Science.gov

Sample records for addition numerical results

  1. Results from Numerical General Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.

    2011-01-01

    For several years numerical simulations have been revealing the details of general relativity's predictions for the dynamical interactions of merging black holes. I will review what has been learned of the rich phenomenology of these mergers and the resulting gravitational wave signatures. These wave forms provide a potentially observable record of the powerful astronomical events, a central target of gravitational wave astronomy. Asymmetric radiation can produce a thrust on the system which may accelerate the single black hole resulting from the merger to high relative velocity.

  2. Numerical taxonomy on data: Experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.; Farach, M.

    1997-12-01

    The numerical taxonomy problems associated with most of the optimization criteria described above are NP - hard [3, 5, 1, 4]. In, the first positive result for numerical taxonomy was presented. They showed that if e is the distance to the closest tree metric under the L{sub {infinity}} norm. i.e., e = min{sub T} [L{sub {infinity}} (T-D)], then it is possible to construct a tree T such that L{sub {infinity}} (T-D) {le} 3e, that is, they gave a 3-approximation algorithm for this problem. We will refer to this algorithm as the Single Pivot (SP) heuristic.

  3. Numerical simulations of catastrophic disruption: Recent results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, W.; Asphaug, E.; Ryan, E. V.

    1994-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been used to study high velocity two-body impacts. In this paper, a two-dimensional Largrangian finite difference hydro-code and a three-dimensional smooth particle hydro-code (SPH) are described and initial results reported. These codes can be, and have been, used to make specific predictions about particular objects in our solar system. But more significantly, they allow us to explore a broad range of collisional events. Certain parameters (size, time) can be studied only over a very restricted range within the laboratory; other parameters (initial spin, low gravity, exotic structure or composition) are difficult to study at all experimentally. The outcomes of numerical simulations lead to a more general and accurate understanding of impacts in their many forms.

  4. Saturn's North Polar Hexagon Numerical Modeling Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Juberias, R.; Sayanagi, K. M.; Dowling, T. E.

    2008-12-01

    In 1980, Voyager images revealed the presence of a circumpolar wave at 78 degrees planetographic latitude in the northern hemisphere of Saturn. It was notable for having a dominant planetary wavenumber-six zonal mode, and for being stationary with respect to Saturn's Kilometric Radiation rotation rate measured by Voyager. The center of this hexagonal feature was coincident with the center of a sharp eastward jet with a peak speed of 100 ms-1 and it had a meridional width of about 4 degrees. This hexagonal feature was confirmed in 1991 through ground-based observations, and it was observed again in 2006 with the Cassini VIMS instrument. The latest observations highlight the longevity of the hexagon and suggest that it extends at least several bars deep into the atmosphere. We use the Explicit Planetary Isentropic Code (EPIC) to perform high-resolution numerical simulations of this unique feature. We show that a wavenumber six instability mode arises naturally from initially barotropic jets when seeded with weak random turbulence. We also discuss the properties of the wave activity on the background vertical stability, zonal wind, planetary rotation rate and adjacent vortices. Computational resources were provided by the New Mexico Computing Applications Center and New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and the Comparative Planetology Laboratory at the University of Louisville.

  5. Numerical results for the WFNDEC 2012 eddy current benchmark problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodoulidis, T. P.; Martinos, J.; Poulakis, N.

    2013-01-01

    We present numerical results for the World Federation of NDE Centers (WFNDEC) 2012 eddy current benchmark problem obtained with a commercial FEM package (Comsol Multiphysics). The measurements of the benchmark problem consist of coil impedance values acquired when an inspection probe coil is moved inside an Inconel tube along an axial through-wall notch. The simulation runs smoothly with minimal user interference (default settings used for mesh and solver) and agreement between numerical and experimental results is excellent for all five inspection frequencies. Comments are made for the pros and cons of FEM and also some good practice rules are presented when using such numerical tools.

  6. Sheet Hydroforming Process Numerical Model Improvement Through Experimental Results Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriele, Papadia; Antonio, Del Prete; Alfredo, Anglani

    2010-06-01

    The increasing application of numerical simulation in metal forming field has helped engineers to solve problems one after another to manufacture a qualified formed product reducing the required time [1]. Accurate simulation results are fundamental for the tooling and the product designs. The wide application of numerical simulation is encouraging the development of highly accurate simulation procedures to meet industrial requirements. Many factors can influence the final simulation results and many studies have been carried out about materials [2], yield criteria [3] and plastic deformation [4,5], process parameters [6] and their optimization. In order to develop a reliable hydromechanical deep drawing (HDD) numerical model the authors have been worked out specific activities based on the evaluation of the effective stiffness of the blankholder structure [7]. In this paper after an appropriate tuning phase of the blankholder force distribution, the experimental activity has been taken into account to improve the accuracy of the numerical model. In the first phase, the effective capability of the blankholder structure to transfer the applied load given by hydraulic actuators to the blank has been explored. This phase ended with the definition of an appropriate subdivision of the blankholder active surface in order to take into account the effective pressure map obtained for the given loads configuration. In the second phase the numerical results obtained with the developed subdivision have been compared with the experimental data of the studied model. The numerical model has been then improved, finding the best solution for the blankholder force distribution.

  7. Interaction between subducting plates: results from numerical and analogue modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiraly, Agnes; Capitanio, Fabio A.; Funiciello, Francesca; Faccenna, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    The tectonic setting of the Alpine-Mediterranean area is achieved during the late Cenozoic subduction, collision and suturing of several oceanic fragments and continental blocks. In this stage, processes such as interactions among subducting slabs, slab migrations and related mantle flow played a relevant role on the resulting tectonics. Here, we use numerical models to first address the mantle flow characteristic in 3D. During the subduction of a single plate the strength of the return flow strongly depends on the slab pull force, that is on the plate's buoyancy, however the physical properties of the slab, such as density, viscosity or width, do not affect largely the morphology of the toroidal cell. Instead, dramatic effects on the geometry and the dynamics of the toroidal cell result in models where the thickness of the mantle is varied. The vertical component of the vorticity vector is used to define the characteristic size of the toroidal cell, which is ~1.2-1.3 times the mantle depth. This latter defines the range of viscous stress propagation through the mantle and consequent interactions with other slabs. We thus further investigate on this setup where two separate lithospheric plates subduct in opposite sense, developing opposite polarities and convergent slab retreat, and model different initial sideways distance between the plates. The stress profiles in time illustrate that the plates interacts when slabs are at the characteristic distance and the two slabs toroidal cells merge. Increased stress and delayed slab migrations are the results. Analogue models of double-sided subduction show similar maximum distance and allow testing the additional role of stress propagated through the plates. We use a silicon plate subducting on its two opposite margins, which is either homogeneous or comprises oceanic and continental lithospheres, differing in buoyancy. The modeling results show that the double-sided subduction is strongly affected by changes in plate

  8. Numerical Results of 3-D Modeling of Moon Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod; Antipin, Alexandr

    2014-05-01

    For the last time for the model of the Moon usually had been used the model of mega impact in which the forming of the Earth and its sputnik had been the consequence of the Earth's collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,2] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al26,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone and additionally change the content of Moon forming to silicates. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius of the Earth, the growing area of the future Earth's core can save also the silicate envelope fragments [3]. For understanding the further system Earth-Moon evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on its accumulation stage.In that paper we are modeling the changing of temperature,pressure,velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3d spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach.The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in velocity

  9. Some theoretical and numerical results for delayed neural field equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faye, Grégory; Faugeras, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we study neural field models with delays which define a useful framework for modeling macroscopic parts of the cortex involving several populations of neurons. Nonlinear delayed integro-differential equations describe the spatio-temporal behavior of these fields. Using methods from the theory of delay differential equations, we show the existence and uniqueness of a solution of these equations. A Lyapunov analysis gives us sufficient conditions for the solutions to be asymptotically stable. We also present a fairly detailed study of the numerical computation of these solutions. This is, to our knowledge, the first time that a serious analysis of the problem of the existence and uniqueness of a solution of these equations has been performed. Another original contribution of ours is the definition of a Lyapunov functional and the result of stability it implies. We illustrate our numerical schemes on a variety of examples that are relevant to modeling in neuroscience.

  10. Additional results on orbits of Hilda-type asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubart, J.

    1991-01-01

    The long period evolution of the Hilda-type orbits is studied by numerical integration. Three characteristic parameters are derived for Hildas numbered during the 1982-89 period. The distribution of orbits and subgroups of orbits is considered with respect to these parameters. Special attention is given to low-eccentricity orbits and to the observation conditions. The numerical integrations depend on a model of the forces due to Jupiter and Saturn.

  11. Integrating Numerical Groundwater Modeling Results With Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, M. S.; Robinson, B. A.; Linger, S. P.

    2001-12-01

    Many different types of data are used to create numerical models of flow and transport of groundwater in the vadose zone. Results from water balance studies, infiltration models, hydrologic properties, and digital elevation models (DEMs) are examples of such data. Because input data comes in a variety of formats, for consistency the data need to be assembled in a coherent fashion on a single platform. Through the use of a geographic information system (GIS), all data sources can effectively be integrated on one platform to store, retrieve, query, and display data. In our vadoze zone modeling studies in support of Los Alamos National Laboratory's Environmental Restoration Project, we employ a GIS comprised of a Raid storage device, an Oracle database, ESRI's spatial database engine (SDE), ArcView GIS, and custom GIS tools for three-dimensional (3D) analysis. We store traditional GIS data, such as, contours, historical building footprints, and study area locations, as points, lines, and polygons with attributes. Numerical flow and transport model results from the Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer Code (FEHM) are stored as points with attributes, such as fluid saturation, or pressure, or contaminant concentration at a given location. We overlay traditional types of GIS data with numerical model results, thereby allowing us to better build conceptual models and perform spatial analyses. We have also developed specialized analysis tools to assist in the data and model analysis process. This approach provides an integrated framework for performing tasks such as comparing the model to data and understanding the relationship of model predictions to existing contaminant source locations and water supply wells. Our process of integrating GIS and numerical modeling results allows us to answer a wide variety of questions about our conceptual model design: - Which set of locations should be identified as contaminant sources based on known historical building operations

  12. Numerical study of water entry supercavitating flow around a vertical circular cylinder influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C. X.; Cheng, J. P.; Li, F. C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to introduce a numerical simulation procedure to simulate water-entry problems influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives in a viscous incompressible medium. Firstly we performed a numerical investigation on water-entry supercavities in water and turbulent drag-reducing solution at the impact velocity of 28.4 m/s to confirm the accuracy of the numerical method. Based on the verification, projectile entering water and turbulent drag-reducing solution at relatively high velocity of 142.7 m/s (phase transition is considered) is simulated. The cross viscosity equation was adopted to represent the shear-thinning characteristic of aqueous solution of drag-reducing additives. The configuration and dynamic characteristics of water entry supercavity, flow resistance were discussed respectively. It was obtained that the numerical simulation results are in consistence with experimental data. Numerical results show that the supercavity length in drag-reducing solution is larger than one in water and the velocity attenuates faster at high velocity than at low velocity; the influence of drag-reducing solution is more obvious at high impact velocity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the great potential for enhancement of supercavity.

  13. Path Integrals and Exotic Options:. Methods and Numerical Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormetti, G.; Montagna, G.; Moreni, N.; Nicrosini, O.

    2005-09-01

    In the framework of Black-Scholes-Merton model of financial derivatives, a path integral approach to option pricing is presented. A general formula to price path dependent options on multidimensional and correlated underlying assets is obtained and implemented by means of various flexible and efficient algorithms. As an example, we detail the case of Asian call options. The numerical results are compared with those obtained with other procedures used in quantitative finance and found to be in good agreement. In particular, when pricing at the money (ATM) and out of the money (OTM) options, path integral exhibits competitive performances.

  14. Slump Flows inside Pipes: Numerical Results and Comparison with Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekmohammadi, S.; Naccache, M. F.; Frigaard, I. A.; Martinez, D. M.

    2008-07-01

    In this work an analysis of the buoyancy-driven slumping flow inside a pipe is presented. This flow usually occurs when an oil well is sealed by a plug cementing process, where a cement plug is placed inside the pipe filled with a lower density fluid, displacing it towards the upper cylinder wall. Both the cement and the surrounding fluids have a non Newtonian behavior. The cement is viscoplastic and the surrounding fluid presents a shear thinning behavior. A numerical analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of some governing parameters on the slump length development. The conservation equations of mass and momentum were solved via a finite volume technique, using Fluent software (Ansys Inc.). The Volume of Fluid surface-tracking method was used to obtain the interface between the fluids and the slump length as a function of time. The results were obtained for different values of fluids densities differences, fluids rheology and pipe inclinations. The effects of these parameters on the interface shape and on the slump length versus time curve were analyzed. Moreover, the numerical results were compared to experimental ones, but some differences are observed, possibly due to chemical effects at the interface.

  15. Synthetic jet parameter identification and numerical results validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, Danilo; Rimasauskiene, Ruta; Matejka, Milan; Kurowski, Marcin; Wandowski, Tomasz; Malinowski, Paweł; Doerffer, Piotr

    2012-06-01

    The design of a synthetic jet requires a careful identification of the components' parameters, in order to be able to perform accurate numerical simulations, this identification must be done by mean of a series of measurements that, due to the small dimensions of the components, are required to be non-contact techniques. The activities described in this paper have been performed in the frame of the STA-DY-WI-CO project, whose purpose is the design of a synthetic jet and demonstrate its effectiveness and efficiency for a real application. To measure the energy saving, due to the synthetic jet effects on the separation, the increased performances of the profile must be compared to the energy absorbed by the actuator and the weight of the system. In design phase a series of actuators has being considered as well as a series of cavity layout, in order to obtain the most effective, efficient and durable package. The modal characteristics of piezoelectric component was assessed by means of tests performed with a 3D scanning laser vibrometer, measuring the frequency response to voltage excitation. Analyzed the effects of the parameters, and chosen components and layout, the system can be dimensioned by means of numeric simulations. The outcome of the simulation is the effect of the synthetic jet, in an assumed flow, for the selected profile. The numerical results on the field of the separated flow with recirculating area were validated by means of tests performed in an Eiffel type wind tunnel. The last test performed on the synthetic jet aims to understand the acoustic impact, noise measurements were performed to have full analysis and synthesis.

  16. Mars-GRAM 2010: Additions and Resulting Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Burns, K. Lee

    2013-01-01

    factors. The adjustment factors generated by this process had to satisfy the gas law as well as the hydrostatic relation and are expressed as a function of height (z), Latitude (Lat) and areocentric solar longitude (Ls). The greatest adjustments are made at large optical depths such as tau greater than 1. The addition of the adjustment factors has led to better correspondence to TES Limb data from 0-60 km altitude as well as better agreement with MGS, ODY and MRO data at approximately 90-130 km altitude. Improved Mars-GRAM atmospheric simulations for various locations, times and dust conditions on Mars will be presented at the workshop session. The latest results validating Mars-GRAM 2010 versus Mars Climate Sounder data will also be presented. Mars-GRAM 2010 updates have resulted in improved atmospheric simulations which will be very important when beginning systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for future aerocapture, aerobraking or landed missions to Mars.

  17. Additional Results of Ice-Accretion Scaling at SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2005-01-01

    To determine scale velocity an additional similarity parameter is needed to supplement the Ruff scaling method. A Weber number based on water droplet MVD has been included in several studies because the effect of droplet splashing on ice accretion was believed to be important, particularly for SLD conditions. In the present study, ice shapes recorded at Appendix-C conditions and recent results at SLD conditions are reviewed to show that droplet diameter cannot be important to main ice shape, and for low airspeeds splashing does not appear to affect SLD ice shapes. Evidence is presented to show that while a supplementary similarity parameter probably has the form of a Weber number, it must be based on a length proportional to model size rather than MVD. Scaling comparisons were made between SLD reference conditions and Appendix-C scale conditions using this Weber number. Scale-to-reference model size ratios were 1:1.7 and 1:3.4. The reference tests used a 91-cm-chord NACA 0012 model with a velocity of approximately 50 m/s and an MVD of 160 m. Freezing fractions of 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 were included in the study.

  18. Analysis of Numerical Simulation Results of LIPS-200 Lifetime Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Juanjuan; Zhang, Tianping; Geng, Hai; Jia, Yanhui; Meng, Wei; Wu, Xianming; Sun, Anbang

    2016-06-01

    Accelerator grid structural and electron backstreaming failures are the most important factors affecting the ion thruster's lifetime. During the thruster's operation, Charge Exchange Xenon (CEX) ions are generated from collisions between plasma and neutral atoms. Those CEX ions grid's barrel and wall frequently, which cause the failures of the grid system. In order to validate whether the 20 cm Lanzhou Ion Propulsion System (LIPS-200) satisfies China's communication satellite platform's application requirement for North-South Station Keeping (NSSK), this study analyzed the measured depth of the pit/groove on the accelerator grid's wall and aperture diameter's variation and estimated the operating lifetime of the ion thruster. Different from the previous method, in this paper, the experimental results after the 5500 h of accumulated operation of the LIPS-200 ion thruster are presented firstly. Then, based on these results, theoretical analysis and numerical calculations were firstly performed to predict the on-orbit lifetime of LIPS-200. The results obtained were more accurate to calculate the reliability and analyze the failure modes of the ion thruster. The results indicated that the predicted lifetime of LIPS-200's was about 13218.1 h which could satisfy the required lifetime requirement of 11000 h very well.

  19. Biomechanical investigation into the structural design of porous additive manufactured cages using numerical and experimental approaches.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-I; Hsu, Ching-Chi; Chen, San-Yuan; Wu, Tsung-Han; Huang, Chih-Chieh

    2016-09-01

    Traditional solid cages have been widely used in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery. However, solid cages significantly affect the loading mechanism of the human spine due to their extremely high structural stiffness. Previous studies proposed and investigated porous additive manufactured (AM) cages; however, their biomechanical performances were analyzed using oversimplified bone-implant numerical models. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the outer shape and inner porous structure of the AM cages. The outer shape of the AM cages was discovered using a simulation-based genetic algorithm; their inner porous structure was subsequently analyzed parametrically using T10-S1 multilevel spine models. Finally, six types of the AM cages, which were manufactured using selective laser melting, were tested to validate the numerical outcomes. The subsidence resistance of the optimum design was superior to the conventional cage designs. A porous AM cage with a pillar diameter of 0.4mm, a pillar angle of 40°, and a porosity of between 69% and 80% revealed better biomechanical performances. Both the numerical and experimental outcomes can help surgeons to understand the biomechanics of PLIF surgery combined with the use of AM cages. PMID:27392226

  20. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  1. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  2. Additional Results of Glaze Icing Scaling in SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    New guidance of acceptable means of compliance with the super-cooled large drops (SLD) conditions has been issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in its Advisory Circular AC 25-28 in November 2014. The Part 25, Appendix O is developed to define a representative icing environment for super-cooled large drops. Super-cooled large drops, which include freezing drizzle and freezing rain conditions, are not included in Appendix C. This paper reports results from recent glaze icing scaling tests conducted in NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the scaling methods recommended for Appendix C conditions might apply to SLD conditions. The models were straight NACA 0012 wing sections. The reference model had a chord of 72 in. and the scale model had a chord of 21 in. Reference tests were run with airspeeds of 100 and 130.3 kn and with MVD's of 85 and 170 micron. Two scaling methods were considered. One was based on the modified Ruff method with scale velocity found by matching the Weber number WeL. The other was proposed and developed by Feo specifically for strong glaze icing conditions, in which the scale liquid water content and velocity were found by matching reference and scale values of the nondimensional water-film thickness expression and the film Weber number Wef. All tests were conducted at 0 deg AOA. Results will be presented for stagnation freezing fractions of 0.2 and 0.3. For nondimensional reference and scale ice shape comparison, a new post-scanning ice shape digitization procedure was developed for extracting 2-D ice shape profiles at any selected span-wise location from the high fidelity 3-D scanned ice shapes obtained in the IRT.

  3. Busted Butte: Achieving the Objectives and Numerical Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect

    W.E. Soll; M. Kearney; P. Stauffer; P. Tseng; H.J. Turin; Z. Lu

    2002-10-07

    The Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT) at Busted Butte is a mesoscale field/laboratory/modeling investigation designed to address uncertainties associated with flow and transport in the UZ site-process models for Yucca Mountain. The UZTT test facility is located approximately 8 km southeast of the potential Yucca Mountain repository area. The UZTT was designed in two phases, to address five specific objectives in the UZ: the effect of heterogeneities, flow and transport (F&T) behavior at permeability contrast boundaries, migration of colloids , transport models of sorbing tracers, and scaling issues in moving from laboratory scale to field scale. Phase 1A was designed to assess the influence of permeability contrast boundaries in the hydrologic Calico Hills. Visualization of fluorescein movement , mineback rock analyses, and comparison with numerical models demonstrated that F&T are capillary dominated with permeability contrast boundaries distorting the capillary flow. Phase 1B was designed to assess the influence of fractures on F&T and colloid movement. The injector in Phase 1B was located at a fracture, while the collector, 30 cm below, was placed at what was assumed to be the same fracture. Numerical simulations of nonreactive (Br) and reactive (Li) tracers show the experimental data are best explained by a combination of molecular diffusion and advective flux. For Phase 2, a numerical model with homogeneous unit descriptions was able to qualitatively capture the general characteristics of the system. Numerical simulations and field observations revealed a capillary dominated flow field. Although the tracers showed heterogeneity in the test block, simulation using heterogeneous fields did not significantly improve the data fit over homogeneous field simulations. In terms of scaling, simulations of field tracer data indicate a hydraulic conductivity two orders of magnitude higher than measured in the laboratory. Simulations of Li, a weakly sorbing tracer

  4. Numerical Results of Earth's Core Accumulation 3-D Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod

    2013-04-01

    For a long time as a most convenient had been the model of mega impact in which the early forming of the Earth's core and mantle had been the consequence of formed protoplanet collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,3] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius, the growing area of the future core can save also the silicate envelope fragments. All existing dynamical accumulation models are constructed by using a spherical-symmetrical model. Hence for understanding the further planet evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on the planet accumulation stage. In that paper we are modeling distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3D- spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach. The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in

  5. Numerical calculations of high-altitude differential charging: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laframboise, J. G.; Godard, R.; Prokopenko, S. M. L.

    1979-01-01

    A two dimensional simulation program was constructed in order to obtain theoretical predictions of floating potential distributions on geostationary spacecraft. The geometry was infinite-cylindrical with angle dependence. Effects of finite spacecraft length on sheath potential profiles can be included in an approximate way. The program can treat either steady-state conditions or slowly time-varying situations, involving external time scales much larger than particle transit times. Approximate, locally dependent expressions were used to provide space charge, density profiles, but numerical orbit-following is used to calculate surface currents. Ambient velocity distributions were assumed to be isotropic, beam-like, or some superposition of these.

  6. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  7. Spurious frequencies as a result of numerical boundary treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abarbanel, Saul; Gottlieb, David

    1990-01-01

    The stability theory for finite difference Initial Boundary-Value approximations to systems of hyperbolic partial differential equations states that the exclusion of eigenvalues and generalized eigenvalues is a sufficient condition for stability. The theory, however, does not discuss the nature of numerical approximations in the presence of such eigenvalues. In fact, as was shown previously, for the problem of vortex shedding by a 2-D cylinder in subsonic flow, stating boundary conditions in terms of the primitive (non-characteristic) variables may lead to such eigenvalues, causing perturbations that decay slowly in space and remain periodic time. Characteristic formulation of the boundary conditions avoided this problem. A more systematic study of the behavior of the (linearized) one-dimensional gas dynamic equations under various sets of oscillation-inducing legal boundary conditions is reported.

  8. Numerical Studies of Magnetohydrodynamic Activity Resulting from Inductive Transients Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sovinec, Carl R.

    2005-08-29

    This report describes results from numerical studies of transients in magnetically confined plasmas. The work has been performed by University of Wisconsin graduate students James Reynolds and Giovanni Cone and by the Principal Investigator through support from contract DE-FG02-02ER54687, a Junior Faculty in Plasma Science award from the DOE Office of Science. Results from the computations have added significantly to our knowledge of magnetized plasma relaxation in the reversed-field pinch (RFP) and spheromak. In particular, they have distinguished relaxation activity expected in sustained configurations from transient effects that can persist over a significant fraction of the plasma discharge. We have also developed the numerical capability for studying electrostatic current injection in the spherical torus (ST). These configurations are being investigated as plasma confinement schemes in the international effort to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion for environmentally benign energy production. Our numerical computations have been performed with the NIMROD code (http://nimrodteam.org) using local computing resources and massively parallel computing hardware at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center. Direct comparisons of simulation results for the spheromak with laboratory measurements verify the effectiveness of our numerical approach. The comparisons have been published in refereed journal articles by this group and by collaborators at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (see Section 4). In addition to the technical products, this grant has supported the graduate education of the two participating students for three years.

  9. Finite difference model for aquifer simulation in two dimensions with results of numerical experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trescott, Peter C.; Pinder, George Francis; Larson, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    The model will simulate ground-water flow in an artesian aquifer, a water-table aquifer, or a combined artesian and water-table aquifer. The aquifer may be heterogeneous and anisotropic and have irregular boundaries. The source term in the flow equation may include well discharge, constant recharge, leakage from confining beds in which the effects of storage are considered, and evapotranspiration as a linear function of depth to water. The theoretical development includes presentation of the appropriate flow equations and derivation of the finite-difference approximations (written for a variable grid). The documentation emphasizes the numerical techniques that can be used for solving the simultaneous equations and describes the results of numerical experiments using these techniques. Of the three numerical techniques available in the model, the strongly implicit procedure, in general, requires less computer time and has fewer numerical difficulties than do the iterative alternating direction implicit procedure and line successive overrelaxation (which includes a two-dimensional correction procedure to accelerate convergence). The documentation includes a flow chart, program listing, an example simulation, and sections on designing an aquifer model and requirements for data input. It illustrates how model results can be presented on the line printer and pen plotters with a program that utilizes the graphical display software available from the Geological Survey Computer Center Division. In addition the model includes options for reading input data from a disk and writing intermediate results on a disk.

  10. Numerical Simulation of High Drag Reduction in a Turbulent Channel Flow with Polymer Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubief, Yves

    2003-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of long chain polymer molecules to wall-bounded flows can lead to dramatic drag reduction. Although this phenomenon has been known for about fifty years, the action of the polymers and its effect on turbulent structures are still unclear. Detailed experiments have characterized two distinct regimes (Warholic et al. 1999), which are referred to as low drag reduction (LDR) and high drag reduction (HDR). The first regime exhibits similar statistical trends as Newtonian flow: the log-law region of the mean velocity profile remains parallel to that of the Newtonian ow but its lower bound moves away from the wall and the upward shift of the log-region is a function of drag reduction, DR. Although streamwise fluctuations are increased and transverse ones are reduced, the shape of the rms velocity profiles is not qualitatively modified. At higher drag reductions, of the order of 40-50%, the ow enters the HDR regime for which the slope of the log-law is dramatically augmented and the Reynolds shear stress is small (Warholic et al. 1999; Ptasinski et al. 2001). The drag reduction is eventually bounded by a maximum drag reduction (MDR) (Virk & Mickley 1970) which is a function of the Reynolds number. While several experiments report mean velocity profiles very close to the empirical profile of Virk & Mickley (1970) for MDR conditions, the observations regarding the structure of turbulence can differ significantly. For instance, Warholic et al. (1999) measured a near-zero Reynolds shear stress, whereas a recent experiment (Ptasinski et al. 2001) shows evidence of non-negligible Reynolds stress in their MDR flow. To the knowledge of the authors, only the LDR regime has been documented in numerical simulations (Sureshkumar et al. 1997; Dimitropoulos et al. 1998; Min et al. 2001; Dubief & Lele 2001; Sibilla & Baron 2002). This paper discusses the simulation of polymer drag reduced channel ow at HDR using the FENE-P (Finite Elastic non

  11. Large fluctuations of the macroscopic current in diffusive systems: a numerical test of the additivity principle.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Pablo I; Garrido, Pedro L

    2010-04-01

    Most systems, when pushed out of equilibrium, respond by building up currents of locally conserved observables. Understanding how microscopic dynamics determines the averages and fluctuations of these currents is one of the main open problems in nonequilibrium statistical physics. The additivity principle is a theoretical proposal that allows to compute the current distribution in many one-dimensional nonequilibrium systems. Using simulations, we validate this conjecture in a simple and general model of energy transport, both in the presence of a temperature gradient and in canonical equilibrium. In particular, we show that the current distribution displays a Gaussian regime for small current fluctuations, as prescribed by the central limit theorem, and non-Gaussian (exponential) tails for large current deviations, obeying in all cases the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. In order to facilitate a given current fluctuation, the system adopts a well-defined temperature profile different from that of the steady state and in accordance with the additivity hypothesis predictions. System statistics during a large current fluctuation is independent of the sign of the current, which implies that the optimal profile (as well as higher-order profiles and spatial correlations) are invariant upon current inversion. We also demonstrate that finite-time joint fluctuations of the current and the profile are well described by the additivity functional. These results suggest the additivity hypothesis as a general and powerful tool to compute current distributions in many nonequilibrium systems. PMID:20481672

  12. Numerical simulation of the fatigue behavior of additive manufactured titanium porous lattice structures.

    PubMed

    Zargarian, A; Esfahanian, M; Kadkhodapour, J; Ziaei-Rad, S

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the effects of cell geometry and relative density on the high-cycle fatigue behavior of Titanium scaffolds produced by selective laser melting and electron beam melting techniques were numerically investigated by finite element analysis. The regular titanium lattice samples with three different unit cell geometries, namely, diamond, rhombic dodecahedron and truncated cuboctahedron, and the relative density range of 0.1-0.3 were analyzed under uniaxial cyclic compressive loading. A failure event based algorithm was employed to simulate fatigue failure in the cellular material. Stress-life approach was used to model fatigue failure of both bulk (struts) and cellular material. The predicted fatigue life and the damage pattern of all three structures were found to be in good agreement with the experimental fatigue investigations published in the literature. The results also showed that the relationship between fatigue strength and cycles to failure obeyed the power law. The coefficient of power function was shown to depend on relative density, geometry and fatigue properties of the bulk material while the exponent was only dependent on the fatigue behavior of the bulk material. The results also indicated the failure surface at an angle of 45° to the loading direction. PMID:26706539

  13. Sediment Pathways Across Trench Slopes: Results From Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, M. H.; Seeber, L.; McHugh, C. M.; Fujiwara, T.; Kanamatsu, T.; King, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Until the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake, the role of earthquakes as agents of sediment dispersal and deposition at erosional trenches was largely under-appreciated. A series of cruises carried out after the 2011 event has revealed a variety of unsuspected sediment transport mechanisms, such as tsunami-triggered sheet turbidites, suggesting that great earthquakes may in fact be important agents for dispersing sediments across trench slopes. To complement these observational data, we have modeled the pathways of sediments across the trench slope based on bathymetric grids. Our approach assumes that transport direction is controlled by slope azimuth only, and ignores obstacles smaller than 0.6-1 km; these constraints are meant to approximate the behavior of turbidites. Results indicate that (1) most pathways issued from the upper slope terminate near the top of the small frontal wedge, and thus do not reach the trench axis; (2) in turn, sediments transported to the trench axis are likely derived from the small frontal wedge or from the subducting Pacific plate. These results are consistent with the stratigraphy imaged in seismic profiles, which reveals that the slope apron does not extend as far as the frontal wedge, and that the thickness of sediments at the trench axis is similar to that of the incoming Pacific plate. We further applied this modeling technique to the Cascadia, Nankai, Middle-America, and Sumatra trenches. Where well-defined canyons carve the trench slopes, sediments from the upper slope may routinely reach the trench axis (e.g., off Costa Rica and Cascadia). In turn, slope basins that are isolated from the canyons drainage systems must mainly accumulate locally-derived sediments. Therefore, their turbiditic infill may be diagnostic of seismic activity only - and not from storm or flood activity. If correct, this would make isolated slope basins ideal targets for paleoseismological investigation.

  14. Numerical study on the influence of hydrogen addition on soot formation in a laminar ethylene-air diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hongsheng; Liu, Fengshan; Smallwood, Gregory J.; Guelder, OEmer L.

    2006-04-15

    The influence of hydrogen addition to the fuel of an atmosphere pressure coflow laminar ethylene-air diffusion flame on soot formation was studied by numerical simulation. A detailed gas-phase reaction mechanism, which includes aromatic chemistry up to four rings, and complex thermal and transport properties were used. The fully coupled elliptic governing equations were solved. The interactions between soot and gas-phase chemistry were taken into account. Radiation heat transfer from CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, and soot was calculated using the discrete-ordinates method coupled to a statistical narrow-band-correlated K-based wide-band model. The predicted results were compared with the available experimental data and analyzed. It is indicated that the addition of hydrogen to the fuel in an ethylene-air diffusion flame suppresses soot formation through the effects of dilution and chemistry. This result is in agreement with available experiments. The simulations further suggest that the chemically inhibiting effect of hydrogen addition on soot formation is due to the decrease of hydrogen atom concentration in soot surface growth regions and higher concentration of molecular hydrogen in the lower flame region. (author)

  15. Influence of Ar addition on ozone generation in a non-thermal plasma—a numerical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin Liang; Lee, How Ming; Chen, Shiaw Huei; Wei, Ta Chin; Been Chang, Moo

    2010-10-01

    A numerical model based on a dielectric barrier discharge is developed in this study to investigate the influence of Ar addition on ozone generation. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental data, confirming the validity of the numerical model. The mechanisms regarding how the Ar addition affects ozone generation are investigated with the assistance of a numerical simulation by probing into the following two questions, (1) why the ozone concentration just slightly decreases in the low specific input energy (SIE, the ratio of discharge power to gas flow rate) region even if the inlet O2 concentration is substantially decreased and (2) why the variation of the increased rate of ozone concentration with SIE (i.e. the variation in the slope of ozone concentration versus SIE) is more significant for an O2/Ar mixture plasma. As SIE is relatively low, ozone decomposition through electron-impact and radical attack reactions is less significant because of low ozone concentration and gas temperature. Therefore, the ozone concentration depends mainly on the amount of oxygen atoms generated. The simulation results indicate that the amount of oxygen atoms generated per electronvolt for Ar concentrations of 0%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 80% are 0.178, 0.174, 0.169, 0.165 and 0.166, respectively, explaining why the ozone concentration does not decrease linearly with the inlet O2 concentration in the low SIE region. On the other hand, the simulation results show that increasing Ar concentration would lead to a lower reduced field and a higher gas temperature. The former would lead to an increase in the rate constant of e + O3 → e + O + O2 while the latter would result in a decrease in the rate constant of O + O2 + M → O3 + M and an increase in that of O3 + O → 2O2. The changes in the rate constants of these reactions would have a negative effect on ozone generation, which is the rationale for the second question.

  16. Numerical study of the effect of water addition on gas explosion.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuntao; Zeng, Wen

    2010-02-15

    Through amending the SENKIN code of CHEMKIN III chemical kinetics package, a computational model of gas explosion in a constant volume bomb was built, and the detailed reaction mechanism (GRI-Mech 3.0) was adopted. The mole fraction profiles of reactants, some selected free radicals and catastrophic gases in the process of gas explosion were analyzed by this model. Furthermore, through the sensitivity analysis of the reaction mechanism of gas explosion, the dominant reactions that affect gas explosion and the formation of catastrophic gases were found out. At the same time, the inhibition mechanisms of water on gas explosion and the formation of catastrophic gases were analyzed. The results show that the induced explosion time is prolonged, and the mole fractions of reactant species such as CH(4), O(2) and catastrophic gases such as CO, CO(2) and NO are decreased as water is added to the mixed gas. With the water fraction in the mixed gas increasing, the sensitivities of the dominant reactions contributing to CH(4), CO(2) are decreased and the sensitivity coefficients of CH(4), CO and NO mole fractions are also decreased. The inhibition of gas explosion with water addition can be ascribed to the significant decrease of H, O and OH in the process of gas explosion due to the water presence. PMID:19811873

  17. Heat Transfer Enhancement for Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers with Vortex Generators: Experimental and Numerical Results

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, James Edward; Sohal, Manohar Singh; Huff, George Albert

    2002-08-01

    A combined experimental and numerical investigation is under way to investigate heat transfer enhancement techniques that may be applicable to large-scale air-cooled condensers such as those used in geothermal power applications. The research is focused on whether air-side heat transfer can be improved through the use of finsurface vortex generators (winglets,) while maintaining low heat exchanger pressure drop. A transient heat transfer visualization and measurement technique has been employed in order to obtain detailed distributions of local heat transfer coefficients on model fin surfaces. Pressure drop measurements have also been acquired in a separate multiple-tube row apparatus. In addition, numerical modeling techniques have been developed to allow prediction of local and average heat transfer for these low-Reynolds-number flows with and without winglets. Representative experimental and numerical results presented in this paper reveal quantitative details of local fin-surface heat transfer in the vicinity of a circular tube with a single delta winglet pair downstream of the cylinder. The winglets were triangular (delta) with a 1:2 height/length aspect ratio and a height equal to 90% of the channel height. Overall mean fin-surface Nusselt-number results indicate a significant level of heat transfer enhancement (average enhancement ratio 35%) associated with the deployment of the winglets with oval tubes. Pressure drop measurements have also been obtained for a variety of tube and winglet configurations using a single-channel flow apparatus that includes four tube rows in a staggered array. Comparisons of heat transfer and pressure drop results for the elliptical tube versus a circular tube with and without winglets are provided. Heat transfer and pressure-drop results have been obtained for flow Reynolds numbers based on channel height and mean flow velocity ranging from 700 to 6500.

