic evaluation reflected the unique structure of each VCD, with most of them being easily distinguishable. Follow-up ultrasonography revealed various changes in the affected vessels. PMID:25145584

  4. Initiative To Reduce Avoidable Hospitalizations Among Nursing Facility Residents Shows Promising Results.

    PubMed

    Ingber, Melvin J; Feng, Zhanlian; Khatutsky, Galina; Wang, Joyce M; Bercaw, Lawren E; Zheng, Nan Tracy; Vadnais, Alison; Coomer, Nicole M; Segelman, Micah

    2017-03-01

    Nursing facility residents are frequently admitted to the hospital, and these hospital stays are often potentially avoidable. Such hospitalizations are detrimental to patients and costly to Medicare and Medicaid. In 2012 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services launched the Initiative to Reduce Avoidable Hospitalizations among Nursing Facility Residents, using evidence-based clinical and educational interventions among long-stay residents in 143 facilities in seven states. In state-specific analyses, we estimated net reductions in 2015 of 2.2-9.3 percentage points in the probability of an all-cause hospitalization and 1.4-7.2 percentage points in the probability of a potentially avoidable hospitalization for participating facility residents, relative to comparison-group members. In that year, average per resident Medicare expenditures were reduced by $60-$2,248 for all-cause hospitalizations and by $98-$577 for potentially avoidable hospitalizations. The effects for over half of the outcomes in these analyses were significant. Variability in implementation and engagement across the nursing facilities and organizations that customized and implemented the initiative helps explain the variability in the estimated effects. Initiative models that included registered nurses or nurse practitioners who provided consistent clinical care for residents demonstrated higher staff engagement and more positive outcomes, compared to models providing only education or intermittent clinical care. These results provide promising evidence of an effective approach for reducing avoidable hospitalizations among nursing facility residents.

  5. Convection of Plasmaspheric Plasma into the Outer Magnetosphere and Boundary Layer Region: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ober, Daniel M.; Horwitz, J. L.; Gallagher, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    We present initial results on the modeling of the circulation of plasmaspheric- origin plasma into the outer magnetosphere and low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL), using a dynamic global core plasma model (DGCPM). The DGCPM includes the influences of spatially and temporally varying convection and refilling processes to calculate the equatorial core plasma density distribution throughout the magnetosphere. We have developed an initial description of the electric and magnetic field structures in the outer magnetosphere region. The purpose of this paper is to examine both the losses of plasmaspheric-origin plasma into the magnetopause boundary layer and the convection of this plasma that remains trapped on closed magnetic field lines. For the LLBL electric and magnetic structures we have adopted here, the plasmaspheric plasma reaching the outer magnetosphere is diverted anti-sunward primarily along the dusk flank. These plasmas reach X = -15 R(sub E) in the LLBL approximately 3.2 hours after the initial enhancement of convection and continues to populate the LLBL for 12 hours as the convection electric field diminishes.

  6. Spinel dissolution via addition of glass forming chemicals. Results of preliminary experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Johnson, F. C.

    2015-11-01

    Increased loading of high level waste in glass can lead to crystallization within the glass. Some crystalline species, such as spinel, have no practical impact on the chemical durability of the glass, and therefore may be acceptable from both a processing and a product performance standpoint. In order to operate a melter with a controlled amount of crystallization, options must be developed for remediating an unacceptable accumulation of crystals. This report describes preliminary experiments designed to evaluate the ability to dissolve spinel crystals in simulated waste glass melts via the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs).

  7. Initial results of a porous plug nozzle for supersonic jet noise suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, L.

    1978-01-01

    As part of a continuing study of possible methods of jet noise reduction, some tests have been made on a porous plug type noise suppressor. Very little information exists on the aeroacoustic performance of jet nozzles having porous elements designed to eliminate the shock wave in the exhaust stream and by so doing to eliminate the shock associated noise and screech. Some initial results on the aeroacoustic performance of a model porous plug type jet noise suppressor are presented. Included are shadowgraph pictures of the flow exhausting from the porous plug nozzle with the comparable acoustic far-field spectra and cross correlations which illustrate the benefits of the test device.

  8. The benchmark aeroelastic models program: Description and highlights of initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert M.; Eckstrom, Clinton V.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Dansberry, Bryan E.; Farmer, Moses G.; Durham, Michael H.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental effort was implemented in aeroelasticity called the Benchmark Models Program. The primary purpose of this program is to provide the necessary data to evaluate computational fluid dynamic codes for aeroelastic analysis. It also focuses on increasing the understanding of the physics of unsteady flows and providing data for empirical design. An overview is given of this program and some results obtained in the initial tests are highlighted. The tests that were completed include measurement of unsteady pressures during flutter of a rigid wing with an NACA 0012 airfoil section and dynamic response measurements of a flexible rectangular wing with a thick circular arc airfoil undergoing shock boundary layer oscillations.

  9. Airborne laser topographic mapping results from initial joint NASA/US Army Corps of Engineers experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Initial results from a series of joint NASA/US Army Corps of Engineers experiments are presented. The NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) was exercised over various terrain conditions, collecting both profile and scan data from which river basin cross sections are extracted. Comparisons of the laser data with both photogrammetry and ground surveys are made, with 12 to 27 cm agreement observed over open ground. Foliage penetration tests, utilizing the unique time-waveform sampling capability of the AOL, indicate 50 cm agreement with photogrammetry (known to have difficulty in foliage covered terrain).

  10. The benchmark aeroelastic models program: Description and highlights of initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert M.; Eckstrom, Clinton V.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Dansberry, Bryan E.; Farmer, Moses G.; Durham, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental effort was implemented in aeroelasticity called the Benchmark Models Program. The primary purpose of this program is to provide the necessary data to evaluate computational fluid dynamic codes for aeroelastic analysis. It also focuses on increasing the understanding of the physics of unsteady flows and providing data for empirical design. An overview is given of this program and some results obtained in the initial tests are highlighted. The tests that were completed include measurement of unsteady pressures during flutter of rigid wing with a NACA 0012 airfoil section and dynamic response measurements of a flexible rectangular wing with a thick circular arc airfoil undergoing shock boundary layer oscillations.

  11. The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array - Initial results and future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Hoover, Richard B.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    We review the scientific objectives, configuration, and initial flight results of the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA). The MSSTA is a comprehensive solar rocket-borne observatory which utilizes multilayer coated optics to achieve high resolution thermally resolved images of the sun at FUV, EUV and soft X-ray wavelengths. The MSSTA was successfully flown on May 13, 1991, obtaining high resolution images of chromospheric and coronal structures, including loops, filaments, polar plumes, and coronal holes. We also discuss plans to expand the capabilities of the MSSTA for future flights.

  12. Design, implementation, and initial results from a water-quality monitoring network for Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Elrick, K.A.; Smith, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    In cooperation with the City of Atlanta, Georgia, the US Geological Survey has designed and implemented a water-quantity and quality monitoring network that measures a variety of biological and chemical constituents in water and suspended sediment. The network consists of 20 long-term monitoring sites and is intended to assess water-quality trends in response to planned infrastructural improvements. Initial results from the network indicate that nonpoint-source contributions may be more significant than point-source contributions for selected sediment associated trace elements and nutrients. There also are indications of short-term discontinuous point-source contributions of these same constituents during baseflow.

  13. Martian Weather and Climate: Initial Results from the Mars Climate Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleese, D. J.; Schofield, J. T.; Taylor, F. W.; Calcutt, S. B.; Foote, M.; Kass, D.; Leovy, C.; Paige, D.; Read, P.; Zurek, R.; Abdou, W.; Ahrenson, O.; Lawson, G.; Backus, C.; Kleinbohl, A.; Lewis, S.; Teanby, N.; Irwin, P.; Read, P.; Wood, S.; Bowles, N.; Richardson, M.

    2007-08-01

    The Mars Climate Sounder experiment on the 2006 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is the latest attempt, following unfortunate failures with Mars Observer in 1993 and Mars Climate Orbiter in 1999, to characterize the Martian atmosphere with the sort of coverage and precision achieved by terrestrial weather satellites. It is expected to lead to corresponding improvements in our understanding of meteorological phenomena such as surface winds and global dust storms, and to enable improved general circulation models of the Martian atmosphere for climate studies on a range of timescales. Some initial results from the first year of measurements will be presented and described.

  14. Initial results from OSSE on the Compton Observatory. [Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. N.; Kurfess, J. D.; Purcell, W. R.; Matz, S. M.; Ulmer, M. P.; Strickman, M. S.; Murphy, R. J.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Kinzer, R. L.; Share, G. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) was launched on NASA's Compton Observatory on 1991 April 5. OSSE uses large area scintillation detectors to undertake gamma-ray line and continuum observations in the 0.05-10 MeV energy range. During the first months of the mission, OSSE has obtained observations on a number of high priority sources including AGNs, SN1991T, the galactic center region, and several discrete galactic sources. The capabilities and performance of OSSE are discussed and initial results for several of the early observations are presented.

  15. Quantification of atmospheric methane oxidation in glacier forefields: Initial survey results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauer, Philipp A.; Schroth, Martin H.; Pinto, Eric A.; Zeyer, Josef

    2010-05-01

    enough to derive meaningful first-order rate coefficients of CH4 oxidation. The more sensitive GPPT with 13C-CH4 resulted in a coefficient of 0.025 h-1, close to the value of 0.011 h-1 estimated from the corresponding concentration profile. Activities in the forefield on calcareous bedrock were substantially higher, with decreased CH4 concentrations in the soil at three out of five locations. Estimated first-order rate coefficients from GPPT and profile at one selected location were 0.6 h-1 and 1.3 h-1, respectively, one to two orders of magnitude higher than values from the siliceous forefield. Additional analysis by quantitative PCR revealed substantially lower numbers of pmoA gene copies per g soil at the active location in the siliceous forefield compared to the selected location in the calcareous forefield. Reasons for these differences in activity and abundance are still unknown and will be subject of further investigations in an upcoming field campaign. The GPPT in combination with δ13C analysis of extracted CO2 appeared to be a functioning approach to sensitively quantify low CH4 turnover.

  16. Initial Checkout Results of the Compact Infrared Camera (circ) for Earth Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, E.; Katayama, H.; Sakai, M.; Nakajima, Y.; Kimura, T.; Nakau, K.; Tonooka, H.

    2015-04-01

    Compact Infrared Camera (CIRC) is a technology-demonstration instrument equipped with an uncooled infrared array detector (microbolometer) for space application. CIRC is the first microbolometer sensor without a calibration function in orbit, like a shutter system or an onboard blackbody. The main objective of the CIRC is to detect wildfires, which are major and chronic disasters affecting various countries of Southeast Asia, particularly considering the effects of global warming and climate change. The CIRC achieves a small size (approximately 200 mm), light mass (approximately 3 kg), and low electrical power consumption (<20 W) by employing athermal optics and a shutterless system. The CIRC can be consequently mounted on multiple satellites to enable highfrequency observation. Installation of CIRCs on the ALOS-2 and on the JEM/CALET is expected to increase observation frequency. We present the initial check-out results of the CIRC onboard ALOS-2. Since the initial check-out phase (July 4-14, 2014), the CIRC has acquired the images of Earth. CIRC was demonstrated to function according to its intended design. After the early calibration validation phase, which confirmed the temperature accuracy of observed data, CIRC data has been available to the public January 2015 onward. We also introduce a few observational results about wildfire, volcanoes, and heat-island.

  17. Percutaneous excimer laser coronary angioplasty: development of technology and initial clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcheng, James E.; Miller, James S.; Songer, Ronald W.; Golobic, Robert A.

    1992-08-01

    The development of laser systems suitable for vascular angioplasty is a multidisciplinary endeavor that includes development of the laser energy source, guidance modality, delivery catheter, and assessment of clinical applicability. In this paper we report on the design criteria of percutaneous coronary catheters and how these have guided development of the Spectranetics excimer laser angioplasty system. The Spectranetics CVX-300TM excimer laser angioplasty system was designed for safe application in the cardiac catheterization laboratory while maximizing system maintenance intervals. Recent improvements in catheter design and construction have been directed at optimizing target lesion acquisition and treatment. Lesion access and alignment have been facilitated through the use of optical fiber bundles with increased flexibility. Ablation efficiency has been improved by a combination of increased active fiber area and optimization of the radial location of the fiber array compared to the original devices. Engineered stiffness profiles have been improved and lubricous coatings incorporated to optimize force transmission and tactile feedback for the clinician. Initial clinical results appear favorable. In particular, excimer laser angioplasty appears to have an advantage in the treatment of complex coronary lesions such as diffuse coronary arterial disease, total occlusions, ostial stenoses, moderately calcified lesions, and vein graft disease. In these settings, improved procedural success rates and a lowered incidence of complications have been observed compared to conventional balloon PTCA angioplasty. Examples of complex coronary lesion cases as well as a summary of the data of the initial clinical results from the multicenter trial are also presented in this paper.

  18. Hydrocode Modeling of Asteroid Impacts into a Volatile-Rich Martian Surface: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesko, C. S.; Asphaug, E.; Gisler, G. R.; Gittings, M. L.

    2005-08-01

    We present initial results of simulations of asteroid impacts into a volatile-rich Martian surface, and test the RAGE hydrocode (Gittings et al., 2005) in benchmark scenarios relevant to such models. RAGE is an Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamics code that runs in up to three dimensions, using a Godunov method to solve the hydrodynamics equations, and adaptive mesh refinement to increase computational efficiency near shocks and boundaries. It incorporates a large variety of detailed equations of state including the temperature-based SESAME tables maintained by LANL. Our Mars impact modeling effort involves two components: (1) characterizing and validating RAGE models of the propagation of impact shocks in well-characterized laboratory experiments, and (2) building up realistic RAGE models of the Martian surface involving inhomogeneous layers, volatile layers, and atmosphere. The Mars science goals of these efforts are twofold. The first is to arrive at a robust quantitative examination of impact devolatilization, which has been proposed (Segura et al., Science 2002) as a mechanism for triggering sporadic but intense Martian hydrologic cycles. The second goal is to attempt to relate the geological expression of Martian craters to the nature of sub-surface layering. Comparison of hydrocode results against analytical and laboratory results are imperative for correct forward modeling, so we have begun by putting RAGE through a series of validation tests. We present model results that show good agreement with laboratory experiments and analytical models, and initial results for Mars crater formation. This effort is supported by LANL/IGPP (CSP, GRG, MLG) and by NASA PG&G "Small Bodies and Planetary Collisions" (EA).

  19. Initial Results from ST7-Disturbance Reduction System on LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Charles; Barela, Phillip; Cutler, Curt; Denzin, Richard; Franklin, Garth; Gorelik, Jacb; Hsu, Oscar; Javidnia, Shahram; Li, Irena; Maghami, Peiman; Marrese-Reading, Colleen; Mehta, Jitendra; O'Donnell, James; Romero-Wolf, Andrew; Slutsky, Jacob; Thorpe, Ira; Umfress, S. Harper; Ziemer, John

    2017-01-01

    The European Space Agency LISA Pathfinder spacecraft was launched on December, 2, 2015 carrying the NASA contribution ST7-Disturbance Reduction System (ST7-DRS). The objective of ST7-DRS is to demonstrate drag-free control and noise reduction technologies for future missions, especially a future space-based gravitational wave observatory. The system consists of a pair of Colloid Micro-Newton Thruster clusters and a computer with control algorithms. Data from the host platform is used for inertial and attitude sensing. ST7-DRS was initially powered on in January 2016 for an on-orbit check out and was fully commissioned in late June and early July. This presentation will report results relative to the 0.1 micro-Newton/ rt Hertz thrust noise requirement and the 10 nanometer/rt Hertz position control requirement. Preliminary extended mission results will be discussed. The work described here was funded by NASA.

  20. Initial Results of Aperture Area Comparisons for Exo-Atmospheric Total Solar Irradiance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. Carol; Litorja, Maritoni; Fowler, Joel B.; Butler, James J.

    2009-01-01

    In the measurement of exo-atmospheric total solar irradiance (TSI), instrument aperture area is a critical component in converting solar radiant flux to irradiance. In a May 2000 calibration workshop for the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE), the solar irradiance measurement community recommended that NASA and NISI coordinate an aperture area measurement comparison to quantify and validate aperture area uncertainties and their overall effect on TSI uncertainties. From May 2003 to February 2006, apertures from 4 institutions with links to the historical TSI database were measured by NIST and the results were compared to the aperture area determined by each institution. The initial results of these comparisons are presented and preliminary assessments of the participants' uncertainties are discussed.

  1. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 10 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 10 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amount of solids, or unusual colors. Further sample results will be reported in a future document. This memo satisfies part of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR).

  2. Initial results of Alloy 600 crack growth rate testing in PWR environments

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J.P.; Bamford, W.H.; Pathania, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Initial crack growth rate results on the effects of stress intensity factor, temperature, material heat and experimental methods were studied on Alloy 600 control rod drive head penetrations using fracture mechanics samples. Crack growth rate data were obtained using the reverse DC potential difference crack monitoring method on 1/2T CT samples tested at temperatures of 310 to 330 C in 1200 ppm B + 2 ppm Li + 25 cc/kg H{sub 2} water. The results are consistent with a crack growth rate estimation model developed by Scott. Most of the heats tested to date are consistent with the Scott model; however, enhanced crack growth rates were exhibited by two heats with low grain boundary carbide coverage.

  3. Results Of Initial Analyses Of The Macrobatch 7 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-07-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Salt (Macro) Batch 7 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) through ARP/MCU. This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 7 strategy are identified, other than the presence of visible quantities of dark colored solids. Based upon a SRNL settling test, the solids should settle well within the months-long settling period to be employed in Tank 21H. However, SRNL recommends analyzing the solids to provide input to OLI modeling in order to evaluate the impacts of these solids to present and future salt batches.

  4. Merging neutron stars. 1. Initial results for coalescence of noncorotating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. B.; Benz, W.; Piran, T.; Thielemann, F. K.

    1994-01-01

    We present three-dimensional Newtonian simulations of the coalescence of two neutron stars, using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. We begin the simulations with the two stars in a hard, circular binary, and have them spiral together as angular momentum is lost through gravitational radiation at the rate predicted by modeling the system as two point masses. We model the neutron stars as hard polytropes (gamma = 2.4) of equal mass, and investigate the effect of the initial spin of the two stars on the coalescence. The process of coalescence, from initial contact to the formation of an axially symmetric object, takes only a few orbital periods. Some of the material from the two neutron stars is shed, forming a thick disk around the central, coalesced object. The mass of this disk is dependent on the initial neutron star spins; higher spin rates result in greater mass loss and thus more massive disks. For spin rates that are most likely to be applicable to real systems, the central coalesced object has a mass of 2.4 solar mass, which is tantalizingly close to the maximum mass allowed by any neutron star equation of state for an object that is supported in part by rotation. Using a realistic nuclear equation of state, we estimate the temperature of the material after the coalescence. We find that the central object is at a temperature of approximately 10 MeV, while the disk is heated by shocks to a temperature of 2 to 4 MeV.

  5. Maquet III procedure: what remains after initial complications - long-term results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maquet III procedure, unloved due to its complications (2% to 59%), has been progressively abandoned. At long-term follow-up, what happens to patients with complications that exceeded the initial ones (Acta Orthop Scand 60:20, 1989)? We retrospectively studied patients who were submitted to Maquet III procedure, by functional and radiologic long-term outcomes, in order to determine if this surgery has or has not fulfilled its initially proposed objectives. From 1970 to 1991, 116 patients benefit from the Maquet III procedure. From this, we were able to review in 2011, 23 patients (25 knees) who went through a single Maquet III procedure. Of these patients, 52% were males. Age at surgery was 39.7 ± 11.4, with a postoperative follow-up of 27.2 ± 3.1 years. Methods A questionnaire has been prepared for collecting data, and it has been supplemented by clinical records. We evaluated the preoperative complaints, postoperative complications, and range of motion during the recovery time, as well as the postoperative pain-absence period. All patients underwent an objective assessment using the visual analog scale (VAS) at rest and activity, and the Kujala patellofemoral scoring system. A radiological assessment was also made in order to evaluate the arthrosis degree. The bicondylo-patellar angle described by Delgado-Martins (Arch Orthop Traumat Surg 96:303–304, 1980) was used to measure patellar tilt, and the Caton-Deschamps index to calculate the patellar height. Results Only one knee had benefited from a total knee arthroplasty (20 years after the Maquet III procedure). Preoperative complains were mainly anterior knee pain, crepitus, and patellar instability. Nowadays, 10 patients (40%) still are pain free. Others had an average period without pain of 19.1 ± 6.1 years. VAS at rest was 1.7 ± 0.7 and in activity 4.4 ± 3.0. KPS was 61.9 ± 22.3 points. X-ray shows that 40% had a Kellgren-Lawrence grade of 1 at the patellofemoral joint. Conclusion Maquet

  6. Status, Plans and Initial Results for Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, L. D.; Hall, R. M.; Haynes, D. A.; Pamadi, B. N.; Taylor, T. L.; Seaford, C. M.

    Following the completion of NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture Study in August 2004 for the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), the Ares Projects Office at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was assigned project management responsibilities for the design and development of the first vehicle in the architecture, the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will be used to launch astronauts to low earth orbit and rendezvous with either the International Space Station or the ESMD's earth departure stage for lunar or other future missions beyond low Earth orbit. The primary elements of the Ares I CLV project are the first stage, the upper stage, the upper stage engine, and vehicle integration. Within vehicle integration is an effort in integrated design and analysis which is comprised of a number of technical disciplines needed to support vehicle design and development. One of the important disciplines throughout the life of the project is aerodynamics. This paper will present the status, plans, and initial results of Ares I CLV aerodynamics as the project was preparing for the Ares I CLV Systems Requirements Review. Following a discussion of the specific interactions with other technical panels and a status of the current activities, the plans for aerodynamic support of the Ares I CLV until the initial crewed flights will be presented.

  7. The Greenwich Photo-heliographic Results (1874 - 1976): Initial Corrections to the Printed Publications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin, E. H.; Coffey, H. E.; Denig, W. F.; Willis, D. M.; Henwood, R.; Wild, M. N.

    2013-11-01

    A new sunspot and faculae digital dataset for the interval 1874 - 1955 has been prepared under the auspices of the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC). This digital dataset contains measurements of the positions and areas of both sunspots and faculae published initially by the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and subsequently by the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO), under the title Greenwich Photo-heliographic Results ( GPR) , 1874 - 1976. Quality control (QC) procedures based on logical consistency have been used to identify the more obvious errors in the RGO publications. Typical examples of identifiable errors are North versus South errors in specifying heliographic latitude, errors in specifying heliographic (Carrington) longitude, errors in the dates and times, errors in sunspot group numbers, arithmetic errors in the summation process, and the occasional omission of solar ephemerides. Although the number of errors in the RGO publications is remarkably small, an initial table of necessary corrections is provided for the interval 1874 - 1917. Moreover, as noted in the preceding companion papers, the existence of two independently prepared digital datasets, which both contain information on sunspot positions and areas, makes it possible to outline a preliminary strategy for the development of an even more accurate digital dataset. Further work is in progress to generate an extremely reliable sunspot digital dataset, based on the long programme of solar observations supported first by the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and then by the Royal Greenwich Observatory.

  8. Construction and initial results from the magnetic diagnostics of the RWM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergerson, Will; Forest, C. B.; Hannum, D.; Kendrick, R. D.; Lovell, T. W.; Oliva, S. P.; Sarff, J. S.

    2003-10-01

    A new experiment to test the stabilization of the Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) by differentially rotating conducting shells surrounding the plasma is beginning operation. The geometry is a linear screw pinch. The first phase will study the RWM without the secondary rotating shell. The second phase will add a second outer shell to be spun. Theory indicates that the ideal kink, unstable with a stationary shell, can be stabilized with an adequate rotation speed applied to a second overlying shell. The plasma's current density, safety factor profiles, and production is controlled by the plasma gun array. The main RWM diagnostic tool is a 2D array of 80 magnetic field sensors on the outer surface of the inner copper shell. Flexible circuit technology allows the array to be wrapped around the column with a substrate that performs sturdily under high temperature applications. The array provides complete surface area coverage of the column and allows for rapid installation and removal to facilitate alterations to the primary shell. Design specifications afford sub-Gauss sensitivity. Initially, the experiment will map the RWM under a variety of plasma conditions without the secondary spinning shell. Once characterized, the second shell will be incorporated and the RWM features mapped again. Initial results will be presented. This work is supported by the US DOE DE-FG02-00ER54603

  9. Status, Plans, and Initial Results for ARES 1 Crew Launch Vehicle Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Haynes, Davy A.; Taylor, Terry L.; Hall, Robert M.; Pamadi, Bandu N.; Seaford, C. Mark

    2006-01-01

    Following the completion of NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture Study in August 2004 for the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), the Exploration Launch Office at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was assigned project management responsibilities for the design and development of the first vehicle in the architecture, the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will be used to launch astronauts to low earth orbit and rendezvous with either the International Space Station or the ESMD s earth departure stage for lunar or other future missions beyond low Earth orbit. The primary elements of the Ares I CLV project are the first stage, the upper stage, the upper stage engine, and vehicle integration. Within vehicle integration is an effort in integrated design and analysis which is comprised of a number of technical disciplines needed to support vehicle design and development. One of the important disciplines throughout the life of the project is aerodynamics. This paper will present the status, plans, and initial results of Ares I CLV aerodynamics as the project was preparing for the Ares I CLV Systems Requirements Review. Following a discussion of the specific interactions with other technical panels and a status of the current activities, the plans for aerodynamic support of the Ares I CLV until the initial crewed flights will be presented.

  10. Status, Plans and Initial Results for Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Hall, Robert M.; Haynes, Davy A.; Pamadi, Bandu N.; Taylor, Terry L.; Seaford, C. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Following the completion of NASA s Exploration Systems Architecture Study in August 2004 for the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), the Ares Projects Office at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was assigned project management responsibilities for the design and development of the first vehicle in the architecture, the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will be used to launch astronauts to low earth orbit and rendezvous with either the International Space Station or the ESMD s earth departure stage for lunar or other future missions beyond low Earth orbit. The primary elements of the Ares I CLV project are the first stage, the upper stage, the upper stage engine, and vehicle integration. Within vehicle integration is an effort in integrated design and analysis which is comprised of a number of technical disciplines needed to support vehicle design and development. One of the important disciplines throughout the life of the project is aerodynamics. This paper will present the status, plans, and initial results of Ares I CLV aerodynamics as the project was preparing for the Ares I CLV Systems Requirements Review. Following a discussion of the specific interactions with other technical panels and a status of the current activities, the plans for aerodynamic support of the Ares I CLV until the initial crewed flights will be presented. Keywords: Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, aerodynamics, wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics

  11. Molecular evolution of contracting clouds - Basic methods and initial results. [interstellar processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerola, H.; Glassgold, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between the dynamics of the interstellar gas and the thermal and chemical effects associated with interstellar molecules and dust is investigated. The evolution of a rather massive isolated initially diffuse cloud under self-gravity is studied, using the equations of hydrodynamics; only radial motions are considered, and the heat, chemical, and radiative-transfer equations are solved simultaneously with the hydrodynamic equations. The relevant chemistry is described along with the thermal model, the radiative-transfer process, and the numerical methods employed. Results for a contracting cloud are discussed in terms of the problem of initial conditions, the dynamical evolution of the cloud, its chemical and thermal evolution, time scales, and column densities. It is shown that the chemical evolution of a massive contracting diffuse cloud is sensitive to such physical properties as temperature and ion abundances, that warm and cool versions of a typical cloud evolve differently, and that the physical origin of this effect is the level of heating due to H2 formation on interstellar dust grains.

  12. Additional results for 'Sequential design approaches for bioequivalence studies with crossover designs'.

    PubMed

    Montague, Timothy H; Potvin, Diane; Diliberti, Charles E; Hauck, Walter W; Parr, Alan F; Schuirmann, Donald J

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, this group published a paper on approaches for two-stage crossover bioequivalence (BE) studies that allowed for the reestimation of the second-stage sample size based on the variance estimated from the first-stage results. The sequential methods considered used an assumed GMR of 0.95 as part of the method for determining power and sample size. This note adds results for an assumed GMR = 0.90. Two of the methods recommended for GMR = 0.95 in the earlier paper have some unacceptable increases in Type I error rate when the GMR is changed to 0.90. If a sponsor wants to assume 0.90 for the GMR, Method D is recommended. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions for the Pliocene (Plio-QUMP): Initial results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, J.O.; Collins, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Dowsett, H.J.; Hunter, S.J.; Lunt, D.J.; Pickering, S.J.; Pound, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Examination of the mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP; ~. 3.3 to 3.0. Ma BP) provides an excellent opportunity to test the ability of climate models to reproduce warm climate states, thereby assessing our confidence in model predictions. To do this it is necessary to relate the uncertainty in model simulations of mPWP climate to uncertainties in projections of future climate change. The uncertainties introduced by the model can be estimated through the use of a Perturbed Physics Ensemble (PPE). Developing on the UK Met Office Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions (QUMP) Project, this paper presents the results from an initial investigation using the end members of a PPE in a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model (HadCM3) running with appropriate mPWP boundary conditions. Prior work has shown that the unperturbed version of HadCM3 may underestimate mPWP sea surface temperatures at higher latitudes. Initial results indicate that neither the low sensitivity nor the high sensitivity simulations produce unequivocally improved mPWP climatology relative to the standard. Whilst the high sensitivity simulation was able to reconcile up to 6 ??C of the data/model mismatch in sea surface temperatures in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (relative to the standard simulation), it did not produce a better prediction of global vegetation than the standard simulation. Overall the low sensitivity simulation was degraded compared to the standard and high sensitivity simulations in all aspects of the data/model comparison. The results have shown that a PPE has the potential to explore weaknesses in mPWP modelling simulations which have been identified by geological proxies, but that a 'best fit' simulation will more likely come from a full ensemble in which simulations that contain the strengths of the two end member simulations shown here are combined. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  14. MER Field Geologic Traverse in Gusev Crater, Mars: Initial Results From the Perspective of Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L.; Cabrol, N.; desMarais, D.; Farmer, J.; Golmbek, M.; Grant, J.; Greely, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Haskin, L.; Arvidson, R.

    2004-01-01

    This report casts the initial results of the traverse and science investigations by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit at Gusev crater [1] in terms of data sets commonly used in field geologic investigations: Local mapping of geologic features, analyses of selected samples, and their location within the local map, and the regional context of the field traverse in terms of the larger geologic and physiographic region. These elements of the field method are represented in the MER characterization of the Gusev traverse by perspective-based geologic/morphologic maps, the placement of the results from Mossbauer, APXS, Microscopic Imager, Mini-TES and Pancam multispectral studies in context within this geologic/ morphologic map, and the placement of the overall traverse in the context of narrow-angle MOC (Mars Orbiter Camera) and descent images. A major campaign over a significance fraction of the mission will be the first robotic traverse of the ejecta from a Martian impact crater along an approximate radial from the crater center. The Mars Exploration Rovers have been conceptually described as 'robotic field geologists', that is, a suite of instruments with mobility that enables far-field traverses to multiple sites located within a regional map/image base at which in situ analyses may be done. Initial results from MER, where the field geologic method has been used throughout the initial course of the investigation, confirm that this field geologic model is applicable for remote planetary surface exploration. The field geologic method makes use of near-field geologic characteristics ('outcrops') to develop an understanding of the larger geologic context through continuous loop of rational steps focused on real-time hypothesis identification and testing. This poster equates 'outcrops' with the locations of in situ investigations and 'regional context' with the geology over distance of several kilometers. Using this fundamental field geologic method, we have

  15. Optical design and initial results from NIST's AMMT/TEMPS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, Steven; Lane, Brandon; Neira, Jorge; Mekhontsev, Sergey; Vlasea, Mihaela; Hanssen, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    NIST's Physical Measurement and Engineering Laboratories are jointly developing the Additive Manufacturing Measurement Test bed (AMMT)/ Temperature and Emittance of Melts, Powders and Solids (TEMPS) facilities. These facilities will be co-located on an open architecture laser-based powder bed fusion system allowing users full access to the system's operation parameters. This will provide users with access to machine-independent monitoring and control of the powder bed fusion process. In this paper there will be emphasis on the AMMT, which incorporates in-line visible light collection optics for monitoring and feedback control of the powder bed fusion process. We shall present an overview of the AMMT/TEMPs program and it goals. The optical and mechanical design of the open architecture powder-bed fusion system and the AMMT will be also be described. In addition, preliminary measurement results from the system along with the current system status of the system the will be described.

  16. Initial cathode processing experiences and results for the treatment of spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, B.R.; Laug, D.V.; Brunsvold, A.R.; Roach, P.D.

    1996-05-01

    As part of the spent fuel treatment demonstration at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, primarily consisting of a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a batch operation termed ``cathode processing.`` Cathode processing is performed in a retort furnace which enables the production of a stable uranium product that can be isotopically diluted and stored. To date, experiments have been performed with two distillation units; one for prototypical testing and the other for actual spent fuel treatment operations. The results and experiences from these initial experiments with both units will be discussed as well as problems encountered and their resolution.

  17. Initial results of the high resolution edge Thomson scattering upgrade at DIII-Da)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldon, D.; Bray, B. D.; Deterly, T. M.; Liu, C.; Watkins, M.; Groebner, R. J.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.; Snyder, P. B.; Boivin, R. L.; Tynan, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    Validation of models of pedestal structure is an important part of predicting pedestal height and performance in future tokamaks. The Thomson scattering diagnostic at DIII-D has been upgraded in support of validating these models. Spatial and temporal resolution, as well as signal to noise ratio, have all been specifically enhanced in the pedestal region. This region is now diagnosed by 20 view-chords with a spacing of 6 mm and a scattering length of just under 5 mm sampled at a nominal rate of 250 Hz. When mapped to the outboard midplane, this corresponds to ˜3 mm spacing. These measurements are being used to test critical gradient models, in which pedestal gradients increase in time until a threshold is reached. This paper will describe the specifications of the upgrade and present initial results of the system.

  18. Initial Test Results of Laboratory Scale Hydrogen Liquefaction and Densification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, J. H.; Notardonato, W. U.

    2006-04-01

    Using densified liquid hydrogen as a cryogenic propellant for launch vehicle applications can reduce fuel tank volumes, decrease vapor pressures, and improve cooling capacity over the normal boiling point propellant. A densified liquid hydrogen test bed has been developed using Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to refrigerate hydrogen inside the 150L storage tank at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). This work is a collaborative effort amongst researchers at FSEC and NASA Kennedy Space Center. The test bed has an integrated refrigeration and storage system with multiple capabilities including hydrogen liquefaction, densification, and zero-boil-off (ZBO) storage test. This paper focuses on the design considerations, the detailed system descriptions, and the results obtained during initial hydrogen liquefaction and densification tests.

  19. Data processing and initial results from the CE-3 Extreme Ultraviolet Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jian-Qing; Liu, Jian-Jun; He, Fei; Yan, Wei; Ren, Xin; Tan, Xu; He, Ling-Ping; Chen, Bo; Zuo, Wei; Wen, Wei-Bin; Su, Yan; Zou, Yong-Liao; Li, Chun-Lai

    2014-12-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Camera (EUVC) onboard the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) lander is used to observe the structure and dynamics of Earth's plasmasphere from the Moon. By detecting the resonance line emission of helium ions (He+) at 30.4 nm, the EUVC images the entire plasmasphere with a time resolution of 10 min and a spatial resolution of about 0.1 Earth radius (RE) in a single frame. We first present details about the data processing from EUVC and the data acquisition in the commissioning phase, and then report some initial results, which reflect the basic features of the plasmasphere well. The photon count and emission intensity of EUVC are consistent with previous observations and models, which indicate that the EUVC works normally and can provide high quality data for future studies.

  20. Initial results on fault diagnosis of DSN antenna control assemblies using pattern recognition techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, P.; Mellstrom, J.

    1990-01-01

    Initial results obtained from an investigation using pattern recognition techniques for identifying fault modes in the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70 m antenna control loops are described. The overall background to the problem is described, the motivation and potential benefits of this approach are outlined. In particular, an experiment is described in which fault modes were introduced into a state-space simulation of the antenna control loops. By training a multilayer feed-forward neural network on the simulated sensor output, classification rates of over 95 percent were achieved with a false alarm rate of zero on unseen tests data. It concludes that although the neural classifier has certain practical limitations at present, it also has considerable potential for problems of this nature.

  1. What do Patients Want From Their Radiation Oncologist? Initial Results From a Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatnagar, Ajay K.; Heron, Dwight E.; Flickinger, John C.

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: To assess patients' initial physician preferences using a newly developed instrument. Methods and Materials: A total of 182 patients with a primary diagnosis of prostate, breast, or lung cancer referred for consultation to University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Department of Radiation Oncology enrolled in our institutional review board-approved protocol. All patients completed patient preference instrument surveys before meeting their radiation oncologist. Survey responses to 10 statements were categorized into three groups (agree, neutral, or disagree), and the association of survey responses by cancer site was tested with chi-squared tests. Results: Ninety-nine percent of all patients preferred to be addressed by their first name in encounters with their radiation oncologist. There were significant associations of Item 3 (hand holding) with gender (p = 0.039) and education (p = 0.028). The responses to Item 5, a statement that patients would feel uncomfortable if the radiation oncologist offered to hug them at the end of treatment, was significantly associated with disease site (p < 0.0001). Further analysis was performed for Item 5 and revealed that the male lung cancer patients had a much higher rate of disagreement with Item 5 compared with prostate cancer patients (37% vs. 18%). Conclusions: Results of this study may afford greater insight and foster better understanding of what patients want from their radiation oncologist. For breast, lung, and prostate cancer patients, initial preferences for their radiation oncologist are generally similar, according to this tool. However, there are important difference among cancer sites (and gender) regarding physical contact at the end of treatment.

  2. Initial results from a multiple monoenergetic gamma radiography system for nuclear security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Day, Buckley E.; Hartwig, Zachary S.; Lanza, Richard C.; Danagoulian, Areg

    2016-10-01

    The detection of assembled nuclear devices and concealed special nuclear materials (SNM) such as plutonium or uranium in commercial cargo traffic is a major challenge in mitigating the threat of nuclear terrorism. Currently available radiographic and active interrogation systems use ∼1-10 MeV bremsstrahlung photon beams. Although simple to build and operate, bremsstrahlung-based systems deliver high radiation doses to the cargo and to potential stowaways. To eliminate problematic issues of high dose, we are developing a novel technique known as multiple monoenergetic gamma radiography (MMGR). MMGR uses ion-induced nuclear reactions to produce two monoenergetic gammas for dual-energy radiography. This allows us to image the areal density and effective atomic number (Zeff) of scanned cargo. We present initial results from the proof-of-concept experiment, which was conducted at the MIT Bates Research and Engineering Center. The purpose of the experiment was to assess the capabilities of MMGR to measure areal density and Zeff of container cargo mockups. The experiment used a 3.0 MeV radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator to create sources of 4.44 MeV and 15.11 MeV gammas from the 11B(d,nγ)12C reaction in a thick natural boron target; the gammas are detected by an array of NaI(Tl) detectors after transmission through cargo mockups . The measured fluxes of transmitted 4.44 MeV and 15.11 MeV gammas were used to assess the areal density and Zeff. Initial results show that MMGR is capable of discriminating the presence of high-Z materials concealed in up to 30 cm of iron shielding from low- and mid-Z materials present in the cargo mockup.

  3. Tracking Jupiter’s Quasi-Quadrennial Oscillation and Mid-Latitude Zonal Waves: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greathouse, Thomas K.; Orton, Glenn S.; Morales-Juberias, Raul; Fletcher, Leigh N.; DeWitt, Curtis N.; Cosentino, Rick; Richter, Matthew J.; Lacy, John H.

    2014-11-01

    We report on initial results of a long term observational study to track the temporal and 3-dimensional evolution of the Quasi-Quadrennial Oscillation (QQO) and the propagation and evolution of mid-latitude zonal waves in Jupiter’s stratosphere. These wave-driven phenomena affect variations in Jupiter’s vertical and horizontal temperature field, which can be inferred by measuring methane emission in the thermal infrared at 1245 cm-1. Using TEXES, the Texas Echelon cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph, mounted on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility we observed high-spectral resolution (R=75,000) scan maps of Jupiter’s mid-latitudes in January and October 2012, February 2013, and February 2014. These initial datasets were taken using several different observing strategies in an attempt to optimize efficiency and mapping accuracy in preparation for our prime study period (2014-2019). We will present the zonally averaged inferred thermal structure over ±30° latitude and between 10 and 0.01 mbar, showing the QQO’s downward progression along with inferred 3-dimensional thermal maps (latitude, longitude, pressure) displaying a multitude of vertically isolated waves and eddies. These results set the stage for an unprecedented dataset that will: 1) significantly improve the determination of the period and vertical descent velocity of Jupiter’s QQO and map its 3-dimensional spatial structure; 2) measure the zonal wavenumbers, vertical wavelengths, zonal group velocities and lifetimes of transient mid-latitude waves that are impossible to obtain from historic mid-infrared imaging datasets due to their lack of vertical resolution; and 3) record the thermal state of Jupiter’s stratosphere in detail prior to, during, and after Juno’s prime mission to assist in analysis of Juno Mission observations from the Waves, JIRAM, and UVS instruments.

  4. Seismic Anisotropy below the Juan De Fuca Plate: Results from the Cascadia Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Short, R.; Allen, R. M.; Bastow, I. D.