  18. Numerical prediction of freezing fronts in cryosurgery: comparison with experimental results.

    PubMed

    Fortin, André; Belhamadia, Youssef

    2005-08-01

    Recent developments in scientific computing now allow to consider realistic applications of numerical modelling to medicine. In this work, a numerical method is presented for the simulation of phase change occurring in cryosurgery applications. The ultimate goal of these simulations is to accurately predict the freezing front position and the thermal history inside the ice ball which is essential to determine if cancerous cells have been completely destroyed. A semi-phase field formulation including blood flow considerations is employed for the simulations. Numerical results are enhanced by the introduction of an anisotropic remeshing strategy. The numerical procedure is validated by comparing the predictions of the model with experimental results. PMID:16298846

  19. Numerical simulation of particle fluxes formation generated as a result of space objects breakups in orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, A. G.; Galushina, T. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    The paper describes the software package developed for the numerical simulation of the breakups of natural and artificial objects and algorithms on which it is based. A new software "Numerical model of breakups" includes models of collapse of the spacecraft (SC) as a result of the explosion and collision as well as two models of the explosion of an asteroid.

  20. Three-dimensional convection in horizontal cylinders - Numerical solutions and comparison with experimental and analytical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smutek, C.; Bontoux, P.; Roux, B.; Schiroky, G. H.; Hurford, A. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a three-dimensional numerical simulation of Boussinesq free convection in a horizontal differentially heated cylinder are presented. The computation was based on a Samarskii-Andreyev scheme (described by Leong, 1981) and a false-transient advancement in time, with vorticity, velocity, and temperature as dependent variables. Solutions for velocity and temperature distributions were obtained for Rayleigh numbers (based on the radius) Ra = 74-18,700, thus covering the core- and boundary-layer-driven regimes. Numerical solutions are compared with asymptotic analytical solutions and experimental data. The numerical results well represent the complex three-dimensional flows found experimentally.

  1. Numerical results using the conforming VEM for the convection-diffusion-reaction equation with variable coefficients.

    SciTech Connect

    Manzini, Gianmarco; Cangiani, Andrea; Sutton, Oliver

    2014-10-02

    This document presents the results of a set of preliminary numerical experiments using several possible conforming virtual element approximations of the convection-reaction-diffusion equation with variable coefficients.

  2. Comparison of results of experimental research with numerical calculations of a model one-sided seal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachimiak, Damian; Krzyślak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    Paper presents the results of experimental and numerical research of a model segment of a labyrinth seal for a different wear level. The analysis covers the extent of leakage and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers and the planes upstream and downstream of the segment. The measurement data have been compared with the results of numerical calculations obtained using commercial software. Based on the flow conditions occurring in the area subjected to calculations, the size of the mesh defined by parameter y+ has been analyzed and the selection of the turbulence model has been described. The numerical calculations were based on the measurable thermodynamic parameters in the seal segments of steam turbines. The work contains a comparison of the mass flow and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers obtained during the measurement and calculated numerically in a model segment of the seal of different level of wear.

  3. Height of burst explosions: a comparative study of numerical and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omang, M.; Christensen, S. O.; Børve, S.; Trulsen, J.

    2009-06-01

    In the current work, we use the Constant Volume model and the numerical method, Regularized Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (RSPH) to study propagation and reflection of blast waves from detonations of the high explosives C-4 and TNT. The results from simulations of free-field TNT explosions are compared to previously published data, and good agreement is found. Measurements from height of burst tests performed by the Norwegian Defence Estates Agency are used to compare against numerical simulations. The results for shock time of arrival and the pressure levels are well represented by the numerical results. The results are also found to be in good agreement with results from a commercially available code. The effect of allowing different ratios of specific heat capacities in the explosive products are studied. We also evaluate the effect of changing the charge shape and height of burst on the triple point trajectory.

  4. Free Radical Addition Polymerization Kinetics without Steady-State Approximations: A Numerical Analysis for the Polymer, Physical, or Advanced Organic Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iler, H. Darrell; Brown, Amber; Landis, Amanda; Schimke, Greg; Peters, George

    2014-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the free radical addition polymerization system is described that provides those teaching polymer, physical, or advanced organic chemistry courses the opportunity to introduce students to numerical methods in the context of a simple but mathematically stiff chemical kinetic system. Numerical analysis can lead students to an…

  5. Numerical simulation and experimental results of ultrasonic waves scattering on a model of the artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, J.; Powalowski, T.; Trawinski, Z.

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the results of the mathematical modeling and experimental results of the ultrasonic waves scattering in the inhomogeneous dissipative medium. The research was carried out for an artery model (a pipe made of a latex), with internal diameter of 5 mm and wall thickness of 1.25 mm. The numerical solver was created for calculation of the fields of ultrasonic beams and scattered fields under different boundary conditions, different angles and transversal displacement of ultrasonic beams with respect to the position of the arterial wall. The investigations employed the VED ultrasonic apparatus. The good agreement between the numerical calculation and experimental results was obtained.

  6. Numeric and symbolic knowledge representation of cerebral cortex anatomy: methods and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Dameron, O; Gibaud, B; Morandi, X

    2004-06-01

    The human cerebral cortex anatomy describes the brain organization at the scale of gyri and sulci. It is used as landmarks for neurosurgery as well as localization support for functional data analysis or inter-subject data comparison. Existing models of the cortex anatomy either rely on image labeling but fail to represent variability and structural properties or rely on a conceptual model but miss the inner 3D nature and relations of anatomical structures. This study was therefore conducted to propose a model of sulco-gyral anatomy for the healthy human brain. We hypothesized that both numeric knowledge (i.e., image-based) and symbolic knowledge (i.e., concept-based) have to be represented and coordinated. In addition, the representation of this knowledge should be application-independent in order to be usable in various contexts. Therefore, we devised a symbolic model describing specialization, composition and spatial organization of cortical anatomical structures. We also collected numeric knowledge such as 3D models of shape and shape variation about cortical anatomical structures. For each numeric piece of knowledge, a companion file describes the concept it refers to and the nature of the relationship. Demonstration software performs a mapping between the numeric and the symbolic aspects for browsing the knowledge base. PMID:15118839

  7. Numerical solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations using density gradients as additional dependent variables. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Numerical solution of two dimensional, time dependent, compressible viscous Navier-Stokes equations about arbitrary bodies was treated using density gradients as additional dependent variables. Thus, six dependent variables were computed with the SOR iteration method. Besides formulation for pressure gradient terms, a formulation for computing the body density was presented. To approximate the governing equations, an implicit finite difference method was employed. In computing the solution for the flow about a circular cylinder, a problem arose near the wall at both stagnation points. Thus, computations with various conditions were tried to examine the problem. Also, computations with and without formulations are compared. The flow variables were computed on 37 by 40 field first, then on an 81 by 40 field.

  8. The Modern U.S. High School Astronomy Course, Its Status and Makeup II: Additional Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumenaker, Larry

    2009-01-01

    A postal survey of high school astronomy teachers strongly confirms many results of an earlier electronic survey. Additional and new results include a measure of the level of inquiry (more structured inquiry and teacher-led) in the classroom as well as data showing that more emphasis is given to traditional topics than to contemporary astronomy…

  9. Numerical modeling of on-orbit propellant motion resulting from an impulsive acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aydelott, John C.; Mjolsness, Raymond C.; Torrey, Martin D.; Hochstein, John I.

    1987-01-01

    In-space docking and separation maneuvers of spacecraft that have large fluid mass fractions may cause undesirable spacecraft motion in response to the impulsive-acceleration-induced fluid motion. An example of this potential low gravity fluid management problem arose during the development of the shuttle/Centaur vehicle. Experimentally verified numerical modeling techniques were developed to establish the propellant dynamics, and subsequent vehicle motion, associated with the separation of the Centaur vehicle from the shuttle orbiter cargo bay. Although the shuttle/Centaur development activity was suspended, the numerical modeling techniques are available to predict on-orbit liquid motion resulting from impulsive accelerations for other missions and spacecraft.

  10. Correlation of the experimental and numerical results for the holding power of dental, traumatic, and spinal screws.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Ching; Lin, Shang-Chih; Wu, Shu-Wei; Li, Yu-Ching; Fu, Ping-Yuen

    2012-10-01

    The holding power of the bone-screw interfaces is one of the key factors in the clinical performance of screw design. The value of the holding power can be experimentally measured by pullout tests. Historically, some researchers have used the finite-element method to simulate the holding power of the different screws. Among them, however, the assumed displacement of the screw withdrawal is unreasonably small (about 0.005-1.0 mm). In addition, the chosen numerical indices are quite different, including maximum stress, strain energy, and reaction force. This study systematically uses dental, traumatic, and spinal screws to experimentally measure and numerically simulate their bone-purchasing ability within the synthetic bone. The testing results (pullout displacement and holding power) and numerical indices (maximum stress, total strain energy, and reaction forces) are chosen to calculate their correlation coefficients. The pullout displacement is divided into five regions from initial to final withdrawal. The experimental results demonstrate that the pullout displacement consistently occurs at the final region (0.6-1.6 mm) and is significantly higher than the assumed value of the literature studies. For all screw groups, the measured holding power within the initial region is not highly or even negatively correlated with the experimental and numerical results within the final region. The observation from the simulative results shows the maximum stress only reflects the loads concentrated at some local site(s) and is the least correlated to the measured holding power. Comparatively, both energy and force are more global indices to correlate with the gross failure at the bone-screw interfaces. However, the energy index is not suitable for the screw groups with rather tiny threads compared with the other specifications. In conclusion, the underestimated displacement leads to erroneous results in the screw-pullout simulation. Among three numerical indices the reaction

  11. Numerical investigation of the mechanical properties of the additive manufactured bone scaffolds fabricated by FDM: The effect of layer penetration and post-heating.

    PubMed

    Naghieh, S; Karamooz Ravari, M R; Badrossamay, M; Foroozmehr, E; Kadkhodaei, M

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, thanks to additive manufacturing technology, researchers have gone towards the optimization of bone scaffolds for the bone reconstruction. Bone scaffolds should have appropriate biological as well as mechanical properties in order to play a decisive role in bone healing. Since the fabrication of scaffolds is time consuming and expensive, numerical methods are often utilized to simulate their mechanical properties in order to find a nearly optimum one. Finite element analysis is one of the most common numerical methods that is used in this regard. In this paper, a parametric finite element model is developed to assess the effects of layers penetration׳s effect on inter-layer adhesion, which is reflected on the mechanical properties of bone scaffolds. To be able to validate this model, some compression test specimens as well as bone scaffolds are fabricated with biocompatible and biodegradable poly lactic acid using fused deposition modeling. All these specimens are tested in compression and their elastic modulus is obtained. Using the material parameters of the compression test specimens, the finite element analysis of the bone scaffold is performed. The obtained elastic modulus is compared with experiment indicating a good agreement. Accordingly, the proposed finite element model is able to predict the mechanical behavior of fabricated bone scaffolds accurately. In addition, the effect of post-heating of bone scaffolds on their elastic modulus is investigated. The results demonstrate that the numerically predicted elastic modulus of scaffold is closer to experimental outcomes in comparison with as-built samples. PMID:26874065

  12. Numerical modeling of heat-transfer and the influence of process parameters on tailoring the grain morphology of IN718 in electron beam additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Raghavan, Narendran; Dehoff, Ryan; Pannala, Sreekanth; Simunovic, Srdjan; Kirka, Michael; Turner, John; Carlson, Neil; Babu, Sudarsanam S.

    2016-04-26

    The fabrication of 3-D parts from CAD models by additive manufacturing (AM) is a disruptive technology that is transforming the metal manufacturing industry. The correlation between solidification microstructure and mechanical properties has been well understood in the casting and welding processes over the years. This paper focuses on extending these principles to additive manufacturing to understand the transient phenomena of repeated melting and solidification during electron beam powder melting process to achieve site-specific microstructure control within a fabricated component. In this paper, we have developed a novel melt scan strategy for electron beam melting of nickel-base superalloy (Inconel 718) andmore » also analyzed 3-D heat transfer conditions using a parallel numerical solidification code (Truchas) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The spatial and temporal variations of temperature gradient (G) and growth velocity (R) at the liquid-solid interface of the melt pool were calculated as a function of electron beam parameters. By manipulating the relative number of voxels that lie in the columnar or equiaxed region, the crystallographic texture of the components can be controlled to an extent. The analysis of the parameters provided optimum processing conditions that will result in columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) during the solidification. Furthermore, the results from the numerical simulations were validated by experimental processing and characterization thereby proving the potential of additive manufacturing process to achieve site-specific crystallographic texture control within a fabricated component.« less

  13. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. This topical report presents the results from the Task 2 and Task 4 pilot-scale additive tests. The Task 3 and Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2006.

  14. Improving the trust in results of numerical simulations and scientific data analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Cappello, Franck; Constantinescu, Emil; Hovland, Paul; Peterka, Tom; Phillips, Carolyn; Snir, Marc; Wild, Stefan

    2015-04-30

    This white paper investigates several key aspects of the trust that a user can give to the results of numerical simulations and scientific data analytics. In this document, the notion of trust is related to the integrity of numerical simulations and data analytics applications. This white paper complements the DOE ASCR report on Cybersecurity for Scientific Computing Integrity by (1) exploring the sources of trust loss; (2) reviewing the definitions of trust in several areas; (3) providing numerous cases of result alteration, some of them leading to catastrophic failures; (4) examining the current notion of trust in numerical simulation and scientific data analytics; (5) providing a gap analysis; and (6) suggesting two important research directions and their respective research topics. To simplify the presentation without loss of generality, we consider that trust in results can be lost (or the results’ integrity impaired) because of any form of corruption happening during the execution of the numerical simulation or the data analytics application. In general, the sources of such corruption are threefold: errors, bugs, and attacks. Current applications are already using techniques to deal with different types of corruption. However, not all potential corruptions are covered by these techniques. We firmly believe that the current level of trust that a user has in the results is at least partially founded on ignorance of this issue or the hope that no undetected corruptions will occur during the execution. This white paper explores the notion of trust and suggests recommendations for developing a more scientifically grounded notion of trust in numerical simulation and scientific data analytics. We first formulate the problem and show that it goes beyond previous questions regarding the quality of results such as V&V, uncertainly quantification, and data assimilation. We then explore the complexity of this difficult problem, and we sketch complementary general

  15. Additional results on space environmental effects on polymer matrix composites: Experiment A0180

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Additional experimental results on the atomic oxygen erosion of boron, Kevlar, and graphite fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composites are presented. Damage of composite laminates due to micrometeoroid/debris impacts is also examined with particular emphasis on the relationship between damage area and actual hole size due to particle penetration. Special attention is given to one micrometeoroid impact on an aluminum base plate which resulted in ejecta visible on an adjoining vertical flange structure.

  16. Impulse propagation over a complex site: a comparison of experimental results and numerical predictions.

    PubMed

    Dragna, Didier; Blanc-Benon, Philippe; Poisson, Franck

    2014-03-01

    Results from outdoor acoustic measurements performed in a railway site near Reims in France in May 2010 are compared to those obtained from a finite-difference time-domain solver of the linearized Euler equations. During the experiments, the ground profile and the different ground surface impedances were determined. Meteorological measurements were also performed to deduce mean vertical profiles of wind and temperature. An alarm pistol was used as a source of impulse signals and three microphones were located along a propagation path. The various measured parameters are introduced as input data into the numerical solver. In the frequency domain, the numerical results are in good accordance with the measurements up to a frequency of 2 kHz. In the time domain, except a time shift, the predicted waveforms match the measured waveforms with a close agreement. PMID:24606253

  17. Forecasting Energy Market Contracts by Ambit Processes: Empirical Study and Numerical Results

    PubMed Central

    Di Persio, Luca; Marchesan, Michele

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper we exploit the theory of ambit processes to develop a model which is able to effectively forecast prices of forward contracts written on the Italian energy market. Both short-term and medium-term scenarios are considered and proper calibration procedures as well as related numerical results are provided showing a high grade of accuracy in the obtained approximations when compared with empirical time series of interest. PMID:27437500

  18. Chaotic scattering in an open vase-shaped cavity: Topological, numerical, and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novick, Jaison Allen

    point to each "detector point". We then construct the wave function directly from these classical trajectories using the two-dimensional WKB approximation. The wave function is Fourier Transformed using a Fast Fourier Transform algorithm resulting in a spectrum in which each peak corresponds to an interpolated trajectory. Our predictions are based on an imagined experiment that uses microwave propagation within an electromagnetic waveguide. Such an experiment exploits the fact that under suitable conditions both Maxwell's Equations and the Schrodinger Equation can be reduced to the Helmholtz Equation. Therefore, our predictions, while compared to the electromagnetic experiment, contain information about the quantum system. Identifying peaks in the transmission spectrum with chaotic trajectories will allow for an additional experimental verification of the intermediate recursive structure. Finally, we summarize our results and discuss possible extensions of this project.

  19. Nonlinearities of waves propagating over a mild-slope beach: laboratory and numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Mariana V. L.; Michallet, Hervé; Silva, Paulo A.; Cienfuegos, Rodrigo

    2014-05-01

    As surface gravity waves propagate from deeper waters to the shore, their shape changes, primarily due to nonlinear wave interactions and further on due to breaking. The nonlinear effects amplify the higher harmonics and cause the oscillatory flow to transform from nearly sinusoidal in deep water, through velocity-skewed in the shoaling zone, to velocity asymmetric in the inner-surf and swash zones. In addition to short-wave nonlinearities, the presence of long waves and wave groups also results in a supplementary wave-induced velocity and influences the short-waves. Further, long waves can themselves contribute to velocity skewness and asymmetry at low frequencies, particularly for very dissipative mild-slope beach profiles, where long wave shoaling and breaking can also occur. The Hydralab-IV GLOBEX experiments were performed in a 110-m-long flume, with a 1/80 rigid-bottom slope and allowed the acquisition of high-resolution free-surface elevation and velocity data, obtained during 90-min long simulations of random and bichromatic wave conditions, and also of a monochromatic long wave (Ruessink et al., Proc. Coastal Dynamics, 2013). The measurements are compared to numerical results obtained with the SERR-1D Boussinesq-type model, which is designed to reproduce the complex dynamics of high-frequency wave propagation, including the energy transfer mechanisms that enhance infragravity-wave generation. The evolution of skewness and asymmetry along the beach profile until the swash zone is analyzed, relatively to that of the wave groupiness and long wave propagation. Some particularities of bichromatic wave groups are further investigated, such as partially-standing long-wave patterns and short-wave reformation after the first breakpoint, which is seen to influence particularly the skewness trends. Decreased spectral width (for random waves) and increased modulation (for bichromatic wave groups) are shown to enhance energy transfers between super- and sub

  20. Parametric Evaluation of Absorption Losses and Comparison of Numerical Results to Boeing 707 Aircraft Experimental HIRF Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaygorsky, J.; Amburgey, C.; Elliott, J. R.; Fisher, R.; Perala, R. A.

    A broadband (100 MHz-1.2 GHz) plane wave electric field source was used to evaluate electric field penetration inside a simplified Boeing 707 aircraft model with a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method using EMA3D. The role of absorption losses inside the simplified aircraft was investigated. It was found that, in this frequency range, none of the cavities inside the Boeing 707 model are truly reverberant when frequency stirring is applied, and a purely statistical electromagnetics approach cannot be used to predict or analyze the field penetration or shielding effectiveness (SE). Thus it was our goal to attempt to understand the nature of losses in such a quasi-statistical environment by adding various numbers of absorbing objects inside the simplified aircraft and evaluating the SE, decay-time constant τ, and quality factor Q. We then compare our numerical results with experimental results obtained by D. Mark Johnson et al. on a decommissioned Boeing 707 aircraft.

  1. Some numerical simulation results of swirling flow in d.c. plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felipini, C. L.; Pimenta, M. M.

    2015-03-01

    We present and discuss some results of numerical simulation of swirling flow in d.c. plasma torch, obtained with a two-dimensional mathematical model (MHD model) which was developed to simulate the phenomena related to the interaction between the swirling flow and the electric arc in a non-transferred arc plasma torch. The model was implemented in a computer code based on the Finite Volume Method (FVM) to enable the numerical solution of the governing equations. For the study, cases were simulated with different operating conditions (gas flow rate; swirl number). Some obtained results were compared to the literature and have proved themselves to be in good agreement in most part of computational domain regions. The numerical simulations performed with the computer code enabled the study of the behaviour of the flow in the plasma torch and also study the effects of different swirl numbers on temperature and axial velocity of the plasma flow. The results demonstrated that the developed model is suitable to obtain a better understanding of the involved phenomena and also for the development and optimization of plasma torches.

  2. A method for data handling numerical results in parallel OpenFOAM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, Alin; Muntean, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Parallel computational fluid dynamics simulations produce vast amount of numerical result data. This paper introduces a method for reducing the size of the data by replaying the interprocessor traffic. The results are recovered only in certain regions of interest configured by the user. A known test case is used for several mesh partitioning scenarios using the OpenFOAM toolkit®[1]. The space savings obtained with classic algorithms remain constant for more than 60 Gb of floating point data. Our method is most efficient on large simulation meshes and is much better suited for compressing large scale simulation results than the regular algorithms.

  3. A method for data handling numerical results in parallel OpenFOAM simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Anton, Alin; Muntean, Sebastian

    2015-12-31

    Parallel computational fluid dynamics simulations produce vast amount of numerical result data. This paper introduces a method for reducing the size of the data by replaying the interprocessor traffic. The results are recovered only in certain regions of interest configured by the user. A known test case is used for several mesh partitioning scenarios using the OpenFOAM toolkit{sup ®}[1]. The space savings obtained with classic algorithms remain constant for more than 60 Gb of floating point data. Our method is most efficient on large simulation meshes and is much better suited for compressing large scale simulation results than the regular algorithms.

  4. Ground-based PIV and numerical flow visualization results from the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pline, Alexander D.; Werner, Mark P.; Hsieh, Kwang-Chung

    1991-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 (USML-1) Spacelab mission planned for June, 1992. One of the components of data collected during the experiment is a video record of the flow field. This qualitative data is then quantified using an all electric, two dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique called Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT), which uses a simple space domain particle tracking algorithm. Results using the ground based STDCE hardware, with a radiant flux heating mode, and the PDT system are compared to numerical solutions obtained by solving the axisymmetric Navier Stokes equations with a deformable free surface. The PDT technique is successful in producing a velocity vector field and corresponding stream function from the raw video data which satisfactorily represents the physical flow. A numerical program is used to compute the velocity field and corresponding stream function under identical conditions. Both the PDT system and numerical results were compared to a streak photograph, used as a benchmark, with good correlation.

  5. Ground-based PIV and numerical flow visualization results from the surface tension driven convection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pline, Alexander D.; Wernet, Mark P.; Hsieh, Kwang-Chung

    1991-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 (USML-1) Spacelab mission planned for June, 1992. One of the components of data collected during the experiment is a video record of the flow field. This qualitative data is then quantified using an all electric, two dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique called Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT), which uses a simple space domain particle tracking algorithm. Results using the ground based STDCE hardware, with a radiant flux heating mode, and the PDT system are compared to numerical solutions obtained by solving the axisymmetric Navier Stokes equations with a deformable free surface. The PDT technique is successful in producing a velocity vector field and corresponding stream function from the raw video data which satisfactorily represents the physical flow. A numerical program is used to compute the velocity field and corresponding stream function under identical conditions. Both the PDT system and numerical results were compared to a streak photograph, used as a benchmark, with good correlation.

  6. Wave interpretation of numerical results for the vibration in thin conical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Guangjian; Elliott, Stephen J.

    2014-05-01

    The dynamic behaviour of thin conical shells can be analysed using a number of numerical methods. Although the overall vibration response of shells has been thoroughly studied using such methods, their physical insight is limited. The purpose of this paper is to interpret some of these numerical results in terms of waves, using the wave finite element, WFE, method. The forced response of a thin conical shell at different frequencies is first calculated using the dynamic stiffness matrix method. Then, a wave finite element analysis is used to calculate the wave properties of the shell, in terms of wave type and wavenumber, as a function of position along it. By decomposing the overall results from the dynamic stiffness matrix analysis, the responses of the shell can then be interpreted in terms of wave propagation. A simplified theoretical analysis of the waves in the thin conical shell is also presented in terms of the spatially-varying ring frequency, which provides a straightforward interpretation of the wave approach. The WFE method provides a way to study the types of wave that travel in thin conical shell structures and to decompose the response of the numerical models into the components due to each of these waves. In this way the insight provided by the wave approach allows us to analyse the significance of different waves in the overall response and study how they interact, in particular illustrating the conversion of one wave type into another along the length of the conical shell.

  7. Recent Analytical and Numerical Results for The Navier-Stokes-Voigt Model and Related Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larios, Adam; Titi, Edriss; Petersen, Mark; Wingate, Beth

    2010-11-01

    The equations which govern the motions of fluids are notoriously difficult to handle both mathematically and computationally. Recently, a new approach to these equations, known as the Voigt-regularization, has been investigated as both a numerical and analytical regularization for the 3D Navier-Stokes equations, the Euler equations, and related fluid models. This inviscid regularization is related to the alpha-models of turbulent flow; however, it overcomes many of the problems present in those models. I will discuss recent work on the Voigt-regularization, as well as a new criterion for the finite-time blow-up of the Euler equations based on their Voigt-regularization. Time permitting, I will discuss some numerical results, as well as applications of this technique to the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations and various equations of ocean dynamics.

  8. A numerical study of the influence of ammonia addition on the auto-ignition limits of methane/air mixtures.

    PubMed

    Van den Schoor, F; Norman, F; Vandebroek, L; Verplaetsen, F; Berghmans, J

    2009-05-30

    In this study the auto-ignition limit of ammonia/methane/air mixtures is calculated based upon a perfectly stirred reactor model with convective heat transfer. The results of four different reaction mechanisms are compared with existing experimental data at an initial temperature of 723 K with ammonia concentrations of 0-20 mol.% and methane concentrations of 2.5-10 mol.%. It is found that the calculation of the auto-ignition limit pressure at constant temperature leads to larger relative deviations between calculated and experimental results than the calculation of the auto-ignition temperature at constant pressure. In addition to the calculations, a reaction path analysis is performed to explain the observed lowering of the auto-ignition limit of methane/air mixtures by ammonia addition. It is found that this decrease is caused by the formation of NO and NO(2), which enhance the oxidation of methane at low temperatures. PMID:18926632

  9. Temperature Fields in Soft Tissue during LPUS Treatment: Numerical Prediction and Experiment Results

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawska, Tamara; Wojcik, Janusz; Nowicki, Andrzej

    2010-03-09

    Recent research has shown that beneficial therapeutic effects in soft tissues can be induced by the low power ultrasound (LPUS). For example, increasing of cells immunity to stress (among others thermal stress) can be obtained through the enhanced heat shock proteins (Hsp) expression induced by the low intensity ultrasound. The possibility to control the Hsp expression enhancement in soft tissues in vivo stimulated by ultrasound can be the potential new therapeutic approach to the neurodegenerative diseases which utilizes the known feature of cells to increase their immunity to stresses through the Hsp expression enhancement. The controlling of the Hsp expression enhancement by adjusting of exposure level to ultrasound energy would allow to evaluate and optimize the ultrasound-mediated treatment efficiency. Ultrasonic regimes are controlled by adjusting the pulsed ultrasound waves intensity, frequency, duration, duty cycle and exposure time. Our objective was to develop the numerical model capable of predicting in space and time temperature fields induced by a circular focused transducer generating tone bursts in multilayer nonlinear attenuating media and to compare the numerically calculated results with the experimental data in vitro. The acoustic pressure field in multilayer biological media was calculated using our original numerical solver. For prediction of temperature fields the Pennes' bio-heat transfer equation was employed. Temperature field measurements in vitro were carried out in a fresh rat liver using the 15 mm diameter, 25 mm focal length and 2 MHz central frequency transducer generating tone bursts with the spatial peak temporal average acoustic intensity varied between 0.325 and 1.95 W/cm{sup 2}, duration varied from 20 to 500 cycles at the same 20% duty cycle and the exposure time varied up to 20 minutes. The measurement data were compared with numerical simulation results obtained under experimental boundary conditions. Good agreement between

  10. Network model to study physiological processes of hypobaric decompression sickness: New numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zueco, Joaquín; López-González, Luis María

    2016-04-01

    We have studied decompression processes when pressure changes that take place, in blood and tissues using a technical numerical based in electrical analogy of the parameters that involved in the problem. The particular problem analyzed is the behavior dynamics of the extravascular bubbles formed in the intercellular cavities of a hypothetical tissue undergoing decompression. Numerical solutions are given for a system of equations to simulate gas exchanges of bubbles after decompression, with particular attention paid to the effect of bubble size, nitrogen tension, nitrogen diffusivity in the intercellular fluid and in the tissue cell layer in a radial direction, nitrogen solubility, ambient pressure and specific blood flow through the tissue over the different molar diffusion fluxes of nitrogen per time unit (through the bubble surface, between the intercellular fluid layer and blood and between the intercellular fluid layer and the tissue cell layer). The system of nonlinear equations is solved using the Network Simulation Method, where the electric analogy is applied to convert these equations into a network-electrical model, and a computer code (electric circuit simulator, Pspice). In this paper, numerical results new (together to a network model improved with interdisciplinary electrical analogies) are provided.

  11. Some analytical and numerical approaches to understanding trap counts resulting from pest insect immigration.

    PubMed

    Bearup, Daniel; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Petrovskii, Sergei

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring of pest insects is an important part of the integrated pest management. It aims to provide information about pest insect abundance at a given location. This includes data collection, usually using traps, and their subsequent analysis and/or interpretation. However, interpretation of trap count (number of insects caught over a fixed time) remains a challenging problem. First, an increase in either the population density or insects activity can result in a similar increase in the number of insects trapped (the so called "activity-density" problem). Second, a genuine increase of the local population density can be attributed to qualitatively different ecological mechanisms such as multiplication or immigration. Identification of the true factor causing an increase in trap count is important as different mechanisms require different control strategies. In this paper, we consider a mean-field mathematical model of insect trapping based on the diffusion equation. Although the diffusion equation is a well-studied model, its analytical solution in closed form is actually available only for a few special cases, whilst in a more general case the problem has to be solved numerically. We choose finite differences as the baseline numerical method and show that numerical solution of the problem, especially in the realistic 2D case, is not at all straightforward as it requires a sufficiently accurate approximation of the diffusion fluxes. Once the numerical method is justified and tested, we apply it to the corresponding boundary problem where different types of boundary forcing describe different scenarios of pest insect immigration and reveal the corresponding patterns in the trap count growth. PMID:25744607

  12. Simulation of human atherosclerotic femoral plaque tissue: the influence of plaque material model on numerical results

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the limited number of experimental studies that mechanically characterise human atherosclerotic plaque tissue from the femoral arteries, a recent trend has emerged in current literature whereby one set of material data based on aortic plaque tissue is employed to numerically represent diseased femoral artery tissue. This study aims to generate novel vessel-appropriate material models for femoral plaque tissue and assess the influence of using material models based on experimental data generated from aortic plaque testing to represent diseased femoral arterial tissue. Methods Novel material models based on experimental data generated from testing of atherosclerotic femoral artery tissue are developed and a computational analysis of the revascularisation of a quarter model idealised diseased femoral artery from a 90% diameter stenosis to a 10% diameter stenosis is performed using these novel material models. The simulation is also performed using material models based on experimental data obtained from aortic plaque testing in order to examine the effect of employing vessel appropriate material models versus those currently employed in literature to represent femoral plaque tissue. Results Simulations that employ material models based on atherosclerotic aortic tissue exhibit much higher maximum principal stresses within the plaque than simulations that employ material models based on atherosclerotic femoral tissue. Specifically, employing a material model based on calcified aortic tissue, instead of one based on heavily calcified femoral tissue, to represent diseased femoral arterial vessels results in a 487 fold increase in maximum principal stress within the plaque at a depth of 0.8 mm from the lumen. Conclusions Large differences are induced on numerical results as a consequence of employing material models based on aortic plaque, in place of material models based on femoral plaque, to represent a diseased femoral vessel. Due to these large

  13. Equations of state of freely jointed hard-sphere chain fluids: Numerical results

    SciTech Connect

    Stell, G.; Lin, C.; Kalyuzhnyi, Y.V.

    1999-03-01

    We continue our series of studies in which the equations of state (EOS) are derived based on the product-reactant Ornstein{endash}Zernike approach (PROZA) and first-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT1). These include two compressibility EOS, two virial EOS, and one TPT1 EOS (TPT1-D) that uses the structural information of the dimer fluid as input. In this study, we carry out the numerical implementation for these five EOS and compare their numerical results as well as those obtained from Attard{close_quote}s EOS and GF-D (generalized Flory-dimer) EOS with computer simulation results for the corresponding chain models over a wide range of densities and chain length. The comparison shows that our compressibility EOS, GF-D, and TPT1-D are in quantitative agreement with simulation results, and TPT1-D is the best among various EOS according to its average absolute deviation (AAD). On the basis of a comparison of limited data, our virial EOS appears to be superior to the predictions of Attard{close_quote}s approximate virial EOS and the approximate virial EOS derived by Schweizer and Curro in the context of the PRISM approach; all of them are only qualitatively accurate. The degree of accuracy predicted by our compressibility EOS is comparable to that of GF-D EOS, and both of them overestimate the compressibility factor at low densities and underestimate it at high densities. The compressibility factor of a polydisperse homonuclear chain system is also investigated in this work via our compressibility EOS; the numerical results are identical to those of a monodisperse system with the same chain length. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Numerical model of the lowermost Mississippi River as an alluvial-bedrock reach: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viparelli, E.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Mohrig, D. C.; Parker, G.

    2012-12-01

    level are accounted for in terms of a specified rate of sea level rise. In addition, the model allows a subsidence rate that varies in space and time. The time rate of change of channel bed elevation is computed solving the equation of mass conservation of the bed material. Validation of the model against field data is currently in progress in a relatively simplified setting, in which the bed material is characterized in terms of a single grain size. In addition, due to the lack of information on the geometry and the grain size characteristics of the floodplain, the modeling effort is restricted to the channel bed, and the procedure to route the washload through the system is not implemented. Having clearly in mind that the present Lowermost Mississippi River is not in equilibrium, validation runs are performed in two steps. The model is first run under pre-1930 conditions, under the assumption that the natural Mississippi River was not too far from long-term steady-state. The model is then run from the 1930s to the 2010s with the prevailing inputs of water and sediment and the model results are compared against field data. In the near future we plan to test the model with non-uniform bed material, and extend it to include inundation of the floodplain, and deposition of washload on it.

  15. Numerical computation of the effective-one-body potential q using self-force results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcay, Sarp; van de Meent, Maarten

    2016-03-01

    The effective-one-body theory (EOB) describes the conservative dynamics of compact binary systems in terms of an effective Hamiltonian approach. The Hamiltonian for moderately eccentric motion of two nonspinning compact objects in the extreme mass-ratio limit is given in terms of three potentials: a (v ) , d ¯ (v ) , q (v ) . By generalizing the first law of mechanics for (nonspinning) black hole binaries to eccentric orbits, [A. Le Tiec, Phys. Rev. D 92, 084021 (2015).] recently obtained new expressions for d ¯(v ) and q (v ) in terms of quantities that can be readily computed using the gravitational self-force approach. Using these expressions we present a new computation of the EOB potential q (v ) by combining results from two independent numerical self-force codes. We determine q (v ) for inverse binary separations in the range 1 /1200 ≤v ≲1 /6 . Our computation thus provides the first-ever strong-field results for q (v ) . We also obtain d ¯ (v ) in our entire domain to a fractional accuracy of ≳10-8 . We find that our results are compatible with the known post-Newtonian expansions for d ¯(v ) and q (v ) in the weak field, and agree with previous (less accurate) numerical results for d ¯(v ) in the strong field.

  16. Fluid Instabilities in the Crab Nebula Jet: Results from Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignone, A.; Striani, E.; Bodo, G.; Anjiri, M.

    2014-09-01

    We present an overview of high-resolution relativistic MHD numerical simulations of the Crab Nebula South-East jet. The models are based on hot and relativistic hollow outflows initially carrying a purely toroidal magnetic field. Our results indicate that weakly relativistic (γ˜ 2) and strongly magnetized jets are prone to kink instabilities leading to a noticeable deflection of the jet. These conclusions are in good agreement with the recent X-ray (Chandra) data of Crab Nebula South-East jet indicating a change in the direction of propagation on a time scale of the order of few years.

  17. Geohydrology of the Central Oahu, Hawaii, Ground-Water Flow System and Numerical Simulation of the Effects of Additional Pumping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    1998-01-01

    -calculated freshwater-saltwater interface location for the future recharge and pumping conditions. Model results indicate that an additional 10 million gallons per day (beyond the 1995-allocated rates) of freshwater can potentially be developed from northern Oahu. Various distributions of pumping can be used to obtain the additional 10 million gallons per day of water. The quality of the water pumped will be dependent on site-specific factors and cannot be predicted on the basis of model results. If the additional 10 million gallons per day pumpage is restricted to the Kawailoa and Waialua areas, model results indicate that a regional drawdown (relative to the water-level distribution associated with the 1995-allocated pumping rates) of less than 0.6 foot can be maintained in these two areas. The additional pumping, however, would cause salinity increases in water pumped by existing deep wells. In addition, increases in salinity may occur at other wells in areas where the model indicates no significant problem with upconing.

  18. Noninvasive assessment of mitral inertness: clinical results with numerical model validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Smedira, N. G.; McCarthy, P. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Inertial forces (Mdv/dt) are a significant component of transmitral flow, but cannot be measured with Doppler echo. We validated a method of estimating Mdv/dt. Ten patients had a dual sensor transmitral (TM) catheter placed during cardiac surgery. Doppler and 2D echo was performed while acquiring LA and LV pressures. Mdv/dt was determined from the Bernoulli equation using Doppler velocities and TM gradients. Results were compared with numerical modeling. TM gradients (range: 1.04-14.24 mmHg) consisted of 74.0 +/- 11.0% inertial forcers (range: 0.6-12.9 mmHg). Multivariate analysis predicted Mdv/dt = -4.171(S/D (RATIO)) + 0.063(LAvolume-max) + 5. Using this equation, a strong relationship was obtained for the clinical dataset (y=0.98x - 0.045, r=0.90) and the results of numerical modeling (y=0.96x - 0.16, r=0.84). TM gradients are mainly inertial and, as validated by modeling, can be estimated with echocardiography.

  19. Instability of surface lenticular vortices: results from laboratory experiments and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaye, Noé; Paci, Alexandre; Smith, Stefan Llewellyn

    2016-04-01

    We examine the instability of lenticular vortices -- or lenses -- in a stratified rotating fluid. The simplest configuration is one in which the lenses overlay a deep layer and have a free surface, and this can be studied using a two-layer rotating shallow water model. We report results from laboratory experiments and high-resolution direct numerical simulations of the destabilization of vortices with constant potential vorticity, and compare these to a linear stability analysis. The stability properties of the system are governed by two parameters: the typical upper-layer potential vorticity and the size (depth) of the vortex. Good agreement is found between analytical, numerical and experimental results for the growth rate and wavenumber of the instability. The nonlinear saturation of the instability is associated with conversion from potential to kinetic energy and weak emission of gravity waves, giving rise to the formation of coherent vortex multipoles with trapped waves. The impact of flow in the lower layer is examined. In particular, it is shown that the growth rate can be strongly affected and the instability can be suppressed for certain types of weak co-rotating flow.

  20. Re-Computation of Numerical Results Contained in NACA Report No. 496

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Boyd, III

    2015-01-01

    An extensive examination of NACA Report No. 496 (NACA 496), "General Theory of Aerodynamic Instability and the Mechanism of Flutter," by Theodore Theodorsen, is described. The examination included checking equations and solution methods and re-computing interim quantities and all numerical examples in NACA 496. The checks revealed that NACA 496 contains computational shortcuts (time- and effort-saving devices for engineers of the time) and clever artifices (employed in its solution methods), but, unfortunately, also contains numerous tripping points (aspects of NACA 496 that have the potential to cause confusion) and some errors. The re-computations were performed employing the methods and procedures described in NACA 496, but using modern computational tools. With some exceptions, the magnitudes and trends of the original results were in fair-to-very-good agreement with the re-computed results. The exceptions included what are speculated to be computational errors in the original in some instances and transcription errors in the original in others. Independent flutter calculations were performed and, in all cases, including those where the original and re-computed results differed significantly, were in excellent agreement with the re-computed results. Appendix A contains NACA 496; Appendix B contains a Matlab(Reistered) program that performs the re-computation of results; Appendix C presents three alternate solution methods, with examples, for the two-degree-of-freedom solution method of NACA 496; Appendix D contains the three-degree-of-freedom solution method (outlined in NACA 496 but never implemented), with examples.

  1. Long-Term Creep Behavior of the Intervertebral Disk: Comparison between Bioreactor Data and Numerical Results

    PubMed Central

    Castro, A. P. G.; Paul, C. P. L.; Detiger, S. E. L.; Smit, T. H.; van Royen, B. J.; Pimenta Claro, J. C.; Mullender, M. G.; Alves, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    The loaded disk culture system is an intervertebral disk (IVD)-oriented bioreactor developed by the VU Medical Center (VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands), which has the capacity of maintaining up to 12 IVDs in culture, for approximately 3 weeks after extraction. Using this system, eight goat IVDs were provided with the essential nutrients and submitted to compression tests without losing their biomechanical and physiological properties, for 22 days. Based on previous reports (Paul et al., 2012, 2013; Detiger et al., 2013), four of these IVDs were kept in physiological condition (control) and the other four were previously injected with chondroitinase ABC (CABC), in order to promote degenerative disk disease (DDD). The loading profile intercalated 16 h of activity loading with 8 h of loading recovery to express the standard circadian variations. The displacement behavior of these eight IVDs along the first 2 days of the experiment was numerically reproduced, using an IVD osmo-poro-hyper-viscoelastic and fiber-reinforced finite element (FE) model. The simulations were run on a custom FE solver (Castro et al., 2014). The analysis of the experimental results allowed concluding that the effect of the CABC injection was only significant in two of the four IVDs. The four control IVDs showed no signs of degeneration, as expected. In what concerns to the numerical simulations, the IVD FE model was able to reproduce the generic behavior of the two groups of goat IVDs (control and injected). However, some discrepancies were still noticed on the comparison between the injected IVDs and the numerical simulations, namely on the recovery periods. This may be justified by the complexity of the pathways for DDD, associated with the multiplicity of physiological responses to each direct or indirect stimulus. Nevertheless, one could conclude that ligaments, muscles, and IVD covering membranes could be added to the FE model, in order to improve its accuracy and properly

  2. Long-Term Creep Behavior of the Intervertebral Disk: Comparison between Bioreactor Data and Numerical Results.

    PubMed

    Castro, A P G; Paul, C P L; Detiger, S E L; Smit, T H; van Royen, B J; Pimenta Claro, J C; Mullender, M G; Alves, J L

    2014-01-01

    The loaded disk culture system is an intervertebral disk (IVD)-oriented bioreactor developed by the VU Medical Center (VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands), which has the capacity of maintaining up to 12 IVDs in culture, for approximately 3 weeks after extraction. Using this system, eight goat IVDs were provided with the essential nutrients and submitted to compression tests without losing their biomechanical and physiological properties, for 22 days. Based on previous reports (Paul et al., 2012, 2013; Detiger et al., 2013), four of these IVDs were kept in physiological condition (control) and the other four were previously injected with chondroitinase ABC (CABC), in order to promote degenerative disk disease (DDD). The loading profile intercalated 16 h of activity loading with 8 h of loading recovery to express the standard circadian variations. The displacement behavior of these eight IVDs along the first 2 days of the experiment was numerically reproduced, using an IVD osmo-poro-hyper-viscoelastic and fiber-reinforced finite element (FE) model. The simulations were run on a custom FE solver (Castro et al., 2014). The analysis of the experimental results allowed concluding that the effect of the CABC injection was only significant in two of the four IVDs. The four control IVDs showed no signs of degeneration, as expected. In what concerns to the numerical simulations, the IVD FE model was able to reproduce the generic behavior of the two groups of goat IVDs (control and injected). However, some discrepancies were still noticed on the comparison between the injected IVDs and the numerical simulations, namely on the recovery periods. This may be justified by the complexity of the pathways for DDD, associated with the multiplicity of physiological responses to each direct or indirect stimulus. Nevertheless, one could conclude that ligaments, muscles, and IVD covering membranes could be added to the FE model, in order to improve its accuracy and properly

  3. Interpretation of high-dimensional numerical results for the Anderson transition

    SciTech Connect

    Suslov, I. M.

    2014-12-15

    The existence of the upper critical dimension d{sub c2} = 4 for the Anderson transition is a rigorous consequence of the Bogoliubov theorem on renormalizability of φ{sup 4} theory. For d ≥ 4 dimensions, one-parameter scaling does not hold and all existent numerical data should be reinterpreted. These data are exhausted by the results for d = 4, 5 from scaling in quasi-one-dimensional systems and the results for d = 4, 5, 6 from level statistics. All these data are compatible with the theoretical scaling dependences obtained from Vollhardt and Wolfle’s self-consistent theory of localization. The widespread viewpoint that d{sub c2} = ∞ is critically discussed.

  4. Asymptotic expansion for stellarator equilibria with a non-planar magnetic axis: Numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freidberg, Jeffrey; Cerfon, Antoine; Parra, Felix

    2012-10-01

    We have recently presented a new asymptotic expansion for stellarator equilibria that generalizes the classic Greene-Johnson expansion [1] to allow for 3D equilibria with a non-planar magnetic axis [2]. Our expansion achieves the two goals of reducing the complexity of the three-dimensional MHD equilibrium equations and of describing equilibria in modern stellarator experiments. The end result of our analysis is a set of two coupled partial differential equations for the plasma pressure and the toroidal vector potential which fully determine the stellarator equilibrium. Both equations are advection equations in which the toroidal angle plays the role of time. We show that the method of characteristics, following magnetic field lines, is a convenient way of solving these equations, avoiding the difficulties associated with the periodicity of the solution in the toroidal angle. By combining the method of characteristics with Green's function integrals for the evaluation of the magnetic field due to the plasma current, we obtain an efficient numerical solver for our expansion. Numerical equilibria thus calculated will be given.[4pt] [1] J.M. Greene and J.L. Johnson, Phys. Fluids 4, 875 (1961)[0pt] [2] A.J. Cerfon, J.P. Freidberg, and F.I. Parra, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 56, 16 GP9.00081 (2011)

  5. Verification of Numerical Weather Prediction Model Results for Energy Applications in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sīle, Tija; Cepite-Frisfelde, Daiga; Sennikovs, Juris; Bethers, Uldis

    2014-05-01

    A resolution to increase the production and consumption of renewable energy has been made by EU governments. Most of the renewable energy in Latvia is produced by Hydroelectric Power Plants (HPP), followed by bio-gas, wind power and bio-mass energy production. Wind and HPP power production is sensitive to meteorological conditions. Currently the basis of weather forecasting is Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. There are numerous methodologies concerning the evaluation of quality of NWP results (Wilks 2011) and their application can be conditional on the forecast end user. The goal of this study is to evaluate the performance of Weather Research and Forecast model (Skamarock 2008) implementation over the territory of Latvia, focusing on forecasting of wind speed and quantitative precipitation forecasts. The target spatial resolution is 3 km. Observational data from Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre are used. A number of standard verification metrics are calculated. The sensitivity to the model output interpretation (output spatial interpolation versus nearest gridpoint) is investigated. For the precipitation verification the dichotomous verification metrics are used. Sensitivity to different precipitation accumulation intervals is examined. Skamarock, William C. and Klemp, Joseph B. A time-split nonhydrostatic atmospheric model for weather research and forecasting applications. Journal of Computational Physics. 227, 2008, pp. 3465-3485. Wilks, Daniel S. Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences. Third Edition. Academic Press, 2011.

  6. A theory of scintillation for two-component power law irregularity spectra: Overview and numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrano, Charles S.; Rino, Charles L.

    2016-06-01

    We extend the power law phase screen theory for ionospheric scintillation to account for the case where the refractive index irregularities follow a two-component inverse power law spectrum. The two-component model includes, as special cases, an unmodified power law and a modified power law with spectral break that may assume the role of an outer scale, intermediate break scale, or inner scale. As such, it provides a framework for investigating the effects of a spectral break on the scintillation statistics. Using this spectral model, we solve the fourth moment equation governing intensity variations following propagation through two-dimensional field-aligned irregularities in the ionosphere. A specific normalization is invoked that exploits self-similar properties of the structure to achieve a universal scaling, such that different combinations of perturbation strength, propagation distance, and frequency produce the same results. The numerical algorithm is validated using new theoretical predictions for the behavior of the scintillation index and intensity correlation length under strong scatter conditions. A series of numerical experiments are conducted to investigate the morphologies of the intensity spectrum, scintillation index, and intensity correlation length as functions of the spectral indices and strength of scatter; retrieve phase screen parameters from intensity scintillation observations; explore the relative contributions to the scintillation due to large- and small-scale ionospheric structures; and quantify the conditions under which a general spectral break will influence the scintillation statistics.

  7. Chaoticity threshold in magnetized plasmas: Numerical results in the weak coupling regime

    SciTech Connect

    Carati, A. Benfenati, F.; Maiocchi, A.; Galgani, L.; Zuin, M.

    2014-03-15

    The present paper is a numerical counterpart to the theoretical work [Carati et al., Chaos 22, 033124 (2012)]. We are concerned with the transition from order to chaos in a one-component plasma (a system of point electrons with mutual Coulomb interactions, in a uniform neutralizing background), the plasma being immersed in a uniform stationary magnetic field. In the paper [Carati et al., Chaos 22, 033124 (2012)], it was predicted that a transition should take place when the electron density is increased or the field decreased in such a way that the ratio ω{sub p}/ω{sub c} between plasma and cyclotron frequencies becomes of order 1, irrespective of the value of the so-called Coulomb coupling parameter Γ. Here, we perform numerical computations for a first principles model of N point electrons in a periodic box, with mutual Coulomb interactions, using as a probe for chaoticity the time-autocorrelation function of magnetization. We consider two values of Γ (0.04 and 0.016) in the weak coupling regime Γ ≪ 1, with N up to 512. A transition is found to occur for ω{sub p}/ω{sub c} in the range between 0.25 and 2, in fairly good agreement with the theoretical prediction. These results might be of interest for the problem of the breakdown of plasma confinement in fusion machines.

  8. Immiscible liquid-liquid pressure-driven flow in capillary tubes: Experimental results and numerical comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Edson J.; Thompson, Roney L.; Niero, Debora C.

    2015-08-01

    The immiscible displacement of one viscous liquid by another in a capillary tube is experimentally and numerically analyzed in the low inertia regime with negligible buoyancy effects. The dimensionless numbers that govern the problem are the capillary number Ca and the viscosity ratio of the displaced to the displacing fluids Nμ. In general, there are two output quantities of interest. One is associated to the relation between the front velocity, Ub, and the mean velocity of the displaced fluid, U ¯ 2 . The other is the layer thickness of the displaced fluid that remains attached to the wall. We compute these quantities as mass fractions in order to make them able to be compared. In this connection, the efficiency mass fraction, me, is defined as the complement of the mass fraction of the displaced fluid that leaves the tube while the displacing fluid crosses its length. The geometric mass fraction, mg, is defined as the fraction of the volume of the layer that remains attached to the wall. Because in gas-liquid displacement, these two quantities coincide, it is not uncommon in the literature to use mg as a measure of the displacement efficiency for liquid-liquid displacements. However, as is shown in the present paper, these two quantities have opposite tendencies when we increase the viscosity of the displacing fluid, making this distinction a crucial aspect of the problem. Results from a Galerkin finite element approach are also presented in order to make a comparison. Experimental and numerical results show that while the displacement efficiency decreases, the geometrical fraction increases when the viscosity ratio decreases. This fact leads to different decisions depending on the quantity to be optimized. The quantitative agreement between the numerical and experimental results was not completely achieved, especially for intermediate values of Ca. The reasons for that are still under investigation. The experiments conducted were able to achieve a wide range

  9. Additive effects of pollinators and herbivores result in both conflicting and reinforcing selection on floral traits.

    PubMed

    Sletvold, Nina; Moritz, Kim K; Agren, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Mutualists and antagonists are known to respond to similar floral cues, and may thus cause opposing selection on floral traits. However, we lack a quantitative understanding of their independent and interactive effects. In a population of the orchid Gymnadenia conopsea, we manipulated the intensity of pollination and herbivory in a factorial design to examine whether both interactions influence selection on flowering phenology, floral display, and morphology. Supplemental hand-pollination increased female fitness by 31% and one-quarter of all plants were damaged by herbivores. Both interactions contributed to selection. Pollinators mediated selection for later flowering and herbivores for earlier flowering, while both selected for longer spurs. The strength of selection was similar for both agents, and their effects were additive. As a consequence, there was no. net selection on phenology, whereas selection on spur length was strong. The experimental results demonstrate that both pollinators and herbivores can markedly influence the strength of selection on flowering phenology and floral morphology, and cause both conflicting and reinforcing selection. They also indicate that the direction of selection on phenology will vary with the relative intensity of the mutualistic and antagonistic interaction, potentially resulting in both temporal and among-population variation in optimal flowering time. PMID:26236906

  10. Preliminary Results from Numerical Experiments on the Summer 1980 Heat Wave and Drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, N.; Atlas, R.; Sud, Y. C.

    1985-01-01

    During the summer of 1980, a prolonged heat wave and drought affected the United States. A preliminary set of experiments has been conducted to study the effect of varying boundary conditions on the GLA model simulation of the heat wave. Five 10-day numerical integrations with three different specifications of boundary conditions were carried out: a control experiment which utilized climatological boundary conditions, an SST experiment which utilized summer 1980 sea-surface temperatures in the North Pacific, but climatological values elsewhere, and a Soil Moisture experiment which utilized the values of Mintz-Serafini for the summer, 1980. The starting dates for the five forecasts were 11 June, 7 July, 21 July, 22 August, and 6 September of 1980. These dates were specifically chosen as days when a heat wave was already established in order to investigate the effect of soil moistures or North Pacific sea-surface temperatures on the model's ability to maintain the heat wave pattern. The experiments were evaluated in terms of the heat wave index for the South Plains, North Plains, Great Plains and the entire U.S. In addition a subjective comparison of map patterns has been performed.

  11. Lateral and axial resolutions of an angle-deviation microscope for different numerical apertures: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Ming-Hung; Lai, Chin-Fa; Tan, Chen-Tai; Lin, Yi-Zhi

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a study of the lateral and axial resolutions of a transmission laser-scanning angle-deviation microscope (TADM) with different numerical aperture (NA) values. The TADM is based on geometric optics and surface plasmon resonance principles. The surface height is proportional to the phase difference between two marginal rays of the test beam, which is passed through the test medium. We used common-path heterodyne interferometry to measure the phase difference in real time, and used a personal computer to calculate and plot the surface profile. The experimental results showed that the best lateral and axial resolutions for NA = 0.41 were 0.5 μm and 3 nm, respectively, and the lateral resolution breaks through the diffraction limits.

  12. Dynamics of Tachyon Fields and Inflation - Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Results with Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milošević, M.; Dimitrijević, D. D.; Djordjević, G. S.; Stojanović, M. D.

    2016-06-01

    The role tachyon fields may play in evolution of early universe is discussed in this paper. We consider the evolution of a flat and homogeneous universe governed by a tachyon scalar field with the DBI-type action and calculate the slow-roll parameters of inflation, scalar spectral index (n), and tensor-scalar ratio (r) for the given potentials. We pay special attention to the inverse power potential, first of all to V(x)˜ x^{-4}, and compare the available results obtained by analytical and numerical methods with those obtained by observation. It is shown that the computed values of the observational parameters and the observed ones are in a good agreement for the high values of the constant X_0. The possibility that influence of the radion field can extend a range of the acceptable values of the constant X_0 to the string theory motivated sector of its values is briefly considered.

  13. Solar flare model: Comparison of the results of numerical simulations and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorny, I. M.; Vashenyuk, E. V.; Podgorny, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    The electrodynamic flare model is based on numerical 3D simulations with the real magnetic field of an active region. An energy of ˜1032 erg necessary for a solar flare is shown to accumulate in the magnetic field of a coronal current sheet. The thermal X-ray source in the corona results from plasma heating in the current sheet upon reconnection. The hard X-ray sources are located on the solar surface at the loop foot-points. They are produced by the precipitation of electron beams accelerated in field-aligned currents. Solar cosmic rays appear upon acceleration in the electric field along a singular magnetic X-type line. The generation mechanism of the delayed cosmic-ray component is also discussed.

  14. Conductivity and scattering in graphene bilayers: Numerically exact results versus Boltzmann approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hengyi; Heinzel, T.; Zozoulenko, I. V.

    2011-09-01

    We derive analytical expressions for the conductivity of bilayer graphene (BLG) using the Boltzmann approach within the the Born approximation for a model of Gaussian disorders describing both short- and long-range impurity scattering. The range of validity of the Born approximation is established by comparing the analytical results to exact tight-binding numerical calculations. A comparison of the obtained density dependencies of the conductivity with experimental data shows that the BLG samples investigated experimentally so far are in the quantum scattering regime where the Fermi wavelength exceeds the effective impurity range. In this regime both short- and long-range scattering lead to the same linear density dependence of the conductivity. Our calculations imply that bilayer and single-layer graphene have the same scattering mechanisms. We also provide an upper limit for the effective, density-dependent spatial extension of the scatterers present in the experiments.

  15. Lagrangian methods for blood damage estimation in cardiovascular devices - How numerical implementation affects the results.

    PubMed

    Marom, Gil; Bluestein, Danny

    2016-02-01

    This paper evaluated the influence of various numerical implementation assumptions on predicting blood damage in cardiovascular devices using Lagrangian methods with Eulerian computational fluid dynamics. The implementation assumptions that were tested included various seeding patterns, stochastic walk model, and simplified trajectory calculations with pathlines. Post processing implementation options that were evaluated included single passage and repeated passages stress accumulation and time averaging. This study demonstrated that the implementation assumptions can significantly affect the resulting stress accumulation, i.e., the blood damage model predictions. Careful considerations should be taken in the use of Lagrangian models. Ultimately, the appropriate assumptions should be considered based the physics of the specific case and sensitivity analysis, similar to the ones presented here, should be employed. PMID:26679833

  16. Experimental and numerical results for CO2 concentration and temperature profiles in an occupied room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotel, Aline; Junghans, Lars; Wang, Xiaoxiang

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, a recognition of the scope of the negative environmental impact of existing buildings has spurred academic and industrial interest in transforming existing building design practices and disciplinary knowledge. For example, buildings alone consume 72% of the electricity produced annually in the United States; this share is expected to rise to 75% by 2025 (EPA, 2009). Significant reductions in overall building energy consumption can be achieved using green building methods such as natural ventilation. An office was instrumented on campus to acquire CO2 concentrations and temperature profiles at multiple locations while a single occupant was present. Using openFOAM, numerical calculations were performed to allow for comparisons of the CO2 concentration and temperature profiles for different ventilation strategies. Ultimately, these results will be the inputs into a real time feedback control system that can adjust actuators for indoor ventilation and utilize green design strategies. Funded by UM Office of Vice President for Research.

  17. Electron Beam Return-Current Losses in Solar Flares: Initial Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Accelerated electrons play an important role in the energetics of solar flares. Understanding the process or processes that accelerate these electrons to high, nonthermal energies also depends on understanding the evolution of these electrons between the acceleration region and the region where they are observed through their hard X-ray or radio emission. Energy losses in the co-spatial electric field that drives the current-neutralizing return current can flatten the electron distribution toward low energies. This in turn flattens the corresponding bremsstrahlung hard X-ray spectrum toward low energies. The lost electron beam energy also enhances heating in the coronal part of the flare loop. Extending earlier work by Knight & Sturrock (1977), Emslie (1980), Diakonov & Somov (1988), and Litvinenko & Somov (1991), I have derived analytical and semi-analytical results for the nonthermal electron distribution function and the self-consistent electric field strength in the presence of a steady-state return-current. I review these results, presented previously at the 2009 SPD Meeting in Boulder, CO, and compare them and computed X-ray spectra with numerical results obtained by Zharkova & Gordovskii (2005, 2006). The phYSical significance of similarities and differences in the results will be emphasized. This work is supported by NASA's Heliophysics Guest Investigator Program and the RHESSI Project.

  18. Comparison Between Numerical and Experimental Results on Mechanical Stirrer and Bubbling in a Cylindrical Tank - 13047

    SciTech Connect

    Lima da Silva, M.; Sauvage, E.; Brun, P.; Gagnoud, A.; Fautrelle, Y.; Riva, R.

    2013-07-01

    The process of vitrification in a cold crucible heated by direct induction is used in the fusion of oxides. Its feature is the production of high-purity materials. The high-level of purity of the molten is achieved because this melting technique excludes the contamination of the charge by the crucible. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the hydrodynamic of the vitrification process by direct induction, with the focus in the effects associated with the interaction between the mechanical stirrer and bubbling. Considering the complexity of the analyzed system and the goal of the present work, we simplified the system by not taking into account the thermal and electromagnetic phenomena. Based in the concept of hydraulic similitude, we performed an experimental study and a numerical modeling of the simplified model. The results of these two studies were compared and showed a good agreement. The results presented in this paper in conjunction with the previous work contribute to a better understanding of the hydrodynamics effects resulting from the interaction between the mechanical stirrer and air bubbling in the cold crucible heated by direct induction. Further works will take into account thermal and electromagnetic phenomena in the presence of mechanical stirrer and air bubbling. (authors)

  19. Experimental results for an experimental condensation heat exchanger with a spiral minichanel tube. Comparison to numerical imulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peukert, P.; Hrubý, J.

    2013-04-01

    The paper describes new results for an experimental heat exchanger equipped with a single corrugated capillary tube, basic information about the measurements and the experimental setup. Some of the results were compared with numerical simulations.

  20. Computational modelling of cardiac electrophysiology: explanation of the variability of results from different numerical solvers.

    PubMed

    Pathmanathan, P; Bernabeu, M O; Niederer, S A; Gavaghan, D J; Kay, D

    2012-08-01

    A recent verification study compared 11 large-scale cardiac electrophysiology solvers on an unambiguously defined common problem. An unexpected amount of variation was observed between the codes, including significant error in conduction velocity in the majority of the codes at certain spatial resolutions. In particular, the results of the six finite element codes varied considerably despite each using the same order of interpolation. In this present study, we compare various algorithms for cardiac electrophysiological simulation, which allows us to fully explain the differences between the solvers. We identify the use of mass lumping as the fundamental cause of the largest variations, specifically the combination of the commonly used techniques of mass lumping and operator splitting, which results in a slightly different form of mass lumping to that supported by theory and leads to increased numerical error. Other variations are explained through the manner in which the ionic current is interpolated. We also investigate the effect of different forms of mass lumping in various types of simulation. PMID:25099569

  1. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.; Click, D.

    2010-01-06

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass - 14 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  2. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D

    2009-02-26

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass-1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma--mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  3. Experimental and numerical investigations of internal heat transfer in an innovative trailing edge blade cooling system: stationary and rotation effects, part 2: numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniaiche, Ahmed; Ghenaiet, Adel; Carcasci, Carlo; Facchini, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a numerical validation of the aero-thermal study of a 30:1 scaled model reproducing an innovative trailing edge with one row of enlarged pedestals under stationary and rotating conditions. A CFD analysis was performed by means of commercial ANSYS-Fluent modeling the isothermal air flow and using k-ω SST turbulence model and an isothermal air flow for both static and rotating conditions (Ro up to 0.23). The used numerical model is validated first by comparing the numerical velocity profiles distribution results to those obtained experimentally by means of PIV technique for Re = 20,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. The second validation is based on the comparison of the numerical results of the 2D HTC maps over the heated plate to those of TLC experimental data, for a smooth surface for a Reynolds number = 20,000 and 40,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. Two-tip conditions were considered: open tip and closed tip conditions. Results of the average Nusselt number inside the pedestal ducts region are presented too. The obtained results help to predict the flow field visualization and the evaluation of the aero-thermal performance of the studied blade cooling system during the design step.

  4. Compressible magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in stratified plasmas: Comparison of analytical and numerical results in the linear regime

    SciTech Connect

    Liberatore, S.; Jaouen, S.; Tabakhoff, E.; Canaud, B.

    2009-04-15

    Magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability is addressed in compressible hydrostatic media. A full model is presented and compared to numerical results from a linear perturbation code. A perfect agreement between both approaches is obtained in a wide range of parameters. Compressibility effects are examined and substantial deviations from classical Chandrasekhar growth rates are obtained and confirmed by the model and the numerical calculations.

  5. Numerical modeling of protocore destabilization during planetary accretion: Methodology and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ja-Ren; Gerya, Taras V.; Tackley, Paul J.; Yuen, David A.; Golabek, Gregor J.

    2009-12-01

    We developed and tested an efficient 2D numerical methodology for modeling gravitational redistribution processes in a quasi spherical planetary body based on a simple Cartesian grid. This methodology allows one to implement large viscosity contrasts and to handle properly a free surface and self-gravitation. With this novel method we investigated in a simplified way the evolution of gravitationally unstable global three-layer structures in the interiors of large metal-silicate planetary bodies like those suggested by previous models of cold accretion [Sasaki, S., Nakazawa, K., 1986. J. Geophys. Res. 91, 9231-9238; Karato, S., Murthy, V.R., 1997. Phys. Earth Planet Interios 100, 61-79; Senshu, H., Kuramoto, K., Matsui, T., 2002. J. Geophys. Res. 107 (E12), 5118. 10.1029/2001JE001819]: an innermost solid protocore (either undifferentiated or partly differentiated), an intermediate metal-rich layer (either continuous or disrupted), and an outermost silicate-rich layer. Long-wavelength (degree-one) instability of this three-layer structure may strongly contribute to core formation dynamics by triggering planetary-scale gravitational redistribution processes. We studied possible geometrical modes of the resulting planetary reshaping using scaled 2D numerical experiments for self-gravitating planetary bodies with Mercury-, Mars- and Earth-size. In our simplified model the viscosity of each material remains constant during the experiment and rheological effects of gravitational energy dissipation are not taken into account. However, in contrast to a previously conducted numerical study [Honda, R., Mizutani, H., Yamamoto, T., 1993. J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2075-2089] we explored a freely deformable planetary surface and a broad range of viscosity ratios between the metallic layer and the protocore (0.001-1000) as well as between the silicate layer and the protocore (0.001-1000). An important new prediction from our study is that realistic modes of planetary reshaping

  6. Speech Perception Results for Children Using Cochlear Implants Who Have Additional Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettman, Shani J.; Fiket, Hayley; Dowell, Richard C.; Charlton, Margaret; Williams, Sarah S.; Tomov, Alexandra M.; Barker, Elizabeth J.

    2004-01-01

    Speech perception outcomes in young children with cochlear implants are affected by a number of variables including the age of implantation, duration of implantation, mode of communication, and the presence of a developmental delay or additional disability. The aim of this study is to examine the association between degree of developmental delay…

  7. Analysis of formation pressure test results in the Mount Elbert methane hydrate reservoir through numerical simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurihara, M.; Sato, A.; Funatsu, K.; Ouchi, H.; Masuda, Y.; Narita, H.; Collett, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    Targeting the methane hydrate (MH) bearing units C and D at the Mount Elbert prospect on the Alaska North Slope, four MDT (Modular Dynamic Formation Tester) tests were conducted in February 2007. The C2 MDT test was selected for history matching simulation in the MH Simulator Code Comparison Study. Through history matching simulation, the physical and chemical properties of the unit C were adjusted, which suggested the most likely reservoir properties of this unit. Based on these properties thus tuned, the numerical models replicating "Mount Elbert C2 zone like reservoir" "PBU L-Pad like reservoir" and "PBU L-Pad down dip like reservoir" were constructed. The long term production performances of wells in these reservoirs were then forecasted assuming the MH dissociation and production by the methods of depressurization, combination of depressurization and wellbore heating, and hot water huff and puff. The predicted cumulative gas production ranges from 2.16??106m3/well to 8.22??108m3/well depending mainly on the initial temperature of the reservoir and on the production method.This paper describes the details of modeling and history matching simulation. This paper also presents the results of the examinations on the effects of reservoir properties on MH dissociation and production performances under the application of the depressurization and thermal methods. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Tsunami Hazards along the Eastern Australian Coast from Potential Earthquakes: Results from Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, H. L.; Ding, R. W.; Yuen, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    Australia is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean and, thus, may suffer from tsunamis due to its proximity to the subduction earthquakes around the boundary of Australian Plate. Potential tsunami risks along the eastern coast, where more and more people currently live, are numerically investigated through a scenario-based method to provide an estimation of the tsunami hazard in this region. We have chosen and calculated the tsunami waves generated at the New Hebrides Trench and the Puysegur Trench, and we further investigated the relevant tsunami hazards along the eastern coast and their sensitivities to various sea floor frictions and earthquake parameters (i.e. the strike, the dip and the slip angles and the earthquake magnitude/rupture length). The results indicate that the Puysegur trench possesses a seismic threat causing wave amplitudes over 1.5 m along the coast of Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales, and even reaching over 2.6 m at the regions close to Sydney, Maria Island, and Gabo Island for a certain worse case, while the cities along the coast of Queensland are potentially less vulnerable than those on the southeastern Australian coast.

  9. Thermodiffusion in concentrated ferrofluids: Experimental and numerical results on magnetic thermodiffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sprenger, Lisa Lange, Adrian; Odenbach, Stefan

    2014-02-15

    Ferrofluids consist of magnetic nanoparticles dispersed in a carrier liquid. Their strong thermodiffusive behaviour, characterised by the Soret coefficient, coupled with the dependency of the fluid's parameters on magnetic fields is dealt with in this work. It is known from former experimental investigations on the one hand that the Soret coefficient itself is magnetic field dependent and on the other hand that the accuracy of the coefficient's experimental determination highly depends on the volume concentration of the fluid. The thermally driven separation of particles and carrier liquid is carried out with a concentrated ferrofluid (φ = 0.087) in a horizontal thermodiffusion cell and is compared to equally detected former measurement data. The temperature gradient (1 K/mm) is applied perpendicular to the separation layer. The magnetic field is either applied parallel or perpendicular to the temperature difference. For three different magnetic field strengths (40 kA/m, 100 kA/m, 320 kA/m) the diffusive separation is detected. It reveals a sign change of the Soret coefficient with rising field strength for both field directions which stands for a change in the direction of motion of the particles. This behaviour contradicts former experimental results with a dilute magnetic fluid, in which a change in the coefficient's sign could only be detected for the parallel setup. An anisotropic behaviour in the current data is measured referring to the intensity of the separation being more intense in the perpendicular position of the magnetic field: S{sub T‖} = −0.152 K{sup −1} and S{sub T⊥} = −0.257 K{sup −1} at H = 320 kA/m. The ferrofluiddynamics-theory (FFD-theory) describes the thermodiffusive processes thermodynamically and a numerical simulation of the fluid's separation depending on the two transport parameters ξ{sub ‖} and ξ{sub ⊥} used within the FFD-theory can be implemented. In the case of a parallel aligned magnetic field, the parameter can

  10. Atmospheric turbulence in complex terrain: Verifying numerical model results with observations by remote-sensing instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, P. W.

    2009-03-01

    The Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) is situated in an area of complex terrain. Turbulent flow due to terrain disruption could occur in the vicinity of HKIA when winds from east to southwest climb over Lantau Island, a mountainous island to the south of the airport. Low-level turbulence is an aviation hazard to the aircraft flying into and out of HKIA. It is closely monitored using remote-sensing instruments including Doppler LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) systems and wind profilers in the airport area. Forecasting of low-level turbulence by numerical weather prediction models would be useful in the provision of timely turbulence warnings to the pilots. The feasibility of forecasting eddy dissipation rate (EDR), a measure of turbulence intensity adopted in the international civil aviation community, is studied in this paper using the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS). Super-high resolution simulation (within the regime of large eddy simulation) is performed with a horizontal grid size down to 50 m for some typical cases of turbulent airflow at HKIA, such as spring-time easterly winds in a stable boundary layer and gale-force southeasterly winds associated with a typhoon. Sensitivity of the simulation results with respect to the choice of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) parameterization scheme in RAMS is also examined. RAMS simulation with Deardorff (1980) TKE scheme is found to give the best result in comparison with actual EDR observations. It has the potential for real-time forecasting of low-level turbulence in short-term aviation applications (viz. for the next several hours).

  11. A Hydrodynamic Theory for Spatially Inhomogeneous Semiconductor Lasers. 2; Numerical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jianzhong; Ning, C. Z.; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present numerical results of the diffusion coefficients (DCs) in the coupled diffusion model derived in the preceding paper for a semiconductor quantum well. These include self and mutual DCs in the general two-component case, as well as density- and temperature-related DCs under the single-component approximation. The results are analyzed from the viewpoint of free Fermi gas theory with many-body effects incorporated. We discuss in detail the dependence of these DCs on densities and temperatures in order to identify different roles played by the free carrier contributions including carrier statistics and carrier-LO phonon scattering, and many-body corrections including bandgap renormalization and electron-hole (e-h) scattering. In the general two-component case, it is found that the self- and mutual- diffusion coefficients are determined mainly by the free carrier contributions, but with significant many-body corrections near the critical density. Carrier-LO phonon scattering is dominant at low density, but e-h scattering becomes important in determining their density dependence above the critical electron density. In the single-component case, it is found that many-body effects suppress the density coefficients but enhance the temperature coefficients. The modification is of the order of 10% and reaches a maximum of over 20% for the density coefficients. Overall, temperature elevation enhances the diffusive capability or DCs of carriers linearly, and such an enhancement grows with density. Finally, the complete dataset of various DCs as functions of carrier densities and temperatures provides necessary ingredients for future applications of the model to various spatially inhomogeneous optoelectronic devices.