    2014-12-01

    Investigation of seismic anisotropy using shear wave splitting is typically used to infer information about asthenospheric flow geometry. In order to understand how such flow varies below the Juan de Fuca plate and is affected by its subduction along the Cascadia forearc, stacked splitting results are determined for 90 offshore and 27 onshore broadband seismometers. These instruments were deployed as part of phases one and two of the Cascadia Initiative, which is an ongoing effort to understand tectonic processes in the Pacific Northwest. The onshore results conform to those of previous studies, suggesting a uniformly trench-perpendicular flow field and thus implying a thick layer of material entrained beneath the slab. The offshore results offer suggestions about how the orientation of asthenospheric flow evolves across the width of the Juan de Fuca plate, and are unique in that they document variation in anisotropy from the ridge to the trench. The results indicate ridge-perpendicular flow geometry close to the Juan de Fuca ridge, which appears to rotate towards the direction of absolute plate motion as one moves towards the trench. As suggested by the latest tomographic images the subducting Juan de Fuca plate is segmented, with 'gaps' between the segments. These gaps may act as channels for the flow of mantle material.

  5. Gravitational Waves from Known Pulsars: Results from the Initial Detector Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, R. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S. H.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Belopolski, I.; Bergmann, G.; Berliner, J. M.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Bessis, D.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhadbhade, T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bowers, J.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brannen, C. A.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castiglia, A.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Deleeuw, E.; Deléglise, S.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Dmitry, K.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W.; Favata, M.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R.; Flaminio, R.; Foley, E.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Griffo, C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B.; Hall, E.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Horrom, T.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Hua, Z.; Huang, V.; Huerta, E. A.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Iafrate, J.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, H.; Jang, Y. J.; Jaranowski, P.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kasprzack, M.; Kasturi, R.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufman, K.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, B. K.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Koranda, S.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D.; Kremin, A.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kucharczyk, C.; Kudla, S.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kurdyumov, R.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lawrie, C.; Lazzarini, A.; Le Roux, A.; Leaci, P.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.-H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, J.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J. B.; Lhuillier, V.; Li, T. G. F.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Litvine, V.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lloyd, D.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Lodhia, D.; Loew, K.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J.; Luan, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Macarthur, J.; Macdonald, E.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Manca, G. M.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martinelli, L.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; May, G.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Meier, T.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Minenkov, Y.; Mingarelli, C. M. F.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Mokler, F.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morgado, N.; Mori, T.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nanda Kumar, D.; Nardecchia, I.; Nash, T.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R.; Necula, V.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, I.; Neri, M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nishida, E.; Nishizawa, A.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega Larcher, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Ou, J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Palomba, C.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoletti, R.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Pedraza, M.; Peiris, P.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pinard, L.; Pindor, B.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Poggiani, R.; Poole, V.; Poux, C.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramet, C.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Re, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reed, T.; Regimbau, T.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, C.; Rodruck, M.; Roever, C.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Saracco, E.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulz, B.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Sintes, A. M.; Skelton, G. R.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Soden, K.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Sperandio, L.; Staley, A.; Steinert, E.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steplewski, S.; Stevens, D.; Stochino, A.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strigin, S.; Stroeer, A. S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B.; Szeifert, G.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tang, L.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, R.; ter Braack, A. P. M.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Verma, S.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vlcek, B.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vrinceanu, D.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Wade, A.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Waldman, S. J.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Wan, Y.; Wang, J.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wanner, A.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wibowo, S.; Wiesner, K.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williams, T.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkelmann, L.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, H.; Yeaton-Massey, D.; Yoshida, S.; Yum, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, X. J.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Buchner, S.; Cognard, I.; Corongiu, A.; D'Amico, N.; Espinoza, C. M.; Freire, P. C. C.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Guillemot, L.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hobbs, G. B.; Kramer, M.; Lyne, A. G.; Marshall, F. E.; Possenti, A.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Roy, J.; Stappers, B. W.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of searches for gravitational waves from a large selection of pulsars using data from the most recent science runs (S6, VSR2 and VSR4) of the initial generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory) and Virgo. We do not see evidence for gravitational wave emission from any of the targeted sources but produce upper limits on the emission amplitude. We highlight the results from seven young pulsars with large spin-down luminosities. We reach within a factor of five of the canonical spin-down limit for all seven of these, whilst for the Crab and Vela pulsars we further surpass their spin-down limits. We present new or updated limits for 172 other pulsars (including both young and millisecond pulsars). Now that the detectors are undergoing major upgrades, and, for completeness, we bring together all of the most up-to-date results from all pulsars searched for during the operations of the first-generation LIGO, Virgo and GEO600 detectors. This gives a total of 195 pulsars including the most recent results described in this paper.

  6. Sensitivity Analysis of FEAST-Metal Fuel Performance Code: Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Edelmann, Paul Guy; Williams, Brian J.; Unal, Cetin; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2012-06-27

    This memo documents the completion of the LANL milestone, M3FT-12LA0202041, describing methodologies and initial results using FEAST-Metal. The FEAST-Metal code calculations for this work are being conducted at LANL in support of on-going activities related to sensitivity analysis of fuel performance codes. The objective is to identify important macroscopic parameters of interest to modeling and simulation of metallic fuel performance. This report summarizes our preliminary results for the sensitivity analysis using 6 calibration datasets for metallic fuel developed at ANL for EBR-II experiments. Sensitivity ranking methodology was deployed to narrow down the selected parameters for the current study. There are approximately 84 calibration parameters in the FEAST-Metal code, of which 32 were ultimately used in Phase II of this study. Preliminary results of this sensitivity analysis led to the following ranking of FEAST models for future calibration and improvements: fuel conductivity, fission gas transport/release, fuel creep, and precipitation kinetics. More validation data is needed to validate calibrated parameter distributions for future uncertainty quantification studies with FEAST-Metal. Results of this study also served to point out some code deficiencies and possible errors, and these are being investigated in order to determine root causes and to improve upon the existing code models.

  7. Gravitational Waves from Known Pulsars: Results from the Initial Detector Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Ceron, E. A.; Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. B.; Gehrels, N.; Graff, P. B.; Kanner, J. B.; Hobbs, G. B.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of searches for gravitational waves from a large selection of pulsars using data from the most recent science runs (S6, VSR2 and VSR4) of the initial generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory) and Virgo. We do not see evidence for gravitational wave emission from any of the targeted sources but produce upper limits on the emission amplitude. We highlight the results from seven young pulsars with large spin-down luminosities. We reach within a factor of five of the canonical spin-down limit for all seven of these, whilst for the Crab and Vela pulsars we further surpass their spin-down limits. We present new or updated limits for 172 other pulsars (including both young and millisecond pulsars). Now that the detectors are undergoing major upgrades, and, for completeness, we bring together all of the most up-to-date results from all pulsars searched for during the operations of the first-generation LIGO, Virgo and GEO600 detectors. This gives a total of 195 pulsars including the most recent results described in this paper.

  8. Gravitational waves from known pulsars: Results from the initial detector era

    SciTech Connect

    Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M. R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Ajith, P.; Abbott, T.; Accadia, T.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Affeldt, C.; Allen, B.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Allocca, A.; Ceron, E. Amador; Amariutei, D.; Collaboration: LIGO Scientific Collaboration and The Virgo Collaboration; and others

    2014-04-20

    We present the results of searches for gravitational waves from a large selection of pulsars using data from the most recent science runs (S6, VSR2 and VSR4) of the initial generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory) and Virgo. We do not see evidence for gravitational wave emission from any of the targeted sources but produce upper limits on the emission amplitude. We highlight the results from seven young pulsars with large spin-down luminosities. We reach within a factor of five of the canonical spin-down limit for all seven of these, whilst for the Crab and Vela pulsars we further surpass their spin-down limits. We present new or updated limits for 172 other pulsars (including both young and millisecond pulsars). Now that the detectors are undergoing major upgrades, and, for completeness, we bring together all of the most up-to-date results from all pulsars searched for during the operations of the first-generation LIGO, Virgo and GEO600 detectors. This gives a total of 195 pulsars including the most recent results described in this paper.

  9. The newer aspect of dexmedetomidine use in dentistry: As an additive to local anesthesia, initial experience, and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prashant; Thepra, Manju; Bhagol, Amrish; Priya, Kannu; Singh, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the availability of a wide variety of pharmacological agents in the field of anesthesia, there has always been a continuous search for newer local anesthetic agents with improved efficacy, potency, and better handling properties. Dexmedetomidine, a selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist, is an emerging agent for provision of additive local anesthetic effect if used with conventional local anesthetics, which can be implicated in dentistry for performing many minor oral surgical procedures. The present paper reports a pilot study comparing clinical efficacy and potency of this newer emerging drug in combination with lignocaine. Materials and Methods: Ten patients undergoing orthodontic extraction for correction of malocclusion and other dentofacial deformities requiring orthodontic treatment were locally infiltrated with 2% lignocaine plus dexmedetomidine 1μ/ml and 2% lignocaine plus adrenaline in 1:200,000 dilution at two different appointments. The onset of action, duration of action, and pain threshold were assessed. Results: Onset of action was found to be faster with longer duration of action with the newer drug dexmedetomidine and lignocaine combination when compared with combination of lignocaine and adrenaline. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the combination of dexmedetomidine with lignocaine enhances the local anesthetic potency of lignocaine without significant systemic effects when locally injected into oral mucosa. PMID:28163484

  10. Combined laparoscopic and transanal total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer: Initial experience and early results

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Morten Holt; Ovesen, Henrik; Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Incomplete specimens resulting in residual mesorectum in the patient and an increased risk of local recurrence remains a problem. We have introduced transanal-total mesorectal excision (Ta-TME) in our department to potentially overcome this problem due to more direct access to the lower pelvis in patients undergoing TME for rectal cancer and this article presents our initial experience with the new procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with a T1-T3 mid or low rectal cancer eligible for TME or intersphincteric abdominoperineal excision were selected for a combined transanal and transabdominal laparoscopic resection. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the method with a special focus on the quality of the specimen. RESULTS: During a 9-month period, 11 patients were operated with this technique. All procedures resulted in complete or nearly complete specimen. We did, however, find the procedure technically demanding and experienced several complications with three anastomotic leaks (all with preserved intestinal continuity) and a urethral lesion. CONCLUSION: Ta-TME is feasible and might be the answer to obtaining good quality specimens and overcome some of the technical difficulties that can be encountered in the obese narrow male pelvis. The procedure however is technically demanding. PMID:28281474

  11. Volcano-rift interaction on Venus: initial results from the Beta-Atla-Themis region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, I.; Martin-Gonzalez, F.; Marquez, A.; de Pablo, M. A.; Carreno, F.

    Extensional deformation and volcanism are widespread and geographically related processes on the surface of Venus (e.g. Head et al., 1992; Solomon et al., 1992). We report the initial results of an ongoing study on the interaction between fracture belts (chasmata and fossae) and large to intermediate-size volcanoes on Venus. The initial work focused in Beta-Atla-Themis, a region centered at ˜ 250o of longitude that covers ˜ 20 percent of the surface of the planet in which concentration of volcanic centers and fracture belts exceeds the global mean density (e.g. Crumpler et al., 1993). We carried out a survey of the volcanic features located in and close to fracture belts using existing volcano databases (Crumpler and Aubele, 2000) updated during this initial stage of our study through the analysis of full-resolution Magellan radar images for the studied region. We identified over a hundred volcanic features of different size and type (large volcanoes, intermediate-size volcanoes, steep-side domes and modified or fluted edifices) located in or near fracture belts. In this initial work, we have also established the time relationship that exist between each volcanic feature and the fracture belts and found that volcanic edifices predate, postdate or develop contemporaneously to extensional fracturing. Detailed structural mapping of locations where extensional fracturing and the formation of volcanoes is related is being carried out. In these geological settings the fracture patterns resulting from the interaction between both processes can help to constrain the different processes that operate during volcano growth (i.e. dike intrusion, chamber inflation, volcanic sagging and volcanic spreading) and its interaction with the regional stress fields responsible for the fracture belts. References: - Crumpler L.S. and J.C. Aubele (2000). Volcanism on Venus. In Encyclopedia of volcanoes, (Sigurdsson, H, B. Houghton, S.R. McNutt, H. Rymer, J. Stix, eds), p.727- 770

  12. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. First topical report, Results of laboratory screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of {le} 10 {mu}m dia.

  13. Regional collaboration among Urban Area Security Initiative regions: results of the Johns Hopkins urban area survey.

    PubMed

    Errett, Nicole A; Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J; Resnick, Beth A; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration-related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments.

  14. Initial experimental results from the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alling, A.; Allen, J.; Dempster, W.; Nelson, M.; Silverstone, S.; van Thillo, M.

    Results from the closure and initial closed ecological system research in the "Laboratory Biosphere" facility in Santa Fe, New Mexico (USA) will be presented. The facility was initially sealed in April 2002; and the first crop experiments with soybeans commenced in May 2002. The Laboratory Biosphere was created by the team which invented, built and operated Biosphere 2 during its years of closed ecological system functioning (1991-94) and is a testbed to build upon the lessons learned. It is an opportunity to continue experiments with a sustainable soil based agriculture system unlike most bioregenerative systems which use hydroponic systems dependent on a supply of nutrient solution. Because of the small volume of the system (34-45 m3), developing mechanisms to keep parameters like carbon dioxide within acceptable limits will be critical. Recycle of nutrients within the system to maintain soil fertility; and the ability of the inherent complex ecology of soils and a soil bed reactor to handle trace gas buildups are primary research goals. Other research goals are determination of short and long-term exchanges between soil, plants and atmosphere, especially for carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, NOX, and methane, impact of cultivation (tillage) on soil/atmospheric exchanges., investigation and development of strategies to return nutrients to the soil to maintain fertility, e.g. shredding biomass vs. composting, impact on soil chemistry of returning leachate water to the soil as irrigation water. The microbiological status of soils prior to experiments and over time will allow measurement of changes in microbial diversity and the determination of the role of soil microbes in biogeochemical cycles. Integration of automated sensor and control in the system with real-time modeling has importance for operation, research and educational outreach programs. The Laboratory Biosphere is intended to test and develop a "cybersphere" (network of shared intelligence) that may be

  15. Initial Results of Endoscopic Gastrocutaneous Fistula Closure in Children Using an Over-the-Scope Clip

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Robert; Abrajano, Claire; Koppolu, Raji; Stevens, Megan; Nyznyk, Sarah; Chao, Stephanie; Bruzoni, Matias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gastrocutaneous fistula (GCF) occurs commonly in pediatric patients after removal of long-term gastrostomy tubes. Although open repair is generally successful, endoscopic approaches may offer benefits in terms of incisional complications, postoperative pain, and procedure time. In addition, endoscopic approaches may offer particular benefit in patients with varied degrees of skin irritation or erosion surrounding a GCF, making surgical repair difficult, or patients with significant comorbidities, making minimal intervention and anesthesia time preferable. Over-the-scope (OSC) clips are a new technology that enables endoscopic closure of intestinal fistulas up to 2 cm in diameter. Six pediatric patients underwent endoscopic GCF closure using OSC clips under Institutional Review Board approval. The procedure was technically successful in 5 of 6 cases with an average operating time of 29 minutes. The technical failure required an open revision, whereas all other patients reported full healing of the GCF site at 1 month. All successful cases were performed as outpatients without postoperative narcotics. In addition, all patients reported high satisfaction with the procedure and cosmetic results. Endoscopic GCF closure using an OSC clip is technically feasible in the pediatric population. Based on limited cases with a 1-month follow-up, the functional and cosmetic results of technically successful cases are excellent. Endoscopic GCF closure is a potential alternative to standard surgical closure in patients with skin irritation or erosion and/or significant comorbidities. PMID:25531644

  16. Adrenal medullary transplantation to the caudate nucleus in Parkinson's disease. Initial clinical results in 18 patients.

    PubMed

    Allen, G S; Burns, R S; Tulipan, N B; Parker, R A

    1989-05-01

    Results from a pilot study of adrenal medullary autotransplantation for Parkinson's disease are presented. Eighteen patients were studied; 12 were followed up for 1 year, and 6 were followed up for 6 months. Four of 12 patients showed distinct improvement in the signs and symptoms of their disease, as assessed using the Columbia Rating Scale, at 1 year; none showed distinct deterioration. The 6 patients who were followed up for only 6 months were an average of 20 years older and generally more severely affected. None distinctly improved. Morbidity was considered to be minor and transient among the first 12 patients, while 4 of the last 6 patients experienced alteration in mental status lasting as long as several months. This problem has led us to conclude that older patients with preexisting cognitive impairment should not be included in future studies until the benefits are more clearly established. However, we believe that the distinct and persistent improvement seen in some of the younger patients warrants the initiation of a well-designed, randomized, and controlled trial of adrenal medullary autotransplantation for the purpose of confirming these results and assessing the effect of the procedure on the natural progression of Parkinson's disease.

  17. [Primary prevention in the young. Methodology and initial results of a smoking prevention program for adolescents].

    PubMed

    Arciti, C; Vidili, M G; Doglio, B; Gipponi, M; Santi, L

    1986-05-12

    An antismoking campaign aimed at the 9-18 year old Genoese school population in 1981-1985 is described. The high percentage of smokers in Italy and the worryingly early age at which the habit is acquired suggested the need for a carefully prepared ongoing programme of primary prevention that would not be limited to occasional speeches. Part of the programme was also directed towards school health officers, teachers and families for whom seminars and refresher courses and topics appropriate for each group were organised. The dangers of smoking framed in a broader context were described and debater before a total of 26,000 school children in 4 years. The results that can only now be examined due to initial difficulties in implementing the programme show that out of 4613 smokers involved in the programme 29.8% stopped smoking after a year. Significantly in the same group and in the same period only 2.5% of the school children began to smoke. In contrast 15.8% new smokers were found in the control group. Further checks on a wider sample are scheduled in order to verify and confirm the results presented.

  18. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. (a) General timeframe. A QIO or... initial denial determination or a change as a result of a DRG validation. (b) Extended timeframes. (1)...

  19. 42 CFR 476.93 - Opportunity to discuss proposed initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.93 Section 476.93 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation. Before a QIO reaches an initial denial determination or makes a change as a result of a DRG validation, it must— (a) Promptly notify...

  20. Reference Alloy Waste Form Fabrication and Initiation of Reducing Atmosphere and Reductive Additives Study on Alloy Waste Form Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Frank; T.P. O'Holleran; P.A. Hahn

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the fabrication of two reference alloy waste forms, RAW-1(Re) and RAW-(Tc) using an optimized loading and heating method. The composition of the alloy materials was based on a generalized formulation to process various proposed feed streams resulting from the processing of used fuel. Waste elements are introduced into molten steel during alloy fabrication and, upon solidification, become incorporated into durable iron-based intermetallic phases of the alloy waste form. The first alloy ingot contained surrogate (non-radioactive), transition-metal fission products with rhenium acting as a surrogate for technetium. The second alloy ingot contained the same components as the first ingot, but included radioactive Tc-99 instead of rhenium. Understanding technetium behavior in the waste form is of particular importance due the longevity of Tc-99 and its mobility in the biosphere in the oxide form. RAW-1(Re) and RAW-1(Tc) are currently being used as test specimens in the comprehensive testing program investigating the corrosion and radionuclide release mechanisms of the representative alloy waste form. Also described in this report is the experimental plan to study the effects of reducing atmospheres and reducing additives to the alloy material during fabrication in an attempt to maximize the oxide content of waste streams that can be accommodated in the alloy waste form. Activities described in the experimental plan will be performed in FY12. The first aspect of the experimental plan is to study oxide formation on the alloy by introducing O2 impurities in the melt cover gas or from added oxide impurities in the feed materials. Reducing atmospheres will then be introduced to the melt cover gas in an attempt to minimize oxide formation during alloy fabrication. The second phase of the experimental plan is to investigate melting parameters associated with alloy fabrication to allow the separation of slag and alloy components of the melt.

  1. Predicting episodic memory performance using different biomarkers: results from Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Russo, María Julieta; Cohen, Gabriela; Chrem Mendez, Patricio; Campos, Jorge; Nahas, Federico E; Surace, Ezequiel I; Vazquez, Silvia; Gustafson, Deborah; Guinjoan, Salvador; Allegri, Ricardo F; Sevlever, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (Arg-ADNI) is the first ADNI study to be performed in Latin America at a medical center with the appropriate infrastructure. Our objective was to describe baseline characteristics and to examine whether biomarkers related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) physiopathology were associated with worse memory performance. Patients and methods Fifteen controls and 28 mild cognitive impairment and 13 AD dementia subjects were included. For Arg-ADNI, all biomarker parameters and neuropsychological tests of ADNI-II were adopted. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorodeoxyglucose and 11C-Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB-PET) were available from all participants. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker results were available from 39 subjects. Results A total of 56 participants were included and underwent baseline evaluation. The three groups were similar with respect to years of education and sex, and they differed in age (F=5.10, P=0.01). Mean scores for the baseline measurements of the neuropsychological evaluation differed significantly among the three groups at P<0.001, showing a continuum in their neuropsychological performance. No significant correlations were found between the principal measures (long-delay recall, C-Pittsburgh compound-B scan, left hippocampal volume, and APOEε4) and either age, sex, or education (P>0.1). Baseline amyloid deposition and left hippocampal volume separated the three diagnostic groups and correlated with the memory performance (P<0.001). Conclusion Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data revealed links between cognition, structural changes, and biomarkers. Follow-up of a larger and more representative cohort, particularly analyzing cerebrospinal fluid and brain biomarkers, will allow better characterization of AD in our country. PMID:27695331

  2. Joint NASA/EPA AVIRIS Analysis in the Chesapeake Bay Region: Plans and Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Lee; Stokely, Peter; Lobitz, Brad; Shelton, Gary

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center is performing an AVIRIS demonstration project in conjunction with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (Region 3). NASA and EPA scientists have jointly defined a Study Area in eastern Virginia to include portions of the Chesapeake Bay, southern Delmarva Peninsula, and the mouths of the York and James Rivers. Several environmental issues have been identified for study. These include, by priority: 1) water constituent analysis in the Chesapeake Bay, 2) mapping of submerged aquatic vegetation in the Bay, 3) detection of vegetation stress related to Superfund sites at the Yorktown Naval Weapons Station, and 4) wetland species analysis in the York River vicinity. In support of this project, three lines of AVIRIS data were collected during the Wallops Island deployment on 17 August 1997. The remote sensing payload included AVIRIS, MODIS Airborne Simulator and an RC-10 color infrared film camera. The AVIRIS data were delivered to Ames from the JPL AVIRIS Data Facility, on 29 September 1997. Quicklook images indicate nominal data acquisition, and at the current time an atmospheric correction is being applied. Water constituent analysis of the Bay is our highest priority based on EPA interest and available collateral data, both from the surface and from other remote sensing instruments. Constituents of interest include suspended sediments, chlorophyll-a and accessory pigments, Analysis steps will include: verification of data quality, location of study sites in imagery, incorporation of relevant field data from EPA and other Chesapeake Bay cooperators, processing of imagery to show phenomenon of interest, verification of results with cooperators. By 1st quarter CY98 we plan to circulate initial results to NASA and EPA management for review. In the longer term we will finalize documentation, prepare results for publication, and complete any needed technology transfer to EPA remote sensing personnel.

  3. Wave attenuation as a measure of muscle quality as measured by magnetic resonance elastography: initial results.

    PubMed

    Domire, Zachary J; McCullough, Matthew B; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan

    2009-03-11

    Advances in imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) have allowed researchers to gain insights into muscle function in vivo. MRE has been used to examine healthy and diseased muscle by calculating shear modulus. However, additional information can be measured from visualizing a mechanical wave as it passes through a tissue. One such measurable quantity is wave attenuation. The purpose of this study was to determine if a simple measure of wave attenuation could be used to distinguish between healthy and diseased muscle. Twenty seven subjects (14 healthy controls, 7 hyperthyroid myopathy patients, 6 myositis patients) participated in this study. Wave amplitude was determined along a linear profile through the center of the muscle, and an exponential decay curve was fit to the data. This measure was able to find significant differences in attenuation between healthy and diseased muscle. Furthermore, four hyperthyroid myopathy subjects who were tested following treatment all showed improvement by this measure. A likely reason for patients with hyperthyroid myopathy and myositis behaving similarly is that this measurement may reflect similar changes in the muscle extracellular matrix. In addition to modulus, attenuation seems to be an important parameter to measure in skeletal muscle. Further research is needed to investigate other potential measures of attenuation as well as examining other potential measures that can be found from visualizing wave propagation. Future studies should also include muscle biopsies to confirm that the changes seen are as a result of changes in extracellular matrix structure.

  4. [Treatment and outcome of Crohn's disease without initial complications. Results of a retrospective, multicenter Tunisian study].

    PubMed

    Cheikh, Imed; Ben Ammar, Ahmed; Essid, Mejda; Azzouz, Messadak; Ettahri, Nabil; Krichene, Mohamed; Bouzaidi, Slim; Ennajar, Taoufik

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and achieve the factors that have an influence on the evolution of the Chron's disease. This study was done in 124 patients reaching the diagnosis of Chron's disease between 1988 and 1997. The evolution of this disease was achieved in 87 patients. The Chron's disease was inactive among 31 patients (35-6%)--with discontinous evolution in 42 patients (48.3%) and active chronic in 14 patients (16-1%). The active chronic form of Chron's disease was twice more frequent among the smokers and the patients with age above 40 years--but this difference has no statistical significance. The indication of surgical treatment was realised in 21 patients and it takes place as result of failure of medical treatment in 16 patients (76-2%)--an abcess in 2 patents (9-5%) and iatrogenic perforation in 1 patient (4-8%). The age-sexe-smoke--the intensity of the initial attack and the nature of the treatment had no influence in the need of the surgical interfference. The Chron's disease showed the less severe evolution in this study--the age above 40 years and the consumption of smoke increased the frequency of active chronic form.

  5. Initial Results of Optical Vortex Laser Absorption Spectroscopy in the HYPER-I Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Asai, Shoma; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Ozawa, Naoya; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Morisaki, Tomohiro

    2015-11-01

    Optical vortex beams have a potential to make a new Doppler measurement, because not only parallel but perpendicular movement of atoms against the beam axis causes the Doppler shift of their resonant absorption frequency. As the first step of a proof-of-principle experiment, we have performed the optical vortex laser absorption spectroscopy for metastable argon neutrals in an ECR plasma produced in the HYPER-I device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. An external cavity diode laser (TOPTICA, DL100) of which center wavelength was 696.735 nm in vacuum was used for the light source. The Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam was converted into the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam (optical vortex) by a computer-generated hologram displayed on the spatial light modulator (Hamamatsu, LCOS-SLM X10468-07). In order to make fast neutral flow across the LG beam, a high speed solenoid valve system was installed on the HYPER-I device. Initial results including the comparison of absorption spectra for HG and LG beams will be presented. This study was supported by NINS young scientists collaboration program for cross-disciplinary study, NIFS collaboration research program (NIFS13KOAP026), and JSPS KAKENHI grant number 15K05365.

  6. Initial results from the CHOOZ long baseline reactor neutrino oscillation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, M.; Baldini, A.; Bemporad, C.; Caffau, E.; Cei, F.; Déclais, Y.; de Kerret, H.; Dieterle, B.; Etenko, A.; George, J.; Giannini, G.; Grassi, M.; Kozlov, Y.; Kropp, W.; Kryn, D.; Laiman, M.; Lane, C. E.; Lefièvre, B.; Machulin, I.; Martemyanov, A.; Martemyanov, V.; Mikaelyan, L.; Nicolò, D.; Obolensky, M.; Pazzi, R.; Pieri, G.; Price, L.; Riley, S.; Reeder, R.; Sabelnikov, A.; Santin, G.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Sobel, H.; Steele, J.; Steinberg, R.; Sukhotin, S.; Tomshaw, S.; Veron, D.; Vyrodov, V.

    1998-02-01

    Initial results are presented from CHOOZ, a long-baseline reactor-neutrino vacuum-oscillation experiment. The data reported here were taken during the period March to October 1997, when the two reactors ran at combined power levels varying from zero to values approaching their full rated power of 8.5 (thermal). Electron antineutrinos from the reactors were detected by a liquid scintillation calorimeter located at a distance of about 1. The detector was constructed in a tunnel protected from cosmic rays by a 300 rock overburden. This massive shielding strongly reduced potentially troublesome backgrounds due to cosmic-ray muons, leading to a background rate of about one event per day, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the observed neutrino signal. From the statistical agreement between detected and expected neutrino event rates, we find (at 90% confidence level) no evidence for neutrino oscillations in the disappearance mode for the parameter region given approximately by for maximum mixing and for large .

  7. Research Initiatives and Preliminary Results In Automation Design In Airspace Management in Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA and the FAA have entered into a joint venture to explore, define, design and implement a new airspace management operating concept. The fundamental premise of that concept is that technologies and procedures need to be developed for flight deck and ground operations to improve the efficiency, the predictability, the flexibility and the safety of airspace management and operations. To that end NASA Ames has undertaken an initial development and exploration of "key concepts" in the free flight airspace management technology development. Human Factors issues in automation aiding design, coupled aiding systems between air and ground, communication protocols in distributed decision making, and analytic techniques for definition of concepts of airspace density and operator cognitive load have been undertaken. This paper reports the progress of these efforts, which are not intended to definitively solve the many evolving issues of design for future ATM systems, but to provide preliminary results to chart the parameters of performance and the topology of the analytic effort required. The preliminary research in provision of cockpit display of traffic information, dynamic density definition, distributed decision making, situation awareness models and human performance models is discussed as they focus on the theme of "design requirements".

  8. Initial test results of the Los Alamos proton-storage-ring bump-magnet system

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, C.R.; Barlow, D.B.; Redd, D.B.

    1997-09-01

    An upgrade program for increasing the stored beam current in the LANSCE Proton Storage is presently under way. Part of the upgrade effort has been to design, specify, and add four bump-magnet/modulator systems to the ring. This paper describes the initial test results of the first bump-magnet/modulator system. The paper begins with an overview of the pulsed-power system including important specifications of the modulator, magnet, cabling, and control system. In the main portion of the paper, waveforms and test data are included showing the accuracy, repeatability, and stability of the magnet-current pulses. These magnet pulses are programmable both in rise and fall time as well as in amplitude. The amplitude can be set between 50 and 300 A, the rise-time is fixed at 1 ms, and the linear fall-time can be varied between 500 {mu}s and 1500 {mu}s. Other issues such as loading effects and power dissipation in the magnet-bore beamtube are examined and reported.

  9. Extracranial carotid angioplasty and stenting. Initial results and short-term follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Vozzi, C R; Rodriguez, A O; Paolantonio, D; Smith, J A; Wholey, M H

    1997-01-01

    Carotid percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, with or without stent implantation, is becoming another therapeutic option for carotid revascularization. To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the technique, from October of 1995 to March of 1997, we performed 24 percutaneous transluminal angioplasty procedures in 22 patients with severe extracranial carotid artery stenosis. Three common carotid and 21 internal carotid arteries were treated, and 19 procedures included stent implantation using nonarticulated PALMAZ stents (P154 and P204). Twelve patients were asymptomatic and 10 patients were symptomatic; 2 of the symptomatic patients had complete obstruction of the internal carotid artery that was successfully recanalized. Technical and angiographic success was achieved in 23 of 24 procedures, with the carotid artery obstruction diminishing from 85.6% +/- 8.5% to 5.7% +/- 3.2% (P < 0.001). Average stenosis length was 12.5 +/- 3.1 mm, and mean time of carotid occlusion during balloon inflation was 11.5 +/- 2.5 seconds. Three patients experienced transitory seizures during the procedure prior to dilation, 1 patient had a minor stroke with complete recovery within 72 hours, and 1 patient had a major stroke and died 45 days after the procedure. Clinical follow-up was achieved in all patients (mean, 10.5 +/- 7.2 months) and angiographic follow-up in 16 patients (mean, 6.3 +/- 1.2 months). The results obtained in this initial experience provide adequate support to continue further evaluation of this new therapeutic strategy. Images PMID:9339503

  10. Laser immunotherapy: initial results from a human breast cancer pilot trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hode, Tomas; Guerra, Maria C.; Ferrel, Gabriela L.; Lunn, John A.; Adelsteinsson, Orn; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2010-02-01

    Laser Immunotherapy is an experimental treatment modality for late-stage, metastatic tumors, which targets solid primary and/or secondary tumors and utilizes an autologous vaccine-like approach to stimulate immune responses. Specifically, laser immunotherapy combines laser-induced in situ tumor devitalization with an immunoadjuvant for local immunostimulation. Here we report the initial results from a human breast cancer pilot trial with laser immunotherapy. Six stage III and IV cancer patients were treated, all of which were considered to be out of all other options, and preliminary data at the three-month examination are presented. The immediate goal of the trial was to determine the patient tolerance and the toxicity of the therapy, the optimal dose for the alteration of the course of the disease, and the reduction of the tumor burden. Each patient was individually evaluated for toxicity tolerance through physical exams and by appropriate supplemental and routine laboratory tests. Observable tumors in patients were followed with physical examination and radiological evaluations. Treatment efficacy was judged by the size and number of local and distant metastases before and after treatment.

  11. Initial Field Deployment Results of Green PCB Removal from Sediment Systems (GPRSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVor, Robert William

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this task order was to complete optimization and development of the Green PCB Remediation from Sediment Systems(GPRSSs) technology, culminating in the production of functioning demonstration test units which would be deployed at a suitable demonstration location. This location would be selected in conjunction with Toxicological & Ecological Associates who have entered into a SAA with NASA to partner with and further develop this technology. The GPRSSs technology was initially developed under ESC Task Order 83 with the purpose of providing a green remediation technology capable of in-situ removal and remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from contaminated sediments. The core concept of the technology, a polymeric blanket capable of absorbing PCBs when in contact with contaminated sediments was then transitioned to Task Order 165 where the primary objective was to fully design and optimize a functioning test unit capable of testing the theoretical and laboratory scale concepts in a real world situation. Results from both task orders are included in this report for completeness, although Task Order 165 focused on the blanket design and the small scale field demonstration in which is currently still ongoing in Altavista, VA.

  12. Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging with the POLAR CEPPAD/ IPS Instrument : Initial Forward Modeling Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, M. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Moore, K. R.; Spence, H. E.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Roelof, E. C.

    1999-01-01

    Although the primary function of the CEPPAD/IPS instrument on Polar is the measurement of energetic ions in-situ, it has also proven to be a very capable Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imager. Raw ENA images are currently being constructed on a routine basis with a temporal resolution of minutes during both active and quiet times. However, while analyses of these images by themselves provide much information on the spatial distribution and dynamics of the energetic ion population in the ring current. detailed modeling is required to extract the actual ion distributions. In this paper. we present the initial results of forward modeling an IPS ENA image obtained during a small geo-magnetic storm on June 9, 1997. The equatorial ion distribution inferred with this technique reproduces the expected large noon/midnight and dawn/dusk asymmetries. The limitations of the model are discussed and a number of modifications to the basic forward modeling technique are proposed which should significantly improve its performance in future studies.

  13. Initial Results of the SSPX Transient Internal Probe System for Measuring Toroidal Field Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, C. T.; Jarboe, T. R.; Mattick, A. T.; Hill, D. N.; McLean, H. S.; Wood, R. D.; Cellamare, V.

    2000-10-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA. The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) is using a field profile diagnostic called the Transient Internal Probe (TIP). TIP consists of a verdet-glass bullet that is used to measure the magnetic field by Faraday rotation. This probe is shot through the spheromak by a light gas gun at speeds near 2 km/s. An argon laser is aligned along the path of the probe. The light passes through the probe and is retro-reflected to an ellipsometer that measures the change in polarization angle. The measurement is spatially resolved down to the probes’ 1 cm length to within 15 Gauss. Initial testing results are given. This and future data will be used to determine the field profile for equilibrium reconstruction. TIP can also be used in conjunction with wall probes to map out toroidal mode amplitudes and phases internally. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48.

  14. Initial results from the rebuilt EXTRAP T2R RFP device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.; Gravestijn, R. M.; Hedqvist\\ad{2 }, A.; Malmberg, J.-A.

    2001-11-01

    The EXTRAP T2R thin shell reversed-field pinch (RFP) device has recently resumed operation after a major rebuild including the replacement of the graphite armour with molybdenum limiters, a fourfold increase of the shell time constant, and the replacement of the helical coil used for the toroidal field with a conventional solenoid-type coil. Wall-conditioning using hydrogen glow discharge cleaning was instrumental for successful RFP operation. Carbon was permanently removed from the walls during the first week of operation. The initial results from RFP operation with relatively low plasma currents in the range Ip = 70-100 kA are reported. RFP discharges are sustained for more than three shell times. Significant improvements in plasma parameters are observed, compared to operation before the rebuild. There is a substantial reduction in the carbon impurity level. The electron density behaviour is more shot-to-shot reproducible. The typical density is ne = 0.5-1×1019 m-3. Monitors of Hα line radiation indicate that the plasma wall interaction is more toroidally symmetric and that there is less transient gas release from the wall. The minimum loop voltage is in the range Vt = 28-35 V, corresponding to a reduction by a factor of two to three compared to the value before the rebuild.

  15. THE BURRELL-OPTICAL-KEPLER-SURVEY (BOKS). I. SURVEY DESCRIPTION AND INITIAL RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmeier, John J.; Kutsko, Rebecca M.; Howell, Steve B.; Sherry, William; Von Braun, Kaspar; Ciardi, David R.; Everett, Mark E.; Paul Harding; Mihos, J. Christopher; Rudick, Craig S.; Lee, Ting-Hui; Van Belle, Gerard T.

    2011-07-15

    We present the initial results of a 40 night contiguous ground-based campaign of time series photometric observations of a 1.39 deg{sup 2} field located within the NASA Kepler Mission field of view. The goal of this pre-launch survey was to search for transiting extrasolar planets and to provide independent variability information of stellar sources. We have gathered a data set containing light curves of 54,687 stars from which we have created a statistical sub-sample of 13,786 stars between 14 < r < 18.5 and have statistically examined each light curve to test for variability. We present a summary of our preliminary photometric findings including the overall level and content of stellar variability in this portion of the Kepler field and give some examples of unusual variable stars found within. We present a preliminary catalog of 2,457 candidate variable stars, of which 776 show signs of periodicity. We also present three potential exoplanet candidates, all of which should be observable by the Kepler mission.

  16. Energetic neutral atom imaging with the Polar CEPPAD/IPS instrument: Initial forward modeling results

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, M.G.; Reeves, G.D.; Moore, K.R.; Spence, H.E.; Jorgensen, A.M.; Fennell, J.F.; Blake, J.B.; Roelof, E.C.

    1997-12-31

    Although the primary function of the CEP-PAD/IPS instrument on Polar is the measurement of energetic ions in-situ, it has also proven to be a very capable Energetic neutral Atom (ENA) imager. Raw ENA images are currently being constructed on a routine basis with a temporal resolution of minutes during both active and quiet times. However, while analyses of these images by themselves provide much information on the spatial distribution and dynamics of the energetic ion population in the ring current, detailed modeling is required to extract the actual ion distributions. In this paper, the authors present the initial results of forward modeling an IPS ENA image obtained during a small geo-magnetic storm on June 9, 1997. The equatorial ion distribution inferred with this technique reproduces the expected large noon/midnight and dawn/dusk asymmetries. The limitations of the model are discussed and a number of modifications to the basic forward modeling technique are proposed which should significantly improve its performance in future studies.

  17. Initial Results of Scientific Drilling on Lake Malawi, East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, C. A.; Johnson, T. C.; King, J.; Cohen, A. S.; Lyons, R. P.; Kalindekafe, L.; Forman, S. L.; McHargue, L. R.; Singer, B. S.