  12. THE 2D HEISENBERG ANTIFERROMAGNET IN HIGH-Tc SUPERCONDUCTIVITY:. A Review of Numerical Techniques and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, T.

    In this article we review numerical studies of the quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a square lattice, which is a model of the magnetic properties of the undoped “precursor insulators” of the high temperature superconductors. We begin with a brief pedagogical introduction and then discuss zero and nonzero temperature properties and compare the numerical results to analytical calculations and to experiment where appropriate. We also review the various algorithms used to obtain these results, and discuss algorithm developments and improvements in computer technology which would be most useful for future numerical work in this area. Finally we list several outstanding problems which may merit further investigation.

  13. Spinel dissolution via addition of glass forming chemicals. Results of preliminary experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Johnson, F. C.

    2015-11-01

    Increased loading of high level waste in glass can lead to crystallization within the glass. Some crystalline species, such as spinel, have no practical impact on the chemical durability of the glass, and therefore may be acceptable from both a processing and a product performance standpoint. In order to operate a melter with a controlled amount of crystallization, options must be developed for remediating an unacceptable accumulation of crystals. This report describes preliminary experiments designed to evaluate the ability to dissolve spinel crystals in simulated waste glass melts via the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs).

  14. Effects of heterogeneity in aquifer permeability and biomass on biodegradation rate calculations - Results from numerical simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Numerical simulations were used to examine the effects of heterogeneity in hydraulic conductivity (K) and intrinsic biodegradation rate on the accuracy of contaminant plume-scale biodegradation rates obtained from field data. The simulations were based on a steady-state BTEX contaminant plume-scale biodegradation under sulfate-reducing conditions, with the electron acceptor in excess. Biomass was either uniform or correlated with K to model spatially variable intrinsic biodegradation rates. A hydraulic conductivity data set from an alluvial aquifer was used to generate three sets of 10 realizations with different degrees of heterogeneity, and contaminant transport with biodegradation was simulated with BIOMOC. Biodegradation rates were calculated from the steady-state contaminant plumes using decreases in concentration with distance downgradient and a single flow velocity estimate, as is commonly done in site characterization to support the interpretation of natural attenuation. The observed rates were found to underestimate the actual rate specified in the heterogeneous model in all cases. The discrepancy between the observed rate and the 'true' rate depended on the ground water flow velocity estimate, and increased with increasing heterogeneity in the aquifer. For a lognormal K distribution with variance of 0.46, the estimate was no more than a factor of 1.4 slower than the true rate. For aquifer with 20% silt/clay lenses, the rate estimate was as much as nine times slower than the true rate. Homogeneous-permeability, uniform-degradation rate simulations were used to generate predictions of remediation time with the rates estimated from heterogeneous models. The homogeneous models were generally overestimated the extent of remediation or underestimated remediation time, due to delayed degradation of contaminants in the low-K areas. Results suggest that aquifer characterization for natural attenuation at contaminated sites should include assessment of the presence

  15. Preliminary results of numerical investigations at SECARB Cranfield, MS field test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Nicot, J.; Meckel, T. A.; Chang, K.; Hovorka, S. D.

    2008-12-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration partnership sponsored by DOE has chosen the Cranfield, MS field as a test site for its Phase II experiment. It will provide information on CO2 storage in oil and gas fields, in particular on storage permanence, storage capacity, and pressure buildup as well as on sweep efficiency. The 10,300 ft-deep reservoir produced 38 MMbbl of oil and 677 MMSCF of gas from the 1940's to the 1960's and is being retrofitted by Denbury Resources for tertiary recovery. CO2 injection started in July 2008 with a scheduled ramp up during the next few months. The Cranfield modeling team selected the northern section of the field for development of a numerical model using the multiphase-flow, compositional CMG-GEM software. Model structure was determined through interpretation of logs from old and recently-drilled wells and geophysical data. PETREL was used to upscale and export permeability and porosity data to the GEM model. Preliminary sensitivity analyses determined that relative permeability parameters and oil composition had the largest impact on CO2 behavior. The first modeling step consisted in history-matching the total oil, gas, and water production out of the reservoir starting from its natural state to determine the approximate current conditions of the reservoir. The fact that pressure recovered in the 40 year interval since end of initial production helps in constraining boundary conditions. In a second step, the modeling focused on understanding pressure evolution and CO2 transport in the reservoir. The presentation will introduce preliminary results of the simulations and confirm/explain discrepancies with field measurements.

  16. Coupling FLEXPART to the regional scale numerical weather prediction model COSMO: Implementation, evaluation and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henne, Stephan; Kaufmann, Pirmin; Schraner, Martin; Brunner, Dominik

    2013-04-01

    The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART is a well-known and robust research tool used by many atmospheric scientists worldwide. In its standard version FLEXPART was developed for the use with global or limited area input files from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). Further versions exist for input from the NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) GFS (Global Forecasting System) model and for regional scale input from the MM5 model and its successor WRF. In Europe several national weather services and research groups develop and operate the non-hydrostatic limited-area atmospheric model COSMO (Consortium for Small-scale Modeling). At MeteoSwiss COSMO is operationally run with data assimilation on two grids with approximately 7 km x 7 km and 2 km x 2 km horizontal resolution centered over Switzerland This offers the exceptional opportunity of studying atmospheric transport over complex terrain on an long-term basis. To this end, we have developed a new version of FLEXPART that is offline coupled to COSMO output (FLEXPART-COSMO hereafter) and supports output from multiple COSMO nests. The version features several new developments as compared to the standard version. Most importantly, particles are internally referenced against the native vertical coordinate system used in COSMO and not, as in standard FLEXPART, in a terrain following z-system. This eliminates the need for an additional interpolation step. A new flux deaccumulation scheme was introduced that removes the need for additional preprocessing of the input files. In addition to the existing Emmanuel based convection parameterisation, a convection parameterisation based on the Tiedtke scheme, which is identical to the one implemented in COSMO itself, was introduced. A possibility for offline nesting of a FLEXPART-COSMO run into a FLEXPART-ECMWF run for backward simulations was developed that only requires minor modifications on the FLEXPART-ECMWF version and

  17. Prolonged durability of electroporation microarrays as a result of addition of saccharides to nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Kato, Koichi; Iwata, Hiroo

    2009-01-01

    The electroporation microarray is a useful tool for high-throughput analysis of gene functions. However, transfection efficiency is greatly impaired by storage of the microarrays, due to water evaporation from arrayed nucleotides. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the effect of saccharides and sugar alcohols, added to the solution of the plasmid DNA or small interfering RNA (siRNA). Microarrays loaded with plasmids and siRNAs were prepared with various polyols including sugars and sugar alcohols. After storage of these microarrays at different temperatures for various time periods, transfection efficiency was evaluated using human embryonic kidney cells. In the case of plasmid-loaded microarrays, addition of monosaccharides (glucose, fructose), disaccharides (trehalose, sucrose), and trisaccharide (raffinose) served to retain transfection efficiency at a reasonably high level after storage at -20 degrees C. The observed effects may be because moisture retention serves to maintain the solubility of DNA. In contrast, polysaccharide (dextran) and sugar alcohol (glycerol) had insignificant effects on retention of transfection efficiency. On the other hand, addition of saccharides and sugar alcohols had insignificant effects on the transfection of siRNA after storage of a microarray at 25 degrees C for 7 days, presumably due to the intrinsically-high solubility of siRNA which consists of short nucleotides. PMID:18989662

  18. On the anomalies in gravity associated with lateral inhomogeneities in temperature: 2. Numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliko, A. O.; Molodenskii, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    ) are not only capable of significantly changing the magnitude of the radial displacements of the geoid but also altering their sign. Moreover, even in the uniform Earth's model, the effects of sphericity of its external surface and self-gravitation can also provide a noticeable contribution, which determines the signs of the coefficients in the expansion of the geoid's shape in the lower-order spherical functions. In order to separate these effects, below we present the results of the numerical calculations of the total effects of thermoelastic deformations for the two simplest models of spherical Earth without and with self-gravitation with constant density and complex-valued shear moduli and for the real Earth PREM model (which describes the depth distributions of density and elastic moduli for the high-frequency oscillations disregarding the rheology of the medium) and the modern models of the mantle rheology. Based on the calculations, we suggest the simplest interpretation of the present-day data on the relationship between the coefficients of spherical expansion of temperature, velocities of seismic body waves, the topography of the Earth's surface and geoid, and the data on the correlation between the lower-order coefficients in the expansions of the geoid and the corresponding terms of the expansions of horizontal inhomogeneities in seismic velocities. The suggested interpretation includes the estimates of the sign and magnitude for the ratios between the first coefficients of spherical expansions of seismic velocities, topography, and geoid. The presence of this correlation and the relationship between the signs and absolute values of these coefficients suggests that both the long-period oscillations of the geoid and the long-period variations in the velocities of seismic body waves are largely caused by thermoelastic deformations.

  19. Modeling the Fracturing of Rock by Fluid Injection - Comparison of Numerical and Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Thomas; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    Fluid-rock interactions are mechanically fundamental to many earth processes, including fault zones and hydrothermal/volcanic systems, and to future green energy solutions such as enhanced geothermal systems and carbon capture and storage (CCS). Modeling these processes is challenging because of the strong coupling between rock fracture evolution and the consequent large changes in the hydraulic properties of the system. In this talk, we present results of a numerical model that includes poro-elastic plastic rheology (with hardening, softening, and damage), and coupled to a non-linear diffusion model for fluid pressure propagation and two-phase fluid flow. Our plane strain model is based on the poro- elastic plastic behavior of porous rock and is advanced with hardening, softening and damage using the Mohr- Coulomb failure criteria. The effective stress model of Biot (1944) is used for coupling the pore pressure and the rock behavior. Frictional hardening and cohesion softening are introduced following Vermeer and de Borst (1984) with the angle of internal friction and the cohesion as functions of the principal strain rates. The scalar damage coefficient is assumed to be a linear function of the hardening parameter. Fluid injection is modeled as a two phase mixture of water and air using the Richards equation. The theoretical model is solved using finite differences on a staggered grid. The model is benchmarked with experiments on the laboratory scale in which fluid is injected from below in a critically-stressed, dry sandstone (Stanchits et al. 2011). We simulate three experiments, a) the failure a dry specimen due to biaxial compressive loading, b) the propagation a of low pressure fluid front induced from the bottom in a critically stressed specimen, and c) the failure of a critically stressed specimen due to a high pressure fluid intrusion. Comparison of model results with the fluid injection experiments shows that the model captures most of the experimental

  20. Numerical Analysis of Large Telescopes in Terms of Induced Loads and Resulting Geometrical Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upnere, S.; Jekabsons, N.; Joffe, R.

    2013-03-01

    Comprehensive numerical studies, involving structural and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis, have been carried out at the Engineering Research Institute "Ventspils International Radio Astron- omy Center" (VIRAC) of the Ventspils University College to investigate the gravitational and wind load effects on large, ground-based radio tele- scopes RT-32 performance. Gravitational distortions appear to be the main limiting factor for the reflector performance in everyday operation. Random loads caused by wind gusts (unavoidable at zenith) contribute to the fatigue accumulation.

  1. Chaotic structures of nonlinear magnetic fields. I - Theory. II - Numerical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Nam C.; Parks, George K.

    1992-01-01

    A study of the evolutionary properties of nonlinear magnetic fields in flowing MHD plasmas is presented to illustrate that nonlinear magnetic fields may involve chaotic dynamics. It is shown how a suitable transformation of the coupled equations leads to Duffing's form, suggesting that the behavior of the general solution can also be chaotic. Numerical solutions of the nonlinear magnetic field equations that have been cast in the form of Duffing's equation are presented.

  2. XLF deficiency results in reduced N-nucleotide addition during V(D)J recombination

    PubMed Central

    IJspeert, Hanna; Rozmus, Jacob; Schwarz, Klaus; Warren, René L.; van Zessen, David; Holt, Robert A.; Pico-Knijnenburg, Ingrid; Simons, Erik; Jerchel, Isabel; Wawer, Angela; Lorenz, Myriam; Patıroğlu, Turkan; Akar, Himmet Haluk; Leite, Ricardo; Verkaik, Nicole S.; Stubbs, Andrew P.; van Gent, Dik C.; van Dongen, Jacques J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the nonhomologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ) is important not only for repair of spontaneous breaks but also for breaks induced in developing lymphocytes during V(D)J (variable [V], diversity [D], and joining [J] genes) recombination of their antigen receptor loci to create a diverse repertoire. Mutations in the NHEJ factor XLF result in extreme sensitivity for ionizing radiation, microcephaly, and growth retardation comparable to mutations in LIG4 and XRCC4, which together form the NHEJ ligation complex. However, the effect on the immune system is variable (mild to severe immunodeficiency) and less prominent than that seen in deficiencies of NHEJ factors ARTEMIS and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, with defects in the hairpin opening step, which is crucial and unique for V(D)J recombination. Therefore, we aimed to study the role of XLF during V(D)J recombination. We obtained clinical data from 9 XLF-deficient patients and performed immune phenotyping and antigen receptor repertoire analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TR) rearrangements, using next-generation sequencing in 6 patients. The results were compared with XRCC4 and LIG4 deficiency. Both Ig and TR rearrangements showed a significant decrease in the number of nontemplated (N) nucleotides inserted by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, which resulted in a decrease of 2 to 3 amino acids in the CDR3. Such a reduction in the number of N-nucleotides has a great effect on the junctional diversity, and thereby on the total diversity of the Ig and TR repertoire. This shows that XLF has an important role during V(D)J recombination in creating diversity of the repertoire by stimulating N-nucleotide insertion. PMID:27281794

  3. XLF deficiency results in reduced N-nucleotide addition during V(D)J recombination.

    PubMed

    IJspeert, Hanna; Rozmus, Jacob; Schwarz, Klaus; Warren, René L; van Zessen, David; Holt, Robert A; Pico-Knijnenburg, Ingrid; Simons, Erik; Jerchel, Isabel; Wawer, Angela; Lorenz, Myriam; Patıroğlu, Turkan; Akar, Himmet Haluk; Leite, Ricardo; Verkaik, Nicole S; Stubbs, Andrew P; van Gent, Dik C; van Dongen, Jacques J M; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2016-08-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the nonhomologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ) is important not only for repair of spontaneous breaks but also for breaks induced in developing lymphocytes during V(D)J (variable [V], diversity [D], and joining [J] genes) recombination of their antigen receptor loci to create a diverse repertoire. Mutations in the NHEJ factor XLF result in extreme sensitivity for ionizing radiation, microcephaly, and growth retardation comparable to mutations in LIG4 and XRCC4, which together form the NHEJ ligation complex. However, the effect on the immune system is variable (mild to severe immunodeficiency) and less prominent than that seen in deficiencies of NHEJ factors ARTEMIS and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, with defects in the hairpin opening step, which is crucial and unique for V(D)J recombination. Therefore, we aimed to study the role of XLF during V(D)J recombination. We obtained clinical data from 9 XLF-deficient patients and performed immune phenotyping and antigen receptor repertoire analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TR) rearrangements, using next-generation sequencing in 6 patients. The results were compared with XRCC4 and LIG4 deficiency. Both Ig and TR rearrangements showed a significant decrease in the number of nontemplated (N) nucleotides inserted by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, which resulted in a decrease of 2 to 3 amino acids in the CDR3. Such a reduction in the number of N-nucleotides has a great effect on the junctional diversity, and thereby on the total diversity of the Ig and TR repertoire. This shows that XLF has an important role during V(D)J recombination in creating diversity of the repertoire by stimulating N-nucleotide insertion. PMID:27281794

  4. Coupled transport processes in semipermeable media. Part 2: Numerical method and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Janet S.; Carnahan, Chalon L.

    1990-04-01

    A numerical simulator has been developed to investigate the effects of coupled processes on heat and mass transport in semipermeable media. The governing equations on which the simulator is based were derived using the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The equations are nonlinear and have been solved numerically using the n-dimensional Newton's method. As an example of an application, the numerical simulator has been used to investigate heat and solute transport in the vicinity of a heat source buried in a saturated clay-like medium, in part to study solute transport in bentonite packing material surrounding a nuclear waste canister. The coupled processes considered were thermal filtration, thermal osmosis, chemical osmosis and ultrafiltration. In the simulations, heat transport by coupled processes was negligible compared to heat conduction, but pressure and solute migration were affected. Solute migration was retarded relative to the uncoupled case when only chemical osmosis was considered. When both chemical osmosis and thermal osmosis were included, solute migration was enhanced.

  5. Aircraft-Produced Ice Particles (APIPs): Additional Results and Further Insights.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, William L.; Gordon, Glenn; Henderson, Thomas J.; Vonnegut, Bernard; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Detwiler, Andrew

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents new results from studies of aircraft-produced ice particles (APIPs) in supercooled fog and clouds. Nine aircraft, including a Beech King Air 200T cloud physics aircraft, a Piper Aztec, a Cessna 421-C, two North American T-28s, an Aero Commander, a Piper Navajo, a Beech Turbo Baron, and a second four-bladed King Air were involved in the tests. The instrumented King Air served as the monitoring aircraft for trails of ice particles created, or not created, when the other aircraft were flown through clouds at various temperatures and served as both the test and monitoring aircraft when it itself was tested. In some cases sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas was released by the test aircraft during its test run and was detected by the King Air during its monitoring passes to confirm the location of the test aircraft wake. Ambient temperatures for the tests ranged between 5° and 12°C. The results confirm earlier published results and provide further insights into the APIPs phenomenon. The King Air at ambient temperatures less than 8°C can produce APIPs readily. The Piper Aztec and the Aero Commander also produced APIPs under the test conditions in which they were flown. The Cessna 421, Piper Navajo, and Beech Turbo Baron did not. The APIPs production potential of a T-28 is still indeterminate because a limited range of conditions was tested. Homogeneous nucleation in the adiabatically cooled regions where air is expanding around the rapidly rotating propeller tips is the cause of APIPs. An equation involving the propeller efficiency, engine thrust, and true airspeed of the aircraft is used along with the published thrust characteristics of the propellers to predict when the aircraft will produce APIPs. In most cases the predictions agree well with the field tests. Of all of the aircraft tested, the Piper Aztec, despite its small size and low horsepower, was predicted to be the most prolific producer of APIPs, and this was confirmed in field tests. The

  6. Toward a detailed physical modelling of wildfires: physical considerations and numerical results (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morvan, D.

    2010-12-01

    behaviour of forest fires, based on a multiphase formulation. This approach consists in solving the balance equations (mass, momentum, energy, chemical species, radiation intensity …) governing the coupled system formed by the vegetation and the surrounding atmosphere. The vegetation was represented as a collection of solid fuel particles, regrouped in families, each one characterized by its own set of physical variables (mass fraction of water, of dry matter, of char, temperature, volume fraction, density, surface area to volume ratio …) necessary to describe the evolution of its state during the propagation of fire. Some numerical results were then presented and compared with available experimental data. A particular attention was taken to simulate surface fires propagating through grassland and Mediterranean shrubland for which a large experimental data base exists. We conclude our paper, in presenting some recent results obtained in a more operational context, to simulate the interaction between two fire fronts (head fire and backfire) in conditions similar to two those encountered during a suppression fire operation.

  7. Effective Compressibility of A Bubbly Slurry: II. Fitting Numerical Results to Field Data and Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Kam, Seung I.; Gauglitz, Phillip A. ); Rossen, William R.

    2000-12-01

    The goal of this study is to fit model parameters to changes in waste level in response to barometric pressure changes in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. This waste compressibility is a measure of the quantity of gas, typically hydrogen and other flammable gases that can pose a safety hazard, retained in the waste. A one-dimensional biconical-pore-network model for compressibility of a bubbly slurry is presented in a companion paper. Fitting these results to actual waste level changes in the tanks implies that bubbles are long in the slurry layer and the ratio of pore-body radius to pore-throat radius is close to one; unfortunately, capillary effects can not be quantified unambiguously from the data without additional information on pore geometry. Therefore determining the quantity of gas in the tanks requires more than just slurry volume data. Similar ambiguity also exists with two other simple models: a capillary-tube model with contact angle hysteresis and spherical-p ore model.

  8. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. First topical report, Results of laboratory screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of {le} 10 {mu}m dia.

  9. Nitrogen Addition as a Result of Long-Term Root Removal Affects Soil Organic Matter Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, S. E.; Lajtha, K.

    2004-12-01

    A long-term field litter manipulation site was established in a mature coniferous forest stand at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, OR, USA in 1997 in order to address how detrital inputs influence soil organic matter formation and accumulation. Soils at this site are Andisols and are characterized by high carbon (C) and low nitrogen (N) contents, due largely to the legacy of woody debris and extremely low atmospheric N deposition. Detrital treatments include trenching to remove roots, doubling wood and needle litter, and removing aboveground litter. In order to determine whether five years of detrital manipulation had altered organic matter quantity and lability at this site, soil from the top 0-5 cm of the A horizon was density fractionated to separate the labile light fraction (LF) from the more recalcitrant mineral soil in the heavy fraction (HF). Both density fractions and whole soils were incubated for one year in chambers designed such that repeated measurements of soil respiration and leachate chemistry could be made. Trenching resulted in the removal of labile root inputs from root exudates and turnover of fine roots and active mycorrhizal communities as well as an increase of available N by removing plant uptake. Since 1999, soil solution chemistry from tension lysimeters has shown greater total N and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) flux and less dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux to stream flow in the trenched plots relative to the other detrital treatments. C/N ratio and C content of both light and heavy fractions from the trenched plots were greater than other detrital treatments. In the lab incubation, over the course of a year C mineralization from these soils was suppressed. Cumulative DOC losses and CO2 efflux both were significantly less in soils from trenched plots than in other detrital treatments including controls. After day 150 of the incubation, leachates from the HF of plots with trenched treatments had a DOC/DON ratio significantly

  10. Ponderomotive stabilization of flute modes in mirrors Feedback control and numerical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Similon, P. L.

    1987-01-01

    Ponderomotive stabilization of rigid plasma flute modes is numerically investigated by use of a variational principle, for a simple geometry, without eikonal approximation. While the near field of the studied antenna can be stabilizing, the far field has a small contribution only, because of large cancellation by quasi mode-coupling terms. The field energy for stabilization is evaluated and is a nonnegligible fraction of the plasma thermal energy. A new antenna design is proposed, and feedback stabilization is investigated. Their use drastically reduces power requirements.

  11. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  12. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  13. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  14. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  15. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  16. Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of a Westinghouse Model 51 steam generator. Volume 2. Appendix A, numerical results. Interim report. [CALIPSOS code numerical data

    SciTech Connect

    Fanselau, R.W.; Thakkar, J.G.; Hiestand, J.W.; Cassell, D.

    1981-03-01

    The Comparative Thermal-Hydraulic Evaluation of Steam Generators program represents an analytical investigation of the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of four PWR steam generators. The analytical tool utilized in this investigation is the CALIPSOS code, a three-dimensional flow distribution code. This report presents the steady state thermal-hydraulic characteristics on the secondary side of a Westinghouse Model 51 steam generator. Details of the CALIPSOS model with accompanying assumptions, operating parameters, and transport correlations are identified. Comprehensive graphical and numerical results are presented to facilitate the desired comparison with other steam generators analyzed by the same flow distribution code.

  17. Elasticity of mechanical oscillators in nonequilibrium steady states: Experimental, numerical, and theoretical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Livia; De Gregorio, Paolo; Bonaldi, Michele; Borrielli, Antonio; Crivellari, Michele; Karapetyan, Gagik; Poli, Charles; Serra, Enrico; Thakur, Ram-Krishna; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2012-06-01

    We study experimentally, numerically, and theoretically the elastic response of mechanical resonators along which the temperature is not uniform, as a consequence of the onset of steady-state thermal gradients. Two experimental setups and designs are employed, both using low-loss materials. In both cases, we monitor the resonance frequencies of specific modes of vibration, as they vary along with variations of temperatures and of temperature differences. In one case, we consider the first longitudinal mode of vibration of an aluminum alloy resonator; in the other case, we consider the antisymmetric torsion modes of a silicon resonator. By defining the average temperature as the volume-weighted mean of the temperatures of the respective elastic sections, we find out that the elastic response of an object depends solely on it, regardless of whether a thermal gradient exists and, up to 10% imbalance, regardless of its magnitude. The numerical model employs a chain of anharmonic oscillators, with first- and second-neighbor interactions and temperature profiles satisfying Fourier's Law to a good degree. Its analysis confirms, for the most part, the experimental findings and it is explained theoretically from a statistical mechanics perspective with a loose notion of local equilibrium.

  18. Estimation of geopotential from satellite-to-satellite range rate data: Numerical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thobe, Glenn E.; Bose, Sam C.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for high-resolution geopotential field estimation by recovering the harmonic coefficients from satellite-to-satellite range rate data is presented and tested against both a controlled analytical simulation of a one-day satellite mission (maximum degree and order 8) and then against a Cowell method simulation of a 32-day mission (maximum degree and order 180). Innovations include: (1) a new frequency-domain observation equation based on kinetic energy perturbations which avoids much of the complication of the usual Keplerian element perturbation approaches; (2) a new method for computing the normalized inclination functions which unlike previous methods is both efficient and numerically stable even for large harmonic degrees and orders; (3) the application of a mass storage FFT to the entire mission range rate history; (4) the exploitation of newly discovered symmetries in the block diagonal observation matrix which reduce each block to the product of (a) a real diagonal matrix factor, (b) a real trapezoidal factor with half the number of rows as before, and (c) a complex diagonal factor; (5) a block-by-block least-squares solution of the observation equation by means of a custom-designed Givens orthogonal rotation method which is both numerically stable and tailored to the trapezoidal matrix structure for fast execution.

  19. Interaction of a mantle plume and a segmented mid-ocean ridge: Results from numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgen, Jennifer E.

    2014-04-01

    Previous investigations have proposed that changes in lithospheric thickness across a transform fault, due to the juxtaposition of seafloor of different ages, can impede lateral dispersion of an on-ridge mantle plume. The application of this “transform damming” mechanism has been considered for several plume-ridge systems, including the Reunion hotspot and the Central Indian Ridge, the Amsterdam-St. Paul hotspot and the Southeast Indian Ridge, the Cobb hotspot and the Juan de Fuca Ridge, the Iceland hotspot and the Kolbeinsey Ridge, the Afar plume and the ridges of the Gulf of Aden, and the Marion/Crozet hotspot and the Southwest Indian Ridge. This study explores the geodynamics of the transform damming mechanism using a three-dimensional finite element numerical model. The model solves the coupled steady-state equations for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, including thermal buoyancy and viscosity that is dependent on pressure and temperature. The plume is introduced as a circular thermal anomaly on the bottom boundary of the numerical domain. The center of the plume conduit is located directly beneath a spreading segment, at a distance of 200 km (measured in the along-axis direction) from a transform offset with length 100 km. Half-spreading rate is 0.5 cm/yr. In a series of numerical experiments, the buoyancy flux of the modeled plume is progressively increased to investigate the effects on the temperature and velocity structure of the upper mantle in the vicinity of the transform. Unlike earlier studies, which suggest that a transform always acts to decrease the along-axis extent of plume signature, these models imply that the effect of a transform on plume dispersion may be complex. Under certain ranges of plume flux modeled in this study, the region of the upper mantle undergoing along-axis flow directed away from the plume could be enhanced by the three-dimensional velocity and temperature structure associated with ridge

  20. The spectroscopic search for the trace aerosols in the planetary atmospheres - the results of numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecka, Maria I.

    2010-05-01

    The passive remote spectrometric methods are important in examinations the atmospheres of planets. The radiance spectra inform us about values of thermodynamical parameters and composition of the atmospheres and surfaces. The spectral technology can be useful in detection of the trace aerosols like biological substances (if present) in the environments of the planets. We discuss here some of the aspects related to the spectroscopic search for the aerosols and dust in planetary atmospheres. Possibility of detection and identifications of biological aerosols with a passive InfraRed spectrometer in an open-air environment is discussed. We present numerically simulated, based on radiative transfer theory, spectroscopic observations of the Earth atmosphere. Laboratory measurements of transmittance of various kinds of aerosols, pollens and bacterias were used in modeling.

  1. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Equatorial Spread F: Results and Observations in the Pacific Sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aveiro, H. C.; Hysell, D. L.; Caton, R. G.; Groves, K. M.; Klenzing, J.; Pfaff, R. F.; Stoneback, R.; Heelis, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical simulation of plasma density irregularities in the postsunset equatorial F region ionosphere leading to equatorial spread F (ESF) is described. The simulation evolves under realistic background conditions including bottomside plasma shear flow and vertical current. It also incorporates C/NOFS satellite data which partially specify the forcing. A combination of generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability (GRT) and collisional shear instability (CSI) produces growing waveforms with key features that agree with C/NOFS satellite and ALTAIR radar observations in the Pacific sector, including features such as gross morphology and rates of development. The transient response of CSI is consistent with the observation of bottomside waves with wavelengths close to 30 km, whereas the steady state behavior of the combined instability can account for the 100+ km wavelength waves that predominate in the F region.

  2. Numerical results on the transcendence of constants involving pi, e, and Euler's constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.

    1988-01-01

    The existence of simple polynomial equations (integer relations) for the constants e/pi, e + pi, log pi, gamma (Euler's constant), e exp gamma, gamma/e, gamma/pi, and log gamma is investigated by means of numerical computations. The recursive form of the Ferguson-Fourcade algorithm (Ferguson and Fourcade, 1979; Ferguson, 1986 and 1987) is implemented on the Cray-2 supercomputer at NASA Ames, applying multiprecision techniques similar to those described by Bailey (1988) except that FFTs are used instead of dual-prime-modulus transforms for multiplication. It is shown that none of the constants has an integer relation of degree eight or less with coefficients of Euclidean norm 10 to the 9th or less.

  3. Increased heat transfer to elliptical leading edges due to spanwise variations in the freestream momentum - Numerical and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, D. L.; Van Fossen, G. J.

    1992-01-01

    A study of the effect of spanwise variation on leading edge heat transfer is presented. Experimental and numerical results are given for a circular leading edge and for a 3:1 elliptical leading edge. It is demonstrated that increases in leading edge heat transfer due to spanwise variations in freestream momentum are comparable to those due to freestream turbulence.

  4. Numerical study of the wind energy potential in Bulgaria - Some preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanov, G.; Gadzhev, G.; Ganev, K.; Miloshev, N.; Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M.

    2012-10-01

    The new energy efficiency politics of the EU requires till year 2020 16% of Bulgarian electricity to be produced from renewable sources. The wind is one of renewable energy sources. The ecological benefits of all the kinds of "green" energy are obvious. It is desirable, however, the utilization of renewable energy sources to be as much as possible economically effective. This means that installment of the respective devices (wind farms, solar farms, etc.) should be based on a detailed and reliable evaluation of the real potential of the country. Detailed study of the wind energy potential of the country - spatial distribution, temporal variation, mean and extreme values, fluctuations and statistical characteristics; evaluation from a point of view of industrial applicability can not be made only on the basis of the existing routine meteorological data - the measuring network is not dense enough to catch all the details of the local flow systems, hence of the real wind energy potential of the country spatial distribution. That is why the measurement data has to be supplemented by numerical modeling. The wind field simulations were performed applying the 5th generation PSU/NCAR Meso-Meteorological Model MM5 for years 2000-2007 with a spatial resolution of 3 km over Bulgaria. Some preliminary evaluations of the country wind energy potential, based on the simulation output are demonstrated in the paper.

  5. Displacement-Based Seismic Design Procedure for Framed Buildings with Dissipative Braces Part II: Numerical Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mazza, Fabio; Vulcano, Alfonso

    2008-07-08

    For a widespread application of dissipative braces to protect framed buildings against seismic loads, practical and reliable design procedures are needed. In this paper a design procedure based on the Direct Displacement-Based Design approach is adopted, assuming the elastic lateral storey-stiffness of the damped braces proportional to that of the unbraced frame. To check the effectiveness of the design procedure, presented in an associate paper, a six-storey reinforced concrete plane frame, representative of a medium-rise symmetric framed building, is considered as primary test structure; this structure, designed in a medium-risk region, is supposed to be retrofitted as in a high-risk region, by insertion of diagonal braces equipped with hysteretic dampers. A numerical investigation is carried out to study the nonlinear static and dynamic responses of the primary and the damped braced test structures, using step-by-step procedures described in the associate paper mentioned above; the behaviour of frame members and hysteretic dampers is idealized by bilinear models. Real and artificial accelerograms, matching EC8 response spectrum for a medium soil class, are considered for dynamic analyses.

  6. Accretion of rotating fluids by barytropes - Numerical results for white-dwarf models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durisen, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Numerical sequences of rotating axisymmetric nonmagnetic equilibrium models are constructed which represent the evolution of a barytropic star as it accretes material from a rotating medium. Two accretion geometries are considered - one approximating accretion from a rotating cloud and the other, accretion from a Keplerian disk. It is assumed that some process, such as Ekman spin-up or nonequilibrium oscillations, maintains nearly constant angular velocity along cylinders about the rotation axis. Transport of angular momentum in the cylindrically radial direction by viscosity is included. Fluid instabilities and other physical processes leading to enhancement of this transport are discussed. Particular application is made to zero-temperature white-dwarf models, using the degenerate electron equation of state. An initially nonrotating 0.566-solar-mass white dwarf is followed during the accretion of more than one solar mass of material. Applications to degenerate stellar cores, to mass-transfer binary systems containing white dwarfs, such as novae and dwarf novae, to Type I supernovae, and to galactic X-ray sources are considered.

  7. Mode analysis for a microwave driven plasma discharge: A comparison between analytical and numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeremley, Daniel; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Zimmermanns, Marc; Rolfes, Ilona; Eremin, Denis; Ruhr-University Bochum, Theoretical Electrical Engineering Team; Ruhr-University Bochum, Institute of Microwave Systems Team

    2015-09-01

    The market shows in recent years a growing demand for bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Therefore, fast and efficient sterilization processes as well as barrier coatings to decrease gas permeation are required. A specialized microwave plasma source - referred to as the plasmaline - has been developed to allow for depositing thin films of e.g. silicon oxid on the inner surface of such PET bottles. The plasmaline is a coaxial waveguide combined with a gas-inlet which is inserted into the empty bottle and initiates a reactive plasma. To optimize and control the different surface processes, it is essential to fully understand the microwave power coupling to the plasma and the related heating of electrons inside the bottle and thus the electromagnetic wave propagation along the plasmaline. In this contribution, we present a detailed dispersion analysis based on a numerical approach. We study how modes of guided waves are propagating under different conditions, if at all. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the German Research Foundation (DFG) within the framework of the collaborative research centre TRR87.

  8. Recent results from numerical models of the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico: Do they all agree?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheinbaum, J.

    2013-05-01

    A great variety of numerical models of the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico have been developed over the years. They all reproduce the basic features of the circulation in the region but do not necessarily agree in the dynamics that explains them. We review recent results related to: 1) semiannual and interannual eddy variability in the Caribbean and their possible role in determining the extension of the western Atlantic warm pool. 2) Loop Current and its eddy shedding dynamics and 3) the deep circulation in the Gulf of Mexico. Recent observations of inertial wave trapping by eddies suggest new veins for numerical research and model comparisons.

  9. Hidden modes in open disordered media: analytical, numerical, and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliokh, Yury P.; Freilikher, Valentin; Shi, Z.; Genack, A. Z.; Nori, Franco

    2015-11-01

    We explore numerically, analytically, and experimentally the relationship between quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and transmission resonance (TR) peaks in the transmission spectrum of one-dimensional (1D) and quasi-1D open disordered systems. It is shown that for weak disorder there exist two types of the eigenstates: ordinary QNMs which are associated with a TR, and hidden QNMs which do not exhibit peaks in transmission or within the sample. The distinctive feature of the hidden modes is that unlike ordinary ones, their lifetimes remain constant in a wide range of the strength of disorder. In this range, the averaged ratio of the number of transmission peaks {N}{{res}} to the number of QNMs {N}{{mod}}, {N}{{res}}/{N}{{mod}}, is insensitive to the type and degree of disorder and is close to the value \\sqrt{2/5}, which we derive analytically in the weak-scattering approximation. The physical nature of the hidden modes is illustrated in simple examples with a few scatterers. The analogy between ordinary and hidden QNMs and the segregation of superradiant states and trapped modes is discussed. When the coupling to the environment is tuned by an external edge reflectors, the superradiance transition is reproduced. Hidden modes have been also found in microwave measurements in quasi-1D open disordered samples. The microwave measurements and modal analysis of transmission in the crossover to localization in quasi-1D systems give a ratio of {N}{{res}}/{N}{{mod}} close to \\sqrt{2/5}. In diffusive quasi-1D samples, however, {N}{{res}}/{N}{{mod}} falls as the effective number of transmission eigenchannels M increases. Once {N}{{mod}} is divided by M, however, the ratio {N}{{res}}/{N}{{mod}} is close to the ratio found in 1D.

  10. A Study of The Eastern Mediterranean Hydrology and Circulation By Comparing Observation and High Resolution Numerical Model Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhammoud, B.; Béranger, K.; Mortier, L.; Crépon, M.

    The Eastern Mediterranean hydrology and circulation are studied by comparing the results of a high resolution primitive equation model (described in dedicated session: Béranger et al.) with observations. The model has a horizontal grid mesh of 1/16o and 43 z-levels in the vertical. The model was initialized with the MODB5 climatology and has been forced during 11 years by the daily sea surface fluxes provided by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts analysis in a perpetual year mode corresponding to the year March 1998-February 1999. At the end of the run, the numerical model is able to accurately reproduce the major water masses of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin (Levantine Surface Water, modi- fied Atlantic Water, Levantine Intermediate Water, and Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water). Comparisons with the POEM observations reveal good agreement. While the initial conditions of the model are somewhat different from POEM observations, dur- ing the last year of the simulation, we found that the water mass stratification matches that of the observations quite well in the seasonal mean. During the 11 years of simulation, the model drifts slightly in the layers below the thermocline. Nevertheless, many important physical processes were reproduced. One example is that the dispersal of Adriatic Deep Water into the Levantine Basin is rep- resented. In addition, convective activity located in the northern part of the Levantine Basin occurs in Spring as expected. The surface circulation is in agreement with in-situ and satellite observations. Some well known mesoscale features of the upper thermocline circulation are shown. Sea- sonal variability of transports through Sicily, Otranto and Cretan straits are inves- tigated as well. This work was supported by the french MERCATOR project and SHOM.

  11. A review of numerical models for predicting the energy deposition and resultant thermal response of humans exposed to electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegal, R.J.

    1984-08-01

    For humans exposed to electromagnetic (EM) radiation, the resulting thermophysiologic response is not well understood. Because it is unlikely that this information will be determined from quantitative experimentation, it is necessary to develop theoretical models which predict the resultant thermal response after exposure to EM fields. These calculations are difficult and involved because the human thermoregulatory system is very complex. In this paper, the important numerical models are reviewed and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  12. 222Rn transport in a fractured crystalline rock aquifer: Results from numerical simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Folger, P.F.; Poeter, E.; Wanty, R.B.; Day, W.; Frishman, D.

    1997-01-01

    Dissolved 222Rn concentrations in ground water from a small wellfield underlain by fractured Middle Proterozoic Pikes Peak Granite southwest of Denver, Colorado range from 124 to 840 kBq m-3 (3360-22700 pCi L-1). Numerical simulations of flow and transport between two wells show that differences in equivalent hydraulic aperture of transmissive fractures, assuming a simplified two-fracture system and the parallel-plate model, can account for the different 222Rn concentrations in each well under steady-state conditions. Transient flow and transport simulations show that 222Rn concentrations along the fracture profile are influenced by 222Rn concentrations in the adjoining fracture and depend on boundary conditions, proximity of the pumping well to the fracture intersection, transmissivity of the conductive fractures, and pumping rate. Non-homogeneous distribution (point sources) of 222Rn parent radionuclides, uranium and 226Ra, can strongly perturb the dissolved 222Rn concentrations in a fracture system. Without detailed information on the geometry and hydraulic properties of the connected fracture system, it may be impossible to distinguish the influence of factors controlling 222Rn distribution or to determine location of 222Rn point sources in the field in areas where ground water exhibits moderate 222Rn concentrations. Flow and transport simulations of a hypothetical multifracture system consisting of ten connected fractures, each 10 m in length with fracture apertures ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mm, show that 222Rn concentrations at the pumping well can vary significantly over time. Assuming parallel-plate flow, transmissivities of the hypothetical system vary over four orders of magnitude because transmissivity varies with the cube of fracture aperture. The extreme hydraulic heterogeneity of the simple hypothetical system leads to widely ranging 222Rn values, even assuming homogeneous distribution of uranium and 226Ra along fracture walls. Consequently, it is

  13. Image restoration by the method of convex projections: part 2 applications and numerical results.

    PubMed

    Sezan, M I; Stark, H

    1982-01-01

    The image restoration theory discussed in a previous paper by Youla and Webb [1] is applied to a simulated image and the results compared with the well-known method known as the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm. The results show that the method of image restoration by projection onto convex sets, by providing a convenient technique for utilizing a priori information, performs significantly better than the Gerchberg-Papoulis method. PMID:18238262

  14. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests were completed in 2005 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 3 full-scale additive tests, conducted at IPL's Petersburg Station Unit 2. The Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2007.

  15. 49 CFR 1155.23 - Additional requirements when filing after an unsatisfactory result from a State, local, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements when filing after an unsatisfactory result from a State, local, or municipal authority affecting the siting of the facility. 1155.23 Section 1155.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT...

  16. Multi-Country Experience in Delivering a Joint Course on Software Engineering--Numerical Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budimac, Zoran; Putnik, Zoran; Ivanovic, Mirjana; Bothe, Klaus; Zdravkova, Katerina; Jakimovski, Boro

    2014-01-01

    A joint course, created as a result of a project under the auspices of the "Stability Pact of South-Eastern Europe" and DAAD, has been conducted in several Balkan countries: in Novi Sad, Serbia, for the last six years in several different forms, in Skopje, FYR of Macedonia, for two years, for several types of students, and in Tirana,…

  17. A numerically efficient finite element hydroelastic analysis. Volume 1: Theory and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppolino, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    Symmetric finite element matrix formulations for compressible and incompressible hydroelasticity are developed on the basis of Toupin's complementary formulation of classical mechanics. Results of implementation of the new technique in the NASTRAN structural analysis program are presented which demonstrate accuracy and efficiency.

  18. Three-dimensional Simulations of Thermonuclear Detonation with α-Network: Numerical Method and Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlov, A.; Domínguez, I.; Bacon, C.; Clifford, B.; Baron, E.; Hoeflich, P.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Wang, L.

    2012-07-01

    We describe a new astrophysical version of a cell-based adaptive mesh refinement code ALLA for reactive flow fluid dynamic simulations, including a new implementation of α-network nuclear kinetics, and present preliminary results of first three-dimensional simulations of incomplete carbon-oxygen detonation in Type Ia Supernovae.

  19. Increased heat transfer to elliptical leading edges due to spanwise variations in the freestream momentum: Numerical and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, D. L.; Vanfossen, G. J.

    1992-01-01

    A study of the effect of spanwise variation in momentum on leading edge heat transfer is discussed. Numerical and experimental results are presented for both a circular leading edge and a 3:1 elliptical leading edge. Reynolds numbers in the range of 10,000 to 240,000 based on leading edge diameter are investigated. The surface of the body is held at a constant uniform temperature. Numerical and experimental results with and without spanwise variations are presented. Direct comparison of the two-dimensional results, that is, with no spanwise variations, to the analytical results of Frossling is very good. The numerical calculation, which uses the PARC3D code, solves the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, assuming steady laminar flow on the leading edge region. Experimentally, increases in the spanwise-averaged heat transfer coefficient as high as 50 percent above the two-dimensional value were observed. Numerically, the heat transfer coefficient was seen to increase by as much as 25 percent. In general, under the same flow conditions, the circular leading edge produced a higher heat transfer rate than the elliptical leading edge. As a percentage of the respective two-dimensional values, the circular and elliptical leading edges showed similar sensitivity to span wise variations in momentum. By equating the root mean square of the amplitude of the spanwise variation in momentum to the turbulence intensity, a qualitative comparison between the present work and turbulent results was possible. It is shown that increases in leading edge heat transfer due to spanwise variations in freestream momentum are comparable to those due to freestream turbulence.

  20. Numerical analysis of the effect of acetylene and benzene addition to low-pressure benzene-rich flat flames on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kunioshi, Nilson; Komori, Seisaku; Fukutani, Seishiro

    2006-10-15

    A modification of the CHEMKIN II package has been proposed for modeling addition of an arbitrary species at an arbitrary temperature to an arbitrary distance from the burner along a flat flame. The modified program was applied to the problem of addition of acetylene or benzene to different positions of a 40-Torr, {phi}=2.4 benzene/O{sub 2}/40%-N{sub 2} premixed flame to reach final equivalence ratios of {phi}=2.5 and 2.681. The results obtained showed that acetylene addition to early positions of the flame led to significant increase in pyrene production rates, but pyrene concentrations were lower in the flames with acetylene addition in both the {phi}=2.5 and 2.681 cases. Addition of benzene to the flame did not alter pyrene production rates in either the {phi}=2.5 or 2.681 cases; however, for {phi}=2.5, pyrene concentrations increased with benzene addition, while for {phi}=2.681, pyrene contents decreased in comparison to the correspondent flames with no addition. Acetylene addition led to a significant increase in pyrene production rates, but the pyrene levels dropped due to increase in the flow velocity. Pyrene production rates were not sensitive to benzene addition, but pyrene contents increased with benzene addition when the flow velocity decreased. These results show that PAH concentration changes accompanying species addition to flames should be interpreted carefully, because an increase or decrease in the content of a PAH species does not necessarily reflect an effect on its formation rate or mechanism. (author)

  1. Preliminary numerical modeling results - cone penetrometer (CPT) tip used as an electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A L

    2006-12-19

    Figure 1 shows the resistivity models considered in this study; log10 of the resistivity is shown. The graph on the upper left hand side shows a hypothetical resisitivity well log measured along a well in the upper layered model; 10% Gaussian noise has been added to the well log data. The lower model is identical to the upper one except for one square area located within the second deepest layer. Figure 2 shows the electrode configurations considered. The ''reference'' case (upper frame) considers point electrodes located along the surface and along a vertical borehole. The ''CPT electrode'' case (middle frame) assumes that the CPT tip serves as an electrode that is electrically connected to the push rod; the surface electrodes are used in conjuction with the moving CPT electrode. The ''isolated CPT electrode'' case assumes that the electrode at the CPT tip is electrically isolated from the pushrod. Note that the separate CPT push rods in the middle and lower frames are shown separated to clarify the figure; in reality, there is only one pushrod that is changing length as the probe advances. Figure 3 shows three pole-pole measurement schemes were considered; in all cases, the ''get lost'' electrodes were the leftmost and rightmost surface electrodes. The top frame shows the reference scheme where all surface and borehole electrodes can be used. The middle frame shows two possible configurations available when a CPT mounted electrode is used. Note that only one of the four poles can be located along the borehole at any given time; electrode combinations such as the one depicted in blue (upper frame) are not possible in this case. The bottom frame shows a sample configuration where only the surface electrodes are used. Figure 4 shows the results obtained for the various measurement schemes. The white lines show the outline of the true model (shown in Figure 1, upper frame). The starting initial model for these inversions is based on the electrical resistivity log

  2. Spallative nucleosynthesis in supernova remnants. II. Time-dependent numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parizot, Etienne; Drury, Luke

    1999-06-01

    We calculate the spallative production of light elements associated with the explosion of an isolated supernova in the interstellar medium, using a time-dependent model taking into account the dilution of the ejected enriched material and the adiabatic energy losses. We first derive the injection function of energetic particles (EPs) accelerated at both the forward and the reverse shock, as a function of time. Then we calculate the Be yields obtained in both cases and compare them to the value implied by the observational data for metal-poor stars in the halo of our Galaxy, using both O and Fe data. We find that none of the processes investigated here can account for the amount of Be found in these stars, which confirms the analytical results of Parizot & Drury (1999). We finally analyze the consequences of these results for Galactic chemical evolution, and suggest that a model involving superbubbles might alleviate the energetics problem in a quite natural way.

  3. Collisional evolution in the Eos and Koronis asteroid families - Observational and numerical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binzel, Richard P.

    1988-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the Eos and Koronis families are addressed by an analysis of Binzel's (1987) observational results. The Maxwellian distribution of the Eos family's rotation rates implies a collisionally-evolved population; these rates are also faster than those of the Koronis family and nonfamily asteroids. While the age of the Eos family may be comparable to the solar system's, that of the Koronis family could be considerably younger. Greater shape irregularity may account for the Koronis family's higher mean lightcurve amplitude.

  4. [Implementation results of emission standards of air pollutants for thermal power plants: a numerical simulation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan-Shan; Pan, Li-Bo

    2014-03-01

    The emission inventory of air pollutants from the thermal power plants in the year of 2010 was set up. Based on the inventory, the air quality of the prediction scenarios by implementation of both 2003-version emission standard and the new emission standard were simulated using Models-3/CMAQ. The concentrations of NO2, SO2, and PM2.5, and the deposition of nitrogen and sulfur in the year of 2015 and 2020 were predicted to investigate the regional air quality improvement by the new emission standard. The results showed that the new emission standard could effectively improve the air quality in China. Compared with the implementation results of the 2003-version emission standard, by 2015 and 2020, the area with NO2 concentration higher than the emission standard would be reduced by 53.9% and 55.2%, the area with SO2 concentration higher than the emission standard would be reduced by 40.0%, the area with nitrogen deposition higher than 1.0 t x km(-2) would be reduced by 75.4% and 77.9%, and the area with sulfur deposition higher than 1.6 t x km(-2) would be reduced by 37.1% and 34.3%, respectively. PMID:24881370

  5. Analytical and Numerical Results for an Adhesively Bonded Joint Subjected to Pure Bending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Lundgren, Eric

    2006-01-01

    A one-dimensional, semi-analytical methodology that was previously developed for evaluating adhesively bonded joints composed of anisotropic adherends and adhesives that exhibit inelastic material behavior is further verified in the present paper. A summary of the first-order differential equations and applied joint loading used to determine the adhesive response from the methodology are also presented. The method was previously verified against a variety of single-lap joint configurations from the literature that subjected the joints to cases of axial tension and pure bending. Using the same joint configuration and applied bending load presented in a study by Yang, the finite element analysis software ABAQUS was used to further verify the semi-analytical method. Linear static ABAQUS results are presented for two models, one with a coarse and one with a fine element meshing, that were used to verify convergence of the finite element analyses. Close agreement between the finite element results and the semi-analytical methodology were determined for both the shear and normal stress responses of the adhesive bondline. Thus, the semi-analytical methodology was successfully verified using the ABAQUS finite element software and a single-lap joint configuration subjected to pure bending.

  6. A numerical modeling study of a Montana thunderstorm: 1. Model results versus observations involving nonelectrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsdon, John H.; Farley, Richard D.

    1987-05-01

    A recently developed Storm Electrification Model (SEM) has been used to simulate the July 19, 1981, Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) case study cloud. This part of the investigation examines the comparison between the model results and the observations of the actual cloud with respect to its nonelectrical aspects. A timing equivalence is established between the simulation and observations based on an explosive growth phase which was both observed and modeled. This timing equivalence is used as a basis upon which the comparisons are made. The model appears to do a good job of reproducing (in both space and time) many of the observed characteristics of the cloud. These include: (1) the general cloud appearance; (2) cloud size; (3) cloud top rise rate; (4) rapid growth phase; (5) updraft structure; (6) first graupel appearance; (7) first radar echo; (8) qualitative radar range-height indicator evolution; (9) cloud decay; and (10) the location of hydrometers with respect to the updraft/-downdraft structure. Some features that are not accurately modeled are the cloud base height, the maximum liquid water content, and the time from first formation of precipitation until it reaches the ground. While the simulation is not perfect, the faithfulness of the model results to the observations is sufficient to give us confidence that the microphysical processes active in this storm are adequately represented in the model physics. Areas where model improvement is indicated are also discussed.

  7. Numerical predictions and experimental results of a dry bay fire environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Gill, Walter; Black, Amalia Rebecca

    2003-11-01

    The primary objective of the Safety and Survivability of Aircraft Initiative is to improve the safety and survivability of systems by using validated computational models to predict the hazard posed by a fire. To meet this need, computational model predictions and experimental data have been obtained to provide insight into the thermal environment inside an aircraft dry bay. The calculations were performed using the Vulcan fire code, and the experiments were completed using a specially designed full-scale fixture. The focus of this report is to present comparisons of the Vulcan results with experimental data for a selected test scenario and to assess the capability of the Vulcan fire field model to accurately predict dry bay fire scenarios. Also included is an assessment of the sensitivity of the fire model predictions to boundary condition distribution and grid resolution. To facilitate the comparison with experimental results, a brief description of the dry bay fire test fixture and a detailed specification of the geometry and boundary conditions are included. Overall, the Vulcan fire field model has shown the capability to predict the thermal hazard posed by a sustained pool fire within a dry bay compartment of an aircraft; although, more extensive experimental data and rigorous comparison are required for model validation.

  8. Urban Surface Network In Marseille: Network Optimization Using Numerical Simulations and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigeon, G.; Lemonsu, A.; Durand, P.; Masson, V.

    During the ESCOMPTE program (Field experiment to constrain models of atmo- spheric pollution and emissions transport) in Marseille between june and july 2001 an important device has been set up to describe the urban boundary layer over the built-up aera of Marseille. There was notably a network of 20 temperature and humid- ity sensors which has mesured the spatial and temporal variability of these parameters. Before the experiment the arrangement of the network had been optimized to get the maximum of information about these two varaibilities. We have worked on results of high resolution simulations containing the TEB scheme which represents the energy budgets associated with the gobal street geometry of the mesh. First, a qualitative analysis had enabled the identification of the characteristical phenomenons over the town of Marseille. There are narrows links beetween urban effects and local effects : marine advection and orography. Then, a quantitative analysis of the field has been developped. EOF (empirical orthogonal functions) have been used to characterised the spatial and temporal structures of the field evolution. Instrumented axis have been determined with all these results. Finally, we have choosen very carefully the locations of the instruments at the scale of the street to avoid that micro-climatic effects interfere with the meso-scale effect of the town. The recording of the mesurements, every 10 minutes, had started on the 12th of june and had finished on the 16th of july. We did not get any problem with the instrument and so all the period has been recorded every 10 minutes. The analysis of the datas will be led on different way. First, will be done a temporal study. We want to determine if the times when occur phenomenons are linked to the location in the town. We will interest particulary to the warming during the morning and the cooling during the evening. Then, we will look for correlation between the temperature and mixing ratio with the wind

  9. Numerical results for near surface time domain electromagnetic exploration: a full waveform approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H.; Li, K.; Li, X., Sr.; Liu, Y., Sr.; Wen, J., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    Time domain or Transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey including types with airborne, semi-airborne and ground play important roles in applicants such as geological surveys, ground water/aquifer assess [Meju et al., 2000; Cox et al., 2010], metal ore exploration [Yang and Oldenburg, 2012], prediction of water bearing structures in tunnels [Xue et al., 2007; Sun et al., 2012], UXO exploration [Pasion et al., 2007; Gasperikova et al., 2009] etc. The common practice is introducing a current into a transmitting (Tx) loop and acquire the induced electromagnetic field after the current is cut off [Zhdanov and Keller, 1994]. The current waveforms are different depending on instruments. Rectangle is the most widely used excitation current source especially in ground TEM. Triangle and half sine are commonly used in airborne and semi-airborne TEM investigation. In most instruments, only the off time responses are acquired and used in later analysis and data inversion. Very few airborne instruments acquire the on time and off time responses together. Although these systems acquire the on time data, they usually do not use them in the interpretation.This abstract shows a novel full waveform time domain electromagnetic method and our recent modeling results. The benefits comes from our new algorithm in modeling full waveform time domain electromagnetic problems. We introduced the current density into the Maxwell's equation as the transmitting source. This approach allows arbitrary waveforms, such as triangle, half-sine, trapezoidal waves or scatter record from equipment, being used in modeling. Here, we simulate the establishing and induced diffusion process of the electromagnetic field in the earth. The traditional time domain electromagnetic with pure secondary fields can also be extracted from our modeling results. The real time responses excited by a loop source can be calculated using the algorithm. We analyze the full time gates responses of homogeneous half space and two

  10. Modelling Viscoelastic Behaviour of Polymer by A Mixed Velocity, Displacement Formulation - Numerical and Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, VT.; Silva, L.; Digonnet, H.; Combeaud, C.; Billon, N.; Coupez, T.

    2011-05-04

    The objective of this work is to model the viscoelastic behaviour of polymer from the solid state to the liquid state. With this objective, we perform experimental tensile tests and compare with simulation results. The chosen polymer is a PMMA whose behaviour depends on its temperature. The computation simulation is based on Navier-Stokes equations where we propose a mixed finite element method with an interpolation P1+/P1 using displacement (or velocity) and pressure as principal variables. The implemented technique uses a mesh composed of triangles (2D) or tetrahedra (3D). The goal of this approach is to model the viscoelastic behaviour of polymers through a fluid-structure coupling technique with a multiphase approach.

  11. Active behavior of abdominal wall muscles: Experimental results and numerical model formulation.

    PubMed

    Grasa, J; Sierra, M; Lauzeral, N; Muñoz, M J; Miana-Mena, F J; Calvo, B

    2016-08-01

    In the present study a computational finite element technique is proposed to simulate the mechanical response of muscles in the abdominal wall. This technique considers the active behavior of the tissue taking into account both collagen and muscle fiber directions. In an attempt to obtain the computational response as close as possible to real muscles, the parameters needed to adjust the mathematical formulation were determined from in vitro experimental tests. Experiments were conducted on male New Zealand White rabbits (2047±34g) and the active properties of three different muscles: Rectus Abdominis, External Oblique and multi-layered samples formed by three muscles (External Oblique, Internal Oblique, and Transversus Abdominis) were characterized. The parameters obtained for each muscle were incorporated into a finite strain formulation to simulate active behavior of muscles incorporating the anisotropy of the tissue. The results show the potential of the model to predict the anisotropic behavior of the tissue associated to fibers and how this influences on the strain, stress and generated force during an isometric contraction. PMID:27111629

  12. Induced current electrical impedance tomography system: experimental results and numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Zlochiver, Sharon; Radai, M Michal; Abboud, Shimon; Rosenfeld, Moshe; Dong, Xiu-Zhen; Liu, Rui-Gang; You, Fu-Sheng; Xiang, Hai-Yan; Shi, Xue-Tao

    2004-02-01

    In electrical impedance tomography (EIT), measurements of developed surface potentials due to applied currents are used for the reconstruction of the conductivity distribution. Practical implementation of EIT systems is known to be problematic due to the high sensitivity to noise of such systems, leading to a poor imaging quality. In the present study, the performance of an induced current EIT (ICEIT) system, where eddy current is applied using magnetic induction, was studied by comparing the voltage measurements to simulated data, and examining the imaging quality with respect to simulated reconstructions for several phantom configurations. A 3-coil, 32-electrode ICEIT system was built, and an iterative modified Newton-Raphson algorithm was developed for the solution of the inverse problem. The RMS norm between the simulated and the experimental voltages was found to be 0.08 +/- 0.05 mV (<3%). Two regularization methods were implemented and compared: the Marquardt regularization and the Laplacian regularization (a bounded second-derivative regularization). While the Laplacian regularization method was found to be preferred for simulated data, it resulted in distinctive spatial artifacts for measured data. The experimental reconstructed images were found to be indicative of the angular positioning of the conductivity perturbations, though the radial sensitivity was low, especially when using the Marquardt regularization method. PMID:15005319

  13. Restricted diffusion in a model acinar labyrinth by NMR: Theoretical and numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, D. S.; Guillot, G.; Sapoval, B.

    2007-01-01

    A branched geometrical structure of the mammal lungs is known to be crucial for rapid access of oxygen to blood. But an important pulmonary disease like emphysema results in partial destruction of the alveolar tissue and enlargement of the distal airspaces, which may reduce the total oxygen transfer. This effect has been intensively studied during the last decade by MRI of hyperpolarized gases like helium-3. The relation between geometry and signal attenuation remained obscure due to a lack of realistic geometrical model of the acinar morphology. In this paper, we use Monte Carlo simulations of restricted diffusion in a realistic model acinus to compute the signal attenuation in a diffusion-weighted NMR experiment. We demonstrate that this technique should be sensitive to destruction of the branched structure: partial removal of the interalveolar tissue creates loops in the tree-like acinar architecture that enhance diffusive motion and the consequent signal attenuation. The role of the local geometry and related practical applications are discussed.

  14. Buoyancy-driven melt segregation in the earth's moon. I - Numerical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    The densities of lunar mare magmas have been estimated at liquidus temperatures for pressures from 0 to 47 kbar (0.4 GPa; center of the moon) using a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation and compositionally dependent parameters from Large and Carmichael (1987). Results on primary magmatic compositions represented by pristine volcanic glasses suggest that the density contrast between very-high-Ti melts and their liquidus olivines may approach zero at pressures of about 25 kbar (2.5 GPa). Since this is the pressure regime of the mantle source regions for these magmas, a compositional limit of eruptability for mare liquids may exist that is similar to the highest Ti melt yet observed among the lunar samples. Although the moon may have generated magmas having greater than 16.4 wt pct TiO2, those melts would probably not have reached the lunar surface due to their high densities, and may have even sunk deeper into the moon's interior as negatively buoyant diapirs. This process may have been important for assimilative interactions in the lunar mantle. The phenomenon of melt/solid density crossover may therefore occur not only in large terrestrial-type objects but also in small objects where, despite low pressures, the range of melt compositions is extreme.

  15. Circulation induced by subglacial discharge in glacial fjords: Results from idealized numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcedo-Castro, Julio; Bourgault, Daniel; deYoung, Brad

    2011-09-01

    The flow caused by the discharge of freshwater underneath a glacier into an idealized fjord is simulated with a 2D non-hydrostatic model. As the freshwater leaves horizontally the subglacial opening into a fjord of uniformly denser water it spreads along the bottom as a jet, until buoyancy forces it to rise. During the initial rising phase, the plume meanders into complex flow patterns while mixing with the surrounding fluid until it reaches the surface and then spreads horizontally as a surface seaward flowing plume of brackish water. The process induces an estuarine-like circulation. Once steady-state is reached, the flow consists of an almost undiluted buoyant plume rising straight along the face of the glacier that turns into a horizontal surface layer thickening as it flows seaward. Over the range of parameters examined, the estuarine circulation is dynamically unstable with gradient Richardson number at the sheared interface having values of <1/4. The surface velocity and dilution factors are strongly and non-linearly related to the Froude number. It is the buoyancy flux that primarily controls the resulting circulation with the momentum flux playing a secondary role.

  16. The Formation of Asteroid Satellites in Catastrophic Impacts: Results from Numerical Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durda, D. D.; Bottke, W. F., Jr.; Enke, B. L.; Asphaug, E.; Richardson, D. C.; Leinhardt, Z. M.

    2003-01-01

    We have performed new simulations of the formation of asteroid satellites by collisions, using a combination of hydrodynamical and gravitational dynamical codes. This initial work shows that both small satellites and ejected, co-orbiting pairs are produced most favorably by moderate-energy collisions at more direct, rather than oblique, impact angles. Simulations so far seem to be able to produce systems qualitatively similar to known binaries. Asteroid satellites provide vital clues that can help us understand the physics of hypervelocity impacts, the dominant geologic process affecting large main belt asteroids. Moreover, models of satellite formation may provide constraints on the internal structures of asteroids beyond those possible from observations of satellite orbital properties alone. It is probable that most observed main-belt asteroid satellites are by-products of cratering and/or catastrophic disruption events. Several possible formation mechanisms related to collisions have been identified: (i) mutual capture following catastrophic disruption, (ii) rotational fission due to glancing impact and spin-up, and (iii) re-accretion in orbit of ejecta from large, non-catastrophic impacts. Here we present results from a systematic investigation directed toward mapping out the parameter space of the first and third of these three collisional mechanisms.

  17. Run-of-River Impoundments Can Remain Unfilled While Transporting Gravel Bedload: Numerical Modeling Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, A.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Previous work at run-of-river (ROR) dams in northern Delaware has shown that bedload supplied to ROR impoundments can be transported over the dam when impoundments remain unfilled. Transport is facilitated by high levels of sand in the impoundment that lowers the critical shear stresses for particle entrainment, and an inversely sloping sediment ramp connecting the impoundment bed (where the water depth is typically equal to the dam height) with the top of the dam (Pearson and Pizzuto, in press). We demonstrate with one-dimensional bed material transport modeling that bed material can move through impoundments and that equilibrium transport (i.e., a balance between supply to and export from the impoundment, with a constant bed elevation) is possible even when the bed elevation is below the top of the dam. Based on our field work and previous HEC-RAS modeling, we assess bed material transport capacity at the base of the sediment ramp (and ignore detailed processes carrying sediment up and ramp and over the dam). The hydraulics at the base of the ramp are computed using a weir equation, providing estimates of water depth, velocity, and friction, based on the discharge and sediment grain size distribution of the impoundment. Bedload transport rates are computed using the Wilcock-Crowe equation, and changes in the impoundment's bed elevation are determined by sediment continuity. Our results indicate that impoundments pass the gravel supplied from upstream with deep pools when gravel supply rate is low, gravel grain sizes are relatively small, sand supply is high, and discharge is high. Conversely, impoundments will tend to fill their pools when gravel supply rate is high, gravel grain sizes are relatively large, sand supply is low, and discharge is low. The rate of bedload supplied to an impoundment is the primary control on how fast equilibrium transport is reached, with discharge having almost no influence on the timing of equilibrium.

  18. Acoustic propagation in the Hudson River Estuary: Analysis of experimental measurements and numerical modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Sreeram

    Harbor observation and prediction system (NYHOPS) which provides 48-hour forecasts of salinity and temperature profiles. Initial results indicate that the NYHOPS forecast of sound speed profiles used in conjunction with the acoustic propagation model is able to make realistic forecasts of TL in the Hudson River Estuary.

  19. A comparative study between experimental results and numerical predictions of multi-wall structural response to hypervelocity impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Peck, Jeffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last three decades, multiwall structures have been analyzed extensively, primarily through experiment, as a means of increasing the protection afforded to spacecraft structure. However, as structural configurations become more varied, the number of tests required to characterize their response increases dramatically. As an alternative, numerical modeling of high-speed impact phenomena is often being used to predict the response of a variety of structural systems under impact loading conditions. This paper presents the results of a preliminary numerical/experimental investigation of the hypervelocity impact response of multiwall structures. The results of experimental high-speed impact tests are compared against the predictions of the HULL hydrodynamic computer code. It is shown that the hypervelocity impact response characteristics of a specific system cannot be accurately predicted from a limited number of HULL code impact simulations. However, if a wide range of impact loadings conditions are considered, then the ballistic limit curve of the system based on the entire series of numerical simulations can be used as a relatively accurate indication of actual system response.

  20. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal were completed in 2005 and 2006 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 5 full-scale additive tests, conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1. Both additives were tested there.

  1. Numerical Modeling of Anti-icing Systems and Comparison to Test Results on a NACA 0012 Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Khalil, Kamel M.; Potapczuk, Mark G.

    1993-01-01

    A series of experimental tests were conducted in the NASA Lewis IRT on an electro-thermally heated NACA 0012 airfoil. Quantitative comparisons between the experimental results and those predicted by a computer simulation code were made to assess the validity of a recently developed anti-icing model. An infrared camera was utilized to scan the instantaneous temperature contours of the skin surface. Despite some experimental difficulties, good agreement between the numerical predictions and the experiment results were generally obtained for the surface temperature and the possibility for each runback to freeze. Some recommendations were given for an efficient operation of a thermal anti-icing system.

  2. Solutions of the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model: Benchmarks and Results from a Wide Range of Numerical Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, J. P. F.; Antipov, Andrey E.; Becca, Federico; Bulik, Ireneusz W.; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Chung, Chia-Min; Deng, Youjin; Ferrero, Michel; Henderson, Thomas M.; Jiménez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Kozik, E.; Liu, Xuan-Wen; Millis, Andrew J.; Prokof'ev, N. V.; Qin, Mingpu; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Shi, Hao; Svistunov, B. V.; Tocchio, Luca F.; Tupitsyn, I. S.; White, Steven R.; Zhang, Shiwei; Zheng, Bo-Xiao; Zhu, Zhenyue; Gull, Emanuel; Simons Collaboration on the Many-Electron Problem

    2015-10-01

    Numerical results for ground-state and excited-state properties (energies, double occupancies, and Matsubara-axis self-energies) of the single-orbital Hubbard model on a two-dimensional square lattice are presented, in order to provide an assessment of our ability to compute accurate results in the thermodynamic limit. Many methods are employed, including auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo, bare and bold-line diagrammatic Monte Carlo, method of dual fermions, density matrix embedding theory, density matrix renormalization group, dynamical cluster approximation, diffusion Monte Carlo within a fixed-node approximation, unrestricted coupled cluster theory, and multireference projected Hartree-Fock methods. Comparison of results obtained by different methods allows for the identification of uncertainties and systematic errors. The importance of extrapolation to converged thermodynamic-limit values is emphasized. Cases where agreement between different methods is obtained establish benchmark results that may be useful in the validation of new approaches and the improvement of existing methods.

  3. Paraxial light distribution in the focal region of a lens: a comparison of several analytical solutions and a numerical result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yang; Kelly, Damien P.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution of the complex field in the focal region of a lens is a classical optical diffraction problem. Today, it remains of significant theoretical importance for understanding the properties of imaging systems. In the paraxial regime, it is possible to find analytical solutions in the neighborhood of the focus, when a plane wave is incident on a focusing lens whose finite extent is limited by a circular aperture. For example, in Born and Wolf's treatment of this problem, two different, but mathematically equivalent analytical solutions, are presented that describe the 3D field distribution using infinite sums of ? and ? type Lommel functions. An alternative solution expresses the distribution in terms of Zernike polynomials, and was presented by Nijboer in 1947. More recently, Cao derived an alternative analytical solution by expanding the Fresnel kernel using a Taylor series expansion. In practical calculations, however, only a finite number of terms from these infinite series expansions is actually used to calculate the distribution in the focal region. In this manuscript, we compare and contrast each of these different solutions to a numerically calculated result, paying particular attention to how quickly each solution converges for a range of different spatial locations behind the focusing lens. We also examine the time taken to calculate each of the analytical solutions. The numerical solution is calculated in a polar coordinate system and is semi-analytic. The integration over the angle is solved analytically, while the radial coordinate is sampled with a sampling interval of ? and then numerically integrated. This produces an infinite set of replicas in the diffraction plane, that are located in circular rings centered at the optical axis and each with radii given by ?, where ? is the replica order. These circular replicas are shown to be fundamentally different from the replicas that arise in a Cartesian coordinate system.

  4. Paraxial light distribution in the focal region of a lens: a comparison of several analytical solutions and a numerical result

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yang; Kelly, Damien P.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of the complex field in the focal region of a lens is a classical optical diffraction problem. Today, it remains of significant theoretical importance for understanding the properties of imaging systems. In the paraxial regime, it is possible to find analytical solutions in the neighborhood of the focus, when a plane wave is incident on a focusing lens whose finite extent is limited by a circular aperture. For example, in Born and Wolf’s treatment of this problem, two different, but mathematically equivalent analytical solutions, are presented that describe the 3D field distribution using infinite sums of Un and Vn type Lommel functions. An alternative solution expresses the distribution in terms of Zernike polynomials, and was presented by Nijboer in 1947. More recently, Cao derived an alternative analytical solution by expanding the Fresnel kernel using a Taylor series expansion. In practical calculations, however, only a finite number of terms from these infinite series expansions is actually used to calculate the distribution in the focal region. In this manuscript, we compare and contrast each of these different solutions to a numerically calculated result, paying particular attention to how quickly each solution converges for a range of different spatial locations behind the focusing lens. We also examine the time taken to calculate each of the analytical solutions. The numerical solution is calculated in a polar coordinate system and is semi-analytic. The integration over the angle is solved analytically, while the radial coordinate is sampled with a sampling interval of Δρ and then numerically integrated. This produces an infinite set of replicas in the diffraction plane, that are located in circular rings centered at the optical axis and each with radii given by 2πm/Δρ, where m is the replica order. These circular replicas are shown to be fundamentally different from the replicas that arise in a Cartesian coordinate system. PMID

  5. Comparison of numerical simulation with experimental result for small scale one seater wing in ground effect (WIG) craft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baharun, A. Tarmizi; Maimun, Adi; Ahmed, Yasser M.; Mobassher, M.; Nakisa, M.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, three dimensional data and behavior of incompressible and steady air flow around a small scale Wing in Ground Effect Craft (WIG) were investigated and studied numerically then compared to the experimental result and also published data. This computational simulation (CFD) adopted two turbulence models, which were k-ɛ and k-ω in order to determine which model produces minimum difference to the experimental result of the small scale WIG tested in wind tunnel. Unstructured mesh was used in the simulation and data of drag coefficient (Cd) and lift coefficient (Cl) were obtained with angle of attack (AoA) of the WIG model as the parameter. Ansys ICEM was used for the meshing process while Ansys Fluent was used for solution. Aerodynamic forces, Cl, Cd and Cl/Cd along with fluid flow pattern of the small scale WIG craft was shown and discussed.