    2005-12-01

    Lake Malawi is one of the largest and oldest lakes in the southern hemisphere and in the tropical latitudes, measuring more than 580 km in length, with a maximum depth of 700 m, and with an estimated age of more than 7 Ma. The lake water column is anoxic below 200 m, thus preserving an extensive record of laminated (varved) sediments. The lake's hydrologic budget is hypersensitive to minor changes in precipitation:evaporation, and signals of lake level and limnologic change respond markedly to regional climate variations. During February-March 2005 a scientific drilling program was conducted on the deep, open waters of Lake Malawi, using a converted local fuel barge outfitted with a deep-water-capable geotechnical drilling rig, a portable dynamic positioning system, and a suite of sampling tools designed for deep lake coring. A total of 623 m of core was recovered in seven holes at two sites on the lake. The high-resolution North Basin site (water depth 359 m) was triple-cored, providing redundant sampling of the sedimentary section representing the past ~75-100 kyr; the Central Basin deep site (592 m water depth) was double cored over the period of the past ~200 kyr, and single-cored to 380 m, covering perhaps 1.5 million years. The North Basin high-resolution site targeted a hemipelagic sequence, which in core samples consists of alternating zones of laminated and homogenous silty mud. At the base of these cores we observe well-sorted medium-grained shoreface sand deposits, that we interpret to be a transgressive surface deposited following a severe (500 m) lake lowstand. Density, magnetic susceptibility, TOC, and C/N profiles closely follow lithologic changes, and correspond to periods of enhanced or diminished productivity and dramatically varying lake level. Initial dating of the North Basin site (total core length 38 m) is underway using a combination of Radiocarbon, Tephra Ar-Ar, and Optically-Stimulated Luminescence methods, and initial results indicate a

  18. High Fidelity Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing: Analysis and Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David

    2007-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power system, providing system characterization data and allowing one to work through various fabrication, assembly and integration issues without the cost and time associated with a full ground nuclear test. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Testing with non-optimized heater elements allows one to assess thermal, heat transfer, and stress related attributes of a given system, but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. High fidelity thermal simulators that match both the static and the dynamic fuel pin performance that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor can vastly increase the value of non-nuclear test results. With optimized simulators, the integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronie response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and fueled nuclear testing, providing a better assessment of system integration issues, characterization of integrated system response times and response characteristics, and assessment of potential design improvements' at a relatively small fiscal investment. Initial conceptual thermal simulator designs are determined by simple one-dimensional analysis at a single axial location and at steady state conditions; feasible concepts are then input into a detailed three-dimensional model for comparison to expected fuel pin performance. Static and dynamic fuel pin performance for a proposed reactor design is determined using SINDA/FLUINT thermal analysis software, and comparison is made between the expected nuclear performance and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs. Through a series of iterative analyses, a conceptual high fidelity design can developed. Test results presented in this paper correspond to a "first cut" simulator design for a potential

  19. Structure and Rotation of the Solar Interior: Initial Results from the MDI Medium-L Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosovichev, A. G.; Schou, J.; Scherrer, P. H.; Bogart, R. S.; Bush, R. I.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Aloise, J.; Bacon, L.; Burnette, A.; DeForest, C.; Giles, P. M.; Leibrand, K.; Nigam, R.; Rubin, M.; Scott, K.; Williams, S. D.; Basu, Sarbani; Christensen-Dalsgaard J.; Daeppen W.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The medium-l program of the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on board SOHO provides continuous observations of oscillation modes of angular degree, l, from 0 to approximately 300. The data for the program are partly processed on board because only about 3% of MDI observations can be transmitted continuously to the ground. The on-board data processing, the main component of which is Gaussian-weighted binning, has been optimized to reduce the negative influence of spatial aliasing of the high-degree oscillation modes. The data processing is completed in a data analysis pipeline at the SOI Stanford Support Center to determine the mean multiplet frequencies and splitting coefficients. The initial results show that the noise in the medium-l oscillation power spectrum is substantially lower than in ground-based measurements. This enables us to detect lower amplitude modes and, thus, to extend the range of measured mode frequencies. This is important for inferring the Sun's internal structure and rotation. The MDI observations also reveal the asymmetry of oscillation spectral lines. The line asymmetries agree with the theory of mode excitation by acoustic sources localized in the upper convective boundary layer. The sound-speed profile inferred from the mean frequencies gives evidence for a sharp variation at the edge of the energy-generating core. The results also confirm the previous finding by the GONG (Gough et al., 1996) that, in a thin layer just beneath the convection zone, helium appears to be less abundant than predicted by theory. Inverting the multiplet frequency splittings from MDI, we detect significant rotational shear in this thin layer. This layer is likely to be the place where the solar dynamo operates. In order to understand how the Sun works, it is extremely important to observe the evolution of this transition layer throughout the 11-year activity cycle.

  20. SUMMARY REPORT ON RESEARCH RESULTS FROM THE ADVANCE MEASUREMENT INITIATIVE (AMI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA created the Advanced Measurement Initiative (AMI) to permit the early and inexpensive evaluation of innovative advanced technology and to encourage broad and rapid application in EPA operations. The AMI program focused on improving EPA's technological capabilities and acceler...

  1. Multi-Channel Seismic Images of the Mariana Forearc: EW0202 Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, A. J.; Goodliffe, A. M.; Taylor, B.; Moore, G. F.; Fryer, P.

    2002-12-01

    During the Spring of 2002, the Mariana Subduction Factory was surveyed using multi-channel seismics (MCS) as the first major phase of a US-Japanese collaborative NSF-MARGINS funded project. The resulting geophysical transects extend from the Pacific Plate to the West Mariana remnant arc. For details of this survey, including the results from the back-arc, refer to Taylor et al. (this session). The incoming Pacific Plate and its accompanying seamounts are deformed by plate flexure, resulting in extension of the upper crust as it enters the subduction zone. The resultant trench parallel faults dominate the bathymetry and MCS data. Beneath the forearc, in the southern transects near Saipan, the subducting slab is imaged to a distance of 50-60 km arcward. In addition to ubiquitous trench parallel normal faulting, a N-S transect of the forearc clearly shows normal faults perpendicular to the trench resulting from N-S extension. On the east side of the Mariana Ridge, thick sediment packages extend into the forearc. Directly east of Saipan and Tinian, a large, deeply scouring slide mass is imaged. Several serpentine mud volcanoes (Big Blue, Turquoise and Celestial) were imaged on the Mariana Forearc. Deep horizontal reflectors (likely original forearc crust) are imaged under the flanks of some of these seamounts. A possible "throat" reflector is resolved on multiple profiles at the summit of Big Blue, the northern-most seamount in the study area. The flanks of Turquoise seamount terminate in toe thrusts that represent uplift and rotation of surrounding sediments as the volcano grows outward. These thrusts form a basal ridge around the seamount similar to that previously noted encircling Conical Seamount. Furthermore, MCS data has revealed that some forearc highs previously thought to be fault blocks are in actuality mud volcanoes.

  2. An Enhanced Box-Wing Solar Radiation pressure model for BDS and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qunhe; Wang, Xiaoya; Hu, Xiaogong; Guo, Rui; Shang, Lin; Tang, Chengpan; Shao, Fan

    2016-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure forces are the largest non-gravitational perturbations acting on GNSS satellites, which is difficult to be accurately modeled due to the complicated and changing satellite attitude and unknown surface material characteristics. By the end of 2015, there are more than 50 stations of the Multi-GNSS Experiment(MGEX) set-up by the IGS. The simple box-plate model relies on coarse assumptions about the dimensions and optical properties of the satellite due to lack of more detailed information. So, a physical model based on BOX-WING model is developed, which is more sophisticated and more detailed physical structure has been taken into account, then calculating pressure forces according to the geometric relations between light rays and surfaces. All the MGEX stations and IGS core stations had been processed for precise orbit determination tests with GPS and BDS observations. Calculation range covers all the two kinds of Eclipsing and non-eclipsing periods in 2015, and we adopted the un-differential observation mode and more accurate values of satellite phase centers. At first, we tried nine parameters model, and then eliminated the parameters with strong correlation between them, came into being five parameters of the model. Five parameters were estimated, such as solar scale, y-bias, three material coefficients of solar panel, x-axis and z-axis panels. Initial results showed that, in the period of yaw-steering mode, use of Enhanced ADBOXW model results in small improvement for IGSO and MEO satellites, and the Root-Mean-Square(RMS) error value of one-day arc orbit decreased by about 10%~30% except for C08 and C14. The new model mainly improved the along track acceleration, up to 30% while in the radial track was not obvious. The Satellite Laser Ranging(SLR) validation showed, however, that this model had higher prediction accuracy in the period of orbit-normal mode, compared to GFZ multi-GNSS orbit products, as well with relative post

  3. Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital mammography: initial clinical results of a multireader, multicase study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) as an adjunct to mammography (MX) ± ultrasonography (US) with the diagnostic accuracy of MX ± US alone. Methods One hundred ten consenting women with 148 breast lesions (84 malignant, 64 benign) underwent two-view dual-energy CEDM in addition to MX and US using a specially modified digital mammography system (Senographe DS, GE Healthcare). Reference standard was histology for 138 lesions and follow-up for 12 lesions. Six radiologists from 4 institutions interpreted the images using high-resolution softcopy workstations. Confidence of presence (5-point scale), probability of cancer (7-point scale), and BI-RADS scores were evaluated for each finding. Sensitivity, specificity and ROC curve areas were estimated for each reader and overall. Visibility of findings on MX ± CEDM and MX ± US was evaluated with a Likert scale. Results The average per-lesion sensitivity across all readers was significantly higher for MX ± US ± CEDM than for MX ± US (0.78 vs. 0.71 using BIRADS, p = 0.006). All readers improved their clinical performance and the average area under the ROC curve was significantly superior for MX ± US ± CEDM than for MX ± US ((0.87 vs 0.83, p = 0.045). Finding visibility was similar or better on MX ± CEDM than MX ± US in 80% of cases. Conclusions Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital mammography as an adjunct to MX ± US improves diagnostic accuracy compared to MX ± US alone. Addition of iodinated contrast agent to MX facilitates the visualization of breast lesions. PMID:22697607

  4. Initial results from the Lick Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S.S.; An, J.; Avicola, K.

    1995-11-08

    A prototype adaptive optics system has been installed and tested on the 3 m Shane telescope at Lick Observatory. The adaptive optics system performance, using bright natural guide stars, is consistent with expectations based on theory. A sodium-layer laser guide star system has also been installed and tested on the Shane telescope. Operating at 15 W, the laser system produces a 9th magnitude guide star with seeing-limited size at 589 nm. Using the laser guide star, the adaptive optics system has reduced the wavefront phase variance on scales above 50 cm by a factor of 4. These results represent the first continuous wavefront phase correction using a sodium-layer laser guide star. Assuming tip-tilt is removed using a natural guide star, the measured control loop performance should produce images with a Strehl ratio of 0.4 at 2.2 {mu}m in 1 arc second seeing. Additional calibration procedures must be implemented in order to achieve these results with the prototype Lick adaptive optics system.

  5. Cloud Base Height Measurements at Manila Observatory: Initial Results from Constructed Paired Sky Imaging Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagrosas, N.; Tan, F.; Antioquia, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Fabricated all sky imagers are efficient and cost effective instruments for cloud detection and classification. Continuous operation of this instrument can result in the determination of cloud occurrence and cloud base heights for the paired system. In this study, a fabricated paired sky imaging system - consisting two commercial digital cameras (Canon Powershot A2300) enclosed in weatherproof containers - is developed in Manila Observatory for the purpose of determining cloud base heights at the Manila Observatory area. One of the cameras is placed on the rooftop of Manila Observatory and the other is placed on the rooftop of the university dormitory, 489m from the first camera. The cameras are programmed to simultaneously gather pictures every 5 min. Continuous operation of these cameras were implemented since the end of May of 2014 but data collection started end of October 2013. The data were processed following the algorithm proposed by Kassianov et al (2005). The processing involves the calculation of the merit function that determines the area of overlap of the two pictures. When two pictures are overlapped, the minimum of the merit function corresponds to the pixel column positions where the pictures have the best overlap. In this study, pictures of overcast sky prove to be difficult to process for cloud base height and were excluded from processing. The figure below shows the initial results of the hourly average of cloud base heights from data collected from November 2013 to July 2014. Measured cloud base heights ranged from 250m to 1.5km. These are the heights of cumulus and nimbus clouds that are dominant in this part of the world. Cloud base heights are low in the early hours of the day indicating low convection process during these times. However, the increase in the convection process in the atmosphere can be deduced from higher cloud base heights in the afternoon. The decrease of cloud base heights after 15:00 follows the trend of decreasing solar

  6. Initial Results from CASSIOPE/ePOP Satellite Overpasses above HAARP in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J., Jr.; James, H. G.; Yau, A. W.; Knudsen, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility was operated in conjunction with overpasses of the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP) instruments on the Canadian CASSIOPE satellite. During these overpasses HAARP was operated in several different heating modes and regimes as diagnosed by the characteristics of Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (SEE) using ground-based receivers while simultaneously ePOP monitored in-situ HF and VLF signals, looked for ion and electron heating, and provided VHF and UHF signals for propagation effects studies. The e-POP suite of instruments and particularly the ePOP Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) offer a unique combination diagnostics appropriate for studying the non-linear plasma effects generated high-power HF waves in the ionosphere. In this presentation, the initial results from ePOP observations from two separate 2014 measurement campaigns at HAARP (April 16 to April 29 and May 25 to June 9) will be discussed. Several innovative experiments were performed during the campaign. Experiments explored a wide range of ionospheric effects. These include: 1) Penetration of HF pump waves into the ionosphere via large and small scale irregularities, 2) effects of gyro-harmonic heating and artificial ionization layers, 3) effects of HAARP beam shape with O- and X-mode transmissions, 4) coupling of Lower Hybrid modes into Whistler waves, 5) D/E-region VLF generation in the ionosphere using VLF modulation of the HF pump 6) scattering of VHF and UHF signals and 7) scattering and non-linear modulation of a 9.5 MHz probe wave propagating through the region of the ionosphere modified by HAARP. This work supported by the Naval Research Laboratory Base Program.

  7. Iron Isotope Systematics of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stausberg, N.; Lesher, C. E.; Hoffmann-Barfod, G.; Glessner, J. J.; Tegner, C.

    2014-12-01

    Iron isotopes show systematic changes in igneous rocks that have been ascribed to fractional crystallization, partial melting, as well as, diffusion effects. Layered mafic intrusions, such as the Paleoproterozoic Bushveld Igneous Complex, are ideally suited to investigate stable isotope fractionation arising principally by fractional crystallization. The upper 2.1km of the Bushveld Complex (Upper and Upper Main Zone, UUMZ) crystallized from a basaltic magma produced by a major recharge event, building up a sequence of tholeiitic, Fe-rich, gabbroic cumulate rocks that display systematic variations in mineralogy and mineral compositions consistent with fractional crystallization. Within this sequence, magnetite joins the liquidus assemblage at ˜260m, followed by olivine at 460m and apatite at 1000m. Here, we present iron isotope measurements of bulk cumulate rocks from the Bierkraal drill core of UUMZ of the western limb. Iron was chemically separated from its matrix and analyzed for δ56Fe (relative to IRMM- 014) with a Nu plasma MC-ICPMS at the University of California, Davis, using (pseudo-) high resolution and sample-standard bracketing. The δ56Fe values for Bushveld cumulates span a range from 0.04‰ to 0.36‰, and systematically correlate with the relative abundance of pyroxene + olivine, magnetite and plagioclase. Notably, the highest δ56Fe values are found in plagioclase-rich cumulates that formed prior to magnetite crystallization. δ56Fe is also high in magnetite-rich cumulates at the onset of magnetite crystallization, while subsequent cumulates exhibit lower and variable δ56Fe principally reflecting fractionation of and modal variations in magnetite, pyroxene and fayalitic olivine. The overall relationships for δ56Fe are consistent with positive mineral - liquid Fe isotope fractionation factors for magnetite and plagioclase, and negative to near zero values for pyroxene and olivine. These initial results are being integrated into a forward model of

  8. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies survey (SLUGGS): sample definition, methods, and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Woodley, Kristin A.; Strader, Jay; Forbes, Duncan A.; Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S.; Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R.

    2014-11-20

    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin{sup 2} field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ∼8 R {sub e}, and to ∼15 R {sub e} in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (∼2-3 R {sub e}) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  9. Initial Paleomagnetic Results from a New Drill Core from Clear Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, E.; Byrne, R.; Looy, C. V.; Wahl, D.; Noren, A. J.; Verosub, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    We report the initial paleomagnetic results from a new core from Clear Lake, California. Drilling progressed to 160 meters sediment depth at a site close to the location of Core 4 collected by John Sims and his USGS colleagues in 1973. Throughout the core, the NRM has only moderate intensity but directions appear to be stable after demagnetization to 20 mT. A relatively large fluctuation of the geomagnetic field is observed at a depth of about 48.5 meters. The pattern of changes in inclination and declination can be interpreted as a subdued version of the Mono Lake excursion, whose age is between 32,000 and 35,000 years BP. A chronology for the upper third of the Clear Lake core derived from 20 radiocarbon determinations on fossil pollen samples gives an age of about 34,000 years BP for the feature, consistent with the age of the Mono Lake excursion. The observation of the Mono Lake excursion in the Clear Lake core implies that the paleomagnetic directions provide a reliable record of geomagnetic field behavior and that it should be possible to correlate the secular variation record from Clear Lake with secular variation curves from western North America spanning the last hundred thousand years or more. In the lower portion of the Clear Lake core are several 10-20 cm intervals where the NRM intensity increases about an order of magnitude. In some cases, these intervals are associated with rather anomalous directions. Investigations are underway to determine if these high-intensity intervals arise from coring disturbances, large-scale variations in lithology and/or magnetic mineral concentration, or unusual geomagnetic field behavior. These features do not correspond to tephra layers observed in the core.

  10. Measuring success: Results from a national survey of recruitment and retention initiatives in the nursing workforce

    PubMed Central

    Carthon, J. Margo Brooks; Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Chittams, Jesse; Park, Elizabeth; Guevara, James

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify common components of diversity pipeline programs across a national sample of nursing institutions and determine what effect these programs have on increasing underrepresented minority enrollment and graduation. Design Linked data from an electronic survey conducted November 2012 to March 2013 and American Association of Colleges of Nursing baccalaureate graduation and enrollment data (2008 and 2012). Participants Academic and administrative staff of 164 nursing schools in 26 states, including Puerto Rico in the United States. Methods Chi-square statistics were used to (1) describe organizational features of nursing diversity pipeline programs and (2) determine significant trends in underrepresented minorities’ graduation and enrollment between nursing schools with and without diversity pipeline programs Results Twenty percent (n = 33) of surveyed nursing schools reported a structured diversity pipeline program. The most frequent program measures associated with pipeline programs included mentorship, academic, and psychosocial support. Asian, Hispanic, and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander nursing student enrollment increased between 2008 and 2012. Hispanic/Latino graduation rates increased (7.9%–10.4%, p = .001), but they decreased among Black (6.8%–5.0%, p = .004) and Native American/Pacific Islander students (2.1 %–0.3%, p ≥ .001). Conclusions Nursing diversity pipeline programs are associated with increases in nursing school enrollment and graduation for some, although not all, minority students. Future initiatives should build on current trends while creating targeted strategies to reverse downward graduation trends among Black, Native American, and Pacific Island nursing students. PMID:24880900

  11. Gait phenotype from MCI to moderate dementia: results from the GOOD initiative

    PubMed Central

    Allali, Gilles; Annweiler, Cédric; Blumen, Helena M.; Callisaya, Michele L.; De Cock, Anne-Marie; Kressig, Reto W.; Srikanth, Velandai; Steinmetz, Jean-Paul; Verghese, Joe; Beauchet, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Background The differences in gait abnormalities from the earliest to the latter stages of dementia and in the different subtypes of dementia have not been fully examined. This study aims to compare spatio-temporal gait parameters in cognitively healthy individuals, patients with amnestic (aMCI) and non-amnestic (naMCI) MCI, and patients with mild and moderate stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and non-Alzheimer’s disease (non-AD). Methods Based on a cross-sectional design, 1719 participants (77.4±7.3 years, 53.9% female) were recruited from cohorts from seven countries participating in the “Gait, cOgnitiOn & Decline” initiative. Mean values and coefficients of variation of spatio-temporal gait parameters were measured during normal pace walking with the GAITRite system at all sites. Results Performance of spatio-temporal gait parameters declined in parallel to the stage of cognitive decline from MCI status to moderate dementia. Gait parameters of patients with naMCI were more disturbed compared to patients with aMCI, and MCI subgroups performed better than demented patients. Patients with non-AD dementia had worse gait performance than those with AD dementia. This degradation of the gait parameters was similar between mean values and coefficients of variation of spatio-temporal gait parameters in the earliest stages of cognitive decline, but different in the most advanced stages, especially in the non-AD subtypes. Conclusions Spatio-temporal gait parameters were more disturbed in the advanced stages of dementia, and more affected in the non-AD dementias than in AD. These findings suggest that quantitative gait parameters could be used as a surrogate marker for improving the diagnosis of dementia. PMID:26662508

  12. Porcine Ex Vivo Liver Phantom for Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography: Development and Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Scott M.; Giraldo, Juan C. Ramirez; Knudsen, Bruce; Grande, Joseph P.; Christner, Jodie A.; Xu, Man; Woodrum, David A.; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Callstrom, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate the feasibility of developing a fixed, dual-input, biological liver phantom for dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) imaging and to report initial results of use of the phantom for quantitative CT perfusion imaging. Materials and Methods Porcine livers were obtained from completed surgical studies and perfused with saline and fixative. The phantom was placed in a body-shaped, CT-compatible acrylic container and connected to a perfusion circuit fitted with a contrast injection port. Flow-controlled contrast-enhanced imaging experiments were performed using a 128-slice and 64 slice, dual-source multidetector CT scanners. CT angiography protocols were employed to obtain portal venous and hepatic arterial vascular enhancement, reproduced over a period of four to six months. CT perfusion protocols were employed at different input flow rates to correlate input flow with calculated tissue perfusion, to test reproducibility and demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous dual input liver perfusion. Histologic analysis of the liver phantom was also performed. Results CT angiogram 3D reconstructions demonstrated homogenous tertiary and quaternary branching of the portal venous system out to the periphery of all lobes of the liver as well as enhancement of the hepatic arterial system to all lobes of the liver and gallbladder throughout the study period. For perfusion CT, the correlation between the calculated mean tissue perfusion in a volume of interest and input pump flow rate was excellent (R2 = 0.996) and color blood flow maps demonstrated variations in regional perfusion in a narrow range. Repeat perfusion CT experiments demonstrated reproducible time-attenuation curves and dual-input perfusion CT experiments demonstrated that simultaneous dual input liver perfusion is feasible. Histologic analysis demonstrated that the hepatic microvasculature and architecture appeared intact and well preserved at the completion of four to six

  13. A tandem reaction initiated by 1,4-addition of bis(iodozincio)methane for 1,3-diketone formation.

    PubMed

    Sada, Mutsumi; Matsubara, Seijiro

    2010-01-20

    Treatment of an gamma-acyloxy-alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone with bis(iodozincio)methane leads to a novel tandem reaction consisting of three steps: (1) 1,4-addition of the dizinc reagent to the enone, which affords the corresponding zinc enolate of the beta-zinciomethylated ketone; (2) intramolecular nucleophilic attack by the enolate on the ester group; and (3) Grob-type fragmentation of the adduct, accompanied by elimination of the zinc alkoxide of allyl alcohol. The overall reaction gives 1,3-diketones efficiently.

  14. Resonant Frequency Control For the PIP-II Injector Test RFQ: Control Framework and Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Edelen, A. L.; Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.; Bowring, D.; Chase, B. E.; Edelen, J. P.; Nicklaus, D.; Steimel, J.

    2016-12-16

    For the PIP-II Injector Test (PI-Test) at Fermilab, a four-vane radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is designed to accelerate a 30-keV, 1-mA to 10-mA, H- beam to 2.1 MeV under both pulsed and continuous wave (CW) RF operation. The available headroom of the RF amplifiers limits the maximum allowable detuning to 3 kHz, and the detuning is controlled entirely via thermal regulation. Fine control over the detuning, minimal manual intervention, and fast trip recovery is desired. In addition, having active control over both the walls and vanes provides a wider tuning range. For this, we intend to use model predictive control (MPC). To facilitate these objectives, we developed a dedicated control framework that handles higher-level system decisions as well as executes control calculations. It is written in Python in a modular fashion for easy adjustments, readability, and portability. Here we describe the framework and present the first control results for the PI-Test RFQ under pulsed and CW operation.

  15. The MARIA Helicon Plasma Experiment at UW Madison: Upgrade, Initial Scientific Goals Mission and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Victoria; Green, Jonathan; Hershkowitz, Noah; Schmitz, Oliver; Severn, Greg

    2015-11-01

    The versatile helicon plasma device, MARIA (Magnetized AnisotRopic Ion-distribution Apparatus), was upgraded with stronger magnetic field B <= 1200G. The main focus is to understand the neutral particle dynamics and ionization mechanism with helicon waves to establish a high-density plasma (10 ∧ 20/m ∧ 3) at substantial electron (Te ~5-15eV) and ion (Ti ~1-3eV) temperature. To achieve this, installation of higher RF Power <= 15kW is planned as well as design of an ion cyclotron-heating antenna. To quantify the plasma characteristics, diagnostics including a Triple Langmuir Probe, Emissive Probe, and Laser Induced Fluorescence were established. We show first results from characterization of the device. The coupling of the helicon mode in the electron temperature and density parameter space in Argon was mapped out with regard to neutral pressure, B-field and RF power. In addition, validity of the Bohm Criterion and of the Chodura model starting in the weakly collisional regime is tested. A key goal in all efforts is to develop methods of quantitative spectroscopy based on cutting-edge models and active laser spectroscopy. This work was funded by Startup funds of the Department of Engineering Physics at UW Madison, the NSF CAREER award PHY-1455210 and NSF grant PHY-1206421.

  16. Statewide Behavior Initiatives--Literature Review and Survey Results. Synthesis Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    This report summarizes major points from the Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports' (PBIS Center) literature review on statewide behavior initiatives (SBIs) and findings from the PBIS Center's study that examined the extent to which SBIs have been developed and implemented. Of the 19 states that responded to the PBIS Center's…

  17. Review of dWindDS Model Initial Results; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, Ian; Gleason, Michael; Preus, Robert; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-06-17

    The dWindDS model analyses the market diffusion of distributed wind generation for behind the meter applications. It is consumer decision based and uses a variety of data sets including a high resolution wind data set. It projects market development through 2050 based on input on specified by the user. This presentation covers some initial runs with draft base case assumptions.

  18. Smile Alabama! Initiative: Interim Results from a Program To Increase Children's Access to Dental Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene-McIntyre, Mary; Finch, Mary Hayes; Searcy, John

    2003-01-01

    An Alabama initiative aimed to improve access to oral health care for Medicaid-eligible children through four components: improved Medicaid claims processing, increased reimbursement for providers, outreach and educational activities to support providers, and parent and patient education about children's oral health. In the first 3 program years,…

  19. Human percutaneous and intraoperative laser thermal angioplasty: initial clinical results as an adjunct to balloon angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Sanborn, T A; Greenfield, A J; Guben, J K; Menzoian, J O; LoGerfo, F W

    1987-01-01

    In this study, the safety and efficacy of percutaneous laser thermal angioplasty as an adjunct to balloon angioplasty were investigated in 13 patients with severe peripheral vascular disease. By means of a novel fiberoptic laser delivery system (Laserprobe) in which argon laser energy is converted to heat in a metallic tip at the end of the fiberoptic fiber, improvement in the angiographic luminal diameter was noted in 14 of 15 femoropopliteal vessels (93%) by delivering 8 to 13 watts of continuous argon laser energy as the Laserprobe was advanced through the lesion. Initial clinical success (indicated by relief of symptoms and increase in Doppler index) for the combined laser and balloon angioplasty procedures was obtained in 12 of 15 vessels (80%), with inadequate balloon dilatation being the limiting factor in three patients. No significant complications of vessel perforation, dissection, pain, spasm, or embolization of debris occurred. Of the 12 patients who had procedures with initial angiographic and clinical success, 10 (83%) were asymptomatic in the initial follow-up period of 1 to 9 months (mean 6 months). Thus, laser thermal angioplasty with a Laserprobe is a safe and effective adjunct to peripheral balloon angioplasty. This technique has the potential to increase the initial success rate of angioplasty for lesions that are difficult or impossible to treat by conventional means. By removing most of the obstructing lesion, this technique may also reduce recurrent stenosis.

  20. Child Sexual Abuse and Psychological Impairment in Victims: Results of an Online Study Initiated by Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Gerard A.; Mundt, Ingrid A.; Ahlers, Christoph J.; Bahls, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims…

  1. Human support issues and systems for the space exploration initiative: Results from Project Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aroesty, J.; Zimmerman, R.; Logan, J.

    1991-01-01

    The analyses and evaluations of the Human Support panel are discussed. The Human Support panel is one of eight panels created by RAND to screen and analyze submissions to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Outreach Program. Submissions to the Human Support panel were in the following areas: radiation protection; microgravity; life support systems; medical care; and human factors (behavior and performance).

  2. Project Early Kindergarten Evaluation: Results through 2009-10 of a Saint Paul Public Schools Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxfield, Jennifer; Gozali-Lee, Edith; Mueller, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Project Early Kindergarten (PEK) aims to improve the school-readiness of Saint Paul children and help close the achievement gap through offering high-quality educational experiences for preschool children. This report comes at the conclusion of the sixth year of PEK. Following an initial planning year (2004-05), PEK has served children through the…

  3. Getting Results: Outcomes Management and the Annie E. Casey Foundations Jobs Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giloth, Robert; Phillips, William

    The Anne E. Casey Foundation (AECF) funded replications of effective jobs projects to achieve better job placement and retention for low-income, young adults. The six projects funded, collectively called the Jobs Initiative (JI), in Denver, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Philadelphia, Seattle, and St. Louis, used an outcomes framework developed by The…

  4. A Unique Test Facility to Measure Liner Performance with a Summary of Initial Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Gaeta, R. J., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A very ambitious study was initiated to obtain detailed acoustic and flow data with and without a liner in a duct containing a mean flow so that available theoretical models of duct liners can be validated. A unique flow-duct facility equipped with a sound source, liner box, flush-walled microphones, traversable microphones and traversable pressure and temperature probes was built. A unique set of instrumentation boxes equipped with computer controlled traverses were designed and built that allowed measurements of Mach number, temperature, SPLs and phases in two planes upstream of a liner section and two planes downstream at a large number of measurement points. Each pair of planes provided acoustic pressure gradients for use in estimating the particle velocities. Specially-built microphone probes were employed to make measurements in the presence of the flow. A microphone traverse was also designed to measure the distribution of SPLs and phases from the beginning of the liner to its end along the duct axis. All measurements were made with the help of cross-correlation techniques to reject flow noise and/or other obtrusive noise, if any. The facility was designed for future use at temperatures as high as 1500 F. In order to validate 2-D models in the presence of mean flow, the flow duct was equipped with a device to modify boundary layer flow on the smaller sides of a rectangular duct to simulate 2-D flow. A massive amount of data was acquired for use in validating duct liner models and will be provided to NASA in an electronic form. It was found that the sound in the plane-wave regime is well behaved within the duct and the results are repeatable from one run to another. At the higher frequencies corresponding to the higher-order modes, the SPLs within a duct are not repeatable from run to run. In fact, when two or more modes have the same frequency (i.e., for the degenerate modes), the SPLs in the duct varied between 2 dB to 12 dB from run to run. This made the

  5. Thermal Properties of the Surface of 67P/Chryumov-Gerasimenko: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capria, M. T.; Tosi, F.; Kuhrt, E.; Raponi, A.; Formisano, M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Ciarniello, M.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Erard, S.; Leyrat, C.; Drossart, P.; Arnold, G.

    2014-12-01

    The imaging spectrometer VIRTIS onboard Rosetta (Coradini et al., 2007) acquires spectra in the range from the near-UV through the IR (0.25-5 micron). Infrared spectra are affected by thermal emission from the surface of the comet, so the measured radiance in that spectral region can be used to retrieve surface temperatures and spectral emissivities by means of temperature-retrieval algorithms (Tosi et al., 2014, Erard, 2014). The temperature of a surface, and in particular its variation with respect to illumination conditions, depends strongly on the thermal inertia of the materials composing this surface and the sub-surface, but also on the topography and small scale roughness. Theoretical codes computing surface and subsurface temperatures under a range of different assumptions on the composition, activity and physical status of the surface matter are used to reproduce the IR radiances observed, and the apparent/effective thermal inertia determined in this way is assumed to correspond to reality (Capria et al., 2014). The initial results obtained using the data acquired during the approach and pre-landing (July 2014-November 2014) first phases of the Rosetta mission will be presented. Authors acknowledge the funding from Italian, German and French Space Agencies. References: Coradini, A., Capaccioni, F., Drossart, et al., Space Science Reviews, Volume 128, Issue 1-4, 529-559, 2007. Tosi, F., Capria, M.T., De Sanctis, et al., . Thermal measurements of dark and bright surface features on Vesta as derived from Dawn/VIR, Icarus, in press. Doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2014.03.017, 2014. Capria, M.T., Tosi, F., M.C. De Sanctis, et al., Vesta surface thermal properties, Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 41, Issue 5, 1438-1443, 2014 Leyrat, C. et al. Thermal properties of the asteroid (2867) Steins as observed by VIRTIS/Rosetta. Astronomy & Astrophysics, Volume 531, id.A168, 2011 Erard, S., Temperature and reflectance retrieval from NIR spectra, EPSC 2014, abstract 2014-482

  6. Effect of Microgravity on Sinorhizobium meliloti: Initial Results from the SyNRGE Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Michael S.; Stutte, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIe) hardware to study the effect of microgravity on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species of the legume family, was innoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe early events associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFUs). Two sets of experiments were conducted in orbit and in 24-hour delayed ground controls. Experiment one was designed to determine if S. meliloti infect M. truncatula and initiate physiological changes associated with nodule formation. Roots of five-day-old M. truncatula cultivar Jemalong A17 (Enodll::gus) were innoculated 24 hr before launch with either S. meliloti strain 1021 or strain ABS7 and integrated into BRIC-PDFU hardware placed in a 4 C Cold Bag for launch on Atlantis. Innoculated plants and uninoculated controls were maintained in the dark at ambient temperature in the middeck of STS-135 for 11 days before fixation in RNA/ate/M by crew activation of the PDFU. Experiment two was designed to determine if microgravity altered the process of bacterial infection and host plant nodule formation. Seeds of two M. truncatula cultivar Jemalong A17 lines, the Enodll::gus used in experiment 1, and SUNN, a super-nodulating mutant of A17, were germinated on orbit for 11 days in the middeck cabin and returned to Earth alive inside of BRIC-PDFU's at 4 C S. meliloti strains 1021 and ABS7 were cultivated separately in broth culture on orbit and also returned to Earth alive. After landing, flight- and ground-grown plants and bacteria were transferred from BRIC-PDFU's into Nunc(TradeMark) 4-well plates for reciprocity crosses. Rates of plant growth and nodule development on Buffered Nodulation Medium (lacking nitrogen) were measured for 14 days. Bacteria cultivated in microgravity in the

  7. Initial Results from the Vector Electric Field Investigation on the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.; Acuna, M.; Le, G.; Farrell, W.; Holzworth, R.; Wilson, G.; Burke, W.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; Liebrecht, C.; Martin, S.; Kujawski, J.; Uribe, P.; Fourre, R.; McCarthy, M.; Maynard, N.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Steigies, C.

    2009-01-01

    Initial results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. The DC electric field detector has revealed zonal and meridional electric fields that undergo a diurnal variation, typically displaying eastward and outward-directed fields during the day and westward and downward-directed fields at night. In general, the measured DC electric field amplitudes are in the 0.5-2 mV/m range, corresponding to I3 x B drifts of the order of 30-150 m/s. What is surprising is the high degree of large-scale (10's to 100's of km) structure in the DC electric field, particularly at night, regardless of whether well-defined spread-F plasma density depletions are present. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. On some occasions, localized regions of low frequency (< 8 Hz) magnetic field broadband irregularities have been detected, suggestive of filamentary currents, although there is no one-to-one correspondence of these waves with the observed plasma density depletions, at least within the data examined thus far. Finally, the data set includes a wide range of ELF/VLF/HF waves corresponding to a variety of plasma waves, in particular banded ELF hiss, whistlers, and lower hybrid wave turbulence

  8. The Combined Atmospheric Photochemistry and Ion Tracing code: Reproducing the Viking Lander results and initial outflow results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, L.; Ergun, R. E.; Stewart, A. I. F.

    2010-03-01

    A Combined Atmospheric Photochemistry and Ion Tracing code (CAPIT) has been developed to explore ion loss into space at Mars. The CAPIT code includes the major photochemical reactions of Mars' ionosphere, ion tracing in the presence of magnetic fields, and plasma wave heating of ions. In particular, we examine whether O + escape from the day-side ionosphere is limited by ion production (UV input) or by external energy input to the ions. To verify the code, it is demonstrated that the CAPIT solutions reproduce the Viking 1 Lander's ion density and temperature profiles. Using Viking 1 Lander conditions as a baseline, ion outflow rates are examined as function of solar wind energy input via plasma waves and UV ionization rates. The O + outflow rates predicted by the simulation are comparable to the outflow rates estimated by observation. The results indicate that plasma waves are a viable source of energy to O + ions and suggest that present-day O + outflow rates at Mars are source limited by photochemical production (UV input) during periods of strong energy input (plasma wave activity), but otherwise regulated by both UV input and energy input. These results imply that ion heating by plasma waves can influence the present-day loss of O +.

  9. Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing in NASA: An Overview of Current Projects and Future Initiatives for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    NASA, including each Mission Directorate, is investing in, experimenting with, and/or utilizing AM across a broad spectrum of applications and projects; Centers have created and are continuing to create partnerships with industry, other Government Agencies, other Centers, and Universities; In-house additive manufacturing capability enables rapid iteration of the entire design, development and testing process, increasing innovation and reducing risk and cost to projects; For deep space exploration, AM offers significant reduction to logistics costs and risk by providing ability to create on demand; There are challenges: Overwhelming message from recent JANNAF AM for Propulsion Applications TIM was "certification."; NASA will continue to work with our partners to address this and other challenges to advance the state of the art in AM and incorporate these capabilities into an array of applications from aerospace to science missions to deep space exploration.

  10. Rapid screening test for gestational diabetes: public health need, market requirement, initial product design, and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Zwisler, Greg; Peck, Roger; Abu-Haydar, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Gestational diabetes is a global epidemic where many urban areas in Southeast Asia have found prevalence rates as high as 20%, exceeding the highest prevalence rates in the developed world. It can have serious and life-threatening consequences for mothers and babies. We are developing two variants of a new, simple, low-cost rapid test for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus for use primarily in low-resource settings. The pair of assays, both semiquantitative rapid diagnostic strip tests for glycated albumin, require neither fasting nor an oral glucose challenge test. One variant is an extremely simple strip test to estimate the level of total glycated albumin in blood. The other, which is slightly more complex and expensive, is a test that determines the ratio of glycated albumin to total albumin. The screening results can be used to refer women to receive additional care during delivery to avoid birth complications as well as counseling on diet and exercise during and after pregnancy. Results with the latter test may also be used to start treatment with glucose-lowering drugs. Both assays will be read visually. We present initial results of a preliminary cost-performance comparison model evaluating the proposed test versus existing alternatives. We also evaluated user needs and schematic paper microfluidics-based designs aimed at overcoming the challenge of visualizing relatively narrow differences between normal and elevated levels of glycated albumin in blood.

  11. Petrophysical Characterization of Stony Meteorites Using Low Field Magnetic Susceptibility: Initial Results From Anisotropy Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. L.; Ernst, R. E.; Herd, R. K.; Claire, S.

    2004-05-01

    Low field magnetic susceptibility represents a fast, systematic and non-destructive technique of meteorite classification [1-4]. We previously reported measurements of bulk susceptibility, and its frequency dependence, along with a `proxy' measure of anisotropy, on 204 specimens from 108 different meteorites in the National Meteorite Collection of Canada [5,6]. Measurements were performed on a Sapphire Instruments Model 2B. Bulk susceptibility values followed expected trends, governed by metal content, with values increasing from LL, to L, to H, to E chondrites. Frequency dependence (19000 vs 825 Hz) was greatest in H and C chondrites. Aubrites (AUB) and Howardites (HOW) had the lowest. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) was measured using a `proxy' approach: the mean value determined from a series of random sample orientations was compared with repeated measurements in one orientation. AUB, E chondrites and Martian SNCs had the largest inferred anisotropies, while LL and C chondrites had the lowest. Here we report initial results from a follow-up study. Quantitative measurements of the AMS were made on 67 stony meteorite specimens. AMS measurements [3,5,6,7,8,9] can provide information on the physical fabric of the meteorite, and may relate to its deformational history. Samples measured show significant degrees of anisotropy ranging from 1-50 % for an individual specimen (in parentheses is the number of specimens used in the class mean): AUB (5), Acapulcoites (1) and E chondrites (10) display the largest degrees of anisotropy, 40±11 (1 standard deviation), 34, and 24±10, respectively. These classes are followed by Diogenite (1) 20, H (13) 14±7 and L (10) 13±6 chondrites, Brachinite (1) 11, Ureilite (2) 8, Eucrite (4) 7±4, C chondrites (14) 6±3, and Rumurutiite (1) 4. These results match a similar trend based on the `proxy' method [5,6]: AUB and E chondrites were found to have the highest inferred anisotropies followed by tightly grouped H and L

  12. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests were completed in 2005 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 3 full-scale additive tests, conducted at IPL's Petersburg Station Unit 2. The Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2007.

  13. Long time existence results for bore-type initial data for BBM-Boussinesq systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtea, Cosmin

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we deal with the long time existence for the Cauchy problem associated to BBM-type Boussinesq systems of equations which are asymptotic models for long wave, small amplitude gravity surface water waves. As opposed to previous papers devoted to the long time existence issue, we consider initial data with nontrivial behavior at infinity which may be used to model bore propagation.

  14. The Vega balloon experiment - Initial results from the global radio tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, R. A.; Hildebrand, C. E.; Purcell, G. H., Jr.; Finley, S. G.; Stelzried, C. T.; Ellis, J.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Matveenko, L. I.; Linkin, V. M.; Kerzhanovich, V. V.

    1986-01-01

    A unique global array of 20 radio telescopes provided 24-h telemetry acquisition of meteorological data from the Vega balloons and differential VLBI measurements of their trajectories. Initial Doppler-tracking analysis indicates mean zonal wind velocities of 69 + or - 1 and 66 + or - 1 m/sec at the Vega 1 and Vega 2 float heights, and discloses an anomaly in the Vega 2 trajectory above the mountains in Aphrodite Terra.

  15. Nitrogen addition and harvest frequency rather than initial plant species composition determine vertical structure and light interception in grasslands.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Ute; Isselstein, Johannes

    2015-07-21

    In biodiversity experiments based on seeded experimental communities, species richness and species composition exert a strong influence on canopy structure and can lead to an improved use of aboveground resources. In this study, we want to explore whether these findings are applicable to agriculturally managed permanent grassland. Vertical layered profiles of biomass, leaf area (LA) and light intensity were measured in a removal-type biodiversity experiment (GrassMan) to compare the canopy structure in grassland vegetation of different plant species composition (called sward types). Additionally, the altered sward types were subjected to four different management regimes by a combination of the factors fertilization (unfertilized, NPK fertilized) and cutting frequency (one late cut or three cuts). In spite of large compositional differences (ratio grasses : non-leguminous forbs : leguminous forbs ranging from 93 : 7 : 0 to 39 : 52 : 9), the vegetation of the same management regime hardly differed in its canopy structure, whereas the different management regimes led to distinct vertical profiles in the vegetation. However, the allocation of biomass in response to cutting and fertilization differed among the sward types. Vegetation dominated by grasses was denser and had more LA when fertilized compared with vegetation rich in dicots which merely grew taller. In functionally more diverse vegetation, light interception was not increased compared with vegetation consisting of more than 90 % of grasses in terms of biomass. Management had a much stronger influence on structure and light interception than plant species composition in this grassland experiment.

  16. Preliminary Results from Initial Investigations of Ceres' Cratering Record from Dawn Imaging Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmedemann, Nico; Michael, Gregory; Ivanov, Boris A.; Kneissl, Thomas; Neesemann, Adrian; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2015-04-01

    The highly successful Dawn mission [1] finished data collection at Vesta in 2012 and is now on its way to the dwarf planet Ceres. According to the current Ceres approach timeline of the Dawn mission, the ground resolution of the Dawn FC camera [2] will be about 10 times better than Hubble data [3] at the time of the presentation of this work. This may allow for identification of craters about 15 km in diameter. Initial mapping of sample areas may provide enough information of the cratering record in order to compare it with the theoretical Ceres crater production function we present at the 46th LPSC conference (March 16-20, 2015, The Woodlands, Texas) [4]. Our preliminary crater production function for Ceres is derived from the assumption of an icy crust just below a thin surface layer of dust [5], and a projectile population that is very similar to the one that impacted the Moon [6]. In order to scale the lunar cratering record to Ceres we use the Ivanov scaling laws [7], which allow for crater scaling based on parameters that can be derived from observations. The lunar-like approach gave reasonable good results for the crater production function on the asteroids Vesta, Ida, Lutetia and Gaspra [8]. Since the lunar surface is of basaltic composition, the correct scaling between the different materials is challenging. One crucial parameter is the transition diameter from simple to complex craters. Based on the simple to complex transition diameter on Iapetus, an icy satellite of Saturn, we expect this transition at about 12 km crater size at Ceres. This value may be slightly different due to the different temperatures at Ceres and Iapetus. If the simple to complex transition is observed at much larger diameters, the reason could be a substantial fraction of rock in the shallow subsurface of Ceres. In an ice-rich surface material high relaxation rates may also be expected that could change the shape of the crater production function. A thorough geological mapping

  17. The IAEA Coordinated Research Program on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis: Phase I Status and Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Strydom, Gerhard; Bostelmann, Friederike; Ivanov, Kostadin

    2014-10-01

    The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of HTGR design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. One way to address the uncertainties in the HTGR analysis tools is to assess the sensitivity of critical parameters (such as the calculated maximum fuel temperature during loss of coolant accidents) to a few important input uncertainties. The input parameters were identified by engineering judgement in the past but are today typically based on a Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT) process. The input parameters can also be derived from sensitivity studies and are then varied in the analysis to find a spread in the parameter of importance. However, there is often no easy way to compensate for these uncertainties. In engineering system design, a common approach for addressing performance uncertainties is to add compensating margins to the system, but with passive properties credited it is not so clear how to apply it in the case of modular HTGR heat removal path. Other more sophisticated uncertainty modelling approaches, including Monte Carlo analysis, have also been proposed and applied. Ideally one wishes to apply a more fundamental approach to determine the predictive capability and accuracies of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and depletion simulations used for reactor design and safety assessment. Today there is a broader acceptance of the use of uncertainty analysis even in safety studies, and it has been accepted by regulators in some cases to replace the traditional conservative analysis. Therefore some safety analysis calculations may use a mixture of these approaches for different parameters depending upon the particular requirements of the analysis problem involved. Sensitivity analysis can for example be used to provide information as part of an uncertainty analysis to determine best estimate plus uncertainty results to the

  18. Automation and robotics for the Space Exploration Initiative: Results from Project Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, D.; Criswell, D.; Heer, E.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 52 submissions were received in the Automation and Robotics (A&R) area during Project Outreach. About half of the submissions (24) contained concepts that were judged to have high utility for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) and were analyzed further by the robotics panel. These 24 submissions are analyzed here. Three types of robots were proposed in the high scoring submissions: structured task robots (STRs), teleoperated robots (TORs), and surface exploration robots. Several advanced TOR control interface technologies were proposed in the submissions. Many A&R concepts or potential standards were presented or alluded to by the submitters, but few specific technologies or systems were suggested.

  19. Initial results from the Solar Dynamic (SD) Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) project at NASA Lewis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.; Boyle, Robert V.

    1995-01-01

    A government/industry team designed, built, and tested a 2 kWe solar dynamic space power system in a large thermal/vacuum facility with a simulated sun at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Lewis facility provides an accurate simulation of temperatures, high vacuum, and solar flux as encountered in low earth orbit. This paper reviews the goals and status of the Solar Dynamic (SD) Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) program and describes the initial testing, including both operational and performance data. This SD technology has the potential as a future power source for the International Space Station Alpha.

  20. The Edison Environmental Center Permeable Pavement Site: Initial Results from a Stormwater Control Designed for Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are few detailed studies of full-scale, replicated, actively-used permeable pavement systems. Practitioners need additional studies of permeable pavement systems in its intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditio...

  1. Virtual Iraq: initial results from a VR exposure therapy application for combat-related PTSD.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Albert A; Graap, Ken; Perlman, Karen; McLay, Robert N; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Reger, Greg; Parsons, Thomas; Difede, Joann; Pair, Jarrell

    2008-01-01

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is reported to be caused by traumatic events that are outside the range of usual human experience including (but not limited to) military combat, violent personal assault, being kidnapped or taken hostage and terrorist attacks. Initial data suggests that at least 1 out of 6 Iraq War veterans are exhibiting symptoms of depression, anxiety and PTSD. Virtual Reality (VR) delivered exposure therapy for PTSD has been used with reports of positive outcomes. The aim of the current paper is to present the rationale and brief description of a Virtual Iraq PTSD VR therapy application and present initial findings from its use with PTSD patients. Thus far, Virtual Iraq consists of a series of customizable virtual scenarios designed to represent relevant Middle Eastern VR contexts for exposure therapy, including a city and desert road convoy environment. User-centered design feedback needed to iteratively evolve the system was gathered from returning Iraq War veterans in the USA and from a system deployed in Iraq and tested by an Army Combat Stress Control Team. Clinical trials are currently underway at Ft. Lewis, Camp Pendleton, Emory University, Weill Cornell Medical College, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, San Diego Naval Medical Center and 12 other sites.

  2. Test results of the Chrysler upgraded automotive gas turbine engine: Initial design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, D.; Ribble, G. H., Jr.; Warren, E. L.; Wood, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The upgraded engine as built to the original design was deficient in power and had excessive specific fuel consumption. A high instrumented version of the engine was tested to identify the sources of the engine problems. Analysis of the data shows the major problems to be low compressor and power turbine efficiency and excessive interstage duct losses. In addition, high HC and CO emission were measured at idle, and high NOx emissions at high energy speeds.

  3. Towards Commanding Unmanned Ground Vehicle Movement in Unfamiliar Environments Using Unconstrained English: Initial Research Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    investments across the lines of development (technologies plus training , leadership, organizational change, etc.). This is a useful reminder when we...means of communication, the less training required for soldiers and the easier it is for commanders to leverage UGVs as another element in the unit, as...In addition, personnel must be trained before they can operate systems through built-in touch screens or keyboards or a limited set of voice

  4. Test results of the Chrysler upgraded automotive gas turbine engine: Initial design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, D.; Ribble, G. H., Jr.; Warren, E. L.; Wood, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The upgraded engine as built to the original design was deficient in power and had excessive specific fuel consumption. A high instrumented version of the engine was tested to identify the sources of the engine problems. Analysis of the data shows the major problems to be low compressor and power turbine efficiency and excessive interstage duct losses. In addition, high HC and CO emission were measured at idle, and high NOx emissions at high energy speeds.

  5. High fidelity studies of exploding foil initiator bridges, Part 2: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, William; Bowden, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Simulations of high voltage detonators, such as Exploding Bridgewire (EBW) and Exploding Foil Initiators (EFI), have historically been simple, often empirical, one-dimensional models capable of predicting parameters such as current, voltage, and in the case of EFIs, flyer velocity. Experimental methods have correspondingly generally been limited to the same parameters. With the advent of complex, first principles magnetohydrodynamic codes such as ALEGRA MHD, it is now possible to simulate these components in three dimensions and predict greater range of parameters than before. A significant improvement in experimental capability was therefore required to ensure these simulations could be adequately verified. In this second paper of a three part study, data is presented from a flexible foil EFI header experiment. This study has shown that there is significant bridge expansion before time of peak voltage and that heating within the bridge material is spatially affected by the microstructure of the metal foil.

  6. Initial formulation results for in situ grouting of a waste trench at ORNL Site No. 6

    SciTech Connect

    Tallent, O.K.; McDaniel, E.W.; Spence, R.D.; Godsey, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation is being conducted by the Chemical Technology Division to assist the Environmental Sciences Division in developing a grout formulation for use in testing in situ grouting in a waste trench at ORNL Site 6. This final report satisfies the milestone of Subtack 12 entitled, ''Low Level Waste (LLW) Trench Grouting Assessment,'' which was initially issued as RAP-86-7, December 31, 1985. Grouts prepared from dry-solid blends containing Type I Portland cement, ASTM Class C or Class F fly ash, and bentonite, mixed water at ratios of 10 to 15 lb/gal, were evaluated. The grouts prepared with ASTM Class C fly ash exhibited significantly better properties than those prepared with ASTM Class F fly ash. The grouts containing ASTM Class C fly ash satisfy tentative performance criteria for the project. 8 refs., 7 tabs.

  7. Issues, concerns, and initial implementation results for space based telerobotic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, D. A.; Chapel, J. D.; Depkovich, T. M.

    1987-01-01

    Telerobotic control for space based assembly and servicing tasks presents many problems in system design. Traditional force reflection teleoperation schemes are not well suited to this application, and the approaches to compliance control via computer algorithms have yet to see significant testing and comparison. These observations are discussed in detail, as well as the concerns they raise for imminent design and testing of space robotic systems. As an example of the detailed technical work yet to be done before such systems can be specified, a particular approach to providing manipulator compliance is examined experimentally and through modeling and analysis. This yields some initial insight into the limitations and design trade-offs for this class of manipulator control schemes. Implications of this investigation for space based telerobots are discussed in detail.

  8. Towards a new concept of lignin condensation in kraft pulping. Initial results.

    PubMed

    Gellerstedt, Göran; Majtnerova, Andrea; Zhang, Liming

    2004-01-01

    In kraft pulping, a comparatively large amount of lignin remains in the fibres after the cook. Based on various analytical techniques for lignin, such as thioacidolysis, GPC and NMR, it is suggested that lignin condensation reactions take place during the cook. The reaction seems, however, not to involve ionic intermediates as has been suggested previously but rather a one-electron mechanism with elemental sulphur as the initiator. Support for such a reaction has been found through kraft cooks in the presence of an added phenol, 2,6-xylenol, as well as through NMR analysis of kraft lignin. It was found that the added phenol is incorporated in the pulp lignin with linkages indicative of radical coupling. Furthermore, kraft lignin was found to contain substantial amounts of chemically linked fatty acids. By complementary analyses of sulphur and polysulphide in an industrial black liquor, the presence of these compounds throughout a kraft cook was demonstrated.

  9. Ten Years of Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI): Results and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, P. Y.; Gutman, G.; Gulev, S.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    During recent decades, Northern Eurasia was affected by unprecedented climate and environmental changes. Several droughts and heat waves alternated with hazardous extreme precipitation and flood events. Permafrost thaw, retreating Arctic sea ice, increasing areas of forest fire, and dramatic regional warming buffeted this region, tossing northern Eurasia from one extreme condition to the next. The region stores nearly half of the Earth's terrestrial carbon in permafrost, wetlands, and forested land, so ecosystem changes that release stored carbon could profoundly affect the world's climate. Furthermore, changes to climate and to hydrological and biogeochemical cycles are starting to affect daily life. For example, infrastructure is collapsing as permafrost thaws, severe winter storms increasingly bring businesses to a halt, and a growing water deficit is beginning to strain agricultural production and forestry. To pool resources and facilitate research, the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI, http://neespi.org) was launched in 2004. With its multidisciplinary focus, the internationally funded NEESPI (more than165 individual international projects during the past decade) has challenged participants to research climate-ecosystem interactions, societal impacts from extreme events in Northern Eurasia, and the feedbacks of these interactions and impacts to the global Earth system. Among the numerous Institutional and private sponsors from the United States, European Union, Russia, China, and Japan, the cornerstone support for the NEESPI studies was provided by the NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change Program and the Russian Academy of Sciences. At this presentation we shall overview the environmental studies conducted by the NEESPI community, brief the audience about the main achievements of the NEESPI researchers, and lay down the plans for the future studies. At the side event of the Meeting, we are going to initiate preparation of the book

  10. Design of an Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Performance prediction of turbomachines is a significant part of aircraft propulsion design. In the conceptual design stage, there is an important need to quantify compressor and turbine aerodynamic performance and develop initial geometry parameters at the 2-D level prior to more extensive Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses. The Object-oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (OTAC) is being developed to perform 2-D meridional flowthrough analysis of turbomachines using an implicit formulation of the governing equations to solve for the conditions at the exit of each blade row. OTAC is designed to perform meanline or streamline calculations; for streamline analyses simple radial equilibrium is used as a governing equation to solve for spanwise property variations. While the goal for OTAC is to allow simulation of physical effects and architectural features unavailable in other existing codes, it must first prove capable of performing calculations for conventional turbomachines. OTAC is being developed using the interpreted language features available in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code described by Claus et al (1991). Using the NPSS framework came with several distinct advantages, including access to the pre-existing NPSS thermodynamic property packages and the NPSS Newton-Raphson solver. The remaining objects necessary for OTAC were written in the NPSS framework interpreted language. These new objects form the core of OTAC and are the BladeRow, BladeSegment, TransitionSection, Expander, Reducer, and OTACstart Elements. The BladeRow and BladeSegment consumed the initial bulk of the development effort and required determining the equations applicable to flow through turbomachinery blade rows given specific assumptions about the nature of that flow. Once these objects were completed, OTAC was tested and found to agree with existing solutions from other codes; these tests included various meanline and streamline comparisons of axial

  11. Design of an Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Performance prediction of turbomachines is a significant part of aircraft propulsion design. In the conceptual design stage, there is an important need to quantify compressor and turbine aerodynamic performance and develop initial geometry parameters at the 2-D level prior to more extensive Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses. The Object-oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (OTAC) is being developed to perform 2-D meridional flowthrough analysis of turbomachines using an implicit formulation of the governing equations to solve for the conditions at the exit of each blade row. OTAC is designed to perform meanline or streamline calculations; for streamline analyses simple radial equilibrium is used as a governing equation to solve for spanwise property variations. While the goal for OTAC is to allow simulation of physical effects and architectural features unavailable in other existing codes, it must first prove capable of performing calculations for conventional turbomachines.OTAC is being developed using the interpreted language features available in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code described by Claus et al (1991). Using the NPSS framework came with several distinct advantages, including access to the pre-existing NPSS thermodynamic property packages and the NPSS Newton-Raphson solver. The remaining objects necessary for OTAC were written in the NPSS framework interpreted language. These new objects form the core of OTAC and are the BladeRow, BladeSegment, TransitionSection, Expander, Reducer, and OTACstart Elements. The BladeRow and BladeSegment consumed the initial bulk of the development effort and required determining the equations applicable to flow through turbomachinery blade rows given specific assumptions about the nature of that flow. Once these objects were completed, OTAC was tested and found to agree with existing solutions from other codes; these tests included various meanline and streamline comparisons of axial

  12. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal were completed in 2005 and 2006 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 5 full-scale additive tests, conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1. Both additives were tested there.

  13. 42 CFR 476.85 - Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.85 Section 476.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR... denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. A QIO initial denial determination or change as a result of DRG validation is final and binding unless, in accordance with the procedures...

  14. 'If at first you don't succeed, try again'. Looking beyond the initial results of a failed tuberculosis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    von Braun, A; Sekaggya, C; Henning, L; Nakijoba, R; Kambugu, A; Fehr, J; Castelnuovo, B

    2015-09-21

    We report the outcome of investigations conducted in 73 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected Ugandan adults presumed to have pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Following initial investigations, 32 of 73 patients were diagnosed with PTB. Of the remaining 41 patients initially classified as 'non-PTB', six had a delayed PTB diagnosis after a median of 6 weeks. Of the six patients lost to follow-up, four (66%) were reported to have died. Active tracking and close monitoring of HIV-infected patients presumed to have PTB independently of initial investigation results may reduce morbidity and mortality among this vulnerable patient group.

  15. Effect of lime addition during sewage sludge treatment on characteristics of resulting SSA when it is used in cementitious materials.

    PubMed

    Vouk, D; Nakic, D; Štirmer, N; Baricevic, A

    2017-02-01

    Final disposal of sewage sludge is important not only in terms of satisfying the regulations, but the aspect of choosing the optimal wastewater treatment technology, including the sludge treatment. In most EU countries, significant amounts of stabilized and dewatered sludge are incinerated, and sewage sludge ash (SSA) is generated as a by product. At the same time, lime is one of the commonly used additives in the sewage sludge treatment primarily to stabilize the sludge. In doing so, the question arose how desirable is such addition of lime if the sludge is subsequently incinerated, and the generated ash is further used in the production of cementitious materials. A series of mortars were prepared where 10-20% of the cement fraction was replaced by SSA. Since all three types of analyzed SSA (without lime, with lime added during sludge stabilization and with extra lime added during sludge incineration) yielded nearly same results, it can be concluded that if sludge incineration is accepted solution, lime addition during sludge treatment is unnecessary even from the standpoint of preserving the pozzolanic properties of the resulting SSA. Results of the research carried out on cement mortars point to the great possibilities of using SSA in concrete industry.

  16. Comparing GWAS Results of Complex Traits Using Full Genetic Model and Additive Models for Revealing Genetic Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Monir, Md. Mamun; Zhu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Most of the genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for human complex diseases have ignored dominance, epistasis and ethnic interactions. We conducted comparative GWASs for total cholesterol using full model and additive models, which illustrate the impacts of the ignoring genetic variants on analysis results and demonstrate how genetic effects of multiple loci could differ across different ethnic groups. There were 15 quantitative trait loci with 13 individual loci and 3 pairs of epistasis loci identified by full model, whereas only 14 loci (9 common loci and 5 different loci) identified by multi-loci additive model. Again, 4 full model detected loci were not detected using multi-loci additive model. PLINK-analysis identified two loci and GCTA-analysis detected only one locus with genome-wide significance. Full model identified three previously reported genes as well as several new genes. Bioinformatics analysis showed some new genes are related with cholesterol related chemicals and/or diseases. Analyses of cholesterol data and simulation studies revealed that the full model performs were better than the additive-model performs in terms of detecting power and unbiased estimations of genetic variants of complex traits. PMID:28079101

  17. Addition of sargramostim (GM-CSF) to imatinib results in major cytogenetic response in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Connor, Rebecca F; Hurd, David; Pettenati, Mark J; Koty, Patrick; Molnár, István

    2006-10-01

    Imatinib mesylate, an inhibitor of BCR/ABL tyrosine kinase, has remarkable activity in chronic myeloid leukemia resulting in an 87% major cytogenetic response. We describe a woman who failed to achieve any cytogenetic response after 2.5 years of imatinib, 400mg daily. When daily sargramostim (GM-CSF) 100 microg/m2 was added, cytogenetic studies revealed a gradual increase in percentage of normal cells from start, 4, 9, and 15 months at 0%, 10%, 55%, and 85%, respectively. She became transfusion independent after starting GM-CSF. The addition of GM-CSF to imatinib resulted in a clinical benefit and a major cytogenetic response in this patient.

  18. [Postoperative results under the new stage classification of lung cancer: the additional reports for those of JACS in 1996].

    PubMed

    Shirakusa, T

    2000-10-01

    This time, in 3008 lung cancer patients, the postoperative results were analyzed under the new stage grouping of TNM classification. All of those patients underwent the operation in 1989, and the 5 year-survival rates had beeb surveyed in 1996 by JACS (The Japanese Association for Chest Surgery). Under the new TNM classification established in 1996 worldwidey, T3N0M0 was transferred from IIIA to IIB. This report is the additional one in the focus of the results accompanied with the change of TNM classification.

  19. Design Architecture and Initial Results from an FPGA Based Digital Receiver for Multistatic Meteor Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palo, Scott; Vaudrin, Cody

    Defined by a minimal RF front-end followed by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and con-trolled by a reconfigurable logic device (FPGA), the digital receiver will replace conventional heterodyning analog receivers currently in use by the COBRA meteor radar. A basic hardware overview touches on the major digital receiver components, theory of operation and data han-dling strategies. We address concerns within the community regarding the implementation of digital receivers in small-scale scientific radars, and outline the numerous benefits with a focus on reconfigurability. From a remote sensing viewpoint, having complete visibility into a band of the EM spectrum allows an experiment designer to focus on parameter estimation rather than hardware limitations. Finally, we show some basic multistatic receiver configurations enabled through GPS time synchronization. Currently, the digital receiver is configured to facilitate range and radial velocity determination of meteors in the MLT region for use with the COBRA meteor radar. Initial measurements from data acquired at Platteville, Colorado and Tierra Del Fuego in Argentina will be presented. We show an improvement in detection rates compared to conventional analog systems. Scientific justification for a digital receiver is clearly made by the presentation of RTI plots created using data acquired from the receiver. These plots reveal an interesting phenomenon concerning vacillating power structures in a select number of meteor trails.

  20. Initial results for a 170 GHz high power ITER waveguide component test stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Timothy; Barker, Alan; Dukes, Carl; Killough, Stephen; Kaufman, Michael; White, John; Bell, Gary; Hanson, Greg; Rasmussen, Dave

    2014-10-01

    A high power microwave test stand is being setup at ORNL to enable prototype testing of 170 GHz cw waveguide components being developed for the ITER ECH system. The ITER ECH system will utilize 63.5 mm diameter evacuated corrugated waveguide and will have 24 >150 m long runs. A 170 GHz 1 MW class gyrotron is being developed by Communications and Power Industries and is nearing completion. A HVDC power supply, water-cooling and control system has been partially tested in preparation for arrival of the gyrotron. The power supply and water-cooling system are being designed to operate for >3600 second pulses to simulate the operating conditions planned for the ITER ECH system. The gyrotron Gaussian beam output has a single mirror for focusing into a 63.5 mm corrugated waveguide in the vertical plane. The output beam and mirror are enclosed in an evacuated duct with absorber for stray radiation. Beam alignment with the waveguide is a critical task so a combination of mirror tilt adjustments and a bellows for offsets will be provided. Analysis of thermal patterns on thin witness plates will provide gyrotron mode purity and waveguide coupling efficiency data. Pre-prototype waveguide components and two dummy loads are available for initial operational testing of the gyrotron. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under Contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  1. Initial results in the development of a synthetic aperture microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, David M.; Kao, Michael; Tanner, Alan B.; Swift, Calvin T.; Griffis, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    A radiometer that measures the complex correlation of the voltage from pairs of antennas at many different baselines is being developed. Each baseline produces a sample point in the Fourier transform of the scene, and a map of the scene is obtained after all measurements have been made by inverting the transform. A substantial reduction in the antenna collecting area required compared to a conventional imaging radiometer can be obtained in this manner. An aircraft prototype being developed is a hybrid which uses real aperture antennas to obtain resolution along-track (stick antennas) and uses aperture synthesis to obtain resolution across-track. The prototype was flight-tested aboard the NASA P-3 in June 1988. During this flight a map was made of the Delmarva Peninsula south of NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. This initial map shows the major land/water features and compares very favorably with a Landsat image of the area, suggesting a bright outlook for the development of this technique in the future.

  2. Effect of Partition of Photo-Initiator Components and Addition of Iodonium Salt on the Photopolymerization of Phase-Separated Dental Adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedin, Farhana; Ye, Qiang; Song, Linyong; Ge, Xueping; Camarda, Kyle; Spencer, Paulette

    2016-04-01

    The polymerization kinetics of physically separated hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-rich phases of a model dental adhesive have been investigated. The two phases were prepared from neat resin containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA) in the ratio of 45:55 (wt./wt.). Neat resins containing various combinations of popular photo-initiating compounds, e.g., camphoquinone (CQ), ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (EDMAB), 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate (DPIHP), were prepared. To obtain the two phases, 33 wt.% of deuterium oxide (D2O) was added to the neat resins. This amount of D2O exceeded the miscibility limit for the resins. The concentration of each component of the photo-initiating system in the two phases was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). When combined with CQ, DMAEMA is less efficient as a co-initiator compared to EDMAB. The addition of DPIHP as the third component into either CQ/EDMAB or CQ/DMAEMA photo-initiating systems led to comparable performance in both the hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-rich phases. The addition of the iodonium salt significantly improved the photopolymerization of the hydrophilic-rich phase; the latter exhibited extremely poor polymerization when the iodonium salt was not included in the formulation. The partition concentration of EDMAB in the hydrophilic-rich phase was significantly lower than that of DMAEMA or DPIHP. This study indicates the need for a combination of hydrophobic/hydrophilic photosensitizer and addition of iodonium salt to improve polymerization within the hydrophilic-rich phase of the dental adhesive.

  3. The green bank northern celestial cap pulsar survey. I. Survey description, data analysis, and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, K.; Dartez, L. P.; Ford, A. J.; Garcia, A.; Hinojosa, J.; Jenet, F. A.; Leake, S.; Lynch, R. S.; Archibald, A. M.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Ransom, S. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Day, D.; Flanigan, J.; Kaplan, D. L.; Boyles, J.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kondratiev, V. I.; and others

    2014-08-10

    We describe an ongoing search for pulsars and dispersed pulses of radio emission, such as those from rotating radio transients (RRATs) and fast radio bursts, at 350 MHz using the Green Bank Telescope. With the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument, we record 100 MHz of bandwidth divided into 4096 channels every 81.92 μs. This survey will cover the entire sky visible to the Green Bank Telescope (δ > –40°, or 82% of the sky) and outside of the Galactic Plane will be sensitive enough to detect slow pulsars and low dispersion measure (<30 pc cm{sup –3}) millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with a 0.08 duty cycle down to 1.1 mJy. For pulsars with a spectral index of –1.6, we will be 2.5 times more sensitive than previous and ongoing surveys over much of our survey region. Here we describe the survey, the data analysis pipeline, initial discovery parameters for 62 pulsars, and timing solutions for 5 new pulsars. PSR J0214+5222 is an MSP in a long-period (512 days) orbit and has an optical counterpart identified in archival data. PSR J0636+5129 is an MSP in a very short-period (96 minutes) orbit with a very low mass companion (8 M{sub J}). PSR J0645+5158 is an isolated MSP with a timing residual RMS of 500 ns and has been added to pulsar timing array experiments. PSR J1434+7257 is an isolated, intermediate-period pulsar that has been partially recycled. PSR J1816+4510 is an eclipsing MSP in a short-period orbit (8.7 hr) and may have recently completed its spin-up phase.

  4. 42 CFR 476.94 - Notice of QIO initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.94 Section 476.94 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... changes as a result of a DRG validation. (a) Notice of initial denial determination—(1) Parties to be... retrospective review, (excluding DRG validation and post procedure review), within 3 working days of the...

  5. 77 FR 64953 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana...), citing Brass Sheet and Strip from Canada; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 57...

  6. 75 FR 37757 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ..., but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy... its predecessor. See Brass Sheet and Strip from Canada; Notice of Final Results of Antidumping...

  7. Initial Results in Developing Free Flight Testing Techniques for Artillery Shells.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    and the results of the data analysis are reported here. Roll damping, axial force and normal force derivatives were determined for subsonic speeds up...using parameter estimation algorithms and the results of the data analysis are reported here. Roll damping, axial force and normal force derivatives...anomalous or "rogue" behaviour. In analysing the trajectory data the variation of both axial force coefficient and normal force coefficient derivative with

  8. Characterization and initial results from the upgraded MST interferometer-polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W. X.; Parke, E.; Brower, D. L.; Duff, J.

    2016-10-01

    The FIR interferometer-polarimeter diagnostic on MST is a high-bandwidth system with unique capabilities for measuring high-frequency density and internal magnetic fluctuations. Installation of new planar-diode mixers improves both the signal strength and the noise floor compared to the corner-cube mixers previously used. Measurements of density and Faraday rotation angle in standard reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas and plasmas with improved, tokamak-like confinement are presented. The noise floor in the Faraday rotation power spectrum is reduced by nearly an order of magnitude, with fluctuations observed up to 250 kHz. Cross-correlation between multiple mixers is an additional, novel technique for reducing the noise floor and improving the resolution of high-frequency, small-amplitude magnetic and density fluctuations. Correlation of signals from two independent mixers viewing the same chord reduces the noise floor by another order of magnitude. High wavenumber resolution may be possible when operating without focusing elements, using only the 2-3 mm aperture on the mixer to determine the sampled chord width. This configuration will provide better resolution of small-scale fluctuations observed in the RFP during periods of improved confinement. Work supported by U.S. D.O.E.

  9. Model-based reasoning in the physics laboratory: Framework and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hu, Dehui; Finkelstein, Noah; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] We review and extend existing frameworks on modeling to develop a new framework that describes model-based reasoning in introductory and upper-division physics laboratories. Constructing and using models are core scientific practices that have gained significant attention within K-12 and higher education. Although modeling is a broadly applicable process, within physics education, it has been preferentially applied to the iterative development of broadly applicable principles (e.g., Newton's laws of motion in introductory mechanics). A significant feature of the new framework is that measurement tools (in addition to the physical system being studied) are subjected to the process of modeling. Think-aloud interviews were used to refine the framework and demonstrate its utility by documenting examples of model-based reasoning in the laboratory. When applied to the think-aloud interviews, the framework captures and differentiates students' model-based reasoning and helps identify areas of future research. The interviews showed how students productively applied similar facets of modeling to the physical system and measurement tools: construction, prediction, interpretation of data, identification of model limitations, and revision. Finally, we document students' challenges in explicitly articulating assumptions when constructing models of experimental systems and further challenges in model construction due to students' insufficient prior conceptual understanding. A modeling perspective reframes many of the seemingly arbitrary technical details of measurement tools and apparatus as an opportunity for authentic and engaging scientific sense making.

  10. Developing Methodologies for Applying TRMM-Estimated Precipitation Data to Hydrological Modeling of a South TX Watershed - Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, K. J.; Bennett, M. E.

    2007-05-01

    Previous experience with hydrological modeling in South Texas, which is located along the Texas-Mexico border, suggests that NWS ground measurements are too widely scattered to provide reliable precipitation input for modeling. In addition, a significant fraction of the study region is located at the edge of the coverage envelopes of the NWS NEXRAD weather radars present in the region limiting the accuracy of these systems to provide reliable precipitation estimates. Therefore, we are exploring whether TRMM estimated-precipitation data (3B42), in some form, can be used to support hydrological modeling in the Middle Rio Grande and Nueces River Basin watersheds. We have begun our modeling efforts by focusing on the middle Nueces watershed (7770 sq km). To model this largely rural watershed we selected the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Three precipitation datasets were selected for our initial model runs that include: (1) nearest NWS cooperative hourly rain gauge data, (2) three hourly TRMM 3B42 estimated precipitation, and (3) combination TRMM 3B42/NWS rain gauge datasets in which ground measurements are used for three hourly periods lacking high quality satellite microwave precipitation estimates as determined from TRMM 3G68 data. Three dataset were aggregated into an average daily estimate of precipitation for each TRMM grid cell. Manual calibration of was completed achieving model results that yield realistic monthly and annual water balances with both gauge and satellite estimate precipitation datasets. In the future, we plan to use the newly developed automatic calibration routine for SWAT, which is based on the Shuffled Complex Evolution algorithm, to optimize modeled discharge results from this study.

  11. Initial results of imaging melanoma metastasis in resected human lymph nodes using photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Jithin; Grootendorst, Diederik J.; Vijn, Thomas W.; Wouters, Michel W.; van Boven, Hester; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Ruers, Theo J. M.; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-09-01

    The pathological status of the sentinel lymph node is important for accurate melanoma staging, ascertaining prognosis and planning treatment. The standard procedure involves biopsy of the node and histopathological assessment of its status. Drawbacks of this examination include a finite sampling of the node with the likelihood of missing metastases, and a significant time-lag before histopathological results are available to the surgeon. We studied the applicability of photoacoustic computed tomographic imaging as an intraoperative modality for examining the status of resected human sentinel lymph nodes. We first applied the technique to image ex vivo pig lymph nodes carrying metastases-simulating melanoma cells using multiple wavelengths. The experience gained was applied to image a suspect human lymph node. We validated the photoacoustic imaging results by comparing a reconstructed slice with a histopathological section through the node. Our results suggest that photoacoustics has the potential to develop into an intraoperative imaging method to detect melanoma metastases in sentinel lymph nodes.

  12. Photometry from Voyager 2 - Initial results from the Uranian atmosphere, satellites, and rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, A. L.; West, R. A.; Nelson, R. M.; Wallis, B. D.; Buratti, B. J.; Horn, L. J.; Hord, C. W.; Esposito, L. W.; Simmons, K. E.; Graps, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of Voyager 2 photopolarimetry (PPS) surveys of Uranus, the ring system, occultation experiments and observations of the Uranian moons are reported. Dual-channel photometry and polarimetry data obtained of the atmosphere at various emission and phase angles are delineated and compared with characteristics of the Saturn and Jupiter atmospheres. The results of temperature, UV absorption and density profile calculations are also discussed. Extensive ring dimensional data, based on two occultation experiments, are provided in tabular form noting that the rings contain no dust. Finally, the geometric albedos of the five major moons and the phase curve of the moon Titania are presented. The latter data indicate that Titanian surface features are not the result of recent events such as volcanism or ice slurry outflows.

  13. Initial Results From a Non-Hydrostatic Jupiter Ionosphere-Thermosphere Global Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, J. M.; Bougher, S. W.; Waite, J. H.; Ridley, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first results from a newly developed 3-D global model for the Jovian Ionosphere-thermosphere system, which is called the Jupiter Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (J-GITM). We compare simulated fields with the results from previous 3-D Jupiter upper atmospheric modeling. We also explore the adaptation of this model to Saturn, emphasizing the global thermal structure calculations. In particular, we examine the role of high-latitude magnetospheric inputs (e.g., joule heating and energetic particle precipitation) on the global energy budget of the giant planets.

  14. Initial results from a reconnaissance of cyanobacteria and associated toxins in Illinois, August--October 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terrio, Paul J.; Ostrodka, Lenna M.; Loftin, Keith A.; Good, Gregg; Holland, Teri

    2013-01-01

    Ten lakes and two rivers in Illinois were sampled in August–October 2012 to determine the concentrations and spatial distribution of cyanobacteria and associated cyanotoxins throughout the State. The reconnaissance was a collaborative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Sample results indicated that concentrations of both total cyanobacterial cells and microcystin were commonly at levels likely to result in adverse human health effects, according to World Health Organization guidance values. Concentrations generally decreased from August to October following precipitation events and lower temperatures.

  15. Initial Results from the Third Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Geoffrey Wayne; Leonard, Philip; Hartline, Ernest Leon; Tian, Hongzhao

    2016-04-20

    High explosives science and technology (M-7) is currently working on the third round of formulation and testing of Remediated nitrate salt (RNS) surrogates. This report summarizes the calorimetry results from the 15% sWheat mixtures. All formulation and testing was carried out according to PLAN-TA9-2443 Rev B, "Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) surrogate formulation and testing standard procedure", released February 16, 2016. Results from the first and second rounds of formulation and testing were documented in memoranda M7-16-6042 and M7-16-6053.

  16. Installation and Initial Results of Borehole Strainmeters around the Marmara Sea in Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, David; Bohnhoff, Marco; Ozener, Haluk; Mattioli, Glen; Bilham, Roger; Johnson, Wade; Gottlieb, Mike; Van Boskirk, Elizabeth; Aracel, Digdem; Bulut, Fatih; Bal, Osman

    2016-04-01

    Twice in the past 1000 years a sequence of damaging earthquakes has propagated during the course of a few decades along the North Anatolian fault (NAF) in Turkey towards Istanbul, with the final earthquake in the sequence catastrophically destroying the city. This occurred most recently in 1509 when the population was only about 200,000 yet ten thousand people died. The population of greater Istanbul is now 20 million, building stock more fragile, and the last earthquake of the current westward propagating sequence is considered geologically imminent. An opportunity to enhance the detection capability of a suite of deep seismometers installed near Istanbul has arisen, that will permit us to observe, characterize, and possibly predict the moment of imminent failure along the NAF, as well as monitor the tectonic processes leading to this failure. As an augmentation of the Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault (GONAF), UNAVCO installed two continuous creepmeters and six borehole strainmeters between July 2014 and October 2015 into boreholes provided by the several international sponsors, including NSF, GFZ, AFAD and Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory. The entire geophysical sensor network is collectively referred to as GeoGONAF. The borehole strainmeters enhance the ability of the scientific instrumentation to monitor ultra-slow process near the probable source zone of the Mw>7 earthquake that is soon expected beneath the Marmara Sea. The strainmeters and creepmeters allow us to make geodetic observations of this segment of the fault before, during and after a large earthquake, which combined with the seismic data from GONAF will provide valuable data for understanding earthquake processes. Installed instruments have already recorded both local and teleseismic events and observed creep events on the on-shore segments of the NAF to the East of the Marmara. In addition we have seen typical hydrological loading signals associated with normal modes of

  17. Initial results from seismic monitoring at the Aquistore CO2 storage site, Saskatchewan, Canada

    DOE PAGES

    White, D. J.; Roach, L. A.N.; Roberts, B.; ...

    2014-12-31

    from 2012 shows excellent repeatability (NRMS less than 10%) which will provide enhanced monitoring sensitivity to smaller amounts of CO2. The permanent array also provides continuous passive monitoring for injection-related microseismicity. Passive monitoring has been ongoing since the summer of 2012 in order to establish levels of background seismicity before CO2 injection starts in 2014. Microseismic monitoring was augmented in 2013 by the installation of 3 broadband seismograph stations surrounding the Aquistore site. These surface installations should provide a detection capability of seismic events with magnitudes as low as ~0. Downhole seismic methods are also being utilized for CO2 monitoring at the Aquistore site. Baseline crosswell tomographic images depict details (meters-scale) of the reservoir in the 150-m interval between the observation and injection wells. This level of resolution is designed to track the CO2 migration between the wells during the initial injection period. A baseline 3D vertical seismic profile (VSP) was acquired in the fall of 2013 to provide seismic images with resolution on a scale between that provided by the surface seismic array and the downhole tomography. The 3D VSP was recorded simultaneously using both a conventional array of downhole geophones (60-levels) and an optical fibre system. The latter utilized an optical fiber cable deployed on the outside of the monitor well casing and cemented in place. A direct comparison of these two methodologies will determine the suitability of using the fiber cable for ongoing time-lapse VSP monitoring.« less

  18. Bouguer Gravity Anomalies Associated with Lunar Craters: Initial Results from the GRAIL Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Konopliv, A. S.; Park, R. S.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Melosh, H. J.; Thomason, C. J.; Egan, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    During its primary mapping phase, the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has mapped the gravity field of the Moon to unprecedented resolution, providing a spherical harmonic model of degree and order 420 and quantitatively useful results to a spatial resolution of at least 20 km. Anomalies associated with impact craters, from large mascon basins down to crater diameters less than 30 km, are the dominant features of a GRAIL degree (l) 420 free-air gravity map of the Moon. Here we focus on the Bouguer gravity anomalies associated with intermediate-sized craters, in the diameter range of ~30-230 km. Results from Apollo-era gravity and topography data analyses suggested that the behavior of crater Bouguer anomalies is age-dependent, but the crater database used then was extremely sparse (12 craters). With the GRAIL gravity field we have a vastly larger set of craters to work with and to date have examined ~200 craters. We calculate a finite-amplitude Bouguer correction with a semi-analytical spatial Green's function sampling a spherical harmonic representation of the lunar shape matched to the gravity bandwidth used (l = 2-300). The resulting crater Bouguer anomalies, averaged over the inner part of each crater, fall in a range of approximately -40 to +40 mGal. We compare Bouguer anomalies against lunar age, crater diameter, regional elevation, geographical locale, and geological setting. Results are interpreted in terms of processes that have operated in the lunar crust and upper mantle.

  19. 75 FR 61702 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... states that the company's management, production facilities and customer/supplier relationships have not...; (2) production facilities; (3) supplier relationships; and (4) customer base. See, e.g., Notice of... production facilities, supplier relationships, and customers have not changed as a result of the name...

  20. Initial Comparison of Single Cylinder Stirling Engine Computer Model Predictions with Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, R. C., Jr.; Thieme, L. G.; Miao, D.

    1979-01-01

    A Stirling engine digital computer model developed at NASA Lewis Research Center was configured to predict the performance of the GPU-3 single-cylinder rhombic drive engine. Revisions to the basic equations and assumptions are discussed. Model predictions with the early results of the Lewis Research Center GPU-3 tests are compared.

  1. Systematic Screening Children at Risk for Developing SED: Initial Results from a Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, James D.; Montague, Marjorie; Hocutt, Anne M.