  6. PINTEX Data: Numeric results from the Polarized Internal Target Experiments (PINTEX) at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility

    DOE Data Explorer

    Meyer, H. O.

    The PINTEX group studied proton-proton and proton-deuteron scattering and reactions between 100 and 500 MeV at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF). More than a dozen experiments made use of electron-cooled polarized proton or deuteron beams, orbiting in the 'Indiana Cooler' storage ring, and of a polarized atomic-beam target of hydrogen or deuterium in the path of the stored beam. The collaboration involved researchers from several midwestern universities, as well as a number of European institutions. The PINTEX program ended when the Indiana Cooler was shut down in August 2002. The website contains links to some of the numerical results, descriptions of experiments, and a complete list of publications resulting from PINTEX.

  7. Pericenter precession induced by a circumstellar disk on the orbit of massive bodies: comparison between analytical predictions and numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, A.; Marzari, F.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Planetesimals and planets embedded in a circumstellar disk are dynamically perturbed by the disk gravity. It causes an apsidal line precession at a rate that depends on the disk density profile and on the distance of the massive body from the star. Aims: Different analytical models are exploited to compute the precession rate of the perihelion ϖ˙. We compare them to verify their equivalence, in particular after analytical manipulations performed to derive handy formulas, and test their predictions against numerical models in some selected cases. Methods: The theoretical precession rates were computed with analytical algorithms found in the literature using the Mathematica symbolic code, while the numerical simulations were performed with the hydrodynamical code FARGO. Results: For low-mass bodies (planetesimals) the analytical approaches described in Binney & Tremaine (2008, Galactic Dynamics, p. 96), Ward (1981, Icarus, 47, 234), and Silsbee & Rafikov (2015a, ApJ, 798, 71) are equivalent under the same initial conditions for the disk in terms of mass, density profile, and inner and outer borders. They also match the numerical values computed with FARGO away from the outer border of the disk reasonably well. On the other hand, the predictions of the classical Mestel disk (Mestel 1963, MNRAS, 126, 553) for disks with p = 1 significantly depart from the numerical solution for radial distances beyond one-third of the disk extension because of the underlying assumption of the Mestel disk is that the outer disk border is equal to infinity. For massive bodies such as terrestrial and giant planets, the agreement of the analytical approaches is progressively poorer because of the changes in the disk structure that are induced by the planet gravity. For giant planets the precession rate changes sign and is higher than the modulus of the theoretical value by a factor ranging from 1.5 to 1.8. In this case, the correction of the formula proposed by Ward (1981) to

  8. Validation and Analysis of Numerical Results for a Two-Pass Trapezoidal Channel With Different Cooling Configurations of Trailing Edge.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Waseem; El-Gabry, Lamyaa; Shevchuk, Igor V; Fransson, Torsten H

    2013-01-01

    High inlet temperatures in a gas turbine lead to an increase in the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine. This results in the requirement of cooling of gas turbine blades/vanes. Internal cooling of the gas turbine blade/vanes with the help of two-pass channels is one of the effective methods to reduce the metal temperatures. In particular, the trailing edge of a turbine vane is a critical area, where effective cooling is required. The trailing edge can be modeled as a trapezoidal channel. This paper describes the numerical validation of the heat transfer and pressure drop in a trapezoidal channel with and without orthogonal ribs at the bottom surface. A new concept of ribbed trailing edge has been introduced in this paper which presents a numerical study of several trailing edge cooling configurations based on the placement of ribs at different walls. The baseline geometries are two-pass trapezoidal channels with and without orthogonal ribs at the bottom surface of the channel. Ribs induce secondary flow which results in enhancement of heat transfer; therefore, for enhancement of heat transfer at the trailing edge, ribs are placed at the trailing edge surface in three different configurations: first without ribs at the bottom surface, then ribs at the trailing edge surface in-line with the ribs at the bottom surface, and finally staggered ribs. Heat transfer and pressure drop is calculated at Reynolds number equal to 9400 for all configurations. Different turbulent models are used for the validation of the numerical results. For the smooth channel low-Re k-ɛ model, realizable k-ɛ model, the RNG k-ω model, low-Re k-ω model, and SST k-ω models are compared, whereas for ribbed channel, low-Re k-ɛ model and SST k-ω models are compared. The results show that the low-Re k-ɛ model, which predicts the heat transfer in outlet pass of the smooth channels with difference of +7%, underpredicts the heat transfer by -17% in case of ribbed channel compared to

  9. Role of the sample thickness on the performance of cholesteric liquid crystal lasers: Experimental, numerical, and analytical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Enguita, G.; Ortega, J.; Folcia, C. L.; Aramburu, I.; Etxebarria, J.

    2016-02-01

    We have studied the performance characteristics of a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) laser as a function of the sample thickness. The study has been carried out both from the experimental and theoretical points of view. The theoretical model is based on the kinetic equations for the population of the excited states of the dye and for the power of light generated within the laser cavity. From the equations, the threshold pump radiation energy Eth and the slope efficiency η are numerically calculated. Eth is rather insensitive to thickness changes, except for small thicknesses. In comparison, η shows a much more pronounced variation, exhibiting a maximum that determines the sample thickness for optimum laser performance. The predictions are in good accordance with the experimental results. Approximate analytical expressions for Eth and η as a function of the physical characteristics of the CLC laser are also proposed. These expressions present an excellent agreement with the numerical calculations. Finally, we comment on the general features of CLC layer and dye that lead to the best laser performance.

  10. Lanthanum Tricyanide-Catalyzed Acyl Silane-Ketone Benzoin Additions and Kinetic Resolution of Resultant α-Silyloxyketones

    PubMed Central

    Tarr, James C.

    2010-01-01

    We report the full account of our efforts on the lanthanum tricyanide-catalyzed acyl silane-ketone benzoin reaction. The reaction exhibits a wide scope in both acyl silane (aryl, alkyl) and ketone (aryl-alkyl, alkyl-alkyl, aryl-aryl, alkenyl-alkyl, alkynyl-alkyl) coupling partners. The diastereoselectivity of the reaction has been examined in both cyclic and acyclic systems. Cyclohexanones give products arising from equatorial attack by the acyl silane. The diastereoselectivity of acyl silane addition to acyclic α-hydroxy ketones can be controlled by varying the protecting group to obtain either Felkin-Ahn or chelation control. The resultant α-silyloxyketone products can be resolved with selectivity factors from 10 to 15 by subjecting racemic ketone benzoin products to CBS reduction. PMID:20392127

  11. Divergent targets of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation result in additive effects of metformin and starvation in colon and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Marini, Cecilia; Bianchi, Giovanna; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Ravera, Silvia; Martella, Roberto; Bottoni, Gianluca; Petretto, Andrea; Emionite, Laura; Monteverde, Elena; Capitanio, Selene; Inglese, Elvira; Fabbi, Marina; Bongioanni, Francesca; Garaboldi, Lucia; Bruzzi, Paolo; Orengo, Anna Maria; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Sambuceti, Gianmario

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates that targeting energy metabolism is a promising strategy to fight cancer. Here we show that combining metformin and short-term starvation markedly impairs metabolism and growth of colon and breast cancer. The impairment in glycolytic flux caused by starvation is enhanced by metformin through its interference with hexokinase II activity, as documented by measurement of 18F-fluorodeoxyglycose uptake. Oxidative phosphorylation is additively compromised by combined treatment: metformin virtually abolishes Complex I function; starvation determines an uncoupled status of OXPHOS and amplifies the activity of respiratory Complexes II and IV thus combining a massive ATP depletion with a significant increase in reactive oxygen species. More importantly, the combined treatment profoundly impairs cancer glucose metabolism and virtually abolishes lesion growth in experimental models of breast and colon carcinoma. Our results strongly suggest that energy metabolism is a promising target to reduce cancer progression. PMID:26794854

  12. Divergent targets of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation result in additive effects of metformin and starvation in colon and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Cecilia; Bianchi, Giovanna; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Ravera, Silvia; Martella, Roberto; Bottoni, Gianluca; Petretto, Andrea; Emionite, Laura; Monteverde, Elena; Capitanio, Selene; Inglese, Elvira; Fabbi, Marina; Bongioanni, Francesca; Garaboldi, Lucia; Bruzzi, Paolo; Orengo, Anna Maria; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Sambuceti, Gianmario

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates that targeting energy metabolism is a promising strategy to fight cancer. Here we show that combining metformin and short-term starvation markedly impairs metabolism and growth of colon and breast cancer. The impairment in glycolytic flux caused by starvation is enhanced by metformin through its interference with hexokinase II activity, as documented by measurement of 18F-fluorodeoxyglycose uptake. Oxidative phosphorylation is additively compromised by combined treatment: metformin virtually abolishes Complex I function; starvation determines an uncoupled status of OXPHOS and amplifies the activity of respiratory Complexes II and IV thus combining a massive ATP depletion with a significant increase in reactive oxygen species. More importantly, the combined treatment profoundly impairs cancer glucose metabolism and virtually abolishes lesion growth in experimental models of breast and colon carcinoma. Our results strongly suggest that energy metabolism is a promising target to reduce cancer progression. PMID:26794854

  13. Introducing "É VIVO! Virtual Eruptions on a Supercomputer". A DVD aimed at sharing results from numerical simulations of explosive eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Todesco, M.; Neri, A.; Esposti Ongaro, T.; Tola, E.; Rocco, G.

    2011-12-01

    We present a new DVD of the INGV outreach series, aimed at illustrating our research work on pyroclastic flow modeling. Pyroclastic flows (or pyroclastic density currents) are hot, devastating clouds of gas and ashes, generated during explosive eruptions. Understanding their dynamics and impact is crucial for a proper hazard assessment. We employ a 3D numerical model which describes the main features of the multi-phase and multi-component process, from the generation of the flows to their propagation along complex terrains. Our numerical results can be translated into color animations, which describe the temporal evolution of flow variables such as temperature or ash concentration. The animations provide a detailed and effective description of the natural phenomenon which can be used to present this geological process to a general public and to improve the hazard perception in volcanic areas. In our DVD, the computer animations are introduced and commented by professionals and researchers who deals at various levels with the study of pyroclastic flows and their impact. Their comments are taken as short interviews, mounted in a short video (about 10 minutes), which describes the natural process, as well as the model and its applications to some explosive volcanoes like Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei, Mt. St. Helens and Soufriere Hills (Montserrat). The ensemble of different voices and faces provides a direct sense of the multi-disciplinary effort involved in the assessment of pyroclastic flow hazard. The video also introduces the people who address this complex problem, and the personal involvement beyond the scientific results. The full, uncommented animations of the pyroclastic flow propagation on the different volcanic settings are also provided in the DVD, that is meant to be a general, flexible outreach tool.

  14. Model assessment of additional contamination of water bodies as a result of wildfires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Yu I; Navumau, A D; Nikitin, A N; Brown, J; Dowdall, M

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires and wild fires are recognized as a possible cause of resuspension and redistribution of radioactive substances when occurring on lands contaminated with such materials, and as such are a matter of concern within the regions of Belarus and the Ukraine which were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Modelling the effects of such fires on radioactive contaminants is a complex matter given the number of variables involved. In this paper, a probabilistic model was developed using empirical data drawn from the Polessie State Radiation-Ecological Reserve (PSRER), Belarus, and the Maximum Entropy Method. Using the model, it was possible to derive estimates of the contribution of fire events to overall variability in the levels of (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu in ground air as well as estimates of the deposition of these radionuclides to specific water bodies within the contaminated areas of Belarus. Results indicate that fire events are potentially significant redistributors of radioactive contaminants within the study area and may result in additional contamination being introduced to water bodies. PMID:25240987

  15. Can homeopathy bring additional benefits to thalassemic patients on hydroxyurea therapy? Encouraging results of a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Antara; Chakrabarty, Sudipa Basu; Karmakar, Susanta Roy; Chakrabarty, Amit; Biswas, Surjyo Jyoti; Haque, Saiful; Das, Debarsi; Paul, Saili; Mandal, Biswapati; Naoual, Boujedaini; Belon, Philippe; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2010-03-01

    Several homeopathic remedies, namely, Pulsatilla Nigricans (30th potency), Ceanothus Americanus (both mother tincture and 6th potency) and Ferrum Metallicum (30th potency) selected as per similia principles were administered to 38 thalassemic patients receiving Hydroxyurea (HU) therapy for a varying period of time. Levels of serum ferritin (SF), fetal hemoglobin (HbF), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet count (PC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), white blood cell (WBC) count, bilirubin content, alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and serum total protein content of patients were determined before and 3 months after administration of the homeopathic remedies in combination with HU to evaluate additional benefits, if any, derived by the homeopathic remedies, by comparing the data with those of 38 subjects receiving only HU therapy. Preliminary results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the SF and increase in HbF levels in the combined, treated subjects. Although the changes in other parameters were not so significant, there was a significant decrease in size of spleen in most patients with spleenomegaly and improvement in general health conditions along with an increased gap between transfusions in most patients receiving the combined homeopathic treatment. The homeopathic remedies being inexpensive and without any known side-effects seem to have great potentials in bringing additional benefits to thalassemic patients; particularly in the developing world where blood transfusions suffer from inadequate screening and fall short of the stringent safety standards followed in the developed countries. Further independent studies are encouraged. PMID:18955271

  16. Solutions of the two-dimensional Hubbard model: Benchmarks and results from a wide range of numerical algorithms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    LeBlanc, J. P. F.; Antipov, Andrey E.; Becca, Federico; Bulik, Ireneusz W.; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Chung, Chia -Min; Deng, Youjin; Ferrero, Michel; Henderson, Thomas M.; Jiménez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; et al

    2015-12-14

    Numerical results for ground-state and excited-state properties (energies, double occupancies, and Matsubara-axis self-energies) of the single-orbital Hubbard model on a two-dimensional square lattice are presented, in order to provide an assessment of our ability to compute accurate results in the thermodynamic limit. Many methods are employed, including auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo, bare and bold-line diagrammatic Monte Carlo, method of dual fermions, density matrix embedding theory, density matrix renormalization group, dynamical cluster approximation, diffusion Monte Carlo within a fixed-node approximation, unrestricted coupled cluster theory, and multireference projected Hartree-Fock methods. Comparison of results obtained by different methods allows for the identification ofmore » uncertainties and systematic errors. The importance of extrapolation to converged thermodynamic-limit values is emphasized. Furthermore, cases where agreement between different methods is obtained establish benchmark results that may be useful in the validation of new approaches and the improvement of existing methods.« less

  17. Numerical Prediction of the Performance of Integrated Planar Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells, with Comparisons of Results from Several Codes

    SciTech Connect

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; B. A. Haberman; A. J. Marquis; C. M. Baca; D. Tripepi; P. Costamagna

    2008-06-01

    A numerical study of the thermal and electrochemical performance of a single-tube Integrated Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (IP-SOFC) has been performed. Results obtained from two finite-volume computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes FLUENT and SOHAB and from a two-dimensional inhouse developed finite-volume GENOA model are presented and compared. Each tool uses physical and geometric models of differing complexity and comparisons are made to assess their relative merits. Several single-tube simulations were run using each code over a range of operating conditions. The results include polarization curves, distributions of local current density, composition and temperature. Comparisons of these results are discussed, along with their relationship to the respective imbedded phenomenological models for activation losses, fluid flow and mass transport in porous media. In general, agreement between the codes was within 15% for overall parameters such as operating voltage and maximum temperature. The CFD results clearly show the effects of internal structure on the distributions of gas flows and related quantities within the electrochemical cells.

  18. Solutions of the two-dimensional Hubbard model: Benchmarks and results from a wide range of numerical algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, J. P. F.; Antipov, Andrey E.; Becca, Federico; Bulik, Ireneusz W.; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Chung, Chia -Min; Deng, Youjin; Ferrero, Michel; Henderson, Thomas M.; Jiménez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Kozik, E.; Liu, Xuan -Wen; Millis, Andrew J.; Prokof’ev, N. V.; Qin, Mingpu; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Shi, Hao; Svistunov, B. V.; Tocchio, Luca F.; Tupitsyn, I. S.; White, Steven R.; Zhang, Shiwei; Zheng, Bo -Xiao; Zhu, Zhenyue; Gull, Emanuel

    2015-12-14

    Numerical results for ground-state and excited-state properties (energies, double occupancies, and Matsubara-axis self-energies) of the single-orbital Hubbard model on a two-dimensional square lattice are presented, in order to provide an assessment of our ability to compute accurate results in the thermodynamic limit. Many methods are employed, including auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo, bare and bold-line diagrammatic Monte Carlo, method of dual fermions, density matrix embedding theory, density matrix renormalization group, dynamical cluster approximation, diffusion Monte Carlo within a fixed-node approximation, unrestricted coupled cluster theory, and multireference projected Hartree-Fock methods. Comparison of results obtained by different methods allows for the identification of uncertainties and systematic errors. The importance of extrapolation to converged thermodynamic-limit values is emphasized. Furthermore, cases where agreement between different methods is obtained establish benchmark results that may be useful in the validation of new approaches and the improvement of existing methods.

  19. Numerical study of RF exposure and the resulting temperature rise in the foetus during a magnetic resonance procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, J. W.; Li, Y.; Hajnal, J. V.

    2010-02-01

    Numerical simulations of specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature changes in a 26-week pregnant woman model within typical birdcage body coils as used in 1.5 T and 3 T MRI scanners are described. Spatial distributions of SAR and the resulting spatial and temporal changes in temperature are determined using a finite difference time domain method and a finite difference bio-heat transfer solver that accounts for discrete vessels. Heat transfer from foetus to placenta via the umbilical vein and arteries as well as that across the foetal skin/amniotic fluid/uterine wall boundaries is modelled. Results suggest that for procedures compliant with IEC normal mode conditions (maternal whole-body averaged SARMWB <= 2 W kg-1 (continuous or time-averaged over 6 min)), whole foetal SAR, local foetal SAR10g and average foetal temperature are within international safety limits. For continuous RF exposure at SARMWB = 2 W kg-1 over periods of 7.5 min or longer, a maximum local foetal temperature >38 °C may occur. However, assessment of the risk posed by such maximum temperatures predicted in a static model is difficult because of frequent foetal movement. Results also confirm that when SARMWB = 2 W kg-1, some local SAR10g values in the mother's trunk and extremities exceed recommended limits.

  20. Results of numerical modeling of the convective burning of particulate explosive systems in the presence of increasing pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Ermolaev, B.S.; Novozhilov, B.V.; Posvyanskii, V.S.; Sulimov, A.A.

    1986-03-01

    The authors analyze the results of a numerical simulation of the convective burning of explosive powders in the presence of increasing pressure. The formulation of the problem reproduces a typical experimental technique: a strong closed vessel with a channel uniformly filled with the explosive investigated is fitted with devices for initiating and recording the process of explosion. It is shown that the relation between the propagation velocities of the flame and the compression waves in the powder and the rate of pressure increase in the combustion zone is such that a narrow compaction zone is formed ahead of the ignition front. Another important result is obtained by analyzing the difference between the flame velocity and the gas flow velocity in the ignition front. A model of the process is given. The results of the investigation throw light on such aspects of the convective combustion mechanism and the transition from combustion to detonation as the role of compaction of the explosive in the process of flame propogation and the role of the rate of pressure increase and dissipative heating of the gas phase in the pores ahead of the ignition front.

  1. Transport of ICME shock accelerated SEPs in 3-d heliospheric magnetic fields: A comparison of numerical calculation results with multi-spacecraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Qin, G.; Zhang, M.

    2012-12-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) fluxes data measured by multi-spacecraft are able to provide important information of the transport process of SEPs accelerated by the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) shock. Depending on their locations, observers in interplanetary space may be connected to different parts of an ICME shock by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Simultaneous observations by multi-spacecraft in the ecliptic, e.g., ACE, STEREO A and B, usually show huge differences of SEP time profiles. In this work, based on a numerical solution of the Fokker-Planck transport equation for energetic particles, we will obtain the fluxes of SEPs accelerated by ICME shocks. In addition, we will compare SEP events measured by these spacecraft, located at different longitudes, with our simulation results. The comparison has enabled us to determine the parameters of particle transport such as the parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients and the efficiency of particles injections at the ICME shock.

  2. Accuracy and Precision in the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Dataset in Light of the JOSIE-2000 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Thompson, Anne M.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Smit, H. G. J.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1998 the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has provided over 2000 ozone profiles over eleven southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are used to measure ozone. The data are archived at: &ttp://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz>. In analysis of ozonesonde imprecision within the SHADOZ dataset, Thompson et al. [JGR, 108,8238,20031 we pointed out that variations in ozonesonde technique (sensor solution strength, instrument manufacturer, data processing) could lead to station-to-station biases within the SHADOZ dataset. Imprecisions and accuracy in the SHADOZ dataset are examined in light of new data. First, SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are compared to version 8 TOMS (2004 release). As for TOMS version 7, satellite total ozone is usually higher than the integrated column amount from the sounding. Discrepancies between the sonde and satellite datasets decline two percentage points on average, compared to version 7 TOMS offsets. Second, the SHADOZ station data are compared to results of chamber simulations (JOSE-2000, Juelich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment) in which the various SHADOZ techniques were evaluated. The range of JOSE column deviations from a standard instrument (-10%) in the chamber resembles that of the SHADOZ station data. It appears that some systematic variations in the SHADOZ ozone record are accounted for by differences in solution strength, data processing and instrument type (manufacturer).

  3. Time-dependent thermocapillary convection in a Cartesian cavity - Numerical results for a moderate Prandtl number fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peltier, L. J.; Biringen, S.

    1993-01-01

    The present numerical simulation explores a thermal-convective mechanism for oscillatory thermocapillary convection in a shallow Cartesian cavity for a Prandtl number 6.78 fluid. The computer program developed for this simulation integrates the two-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation by a time-accurate method on a stretched, staggered mesh. Flat free surfaces are assumed. The instability is shown to depend upon temporal coupling between large scale thermal structures within the flow field and the temperature sensitive free surface. A primary result of this study is the development of a stability diagram presenting the critical Marangoni number separating steady from the time-dependent flow states as a function of aspect ratio for the range of values between 2.3 and 3.8. Within this range, a minimum critical aspect ratio near 2.3 and a minimum critical Marangoni number near 20,000 are predicted below which steady convection is found.

  4. Interbeat Interval Modulation in the Sinoatrial Node as a Result of Membrane Current Stochasticity—A Theoretical and Numerical Study

    PubMed Central

    Dvir, Hila; Zlochiver, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    A single isolated sinoatrial pacemaker cell presents intrinsic interbeat interval (IBI) variability that is believed to result from the stochastic characteristics of the opening and closing processes of membrane ion channels. To our knowledge, a novel mathematical framework was developed in this work to address the effect of current fluctuations on the IBIs of sinoatrial pacemaker cells. Using statistical modeling and employing the Fokker-Planck formalism, our mathematical analysis suggests that increased stochastic current fluctuation variance linearly increases the slope of phase-4 depolarization, hence the rate of activations. Single-cell and two-dimensional computerized numerical modeling of the sinoatrial node was conducted to validate the theoretical predictions using established ionic kinetics of the rabbit pacemaker and atrial cells. Our models also provide, to our knowledge, a novel complementary or alternative explanation to recent experimental observations showing a strong reduction in the mean IBI of Cx30 deficient mice in comparison to wild-types, not fully explicable by the effects of intercellular decoupling. PMID:25762340

  5. The Trichoderma harzianum demon: complex speciation history resulting in coexistence of hypothetical biological species, recent agamospecies and numerous relict lineages

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The mitosporic fungus Trichoderma harzianum (Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae) is an ubiquitous species in the environment with some strains commercially exploited for the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. Although T. harzianum is asexual (or anamorphic), its sexual stage (or teleomorph) has been described as Hypocrea lixii. Since recombination would be an important issue for the efficacy of an agent of the biological control in the field, we investigated the phylogenetic structure of the species. Results Using DNA sequence data from three unlinked loci for each of 93 strains collected worldwide, we detected a complex speciation process revealing overlapping reproductively isolated biological species, recent agamospecies and numerous relict lineages with unresolved phylogenetic positions. Genealogical concordance and recombination analyses confirm the existence of two genetically isolated agamospecies including T. harzianum sensu stricto and two hypothetical holomorphic species related to but different from H. lixii. The exact phylogenetic position of the majority of strains was not resolved and therefore attributed to a diverse network of recombining strains conventionally called 'pseudoharzianum matrix'. Since H. lixii and T. harzianum are evidently genetically isolated, the anamorph - teleomorph combination comprising H. lixii/T. harzianum in one holomorph must be rejected in favor of two separate species. Conclusions Our data illustrate a complex speciation within H. lixii - T. harzianum species group, which is based on coexistence and interaction of organisms with different evolutionary histories and on the absence of strict genetic borders between them. PMID:20359347

  6. Comparative analysis of numerical simulation and PIV experimental results for a flow caused by field-enhanced dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirkov, V. A.; Komarov, D. K.; Stishkov, Y. K.; Vasilkov, S. A.

    2015-10-01

    The paper studies a particular electrode system, two flat parallel electrodes with a dielectric plate having a small circular hole between them. Its main feature is that the region of the strong electric field is located far from metal electrode surfaces, which permits one to preclude the injection charge formation and to observe field-enhanced dissociation (the Wien effect) leading to the emergence of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flow. The described electrode system was studied by way of both computer simulation and experiment. The latter was conducted with the help of the particle image velocimetry (or PIV) technique. The numerical research used trusted software package COMSOL Multiphysics, which allows solving the complete set of EHD equations and obtaining the EHD flow structure. Basing on the computer simulation and the comparison with experimental investigation results, it was concluded that the Wien effect is capable of causing intense (several centimeters per second) EHD flows in low-conducting liquids and has to be taken into account when dealing with EHD devices.

  7. Experimental results and numerical modeling of a high-performance large-scale cryopump. I. Test particle Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Xueli; Day, Christian; Haas, Horst; Varoutis, Stylianos

    2011-07-15

    For the torus of the nuclear fusion project ITER (originally the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, but also Latin: the way), eight high-performance large-scale customized cryopumps must be designed and manufactured to accommodate the very high pumping speeds and throughputs of the fusion exhaust gas needed to maintain the plasma under stable vacuum conditions and comply with other criteria which cannot be met by standard commercial vacuum pumps. Under an earlier research and development program, a model pump of reduced scale based on active cryosorption on charcoal-coated panels at 4.5 K was manufactured and tested systematically. The present article focuses on the simulation of the true three-dimensional complex geometry of the model pump by the newly developed ProVac3D Monte Carlo code. It is shown for gas throughputs of up to 1000 sccm ({approx}1.69 Pa m{sup 3}/s at T = 0 deg. C) in the free molecular regime that the numerical simulation results are in good agreement with the pumping speeds measured. Meanwhile, the capture coefficient associated with the virtual region around the cryogenic panels and shields which holds for higher throughputs is calculated using this generic approach. This means that the test particle Monte Carlo simulations in free molecular flow can be used not only for the optimization of the pumping system but also for the supply of the input parameters necessary for the future direct simulation Monte Carlo in the full flow regime.

  8. Interbeat interval modulation in the sinoatrial node as a result of membrane current stochasticity-a theoretical and numerical study.

    PubMed

    Dvir, Hila; Zlochiver, Sharon

    2015-03-10

    A single isolated sinoatrial pacemaker cell presents intrinsic interbeat interval (IBI) variability that is believed to result from the stochastic characteristics of the opening and closing processes of membrane ion channels. To our knowledge, a novel mathematical framework was developed in this work to address the effect of current fluctuations on the IBIs of sinoatrial pacemaker cells. Using statistical modeling and employing the Fokker-Planck formalism, our mathematical analysis suggests that increased stochastic current fluctuation variance linearly increases the slope of phase-4 depolarization, hence the rate of activations. Single-cell and two-dimensional computerized numerical modeling of the sinoatrial node was conducted to validate the theoretical predictions using established ionic kinetics of the rabbit pacemaker and atrial cells. Our models also provide, to our knowledge, a novel complementary or alternative explanation to recent experimental observations showing a strong reduction in the mean IBI of Cx30 deficient mice in comparison to wild-types, not fully explicable by the effects of intercellular decoupling. PMID:25762340

  9. Vildagliptin in addition to metformin improves retinal blood flow and erythrocyte deformability in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus – results from an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Numerous rheological and microvascular alterations characterize the vascular pathology in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study investigated effects of vildagliptin in comparison to glimepiride on retinal microvascular blood flow and erythrocyte deformability in T2DM. Fourty-four patients with T2DM on metformin monotherapy were included in this randomized, exploratory study over 24 weeks. Patients were randomized to receive either vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) or glimepiride individually titrated up to 4 mg in addition to ongoing metformin treatment. Retinal microvascular blood flow (RBF) and the arteriolar wall to lumen ratio (WLR) were assessed using a laser doppler scanner. In addition, the erythrocyte elongation index (EI) was measured at different shear stresses using laserdiffractoscopy. Both treatments improved glycaemic control (p < 0.05 vs. baseline; respectively). While only slight changes in RBF and the WLR could be observed during treatment with glimepiride, vildagliptin significantly increased retinal blood flow and decreased the arterial WLR (p < 0.05 vs. baseline respectively). The EI increased during both treatments over a wide range of applied shear stresses (p < 0.05 vs. baseline). An inverse correlation could be observed between improved glycaemic control (HbA1c) and EI (r = −0.524; p < 0.0001) but not with the changes in retinal microvascular measurements. Our results suggest that vildagliptin might exert beneficial effects on retinal microvascular blood flow beyond glucose control. In contrast, the improvement in erythrocyte deformability observed in both treatment groups, seems to be a correlate of improved glycaemic control. PMID:23565740

  10. Bedrock gorges incising glacial hanging valleys (Western Alps, France): results from morphometric analysis, numerical modeling and 10Be cosmogenic dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valla, Pierre G.; van der Beek, Peter A.; Lague, Dimitri; Carcaillet, Julien

    2010-05-01

    Bedrock gorges are frequent features in glacial or post-glacial landscapes and allow measurements of fluvial bedrock incision in mountainous relief. Using digital elevation models, aerial photographs, topographic maps and field reconnaissance in the Pelvoux-Ecrins Massif (French Western Alps), we have identified ~30 tributary hanging valleys incised by gorges toward their confluence with the trunk streams. Longitudinal profiles of these tributaries are all convex and have abrupt knickpoints at the upper limit of oversteepened gorge reaches. From morphometric analyses, we find that mean channel gradients and widths, as well as knickpoint retreat rates, display a drainage-area dependence modulated by bedrock lithology. However, there appears to be no relation between horizontal retreat and vertical downwearing of knickpoints. Numerical modeling has been performed to test the capacity of different fluvial incision models to predict the inferred evolution of the gorges. Results from simple end-member models suggest transport-limited behavior of the bedrock gorges. Using a more sophisticated model including dynamic width adjustment and sediment-dependent incision rates, we show that bedrock gorge evolution requires significant supply of sediment from the gorge sidewalls triggered by gorge deepening, combined with pronounced inhibition of bedrock incision by sediment transport and deposition. We then use in-situ produced 10Be cosmogenic nuclides to date and quantify bedrock gorge incision into a single glacial hanging valley (Gorge du Diable). We have sampled gorge sidewalls and the active channel bed to derive both long-term and present-day incision rates. 10Be ages of sidewall profiles reveal rapid incision through the late Holocene (ca 5 ka), implying either delayed initiation of gorge incision after final ice retreat from internal Alpine valleys at ca 12 ka, or post-glacial surface reburial of the gorge. Both modeling results and cosmogenic dating suggest that

  11. Numerical investigation of inspiratory airflow in a realistic model of the human tracheobronchial airways and a comparison with experimental results.

    PubMed

    Elcner, Jakub; Lizal, Frantisek; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav; Chovancova, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    In this article, the results of numerical simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and a comparison with experiments performed with phase Doppler anemometry are presented. The simulations and experiments were conducted in a realistic model of the human airways, which comprised the throat, trachea and tracheobronchial tree up to the fourth generation. A full inspiration/expiration breathing cycle was used with tidal volumes 0.5 and 1 L, which correspond to a sedentary regime and deep breath, respectively. The length of the entire breathing cycle was 4 s, with inspiration and expiration each lasting 2 s. As a boundary condition for the CFD simulations, experimentally obtained flow rate distribution in 10 terminal airways was used with zero pressure resistance at the throat inlet. CCM+ CFD code (Adapco) was used with an SST k-[Formula: see text] low-Reynolds Number RANS model. The total number of polyhedral control volumes was 2.6 million with a time step of 0.001 s. Comparisons were made at several points in eight cross sections selected according to experiments in the trachea and the left and right bronchi. The results agree well with experiments involving the oscillation (temporal relocation) of flow structures in the majority of the cross sections and individual local positions. Velocity field simulation in several cross sections shows a very unstable flow field, which originates in the tracheal laryngeal jet and propagates far downstream with the formation of separation zones in both left and right airways. The RANS simulation agrees with the experiments in almost all the cross sections and shows unstable local flow structures and a quantitatively acceptable solution for the time-averaged flow field. PMID:26163996

  12. Prognosis of Slagging and Fouling Properties of Coals Based on Widely Available Data and Results of Additional Measuraments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekhnovich, Alexander N.; Artemjeva, Natalja V.; Bogomolov, Vladimir V.; Shchelokov, Vyacheslav I.; Petukhov, Vasilij G.

    Ranging of coals according to the slagging properties of similar type and investigated coals could be made on the basis of the available reference data. However, to define the slagging and fouling properties of a random coal it is necessary to carry out additional laboratory research.

  13. Changes in lipid composition of Escherichia coli resulting from growth with organic solvents and with food additives.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, L O

    1977-01-01

    Cells of Escherichia coli contain an altered fatty acid and phospholipid composition when grown in the presence of sublethal concentrations of a variety of organic solvents and food additives. The diversity of compounds examined which caused these changes indicates that no single catabolic pathway is involved. Many of the observed changes are consistent with the hypothesis that cells adapt their membrane lipids to compensate for the presence of these compounds in the environment. Both sodium benzoate and calcium propionate caused the synthesis of unusual fatty acids. PMID:327934

  14. Accuracy of numerical functional transforms applied to derive Molière series terms and comparison with analytical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, N.; Okei, K.; Nakatsuka, T.

    Accuracies of numerical Fourier and Hankel transforms are examined with the Takahasi-Mori theory of error evaluation. The higher Moliere terms both for spatial and projected distributions derived by these methods agree very well with those derived analytically. The methods will be valuable to solve other transport problems concerning fast charged particles.

  15. On the Improvement of Numerical Weather Prediction by Assimilation of Hub Height Wind Information in Convection-Resulted Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Declair, Stefan; Stephan, Klaus; Potthast, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Determining the amount of weather dependent renewable energy is a demanding task for transmission system operators (TSOs). In the project EWeLiNE funded by the German government, the German Weather Service and the Fraunhofer Institute on Wind Energy and Energy System Technology strongly support the TSOs by developing innovative weather- and power forecasting models and tools for grid integration of weather dependent renewable energy. The key in the energy prediction process chain is the numerical weather prediction (NWP) system. With focus on wind energy, we face the model errors in the planetary boundary layer, which is characterized by strong spatial and temporal fluctuations in wind speed, to improve the basis of the weather dependent renewable energy prediction. Model data can be corrected by postprocessing techniques such as model output statistics and calibration using historical observational data. On the other hand, latest observations can be used in a preprocessing technique called data assimilation (DA). In DA, the model output from a previous time step is combined such with observational data, that the new model data for model integration initialization (analysis) fits best to the latest model data and the observational data as well. Therefore, model errors can be already reduced before the model integration. In this contribution, the results of an impact study are presented. A so-called OSSE (Observation Simulation System Experiment) is performed using the convective-resoluted COSMO-DE model of the German Weather Service and a 4D-DA technique, a Newtonian relaxation method also called nudging. Starting from a nature run (treated as the truth), conventional observations and artificial wind observations at hub height are generated. In a control run, the basic model setup of the nature run is slightly perturbed to drag the model away from the beforehand generated truth and a free forecast is computed based on the analysis using only conventional

  16. Additional results on palaeomagnetic stratigraphy of the Koobi Fora Formation, east of Lake Turkana (Lake Rudolf), Kenya

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.; Ndombi, J.W.M.; Cox, A.; Brock, A.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetostratigraphy of the hominid-bearing sediments exposed east of Lake Turkana has been strengthened by new palaeomagnetic results. Ages obtained from several tuffs by the 40Ar/39Ar method suggest an approxmate match between the observed magnetozones and the geomagnetic polarity time scale; however, the palaeomagnetic results are also compatible with a younger chronology suggested by conventional K-Ar dating of the KBS Tuff. ?? 1977 Nature Publishing Group.