    This paper reports on the first year's results of a screening procedure used to identify kindergarten and first grade children at risk of developing serious emotional disturbance. The Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) is a three-stage, multiple-gated procedure for mass screening to determine whether a child should be referred for…

  2. Model-based glycaemic control: methodology and initial results from neonatal intensive care.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Jennifer L; Chase, J Geoffrey; Lynn, Adrienne; Shaw, Geoffrey M

    2017-04-01

    Very/extremely premature infants often experience glycaemic dysregulation, resulting in abnormally elevated (hyperglycaemia) or low (hypoglycaemia) blood glucose (BG) concentrations, due to prematurity, stress, and illness. STAR-GRYPHON is a computerised protocol that utilises a model-based insulin sensitivity parameter to directly tailor therapy for individual patients and their changing conditions, unlike other common insulin protocols in this cohort. From January 2013 to January 2015, 13 patients totalling 16 hyperglycaemic control episodes received insulin under STAR-GRYPHON. A significant improvement in control was achieved in comparison to a retrospective cohort, with a 26% absolute improvement in BG within the targeted range and no hypoglycaemia. This improvement was obtained predominantly due to the reduction of hyperglycaemia (%BG>10.0 mmol/l: 5.6 vs. 17.7%, p<0.001), and lowering of the median per-patient BG [6.9 (6.1-7.9) vs. 7.8 (6.6-9.1) mmol/l, p<0.001, Mann-Witney U test]. While cohort-wide control results show good control overall, there is high intra-patient variability in BG behaviour, resulting in overly conservative treatments for some patients. Patient insulin sensitivity differs between and within patients over time, with some patients having stable insulin sensitivity, while others change rapidly. These results demonstrate the trade-off between safety and performance in a highly variable and fragile cohort.

  3. Analysis of Disposition Measures of Consistency with INTASC Principles: Results of an Initial Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, William Steve

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the analysis of the results from a pilot effort to create and use a battery of instruments based on INTASC principles indicators of teacher dispositions. The original conception of the battery was designed on the taxonomy of increasing levels of inference. This means that the intent to measure included multiple instruments in…

  4. Electron Beam Return-Current Losses in Solar Flares: Initial Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Accelerated electrons play an important role in the energetics of solar flares. Understanding the process or processes that accelerate these electrons to high, nonthermal energies also depends on understanding the evolution of these electrons between the acceleration region and the region where they are observed through their hard X-ray or radio emission. Energy losses in the co-spatial electric field that drives the current-neutralizing return current can flatten the electron distribution toward low energies. This in turn flattens the corresponding bremsstrahlung hard X-ray spectrum toward low energies. The lost electron beam energy also enhances heating in the coronal part of the flare loop. Extending earlier work by Knight & Sturrock (1977), Emslie (1980), Diakonov & Somov (1988), and Litvinenko & Somov (1991), I have derived analytical and semi-analytical results for the nonthermal electron distribution function and the self-consistent electric field strength in the presence of a steady-state return-current. I review these results, presented previously at the 2009 SPD Meeting in Boulder, CO, and compare them and computed X-ray spectra with numerical results obtained by Zharkova & Gordovskii (2005, 2006). The phYSical significance of similarities and differences in the results will be emphasized. This work is supported by NASA's Heliophysics Guest Investigator Program and the RHESSI Project.

  5. Initial Results in Power System Identification from Injected Probing Signals Using a Subspace Method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ning; Pierre, John W.; Hauer, John F.

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, the authors use the Numerical algorithm for Subspace State Space System IDentification (N4SID) to extract dynamic parameters from phasor measurements collected on the western North American Power Grid. The data were obtained during tests on June 7, 2000, and they represent wide area response to several kinds of probing signals including Low-Level Pseudo-Random Noise (LLPRN) and Single-Mode Square Wave (SMSW) injected at the Celilo terminal of the Pacific HVDC In-tertie (PDCI). An identified model is validated using a cross vali-dation method. Also, the obtained electromechanical modes are compared with the results from Prony analysis of a ringdown and with signal analysis of ambient data measured under similar op-erating conditions. The consistent results show that methods in this class can be highly effective even when the probing signal is small.

  6. Initial Results on an Approach for Creating Tunable UV Radiation for Spectroscopy at 243nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademian, Ali; Shiner, David

    2004-05-01

    Convenient tunable coherent UV radiation could be used in number of atomic physics applications. Our particular interest is in a 243nm laser that can be used to precisely measure the 1S to 2S interval in atomic tritium. An approach is being investigated which might ultimately be less cumbersome and expensive than current methods. A multi longitudinal mode "980nm" pump module is converted to a single longitudinal mode laser using costume fiber Bragg grating. Results for the short term frequency stability will be given. A first doubling stage using PPMgO:LN waveguide has been investigated and experimental results will be discussed. A second stage of doubling, using CLBO, which we calculated to have a better conversion efficiency than well known BBO crystal, is planned. Theoretical calculation for this stage and comparison with BBO will be presented.

  7. Gibraltar Experiment: Summary of the Field Program and Initial Results of the Gibraltar Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    increasing knowledge of straiteffects on the adjacent ocean. Preliminary results show progress toward each of these four goals. 17. Document Analysis s ...derstanding the dynamical balances of the strait flow., developing strategies for long-term monitoring of the Strait, and increasing knowledge of strait...surrounding ocean and of the distinct nature of strait dynamics that is thus implied. An estimate based on data from the 1960’ s by Armi and Farmer (1985

  8. Initial results from the joint NASA-Lewis/U.S. Army icing flight research tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belte, Daumants; Ranaudo, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Army/NASA joint testing of the various aspects of in-flight and ground-based icing simulation facilities and instrumentation is reviewed. The NASA DN-6 icing research aircraft, the U.S. Army JU-21A aircraft, the portable spray rig, helicopter icing spray system, and icing research tunnel are examined. Natural and artificial icing tests, turbulence measurements, and calibration and icing research tunnel tests are described and test results are reported.

  9. Seismic refraction profile, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: field operations, instrumentation, and initial results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blank, H. Richard; Healy, J.H.; Roller, John; Lamson, Ralph; Fisher, Fred; McClearn, Robert; Allen, Steve

    1979-01-01

    onto a single shot tape, and to provide hard copy for monitoring recorder performance so that any problems can be corrected prior to the next deployment. Composite digital record sections were produced from the dubbed tapes for each shot point by a portable processing and plotting system. The heart of this system is a DEC PDP 11VO3 computer, which controls a cassette playback unit identical to those used in the recorders and dubbers, a set of discriminators, a time-code translator, a digitizer, and a digital plotter. The system was used to maintain various informational data sets and to produce tabulations and listings of various sorts during the field operations, in addition to its main task of producing digital record sections. Two master clocks, both set to time signals broadcast by the British Broadcasting Corporation, provided absolute time for the recording operations. One was located on the ship and the other was stationed at a base camp on the mainland. The land-based master clock was used to set three additional master clocks located at the other active shot points a few days in advance of each firing, and these clocks were then used to set the internal clocks in the portable seismic stations via the hand-held tester. A master clock signal was also linked to the firing system at each shot point for determination of the absolute shot instant. It is possible to construct a generalized crustal model from examination of the six shot point composite record sections obtained in the field. Such a model rests upon a number of simplifying assumptions and will almost certainly be modified at a later stage of interpretation. The main assumptions are that the crust consists of two homogeneous isotropic layers having no velocity inversion,, that the Mohorovicic discontinuity is sharp, and that effects of surface inhomogeneities and elevation changes can be ignored. The main characteristics of the tentative model are the following: (1) The thickness of th

  10. Design of a low cost miniaturized SFCW GPR with initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggal, Swati; Sinha, Piyush; Gupta, Manish; Patel, Anand; Vedam, V. V.; Mevada, Pratik; Chavda, Rajesh; Shah, Amita; Putrevu, Deepak

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses about the design &developmental of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), various scientific and commercial applications of GPR along with the testing and results of GPR at Antarctica for Ice thickness measurement. GPR instruments are categorised as per their frequency of operation, which is inversely proportional to the depth of penetration. GPRs are also categorized as per method of operation which is time-domain or frequency-domain. Indian market is presently procuring GPRs from only foreign suppliers. Space Applications Centre (SAC) had taken up GPR as R&D Technological development with a view to benchmark the technology which may be transferred to local industry for mass production of instrument at a relatively cheaper cost (~20 times cheaper). Hence, this instrument presents a viable indigenous alternative. Also, the design and configuration was targeted for terrestrial as well as future interplanetary (Lander/Rover) missions of ISRO to map subsurface features. The developed GPR has a very large bandwidth (100%, i.e. bandwidth of 500MHz with centre-frequency of 500MHz) and high dynamic range along with the advantage of being highly portable (<10kg). The system was configured as a Stepped-Frequency-Continuous-Wave (SFCW) GPR which is a frequency domain GPR with the aim to increase the detection capabilities with respect to current systems. In order to achieve this goal, innovative electronic equipment have been designed and developed. Three prototypes were developed and two of them have been delivered for Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) in 2013 and 2014-15, respectively and promising results have been obtained. The results from the same closely compare with that from commercial GPR too.

  11. Ranking initial environmental and human health risk resulting from environmentally relevant nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Niall; Cummins, Enda

    2010-01-01

    As nanomaterials find increased application in commercial and industrial products and processes so too the potential for release of these novel materials into the environment increases. The characteristics of these materials also may result in novel toxicological actions related to their nanoscale, which will have implications on their ecotoxicological and toxicological limits of exposure and eventual regulation. A framework for nanomaterial risk assessment on regulatory, ecotoxicological and toxicological bases developed from recent exposure and toxicity studies is presented. The release of nanoscale TiO(2), Ag and CeO(2) to the atmosphere and surface waters is assessed against provisional toxicological bench mark doses (BMDs) and critical effect doses (CEDs) developed from best available data. Predicted levels of nanomaterial release to surface waters and the atmosphere resulted in regulatory risk rankings of moderate concern based on worst case provisional regulatory limits. Inhalation and ingestion risk rankings were of very low concern based on the provisional inhalation and ingestion toxicity BMDLs and CEDLs determined for the nanomaterials in question. More toxicological data is needed on nanoscale CeO(2) inhalation to develop a true dose response as in vitro cytotoxicity studies yielded an inhalation risk ranking of lower concern. The moderate to high ecotoxicological risk rankings posed by the release of nanoscale TiO(2) and Ag to surface waters highlights the need for guidance and restriction on the usage and disposal of commercial products containing nanomaterial. The risk rankings presented in this assessment give a first indication of the relative risks posed by the usage and release of these materials into the environment and indicate what materials require further investigation into their nano-specific toxicological actions. As more nano-relevant toxicity studies are published, end-points and risk levels related to nano-specific toxicity actions may

  12. Sea level measurements from inverse modelling of GNSS SNR data - initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strandberg, Joakim; Hobiger, Thomas; Haas, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    The idea that sea level measurements could be done passively using available GNSS signals was proposed already over two decades ago. Since then several methods of using GNSS signals for measuring sea level have been proposed, using various degrees of specialized equipment. We present a new method to retrieve sea level from GNSS SNR data that relies upon inverse modelling of the detrended SNR data from a single off-the-shelf geodetic GNSS receiver. This method can simultaneously use SNR data from both GPS and GLONASS, and both L1 and L2 frequencies, in order to improve the performance with respect to prior studies. Results from the GNSS-R installation at the Onsala Space Observatory are presented and the retrieved sea level results are compared with data collected by a co-located pressure mareograph. The new method is found to give an RMS error of 1.8 cm. The results are also compared against previous implementations of GNSS tide gauges and found to have lower RMS than both the earlier SNR algorithm and also the dual receiver, phase delay method. This shows that inverse modelling for sea level retrieval has a potential to increase the precision of GNSS-R tide gauges, without the need for specialized equipment. Furthermore, since the method is based on SNR analysis, it can continue to operate during high winds and large sea roughness, in which the dual-receiver phase delay algorithm fails since the receiver connected to the nadir looking antenna does not succeed to lock on the satellites signals. This leads to a more stable and reliable operation. The ability to simultaneously use SNR data from different GNSS systems is also seen as a factor to increase the performance, further reducing the RMS. Therefore, in the future it is of interest to add further GNSS systems, such as Galileo and BeiDou.

  13. Initial Results of Instrument-Flying Trials Conducted In A Single-Rotor Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crim, Almer D; Reeder, John P; Whitten, James B

    1953-01-01

    Instrument-flying trials have been conducted in a single-rotor helicopter, the maneuver stability of which could be changed from satisfactory to unsatisfactory. The results indicated that existing longitudinal flying-qualities requirements based on contact flight were adequate for instrument flight at speeds above that for minimum power. However, lateral-directional problems were encountered at low speeds and during precision maneuvers. The adequacy, for helicopter use, of standard airplane instruments was also investigated, and the conclusion was reached that special instruments would be desirable under all conditions, and necessary for sustained low-speed instrument flight.

  14. A new kinetic model for time-dependent polar plasma outflow - Initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. R.; Ho, C. W.; Horwitz, J. L.; Singh, N.; Moore, T. E.

    1990-01-01

    A new time-dependent kinetic plasma outflow model has been developed, which uses a kinetic description of the parallel motions of the ion guiding centers, while assuming the electrons are a massless neutralizing fluid. The ions, O(+) and H(+) are followed as individual particles which respond to the gravitational, magnetic mirror and ambipolar electric forces as they move in one dimension along a magnetic flux tube. Results are presented for a case where the electron temperature in the flux tube is raised from a value near the ion temperature (3000 K) to a value of 10,000 K.

  15. The Floating Potential Probe (FPP) for ISS: Operations and Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Hillard, G. Barry; Morton, Thomas L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we report early results from the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) recently installed on the International Space Station (ISS). The data show that FPP properly measures the electrical potential of ISS structure with respect to the plasma it is flying through. FPP Langmuir probe data seem to give accurate measurements of the ambient plasma density, and are generally consistent with the IRI-90 model. FPP data are used to judge the performance of the ISS Plasma Contacting Units (PCUs), and to evaluate the extent of ISS charging in the absence of the PCUs.

  16. Advanced Test Reactor In-Canal Ultrasonic Scanner: Experiment Design and Initial Results on Irradiated Plates

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Wachs; J. M. Wight; D. T. Clark; J. M. Williams; S. C. Taylor; D. J. Utterbeck; G. L. Hawkes; G. S. Chang; R. G. Ambrosek; N. C. Craft

    2008-09-01

    An irradiation test device has been developed to support testing of prototypic scale plate type fuels in the Advanced Test Reactor. The experiment hardware and operating conditions were optimized to provide the irradiation conditions necessary to conduct performance and qualification tests on research reactor type fuels for the RERTR program. The device was designed to allow disassembly and reassembly in the ATR spent fuel canal so that interim inspections could be performed on the fuel plates. An ultrasonic scanner was developed to perform dimensional and transmission inspections during these interim investigations. Example results from the AFIP-2 experiment are presented.

  17. [The TCu380 IUD: initial international experimental results with the latest "T" family IUD].

    PubMed

    Elia, D; Belaisch, J

    1985-09-01

    The Gyne T 380 IUD is similar to the Gyne-T 200 available in France since 1979 except that it contains a ball on the extremity of the vertical arm designed to prevent cervical perforation and it has a higher copper content. A multicenter study found cumulative annual event rates/100 women for the Gyne T 200 and the Gyne T 380 respectively of 4.9 and .7 for pregnancy, 10.1 and 6.8 for expulsion, 13.7 and 21.5 for removal because of pain or bleeding, 4.9 and 4.3 for removal because of other medical reason, and 5.9 and 10.4 removal to achieve pregnancy. The continuation rates were 54.9 and 50.1, while number of months of utilization were 82,800 for the Gyne T 200 and 17,652 for the Gyne T 380. An American study of 3536 insertions of the Gyne T 380 showed rates after 1, 2, and 3 years of use respectively of .7, .8, and 1.1 for pregnancy, 5.5, 7.5, and 8.5, for expulsion, 13.1, 21.8, and 26.7 for removal because of pain or bleeding, 3.0, 4.6, and 5.4 for removal for other medical reasons, and 73.0, 53.7, and 41.1 for continuation. 68.2% of participants in the American study were under 25 and 63.7% were nulliparas. Additional data after 4 years of use of the Gyne T 380 showed a cumulative net pregnancy rate of 1.9. The risk of extrauterine pregnancy was estimated at .38/1000 women after 3 years. The frequency of expulsions appeared to be negatively connected with age and parity. Rates of removal for pain or bleeding appeared to be negatively correlated with age. In the comparative study, rates of removal for pain or bleeding were higher in nulliparas. Most medical reasons for removal other than pain or bleeding referred to pelvic inflammations, salpingitis, endometritis, or vaginitis, and their frequency declined after the 1st 6 months of use. Continuation rates were identical for the Gyne T 380 and for the other T devices in the American study. Among 293 women requesting removal of the device for pregnancy, 78.4% became pregnant within the next 12 months. 1767 women in

  18. One stage hip arthroscopy and periacetabular osteotomy: surgical technique and initial results

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Gerardo; Comba, Fernando; Genovesi, Eduardo; Buttaro, Martin; Piccaluga, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Aim: We purposed to describe the surgical technique and preliminary outcomes of combined arthroscopic and periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for the treatment of non-arthritic hip dysplasia. Methods: Between May and August 2015, 4 patients (3 female, 1 male) with an average age of 29 years old (range; 22-33) had undergone one-stage hip arthroscopy and periacetabular osteotomy. Primary symptom was pain associated with instability. Upon radiographic examination, mean lateral center-edge angle of Wiberg was 12° (range; 7°-18°). Intra-articular findings were computed and primary outomes were as follows: radiographic angular correction; time to healing after pelvis osteotomy and functional results according to Merle D’Aubigné Score. Results: Minimum follow-up was 6 months whereas maximum was 9 months. Mean surgical time was 98 minutes for hip arthroscopy and 132 minutes for the osteotomy. In all cases, a lesion of the antero-superior labrum and the chondro-labral junction was found and repaired. After correction, overall postoperative center-edge angle was 29° (range; 25°-35°). Bone healing was certified in all cases at 6 months postoperatively. Overall Merle D’Aubigné Score was 17/18 points. Conclusion: Combined treatment of non-arthritic hip dysplasia with hip arthroscopy and PAO obtained good clinical and radiological outcomes. Former arthroscopy enables the diagnosis of cartilage lesions and intra-articular pathology as well as it aids in proceeding or not to an open correction.

  19. Initial SAM calibration gas experiments on Mars: Quadrupole mass spectrometer results and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Heather B.; Trainer, Melissa G.; Malespin, Charles A.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Becker, Richard H.; Benna, Mehdi; Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Freissinet, Caroline; Manning, Heidi L. K.; Prats, Benito D.; Raaen, Eric; Wong, Michael H.

    2017-04-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover is equipped to analyze both martian atmospheric gases and volatiles released by pyrolysis of solid surface materials, with target measurements including chemical and isotopic composition (Mahaffy et al., 2012). To facilitate assessment of instrument performance and validation of results obtained on Mars, SAM houses a calibration cell containing CO2, Ar, N2, Xe, and several fluorinated hydrocarbon compounds (Franz et al., 2014; Mahaffy et al., 2012). This report describes the first two experiments utilizing this calibration cell on Mars and gives results from analysis of data acquired with the SAM Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS). These data support the accuracy of isotope ratios obtained with the QMS (Conrad et al., 2016; Mahaffy et al., 2013) and provide ground-truth for reassessment of analytical constants required for atmospheric measurements, which were reported in previous contributions (Franz et al., 2015, 2014). The most significant implication of the QMS data involves reinterpretation of pre-launch contamination previously believed to affect only CO abundance measurements (Franz et al., 2015) to affect N2 abundances, as well. The corresponding adjustment to the N2 calibration constant presented here brings the atmospheric volume mixing ratios for Ar and N2 retrieved by SAM into closer agreement with those reported by the Viking mission (Owen et al., 1977; Oyama and Berdahl, 1977).

  20. Rectangular computed tomography using a stationary array of CNT emitters: initial experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, Brian; Spronk, Derrek; Cheng, Yuan; Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Xiaochuan; Beckmann, Moritz; Zhou, Otto; Lu, Jianping

    2013-03-01

    XinRay Systems Inc has a rectangular x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging setup using multibeam x-ray tubes. These multibeam x-ray tubes are based on cold cathodes using carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitters. Due to their unique design, a CNT x-ray tube can contain a dense array of independently controlled electron emitters which generate a linear array of x-ray focal spots. XinRay uses a set of linear CNT x-ray tubes to design and construct a stationary CT setup which achieves sufficient CT coverage from a fixed set of views. The CT system has no moving gantry, enabling it to be enclosed in a compact rectangular tunnel. The fixed locations of the x-ray focal spots were optimized through simulations. The rectangular shape creates significant variation in path length from the focal spots to the detector for different x-ray views. The shape also results in unequal x-ray coverage in the imaged space. We discuss the impact of this variation on the reconstruction. XinRay uses an iterative reconstruction algorithm to account for this unique geometry, which is implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU). The fixed focal spots prohibit the use of an antiscatter grid. Quantitative measure of the scatter and its impact on the reconstruction will be discussed. These results represent the first known implementation of a completely stationary CT setup using CNT x-ray emitter arrays.

  1. Modeling Asteroid Impacts into a Volatile-Rich Martian Surface: Hydrocode Validation and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesko, C. S.; Wohletz, K. H.; Coker, R. F.; Asphaug, E.; Gittings, M. L.

    2006-09-01

    Impact devolatilization has been proposed by Segura et al. (2002) as a possible mechanism for triggering sporadic but intense precipitation on Mars. We seek to examine this hypothesis, specifically to determine the lower bound on possible energy/size scales, and thus an upper bound on the frequency of such events. To do this, we employ various analytical and numerical modeling techniques. The most sophisticated tool in our box is the RAGE hydrocode. RAGE (Baltrusaitis et al. 1996) is an Eulerian Hydrocode that runs in up to three dimensions and incorporates a variety of detailed equations of state including the temperature-based SESAME tables maintained by LANL. Correct forward modeling requires prior comparison of hydrocode results against analytical models (verification) and laboratory experiments (validation). To that end we compare RAGE against the results of various laboratory experiments (Kato et al. 2001, Nakazawa et al. 2002, Koschny et al. 2001), and analytical crater scaling models (Housen et al. 1983, Holsapple and Schmidt 1982, Holsapple 1993, and Melosh 1989). From there, we begin to examine the potential effects of impacts on water ice in the Martian subsurface. We will begin by examining the evolution of the temperature profile of an impact into a geologically simple, ice-free target, and explore the effects of an increase in ice content and ice layer morphology from there. This effort is supported by LANL/IGPP (CSP, RFC, KHW, MLG) and by NASA PG&G "Small Bodies and Planetary Collisions" (EA).

  2. Self-Consistent Model of Magnetospheric Electric Field, Ring Current, Plasmasphere, and Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fok, M.-C.; Ridley, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Further development of our self-consistent model of interacting ring current (RC) ions and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is presented. This model incorporates large scale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and treats self-consistently not only EMIC waves and RC ions, but also the magnetospheric electric field, RC, and plasmasphere. Initial simulations indicate that the region beyond geostationary orbit should be included in the simulation of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Additionally, a self-consistent description, based on first principles, of the ionospheric conductance is required. These initial simulations further show that in order to model the EMIC wave distribution and wave spectral properties accurately, the plasmasphere should also be simulated self-consistently, since its fine structure requires as much care as that of the RC. Finally, an effect of the finite time needed to reestablish a new potential pattern throughout the ionosphere and to communicate between the ionosphere and the equatorial magnetosphere cannot be ignored.

  3. Initial results of VLF Campaign observation with High-resolution Aurora Imaging Network (VLF-Chain) over Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiokawa, Kazuo

    2012-07-01

    Whistler-mode waves in the VLF/ELF frequency range interact with high-energy (~10 keV) electrons to cause diffuse and pulsating auroras, and with MeV electrons in the radiation belts. However, simultaneous high-time resolution measurements of aurora and these waves have previously not been done sufficiently. We made a campaign observation of such high-time resolution measurements at Athabasca (54.72N, 246.69E, MLAT=61.3) and Fort Vermillion (58.38N, 243.99E, MLAT=64.5) using two loop antennas and several auroral cameras for February 16-26, 2012. The loop antennas at both stations measure east-west and north-south magnetic field variations with a sampling rate of 100 kHz. The panchromatic all-sky cameras at both stations measure auroras with a sampling rate of 30 Hz. The sampling timings of both instruments are corrected by GPS receivers. In addition we installed an oblique looking narrow-FoV EMCCD camera at Athabasca with a sampling rate of 100 Hz, to measure height variation of pulsating aurora. At Athabasca, routine measurements by an induction magnetometer, a proton photometer, an all-sky airglow imager, LF standard wave receiver, were also carried out. We also tried to compare these observations with satellite measurements by REIMEI, THEMIS, NOAA, and DMSP. In this presentation we will show initial results obtained from this comprehensive campaign of aurora and radio wave measurements at subauroral latitudes.

  4. Relation of statin use with non-melanoma skin cancer: prospective results from the Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ange; Stefanick, Marcia L; Kapphahn, Kristopher; Hedlin, Haley; Desai, Manisha; Manson, Jo Ann E; Strickler, Howard; Martin, Lisa; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Simon, Michael; Tang, Jean Y

    2016-01-01

    Background: The relationship between statin use and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is unclear with conflicting findings in literature. Data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study and WHI Clinical Trial were used to investigate the prospective relationship between statin use and NMSC in non-Hispanic white (NHW) postmenopausal women. Methods: The WHI study enrolled women aged 50–79 years at 40 US centres. Among 133 541 NHW participants, 118 357 with no cancer history at baseline and complete medication/covariate data comprised the analytic cohort. The association of statin use (baseline, overall as a time-varying variable, duration, type, potency, lipophilicity) and NMSC incidence was determined using random-effects logistic regression models. Results: Over a mean of 10.5 years of follow-up, we identified 11 555 NMSC cases. Compared with participants with no statin use, use of any statin at baseline was associated with significantly increased NMSC incidence (adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07–1.35)). In particular, lovastatin (OR 1.52; 95% CI: 1.08–2.16), simvastatin (OR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.12–1.69), and lipophilic statins (OR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.18–1.64) were associated with higher NMSC risk. Low and high, but not medium, potency statins were associated with higher NMSC risk. No significant effect modification of the statin–NMSC relationship was found for age, BMI, smoking, solar irradiation, vitamin D use, and skin cancer history. Conclusions: Use of statins, particularly lipophilic statins, was associated with increased NMSC risk in postmenopausal white women in the WHI cohort. The lack of duration–effect relationship points to possible residual confounding. Additional prospective research should further investigate this relationship. PMID:26742009

  5. Handling Qualities Results of an Initial Geared Flap Tilt Wing Piloted Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerrero, Lourdes M.; Corliss, Lloyd D.

    1991-01-01

    An exploratory simulation study of a novel approach to pitch control for a tilt wing aircraft was conducted in 1990 on the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator. The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the handling qualities of both a conventional and a geared flap tilt wing control configuration. The geared flap is an innovative control concept which has the potential for reducing or eliminating the horizontal pitch control tail rotor or reaction jets required by prior tilt wing designs. The handling qualities results of the geared flap control configuration are presented in this paper and compared to the conventional (programmed flap) tilt wing control configuration. This paper also describes the geared flap concept, the tilt wing aircraft, the simulation model, the simulation facility and experiment setup, and the pilot evaluation tasks and procedures.

  6. Patient doses in CT examinations in 18 countries: initial results from International Atomic Energy Agency projects.

    PubMed

    Muhogora, W E; Ahmed, N A; Beganovic, A; Benider, A; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Gershan, V; Gershkevitsh, E; Grupetta, E; Kharita, M H; Manatrakul, N; Milakovic, M; Ohno, K; Ben Omrane, L; Ptacek, J; Schandorf, C; Shabaan, M S; Stoyanov, D; Toutaoui, N; Wambani, J S; Rehani, M M

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this prospective study at 73 facilities in 18 countries in Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe was to investigate if the CT doses to adult patients in developing countries are higher than international standards. The dose assessment was performed in terms of weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDIw) and dose length product (DLP) for chest, chest (high resolution), lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis CT examinations using standard methods. Except in one case, the mean CTDIw values were below diagnostic reference level (DRL) while for DLP, 17 % of situations were above DRLs. The resulting CT images were of adequate quality for diagnosis. The CTDIw and DLP data presented herein are largely similar to those from two recent national surveys. The study has shown a stronger need to create awareness and training of radiology personnel as well as monitoring of radiation doses in many developing countries so as to conform to the ALARA principle.

  7. Spectral transmissometer and radiometer - Design and initial results. [of free drifting experiment in Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, Kendall L.; Steward, Robert G.; Peacock, Thomas G.; Payne, Paul R.; Peck, Wayne

    1988-01-01

    A new solid-state spectral transmissometer and radiometer is described. The radiometer measures upwelling radiance, downwelling irradiance, and beam transmittance from 390 to 750 nm with channel widths of 2.35 nm. The spectrometer consists of a 256 element CCD linear array collecting light dispersed by a reflection grating in a modified Littrow configuration. The spectrometer is time and space-shared among the three signal types. The instrument has been deployed as a free-drifting buoy and in the profiling mode, with data stored internally on a magnetic bubble memory or sent up a conducting cable as desired. Power can be supplied either by a detachable external battery pack or through conducting cable. The instrument has been deployed in the oligotrophic North Pacific Central Gyre and in the eutrophic Straits of Juan de Fuca, and preliminary results for each region are discussed.

  8. [Fluorodeoxyglucose and bronchopulmonary cancer. Initial French results with positron emission tomography].

    PubMed

    Vaylet, F; Foehrenbach, H; De Dreuille, O; Maszelin, P; Merlet, P; Bendriem, B; L'Her, P; Syrota, A; Gaillard, J F

    1998-09-01

    Despite recent advances, the contribution of medical imaging techniques is limited, particularly in terms of tissue characterization, in the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules and search for extension of bronchogenic cancer. The metabolic properties of the glucose analog deoxyglucose labeled with 18F1 would allow metabolic imaging. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides clinicians with quality images with an interesting sensitivity. We report the results of a feasibility study conducted in our first 17 patients. We observed 14 true positives, 1 true negative and 1 false positive and 1 false negative in patients with a malignant primary lesion. We analyzed the causes of error. Ten disseminated localizations were identified. Possible developments in terms of therapeutic strategy are discussed. The agreement between our findings and data reported in the literature prompted us to develop a study protocol using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET in patients with bronchogenic cancer.

  9. Byggmeister Test Home: Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, C.

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals and verified implementation. With the high exposure of energy efficiency and retrofit terminology being used in the general media at this time, it is important to have evidence that measures being proposed will in fact benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. There are several basic areas of research to which the technical report for these test homes can be expected to contribute. These include the combination of measures that is feasible, affordable and acceptable to homeowners as well as expectations versus results. Two Byggmeister multi-family test homes in Massachusetts are examined with the goal of providing case studies that could be applied to other similar New England homes.

  10. Initial results for supercritical cycle experiments using pure and mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Bliem, C.J.; Mines, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    The Heat Cycle Research Program, which is being conducted for the Department of Energy, has as its objective the development of the technology for effecting improved utilization of moderate temperature geothermal resources. Testing at the Heat Cycle Research Facility (HCRF) located at the DOE Geothermal Test Facility (GTF), East Mesa, California, is presently being conducted to meet this objective. Current testing involves a supercritical vaporization and countercurrent in-tube condensing system. The paper presents a brief description of the test facility and a discussion of the test program. Preliminary results on the performance of the supercritical heaters, countercurrent in-tube condenser, and turbine are given for both pure and mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids.

  11. Experimental Study of Airfoil Trailing Edge Noise: Instrumentation, Methodology and Initial Results. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manley, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanisms of aerodynamic noise generation at the trailing edge of an airfoil is investigated. Instrumentation was designed, a miniature semiconductor strain-gauge pressure transducer and associated electronic amplifier circuitry were designed and tested and digital signal analysis techniques applied to gain insight into the relationship between the dynamic pressure close to the trailing edge and the sound in the acoustic far-field. Attempts are made to verify some trailing-edge noise generation characteristics as theoretically predicted by several contemporary acousticians. It is found that the noise detected in the far-field is comprised of the sum of many uncorrelated emissions radiating from the vicinity of the trailing edge. These emissions appear to be the result of acoustic energy radiation which has been converted by the trailing-edge noise mechanism from the dynamic fluid energy of independent streamwise 'strips' of the turbulent boundary layer flow.

  12. Photodynamic therapy with chlorins for diffuse malignant mesothelioma: initial clinical results.

    PubMed Central

    Ris, H. B.; Altermatt, H. J.; Inderbitzi, R.; Hess, R.; Nachbur, B.; Stewart, J. C.; Wang, Q.; Lim, C. K.; Bonnett, R.; Berenbaum, M. C.

    1991-01-01

    Four patients underwent intraoperative photodynamic therapy after surgery with meso-tetra-(hydroxyphenyl)-chlorin (mTHPC-PDT) for diffuse malignant mesothelioma. Preliminary procedures were performed in two patients in order to establish the efficacy of mTHPC-PDT and to optimise its tumoricidal effect. The tumoricidal effect was related to the mTHPC dose, light dose and the time interval between sensitation and activation. 0.3 mg kg-1 mTHPC activated after 48 h with 10 Joules cm-2 of non-thermal laser light at 650 nm resulted in a 10 mm deep tumour infarction, due to tumour vessel necrosis and thrombosis. The mTHPC tissue concentration was up to 14 times higher in the tumour than in normal tissues. Skin photosensitivity was mild, dose dependent and occurred 3 to 10 days after administration of mTHPC. According to the results obtained, intraoperative mTHPC-PDT was performed following pleuropneumonectomy in two, pleurectomy and lobectomy in one and pleurectomy in one patient. Ten Joules cm-2 were delivered to the diaphragm and the costophrenic sulcus and 5 Joules cm-2 to the remaining thoracic cavity. The postoperative course was marked by loss of appetite, fluid retention, hypoproteinemia and severe chest pain. One patient succumbed from aspiration pneumonia. The remaining patients developed no neural or vascular alterations and no bronchial stump insufficiency during follow-up. mTHPC-PDT following surgical tumour resection deserves further evaluation in good risk patients with diffuse malignant mesothelioma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1764375

  13. Improvement in cardioplegic perfusion technique in single aortic clamping - initial results

    PubMed Central

    Sobral, Marcelo Luiz Peixoto; dos Santos Júnior, Sérgio Francisco; de Sá, Juliano Cavalcante; Terrazas, Anderson da Silva; Trompieri, Daniel Francisco de Mendonça; de Sousa, Thierry Araújo Nunes; dos Santos, Gilmar Geraldo; Stolf, Noedir Antonio Groppo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The most common method used for myocardial protection is administering cardioplegic solution in the coronary circulation. Nevertheless, protection may be achieved by intermittent perfusion of the coronary system with patient's own blood. The intermittent perfusion may be performed by multiple sequences of clamping and opening of the aortic clamp or due single clamping and accessory cannulation of the aortic root as in the improved technique proposed in this study, reperfusion without the need for multiple clamping of the aorta. Objective To evaluate the clinical outcome and the occurrence of neurological events in in-hospital patients submitted to myocardial revascularization surgery with the "improved technique" of intermittent perfusion of the aortic root with single clamping. Methods This is a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study that describes a myocardial management technique that consists of intermittent perfusion of the aortic root with single clamping in which 50 patients (mean age 58.5±7.19 years old) have been submitted to the myocardial revasculrization surgery under the proposed technique. Clinical and laboratory variables, pre- and post-surgery, have been assessed. Results The mean peak level of post-surgery CKMB was 51.64±27.10 U/L in the second post-surgery and of troponin I was 3.35±4.39 ng/ml in the fourth post-surgery, within normal limits. No deaths have occurred and one patient presented mild neurological disorder. Hemodynamic monitoring has not indicated any changes. Conclusion The myocardial revascularization surgery by perfusion with the improved technique with intermittent aortic root with single clamping proved to be safe, enabling satisfactory clinical results. PMID:25140473

  14. Initial results with image-guided cochlear implant programming in children

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Jack H.; Hedley-Williams, Andrea J.; Sunderhaus, Linsey; Dawant, Benoit M.; Labadie, Robert F.; Camarata, Stephen M.; Gifford, René H.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis Image-guided cochlear implant (CI) programming can improve hearing outcomes for pediatric CI recipients. Background CIs have been highly successful for children with severe-to-profound hearing loss, offering potential for mainstreamed education and auditory-oral communication. Despite this, a significant number of recipients still experience poor speech understanding, language delay, and, even among the best performers, restoration to normal auditory fidelity is rare. While significant research efforts have been devoted to improving stimulation strategies, few developments have led to significant hearing improvement over the past two decades. Recently introduced techniques for image-guided CI programming (IGCIP) permit creating patient-customized CI programs by making it possible, for the first time, to estimate the position of implanted CI electrodes relative to the nerves they stimulate using CT images. This approach permits identification of electrodes with high levels of stimulation overlap and to deactivate them from a patient’s map. Prior studies have shown that IGCIP can significantly improve hearing outcomes for adults with CIs. Methods The IGCIP technique was tested for 21 ears of 18 pediatric CI recipients. Participants had long-term experience with their CI (5 months-13 years) and ranged in age from 5-17 years old. Speech understanding was assessed after approximately 4 weeks of experience with the IGCIP map. Results Using a two-tailed Wilcoxon signed-rank test, statistically significant improvement (p<0.05) was observed for word and sentence recognition in quiet and noise as well as pediatric self-reported quality of life (QOL) measures. Conclusion Our results indicate that image-guidance significantly improves hearing and QOL outcomes for pediatric CI recipients. PMID:26756157

  15. Initial Continuous Chemistry Results From The Roosevelt Island Ice Core (RICE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjær, H. A.; Vallelonga, P. T.; Simonsen, M. F.; Neff, P. D.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Svensson, A.; Dahl-Jensen, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Roosevelt Island ice core (79.36° S, -161.71° W) was drilled in 2011-13 at the top of the Roosevelt Island ice dome, a location surrounded by the Ross ice shelf. The RICE ice core provides a unique opportunity to look into the past evolution of the West Antarctic Ice sheet. Further the site has high accumulation; 0.26 m of ice equivalent is deposited annually allowing annual layer determination for many chemical parameters. The RICE core was drilled to bedrock and has a total length of 763 metres. Preliminary results derived from water isotopes suggest that the oldest ice reaches back to the Eemian, with the last glacial being compressed in the bottom 60 metres. We present preliminary results from the RICE ice core including continuous measurements of acidity using an optical dye method, insoluble dust particles, conductivity and calcium. The core was analyzed at the New Zealand National Ice Core Research Facility at GNS Science in Wellington. The analytical set up used to determine climate proxies in the ice core was a modified version of the Copenhagen CFA system (Bigler et al., 2011). Key volcanic layers have been matched to those from the WAIS record (Sigl et al., 2013). A significant anti-correlation between acidity and calcium was seen in the Holocene part of the record. Due to the proximity to the ocean a large fraction of the calcium originates from sea salt and is in phase with total conductivity and sodium. In combination with the insoluble dust record, calcium has been apportioned into ocean-related and dust-related sources. Variability over the Holocene is presented and attributed to changing inputs of marine and dust aerosols.

  16. Initial results of the National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Poskus, Tomas; Strupas, Kestutis; Mikalauskas, Saulius; Bitinaitė, Dominyka; Kavaliauskas, Augustas; Samalavicius, Narimantas E; Saladzinskas, Zilvinas

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to review the National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program (the Program) in Lithuania according to the criteria set by the European Union. In Lithuania, screening services are provided free of charge to the population. The National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) reimburses the institutions for performing each service; each procedure within the Program has its own administrative code. All the information about the performance of the Program is collected in one institution - the NHIF. The results of the Program were retrieved from the database of NHIF from the start of the Program from 1 July 2009 to 1 July 2012. Descriptive analysis of epidemiological indicators was carried out. Results were compared with the references in the guidelines of the European Union for quality assurance in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and diagnosis. Information service [which involves fecal immunochemical test (FIT)] was provided to 271,396 of 890,309 50-74-year-old residents. The screening uptake was 46.0% over 3 years. During this period, 19,455 (7.2%) FITs were positive and 251,941 (92.8%) FITs were negative. Referral for colonoscopy was performed in 10,190 (52.4%) patients. Colonoscopy was performed in 12,864 (66.1%) patients. Colonoscopy did not indicate any pathological findings in 8613 (67.0%) patients. Biopsies were performed in 4251 (33.0%) patients. The rate of high-grade neoplasia reported by pathologists was 3.9%; the rate of cancer was 3.1% of all colonoscopies. The rate of CRC detected by the Program was 0.2%. The CRC screening program in Lithuania meets most of the requirements for standardized CRC screening programs. The invitation coverage and rate of referral for colonoscopy after positive FIT should be improved.

  17. Physics Results from the Initial Operation of a Slow Frc Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Roger

    The CSS-U (Coaxial Slow Source Upgrade) is the third of a series of experiments at the University of Washington that are designed to develop the slow formation technology necessary for future FRC (Field Reversed Configuration) sources. The FRC is a fusion plasma configuration that has the potential of leading to simpler fusion reactors. The primary observation in the previous two CSS experiments has been that FRCs can be easily generated in the CSS device. These FRCs do not appear to terminate as a result of any gross MHD instabilities although the confinement behavior of these plasmoids is poorer than FRCs generated by the conventional manner. The motivation for this research is to understand the degraded transport in these plasmas that has become possible as a result of the relatively long configuration times exhibited by plasmas in the CSS-U. The power input to the plasma is directly calculated from external and internal magnetic field measurements. No assumptions of resistivity profile have been made. It is shown that impurity line radiation from carbon forms the dominant energy loss mechanism. A new method for profile extraction shows the impurity fraction in the CSS-U to be in the 0.25 to 0.5% range. Time dependent coronal calculations show that with operation over much longer formation times (>100 to 200 mus) at lower (10^{14} cm ^{-3}), consistent with CSS philosophy, it might be possible to burnthrough the highly radiating lithium like states. Alternatively, a faster formation at higher density (10^{15} cm^{-3}) with auxiliary heating, followed by a long quiescent phase, might provide burnthrough.

  18. Experimental warming delays autumn senescence in a boreal spruce bog: Initial results from the SPRUCE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Andrew; Furze, Morgan; Aubrecht, Donald; Milliman, Thomas; Nettles, Robert; Krassovski, Misha; Hanson, Paul

    2016-04-01

    August through December. These patterns can also be seen in other daily images recorded at the site since January 2012. Air warming treatments at SPRUCE began in August 2015, and had a substantial influence on autumn senescence of the plant community, as a whole, within each chamber. Generally, vegetation in the warmed chambers stayed green longer than that in the unwarmed chambers. We characterized the seasonality by fitting a sigmoid curve to the Gcc time series data, and we used the autumn half-maximum date of the sigmoid as an indicator of the timing of senescence. We found a strong linear relationship between senescence date and temperature treatment (r2 = 0.71,n = 10). Overall, senescence was delayed by 3.5 ± 0.7 days per 1° C of warming. Thus, although photoperiod is widely believed to be the key trigger for autumn senescence, our results do not indicate that the autumn response to warming is in any way constrained by day length. The SPRUCE experiment is planned to running through 2025. Looking forward, we anticipate that different results may be obtained in year 2 of the SPRUCE experiment if warming treatments result in earlier spring onset, and increased evapotranspiration during spring and early summer, leading to drought conditions by late summer.

  19. Multi-Channel Seismic Images of the Mariana Trough: EW0202 Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, B.; Goodliffe, A. M.; Moore, G. F.; Oakley, A. J.; Fryer, P.

    2002-12-01

    As the first major phase of a US-Japanese collaborative NSF-MARGINS funded project titled "Multi-scale seismic imaging of the Mariana Subduction factory", we collected 5124 km of multi-channel seismic (MCS) data between 14N and 19N across the Mariana subduction-arc-back-arc system. Using the R/V Maurice Ewing, we deployed a 6-km, 480-channel streamer and shot every 50 m using a 20-airgun array (6817 cu in). Coincident gravity, magnetic, and Hydrosweep DS2 data were collected on all 48 lines. The entire MCS dataset, with a common midpoint interval of 6.25 m, was processed through migration during the 30-day cruise. The resulting geophysical transects extend from the Pacific Plate, across the forearc (including several serpentine mud volcanoes), active arc and rifted margin, and back-arc spreading center to the remnant arc. The margins of the back-arc basin are irregular in plan form and contain arc salients that are almost surrounded by back-arc crust. Well-imaged, normal-fault bounded blocks are commonly juxtaposed against back-arc crust with few resolvable internal reflectors. A boundary of this type, with a prominent magnetic anomaly, is imaged on two MCS lines that cross the active arc south of Anatahan volcano at 16.2N. From the position of this boundary, to the east of the arc line, we infer that Anatahan is built on back-arc crust. This likely results in oceanic crust being sandwiched between arc extrusives and cumulates. Other active arc volcanoes may be built on or through rifted former-arc crust. Near 17.5N, 143.5E, an east-dipping low-angle normal fault (approximately 20 degree dip) is imaged beneath the graben at the boundary between the eastern edge of the West Mariana Ridge remnant arc and the oldest crust of the Mariana Trough. North of DSDP Site 451, on the rifted edge of the West Mariana Ridge, there are reflectors at 10-10.5 seconds two-way travel time that may be from the Moho. The back-arc spreading center has an hourglass-shaped inflated segment

  20. Initial Results from SQUID Sensor: Analysis and Modeling for the ELF/VLF Atmospheric Noise

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Huan; Wang, Huali; Chen, Liang; Wu, Jun; Qiu, Longqing; Rong, Liangliang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the amplitude probability density (APD) of the wideband extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low frequency (VLF) atmospheric noise is studied. The electromagnetic signals from the atmosphere, referred to herein as atmospheric noise, was recorded by a mobile low-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) receiver under magnetically unshielded conditions. In order to eliminate the adverse effect brought by the geomagnetic activities and powerline, the measured field data was preprocessed to suppress the baseline wandering and harmonics by symmetric wavelet transform and least square methods firstly. Then statistical analysis was performed for the atmospheric noise on different time and frequency scales. Finally, the wideband ELF/VLF atmospheric noise was analyzed and modeled separately. Experimental results show that, Gaussian model is appropriate to depict preprocessed ELF atmospheric noise by a hole puncher operator. While for VLF atmospheric noise, symmetric α-stable (SαS) distribution is more accurate to fit the heavy-tail of the envelope probability density function (pdf). PMID:28216590

  1. The Pluto System: Initial Results from the Exploration by New Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, S. A.; Weaver, Harold; Young, Leslie; Olkin, Catherine; Ennico, Kimberly; Moore, Jeff; Grundy, Will; Gladstone, Randall; Bagenal, Fran

    2015-11-01

    The Pluto system was recently explored by NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft, which made closest approach on 14 July 2015. Pluto’s surface is found to be remarkably diverse in landforms, terrain ages, and albedo, color, and composition gradients. Strong evidence is found for a water-ice crust, geologically young surface units, ice convection, wind streaks, and glacial flow. Pluto’s atmosphere is found to be very extended, and contains newly discovered trace hydrocarbons, has an extensive global haze layer, and a surprisingly low surface pressure of ~10 microbars. Pluto’s wide range of surface expressions and long term activity raises fundamental questions about how small planets can have active processes billions of years after their formation. The geology of Pluto’s large moon Charon’s is also surprisingly diverse, displaying tectonics and evidence for a heterogeneous crustal composition; the north pole displays puzzling dark terrain. No evidence for a Charon atmosphere is found. Pluto’s small satellites Hydra and Nix are small, elongated objects with higher albedos than expected. Surprisingly, despite much improved diameter limits, no new satellites are found. We will present an overview of the New Horizons flyby, payload, and results. This work was supported by the NASA New Horizons project.

  2. Initial Results from SQUID Sensor: Analysis and Modeling for the ELF/VLF Atmospheric Noise.

    PubMed

    Hao, Huan; Wang, Huali; Chen, Liang; Wu, Jun; Qiu, Longqing; Rong, Liangliang

    2017-02-14

    In this paper, the amplitude probability density (APD) of the wideband extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low frequency (VLF) atmospheric noise is studied. The electromagnetic signals from the atmosphere, referred to herein as atmospheric noise, was recorded by a mobile low-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) receiver under magnetically unshielded conditions. In order to eliminate the adverse effect brought by the geomagnetic activities and powerline, the measured field data was preprocessed to suppress the baseline wandering and harmonics by symmetric wavelet transform and least square methods firstly. Then statistical analysis was performed for the atmospheric noise on different time and frequency scales. Finally, the wideband ELF/VLF atmospheric noise was analyzed and modeled separately. Experimental results show that, Gaussian model is appropriate to depict preprocessed ELF atmospheric noise by a hole puncher operator. While for VLF atmospheric noise, symmetric α-stable (SαS) distribution is more accurate to fit the heavy-tail of the envelope probability density function (pdf).

  3. A web application for moderation training: initial results of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hester, Reid K; Delaney, Harold D; Campbell, William; Handmaker, Nancy

    2009-10-01

    Eighty-four heavy drinkers who responded to a newspaper recruitment advertisement were randomly assigned to receive either (a) training in a Moderate Drinking protocol via an Internet-based program (www.moderatedrinking.com) and use of the online resources of Moderation Management (MM; www.moderation.org) or (b) use of the online resources of MM alone. Follow-ups are being conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results of the recently completed 3-month follow-up (86% follow-up) indicated both groups significantly reduced their drinking based on these variables: standard drinks per week, percent days abstinent, and mean estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) per drinking day. Both groups also significantly reduced their alcohol-related problems. Relative to the control group, the experimental group had better outcomes on percent days abstinent and log drinks per drinking day. These short-term outcome data provide evidence for the effectiveness of both the Moderate Drinking Web application and of the resources available online at MM in helping heavy drinkers reduce their drinking and alcohol-related problems.

  4. [Cognitive capacity in advanced age: initial results of the Berlin Aging Study].

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, U; Baltes, P B

    1995-01-01

    This study reports data on intellectual functioning in old and very old age from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516; age range = 70-103 years; mean age = 85 years). A psychometric battery of 14 tests was used to assess five cognitive abilities: reasoning, memory, and perceptual speed from the broad fluid-mechanical as well as knowledge and fluency from the broad crystallized-pragmatic domains. Cognitive abilities had a negative linear relationship with age, with more pronounced age-based reductions in fluid-mechanical than crystallized-pragmatic abilities. At the same time, ability intercorrelations formed a highly positive manifold, and did not follow the fluid-crystallized distinction. Interindividual variability was of about equal magnitude across the entire age range studied. There was, however, no evidence for substantial sex differences. As to origins of individual differences, indicators of sensory and sensorimotor functioning were more powerful predictors of intellectual functioning than cultural-biographical variables, and the two sets of predictors were, consistent with theoretical expectations, differentially related to measures of fluid-mechanical (perceptual speed) and crystallized pragmatic (knowledge) functioning. Results, in general indicative of sizeable and general losses with age, are consistent with the view that aging-induced biological influences are a prominent source of individual differences in intellectual functioning in old and very old age. Longitudinal follow-ups are underway to examine the role of cohort effects, selective mortality, and interindividual differences in change trajectories.

  5. Endoscopic gastric submucosal transplantation of islets (ENDO-STI): technique and initial results in diabetic pigs.

    PubMed

    Echeverri, G J; McGrath, K; Bottino, R; Hara, H; Dons, E M; van der Windt, D J; Ekser, B; Casu, A; Houser, S; Ezzelarab, M; Wagner, R; Trucco, M; Lakkis, F G; Cooper, D K C

    2009-11-01

    The results of transplantation of human donor islets into the portal vein (PV) in patients with diabetes are encouraging. However, there are complications, for example, hemorrhage, thrombosis and an immediate loss of islets through the 'instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction' (IBMIR). The gastric submucosal space (GSMS) offers potential advantages. Islets were isolated from adult pigs. Recipient pigs were made diabetic by streptozotocin. Donor islets were injected into the GSMS through a laparotomy (Group 1A, n = 4) or endoscopically (Group 1B, n = 8) or into the PV through a laparotomy (Group 2, n = 3). The pigs were followed for a maximum of 28 days. Monitoring of C-peptide in Group 1 indicated that there was minimal immediate loss of islets whereas in Group 2 there was considerable loss from IBMIR. In Group 1, there were significant reductions in mean blood glucose and mean exogenous insulin requirement between pretransplantation and 20 days posttransplantation. In Group 2, there was no significant reduction in either parameter. Insulin-positive cells were seen in the GSMS in Group 1, but not in the liver in Group 2. Endoscopic gastric submucosal transplantation of islets (ENDO-STI) offers a minimally invasive and quick approach to islet transplantation, avoids IBMIR and warrants further exploration.

  6. Treatment Result in the Initial Stage of Kanazawa Mobile Embolectomy Team for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    UCHIYAMA, Naoyuki; MISAKI, Kouichi; MOHRI, Masanao; KAMIDE, Tomoya; HIROTA, Yuichi; HIGASHI, Ryo; MINAMIDE, Hisato; KOHDA, Yukihiko; ASAHI, Takashi; SHOIN, Katsuo; IWATO, Masayuki; KITA, Daisuke; HAMADA, Yoshitaka; YOSHIDA, Yuya; NAKADA, Mitsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Five recent multicenter randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have clearly shown the superiority of mechanical thrombectomy in large vessel occlusion acute ischemic stroke compared to systemic thrombolysis. Although 14 hospitals in Ishikawa prefecture have uninterrupted availability of systemic thrombolysis, mechanical thrombectomy is not available at all of these hospitals. Therefore, we established a Kanazawa mobile embolectomy team (KMET), which could travel to these hospitals and perform the acute reperfusion therapy. In this article, we report early treatment outcomes and validate the effectiveness of a network between affiliated hospitals and KMET. Between January 2014 and December 2015, 48 patients, aged 45–92 years (mean: 73.0 years), underwent acute reperfusion therapy provided by KMET in 10 affiliated hospitals of Kanazawa University Hospital. The pre-treatment NIHSS scores ranged from 5 to 39 (mean: 19.1). ASPECTS+W ranged from 1 to 11 (mean: 7.3). Successful revascularization, defined as thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) 2b or 3, was achieved in 38/48 cases (80%), and a good outcome, defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score from 0 to 2 at 90 days after the treatment, was achieved in 24/48 cases (50%). There were two cases of intracranial bleeding (4%). Mean time from onset to recanalization was 297 min. These results, which are similar to those of five previous RCTs, suggest that a collaborative network between affiliated hospitals and KMET is effective for acute reperfusion therapy in local areas wherein experienced neuroendovascular specialists are insufficient. PMID:27725522

  7. Initial comparison of single cylinder Stirling engine computer model predictions with test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, R. C., Jr.; Thieme, L. G.; Miao, D.

    1979-01-01

    A NASA developed digital computer code for a Stirling engine, modelling the performance of a single cylinder rhombic drive ground performance unit (GPU), is presented and its predictions are compared to test results. The GPU engine incorporates eight regenerator/cooler units and the engine working space is modelled by thirteen control volumes. The model calculates indicated power and efficiency for a given engine speed, mean pressure, heater and expansion space metal temperatures and cooler water inlet temperature and flow rate. Comparison of predicted and observed powers implies that the reference pressure drop calculations underestimate actual pressure drop, possibly due to oil contamination in the regenerator/cooler units, methane contamination in the working gas or the underestimation of mechanical loss. For a working gas of hydrogen, the predicted values of brake power are from 0 to 6% higher than experimental values, and brake efficiency is 6 to 16% higher, while for helium the predicted brake power and efficiency are 2 to 15% higher than the experimental.

  8. Initial results of a silicon sensor irradiation study for ILC extreme forward calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, Reyer; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Field, R. Clive; Key, Spencer; Kim, Tae Sung; Markiewicz, Thomas; Martinez-McKinney, Forest; Maruyama, Takashi; Mistry, Khilesh; Nidumolu, Ravi; Schumm, Bruce A.; Spencer, Edwin; Timlin, Conor; Wilder, Max

    2014-11-01

    Detectors proposed for the International Linear Collider (ILC) incorporate a tungsten sampling calorimeter ('BeamCal') intended to reconstruct showers of electrons, positrons and photons that emerge from the interaction point of the collider with angles between 5 and 50 milliradians. For the innermost radius of this calorimeter, radiation doses at shower-max are expected to reach 100 MRad per year, primarily due to minimum-ionizing electrons and positrons that arise in the induced electromagnetic showers of e+e- 'beamstrahlung' pairs produced in the ILC beam-beam interaction. However, radiation damage to calorimeter sensors may be dominated by hadrons induced by nuclear interactions of shower photons, which are much more likely to contribute to the non-ionizing energy loss that has been observed to damage sensors exposed to hadronic radiation. We report here on the results of SLAC Experiment T-506, for which several different types of silicon diode sensors were exposed to doses of radiation induced by showering electrons of energy 3.5-10.6 GeV. By embedding the sensor under irradiation within a tungsten radiator, the exposure incorporated hadronic species that would potentially contribute to the degradation of a sensor mounted in a precision sampling calorimeter. Depending on sensor technology, efficient charge collection was observed for doses as large as 220 MRad.

  9. The Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar: Initial Results and Future Opportunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeter, J. L.; Dahlgren, H.; Sundberg, T.; Perry, G. W.; St-Maurice, J.; Shiokawa, K.; Hosokawa, K.; Zettergren, M. D.; Donovan, E.; Nicolls, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR) is the most recent facility developed under the NSF Advanced Modular ISR (AMISR) program, and the first ever ISR deployed to the geomagnetic polar cap region. The AMISR radars are electronically steerable, enabling the acquisition of three-dimensional, time-dependent, information over a significant regional volume. This paper provides a review of science results from the first two years of RISR operations. Of particular interest are studies that synthesize the new information about the intrinsic state variables (Ne, Te, Ti) with measurements by extant common-volume sensors (HF radar, all-sky imager, Fabry-Perot interferometer). The careful co-registration of these heterogeneous measurements is shown to provide new constraints on the nature of time-dependent solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions in open magnetic-field regions. This capability will be further enhanced with the commissioning of the collocated Canadian facility (RISR-C) and the launch of the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP), both expected in 2013.

  10. Stable confinement of electron plasma and initial results on positron injection in RT-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, H.; Yoshida, Z.; Morikawa, J.; Yano, Y.; Kasaoka, N.; Sakamoto, W.; Nogami, T.

    2013-03-01

    The Ring Trap 1 (RT-1) device is a dipole field configuration generated by a levitated superconducting magnet. It offers very interesting opportunities for research on the fundamental properties on non-neutral plasmas, such as self-organization of charged particles in the strongly positive and negative charged particles on magnetic surfaces. When strong positron sources will be available in the future, the dipole field configuration will be potentially applicable to the formation of an electron-positron plasma. We have realized stable, long trap of toroidal pure electron plasma in RT-1; Magnetic levitation of the superconducting magnet resulted in more than 300s of confinement for electron plasma of ˜ 1011 m-3. Aiming for the confinement of positrons as a next step, we started a positron injection experiment. For the formation of positron plasma in the closed magnetic surfaces, one of the key issues to be solved is the efficient injection method of positron across closed magnetic surfaces. In contrast to linear configurations, toroidal configurations have the advantage that they are capable of trapping high energy positrons in the dipole field configuration and consider the possibility of direct trapping of positrons emitted from a 22Na source.

  11. Crustal evolution across the southern Appalachians: Initial results from the SESAME broadband array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, E. Horry; Hawman, Robert B.; Fischer, Karen M.; Wagner, Lara S.

    2013-08-01

    functions from the EarthScope Southeastern Suture of the Appalachian Margin Experiment broadband deployment and U.S. Transportable Array were analyzed to constrain average crustal thickness and composition across the southern Appalachians. Low Vp/Vs ratios (1.69-1.72) across the Carolina terrane and parts of the Inner Piedmont indicate that the crust has a felsic average composition. The results are consistent with models of thin-skinned thrusting of Carolina arc fragments over Laurentian basement, whereas arc collision models require significant crustal modification to explain the low Vp/Vs. New crustal thickness estimates provide constraints on the extent of the Blue Ridge crustal root. The present root may be a remnant of a broader structure formed by Alleghanian thrust loading. Root preservation is attributed to Mesozoic heating and thinning of the lower crust beneath outboard terranes, leaving colder Blue Ridge crust largely intact. However, thickened crust (50-55 km) across the region may also be inherited from continental collision during the Proterozoic Grenville orogeny.

  12. GEMINI: Initial behavioral results after full severance of the cervical spinal cord in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, C-Yoon; Oh, Hanseul; Hwang, In-Kyu; Hong, Ki-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Background: The GEMINI spinal cord fusion protocol has been developed to achieve a successful cephalosomatic anastomosis. Here, we report the preliminary data on the use of a fusogen [polyethylene glycol (PEG)] after full cervical cord transection in mice to facilitate the fusion of both ends of a sharply transected spinal cord. Methods: Cervical laminectomy and a complete, visually confirmed cervical cord (C 5) transection was performed on female albino mice (n = 16). In Group 1 (n = 8), a fusogen, (PEG) was used to bridge the gap between the cut ends of the spinal cord. Group 2 received the same spinal cord transection but was treated with saline. Outcome was assessed daily using a standard scale (modified 22-point Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale) and filmed on camera. Results: The PEG group (group 1) showed partial restoration of motor function after 4 weeks of observation; group 2 (placebo) did not recover any useful motor activity. Conclusion: In this preliminary experiment, PEG, but not saline, promoted partial motor recovery in mice submitted to full cervical transection. PMID:27656325

  13. Examining naltrexone and alcohol effects in a minority population: results from an initial human laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Plebani, Jennifer G; Oslin, David W; Lynch, Kevin G

    2011-01-01

    Prior clinical findings have indicated a potential lack of naltrexone efficacy among African Americans with alcohol dependence. However, no definitive conclusions have been drawn due to the relatively small numbers of African Americans in most alcohol treatment trials. The purpose of this study was to examine alcohol and naltrexone effects on healthy African-American individuals in a laboratory environment. Nonalcohol-dependent social drinking adults of African descent (n = 43) were recruited for participation. After consenting and completing the baseline assessment, they participated in four separate alcohol challenge sessions each separated by at least 10 days. During each of the sessions, subjects were administered alcohol or sham drinks, after pretreatment with either naltrexone (50 mg/day) or placebo in a double-blind fashion. The order of the four sessions was randomly assigned. During each session, breath alcohol levels and subjective responses were measured. Results indicate an alcohol effect among these subjects for subjective responses, but no naltrexone effect. Similar to the apparent lack of clinical efficacy findings, naltrexone does not appear to impact alcohol effects in African-American social drinkers. Future studies should investigate African-American populations with heavy drinking as well as alcohol-dependent subjects in order to strengthen the parallels to clinical findings.

  14. Initial HI results from the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, David W.; Davis, Cory; Johnson, Cory; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Jones, Michael G.; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2017-01-01

    The Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey is a targeted HI survey of galaxies that began its second observing season in October 2016. The survey is conducted by members of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT) and extensively involves undergraduates in observations, data reduction, and analysis. It aims to complement the HI sources identified by the ALFALFA extragalactic HI line survey by probing deeper in HI mass (to lower masses) than the legacy survey itself. Measurements of the HI line velocity widths will be combined with uniform processing of images obtained in the SDSS and GALEX public databases to localize the sample within the baryonic Tully Fisher relation, allowing estimates of their redshift-independent distances and thus their peculiar velocities.The survey is designed to constrain Pisces-Perseus Supercluster infall models by producing 5-σ detections of infall velocities to a precision of about 500 km/s. By targeting galaxies based on SDSS and GALEX photometry, we have achieved detection rates of 68% of the galaxies in our sample. We will discuss the target selection process, HI velocities and mass estimates from the 2015 fall observing season, preliminary results from 2016 observations, and preliminary comparisons with inflow models predicted by numerical simulations.This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-1211005, AST-1637339, AST-1637262.

  15. Event-Based Surveillance During EXPO Milan 2015: Rationale, Tools, Procedures, and Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Manso, Martina Del; Caporali, Maria Grazia; Napoli, Christian; Linge, Jens P.; Mantica, Eleonora; Verile, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Vellucci, Loredana; Costanzo, Virgilio; Bastiampillai, Anan Judina; Gabrielli, Eugenia; Gramegna, Maria; Declich, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    More than 21 million participants attended EXPO Milan from May to October 2015, making it one of the largest protracted mass gathering events in Europe. Given the expected national and international population movement and health security issues associated with this event, Italy fully implemented, for the first time, an event-based surveillance (EBS) system focusing on naturally occurring infectious diseases and the monitoring of biological agents with potential for intentional release. The system started its pilot phase in March 2015 and was fully operational between April and November 2015. In order to set the specific objectives of the EBS system, and its complementary role to indicator-based surveillance, we defined a list of priority diseases and conditions. This list was designed on the basis of the probability and possible public health impact of infectious disease transmission, existing statutory surveillance systems in place, and any surveillance enhancements during the mass gathering event. This article reports the methodology used to design the EBS system for EXPO Milan and the results of 8 months of surveillance. PMID:27314656

  16. Spatial harmonic imaging of X-ray scattering--initial results.

    PubMed

    Wen, Han; Bennett, Eric E; Hegedus, Monica M; Carroll, Stefanie C

    2008-08-01

    Coherent X-ray scattering is related to the electron density distribution by a Fourier transform, and therefore a window into the microscopic structures of biological samples. Current techniques of scattering rely on small-angle measurements from highly collimated X-ray beams produced from synchrotron light sources. Imaging of the distribution of scattering provides a new contrast mechanism which is different from absorption radiography, but is a lengthy process of raster or line scans of the beam over the object. Here, we describe an imaging technique in the spatial frequency domain capable of acquiring both the scattering and absorption distributions in a single exposure. We present first results obtained with conventional X-ray equipment. This method interposes a grid between the X-ray source and the imaged object, so that the grid-modulated image contains a primary image and a grid harmonic image. The ratio between the harmonic and primary images is shown to be a pure scattering image. It is the auto-correlation of the electron density distribution at a specific distance. We tested a number of samples at 60-200 nm autocorrelation distance, and found the scattering images to be distinct from the absorption images and reveal new features. This technique is simple to implement, and should help broaden the imaging applications of X-ray scattering.

  17. Educators' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the Desired Results System: A Study of the California Department of Education Accountability Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleghi, Farahnaz

    2010-01-01

    The deluge of early child development research over the past 20 years has sparked an unprecedented public interest in the first years of children's lives. Research indicates that quality early education promotes the overall development of a healthy child. The Desired Results System, a standards-based accountability initiative of the California…

  18. Four-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Axial Body Area as Respiratory Surrogate: Initial Patient Results

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Juan; Cai, Jing; Wang, Hongjun; Chang, Zheng; Czito, Brian G.; Bashir, Mustafa R.; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a retrospective binning technique for 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) using body area (BA) as a respiratory surrogate. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (4 of 7) or liver metastases (3 of 7) were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved prospective study. All patients were simulated with both computed tomography (CT) and MRI to acquire 3-dimensinal and 4D images for treatment planning. Multiple-slice multiple-phase cine-MR images were acquired in the axial plane for 4D-MRI reconstruction. Image acquisition time per slice was set to 10-15 seconds. Single-slice 2-dimensinal cine-MR images were also acquired across the center of the tumor in orthogonal planes. Tumor motion trajectories from 4D-MRI, cine-MRI, and 4D-CT were analyzed in the superior–inferior (SI), anterior–posterior (AP), and medial–lateral (ML) directions, respectively. Their correlation coefficients (CC) and differences in tumor motion amplitude were determined. Tumor-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured and compared between 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, and conventional T2-weighted fast spin echo MRI. Results: The means (±standard deviations) of CC comparing 4D-MRI with cine-MRI were 0.97 ± 0.03, 0.97 ± 0.02, and 0.99 ± 0.04 in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean differences were 0.61 ± 0.17 mm, 0.32 ± 0.17 mm, and 0.14 ± 0.06 mm in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The means of CC comparing 4D-MRI and 4D-CT were 0.95 ± 0.02, 0.94 ± 0.02, and 0.96 ± 0.02 in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean differences were 0.74 ± 0.02 mm, 0.33 ± 0.13 mm, and 0.18 ± 0.07 mm in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean tumor-to-tissue CNRs were 2.94 ± 1.51, 19.44 ± 14.63, and 39.47 ± 20.81 in 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, and T2-weighted MRI, respectively. Conclusions: The preliminary evaluation of our 4D-MRI technique results in oncologic patients demonstrates its

  19. Intraventricular monitoring for temporal lobe epilepsy: report on technique and initial results in eight patients

    PubMed Central

    Song, J; Abou-Khalil, B; Konrad, P

    2003-01-01

    Objective and importance: Resective surgery is an effective treatment for refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. In difficult cases, invasive monitoring may be needed to precisely lateralise and localise seizure foci of mesial temporal origin. The authors present a modified technique for image guided, endoscopic placement of an intraventricular electrode array (IVE) that abuts the amygdalo-hippocampal complex. Methods: Eight patients with suspected mesial temporal lobe epilepsy had placement of an IVE in conjunction with other invasive electrodes. Seven of these patients also had subdural grid or strip electrodes and four had foramen ovale electrodes. Frameless image guidance was used to place a custom 10-contact depth electrode through a rigid neuroendoscope within the atrium of the lateral ventricle. Once proper orientation towards the temporal horn was confirmed, the IVE array was advanced into the temporal horn to the temporal tip. The endoscope was removed and electrode placement was confirmed through an intraoperative lateral skull radiograph and on visual inspection at the time of resection in two cases. Results: The IVE was crucial for localisation in one patient and helped localisation in four others. Surgery was offered to seven patients. The only serious complication of IVE placement was a thalamic contusion presumably from an errant electrode tip. One electrode was inadvertently placed into the frontal horn. There were no deaths and no permanent morbidity associated with the procedure. Conclusion: Endoscopically placed temporal horn, intraventricular electrodes provide an alternative to transcortical depth electrode placement. The technique hopefully can avoid complications associated with multiple depth electrode placements, especially when bilateral amygdalo-hippocampal electrical recordings are desired, although there may be a steep learning curve. PMID:12700290

  20. Initial results of a thoracic aortic endovascular program: safer in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Stouffer, Chadwick W; Mansour, M Ashraf; Ott, Mickey M; Hooker, Robert L; Gorsuch, Jill M; Cuff, Robert F; Davis, Alan T

    2009-01-01

    Results are presented from our single-institutional experience with thoracic endovascular aortic repair to confirm that it is safe in patients with significant comorbidities. A retrospective review of all patients undergoing endovascular or open thoracic aortic repair at our institution since 2002 was performed. Main outcome measures included clinical presentation, demographics, preoperative risk factors, operative details, and clinical outcomes. The endovascular group included 37 patients (22 males), whereas the open group included 19 patients (eight males). Eight patients per group were treated emergently for trauma or rupture (22% and 42%, respectively; p=0.11). Endovascular patients were significantly older with more comorbid conditions (p<0.05). However, the overall perioperative complication rate was similar in the two groups (32.4% and 31.6%, respectively). Postoperative renal failure occurred only in four open patients (21.1% vs. 0%, p < 0.05). Operative time, ventilator days, and total length of stay were also greater for open patients (p<0.05). There was one death in the endovascular group and three in the open group (2.7% and 15.8%, respectively; p=0.07). Endovascular patients had shorter operative time and length of stay, fewer ventilator days and intensive care unit days, and fewer transfusions. Although the endovascular patients were significantly older with more comorbidities, the complication rate was similar to the open group. Also, there was a trend toward lower mortality in the endovascular group (p=0.07). Endovascular repair is the procedure of choice for treating the descending thoracic aorta in high-risk patients even in the emergent setting.

  1. Radiation control coatings installed on rough-surfaced built-up roofs -- Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have tracked the solar reflectance and thermal performance of small samples of various radiation control coatings on smooth surfaces for several years on a roof test facility in East Tennessee. The focus is on white coatings because of their potential to weather, causing the solar reflectance to decrease as the coatings age. Support of the federal New Technology Demonstration Program allowed them to extend the study to more samples on smooth surfaces and entire rough-surfaced roofs at a federal facility in the Panhandle of Florida. Two rough-surfaced, moderately well-insulated, low solar reflectance built-up roofs (BURs) were spray-coated with a latex-based product with ceramic beads added to improve solar reflectance. In the first three months after installation, the fresh BUR coatings showed a significant decrease in both the outside-surface temperature and the heat flux through the roof insulation. Average sunlit values were generated to exclude nighttime data, data on cloudy days, and data when the uncoated patch on one roof was more strongly shaded in mid-afternoon on sunny days. The average power demand during occupied periods for the first month with the coating for the building with the thermally massive roof deck was 13% less than during the previous month without the coating. For the other buildings with a lightweight roof deck but high internal loads, there were no clear average power savings due to the coating. The authors are continuing to monitor electricity use in these all-electric buildings to calibrate a model for the peak power and annual energy use of the buildings. Modeling results to be given at the end of the two year project will address the effect of roof R-value, geographic location, and solar reflectance, including the effect of weathering, on the performance of coated roofs. The calibrated models should allow one to segregate site-specific effects such as shading and large thermal mass.

  2. Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture in Normal Monkey Eyes Part 1: Methods and Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Howard; Reynaud, Juan; Gardiner, Stuart; Grimm, Jonathan; Libertiaux, Vincent; Downs, J. Crawford; Yang, Hongli; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To introduce quantitative postmortem lamina cribrosa (LC) microarchitecture (LMA) assessment and characterize beam diameter (BD), pore diameter (PD), and connective tissue volume fraction (CTVF) in 21 normal monkey eyes. Methods. Optic nerve heads (ONHs) underwent digital three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and LC beam segmentation. Each beam and pore voxel was assigned a diameter based on the largest sphere that contained it before transformation to one of twelve 30° sectors in a common cylinder. Mean BD, PD, and CTVF within 12 central and 12 peripheral subsectors and within inner, middle, and outer LC depths were assessed for sector, subsector, and depth effects by analysis of variance using general estimating equations. Eye-specific LMA discordance (the pattern of lowest connective tissue density) was plotted for each parameter. Results. The ranges of mean BD, PD, and CTVF were 14.0 to 23.1 μm, 20.0 to 35.6 μm, and 0.247 to 0.638, respectively. Sector, subsector, and depth effects were significant (P < 0.01) for all parameters except subsector on CTVF. Beam diameter and CTVF were smaller and PD was larger within the superior-temporal (ST) and inferior-temporal (IT) sectors (P < 0.05). These differences were enhanced within the central versus peripheral subsectors. Beam diameter and CTVF were larger and PD was smaller (P < 0.05) within the middle LC layer. Lamina cribrosa microarchitecture discordance most commonly occurred within the ST and IT sectors, varied by eye, and generally diminished as CTVF increased. Conclusions. Our data support previous characterizations of diminished connective tissue density within the ST and IT ONH regions. The clinical importance of eye-specific LMA discordance warrants further study. PMID:25650423

  3. Toward Hydrocode Models of an Impact-Generated Martian Greenhouse: Model Validation and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesko, C. S.; Wohletz, K. H.; Coker, R. F.; Asphaug, E.; Korycansky, D. G.; Gittings, M. L.

    2006-12-01

    Large impacts have been suggested by Carr (1996) and Segura et al. (2002) as a possible trigger of warm and wet climate episodes early in Martian history. Our goal is to model impacts into stratigraphically complicated media, and specifically targets containing water ice in various morphologies, in order to determine a lower bound on the energy and size scales of impact events that could trigger such a climate shift, and thus establish an upper bound on the frequency of such events. To do this, we use various analytical and numerical modeling techniques, including the RAGE hydrocode. RAGE (Baltrusaitis et al. 1996) is an Eulerian hydrocode that runs in up to three dimensions and incorporates a variety of detailed equations of state including the temperature-based SESAME tables maintained by LANL. In order to test the accuracy of RAGE predictions before applying this hydrocode to the problem of interest, we compare code results against analytical models (verification) and laboratory experiments (validation) that are related to the problem of interest. We compare RAGE against various laboratory experiments (Kato et al. 2001, Nakazawa et al. 2002, Koschny et al. 2001), and analytical crater scaling models (Housen et al. 1983, Holsapple and Schmidt 1982, Holsapple 1993, and Melosh 1989). From there, we begin to examine the potential effects of impacts on water ice in the Martian subsurface, first by examining the evolution of the temperature and pressure profiles of an impact into a geologically simple, ice-free target, and then exploring the effects of increased ice content and ice layer morphology. This effort is supported by LANL/IGPP (CSP, RFC, KHW, MLG) and by NASA PG&G (EA). LA-UR-06-6233

  4. Initial quality performance results using a phantom to simulate chest computed radiography.

    PubMed

    Muhogora, Wilbroad; Padovani, Renato; Msaki, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a homemade phantom for quantitative quality control in chest computed radiography (CR). The phantom was constructed from copper, aluminium, and polymenthylmethacrylate (PMMA) plates as well as Styrofoam materials. Depending on combinations, the literature suggests that these materials can simulate the attenuation and scattering characteristics of lung, heart, and mediastinum. The lung, heart, and mediastinum regions were simulated by 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm, 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm and 10 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm copper plates, respectively. A test object of 100 mm x 100 mm and 0.2 mm thick copper was positioned to each region for CNR measurements. The phantom was exposed to x-rays generated by different tube potentials that covered settings in clinical use: 110-120 kVp (HVL=4.26-4.66 mm Al) at a source image distance (SID) of 180 cm. An approach similar to the recommended method in digital mammography was applied to determine the CNR values of phantom images produced by a Kodak CR 850A system with post-processing turned off. Subjective contrast-detail studies were also carried out by using images of Leeds TOR CDR test object acquired under similar exposure conditions as during CNR measurements. For clinical kVp conditions relevant to chest radiography, the CNR was highest over 90-100 kVp range. The CNR data correlated with the results of contrast detail observations. The values of clinical tube potentials at which CNR is the highest are regarded to be optimal kVp settings. The simplicity in phantom construction can offer easy implementation of related quality control program.

  5. Field data collection of miscellaneous electrical loads in Northern California: Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Pratt, Stacy; Willem, Henry; Claybaugh, Erin; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Beraki, Bereket; Nagaraju, Mythri; Price, Sarah K.; Young, Scott J.

    2013-02-25

    This report describes efforts to measure energy use of miscellaneous electrical loads (MELs) in 880 San Francisco Bay Area homes during the summer of 2012. Ten regions were selected for metering: Antioch, Berkeley, Fremont, Livermore, Marin County (San Rafael, Novato, Fairfax, and Mill Valley), Oakland/Emeryville, Pleasanton, Richmond, San Leandro, and Union City. The project focused on three major categories of devices: entertainment (game consoles, set-top boxes, televisions and video players), home office (computers, monitors and network equipment), and kitchen plug-loads (coffee/espresso makers, microwave ovens/toaster ovens/toasters, rice/slow cookers and wine chillers). These categories were important to meter because they either dominated the estimated overall energy use of MELs, are rapidly changing, or there are very little energy consumption data published. A total of 1,176 energy meters and 143 other sensors were deployed, and 90% of these meters and sensors were retrieved. After data cleaning, we obtained 711 valid device energy use measurements, which were used to estimate, for a number of device subcategories, the average time spent in high power, low power and “off” modes, the average energy use in each mode, and the average overall energy use. Consistent with observations made in previous studies, we find on average that information technology (IT) devices (home entertainment and home office equipment) consume more energy (15.0 and 13.0 W, respectively) than non-IT devices (kitchen plug-loads; 4.9 W). Opportunities for energy savings were identified in almost every device category, based on the time spent in various modes and/or the power levels consumed in those modes. Future reports will analyze the collected data in detail by device category and compare results to those obtained from prior studies.

  6. Tucumán ionospheric model (TIM): Initial results for STEC predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scidá, L. A.; Ezquer, R. G.; Cabrera, M. A.; Jadur, C.; Sfer, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Most ionospheric models can calculate vertical total electron content (VTEC) predictions, but only a few are suitable for calculating slant total electron content (STEC). This ionospheric magnitude is generally measured for electron content determinations, with VTEC particularly corresponding to an elevation of 90°. This is generally obtained by applying a mapping function to STEC measurements, which leads to important calculation errors. Moreover, the equatorial region has unique characteristics, such as the fountain effect and the equatorial electrojet, which lead to significant errors in the model's calculations. In this paper, the Tucumán ionospheric model (TIM) is presented as a novel alternative for calculating the STEC in low-latitude regions (-24 to 24 dip latitude). The model is based on spatial geometry where the considered trajectory is segmented, and the corresponding electron density calculations for the resulting segment end points are determined using the semi-empirical low-latitude ionospheric model (SLIM) with reference to their corresponding magnetic coordinates and height. Finally, the electron density values are integrated along the path to obtain the STEC. This work describes the TIM and tests their STEC predictions for five ray paths around the world (totaling 16 cases under study), which are compared with experimental data from satellites and with those calculated by the NeQuick model. Moreover, the TIM performance for VTEC predictions is also checked and compared with VTEC data obtained from Global Positioning System (GPS) signals, IRI model, and NeQuick model predictions, for six GPS receiver stations during the equinox and solstice (totaling 12 cases studied). Comparisons of the TIM predictions with experimental data show that 53% of the calculation has, in general, deviations <30%. For the considered cases, TIM reproduces the experimental data better than the other models.