  17. Space- and Time-Dependent Probabilities for Earthquake Fault Systems from Numerical Simulations: Feasibility Study and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aalsburg, Jordan; Rundle, John B.; Grant, Lisa B.; Rundle, Paul B.; Yakovlev, Gleb; Turcotte, Donald L.; Donnellan, Andrea; Tiampo, Kristy F.; Fernandez, Jose

    2010-08-01

    In weather forecasting, current and past observational data are routinely assimilated into numerical simulations to produce ensemble forecasts of future events in a process termed "model steering". Here we describe a similar approach that is motivated by analyses of previous forecasts of the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP). Our approach is adapted to the problem of earthquake forecasting using topologically realistic numerical simulations for the strike-slip fault system in California. By systematically comparing simulation data to observed paleoseismic data, a series of spatial probability density functions (PDFs) can be computed that describe the probable locations of future large earthquakes. We develop this approach and show examples of PDFs associated with magnitude M > 6.5 and M > 7.0 earthquakes in California.

  18. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I–VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI. PMID:25473496

  19. Final results of an experiment in operational forecasting of sea breeze thunderstorms using a mesoscale numerical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Walter A.; Pielke, Roger A.; Cotton, William R.; Keen, Cecil S.; Moon, Dennis A.

    1992-01-01

    Sea breeze thunderstorms during quiescent synoptic conductions account for 40 percent of Florida rainfall, and are the dominant feature of April-October weather at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). An effort is presently made to assess the feasibility of a mesoscale numerical model in improving the point-specific thunderstorm forecasting accuracy at the KSC, in the 2-12 hour time frame. Attention is given to the Applied Regional Atmospheric Modeling System.

  20. A re-examination of paleomagnetic results from NA Jurassic sedimentary rocks: Additional evidence for proposed Jurassic MUTO?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Kent and Irving, 2010; and Kent et al, 2015 propose a monster shift in the position of Jurassic (160 to 145 Ma) paleopoles for North America- defined by results from igneous rocks. This monster shift is likely an unrecognized true polar wander occurrence. Although subject to inclination error, results from sedimentary rocks from North America, if corrected for these effects, can be used to supplement the available data for this time period. Steiner (2003) reported results from 48 stratigraphic horizons sampled from the Callovian Summerville Fm, from NE New Mexico. A recalculated mean of these results yields a mean direction of D = 332, I = 39, n=48, k = 15, α95 = 5.4°. These data were analyzed for possible inclination error-although the dataset is small, the E-I results yielded a corrected I = 53. This yields a corrected paleopole for NA at ~165 Ma located at 67° N and 168° E.Paleomagnetic results from the Black Hills- Kilanowski (2002) for the Callovian Hulett Mbr of the Sundance Fm, and Gregiore (2001) the Oxfordian-Tithonian Morrison Fm (Gregiore, 2001) have previously been interpreted to represent Eocene-aged remagnetizations- due to the nearly exact coincidence between the in-situ pole positions of these Jurassic units with the Eocene pole for NA. Both of the tilt-corrected results for these units have high latitude poles (Sundance Fm: 79° N, 146° E; Morrison Fm: 89° N, 165° E). An E-I analysis of these data will be presented- using a provisional inclination error of 10°, corrected paleopoles are: (Sundance Fm: 76° N, 220° E; Morrison Fm: 77° N, 266° E). The Black Hills 165 Ma (Sundance Fm) and 145 Ma (Morrison Fm) poles, provisionally corrected for 10° inclination error- occur fairly close to the NA APWP proposed by Kent et al, 2015- using an updated set of results from kimberlites- the agreement between the Sundance Fm and the Triple-B (158 Ma) pole would be nearly exact with a slightly lesser inclination error. The Summerville Fm- which is

  1. Influence of a Dopamine Pathway Additive Genetic Efficacy Score on Smoking Cessation: Results from Two Randomized Clinical Trials of Bupropion

    PubMed Central

    David, Sean P.; Strong, David R.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Lancaster, Molly A.; McGeary, John E.; Munafò, Marcus R.; Bergen, Andrew W.; Swan, Gary E.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Conti, David V.; Brown, Richard A.; Lerman, Caryn; Niaura, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Aims To evaluate associations of treatment and an ‘additive genetic efficacy score’ (AGES) based on dopamine functional polymorphisms with time to first smoking lapse and point prevalence abstinence at end of treatment among participants enrolled in two randomized clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Design Double-blind pharmacogenetic efficacy trials randomizing participants to active or placebo bupropion. Study 1 also randomized participants to cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation treatment (CBT) or this treatment with CBT for depression. Study 2 provided standardized behavioural support. Setting Two Hospital-affiliated clinics (Study 1), and two University-affiliated clinics (Study 2). Participants N=792 self-identified white treatment-seeking smokers aged ≥18 years smoking ≥10 cigarettes per day over the last year. Measurements Age, gender, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, dopamine pathway genotypes (rs1800497 [ANKK1 E713K], rs4680 [COMT V158M], DRD4 exon 3 Variable Number of Tandem Repeats polymorphism [DRD4 VNTR], SLC6A3 3' VNTR) analyzed both separately and as part of an AGES, time to first lapse, and point prevalence abstinence at end of treatment. Findings Significant associations of the AGES (hazard ratio = 1.10, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.06–1.14], p=0.0099) and of the DRD4 VNTR (HR = 1.29, 95%CI 1.17–1.41, p=0.0073) were observed with time to first lapse. A significant AGES by pharmacotherapy interaction was observed (β [SE]=−0.18 [0.07], p=0.016), such that AGES predicted risk for time to first lapse only for individuals randomized to placebo. Conclusions A score based on functional polymorphisms relating to dopamine pathways appears to predict lapse to smoking following a quit attempt, and the association is mitigated in smokers using bupropion. PMID:23941313

  2. Rheological behavior of FM-9 solutions and correlation with flammability test results and interpretations. [fuel thickening additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, S. T. J.; Landel, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The rheological behavior of progressively shear thickening FM-9 solutions, a time-dependent shear thickening material with characteristics of threshold behavior, is investigated as part of a study of the rheological properties of antimisting jet fuel. Flammability test results and test configurations from various sources are evaluated. A correlation is obtained between the rheological behavior and the flammability tests such that, for a given system, such as a fixed solvent system and the FM-9 polymer system, the flammability criterion can be applied to a wide range of concentrations and temperatures.

  3. Additive reductions in zebrafish PRPS1 activity result in a spectrum of deficiencies modeling several human PRPS1-associated diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Wuhong; Xu, Lisha; Varshney, Gaurav K.; Carrington, Blake; Bishop, Kevin; Jones, MaryPat; Huang, Sunny C.; Idol, Jennifer; Pretorius, Pamela R.; Beirl, Alisha; Schimmenti, Lisa A.; Kindt, Katie S.; Sood, Raman; Burgess, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase-1 (PRPS1) is a key enzyme in nucleotide biosynthesis, and mutations in PRPS1 are found in several human diseases including nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-5, and Arts Syndrome. We utilized zebrafish as a model to confirm that mutations in PRPS1 result in phenotypic deficiencies in zebrafish similar to those in the associated human diseases. We found two paralogs in zebrafish, prps1a and prps1b and characterized each paralogous mutant individually as well as the double mutant fish. Zebrafish prps1a mutants and prps1a;prps1b double mutants showed similar morphological phenotypes with increasingly severe phenotypes as the number of mutant alleles increased. Phenotypes included smaller eyes and reduced hair cell numbers, consistent with the optic atrophy and hearing impairment observed in human patients. The double mutant also showed abnormal development of primary motor neurons, hair cell innervation, and reduced leukocytes, consistent with the neuropathy and recurrent infection of the human patients possessing the most severe reductions of PRPS1 activity. Further analyses indicated the phenotypes were associated with a prolonged cell cycle likely resulting from reduced nucleotide synthesis and energy production in the mutant embryos. We further demonstrated the phenotypes were caused by delays in the tissues most highly expressing the prps1 genes. PMID:27425195

  4. Additive reductions in zebrafish PRPS1 activity result in a spectrum of deficiencies modeling several human PRPS1-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Pei, Wuhong; Xu, Lisha; Varshney, Gaurav K; Carrington, Blake; Bishop, Kevin; Jones, MaryPat; Huang, Sunny C; Idol, Jennifer; Pretorius, Pamela R; Beirl, Alisha; Schimmenti, Lisa A; Kindt, Katie S; Sood, Raman; Burgess, Shawn M

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase-1 (PRPS1) is a key enzyme in nucleotide biosynthesis, and mutations in PRPS1 are found in several human diseases including nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-5, and Arts Syndrome. We utilized zebrafish as a model to confirm that mutations in PRPS1 result in phenotypic deficiencies in zebrafish similar to those in the associated human diseases. We found two paralogs in zebrafish, prps1a and prps1b and characterized each paralogous mutant individually as well as the double mutant fish. Zebrafish prps1a mutants and prps1a;prps1b double mutants showed similar morphological phenotypes with increasingly severe phenotypes as the number of mutant alleles increased. Phenotypes included smaller eyes and reduced hair cell numbers, consistent with the optic atrophy and hearing impairment observed in human patients. The double mutant also showed abnormal development of primary motor neurons, hair cell innervation, and reduced leukocytes, consistent with the neuropathy and recurrent infection of the human patients possessing the most severe reductions of PRPS1 activity. Further analyses indicated the phenotypes were associated with a prolonged cell cycle likely resulting from reduced nucleotide synthesis and energy production in the mutant embryos. We further demonstrated the phenotypes were caused by delays in the tissues most highly expressing the prps1 genes. PMID:27425195

  5. Thermodiffusion in concentrated ferrofluids: A review and current experimental and numerical results on non-magnetic thermodiffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprenger, Lisa; Lange, Adrian; Odenbach, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    Ferrofluids are colloidal suspensions consisting of magnetic nanoparticles dispersed in a carrier liquid. Their thermodiffusive behaviour is rather strong compared to molecular binary mixtures, leading to a Soret coefficient (ST) of 0.16 K-1. Former experiments with dilute magnetic fluids have been done with thermogravitational columns or horizontal thermodiffusion cells by different research groups. Considering the horizontal thermodiffusion cell, a former analytical approach has been used to solve the phenomenological diffusion equation in one dimension assuming a constant concentration gradient over the cell's height. The current experimental work is based on the horizontal separation cell and emphasises the comparison of the concentration development in different concentrated magnetic fluids and at different temperature gradients. The ferrofluid investigated is the kerosene-based EMG905 (Ferrotec) to be compared with the APG513A (Ferrotec), both containing magnetite nanoparticles. The experiments prove that the separation process linearly depends on the temperature gradient and that a constant concentration gradient develops in the setup due to the separation. Analytical one dimensional and numerical three dimensional approaches to solve the diffusion equation are derived to be compared with the solution used so far for dilute fluids to see if formerly made assumptions also hold for higher concentrated fluids. Both, the analytical and numerical solutions, either in a phenomenological or a thermodynamic description, are able to reproduce the separation signal gained from the experiments. The Soret coefficient can then be determined to 0.184 K-1 in the analytical case and 0.29 K-1 in the numerical case. Former theoretical approaches for dilute magnetic fluids underestimate the strength of the separation in the case of a concentrated ferrofluid.

  6. Thermal analysis of the vortex tube based thermocycler for fast DNA amplification: Experimental and two-dimensional numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, V.; Whitney, Scott E.; Ebmeier, Ryan J.; Padhye, Nisha V.; Nelson, Michael; Viljoen, Hendrik J.; Gogos, George

    2006-09-01

    In this article, experimental and numerical analyses to investigate the thermal control of an innovative vortex tube based polymerase chain reaction (VT-PCR) thermocycler are described. VT-PCR is capable of rapid DNA amplification and real-time optical detection. The device rapidly cycles six 20μl 96bp λ-DNA samples between the PCR stages (denaturation, annealing, and elongation) for 30cycles in approximately 6min. Two-dimensional numerical simulations have been carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT v.6.2.16. Experiments and CFD simulations have been carried out to measure/predict the temperature variation between the samples and within each sample. Heat transfer rate (primarily dictated by the temperature differences between the samples and the external air heating or cooling them) governs the temperature distribution between and within the samples. Temperature variation between and within the samples during the denaturation stage has been quite uniform (maximum variation around ±0.5 and 1.6°C, respectively). During cooling, by adjusting the cold release valves in the VT-PCR during some stage of cooling, the heat transfer rate has been controlled. Improved thermal control, which increases the efficiency of the PCR process, has been obtained both experimentally and numerically by slightly decreasing the rate of cooling. Thus, almost uniform temperature distribution between and within the samples (within 1°C) has been attained for the annealing stage as well. It is shown that the VT-PCR is a fully functional PCR machine capable of amplifying specific DNA target sequences in less time than conventional PCR devices.

  7. Thermodiffusion in concentrated ferrofluids: A review and current experimental and numerical results on non-magnetic thermodiffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sprenger, Lisa Lange, Adrian; Odenbach, Stefan

    2013-12-15

    Ferrofluids are colloidal suspensions consisting of magnetic nanoparticles dispersed in a carrier liquid. Their thermodiffusive behaviour is rather strong compared to molecular binary mixtures, leading to a Soret coefficient (S{sub T}) of 0.16 K{sup −1}. Former experiments with dilute magnetic fluids have been done with thermogravitational columns or horizontal thermodiffusion cells by different research groups. Considering the horizontal thermodiffusion cell, a former analytical approach has been used to solve the phenomenological diffusion equation in one dimension assuming a constant concentration gradient over the cell's height. The current experimental work is based on the horizontal separation cell and emphasises the comparison of the concentration development in different concentrated magnetic fluids and at different temperature gradients. The ferrofluid investigated is the kerosene-based EMG905 (Ferrotec) to be compared with the APG513A (Ferrotec), both containing magnetite nanoparticles. The experiments prove that the separation process linearly depends on the temperature gradient and that a constant concentration gradient develops in the setup due to the separation. Analytical one dimensional and numerical three dimensional approaches to solve the diffusion equation are derived to be compared with the solution used so far for dilute fluids to see if formerly made assumptions also hold for higher concentrated fluids. Both, the analytical and numerical solutions, either in a phenomenological or a thermodynamic description, are able to reproduce the separation signal gained from the experiments. The Soret coefficient can then be determined to 0.184 K{sup −1} in the analytical case and 0.29 K{sup −1} in the numerical case. Former theoretical approaches for dilute magnetic fluids underestimate the strength of the separation in the case of a concentrated ferrofluid.

  8. On the accuracy of thickness measurements in impact-echo testing of finite concrete specimens--numerical and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Frank; Wiggenhauser, Herbert; Lausch, Regine

    2004-04-01

    In impact-echo testing of finite concrete structures, reflections of Rayleigh and body waves from lateral boundaries significantly affect time-domain signals and spectra. In the present paper we demonstrate by numerical simulations and experimental measurements at a concrete specimen that these reflections can lead to systematic errors in thickness determination. These effects depend not only on the dimensions of the specimen, but also on the location of the actual measuring point and on the duration of the detected time-domain signal. PMID:15047403

  9. Zoledronate prevents lactation induced bone loss and results in additional post-lactation bone mass in mice.

    PubMed

    Wendelboe, Mette Høegh; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Henriksen, Kim; Vegger, Jens Bay; Brüel, Annemarie

    2016-06-01

    In rodents, lactation is associated with a considerable and very rapid bone loss, which almost completely recovers after weaning. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the bisphosphonate Zoledronate (Zln) can inhibit lactation induced bone loss, and if Zln interferes with recovery of bone mass after lactation has ceased. Seventy-six 10-weeks-old NMRI mice were divided into the following groups: Baseline, Pregnant, Lactation, Lactation+Zln, Recovery, Recovery+Zln, and Virgin Control (age-matched). The lactation period was 12days, then the pups were removed, and thereafter recovery took place for 28days. Zln, 100μg/kg, was given s.c. on the day of delivery, and again 4 and 8days later. Mechanical testing, μCT, and dynamic histomorphometry were performed. At L4, lactation resulted in a substantial loss of bone strength (-55% vs. Pregnant, p<0.01), BV/TV (-40% vs. Pregnant, p<0.01), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (-29% vs. Pregnant, p<0.001). Treatment with Zln completely prevented lactation induced loss of bone strength, BV/TV, and Tb.Th at L4. Full recovery of micro-architectural and mechanical properties was found 28days after weaning in vehicle-treated mice. Interestingly, the recovery group treated with Zln during the lactation period had higher BV/TV (+45%, p<0.01) and Tb.Th (+16%, p<0.05) compared with virgin controls. Similar results were found at the proximal tibia and femur. This indicates that Zln did not interfere with the bone formation taking place after weaning. On this background, we conclude that post-lactation bone formation is not dependent on a preceding lactation induced bone loss. PMID:27021151

  10. A numerical experiment that provides new results regarding the inception of separation in the flow around a circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamataris, Nikolaos; Liakos, Anastasios

    2015-11-01

    The exact value of the Reynolds number regarding the inception of separation in the flow around a circular cylinder is still a matter of research. This work connects the inception of separation with the calculation of a positive pressure gradient around the circumference of the cylinder. The hypothesis is that inception of separation occurs when the pressure gradient becomes positive around the circumference. From the most cited laboratory experiments that have dealt with that subject of inception of separation only Thom has measured the pressure gradient there at very low Reynolds numbers (up to Re=3.5). For this reason, the experimental conditions of his tunnel are simulated in a new numerical experiment. The full Navier Stokes equations in both two and three dimensions are solved with a home made code that utilizes Galerkin finite elements. In the two dimensional numerical experiment, inception of separation is observed at Re=4.3, which is the lowest Reynolds number where inception has been reported computationally. Currently, the three dimensional experiment is under way, in order to compare if there are effects of three dimensional theory of separation in the conditions of Thom's experiments.

  11. Numerical predictions of the thermal behaviour and resultant effects of grouting cements while setting prosthetic components in bone.

    PubMed

    Quarini, G L; Learmonth, I D; Gheduzzi, S

    2006-07-01

    Acrylic cements are commonly used to attach prosthetic components in joint replacement surgery. The cements set in short periods of time by a complex polymerization of initially liquid monomer compounds into solid structures with accompanying significant heat release. Two main problems arise from this form of fixation: the first is the potential damage caused by the temperature excursion, and the second is incomplete reaction leaving active monomer compounds, which can potentially be slowly released into the patient. This paper presents a numerical model predicting the temperature-time history in an idealized prosthetic-cement-bone system. Using polymerization kinetics equations from the literature, the degree of polymerization is predicted, which is found to be very dependent on the thermal history of the setting process. Using medical literature, predictions for the degree of thermal bone necrosis are also made. The model is used to identify the critical parameters controlling thermal and unreacted monomer distributions. PMID:16898219

  12. Numerical simulations - Some results for the 2- and 3-D Hubbard models and a 2-D electron phonon model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scalapino, D. J.; Sugar, R. L.; White, S. R.; Bickers, N. E.; Scalettar, R. T.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations on the half-filled three-dimensional Hubbard model clearly show the onset of Neel order. Simulations of the two-dimensional electron-phonon Holstein model show the competition between the formation of a Peierls-CDW state and a superconducting state. However, the behavior of the partly filled two-dimensional Hubbard model is more difficult to determine. At half-filling, the antiferromagnetic correlations grow as T is reduced. Doping away from half-filling suppresses these correlations, and it is found that there is a weak attractive pairing interaction in the d-wave channel. However, the strength of the pair field susceptibility is weak at the temperatures and lattice sizes that have been simulated, and the nature of the low-temperature state of the nearly half-filled Hubbard model remains open.

  13. Radiative Transfer Methods: new exact results for testing the accuracy of the ALI numerical method for a stellar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevallier, L.

    2010-11-01

    Tests are presented of the 1D Accelerated Lambda Iteration method, which is widely used for solving the radiative transfer equation for a stellar atmosphere. We use our ARTY code as a reference solution and tables for these tests are provided. We model a static idealized stellar atmosphere, which is illuminated on its inner face and where internal sources are distributed with weak or strong gradients. This is an extension of published tests for a slab without incident radiation and gradients. Typical physical conditions for the continuum radiation and spectral lines are used, as well as typical values for the numerical parameters in order to reach a 1% accuracy. It is shown that the method is able to reach such an accuracy for most cases but the spatial discretization has to be refined for strong gradients and spectral lines, beyond the scope of realistic stellar atmospheres models. Discussion is provided on faster methods.

  14. Ephemeral liquid water at the surface of the martian North Polar Residual Cap: Results of numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, Anna; Czechowski, Leszek; Velbel, Michael A.

    2015-12-01

    Gypsum, a mineral that requires water to form, is common on the surface of Mars. Most of it originated before 3.5 Gyr when the Red Planet was more humid than now. However, occurrences of gypsum dune deposits around the North Polar Residual Cap (NPRC) seem to be surprisingly young: late Amazonian in age. This shows that liquid water was present on Mars even at times when surface conditions were as cold and dry as the present-day. A recently proposed mechanism for gypsum formation involves weathering of dust within ice (e.g., Niles, P.B., Michalski, J. [2009]. Nat. Geosci. 2, 215-220.). However, none of the previous studies have determined if this process is possible under current martian conditions. Here, we use numerical modelling of heat transfer to show that during the warmest days of the summer, solar irradiation may be sufficient to melt pure water ice located below a layer of dark dust particles (albedo ⩽ 0.13) lying on the steepest sections of the equator-facing slopes of the spiral troughs within martian NPRC. During the times of high irradiance at the north pole (every 51 ka; caused by variation of orbital and rotational parameters of Mars e.g., Laskar, J. et al. [2002]. Nature 419, 375-377.) this process could have taken place over larger parts of the spiral troughs. The existence of small amounts of liquid water close to the surface, even under current martian conditions, fulfils one of the main requirements necessary to explain the formation of the extensive gypsum deposits around the NPRC. It also changes our understanding of the degree of current geological activity on Mars and has important implications for estimating the astrobiological potential of Mars.

  15. A comparison of the predictions of a simple kinetic theory with experimental and numerical results for a vibrated granular bed consisting of nearly elastic particles of two sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildman, R. D.; Jenkins, J. T.; Krouskop, P. E.; Talbot, J.

    2006-07-01

    A comparison of the predictions of a simple kinetic theory with experimental and numerical results for a vibrated granular bed consisting of nearly elastic particles of two sizes has been performed. The results show good agreement between the data sets for a range of numbers of each size of particle, and are particularly good for particle beds containing similar proportions of each species. The agreement suggests that such a model may be a good starting point for describing polydisperse systems of granular flows.

  16. Competing TCE and cis-DCE degradation kinetics by zero-valent iron-experimental results and numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Dirk; Köber, Ralf; Dahmke, Andreas

    2003-09-01

    The successful dechlorination of mixtures of chlorinated hydrocarbons with zero-valent metals requires information concerning the kinetics of simultaneous degradation of different contaminants. This includes intraspecies competitive effects (loading of the reactive iron surface by a single contaminant) as well as interspecies competition of several contaminants for the reactive sites available. In columns packed with zero-valent iron, the degradation behaviour of trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-dichloroethylene (DCE) and mixtures of both was measured in order to investigate interspecies competition. Although a decreasing rate of dechlorination is to be expected, when several degradable substances compete for the reactive sites on the iron surface, TCE degradation is nearly unaffected by the presence of cis-DCE. In contrast, cis-DCE degradation rates decrease significantly when TCE is added. A new modelling approach is developed in order to identify and quantify the observed competitive effects. The numerical model TBC (Transport, Biochemistry and Chemistry, Schäfer et al., 1998a) is used to describe adsorption, desorption and dechlorination in a mechanistic way. Adsorption and degradation of a contaminant based on a limited number of reactive sites leads to a combined zero- and first-order degradation kinetics for high and low concentrations, respectively. The adsorption of several contaminants with different sorption parameters to a limited reactive surface causes interspecies competition. The reaction scheme and the parameters required are successfully transferred from Arnold and Roberts (2000b) to the model TBC. The degradation behaviour of the mixed contamination observed in the column experiments can be related to the adsorption properties of TCE and cis-DCE. By predicting the degradation of the single substances TCE and cis-DCE as well as mixtures of both, the calibrated model is used to investigate the effects of interspecies competition on the design of

  17. Competing TCE and cis-DCE degradation kinetics by zero-valent iron—experimental results and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Dirk; Köber, Ralf; Dahmke, Andreas

    2003-09-01

    The successful dechlorination of mixtures of chlorinated hydrocarbons with zero-valent metals requires information concerning the kinetics of simultaneous degradation of different contaminants. This includes intraspecies competitive effects (loading of the reactive iron surface by a single contaminant) as well as interspecies competition of several contaminants for the reactive sites available. In columns packed with zero-valent iron, the degradation behaviour of trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-dichloroethylene (DCE) and mixtures of both was measured in order to investigate interspecies competition. Although a decreasing rate of dechlorination is to be expected, when several degradable substances compete for the reactive sites on the iron surface, TCE degradation is nearly unaffected by the presence of cis-DCE. In contrast, cis-DCE degradation rates decrease significantly when TCE is added. A new modelling approach is developed in order to identify and quantify the observed competitive effects. The numerical model TBC (Transport, Biochemistry and Chemistry, Schäfer et al., 1998a) is used to describe adsorption, desorption and dechlorination in a mechanistic way. Adsorption and degradation of a contaminant based on a limited number of reactive sites leads to a combined zero- and first-order degradation kinetics for high and low concentrations, respectively. The adsorption of several contaminants with different sorption parameters to a limited reactive surface causes interspecies competition. The reaction scheme and the parameters required are successfully transferred from Arnold and Roberts (2000b) to the model TBC. The degradation behaviour of the mixed contamination observed in the column experiments can be related to the adsorption properties of TCE and cis-DCE. By predicting the degradation of the single substances TCE and cis-DCE as well as mixtures of both, the calibrated model is used to investigate the effects of interspecies competition on the design of

  18. Analysis of the global free infra-gravity wave climate for the SWOT mission, and preliminary results of numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, A.; Aucan, J.; Ardhuin, F.

    2012-12-01

    All sea level variations of the order of 1 cm at scales under 30 km are of great interest for the future Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission. That satellite should provide high-resolution maps of the sea surface height for analysis of meso to sub-mesoscale currents, but that will require a filtering of all gravity wave motions in the data. Free infragravity waves (FIGWs) are generated and radiate offshore when swells and/or wind seas and their associated bound infragravity waves impact exposed coastlines. Free infragravity waves have dominant periods comprised between 1 and 10 minutes and horizontal wavelengths of up to tens of kilometers. Given the length scales of the infragravity waves wavelength and amplitude, the infragravity wave field will can a significant fraction the signal measured by the future SWOT mission. In this study, we analyze the data from recovered bottom pressure recorders of the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) program. This analysis includes data spanning several years between 2006 and 2010, from stations at different latitudes in the North and South Pacific, the North Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. We present and discuss the following conclusions: (1) The amplitude of free infragravity waves can reach several centimeters, higher than the precision sought for the SWOT mission. (2) The free infragravity signal is higher in the Eastern North Pacific than in the Western North Pacific, possibly due to smaller incident swell and seas impacting the nearby coastlines. (3) Free infragravity waves are higher in the North Pacific than in the North Atlantic, possibly owing to different average continental shelves configurations in the two basins. (4) There is a clear seasonal cycle at the high latitudes North Atlantic and Pacific stations that is much less pronounced or absent at the tropical stations, consistent with the generation mechanism of free infragravity waves. Our numerical model

  19. Evaluation of ground-penetrating radar to detect free-phase hydrocarbons in fractured rocks - Results of numerical modeling and physical experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W., Jr.; Buursink, M.L.; Haeni, F.P.; Versteeg, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The suitability of common-offset ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to detect free-phase hydrocarbons in bedrock fractures was evaluated using numerical modeling and physical experiments. The results of one- and two-dimensional numerical modeling at 100 megahertz indicate that GPR reflection amplitudes are relatively insensitive to fracture apertures ranging from 1 to 4 mm. The numerical modeling and physical experiments indicate that differences in the fluids that fill fractures significantly affect the amplitude and the polarity of electromagnetic waves reflected by subhorizontal fractures. Air-filled and hydrocarbon-filled fractures generate low-amplitude reflections that are in-phase with the transmitted pulse. Water-filled fractures create reflections with greater amplitude and opposite polarity than those reflections created by air-filled or hydrocarbon-filled fractures. The results from the numerical modeling and physical experiments demonstrate it is possible to distinguish water-filled fracture reflections from air- or hydrocarbon-filled fracture reflections, nevertheless subsurface heterogeneity, antenna coupling changes, and other sources of noise will likely make it difficult to observe these changes in GPR field data. This indicates that the routine application of common-offset GPR reflection methods for detection of hydrocarbon-filled fractures will be problematic. Ideal cases will require appropriately processed, high-quality GPR data, ground-truth information, and detailed knowledge of subsurface physical properties. Conversely, the sensitivity of GPR methods to changes in subsurface physical properties as demonstrated by the numerical and experimental results suggests the potential of using GPR methods as a monitoring tool. GPR methods may be suited for monitoring pumping and tracer tests, changes in site hydrologic conditions, and remediation activities.The suitability of common-offset ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to detect free-phase hydrocarbons

  20. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Second topical report, Results of bench-scale screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-08-13

    ADA Technologies, Inc. (ADA) has completed the bench-scale testing phase of a program to evaluate additives that will improve the collection of fine particles in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A bench-scale ESP was installed at the Consolidation Coal Company (CONSOL) combustion research and development facility in Library, PA in order to conduct the evaluation. During a two-week test, four candidate additives were injected into the flue gas ahead of a 100 acfm ESP to determine the effect on fly ash collectability. Two additives were found to reduce the emissions from the ESP. Additives ``C`` and ``D`` performed better than initially anticipated -- reducing emissions initially by 17%. Emissions were reduced by 27% after the ESP was modified by the installation of baffles to minimize sneakage. In addition to the measured improvements in performance, no detrimental effects (i.e., electrode fouling) were observed in the operation of the ESP during the testing. The measures of success identified for the bench-scale phase of the program have been surpassed. Since the additives will affect only non-rapping reentrainment particle losses, it is expected that an even greater improvement in particle collection will be observed in larger-scale ESPs. Therefore, positive results are anticipated during the pilot-scale phase of the program and during a future full-scale demonstration test. A preliminary economic analysis was performed to evaluate the cost of the additive process and to compare its costs against alternative means for reducing emissions from ESPs. The results show that conditioning with additive C at a rate of 0.05% (wt. additive to wt. fly ash) is much less expensive than adding new ESP capacity, and more cost competitive than existing chemical conditioning processes. Preliminary chemical analysis of conditioned fly ash shows that it passes the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure criteria.

  1. Generalized Linear Mixed Models for Binary Data: Are Matching Results from Penalized Quasi-Likelihood and Numerical Integration Less Biased?

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Andrea; Platt, Robert; Atherton, Juli

    2014-01-01

    Background Over time, adaptive Gaussian Hermite quadrature (QUAD) has become the preferred method for estimating generalized linear mixed models with binary outcomes. However, penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL) is still used frequently. In this work, we systematically evaluated whether matching results from PQL and QUAD indicate less bias in estimated regression coefficients and variance parameters via simulation. Methods We performed a simulation study in which we varied the size of the data set, probability of the outcome, variance of the random effect, number of clusters and number of subjects per cluster, etc. We estimated bias in the regression coefficients, odds ratios and variance parameters as estimated via PQL and QUAD. We ascertained if similarity of estimated regression coefficients, odds ratios and variance parameters predicted less bias. Results Overall, we found that the absolute percent bias of the odds ratio estimated via PQL or QUAD increased as the PQL- and QUAD-estimated odds ratios became more discrepant, though results varied markedly depending on the characteristics of the dataset Conclusions Given how markedly results varied depending on data set characteristics, specifying a rule above which indicated biased results proved impossible. This work suggests that comparing results from generalized linear mixed models estimated via PQL and QUAD is a worthwhile exercise for regression coefficients and variance components obtained via QUAD, in situations where PQL is known to give reasonable results. PMID:24416249

  2. Direct Numerical Simulation of Liquid Nozzle Spray with Comparison to Shadowgraphy and X-Ray Computed Tomography Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Poppel, Bret; Owkes, Mark; Nelson, Thomas; Lee, Zachary; Sowell, Tyler; Benson, Michael; Vasquez Guzman, Pablo; Fahrig, Rebecca; Eaton, John; Kurman, Matthew; Kweon, Chol-Bum; Bravo, Luis

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we present high-fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results of liquid fuel injection from a pressure-swirl atomizer and compare the simulations to experimental results obtained using both shadowgraphy and phase-averaged X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans. The CFD and experimental results focus on the dense near-nozzle region to identify the dominant mechanisms of breakup during primary atomization. Simulations are performed using the NGA code of Desjardins et al (JCP 227 (2008)) and employ the volume of fluid (VOF) method proposed by Owkes and Desjardins (JCP 270 (2013)), a second order accurate, un-split, conservative, three-dimensional VOF scheme providing second order density fluxes and capable of robust and accurate high density ratio simulations. Qualitative features and quantitative statistics are assessed and compared for the simulation and experimental results, including the onset of atomization, spray cone angle, and drop size and distribution.

  3. Comparison of numerical simulation results for transport and thermodynamic properties of the solid fuels combustion products with experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmelkov, Yuriy; Samujlov, Eugueny

    2012-04-01

    Comparison of calculation results of transport properties of the solid fuels combustion products was made with known experimental data. Calculation was made by means of the modified program TETRAN developed in G.M. Krzhizhanovsky Power Engineering Institute. The calculation was spent with chemical reactions and phase transformations occurring during combustion. Also ionization of products of solid fuels combustion products at high temperatures was taken into account. In the capacity of fuels various Russian coals and some other solid fuels were considered. As a result of density, viscosity and heat conductivity calculation of a gas phase of solid fuels combustion products the data has been obtained in a range of temperatures 500-20000 K. This comparison has shown good convergence of calculation results with experiment.

  4. Influence of binder properties, method of addition, powder type and operating conditions on fluid-bed melt granulation and resulting tablet properties.

    PubMed

    Abberger, T

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate melt granulation in a laboratory scale fluid-bed granulator with respect to granule growth, granule properties and resulting tablet properties. The parameters investigated were method of addition of PEG (spray-on or addition as flakes), binder concentration, PEG type (3000, 4000 and 6000, sprayed-on), size (PEG 4000, added as three different sized flakes), powder type (two different sized lactose types and corn starch) and operating conditions (volume air flow and heating temperature). Addition of binder as flakes led to layering as a growth mechanism when the size of the flakes was high. Coalescence occurred when the size was low. Coalescence also occurred when spraying was the method of addition. Due to the greater viscosity of the PEG 6000 melt it produced bigger granules than 3000 or 4000. The influence of volume air flow was moderate and the influence of heating temperature in the range of 70-90 degrees C was very low with both methods of addition. The disintegration time of tablets from granules where PEG was added as flakes was shorter than from granules where PEG was sprayed-on. The latter method of binder addition led to tablets which did not disintegrate but eroded. This was apparently caused by formation of a binder matrix, which could not be destroyed by the disintegrant. PMID:11802658

  5. On the role of numerical simulations in studies of reduced gravity-induced physiological effects in humans. Results from NELME.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni

    Computer simulations are becoming a promising research line of work, as physiological models become more and more sophisticated and reliable. Technological advances in state-of-the-art hardware technology and software allow nowadays for better and more accurate simulations of complex phenomena, such as the response of the human cardiovascular system to long-term exposure to microgravity. Experimental data for long-term missions are difficult to achieve and reproduce, therefore the predictions of computer simulations are of a major importance in this field. Our approach is based on a previous model developed and implemented in our laboratory (NELME: Numercial Evaluation of Long-term Microgravity Effects). The software simulates the behaviour of the cardiovascular system and different human organs, has a modular archi-tecture, and allows to introduce perturbations such as physical exercise or countermeasures. The implementation is based on a complex electrical-like model of this control system, using inexpensive development frameworks, and has been tested and validated with the available experimental data. The objective of this work is to analyse and simulate long-term effects and gender differences when individuals are exposed to long-term microgravity. Risk probability of a health impairement which may put in jeopardy a long-term mission is also evaluated. . Gender differences have been implemented for this specific work, as an adjustment of a number of parameters that are included in the model. Women versus men physiological differences have been therefore taken into account, based upon estimations from the physiology bibliography. A number of simulations have been carried out for long-term exposure to microgravity. Gravity varying continuosly from Earth-based to zero, and time exposure are the two main variables involved in the construction of results, including responses to patterns of physical aerobic ex-ercise and thermal stress simulating an extra

  6. Viscous effects in rapidly rotating stars with application to white-dwarf models. III - Further numerical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durisen, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Improved viscous evolutionary sequences of differentially rotating, axisymmetric, nonmagnetic, zero-temperature white-dwarf models are constructed using the relativistically corrected degenerate electron viscosity. The results support the earlier conclusion that angular momentum transport due to viscosity does not lead to overall uniform rotation in many interesting cases. Qualitatively different behaviors are obtained, depending on how the total mass M and angular momentum J compare with the M and J values for which uniformly rotating models exist. Evolutions roughly determine the region in M and J for which models with a particular initial angular momentum distribution can reach carbon-ignition densities in 10 b.y. Such models may represent Type I supernova precursors.