  7. TU-A-BRD-01: Outcomes of Hypofractionated Treatments - Initial Results of the WGSBRT

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X; Lee, P; Ohri, N; Joiner, M; Kong, F; Jackson, A

    2014-06-15

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) has emerged in recent decades as a treatment paradigm that is becoming increasingly important in clinical practice. Clinical outcomes data are rapidly accumulating. Although published relations between outcomes and dose distributions are still sparse, the field has progressed to the point where evidence-based normal tissue dose-volume constraints, prescription strategies, and Tumor Control Probability (TCP) and Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) models can be developed. The Working Group on SBRT (WGSBRT), under the Biological Effects Subcommittee of AAPM, is a group of physicists and physicians working in the area of SBRT. It is currently performing critical literature reviews to extract and synthesize usable data and to develop guidelines and models to aid with safe and effective treatment. The group is investigating clinically relevant findings from SBRT in six anatomical regions: Cranial, Head and Neck, Thoracic, Abdominal, Pelvic, and Spinal. In this session of AAPM 2014, interim results are presented on TCP for lung and liver, NTCP for thoracic organs, and radiobiological foundations:• Lung TCP: Detailed modeling of TCP data from 118 published studies on early stage lung SBRT investigates dose response and hypothesized mechanisms to explain the improved outcomes of SBRT. This is presented from the perspective of a physicist, a physician, and a radiobiologist.• Liver TCP: For primary and metastatic liver tumors, individual patient data were extracted from published reports to examine the effects of biologically effective dose on local control.• Thoracic NTCP: Clinically significant SBRT toxicity of lung, rib / chest wall and other structures are evaluated and compared among published clinical data, in terms of risk, risk factors, and safe practice.• Improving the clinical utility of published toxicity reports from SBRT and Hypofractionated treatments. What do we want, and how do we get it? Methods

  8. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, dur-ing the government shutdown. The spacecraft impact-ed the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE's science objectives were twofold: (1) De-termine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for parti-cles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exo-spheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) ac-quired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wave-length range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. The following are preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longi-tudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lu-nar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization process-es. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent "shroud" of small dust particles

  9. Critical rainfall conditions for the initiation of torrential flows. Results from the Rebaixader catchment (Central Pyrenees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Moya, José; Berenguer, Marc

    2016-10-01

    , and mean intensity, Imean, of the rainfall event, and (ii) using floating durations, D, and intensities, Ifl, based on the maximum values over floating periods of different duration. The resulting thresholds are considerably different (Imean = 6.20 Dtot-0.36 and Ifl_90% = 5.49 D-0.75, respectively) showing a strong dependence on the applied methodology. On the other hand, the definition of the thresholds is affected by several types of uncertainties. Data from both rain gauges and weather radar were used to analyze the uncertainty associated with the spatial variability of the triggering rainfalls. The analysis indicates that the precipitation recorded by the nearby rain gauges can introduce major uncertainties, especially for convective summer storms. Thus, incorporating radar rainfall can significantly improve the accuracy of the measured triggering rainfall. Finally, thresholds were also derived according to three different criteria for the definition of the duration of the triggering rainfall: (i) the duration until the peak intensity, (ii) the duration until the end of the rainfall; and, (iii) the duration until the trigger of the torrential flow. An important contribution of this work is the assessment of the threshold relationships obtained using the third definition of duration. Moreover, important differences are observed in the obtained thresholds, showing that ID relationships are significantly dependent on the applied methodology.

  10. Factors initiating phytoplankton blooms and resulting effects on dissolved oxygen in Duwamish River estuary, Seattle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Eugene Brummer

    1969-01-01

    , as shown by studies of other estuarine environments by other workers, phytoplankton production increases when the zone of vertical turbulent mixing is not markedly deeper than the compensation depth. Phytoplankton cells produced in the surface waters sink, thereby contributing oxidizable organic matter to the bottom saline-water wedge. The maximum BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) in this bottom wedge occurs in the same section of the estuary and ,at the same time as the maximum phytoplankton biomass (as indicated by chlorophyll a) and minimum DO (dissolved oxygen). Other sources of BOD occur in the estuary, and conditions of minimum discharge and tidal exchange assist in reducing DO. Nonetheless, the highly significant correlation of chlorophyll a with BOD throughout the summer indicates that respiration and decomposition of phytoplankton cells is dearly an important contributor of BOD. Increases in the biomass and resultant B0D of blooms because of increased effluent nutrients presumably would further decrease the concentration of DO. This possible effect of effluent nutrients was evaluated by laboratory .bioassays and by a comparison of mean annual biomasses in the estuary. A green algal population in vitro did increase in response to added effluent nutrients; however, the available field data suggest that a 46-percent increase in effluent discharge between 1965 and 1966 did not increase the estuary's phytoplankton biomass significantly.

  11. Initial Results of X-ray Imaging and Energy Spectrum Measurements of Hot Electron Plasmas in RT-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Haruhiko; Yano, Yoshihisa; Mizushima, Tatsunori; Morikawa, Junji; Yoshida, Zensho

    To acquire spatial profiles and energy spectra of hot electrons in ECH plasmas, we installed a soft x-ray pinhole camera in RT-1. In this publication, we compare the results of an initial experiment using a mechanically supported dipole field coil with the measurements of plasma pressure for different microwave frequencies. The results indicate that the coil support structure was the major loss channel for the high temperature electrons.

  12. Initial design and results from an ion current collection diagnostic for the triggered plasma opening switch experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Daniel Peter Jr.; Seidel, David Bruce; Gilmore, Mark; Mendel, Clifford Will, Jr.

    2005-06-01

    Study of the triggered plasma opening switch (TPOS) characteristics is in progress via an ion current collection diagnostic (ICCD), in addition to offline apparatus. This initial ion current collection diagnostic has been designed, fabricated, and tested on the TPOS in order to explore the opening profile of the main switch. The initial ion current collection device utilizes five collectors which are positioned perpendicularly to the main switch stage in order to collect radially traveling ions. It has been shown through analytical prowess that this specific geometry can be treated as a planar case of the Child-Langmuir law with only a 6% deviation from the cylindrical case. Additionally, magnetostatic simulations with self consistent space charge emitting surfaces of the main switch using the Trak code are under way. It is hoped that the simulations will provide evidence in support of both the analytical derivations and experimental data. Finally, an improved design of the ICCD (containing 12 collectors in the axial direction) is presently being implemented.

  13. Review of Results and Recommendations from the GCMRC 2000-2003 Remote-Sensing Initiative for Monitoring Environmental Resources Within the Colorado River Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2004-01-01

    In mid-2000, the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) began a remote-sensing initiative to evaluate all remote-sensing technologies and methods that had potential for providing improved data (capability) for its various programs that monitor the Colorado River ecosystem (CRE). The primary objective of the initiative was to determine the most cost-effective data collection protocols for GCMRC programs that (1) provide the accuracies required for currently measured parameters, (2) provide additional parameters for ecological monitoring, (3) reduce environmental impact by being less invasive than current methods, and (4) expand geographic extent of current ground approaches. The initial phase of the remote-sensing initiative determined the types of sampling parameters and their required accuracies for monitoring. This information was used to determine the most appropriate sensors for evaluation. The initiative evaluated 25 different data collections over a three-year period; many more remote-sensing instruments were considered, but were not evaluated because they could not meet the basic requirements on spatial resolution, wavelength, positional accuracy, or elevation accuracy. It was hoped that the evaluations would lead to a minimum set of technologies that would satisfy many program requirements. The results from all of our evaluations are reviewed in this report and are briefly summarized in this report.

  14. Use of Polyacrylamide to Reduce Seepage From Unlined Irrigation Canals: Initial Results From Small Scale Test Troughs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susfalk, R. B.; Young, M. H.; Schmidt, M.; Epstein, B. J.; Goreham, J.; Swhihart, J.; Smith, D.

    2005-12-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) is a class of long-chain synthetic polymers that are used extensively in food packaging, paper manufacturing, wastewater treatment, and as a soil amendment to reduce erosion. Recent empirical evidence has shown that applying linear, anionic PAM seepage can also reduce seepage from unlined irrigation canals. A diverse set of experiments has been initiated to understand the efficacy of PAM usage in ditch environments. The experiments span multiple scales, from small-scale bench top and artificial furrow experiments, to larger engineered furrows and irrigation ditches. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of different PAM application methods and concentrations on seepage reductions in small scale, artificial Test Troughs (TT). The TT consists of two 24 m long, 10 cm deep furrows formed from native ASTM C-33 sand. During water application, inflows, outflows, and seepage from under the furrows were continuously measured. PAM in either granular or partially hydrated form was applied at various rates. The results presented here cover one facet of the research program. The application of granular PAM to the TT reduced seepage from 49 L/min to less than 22 L/min, depending on treatment. A PAM application rate of 44 kg/(canal ha) reduced seepage by 69+/-9 percent, and was more effective than an application rate of 11 kg/(canal ha) that reduced seepage by 56+/-22 percent. Seepage reduction was calculated using flow rates between 400 and 600 elapsed minutes. Inclusion of later data (up to 1440 min) into seepage calculations was complicated by a reduction in seepage at the control trough caused either by a reduction in head or deposition of suspended sediment. We hypothesize that the PAM-sediment layer present in the treated trough exerted a greater control on seepage than sediment deposition alone. However, heavy suspended sediment loads associated with hydrologic events reduced seepage rates within both the control and treated troughs, somewhat

  15. Federating clinical data from six pediatric hospitals: process and initial results for microbiology from the PHIS+ consortium.

    PubMed

    Gouripeddi, Ramkiran; Warner, Phillip B; Mo, Peter; Levin, James E; Srivastava, Rajendu; Shah, Samir S; de Regt, David; Kirkendall, Eric; Bickel, Jonathan; Korgenski, E Kent; Precourt, Michelle; Stepanek, Richard L; Mitchell, Joyce A; Narus, Scott P; Keren, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Microbiology study results are necessary for conducting many comparative effectiveness research studies. Unlike core laboratory test results, microbiology results have a complex structure. Federating and integrating microbiology data from six disparate electronic medical record systems is challenging and requires a team of varied skills. The PHIS+ consortium which is partnership between members of the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) network, the Children's Hospital Association and the University of Utah, have used "FURTHeR' for federating laboratory data. We present our process and initial results for federating microbiology data from six pediatric hospitals.

  16. Can homeopathy bring additional benefits to thalassemic patients on hydroxyurea therapy? Encouraging results of a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Antara; Chakrabarty, Sudipa Basu; Karmakar, Susanta Roy; Chakrabarty, Amit; Biswas, Surjyo Jyoti; Haque, Saiful; Das, Debarsi; Paul, Saili; Mandal, Biswapati; Naoual, Boujedaini; Belon, Philippe; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2010-03-01

    Several homeopathic remedies, namely, Pulsatilla Nigricans (30th potency), Ceanothus Americanus (both mother tincture and 6th potency) and Ferrum Metallicum (30th potency) selected as per similia principles were administered to 38 thalassemic patients receiving Hydroxyurea (HU) therapy for a varying period of time. Levels of serum ferritin (SF), fetal hemoglobin (HbF), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet count (PC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), white blood cell (WBC) count, bilirubin content, alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and serum total protein content of patients were determined before and 3 months after administration of the homeopathic remedies in combination with HU to evaluate additional benefits, if any, derived by the homeopathic remedies, by comparing the data with those of 38 subjects receiving only HU therapy. Preliminary results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the SF and increase in HbF levels in the combined, treated subjects. Although the changes in other parameters were not so significant, there was a significant decrease in size of spleen in most patients with spleenomegaly and improvement in general health conditions along with an increased gap between transfusions in most patients receiving the combined homeopathic treatment. The homeopathic remedies being inexpensive and without any known side-effects seem to have great potentials in bringing additional benefits to thalassemic patients; particularly in the developing world where blood transfusions suffer from inadequate screening and fall short of the stringent safety standards followed in the developed countries. Further independent studies are encouraged.

  17. Delays in antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-positive individuals: results of the positive living with HIV study

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Krishna C.; Buchanan, David R.; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Background Lack of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a major health concern due to increased risk of premature mortality and further HIV transmission. This study explored CD4+ cell count monitoring in relation to delays in ART initiation among HIV-positive individuals in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, where ART coverage was only 23.7% in 2011. Design We recruited a total of 87 ART-naïve, HIV-positive individuals aged 18 to 60 years through the networks of five non-government organizations working with HIV-positive individuals. We collected data on the history of ART initiation, CD4+ cell count monitoring, socio-demographic variables, perceived family support (measured with 10-item Nepali Family Support and Difficulty Scale), depression, and HIV symptom burden. Correlates of ART eligibility were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 72 of the 87 ART-naïve participants (82.8%) had monitored their CD4+ cell count in the past 6 months. Of these, 36 (50%) participants were eligible for ART initiation with CD4+ cell count <350 cells/mm3. A total of 12 participants had CD4+ cell count <200 cells/mm3. Lower level of perceived family support was associated with 6.05-fold higher odds (95% confidence interval =1.95 to 18.73) of being ART eligible with a CD4+ cell count <350 cells/mm3. Conclusions High rate of delays in ART initiation and the strong association of low perceived family support with ART eligibility in our study participants suggest that HIV service providers should consider the role and impact of family support in influencing individual decisions to initiate ART among eligible HIV-positive individuals. PMID:27369221

  18. Model assessment of additional contamination of water bodies as a result of wildfires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Yu I; Navumau, A D; Nikitin, A N; Brown, J; Dowdall, M

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires and wild fires are recognized as a possible cause of resuspension and redistribution of radioactive substances when occurring on lands contaminated with such materials, and as such are a matter of concern within the regions of Belarus and the Ukraine which were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Modelling the effects of such fires on radioactive contaminants is a complex matter given the number of variables involved. In this paper, a probabilistic model was developed using empirical data drawn from the Polessie State Radiation-Ecological Reserve (PSRER), Belarus, and the Maximum Entropy Method. Using the model, it was possible to derive estimates of the contribution of fire events to overall variability in the levels of (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu in ground air as well as estimates of the deposition of these radionuclides to specific water bodies within the contaminated areas of Belarus. Results indicate that fire events are potentially significant redistributors of radioactive contaminants within the study area and may result in additional contamination being introduced to water bodies.

  19. Accuracy and Precision in the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Dataset in Light of the JOSIE-2000 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Thompson, Anne M.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Smit, H. G. J.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1998 the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has provided over 2000 ozone profiles over eleven southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are used to measure ozone. The data are archived at: &ttp://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz>. In analysis of ozonesonde imprecision within the SHADOZ dataset, Thompson et al. [JGR, 108,8238,20031 we pointed out that variations in ozonesonde technique (sensor solution strength, instrument manufacturer, data processing) could lead to station-to-station biases within the SHADOZ dataset. Imprecisions and accuracy in the SHADOZ dataset are examined in light of new data. First, SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are compared to version 8 TOMS (2004 release). As for TOMS version 7, satellite total ozone is usually higher than the integrated column amount from the sounding. Discrepancies between the sonde and satellite datasets decline two percentage points on average, compared to version 7 TOMS offsets. Second, the SHADOZ station data are compared to results of chamber simulations (JOSE-2000, Juelich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment) in which the various SHADOZ techniques were evaluated. The range of JOSE column deviations from a standard instrument (-10%) in the chamber resembles that of the SHADOZ station data. It appears that some systematic variations in the SHADOZ ozone record are accounted for by differences in solution strength, data processing and instrument type (manufacturer).

  20. Uniqueness Results for Weak Leray-Hopf Solutions of the Navier-Stokes System with Initial Values in Critical Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, T.

    2017-01-01

    The main subject of this paper concerns the establishment of certain classes of initial data, which grant short time uniqueness of the associated weak Leray-Hopf solutions of the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. In particular, our main theorem that this holds for any solenodial initial data, with finite L_2(R^3) norm, that also belongs to certain subsets of {VMO}^{-1}(R^3) . As a corollary of this, we obtain the same conclusion for any solenodial u0 belonging to L2(R^3)\\cap dot{B}^{-1+3/p}_{p,∞}(R^3) , for any 3results rely on the establishment of certain continuity properties near the initial time, for weak Leray-Hopf solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, with these classes of initial data. Such properties seem to be of independent interest. Consequently, we are also able to show if a weak Leray-Hopf solution u satisfies certain extensions of the Prodi-Serrin condition on R^3 × ]0,T[ , then it is unique on R^3 × ]0,T[ amongst all other weak Leray-Hopf solutions with the same initial value. In particular, we show this is the case if uin L^{q,s}(0,T; L^{p,s}(R^3)) or if it's L^{q,∞}(0,T; L^{p,∞}(R^3)) norm is sufficiently small, where 3

  1. Factors Driving the Adoption of Quality Improvement Initiatives in Local Health Departments: Results From the 2010 Profile Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Huabin; Sotnikov, Sergey; McLees, Anita; Stokes, Shereitte

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, quality improvement (QI) has become a major focus in advancing the goal of improving performance of local health departments (LHDs). However, limited empirical data exists on the current implementation of QI initiatives in LHDs and factors associated with adoption of QI initiatives. Objectives (1) To examine the current implementation of QI implementation initiatives by LHDs and (2) to identify factors contributing to LHDs’ decision to implement QI initiatives. Methods In this study, a novel theoretical framework based on analysis of QI in medicine was applied to analyze QI by LHDs. LHDs’ QI adoption was assessed by the number of formal QI projects reported by LHDs that responded to module 1 of the 2010 National Profile of Local Health Department Study (Profile Study) conducted by the National Association of County & City Health Officials. The Profile Study data were merged with data from the Health Resources and Services Administration’s Area Resource Files and the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials’ 2010 Survey. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using Stata 11 SVY procedure to account for the complex sampling design. Results The Profile Study data indicated that about 73% of the LHDs reported implementing 1 or more QI projects. LHDs with large jurisdiction population (>50 000), higher per capita public health expenditure, a designated QI staff member, or prior participation in performance improvement programs were more likely to have undertaken QI initiatives. Conclusion According to the Profile Study, more than a quarter of LHDs surveyed did not report implementing any formal QI projects. Greater investments in QI programs and designation of QI staff can be effective strategies to promote QI adoption. The validity of the definition of a formal QI project needs to be established. More research to identify the barriers to successful QI implementation at LHDs is also needed. PMID:24978615

  2. Improvement in the prediction of the translation initiation site through balancing methods, inclusion of acquired knowledge and addition of features to sequences of mRNA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The accurate prediction of the initiation of translation in sequences of mRNA is an important activity for genome annotation. However, obtaining an accurate prediction is not always a simple task and can be modeled as a problem of classification between positive sequences (protein codifiers) and negative sequences (non-codifiers). The problem is highly imbalanced because each molecule of mRNA has a unique translation initiation site and various others that are not initiators. Therefore, this study focuses on the problem from the perspective of balancing classes and we present an undersampling balancing method, M-clus, which is based on clustering. The method also adds features to sequences and improves the performance of the classifier through the inclusion of knowledge obtained by the model, called InAKnow. Results Through this methodology, the measures of performance used (accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and adjusted accuracy) are greater than 93% for the Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus organisms, and varied between 72.97% and 97.43% for the other organisms evaluated: Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Homo sapiens, Nasonia vitripennis. The precision increases significantly by 39% and 22.9% for Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus, respectively, when the knowledge obtained by the model is included. For the other organisms, the precision increases by between 37.10% and 59.49%. The inclusion of certain features during training, for example, the presence of ATG in the upstream region of the Translation Initiation Site, improves the rate of sensitivity by approximately 7%. Using the M-Clus balancing method generates a significant increase in the rate of sensitivity from 51.39% to 91.55% (Mus musculus) and from 47.45% to 88.09% (Rattus norvegicus). Conclusions In order to solve the problem of TIS prediction, the results indicate that the methodology proposed in this work is adequate, particularly when using the

  3. Experimental Studies of Brines and Evaporites as Applied to Mars: Initial Results from 1998-1999 Runs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. M.; Bullock, M. A.; Mellon, M. T.; Woosley, C. R.; Zent, A. P.

    1999-01-01

    We are performing laboratory experiments to determine the concentrations and rates of dissolution of ions that could occur in closed, juvenile groundwater systems on Mars. Our approach is to incubate unaltered Mars-analog minerals in initially pure liquid water in contact with a Mars gas mixture for one year. At exponentially increasing time intervals, aliquots of the solutions at three different temperatures are extracted and analyzed using standard terrestrial laboratory geochemical techniques. Ultimately, our experiments will produce Mars analog brines which will be freeze dried to create evaporites. The physical and chemical properties of these evaporites will be compared with spacecraft remote sensing and in situ compositional and physical data. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Temporal and spatial variations of pulsating auroras obtained from ground-based observations at Poker Flat Research Range: Initial result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, T.; Sakanoi, T.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kataoka, R.; Katoh, Y.; Asamura, K.; Sato, M.; Okano, S.

    2011-12-01

    Pulsating Aurora(PA) is characterized by the periodically changing emission amplitudes with the rectangular pulses of a few seconds to a few tens of seconds [e.g., Oguti et al., 1981; Yamamoto, 1988]. PAs tend to appear in the recovery phase of substorm between postmidnight and dawn sector. The horizontal size of PAs are known to be 10-200 km, based on the optical observations. Recently, some ground-satellite coordinated observations suggested the generation mechanisms of PAs as a result of pitch angle scatterings due to whistler mode chorus waves and/or the electron cyclotron harmonics[Nishimura et al., 2010; Liang et al., 2010]. Time-varying field aligned potential was also suggested by Sato et al. [2004]. The dominant mechanisms and the origin of the periodicity remain unclear. Ground-based all-sky observations have been made for a long time, although they were not enough for a quantitative discussion about small-scale characteristics of PAs such as the shapes and dynamics due to their limited spatial resolutions. The fast temporal variations of intensity known as quasi-3Hz modulations, which was reported by a number of rocket/satellite observations about precipitating electrons[e.g., Sandahl et al., 1980], has been hardly discussed in detail using the ground instruments because of the limited temporal resolutions and sensitivities. We have carried out ground-based observations using a suit of instruments, consisting of an EMCCD camera, an all-sky video camera, a photometer, and a search coil magnetometer covering the frequency range of ELF-VLF. We installed the instruments at Poker Flat Research Range between November 2010 and March 2011. Our EMCCD camera has narrow field of view corresponding to 100km × 100km at altitude of 110 km and high sampling rate up to 100 frames per second. An initial analysis result of event on March 4th 2011 around 1100UT revealed two important features of PAs in small scale. One is PAs in the FOV can be categorized into three

  5. [Shift the skin paddle in an additional incision improves the result: Study of a series of 82 breast reconstructions by latissimus dorsi flap and prosthesis implantation at 10 years].

    PubMed

    Chiriac, S; Dissaux, C; Bruant-Rodier, C; Djerada, Z; Bodin, F; François, C

    2016-11-17

    The position of the skin paddle on the breast area is a fundamental element for the breast reconstructions by latissimus dorsi flap and prosthesis implantation. Should, as Millard advocated, to recreate the initial defect and include it in the mastectomy scar or is it better in an additional incision as have others authors. This study compares the long-term morphological results of these two attitudes, with or without additional incision.

  6. What Lies beneath Seemingly Positive Campus Climate Results: Institutional Sexism, Racism, and Male Hostility toward Equity Initiatives and Liberal Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents qualitative results from a campus climate study at one predominately white university. Data analysis uncovered "what lies beneath" a seemingly positive campus climate. Gender differences in survey responses suggest that men and women experienced the climate in vastly different ways. Additionally, lack of deep diversity…

  7. Infraspinatus/Teres minor transfer biceps in situ tenodesis procedure: initial results of a technique for massive cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Matt D A

    2013-01-01

    Massive rotator cuff tears may not be primarily repairable with salvage options not necessarily providing acceptable results. Extrinsic tendon transfer is a significant undertaking with prolonged rehabilitation and variable outcome. A novel technique for the reconstruction of massive tears, not amenable to primary repair, by performing a transfer of the intrinsic posterior rotator cuff onto an intact, tenodesed long head of biceps tendon acting as a scaffold for the intrinsic transfer is described. The clinical results at short to medium term in 17 initial patients are presented. Encouraging results from this study suggest that this is a viable option for the management of massive rotator cuff tears with an intact posterior cuff with results equal or superior to other reconstructive techniques.

  8. Initial results of a model rotor higher harmonic control (HHC) wind tunnel experiment on BVI impulsive noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splettstoesser, W. R.; Lehmann, G.; van der Wall, B.

    1989-09-01

    Initial acoustic results are presented from a higher harmonic control (HHC) wind tunnel pilot experiment on helicopter rotor blade-vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise reduction, making use of the DFVLR 40-percent-scaled BO-105 research rotor in the DNW 6m by 8m closed test section. Considerable noise reduction (of several decibels) has been measured for particular HHC control settings, however, at the cost of increased vibration levels and vice versa. The apparently adverse results for noise and vibration reduction by HHC are explained. At optimum pitch control settings for BVI noise reduction, rotor simulation results demonstrate that blade loading at the outer tip region is decreased, vortex strength and blade vortex miss-distance are increased, resulting altogether in reduced BVI noise generation. At optimum pitch control settings for vibration reduction adverse effects on blade loading, vortex strength and blade vortex miss-distance are found.

  9. How protonation and deprotonation of 9-methylguanine alter its singlet O2 addition path: about the initial stage of guanine nucleoside oxidation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenchao; Teng, Huayu; Liu, Jianbo

    2016-06-01

    Mutagenicity of singlet O2 is due to its oxidatively generated damage to the guanine nucleobases of DNA. Oxidation of neutral guanosine has been assumed to be initiated by the formation of a transient 4,8-endoperoxide via a Diels-Alder cycloaddition of singlet O2. Protonation and deprotonation of guanosine represent another factor related to DNA damage and repair. Herein, 9-methylguanine was utilized as a model substrate to mimic the correlation between singlet O2 oxidation of the nucleoside and its ionization states, both in the absence and in the presence of water ligands. We used guided-ion-beam scattering tandem mass spectrometry to detect and quantify transient intermediates at room temperature. To provide a reliable description of reaction potential surfaces, different levels of theory including restricted and unrestricted density functional theory, CCSD(T), MP2, and multi-reference CASSCF and CASMP2 were applied. By means of molecular potential, kinetic and direct dynamics simulations, two reaction pathways were identified and neither follows the mechanism for neutral guanosine. Singlet O2 oxidation of protonated 9-methylguanine begins by a concerted cycloaddition; but it is mediated by a 5,8-endoperoxide. By contrast, a concerted cycloaddition does not occur for deprotonated 9-methylguanine. The latter involves a stepwise addition starting with the formation of an 8-peroxide, which subsequently evolves to a 4,8-endoperoxide. This dichotomy implies that acidic and basic media may lead to different chemistries for guanosine oxidation in aqueous solutions, starting from initial stage. The comparison with oxidation of protonated/deprotonated guanine illustrates the different mechanisms and products and particularly the suppressed oxidizability of 9-methylguanine vs. free guanine.

  10. Involving local health departments in community health partnerships: evaluation results from the partnership for the public's health initiative.

    PubMed

    Cheadle, Allen; Hsu, Clarissa; Schwartz, Pamela M; Pearson, David; Greenwald, Howard P; Beery, William L; Flores, George; Casey, Maria Campbell

    2008-03-01

    Improving community health "from the ground up" entails a comprehensive ecological approach, deep involvement of community-based entities, and addressing social determinants of population health status. Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Office of the Surgeon General, and other authorities have called for public health to be an "inter-sector" enterprise, few models have surfaced that feature local health departments as a key part of the collaborative model for effecting community-level change. This paper presents evaluation findings and lessons learned from the Partnership for the Public's Health (PPH), a comprehensive community initiative that featured a central role for local health departments with their community partners. Funded by The California Endowment, PPH provided technical and financial resources to 39 community partnerships in 14 local health department jurisdictions in California to promote community and health department capacity building and community-level policy and systems change designed to produce long-term improvements in population health. The evaluation used multiple data sources to create progress ratings for each partnership in five goal areas related to capacity building, community health improvement programs, and policy and systems change. Overall results were generally positive; in particular, of the 37 partnerships funded continuously throughout the 5 years of the initiative, between 25% and 40% were able to make a high level of progress in each of the Initiative's five goal areas. Factors associated with partnership success were also identified by local evaluators. These results showed that health departments able to work effectively with community groups had strong, committed leaders who used creative financing mechanisms, inclusive planning processes, organizational changes, and open communication to promote collaboration with the communities they served.

  11. The Evolution of P-wave Velocity in Fault Gouge: Initial Results for Samples from the SAFOD Volume.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, M. W.; Tobin, H. J.; Marone, C.

    2008-12-01

    We present initial results from a new technique for observing the evolution of elastic properties in sheared fault zone materials via acoustic wave velocity. The relationship between the mechanical strength of fault gouge and acoustic velocity during active deformation has important implications not only for a physical understanding of elasticity in deforming granular media, but also for the interpretation of the seismic velocity at the field scale. Experiments are conducted at atmospheric temperature and saturation state in a double-direct-shear testing apparatus, with normal stress stepped from 1 to 19 MPa to interrogate behavior during compaction, and sheared at a rate of 10 microns/second to observe changes in velocity with increasing strain. Tests are divided between those involving continuous shear to a displacement of 22.5 mm, and those with intervals of 3.75 mm shear separated by unloading and reloading sequences in normal stress. Velocity is measured by time-of-flight between two piezoelectric P-wave transducers set into the sample configuration on either side of the shearing layers. Samples tested include common laboratory standards for simulated fault gouge and field samples taken from representative localities in the 3D rock volume containing the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth experiment in Parkfield, California. The velocities of sand and clay end-member gouges are observed to behave differently under shear, and mixtures of quartz sand and montmorillonite behave differently from both end-member materials. Initial results suggest that particle sorting exerts a strong influence on both the absolute velocity and the evolution of velocity in response to increasing shear strain where the elastic properties of the grains are similar. We also observe a first-order relationship between the coefficient of friction and P-wave velocity that appears to be related to grain reorganization at the onset of shear following initial compaction.

  12. Combined Lidar-Radar Remote Sensing: Initial Results from CRYSTAL-FACE and Implications for Future Spaceflight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew J.; Li, Li-Hua; Hart, William D.; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Winker, David M.

    2003-01-01

    In the near future NASA plans to fly satellites carrying a multi-wavelength backscatter lidar and a 94-GHz cloud profiling radar in formation to provide complete global profiling of cloud and aerosol properties. The CRYSTAL-FACE field campaign, conducted during July 2002, provided the first high-altitude colocated measurements from lidar and cloud profiling radar to simulate these spaceborne sensors. The lidar and radar provide complementary measurements with varying degrees of measurement overlap. This paper presents initial results of the combined airborne lidar-radar measurements during CRYSTAL-FACE. The overlap of instrument sensitivity is presented, within the context of particular CRYSTAL-FACE conditions. Results are presented to quantify the portion of atmospheric profiles sensed independently by each instrument and the portion sensed simultaneously by the two instruments.

  13. Assessment of effectiveness measures in patients with schizophrenia initiated on risperidone long-acting therapy: the SOURCE study results

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To evaluate effectiveness outcomes in a real-world setting in patients with schizophrenia initiating risperidone long-acting therapy (RLAT). Methods This was a 24-month, multicenter, prospective, longitudinal, observational study in patients with schizophrenia who were initiated on RLAT. Physicians could change treatment during the study as clinically warranted. Data were collected at baseline and subsequently every 3 months up to 24 months. Effectiveness outcomes included changes in illness severity as measured by Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale; functional scores as measured by Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), and Strauss-Carpenter Levels of Functioning (LOF); and health status (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 [SF-36]). Life-table methodology was used to estimate the cumulative probability of relapse over time. Adverse events were evaluated for safety. Results 532 patients were enrolled in the study; 209 (39.3%) completed the 24-month study and 305 (57.3%) had at least 12 months of follow-up data. The mean (SD) age of patients was 42.3 (12.8) years. Most patients were male (66.4%) and either Caucasian (60.3%) or African American (23.7%). All changes in CGI-S from baseline at each subsequent 3-month follow-up visit were statistically significant (p < .0001), indicating improvement in disease severity. Improvements were also noted for the PSP, GAF, and total LOF, indicating improvement in daily functioning and health outcome. Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia who were initiated on RLAT demonstrated improvements in measures of effectiveness within 3 months, which persisted over 24 months. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00246194 PMID:21999346

  14. Paleomagnetic results from IODP Expedition 344 Site U1381 and implications for the initial subduction of the Cocos Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong-Xiang; Zhao, Xixi; Jovane, Luigi; Petronotis, Katerina; Gong, Zheng; Xie, Siyi

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the processes that govern the strength, nature, and distribution of slip along subduction zones is a fundamental and societally relevant goal of modern earth science. The Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) is specially designed to understand the processes that control nucleation and seismic rupture of large earthquakes at erosional subduction zones. Drilling directly on the Cocos Ridge (CR) during International Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 344 discovered a sedimentary hiatus in Site U1381 cores. In this study, we conducted a magnetostratigraphic and rock magnetic study on the Cenozoic sedimentary sequences of site U1381. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data from sediments above and below the hiatus show oblate fabrcis, but the Kmin axes of the AMS data from sediments below the hiatus are more dispersed than those from sediments above the hiatus, implying that formation of hiatus may have affected AMS. Paleomagnetic results of the U1381 core, together with available Ar-Ar dates of ash layers from sediments below the hiatus, allow us to establish a geomagnetic polarity timescale that brackets the hiatus between ca. 9.61 and 1.52 Ma. Analyses of sedimentary records from ODP/IODP cores in the vicinity reveal that the hiatus appears to be regional, spanning the northeastern end of the CR. Also, the hiatus appears to occur only at certain locations. Its regional occurrence at unique locations implies a link to the initial shallow subduction of the Cocos Ridge. The hiatus was probably produced by either bottom current erosion or the CR buckling upon its initial collision with the Middle American trench (MAT). Thus, the initial subduction of the CR must have taken place on or before 1.52 Ma.

  15. A Computational Neurodegenerative Disease Progression Score: Method and Results with the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jedynak, Bruno M.; Lang, Andrew; Liu, Bo; Katz, Elyse; Zhang, Yanwei; Wyman, Bradley T.; Raunig, David; Jedynak, C. Pierre; Caffo, Brian; Prince, Jerry L.

    2012-01-01

    While neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by steady degeneration over relatively long timelines, it is widely believed that the early stages are the most promising for therapeutic intervention, before irreversible neuronal loss occurs. Developing a therapeutic response requires a precise measure of disease progression. However, since the early stages are for the most part asymptomatic, obtaining accurate measures of disease progression is difficult. Longitudinal databases of hundreds of subjects observed during several years with tens of validated biomarkers are becoming available, allowing the use of computational methods. We propose a widely applicable statistical methodology for creating a disease progression score (DPS), using multiple biomarkers, for subjects with a neurodegenerative disease. The proposed methodology was evaluated for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using the publicly available AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database, yielding an Alzheimer’s DPS or ADPS score for each subject and each time-point in the database. In addition, a common description of biomarker changes was produced allowing for an ordering of the biomarkers. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test delayed recall was found to be the earliest biomarker to become abnormal. The group of biomarkers comprising the volume of the hippocampus and the protein concentration amyloid beta and Tau were next in the timeline, and these were followed by three cognitive biomarkers. The proposed methodology thus has potential to stage individuals according to their state of disease progression relative to a population and to deduce common behaviors of biomarkers in the disease itself. PMID:22885136

  16. Results of applying a non-evaporative mitigation technique to laser-initiated surface damage on fused-silica

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J J; Bolourchi, M; Bude, J D; Guss, G M; Matthews, M J; Nostrand, M C

    2010-10-26

    We present results from a study to determine an acceptable CO{sub 2} laser-based non-evaporative mitigation protocol for use on surface damage sites in fused-silica optics. A promising protocol is identified and evaluated on a set of surface damage sites created under ICF-type laser conditions. Mitigation protocol acceptability criteria for damage re-initiation and growth, downstream intensification, and residual stress are discussed. In previous work, we found that a power ramp at the end of the protocol effectively minimizes the residual stress (<25 MPa) left in the substrate. However, the biggest difficulty in determining an acceptable protocol was balancing between low re-initiation and problematic downstream intensification. Typical growing surface damage sites mitigated with a candidate CO{sub 2} laser-based mitigation protocol all survived 351 nm, 5 ns damage testing to fluences >12.5 J/cm{sup 2}. The downstream intensification arising from the mitigated sites is evaluated, and all but one of the sites has 100% passing downstream damage expectation values. We demonstrate, for the first time, a successful non-evaporative 10.6 {micro}m CO{sub 2} laser mitigation protocol applicable to fused-silica optics used on fusion-class lasers like the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  17. Initial test results for a passive surface water fluxmeter to measure cumulative water and solute mass fluxes.

    PubMed

    Klammler, Harald; Newman, Mark A; Szilágyi, Eszter; Padowski, Julie C; Hatfield, Kirk; Jawitz, James W; Annable, Michael D

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical concept and initial test results of a Passive Surface Water Fluxmeter (PSFM) to directly and simultaneously measure cumulative water and solute mass fluxes in surface water flow systems are presented. The PSFM consists of a symmetric hydrofoil that is vertically installed in a stream and one or more sorbent columns that are connected to the nonuniform flow field around the hydrofoil. Depending on the ambient flow velocity, a flow occurs through each column, which elutes portions of initially present "resident" tracers in the column, while, at the same time, solutes in the water (e.g., contaminants or nutrients) are retained in the sorbent column. Quantification of the resident tracer mass remaining and the mass of solutes sorbed in the column enables determination of the local cumulative or time-averaged water and solute mass fluxes. Laboratory flume experiments show good agreement with independent measurements (R(2) > or = 0.96) for instantaneous water fluxes (tested range: 0.3-0.7 m/s), cumulative water fluxes (50-600 L/cm(2)), and cumulative nitrate fluxes (0.4-5.1 g/cm(2)). Future work is required to validate the PSFM performance under a larger range of flow velocities, transient flow, and transport conditions and for different hydrofoil shapes.

  18. Initial Results of an Evidence-Based Safe Patient Handling and Mobility Program to Decrease Hospital Worker Injuries.

    PubMed

    Przybysz, Linda; Levin, Pamela F

    2017-02-01

    The rate for musculoskeletal injuries among health care workers is one of the highest for all industrial sectors in the United States; these injuries often occur during manual handling (i.e., lifting, moving, transferring, and repositioning) of patients. The following article describes the process used to complete a comprehensive assessment, as well as the planning, implementation, and initial evaluation of a quality improvement program to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) among health care workers employed by a rural Midwest hospital. Key elements for WMSD injury reduction were identified and compared across literature sources, national standards, and current state and federal legislative requirements for hospitals. The program used a multi-factor design that included evidence-based interventions (i.e., those supported by emerging evidence) to create a comprehensive Safe Patient Handling and Mobility (SPHM) program intended to address the unique needs of the organization. Initial program results are reviewed as well as significant considerations and challenges for SPHM programs.

  19. Additional results on palaeomagnetic stratigraphy of the Koobi Fora Formation, east of Lake Turkana (Lake Rudolf), Kenya

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.; Ndombi, J.W.M.; Cox, A.; Brock, A.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetostratigraphy of the hominid-bearing sediments exposed east of Lake Turkana has been strengthened by new palaeomagnetic results. Ages obtained from several tuffs by the 40Ar/39Ar method suggest an approxmate match between the observed magnetozones and the geomagnetic polarity time scale; however, the palaeomagnetic results are also compatible with a younger chronology suggested by conventional K-Ar dating of the KBS Tuff. ?? 1977 Nature Publishing Group.

  20. Cold Helium Pressurization for Liquid Oxygen / Liquid Methane Propulsion Systems: Fully-Integrated Initial Hot-Fire Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morehead, R. L.; Atwell, M. J.; Melcher, J. C.; Hurlbert, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    A prototype cold helium active pressurization system was incorporated into an existing liquid oxygen (LOX) / liquid methane (LCH4) prototype planetary lander and hot-fire tested to collect vehicle-level performance data. Results from this hot-fire test series were used to validate integrated models of the vehicle helium and propulsion systems and demonstrate system effectiveness for a throttling lander. Pressurization systems vary greatly in complexity and efficiency between vehicles, so a pressurization performance metric was also developed as a means to compare different active pressurization schemes. This implementation of an active repress system is an initial sizing draft. Refined implementations will be tested in the future, improving the general knowledge base for a cryogenic lander-based cold helium system.

  1. A Multi-Source Inverse-Geometry CT system: Initial results with an 8 spot x-ray source array

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jongduk; De Man, Bruno; Uribe, Jorge; Longtin, Randy; Harrison, Daniel; Reynolds, Joseph; Neculaes, Bogdan; Frutschy, Kristopher; Inzinna, Louis; Caiafa, Antonio; Senzig, Robert; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    We present initial experimental results of a rotating-gantry multi-source inverse-geometry CT (MS-IGCT) system. The MS-IGCT system was built with a single module of 2×4 x-ray sources and a 2D detector array. It produced a 75 mm in-plane field-of-view (FOV) with 160 mm axial coverage in a single gantry rotation. To evaluate system performance, a 2.5 inch diameter uniform PMMA cylinder phantom, a 200 μm diameter tungsten wire, and a euthanized rat were scanned. Each scan acquired 125 views per source and the gantry rotation time was 1 second per revolution. Geometric calibration was performed using a bead phantom. The scanning parameters were 80 kVp, 125 mA, and 5.4 us pulse per source location per view. A data normalization technique was applied to the acquired projection data, and beam hardening and spectral nonlinearities of each detector channel were corrected. For image reconstruction, the projection data of each source row were rebinned into a full cone beam data set, and the FDK algorithm was used. The reconstructed volumes from upper and lower source rows shared an overlap volume which was combined in image space. The images of the uniform PMMA cylinder phantom showed good uniformity and no apparent artefacts. The measured in-plane MTF showed 13 lp/cm at 10% cutoff, in good agreement with expectations. The rat data were also reconstructed reliably. The initial experimental results from this rotating-gantry MS-IGCT system demonstrated its ability to image a complex anatomical object without any significant image artefacts and to achieve high image resolution and large axial coverage in a single gantry rotation. PMID:24556567

  2. A multi-source inverse-geometry CT system: initial results with an 8 spot x-ray source array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Jongduk; De Man, Bruno; Uribe, Jorge; Longtin, Randy; Harrison, Daniel; Reynolds, Joseph; Neculaes, Bogdan; Frutschy, Kristopher; Inzinna, Louis; Caiafa, Antonio; Senzig, Robert; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-03-01

    We present initial experimental results of a rotating-gantry multi-source inverse-geometry CT (MS-IGCT) system. The MS-IGCT system was built with a single module of 2 × 4 x-ray sources and a 2D detector array. It produced a 75 mm in-plane field-of-view (FOV) with 160 mm axial coverage in a single gantry rotation. To evaluate system performance, a 2.5 inch diameter uniform PMMA cylinder phantom, a 200 µm diameter tungsten wire, and a euthanized rat were scanned. Each scan acquired 125 views per source and the gantry rotation time was 1 s per revolution. Geometric calibration was performed using a bead phantom. The scanning parameters were 80 kVp, 125 mA, and 5.4 µs pulse per source location per view. A data normalization technique was applied to the acquired projection data, and beam hardening and spectral nonlinearities of each detector channel were corrected. For image reconstruction, the projection data of each source row were rebinned into a full cone beam data set, and the FDK algorithm was used. The reconstructed volumes from upper and lower source rows shared an overlap volume which was combined in image space. The images of the uniform PMMA cylinder phantom showed good uniformity and no apparent artifacts. The measured in-plane MTF showed 13 lp cm-1 at 10% cutoff, in good agreement with expectations. The rat data were also reconstructed reliably. The initial experimental results from this rotating-gantry MS-IGCT system demonstrated its ability to image a complex anatomical object without any significant image artifacts and to achieve high image resolution and large axial coverage in a single gantry rotation.

  3. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I–VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI. PMID:25473496

  4. A re-examination of paleomagnetic results from NA Jurassic sedimentary rocks: Additional evidence for proposed Jurassic MUTO?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Kent and Irving, 2010; and Kent et al, 2015 propose a monster shift in the position of Jurassic (160 to 145 Ma) paleopoles for North America- defined by results from igneous rocks. This monster shift is likely an unrecognized true polar wander occurrence. Although subject to inclination error, results from sedimentary rocks from North America, if corrected for these effects, can be used to supplement the available data for this time period. Steiner (2003) reported results from 48 stratigraphic horizons sampled from the Callovian Summerville Fm, from NE New Mexico. A recalculated mean of these results yields a mean direction of D = 332, I = 39, n=48, k = 15, α95 = 5.4°. These data were analyzed for possible inclination error-although the dataset is small, the E-I results yielded a corrected I = 53. This yields a corrected paleopole for NA at ~165 Ma located at 67° N and 168° E.Paleomagnetic results from the Black Hills- Kilanowski (2002) for the Callovian Hulett Mbr of the Sundance Fm, and Gregiore (2001) the Oxfordian-Tithonian Morrison Fm (Gregiore, 2001) have previously been interpreted to represent Eocene-aged remagnetizations- due to the nearly exact coincidence between the in-situ pole positions of these Jurassic units with the Eocene pole for NA. Both of the tilt-corrected results for these units have high latitude poles (Sundance Fm: 79° N, 146° E; Morrison Fm: 89° N, 165° E). An E-I analysis of these data will be presented- using a provisional inclination error of 10°, corrected paleopoles are: (Sundance Fm: 76° N, 220° E; Morrison Fm: 77° N, 266° E). The Black Hills 165 Ma (Sundance Fm) and 145 Ma (Morrison Fm) poles, provisionally corrected for 10° inclination error- occur fairly close to the NA APWP proposed by Kent et al, 2015- using an updated set of results from kimberlites- the agreement between the Sundance Fm and the Triple-B (158 Ma) pole would be nearly exact with a slightly lesser inclination error. The Summerville Fm- which is

  5. Mean PB To Failure - Initial results from a long-term study of disk storage patterns at the RACF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caramarcu, C.; Hollowell, C.; Rao, T.; Strecker-Kellogg, W.; Wong, A.; Zaytsev, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    The RACF (RHIC-ATLAS Computing Facility) has operated a large, multi-purpose dedicated computing facility since the mid-1990’s, serving a worldwide, geographically diverse scientific community that is a major contributor to various HEPN projects. A central component of the RACF is the Linux-based worker node cluster that is used for both computing and data storage purposes. It currently has nearly 50,000 computing cores and over 23 PB of storage capacity distributed over 12,000+ (non-SSD) disk drives. The majority of the 12,000+ disk drives provide a cost-effective solution for dCache/XRootD-managed storage, and a key concern is the reliability of this solution over the lifetime of the hardware, particularly as the number of disk drives and the storage capacity of individual drives grow. We report initial results of a long-term study to measure lifetime PB read/written to disk drives in the worker node cluster. We discuss the historical disk drive mortality rate, disk drive manufacturers' published MPTF (Mean PB to Failure) data and how they are correlated to our results. The results help the RACF understand the productivity and reliability of its storage solutions and have implications for other highly-available storage systems (NFS, GPFS, CVMFS, etc) with large I/O requirements.

  6. Initialization of a Numerical Mesoscale Model with ALEXI-derived Volumetric Soil Moisture: Case Results and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecikalski, J. R.; Hain, C. R.; Anderson, M. C.

    2006-05-01

    behavior of the four layers used in the land-surface models. This presentation will first overview how volumetric soil moisture estimates from ALEXI, NAM (EDAS), and LDAS will be validated against observations taken over the continental United States during the years of 2003/2004. Results will be quantified through statistical techniques. Second, upon successful validation of ALEXI-derived volumetric soil moisture, these estimates will be used to initialize mesoscale simulations using both the Weather and Forecasting Model (WRF) and MM5. The process used is a unique implementation of GOES satellite-estimated soil moisture, a process which has not yet been attempted. The focus of this presentation is to examine the effects of ALEXI-derived volumetric soil moisture on the simulations during several case study days in 2003 and 2004. The soil moisture estimates from ALEXI will initially be used to initialize these models at a spatial resolution of 10 km. Initialization of high-resolution land-surface characteristic datasets within our model simulations such as fraction of vegetative cover and leaf area index (LAI) will also be examined as these datasets are native to the calculation of parameters used in the derivation of ALEXI soil moisture. This process will help to quantify the sensitivity and importance of a higher-resolution soil moisture dataset, and one that does not rely on the assimilation of antecedent precipitation. Results will be quantified through statistical verification techniques.

  7. Full Life-Cycle Defect Management Assessment: Initial Inspection Data Collection Results and Research Questions for Further Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Forrest; Feldmann, Raimund; Haingaertner, Ralf; Regardie, Myrna; Seaman, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    It is often the case in software projects that when schedule and budget resources are limited, the Verification and Validation (V&V) activities suffer. Fewer V&V activities can be afforded and moreover, short-term challenges can result in V&V activities being scaled back or dropped altogether. As a result, too often the default solution is to save activities for improving software quality until too late in the life-cycle, relying on late-term code inspections followed by thorough testing activities to reduce defect counts to acceptable levels. As many project managers realize, however, this is a resource-intensive way of achieving the required quality for software. The Full Life-cycle Defect Management Assessment Initiative, funded by NASA s Office of Safety and Mission Assurance under the Software Assurance Research Program, aims to address these problems by: Improving the effectiveness of early life-cycle V&V activities to make their benefits more attractive to team leads. Specifically, we focus on software inspection, a proven method that can be applied to any software work product, long before executable code has been developed; Better communicating this effectiveness to software development teams, along with suggestions for parameters to improve in the future to increase effectiveness; Analyzing the impact of early life-cycle V&V on the effectiveness and cost required for late life-cycle V&V activities, such as testing, in order to make the tradeoffs more apparent. This white paper reports on an initial milestone in this work, the development of a preliminary model of inspection effectiveness across multiple NASA Centers. This model contributes toward reaching our project goals by: Allowing an examination of inspection parameters, across different types of projects and different work products, for an analysis of factors that impact defect detection effectiveness. Allowing a comparison of this NASA-specific model to existing recommendations in the literature

  8. A novel, integrated PET-guided MRS technique resulting in more accurate initial diagnosis of high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ellen S; Satter, Martin; Reed, Marilyn; Fadell, Ronald; Kardan, Arash

    2016-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal malignant glioma in adults. Currently, the modality of choice for diagnosing brain tumor is high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast, which provides anatomic detail and localization. Studies have demonstrated, however, that MRI may have limited utility in delineating the full tumor extent precisely. Studies suggest that MR spectroscopy (MRS) can also be used to distinguish high-grade from low-grade gliomas. However, due to operator dependent variables and the heterogeneous nature of gliomas, the potential for error in diagnostic accuracy with MRS is a concern. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (11)C-methionine (MET) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been shown to add additional information with respect to tumor grade, extent, and prognosis based on the premise of biochemical changes preceding anatomic changes. Combined PET/MRS is a technique that integrates information from PET in guiding the location for the most accurate metabolic characterization of a lesion via MRS. We describe a case of glioblastoma multiforme in which MRS was initially non-diagnostic for malignancy, but when MRS was repeated with PET guidance, demonstrated elevated choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA) ratio in the right parietal mass consistent with a high-grade malignancy. Stereotactic biopsy, followed by PET image-guided resection, confirmed the diagnosis of grade IV GBM. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an integrated PET/MRS technique for the voxel placement of MRS. Our findings suggest that integrated PET/MRS may potentially improve diagnostic accuracy in high-grade gliomas.

  9. D-O Events in the Southern Tropics of East Africa? Initial XRF Results From the Lake Malawi Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. T.; Johnson, T. C.; Scholz, C. A.; King, J.; Cohen, A. S.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the Lake Malawi Drilling Project we have undertaken a 1 cm-scale resolution XRF scanning study of core from site 2A in the Northern Basin of the lake (ca. 10 South latitude). This 38-m core provides an essentially continuous record of regional climate over the past 70,000 years, so our XRF analyses correspond to an average temporal resolution of approximately 20 years. We have focused our initial study on certain parameters, including Fe, Zr:Ti, and Si:Ti. These may be interpreted to represent changing input of terrigenous sediments (delivered to the lake rivers), soils developed from weathered volcanic ash (delivered more effectively under drier windier conditions), and biogenic silica, respectively. Our initial analyses of the XRF results indicate abrupt and strong, millennial-scale variability in regional climate throughout the past 70,000 years. The series of events consists of rapid (~100-year) increases in Zr:Ti and Si:Ti followed by slower decreases toward background values. These events are strikingly similar in form and in timing to Dansgaard- Oeschger events of high northern latitudes. The Younger Dryas and the Holocene "cold" periods in the Northern Hemisphere were times of enhanced input of wind-blown volcanic ash-derived materials and of diatom productivity, probably stimulated by northerly winds and upwelling in the north of the lake. Interestingly, in contrast to the Late Glacial and Holocene, times of higher productivity and enhanced input of volcanic-ash derived material in the earlier part of the record coincide with episodes of warming as recorded in Greenland ice. This suggests that a significant change in the tropical response to climate forcing occurred at the time of waning of Northern Hemisphere glaciation.

  10. Additive reductions in zebrafish PRPS1 activity result in a spectrum of deficiencies modeling several human PRPS1-associated diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Wuhong; Xu, Lisha; Varshney, Gaurav K.; Carrington, Blake; Bishop, Kevin; Jones, MaryPat; Huang, Sunny C.; Idol, Jennifer; Pretorius, Pamela R.; Beirl, Alisha; Schimmenti, Lisa A.; Kindt, Katie S.; Sood, Raman; Burgess, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase-1 (PRPS1) is a key enzyme in nucleotide biosynthesis, and mutations in PRPS1 are found in several human diseases including nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-5, and Arts Syndrome. We utilized zebrafish as a model to confirm that mutations in PRPS1 result in phenotypic deficiencies in zebrafish similar to those in the associated human diseases. We found two paralogs in zebrafish, prps1a and prps1b and characterized each paralogous mutant individually as well as the double mutant fish. Zebrafish prps1a mutants and prps1a;prps1b double mutants showed similar morphological phenotypes with increasingly severe phenotypes as the number of mutant alleles increased. Phenotypes included smaller eyes and reduced hair cell numbers, consistent with the optic atrophy and hearing impairment observed in human patients. The double mutant also showed abnormal development of primary motor neurons, hair cell innervation, and reduced leukocytes, consistent with the neuropathy and recurrent infection of the human patients possessing the most severe reductions of PRPS1 activity. Further analyses indicated the phenotypes were associated with a prolonged cell cycle likely resulting from reduced nucleotide synthesis and energy production in the mutant embryos. We further demonstrated the phenotypes were caused by delays in the tissues most highly expressing the prps1 genes. PMID:27425195

  11. Prospective Evaluation of Dual-Energy Imaging in Patients Undergoing Image Guided Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer: Initial Clinical Results

    SciTech Connect

    Sherertz, Tracy; Hoggarth, Mark; Luce, Jason; Block, Alec M.; Nagda, Suneel; Harkenrider, Matthew M.; Emami, Bahman; Roeske, John C.

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: A prospective feasibility study was conducted to investigate the utility of dual-energy (DE) imaging compared to conventional x-ray imaging for patients undergoing kV-based image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for lung cancer. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved feasibility study enrolled patients with lung cancer undergoing IGRT and was initiated in September 2011. During daily setup, 2 sequential respiration-gated x-ray images were obtained using an on-board imager. Imaging was composed of 1 standard x-ray image at 120 kVp (1 mAs) and a second image obtained at 60 kVp (4 mAs). Weighted logarithmic subtraction of the 2 images was performed offline to create a soft tissue-selective DE image. Conventional and DE images were evaluated by measuring relative contrast and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and also by comparing spatial localization, using both approaches. Imaging dose was assessed using a calibrated ion chamber. Results: To date, 10 patients with stage IA to IIIA lung cancer were enrolled and 57 DE images were analyzed. DE subtraction resulted in complete suppression of overlying bone in all 57 DE images, with an average improvement in relative contrast of 4.7 ± 3.3 over that of 120 kVp x-ray images (P<.0002). The improvement in relative contrast with DE imaging was seen for both smaller (gross tumor volume [GTV] ≤5 cc) and larger tumors (GTV >5 cc), with average relative contrast improvement ratios of 3.4 ± 4.1 and 5.4 ± 3.6, respectively. Moreover, the GTV was reliably localized in 95% of the DE images versus 74% of the single energy (SE images, (P=.004). Mean skin dose per DE image set was 0.44 ± 0.03 mGy versus 0.43 ± 0.03 mGy, using conventional kV imaging parameters. Conclusions: Initial results of this feasibility study suggest that DE thoracic imaging may enhance tumor localization in lung cancer patients receiving kV-based IGRT without increasing imaging dose.

  12. Perchloroethylene-contaminated drinking water and the risk of breast cancer: additional results from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed Central

    Aschengrau, Ann; Rogers, Sarah; Ozonoff, David

    2003-01-01

    In 1998 we published the results of a study suggesting an association between breast cancer and perchloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethylene) exposure from public drinking water. The present case-control study was undertaken to evaluate this association further. The cases were composed of female residents of eight towns in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts who had been diagnosed with breast cancer from 1987 through 1993 (n = 672). Controls were composed of demographically similar women from the same towns (n = 616). Women were exposed to PCE when it leached from the vinyl lining of water distribution pipes from the late 1960s through the early 1980s. A relative delivered dose of PCE that entered a home was estimated using an algorithm that took into account residential history, water flow, and pipe characteristics. Small to moderate elevations in risk were seen among women whose exposure levels were above the 75th and 90th percentiles when 0-15 years of latency were considered (adjusted odds ratios, 1.5-1.9 for > 75th percentile, 1.3-2.8 for > 90th percentile). When data from the present and prior studies were combined, small to moderate increases in risk were also seen among women whose exposure levels were above the 75th and 90th percentiles when 0-15 years of latency were considered (adjusted odds ratios, 1.6-1.9 for > 75th percentile, 1.3-1.9 for > 90th percentile). The results of the present study confirm those of the previous one and suggest that women with the highest PCE exposure levels have a small to moderate increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:12573900

  13. Initial results of Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment, FuZE, and magnetic field topology analysis through data driven modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claveau, E. L.; Shumlak, U.; Golingo, R. P.; Nelson, B. A.; Weber, T. R.; McLean, H.

    2016-10-01

    The FuZE project is a sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch experiment that investigates scaling the SFS Z-pinch to fusion conditions. FuZE will generate a 1 mm radius Z-pinch with a 300 kA plasma current. An array of 94 surface-mounted magnetic field probes that are embedded in the outer copper electrode provide the primary measure of the time-dependent magnetic topology of the pinch plasma. Azimuthal field measurement provide instantaneous information about the magnitude and position of the plasma current. The initial results obtained in the form of magnetic field topology are compared to previous ZaP experimental results, an experiment that investigated shear flow stabilization of Z-pinch at lower current. The magnetic field topology evolution is investigated through data-driven modeling of the characteristic dynamics. The modeling provides time evolution of large-scale structures and dynamics quantified over multiple plasma pulses. These properties can give insight about spatial and temporal propagation of fluctuations to better characterize the plasma evolution. This work funded by the USDOE/ARPAe Alpha Program.

  14. Surgical menopause initiates molecular changes that do not result in mechanical changes in normal and healing ligaments

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, G. M.; Reno, C. R.; Achari, Y.; Morck, D. W.; Hart, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Ligaments which heal spontaneously have a healing process that is similar to skin wound healing. Menopause impairs skin wound healing and may likewise impair ligament healing. Our purpose in this study was to investigate the effect of surgical menopause on ligament healing in a rabbit medial collateral ligament model. Methods Surgical menopause was induced with ovariohysterectomy surgery in adult female rabbits. Ligament injury was created by making a surgical gap in the midsubstance of the medial collateral ligament. Ligaments were allowed to heal for six or 14 weeks in the presence or absence of oestrogen before being compared with uninjured ligaments. Molecular assessment examined the messenger ribonucleic acid levels for collagens, proteoglycans, proteinases, hormone receptors, growth factors and inflammatory mediators. Mechanical assessments examined ligament laxity, total creep strain and failure stress. Results Surgical menopause in normal medial collateral ligaments initiated molecular changes in all the categories evaluated. In early healing medial collateral ligaments, surgical menopause resulted in downregulation of specific collagens, proteinases and inflammatory mediators at 6 weeks of healing, and proteoglycans, growth factors and hormone receptors at 14 weeks of healing. Surgical menopause did not produce mechanical changes in normal or early healing medial collateral ligaments. With or without surgical menopause, healing ligaments exhibited increased total creep strain and decreased failure stress compared with uninjured ligaments. Conclusions Surgical menopause did not affect the mechanical properties of normal or early healing medial collateral ligaments in a rabbit model. The results in this preclinical model suggest that menopause may result in no further impairment to the ligament healing process. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:38–44 PMID:25761872

  15. A homozygous telomerase T-motif variant resulting in markedly reduced repeat addition processivity in siblings with Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gramatges, Maria M.; Qi, Xiaodong; Sasa, Ghadir S.; Chen, Julian J.-L.

    2013-01-01

    Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome (HHS) is a form of dyskeratosis congenita (DC) characterized by bone marrow failure, intrauterine growth retardation, developmental delay, microcephaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, immunodeficiency, and extremely short telomeres. As with DC, mutations in genes encoding factors required for telomere maintenance, such as telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), have been found in patients with HHS. We describe 2 sibling HHS cases caused by a homozygous mutation (p.T567M) within the TERT T motif. This mutation resulted in a marked reduction in the capacity of telomerase to processively synthesize telomeric repeats, indicating a role for the T motif in this unique aspect of telomerase function. We support this finding by demonstrating defective processivity in the previously reported p.K570N T-motif mutation. The consanguineous, heterozygous p.T567M parents exhibited telomere lengths around the first percentile and no evidence of a DC phenotype. Although heterozygous processivity defects have been associated with familial, adult-onset pulmonary fibrosis, these cases demonstrate the severe clinical and functional impact of biallelic processivity mutations. Thus, despite retaining the capacity to add short stretches of telomeric repeats onto the shortest telomeres, sole expression of telomerase processivity mutants can lead to a profound failure of telomere maintenance and early-onset multisystem disease. PMID:23538340

  16. Investigating the Present Day Cosmic Dust Flux at the Earth's Surface: Initial Results from the Kwajalein Micrometeorite Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Price, M. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ishii, H. A.; Brownlee, D. E.; Russell, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of impact craters on the Long Duration Exposure Facility satellite indicate a present day micrometeoroid flux of approx. 30,000 tonnes [1 after 2]. But what portion of this material arrives at the Earth's surface as micrometeorites? Studies of available micrometeorite collections from deep sea sediments [e.g. 3], Greenland blue ice [e.g. 4] and the South Pole water well [e.g. 1] may be complicated by terrestrial weathering and, in some cases, collection bias (magnetic separation for deep sea sediments) and poorly constrained ages. We have recently set up a micrometeorite collection station on Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean, using high volume air samplers to collect particles directly from the atmosphere. By collecting in this way, the terrestrial age of the particles is known, the weathering they experience is minimal, and we are able to constrain particle arrival times. Collecting at this location also exploits the considerably reduced anthropogenic background [5]. Method: High volume air samplers were installed on top of the two-story airport building on Kwajalein. These were fitted with polycarbonate membrane filters with 5µm diameter perforations. The flow rates were set to 0.5m3/min, and filters were changed once a week. After collection, filters were washed to remove salt and concentrate particles [see 5] in preparation for analysis by SEM. Results and Discussion: A selection of filters have been prepared and surveyed. Due to their ease of identification our initial investigations have focused on particles resembling cosmic spherules. The spheres can be divided into three main groups: 1. Silicate spherules rich in Al, Ca, K and Na (to varying degrees), 2. Silicate spherules rich in Mg and Fe and 3. Fe-rich spherules. Group 1 spherules are often vesiculated and can occur as aggregates. They are similar in appearance and composition to volcanic microspheres [e.g. 6] and are thus likely terrestrial in

  17. INDEX - A New United States and Republic of Indonesia Partnership For Exploration of Indonesia's Seas: 2010 Initial Results Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, S. R.; Wirasantosa, S.; Baker, E. T.; Brainard, R. E.; Butterfield, D.; Djamaluddin, R.; Fryer, P.; Holden, J.; McDonough, J.; Potter, J.; Russell, C. W.; Shank, T. M.; Tunnicliffe, V.

    2010-12-01

    INDEX - A New United States and Republic of Indonesia Partnership For Exploration of Indonesia’s Seas: 2010 Initial Results Overview S. Hammond, S. Wirasantosa, E. Baker, R. Brainard, D. Butterfield, R. Djamaluddin, P. Fryer, J. Holden, J. McDonough, J. Potter, C. Russell, T. Shank, V. Tunnicliffe Through a Memorandum of Understanding between the Republic of Indonesia’s (RI) Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,the NOAA Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research has begun a formal 5-year partnership with the RI’s Agency for Marine and Fisheries Research for the purpose of exploring Indonesia’s seas. This summer, a US and Indonesian science and technical team, using the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer and the RI Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology's ship Baruna Jaya IV, conducted the first year’s cruises to areas in the Sulawesi and Maluku seas. These were the maiden international expeditions for the Okeanos Explorer (EX) and the first international implementation of the ship’s broad-band, high-definition video “telepresence” system which enabled members of an onshore science and technical team to participate in real-time from Exploration Command Centers in the US and in Jakarta. The EX operated in two areas, one along the western flanks of the Sangihe Arc and the other north of the Talaud Islands. The principal objectives of the cruises were to, (1) produce high-resolution bathymetric maps of both areas using the EX’s EM302 sonar, (2) conduct CTD/rosette surveys of the water column in areas that appeared to have the potential for volcanic and/or hydrothermal activity, and (3) use a two-body ROV system to acquire high-definition video of selected seafloor features and benthic fauna. Among the most interesting features acoustically and visually mapped along the western flank of the Sangihe Arc were several discrete volcanic cones with varying surficial morphologies and

  18. Distribution and Isotopic Signature of "Ligand-leachable" Particulate Iron in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific: Initial Results from US GEOTRACES EPZT.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsay, C.; John, S.

    2014-12-01

    Marine particles can act as both a source and sink for dissolved iron and thus play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of this important micronutrient in the ocean. However, not all particulate iron (pFe) is considered to be biologically available, with some fraction locked away in mineral matrices. As a result, analyses that estimate the bioavailable fraction of pFe are a valuable addition to studies of iron distribution. One such analysis involves the use of an oxalate-EDTA leach at pH 8, with heating, to estimate "ligand-leachable" iron. We will present concentration profiles of ligand-leachable iron associated with suspended (0.8 - 51 μm) particles from the GEOTRACES Eastern Pacific Zonal Transect: a dataset that includes labile particulate iron concentrations measured in the mixed layer, chlorophyll maximum, benthic nepheloid layers, oxygen minimum zones and hydrothermal plume. Where relevant, we compare concentrations to measurements made in similar areas during the US GEOTRACES North Atlantic zonal transect. In addition, we will present initial results from US GEOTRACES EPZT of the stable isotopic composition of iron (δ56Fe) in the ligand leachable fraction and discuss the results in terms of biogeochemical cycling of particulate iron.

  19. Initial and Long-Term Results of Endovascular Therapy for Chronic Total Occlusion of the Subclavian Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Babic, Srdjan; Sagic, Dragan; Radak, Djordje; Antonic, Zelimir; Otasevic, Petar; Kovacevic, Vladimir; Tanaskovic, Slobodan; Ruzicic, Dusan; Aleksic, Nikola; Vucurevic, Goran

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: To study the initial and long-term results of angioplasty and primary stenting for the treatment of chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the subclavian artery (SA). Materials and Methods: From January 1999 to February 2010, 56 patients (25 men with a mean age of 58 {+-} 8 years) underwent endovascular treatment for CTO of the SA. Duplex scans and arteriograms confirmed occlusion in all cases. Indications for recanalization were subclavian steal syndrome in 33 patients (58.1%), arm claudication in 13 patients (23.2%), and coronary ischemia in 7 patients (12.5%) who had a history of previous coronary artery bypass grafting that included left internal thoracic artery graft. Three patients (5.4%) were treated before the scheduled coronary artery bypass surgery, which included left internal thoracic artery graft. After successful recanalization, all arteries were stented, and all of the patients were followed-up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery and annually thereafter. Results: Successful recanalization of the SA was achieved in 46 patients (82.1%), and the complication rate was 7.1%. During follow-up (mean 40 {+-} 26 months; range 2 to 125), the primary patency rates after 1 and 3 years were 97.9% and 82.7%, respectively. At the end of follow-up, 76% of the arteries showed no evidence of restenosis. Univariate analysis failed to identify any variable predictive of long-term patency of successfully recanalized SA. Conclusion: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting of the complete total occlusion of the SA is a safe and effective procedure associated with low risks and good long-term results.

  20. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for atherosclerotic stenosis of the intracranial cerebral arteries. initial results and long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, A; Kato, N; Nakai, Y; Anno, I; Sato, H; Okazaki, M; Matsumaru, Y; Nose, T

    1999-11-01

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was carried out 52 times for 49 lesions in 47 cases of atheroscrelotic stenosis of the intracranial or skull base cerebral arteries. The stenotic lesions involved the middle cerebral artery in 21 cases, the basilar artery in eight cases, the internal carotid artery (petrous-supraclinoid portion) in 15 cases, and the intracranial vertebral artery in five cases. Nearly all cases were symptomatic, such as TIA or stroke, and the degree of stenosis ranged from 70 to 99 percent, with a mean of 80 percent. PTA was performed using a STEALTH balloon angioplasty catheter. In these trials, PTA was successfully performed (as indicated by a residual stenosis under 50%) 41 times. The initial success rate was 79% and stenosis was reduced from 80% to 25%. Clinical follow-up was performed from 7 to 84 months with a mean of 44 months. During this period, death due to myocardial infarction or pneumonia occurred in five cases, stroke related to previous PTA occurred ih one case (due to re-stenosis) and stroke unrelated tl? previous PTA occurred in two cases. Angiographic follow-up was performed in 31 cases after 41 successful PTA procedures. Re-stenosis was seen in 20% of the cases, symptomrltic complications occurred in 6%, and asymptomatic complications occurred in 6% of the cases. One case suffered severe subarachnoid hemorrhage just after the PTA due to preexisting aneurysm rupture and he died a week after the PTA. So mortality in this series was 2%. From the results described here, we may conclude that PTA of the intracranial or skull base cerebral artery is technically feasible, and it can be performed with relatively low risk. From our results, it may be a useful method and effective for long-term survival of patients. But results from a larger number of patients and more long-term follow-up data are still necessary in order to evaluate the safety and usefulness of this method.

  1. Plant functional type classification for earth system models: results from the European Space Agency's Land Cover Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulter, B.; MacBean, N.; Hartley, A.; Khlystova, I.; Arino, O.; Betts, R.; Bontemps, S.; Boettcher, M.; Brockmann, C.; Defourny, P.; Hagemann, S.; Herold, M.; Kirches, G.; Lamarche, C.; Lederer, D.; Ottlé, C.; Peters, M.; Peylin, P.

    2015-07-01

    Global land cover is a key variable in the earth system with feedbacks on climate, biodiversity and natural resources. However, global land cover data sets presently fall short of user needs in providing detailed spatial and thematic information that is consistently mapped over time and easily transferable to the requirements of earth system models. In 2009, the European Space Agency launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI), with land cover (LC_CCI) as 1 of 13 essential climate variables targeted for research development. The LC_CCI was implemented in three phases: first responding to a survey of user needs; developing a global, moderate-resolution land cover data set for three time periods, or epochs (2000, 2005, and 2010); and the last phase resulting in a user tool for converting land cover to plant functional type equivalents. Here we present the results of the LC_CCI project with a focus on the mapping approach used to convert the United Nations Land Cover Classification System to plant functional types (PFTs). The translation was performed as part of consultative process among map producers and users, and resulted in an open-source conversion tool. A comparison with existing PFT maps used by three earth system modeling teams shows significant differences between the LC_CCI PFT data set and those currently used in earth system models with likely consequences for modeling terrestrial biogeochemistry and land-atmosphere interactions. The main difference between the new LC_CCI product and PFT data sets used currently by three different dynamic global vegetation modeling teams is a reduction in high-latitude grassland cover, a reduction in tropical tree cover and an expansion in temperate forest cover in Europe. The LC_CCI tool is flexible for users to modify land cover to PFT conversions and will evolve as phase 2 of the European Space Agency CCI program continues.

  2. Plant functional type classification for Earth System Models: results from the European Space Agency's Land Cover Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulter, B.; MacBean, N.; Hartley, A.; Khlystova, I.; Arino, O.; Betts, R.; Bontemps, S.; Boettcher, M.; Brockmann, C.; Defourny, P.; Hagemann, S.; Herold, M.; Kirches, G.; Lamarche, C.; Lederer, D.; Ottlé, C.; Peters, M.; Peylin, P.

    2015-01-01

    Global land cover is a key variable in the earth system with feedbacks on climate, biodiversity and natural resources. However, global land-cover datasets presently fall short of user needs in providing detailed spatial and thematic information that is consistently mapped over time and easily transferable to the requirements of earth system models. In 2009, the European Space Agency launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI), with land cover (LC_CCI) as one of thirteen Essential Climate Variables targeted for research development. The LC_CCI was implemented in three phases, first responding to a survey of user needs, then developing a global, moderate resolution, land-cover dataset for three time periods, or epochs, 2000, 2005, and 2010, and the last phase resulting in a user-tool for converting land cover to plant functional type equivalents. Here we present the results of the LC_CCI project with a focus on the mapping approach used to convert the United Nations Land Cover Classification System to plant functional types (PFT). The translation was performed as part of consultative process among map producers and users and resulted in an open-source conversion tool. A comparison with existing PFT maps used by three-earth system modeling teams shows significant differences between the LC_CCI PFT dataset and those currently used in earth system models with likely consequences for modeling terrestrial biogeochemistry and land-atmosphere interactions. The LC_CCI tool is flexible for users to modify land cover to PFT conversions and will evolve as Phase 2 of the European Space Agency CCI program continues.

  3. Rotor Wake Vortex Definition: Initial Evaluation of 3-C PIV Results of the Hart-II Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; vanderWall, Berend; Richard, Hughes; Raffel, Markus; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Lim, Joon W.; Yu, Yung H.; Tung, Chee

    2002-01-01

    An initial evaluation is made of extensive three-component (3C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements within the wake across a rotor disk plane. The model is a 40 percent scale BO-105 helicopter main rotor in forward flight simulation. This study is part of the HART II test program conducted in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). Included are wake vortex field measurements over the advancing and retreating sides of the rotor operating at a typical descent landing condition important for impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. Also included are advancing side results for rotor angle variations from climb to steep descent. Using detailed PIV vector maps of the vortex fields, methods of extracting key vortex parameters are examined and a new method was developed and evaluated. An objective processing method, involving a center-of-vorticity criterion and a vorticity 'disk' integration, was used to determine vortex core size, strength, core velocity distribution characteristics, and unsteadiness. These parameters are mapped over the rotor disk and offer unique physical insight for these parameters of importance for rotor noise and vibration prediction.

  4. Initial Results of a Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Survey of Nearby Star-forming Galaxies with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redwine, Keith; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Wofford, Aida; Leitherer, Claus; Heckman, Timothy M.; France, Kevin; Fleming, Brian

    2017-01-01

    We present initial results for the HST Cycle 22 proposal 13761. We proposed to observe 75 target star-forming galaxies at a redshift 0.02 < z < 0.24 in the G140L mode of COS, spanning a bandpass of 1100 < λ < 2400 angstroms, and have thus far observed 34 of them. The main thrust of this project is to provide a previously unavailable survey of star-forming galaxies in this redshift range, allowing investigation into the factors that determine the Lyman-alpha emission at these low redshifts. We have begun a statistical analysis of the relationship between Lyman-alpha emission and the morphologies of the galaxies, such as absorption line strengths of other species, including various ionization states of oxygen, silicon, and other species to probe intrinsic properties of the emitting galaxy, such as metallicity, the gas-to-dust ratio, and local velocity fields. We have acquired a very rich dataset, with enough samples to try to answer a variety of open questions regarding the far-ultraviolet spectra of bright Lyman-alpha emitters. This work is supported by a NASA Grant HST-GO-13761 to the Johns Hopkins University.

  5. Initial clinical results of laser prostatectomy procedure for symptomatic BPH using a new 50-watt diode laser (wavelength 1000 nm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, Krishna M.

    1995-05-01

    Lasers have been used for symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in both contact and non-contact modes with reported success rates equivalent to that of Transurethral Resection of Prostate (TURP). A new high power diode laser (Phototome), capable of delivering up to 50 watts of 1000 nm wavelength laser power via a 1 mm quartz fiber, was used to treat 15 patients with symptomatic BPH. Five patients had acute retention, 3 had long term catheter (7 - 48 months), and 8 had severe prostatism. Spinal anesthesia was used in 11 patients, and 4 patients had local anesthesia and intravenous sedation. Four quadrant coagulation with an angle firing probe delivering 50 watts of laser power for 60 seconds in one quadrant was used as the core of the treatment in 11 patients, contact vaporization of BPH tissue was performed in one patient using a 4.5 mm ball tip was used in one patient and three patients with bladder neck stenosis had bladder neck incision performed using a 1 mm quartz fiber delivering 30 watts of laser power. A foley catheter was left indwelling and removed after 5 - 7 days. All patients except one were catheter free after a mean of 8 days. One patient continued to have severe prostatism and had a TURP performed with good results after 3 months of his laser prostatectomy procedure. AUA symptom scores available in 11 patients was found to be 4 after 1 - 3 months of the initial procedure.

  6. Atmospheric dynamics and bioregenerative technologies in a soil-based ecological life support system: initial results from Biosphere 2.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M; Dempster, W; Alvarez-Romo, N; MacCallum, T

    1994-11-01

    Biosphere 2 is the first man-made, soil-based, bioregenerative life support system to be developed and tested. The utilization and amendment of local space resources, e.g. martian soil or lunar regolith, for agricultural and other purposes will be necessary if we are to minimize the requirement for Earth materials in the creation of long-term off-planet bases and habitations. Several of the roles soil plays in Biosphere 2 are 1) for air purification 2) as a key component in created wetland systems to recycle human and animal wastes and 3) as nutrient base for a sustainable agricultural cropping program. Initial results from the Biosphere 2 closure experiment are presented. These include the accelerated cycling rates due to small reservoir sizes, strong diurnal and seasonal fluxes in atmospheric CO2, an unexpected and continuing decline in atmospheric oxygen, overall maintenance of low levels of trace gases, recycling of waste waters through biological regeneration systems, and operation of an agriculture designed to provide diverse and nutritionally adequate diets for the crew members.

  7. Prediction and monitoring of fluid responsiveness after coronary bypass surgery using the Initial Systolic Time Interval: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorenberg, A.; Lust, E. J.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Groeneveld, A. B. J.; Meijer, J. H.

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the study is to develop a non-invasive method to optimize the assessment of cardiac preload and therapeutic fluid administration after coronary artery bypass surgery. Previous studies have reported that the pre-ejection period (PEP), obtained from the electro-cardiogram (ECG) and from the invasively measured arterial pressure Pa, can be used for this assessment as it is dependent on the cardiac preload. The Initial Systolic Time Interval (ISTI), obtained non-invasively by simultaneous measurement of the Electro-CardioGram (ECG) and Impedance CardioGram (ICG), is expected to depend on the cardiac preload as well. 16 patients, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit after coronary artery bypass surgery and presumably hypovolaemic, were measured during administration of 2×250 ml of an isosmotic colloidal fluid solution. The parameters PEP and ISTI were determined before and after the administrations and compared with the change in cardiac output (CO), obtained by a thermodilution technique. Preliminary results show significant relationships between ISTI and CO and between changes in both of these variables before and after fluid administration.

  8. Atmospheric dynamics and bioregenerative technologies in a soil-based ecological life support system: Initial results from biosphere 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W.; Alvarez-Romo, N.; MacCallum, T.

    1994-11-01

    Biosphere 2 is the first man-made, soil-based, bioregenerative life support system to be developed and tested. The utilization and amendment of local space resources, e.g. martian soil or lunar regolith, for agricultural and other purposes will be necesary if we are to minimize the requirement for Earth materials in the creation of long-term off-planet bases and habitations. Several of the roles soil plays in Biosphere 2 are 1) for air purification 2) as a key component in created wetland systems to recycle human and animal wastes and 3) as nutrient base for a sustainable agricultural cropping program. Initial results from the Biosphere 2 closure experiment are presented. These include the accelerated cycling rates due to small reservoir sizes, strong diurnal and seasonal fluxes in atmospheric CO2, an unexpected and continuing decline in atmospheric oxygen, overall maintenance of low levels of trace gases, recycling of waste waters through biological regeneration systems, and operation of an agriculture designed to provide diverse and nutritionally adequate diets for the crew members.

  9. Crustal Structure Across the Okavango Rift Zone, Botswana: Initial Results From the PRIDE-SEISORZ Active-Source Seismic Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales, J. P.; Moffat, L.; Lizarralde, D.; Laletsang, K.; Harder, S. H.; Kaip, G.; Modisi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The PRIDE project aims to understand the processes of continental rift initiation and evolution by analyzing along-axis trends in the southern portion of the East Africa Rift System, from Botswana through Zambia and Malawi. The SEISORZ active-source seismic component of PRIDE focused on the Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) in northwestern Botswana, with the main goal of imaging the crustal structure across the ORZ. This will allow us to estimate total crustal extension, determine the pattern and amount of thinning, assess the possible presence of melt within the rift zone, and assess the contrasts in crustal blocks across the rift, which closely follows the trend of a fold belt. In November 2014 we conducted a crustal-scale, 450-km-long seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile consisting of 19 sources (shots in 30-m-deep boreholes) spaced ~25 km apart from each other, and 900 receivers (IRIS/PASSCAL "Texan" dataloggers and 4.5Hz geophones) with ~500 m spacing. From NW to SE, the profile crosses several tectonic domains: the Congo craton, the Damara metamorphic belt and the Ghanzi-Chobe fold belt where the axis of the ORZ is located, and continues into the Kalahari craton. The record sections display clear crustal refraction (Pg) and wide-angle Moho reflection (PmP) phases for all 17 of the good-quality shots, and a mantle refraction arrival (Pn), with the Pg-PmP-Pn triplication appearing at 175 km offset. There are distinct changes in the traveltime and amplitude of these phases along the transect, and on either side of the axis, that seem to correlate with sharp transitions across tectonic terrains. Initial modeling suggests: (1) the presence of a sedimentary half-graben structure at the rift axis beneath the Okavango delta, bounded to the SE by the Kunyere-Thamalakane fault system; (2) faster crustal Vp in the domains to the NW of the ORZ; and (3) thicker crust (45-50 km) at both ends of the profile within the Congo and Kalahari craton domains than at the ORZ and

  10. Seafloor Geodetic Monitoring of the North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara: System Installation and its Initial Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kido, M.

    2015-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) get across the mainland of Turkey is known as a quite active strike slip fault. The earthquake recurrence period for individual segment is estimated roughly 300 years based on historical records. The Marmara Segment is the major seismic gap since the last earthquake in 1766, while the Murefte earthquake occurred in 1912 at its west side and the Izmit earthquake in 1999 at its east side. The relative motion across the NAF is ~22 mm/yr based on the data from space geodesy. Investigating how much degree of this displacement is released by aseismic creep or accumulated by slip deficit in the Marmara Segment is crucial to know the total seismic risk in this region. Because the NAF is submerged in the Sea of Marmara and is inaccessible by space geodesy, we employed seafloor geodetic technique using extensometers, which acoustically monitor baseline length across a strain-localized zone, such as surface trace of a fault. In 2014, we installed five extensometers at the Western High crossing the NAF one after the other, where the surface trace of the NAF is prominent and gas emission from the seafloor is reported in. Totally four beselines of ~1 km range are successfully formed and quality of initial test data was promising. Based on the initial data, detectable level of the baseline change is estimated to be ~2mm, which owing to quite stable seawater near the bottom due to strong density stratification in the Sea of Marmara. The extensometers are designed that data can be recovered via acoustic modem without disrupt the monitoring. Since the installation, we have visited the site twice and have recovered the data for ten months in total. Temperature measured by thermistor equipped on each extensometer showed coherent