  7. Numerical study of the SSME nozzle flow fields during transient operations: A comparison of the animated results with test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Dumas, Catherine

    1993-07-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been applied to study the transient flow phenomena of the nozzle and exhaust plume of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), fired at sea level. The CFD model is a time accurate, pressure based, reactive flow solver. A six-species hydrogen/oxygen equilibrium chemistry is used to describe the chemical-thermodynamics. An adaptive upwinding scheme is employed for the spatial discretization, and a predictor, multiple corrector method is used for the temporal solution. Both engine start-up and shut-down processes were simulated. The elapse time is approximately five seconds for both cases. The computed results were animated and compared with the test. The images for the animation were created with PLOT3D and FAST and then animated with ABEKAS. The hysteresis effects, and the issues of free-shock separation, restricted-shock separation and the end-effects were addressed.

  8. Numerical study of the SSME nozzle flow fields during transient operations: A comparison of the animated results with test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Dumas, Catherine

    1993-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been applied to study the transient flow phenomena of the nozzle and exhaust plume of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), fired at sea level. The CFD model is a time accurate, pressure based, reactive flow solver. A six-species hydrogen/oxygen equilibrium chemistry is used to describe the chemical-thermodynamics. An adaptive upwinding scheme is employed for the spatial discretization, and a predictor, multiple corrector method is used for the temporal solution. Both engine start-up and shut-down processes were simulated. The elapse time is approximately five seconds for both cases. The computed results were animated and compared with the test. The images for the animation were created with PLOT3D and FAST and then animated with ABEKAS. The hysteresis effects, and the issues of free-shock separation, restricted-shock separation and the end-effects were addressed.

  9. Computer code for scattering from impedance bodies of revolution. Part 3: Surface impedance with s and phi variation. Analytical and numerical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uslenghi, Piergiorgio L. E.; Laxpati, Sharad R.; Kawalko, Stephen F.

    1993-01-01

    The third phase of the development of the computer codes for scattering by coated bodies that has been part of an ongoing effort in the Electromagnetics Laboratory of the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department at the University of Illinois at Chicago is described. The work reported discusses the analytical and numerical results for the scattering of an obliquely incident plane wave by impedance bodies of revolution with phi variation of the surface impedance. Integral equation formulation of the problem is considered. All three types of integral equations, electric field, magnetic field, and combined field, are considered. These equations are solved numerically via the method of moments with parametric elements. Both TE and TM polarization of the incident plane wave are considered. The surface impedance is allowed to vary along both the profile of the scatterer and in the phi direction. Computer code developed for this purpose determines the electric surface current as well as the bistatic radar cross section. The results obtained with this code were validated by comparing the results with available results for specific scatterers such as the perfectly conducting sphere. Results for the cone-sphere and cone-cylinder-sphere for the case of an axially incident plane were validated by comparing the results with the results with those obtained in the first phase of this project. Results for body of revolution scatterers with an abrupt change in the surface impedance along both the profile of the scatterer and the phi direction are presented.

  10. Multifractal analysis of heart rate variability and laser Doppler flowmetry fluctuations:comparison of results from different numerical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humeau, Anne; Buard, Benjamin; Mahé, Guillaume; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Rousseau, David; Abraham, Pierre

    2010-10-01

    To contribute to the understanding of the complex dynamics in the cardiovascular system (CVS), the central CVS has previously been analyzed through multifractal analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) signals that were shown to bring useful contributions. Similar approaches for the peripheral CVS through the analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals are comparatively very recent. In this direction, we propose here a study of the peripheral CVS through a multifractal analysis of LDF fluctuations, together with a comparison of the results with those obtained on HRV fluctuations simultaneously recorded. To perform these investigations concerning the biophysics of the CVS, first we have to address the problem of selecting a suitable methodology for multifractal analysis, allowing us to extract meaningful interpretations on biophysical signals. For this purpose, we test four existing methodologies of multifractal analysis. We also present a comparison of their applicability and interpretability when implemented on both simulated multifractal signals of reference and on experimental signals from the CVS. One essential outcome of the study is that the multifractal properties observed from both the LDF fluctuations (peripheral CVS) and the HRV fluctuations (central CVS) appear very close and similar over the studied range of scales relevant to physiology.

  11. Coupling of charged particles via Coulombic interactions: Numerical simulations and resultant kappa-like velocity space distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randol, Brent M.; Christian, Eric R.

    2016-03-01

    A parametric study is performed using the electrostatic simulations of Randol and Christian in which the number density, n, and initial thermal speed, θ, are varied. The range of parameters covers an extremely broad plasma regime, all the way from the very weak coupling of space plasmas to the very strong coupling of solid plasmas. The first result is that simulations at the same ΓD, where ΓD (∝ n1/3θ-2) is the plasma coupling parameter, but at different combinations of n and θ, behave exactly the same. As a function of ΓD, the form of p(v), the velocity distribution function of v, the magnitude of v, the velocity vector, is studied. For intermediate to high ΓD, heating is observed in p(v) that obeys conservation of energy, and a suprathermal tail is formed, with a spectral index that depends on ΓD. For strong coupling (ΓD≫1), the form of the tail is v-5, consistent with the findings of Randol and Christian). For weak coupling (ΓD≪1), no acceleration or heating occurs, as there is no free energy. The dependence on N, the number of particles in the simulation, is also explored. There is a subtle dependence in the index of the tail, such that v-5 appears to be the N→∞ limit.

  12. SLAC E155 and E155x Numeric Data Results and Data Plots: Nucleon Spin Structure Functions

    DOE Data Explorer

    The nucleon spin structure functions g1 and g2 are important tools for testing models of nucleon structure and QCD. Experiments at CERN, DESY, and SLAC have measured g1 and g2 using deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons on polarized nucleon targets. The results of these experiments have established that the quark component of the nucleon helicity is much smaller than naive quark-parton model predictions. The Bjorken sum rule has been confirmed within the uncertainties of experiment and theory. The experiment E155 at SLAC collected data in March and April of 1997. Approximately 170 million scattered electron events were recorded to tape. (Along with several billion inclusive hadron events.) The data were collected using three independent fixed-angle magnetic spectrometers, at approximately 2.75, 5.5, and 10.5 degrees. The momentum acceptance of the 2.75 and 5.5 degree spectrometers ranged from 10 to 40 GeV, with momentum resolution of 2-4%. The 10.5 degree spectrometer, new for E155, accepted events of 7 GeV to 20 GeV. Each spectrometer used threshold gas Cerenkov counters (for particle ID), a segmented lead-glass calorimeter (for energy measurement and particle ID), and plastic scintillator hodoscopes (for tracking and momentum measurement). The polarized targets used for E155 were 15NH3 and 6LiD, as targets for measuring the proton and deuteron spin structure functions respectively. Experiment E155x recently concluded a successful two-month run at SLAC. The experiment was designed to measure the transverse spin structure functions of the proton and deuteron. The E155 target was also recently in use at TJNAF's Hall C (E93-026) and was returned to SLAC for E155x. E155x hopes to reduce the world data set errors on g2 by a factor of three. [Copied from http://www.slac.stanford.edu/exp/e155/e155_nickeltour.html, an information summary linked off the E155 home page at http://www.slac.stanford.edu/exp/e155/e155_home.html. The extension run, E155x, also makes

  13. On the energy dependence of the radial diffusion coefficient and spectra of inner radiation belt particles - Analytic solutions and comparison with numerical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphalen, H.; Spjeldvik, W. N.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical method by which the energy dependence of the radial diffusion coefficient may be deduced from spectral observations of the particle population at the inner edge of the earth's radiation belts is presented. This region has previously been analyzed with numerical techniques; in this report an analytical treatment that illustrates characteristic limiting cases in the L shell range where the time scale of Coulomb losses is substantially shorter than that of radial diffusion (L approximately 1-2) is given. It is demonstrated both analytically and numerically that the particle spectra there are shaped by the energy dependence of the radial diffusion coefficient regardless of the spectral shapes of the particle populations diffusing inward from the outer radiation zone, so that from observed spectra the energy dependence of the diffusion coefficient can be determined. To insure realistic simulations, inner zone data obtained from experiments on the DIAL, AZUR, and ESRO 2 spacecraft have been used as boundary conditions. Excellent agreement between analytic and numerical results is reported.

  14. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  15. Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.

  16. Very high temperature laminar flow of a gas through the entrance region of a cooled tube - Numerical calculations and experimental results.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.

    1972-01-01

    The laminar flow equations in differential form are solved numerically on a digital computer for flow of a very high temperature gas through the entrance region of an externally cooled tube. The solution method is described and calculations are carried out in conjunction with experimental measurements. The agreement with experiment is good, with the result indicating relatively large energy and momentum losses in the highly cooled flows considered where the pressure is nearly uniform along the flow and the core flow becomes non-adiabatic a few diameters downstream of the inlet. The effects of a large range of Reynolds number and Mach number (viscous dissipation) are also investigated.

  17. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  18. Numerical Boundary Condition Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Topics include numerical procedures for treating inflow and outflow boundaries, steady and unsteady discontinuous surfaces, far field boundaries, and multiblock grids. In addition, the effects of numerical boundary approximations on stability, accuracy, and convergence rate of the numerical solution are discussed.

  19. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  20. Two cases of food additive-induced severe liver damage associated with positive results on lymphocyte stimulation test and for antinuclear antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Rena; Ohishi, Chitose; Kim, Miniru; Shiina, Masaaki; Kusayanagi, Satoshi; Ogawa, Masazumi; Munakata, Kazuo; Mizuno, Kyoichi; Sato, Yuzuru

    2012-08-01

    Two cases of severe liver injury and positive result for antinuclear antibodies induced by food additives are reported. The first patient reported long-term intake of Mabo Ramen(®) noodle soup, nutritional supplements, and over-the-counter drugs. Total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were 9.6 mg/dL, 1,048, and 1,574 IU/L, respectively. Antinuclear antibody was 80×. The drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST) was positive for Mabo Ramen(®) and its additives such as Xanthan gum, guar gum, and Doubanjiang. Histologic examination of a liver biopsy specimen showed lymphocyte infiltration and necrosis. The autoimmune hepatitis score was 3. The second patient reported intake of dietary supplements, including Bimore C(®) and Chokora BB(®). Laboratory tests revealed that total bilirubin was 9.8 mg/dL, aspartate aminotransferase was 1,130 IU/L, and alanine aminotransferase was 1,094 IU/L. Antinuclear antibody was 320×. Co-existing pancreatic damage was confirmed by the findings on abdominal CT and elevation of serum lipase, span-1, and DUPAN-2. DLSTs were positive for both supplements. These two supplements contained additives such as titanium oxide, magnesium stearate, and hydroxypropylcellulose. DLSTs for all three additives were positive. Histologic examination revealed periportal necrosis and lymphocyte infiltration of lobular and portal areas. These two cases demonstrate that repeating DLSTs is useful for identifying causative constituents in foods and supplements. PMID:26182392

  1. Simultaneous Laser Raman-rayleigh-lif Measurements and Numerical Modeling Results of a Lifted Turbulent H2/N2 Jet Flame in a Vitiated Coflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabra, R.; Chen, J. Y.; Dibble, R. W.; Myhrvold, T.; Karpetis, A. N.; Barlow, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    An experiment and numerical investigation is presented of a lifted turbulent H2/N2 jet flame in a coflow of hot, vitiated gases. The vitiated coflow burner emulates the coupling of turbulent mixing and chemical kinetics exemplary of the reacting flow in the recirculation region of advanced combustors. It also simplifies numerical investigation of this coupled problem by removing the complexity of recirculating flow. Scalar measurements are reported for a lifted turbulent jet flame of H2/N2 (Re = 23,600, H/d = 10) in a coflow of hot combustion products from a lean H2/Air flame ((empty set) = 0.25, T = 1,045 K). The combination of Rayleigh scattering, Raman scattering, and laser-induced fluorescence is used to obtain simultaneous measurements of temperature and concentrations of the major species, OH, and NO. The data attest to the success of the experimental design in providing a uniform vitiated coflow throughout the entire test region. Two combustion models (PDF: joint scalar Probability Density Function and EDC: Eddy Dissipation Concept) are used in conjunction with various turbulence models to predict the lift-off height (H(sub PDF)/d = 7,H(sub EDC)/d = 8.5). Kalghatgi's classic phenomenological theory, which is based on scaling arguments, yields a reasonably accurate prediction (H(sub K)/d = 11.4) of the lift-off height for the present flame. The vitiated coflow admits the possibility of auto-ignition of mixed fluid, and the success of the present parabolic implementation of the PDF model in predicting a stable lifted flame is attributable to such ignition. The measurements indicate a thickened turbulent reaction zone at the flame base. Experimental results and numerical investigations support the plausibility of turbulent premixed flame propagation by small scale (on the order of the flame thickness) recirculation and mixing of hot products into reactants and subsequent rapid ignition of the mixture.

  2. The measurement of enhancement in mathematical abilities as a result of joint cognitive trainings in numerical and visual- spatial skills: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agus, M.; Mascia, M. L.; Fastame, M. C.; Melis, V.; Pilloni, M. C.; Penna, M. P.

    2015-02-01

    A body of literature shows the significant role of visual-spatial skills played in the improvement of mathematical skills in the primary school. The main goal of the current study was to investigate the impact of a combined visuo-spatial and mathematical training on the improvement of mathematical skills in 146 second graders of several schools located in Italy. Participants were presented single pencil-and-paper visuo-spatial or mathematical trainings, computerised version of the above mentioned treatments, as well as a combined version of computer-assisted and pencil-and-paper visuo-spatial and mathematical trainings, respectively. Experimental groups were presented with training for 3 months, once a week. All children were treated collectively both in computer-assisted or pencil-and-paper modalities. At pre and post-test all our participants were presented with a battery of objective tests assessing numerical and visuo-spatial abilities. Our results suggest the positive effect of different types of training for the empowerment of visuo-spatial and numerical abilities. Specifically, the combination of computerised and pencil-and-paper versions of visuo-spatial and mathematical trainings are more effective than the single execution of the software or of the pencil-and-paper treatment.

  3. Pulsed addition of HMF and furfural to batch-grown xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in different physiological responses in glucose and xylose consumption phase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass generates a number of undesired degradation products that can inhibit microbial metabolism. Two of these compounds, the furan aldehydes 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde (furfural), have been shown to be an impediment for viable ethanol production. In the present study, HMF and furfural were pulse-added during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase in order to dissect the effects of these inhibitors on energy state, redox metabolism, and gene expression of xylose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Pulsed addition of 3.9 g L-1 HMF and 1.2 g L-1 furfural during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase resulted in distinct physiological responses. Addition of furan aldehydes in the glucose consumption phase was followed by a decrease in the specific growth rate and the glycerol yield, whereas the acetate yield increased 7.3-fold, suggesting that NAD(P)H for furan aldehyde conversion was generated by acetate synthesis. No change in the intracellular levels of NAD(P)H was observed 1 hour after pulsing, whereas the intracellular concentration of ATP increased by 58%. An investigation of the response at transcriptional level revealed changes known to be correlated with perturbations in the specific growth rate, such as protein and nucleotide biosynthesis. Addition of furan aldehydes during the xylose consumption phase brought about an increase in the glycerol and acetate yields, whereas the xylitol yield was severely reduced. The intracellular concentrations of NADH and NADPH decreased by 58 and 85%, respectively, hence suggesting that HMF and furfural drained the cells of reducing power. The intracellular concentration of ATP was reduced by 42% 1 hour after pulsing of inhibitors, suggesting that energy-requiring repair or maintenance processes were activated. Transcriptome profiling showed that NADPH-requiring processes such as amino acid biosynthesis and sulfate and

  4. The transport exponent in percolation models with additional loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babalievski, F.

    1994-10-01

    Several percolation models with additional loops were studied. The transport exponents for these models were estimated numerically by means of a transfer-matrix approach. It was found that the transport exponent has a drastically changed value for some of the models. This result supports some previous numerical studies on the vibrational properties of similar models (with additional loops).

  5. Simultaneous Raman-Rayleigh-LIF Measurements and Numerical Modeling Results of a Lifted H2/N2 Turbulent Jet Flame in a Vitiated Coflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabra, R.; Chen, J. Y.; Dibble, R. W.; Hamano, Y.; Karpetis, A. N.; Barlow, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental and numerical investigation is presented of a H2/N2 turbulent jet flame burner that has a novel vitiated coflow. The vitiated coflow emulates the recirculation region of most combustors, such as gas turbines or furnaces. Additionally, since the vitiated gases are coflowing, the burner allows for exploration of recirculation chemistry without the corresponding fluid mechanics of recirculation. Thus the vitiated coflow burner design facilitates the development of chemical kinetic combustion models without the added complexity of recirculation fluid mechanics. Scalar measurements are reported for a turbulent jet flame of H2/N2 in a coflow of combustion products from a lean ((empty set) = 0.25) H2/Air flame. The combination of laser-induced fluorescence, Rayleigh scattering, and Raman scattering is used to obtain simultaneous measurements of the temperature, major species, as well as OH and NO. Laminar flame calculation with equal diffusivity do agree when the premixing and preheating that occurs prior to flame stabilization is accounted for in the boundary conditions. Also presented is an exploratory pdf model that predicts the flame's axial profiles fairly well, but does not accurately predict the lift-off height.

  6. Development of a system for the numerical simulation of Euler flows, with results of preliminary 3-D propeller-slipstream/exhaust-jet calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boerstoel, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    The current status of a computer program system for the numerical simulation of Euler flows is presented. Preliminary test calculation results are shown. They concern the three-dimensional flow around a wing-nacelle-propeller-outlet configuration. The system is constructed to execute four major tasks: block decomposition of the flow domain around given, possibly complex, three-dimensional aerodynamic surfaces; grid generation on the blocked flow domain; Euler-flow simulation on the blocked grid; and graphical visualization of the computed flow on the blocked grid, and postprocessing. The system consists of about 20 codes interfaced by files. Most of the required tasks can be executed. The geometry of complex aerodynamic surfaces in three-dimensional space can be handled. The validation test showed that the system must be improved to increase the speed of the grid generation process.

  7. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing: Results of DBA and sodium formate additive tests at Southwestern Electric Power company`s Pirkey Station

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-30

    Tests were conducted at Southwestern Electric Power Company`s (SWEPCo) Henry W. Pirkey Station wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to evaluate options for achieving high sulfur dioxide removal efficiency. The Pirkey FGD system includes four absorber modules, each with dual slurry recirculation loops and with a perforated plate tray in the upper loop. The options tested involved the use of dibasic acid (DBA) or sodium formate as a performance additive. The effectiveness of other potential options was simulated with the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM) after it was calibrated to the system. An economic analysis was done to determine the cost effectiveness of the high-efficiency options. Results are-summarized below.

  8. Active compensation of aperture discontinuities for WFIRST-AFTA: analytical and numerical comparison of propagation methods and preliminary results with a WFIRST-AFTA-like pupil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin; N'Diaye, Mamadou; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Soummer, Rémi

    2016-03-01

    The new frontier in the quest for the highest contrast levels in the focal plane of a coronagraph is now the correction of the large diffraction artifacts introduced at the science camera by apertures of increasing complexity. Indeed, the future generation of space- and ground-based coronagraphic instruments will be mounted on on-axis and/or segmented telescopes; the design of coronagraphic instruments for such observatories is currently a domain undergoing rapid progress. One approach consists of using two sequential deformable mirrors (DMs) to correct for aberrations introduced by secondary mirror structures and segmentation of the primary mirror. The coronagraph for the WFIRST-AFTA mission will be the first of such instruments in space with a two-DM wavefront control system. Regardless of the control algorithm for these multiple DMs, they will have to rely on quick and accurate simulation of the propagation effects introduced by the out-of-pupil surface. In the first part of this paper, we present the analytical description of the different approximations to simulate these propagation effects. In Appendix A, we prove analytically that in the special case of surfaces inducing a converging beam, the Fresnel method yields high fidelity for simulations of these effects. We provide numerical simulations showing this effect. In the second part, we use these tools in the framework of the active compensation of aperture discontinuities (ACAD) technique applied to pupil geometries similar to WFIRST-AFTA. We present these simulations in the context of the optical layout of the high-contrast imager for complex aperture telescopes, which will test ACAD on a optical bench. The results of this analysis show that using the ACAD method, an apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph, and the performance of our current DMs, we are able to obtain, in numerical simulations, a dark hole with a WFIRST-AFTA-like. Our numerical simulation shows that we can obtain contrast better than 2×10-9 in

  9. Combining an amyloid-beta (Aβ) cleaving enzyme inhibitor with a γ-secretase modulator results in an additive reduction of Aβ production.

    PubMed

    Strömberg, Kia; Eketjäll, Susanna; Georgievska, Biljana; Tunblad, Karin; Eliason, Kristina; Olsson, Fredrik; Radesäter, Ann-Cathrin; Klintenberg, Rebecka; Arvidsson, Per I; von Berg, Stefan; Fälting, Johanna; Cowburn, Richard F; Dabrowski, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in amyloid plaques. Aβ peptides are produced by sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein by the β amyloid cleaving enzyme (BACE) and the γ-secretase (γ-sec) complex. Pharmacological treatments that decrease brain levels of in particular the toxic Aβ42 peptide are thought to be promising approaches for AD disease modification. Potent and selective BACE1 inhibitors as well as γ-sec modulators (GSMs) have been designed. Pharmacological intervention of secretase function is not without risks of either on- or off-target adverse effects. One way of improving the therapeutic window could be to combine treatment on multiple targets, using smaller individual doses and thereby minimizing adverse effect liability. We show that combined treatment of primary cortical neurons with a BACE1 inhibitor and a GSM gives an additive effect on Aβ42 level change compared with the individual treatments. We extend this finding to C57BL/6 mice, where the combined treatment results in reduction of brain Aβ42 levels reflecting the sum of the individual treatment efficacies. These results show that pharmacological targeting of two amyloid precursor protein processing steps is feasible without negatively interfering with the mechanism of action on individual targets. We conclude that targeting Aβ production by combining a BACE inhibitor and a GSM could be a viable approach for therapeutic intervention in AD modification. PMID:25303711

  10. Change in cardio-protective medication and health-related quality of life after diagnosis of screen-detected diabetes: Results from the ADDITION-Cambridge cohort

    PubMed Central

    Black, J.A.; Long, G.H.; Sharp, S.J.; Kuznetsov, L.; Boothby, C.E.; Griffin, S.J.; Simmons, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Establishing a balance between the benefits and harms of treatment is important among individuals with screen-detected diabetes, for whom the burden of treatment might be higher than the burden of the disease. We described the association between cardio-protective medication and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among individuals with screen-detected diabetes. Methods 867 participants with screen-detected diabetes underwent clinical measurements at diagnosis, one and five years. General HRQoL (EQ5D) was measured at baseline, one- and five-years, and diabetes-specific HRQoL (ADDQoL-AWI) and health status (SF-36) at one and five years. Multivariable linear regression was used to quantify the association between change in HRQoL and change in cardio-protective medication. Results The median (IQR) number of prescribed cardio-protective agents was 2 (1 to 3) at diagnosis, 3 (2 to 4) at one year and 4 (3 to 5) at five years. Change in cardio-protective medication was not associated with change in HRQoL from diagnosis to one year. From one year to five years, change in cardio-protective agents was not associated with change in the SF-36 mental health score. One additional agent was associated with an increase in the SF-36 physical health score (2.1; 95%CI 0.4, 3.8) and an increase in the EQ-5D (0.05; 95%CI 0.02, 0.08). Conversely, one additional agent was associated with a decrease in the ADDQoL-AWI (−0.32; 95%CI −0.51, −0.13), compared to no change. Conclusions We found little evidence that increases in the number of cardio-protective medications impacted negatively on HRQoL among individuals with screen-detected diabetes over five years. PMID:25937542

  11. Comparison of interference-free numerical results with sample experimental data for the AEDC wall-interference model at transonic and subsonic flow conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P. A.; Allison, D. O.

    1974-01-01

    Numerical results obtained from two computer programs recently developed with NASA support and now available for use by others are compared with some sample experimental data taken on a rectangular-wing configuration in the AEDC 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at transonic and subsonic flow conditions. This data was used in an AEDC investigation as reference data to deduce the tunnel-wall interference effects for corresponding data taken in a smaller tunnel. The comparisons were originally intended to see how well a current state-of-the-art transonic flow calculation for a simple 3-D wing agreed with data which was felt by experimentalists to be relatively interference-free. As a result of the discrepancies between the experimental data and computational results at the quoted angle of attack, it was then deduced from an approximate stress analysis that the sting had deflected appreciably. Thus, the comparisons themselves are not so meaningful, since the calculations must be repeated at the proper angle of attack. Of more importance, however, is a demonstration of the utility of currently available computational tools in the analysis and correlation of transonic experimental data.

  12. Long-range, collision-induced hyperpolarizabilities of atoms or centrosymmetric linear molecules: Theory and numerical results for pairs containing H or He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoping; Hunt, Katharine L. C.; Pipin, Janusz; Bishop, David M.

    1996-12-01

    For atoms or molecules of D∞h or higher symmetry, this work gives equations for the long-range, collision-induced changes in the first (Δβ) and second (Δγ) hyperpolarizabilities, complete to order R-7 in the intermolecular separation R for Δβ, and order R-6 for Δγ. The results include nonlinear dipole-induced-dipole (DID) interactions, higher multipole induction, induction due to the nonuniformity of the local fields, back induction, and dispersion. For pairs containing H or He, we have used ab initio values of the static (hyper)polarizabilities to obtain numerical results for the induction terms in Δβ and Δγ. For dispersion effects, we have derived analytic results in the form of integrals of the dynamic (hyper)polarizabilities over imaginary frequencies, and we have evaluated these numerically for the pairs H...H, H...He, and He...He using the values of the fourth dipole hyperpolarizability ɛ(-iω; iω, 0, 0, 0, 0) obtained in this work, along with other hyperpolarizabilities calculated previously by Bishop and Pipin. For later numerical applications to molecular pairs, we have developed constant ratio approximations (CRA1 and CRA2) to estimate the dispersion effects in terms of static (hyper)polarizabilities and van der Waals energy or polarizability coefficients. Tests of the approximations against accurate results for the pairs H...H, H...He, and He...He show that the root mean square (rms) error in CRA1 is ˜20%-25% for Δβ and Δγ; for CRA2 the error in Δβ is similar, but the rms error in Δγ is less than 4%. At separations ˜1.0 a.u. outside the van der Waals minima of the pair potentials for H...H, H...He, and He...He, the nonlinear DID interactions make the dominant contributions to Δγzzzz (where z is the interatomic axis) and to Δγxxxx, accounting for ˜80%-123% of the total value. Contributions due to higher-multipole induction and the nonuniformity of the local field (Qα terms) may exceed 15%, while dispersion effects

  13. Use of borehole radar reflection logging to monitor steam-enhanced remediation in fractured limestone-results of numerical modelling and a field experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregoire, C.; Joesten, P.K.; Lane, J.W., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar is an efficient geophysical method for the detection and location of fractures and fracture zones in electrically resistive rocks. In this study, the use of down-hole (borehole) radar reflection logs to monitor the injection of steam in fractured rocks was tested as part of a field-scale, steam-enhanced remediation pilot study conducted at a fractured limestone quarry contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons at the former Loring Air Force Base, Limestone, Maine, USA. In support of the pilot study, borehole radar reflection logs were collected three times (before, during, and near the end of steam injection) using broadband 100 MHz electric dipole antennas. Numerical modelling was performed to predict the effect of heating on radar-frequency electromagnetic (EM) wave velocity, attenuation, and fracture reflectivity. The modelling results indicate that EM wave velocity and attenuation change substantially if heating increases the electrical conductivity of the limestone matrix. Furthermore, the net effect of heat-induced variations in fracture-fluid dielectric properties on average medium velocity is insignificant because the expected total fracture porosity is low. In contrast, changes in fracture fluid electrical conductivity can have a significant effect on EM wave attenuation and fracture reflectivity. Total replacement of water by steam in a fracture decreases fracture reflectivity of a factor of 10 and induces a change in reflected wave polarity. Based on the numerical modelling results, a reflection amplitude analysis method was developed to delineate fractures where steam has displaced water. Radar reflection logs collected during the three acquisition periods were analysed in the frequency domain to determine if steam had replaced water in the fractures (after normalizing the logs to compensate for differences in antenna performance between logging runs). Analysis of the radar reflection logs from a borehole where the temperature

  14. Numerical Analysis Using WRF-SBM for the Cloud Microphysical Structures in the C3VP Field Campaign: Impacts of Supercooled Droplets and Resultant Riming on Snow Microphysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iguchi, Takamichi; Matsui, Toshihisa; Shi, Jainn J.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Khain, Alexander P.; Hao, Arthur; Cifelli, Robert; Heymsfield, Andrew; Tokay, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Two distinct snowfall events are observed over the region near the Great Lakes during 19-23 January 2007 under the intensive measurement campaign of the Canadian CloudSat/CALIPSO validation project (C3VP). These events are numerically investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with a spectral bin microphysics (WRF-SBM) scheme that allows a smooth calculation of riming process by predicting the rimed mass fraction on snow aggregates. The fundamental structures of the observed two snowfall systems are distinctly characterized by a localized intense lake-effect snowstorm in one case and a widely distributed moderate snowfall by the synoptic-scale system in another case. Furthermore, the observed microphysical structures are distinguished by differences in bulk density of solid-phase particles, which are probably linked to the presence or absence of supercooled droplets. The WRF-SBM coupled with Goddard Satellite Data Simulator Unit (G-SDSU) has successfully simulated these distinctive structures in the three-dimensional weather prediction run with a horizontal resolution of 1 km. In particular, riming on snow aggregates by supercooled droplets is considered to be of importance in reproducing the specialized microphysical structures in the case studies. Additional sensitivity tests for the lake-effect snowstorm case are conducted utilizing different planetary boundary layer (PBL) models or the same SBM but without the riming process. The PBL process has a large impact on determining the cloud microphysical structure of the lake-effect snowstorm as well as the surface precipitation pattern, whereas the riming process has little influence on the surface precipitation because of the small height of the system.

  15. SU-E-J-06: Additional Imaging Guidance Dose to Patient Organs Resulting From X-Ray Tubes Used in CyberKnife Image Guidance System

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, A; Ding, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The use of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) has become increasingly common, but the additional radiation exposure resulting from repeated image guidance procedures raises concerns. Although there are many studies reporting imaging dose from different image guidance devices, imaging dose for the CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System is not available. This study provides estimated organ doses resulting from image guidance procedures on the CyberKnife system. Methods: Commercially available Monte Carlo software, PCXMC, was used to calculate average organ doses resulting from x-ray tubes used in the CyberKnife system. There are seven imaging protocols with kVp ranging from 60 – 120 kV and 15 mAs for treatment sites in the Cranium, Head and Neck, Thorax, and Abdomen. The output of each image protocol was measured at treatment isocenter. For each site and protocol, Adult body sizes ranging from anorexic to extremely obese were simulated since organ dose depends on patient size. Doses for all organs within the imaging field-of-view of each site were calculated for a single image acquisition from both of the orthogonal x-ray tubes. Results: Average organ doses were <1.0 mGy for every treatment site and imaging protocol. For a given organ, dose increases as kV increases or body size decreases. Higher doses are typically reported for skeletal components, such as the skull, ribs, or clavicles, than for softtissue organs. Typical organ doses due to a single exposure are estimated as 0.23 mGy to the brain, 0.29 mGy to the heart, 0.08 mGy to the kidneys, etc., depending on the imaging protocol and site. Conclusion: The organ doses vary with treatment site, imaging protocol and patient size. Although the organ dose from a single image acquisition resulting from two orthogonal beams is generally insignificant, the sum of repeated image acquisitions (>100) could reach 10–20 cGy for a typical treatment fraction.

  16. Flow Matching Results of an MHD Energy Bypass System on a Supersonic Turbojet Engine Using the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benyo, Theresa L.

    2011-01-01

    Flow matching has been successfully achieved for an MHD energy bypass system on a supersonic turbojet engine. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment helped perform a thermodynamic cycle analysis to properly match the flows from an inlet employing a MHD energy bypass system (consisting of an MHD generator and MHD accelerator) on a supersonic turbojet engine. Working with various operating conditions (such as the applied magnetic field, MHD generator length and flow conductivity), interfacing studies were conducted between the MHD generator, the turbojet engine, and the MHD accelerator. This paper briefly describes the NPSS environment used in this analysis. This paper further describes the analysis of a supersonic turbojet engine with an MHD generator/accelerator energy bypass system. Results from this study have shown that using MHD energy bypass in the flow path of a supersonic turbojet engine increases the useful Mach number operating range from 0 to 3.0 Mach (not using MHD) to a range of 0 to 7.0 Mach with specific net thrust range of 740 N-s/kg (at ambient Mach = 3.25) to 70 N-s/kg (at ambient Mach = 7). These results were achieved with an applied magnetic field of 2.5 Tesla and conductivity levels in a range from 2 mhos/m (ambient Mach = 7) to 5.5 mhos/m (ambient Mach = 3.5) for an MHD generator length of 3 m.

  17. 1. 0 Million Btu combustor testing: Test results: Part 2. [Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature for the removal of SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, M.; College, J.; Forsythe, R.; Kanary, D.

    1988-12-01

    ''Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature'' or HALT is a dry calcium- based hydrate injection process for the removal of SO/sub 2/ from flue gases off a sulfur bearing fuel. In this process the hydrate is pneumatically conveyed and injected into the flue gas stream as a dry particulates. The flue gas is cooled downstream of the hydrate injection location by spraying the gas with a stream of finely atomized water droplets. The water is atomized into a fine spray mist by using air under pressure as the atomizing fluid. The waste product from this process is the dry disposable solids which differ considerably from the wet cake solids obtained from a wet FGD process. The HALT test program currently being conducted at Dravo Lime Company and Ohio Edison Company is to be carried out in two stages: (1) Parametric testing on a 1.0 MM BTU/hour combustor, and (2) Follow up long term testing (six months) on a 5 MW unit. The first stage of the program which involves the parametric testing is now completed. Results are presented. 9 refs., 18 figs.

  18. Multi-nozzle humidification tests: Test results: Part 4. [Hydrate addition at low temperature for the removal of SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Stouffer, M.

    1988-12-01

    ''Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature'' or HALT is a dry calcium-based hydrate injection process for the removal of SO/sub 2/ from flue gases off a sulfur bearing fuel. In this process the hydrate is pneumatically conveyed and injected into the flue gas stream as a dry particulate. The flue gas is cooled downstream of the hydrate injection by spraying the gas with a stream of finely atomized water droplets. The water is atomized into a fine spray by using air under pressure as the atomizing fluid. The spray nozzles are specially designed. Results are presented on nozzle array field tests conducted using the Dravo HALT unit at Ohio Edison's Toronto station. A method for humidifier scale-up from single-nozzle pilot test data was demonstrated. The method uses arrays of nozzles, with each individual nozzle operated at fixed conditions determined as optimum in the single-nozzle tests. By applying this method, the Consol 8.3-inch pilot humidifier operation with a single Spraying Systems 1/8JJ-J12 nozzle was successfully scaled up to operation of the Dravo 31 x 31-inch humidifier with arrays of up to 46 J12 nozzles. The tests provided data on nozzle deposition and solids dropout that may be useful for large-scale humidifier design. 4 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Movement of tagged dredged sand at thalweg disposal sites in the Upper Mississippi River. Volume 3. Additional results at Gordon's Ferry and Whitney Island sites

    SciTech Connect

    McCown, D.L.; Paddock, R.A.

    1985-04-01

    During routine channel maintenance, hydraulically dredged sand was tagged with sand coated with fluorescent dye before being deposited as a pile in the thalweg at three sites on the Upper Mississippi River. As discussed in the first two volumes of this report, bathymetry was measured and surface sediments were sampled to study changes in the topography of the disposal pile and the downstream movement of the tagged sand. At all three sites, topographic evidence of the pile disappeared after the first period of high river flow, which was followed by redevelopment of dunes in the disposal area. The tagged sand did not migrate into nearby border areas, backwaters, or sloughs, remaining in the main channel as it moved downstream. This volume presents the results of additional surveys at the Gordon's Ferry and Whitney Island sites. At Gordon's Ferry, 25 bottom cores were taken to examine the three-dimensional distribution of tagged sand in the bottom sediments. The core analyses indicated that much of the tagged sand had been incorporated into the dune structure and that it resided primarily in the crests of the dunes.

  20. Accuracy and Precision in the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Dataset 1998-2000 in Light of the JOSIE-2000 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; McPeters, R. D.; Smit, H. G. J.

    2003-01-01

    A network of 12 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations in the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has provided over 2000 profiles of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone since 1998. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are used with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature and relative humidity measurements. The archived data are available at:http: //croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. In Thompson et al., accuracies and imprecisions in the SHADOZ 1998- 2000 dataset were examined using ground-based instruments and the TOMS total ozone measurement (version 7) as references. Small variations in ozonesonde technique introduced possible biases from station-to-station. SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are now compared to version 8 TOMS; discrepancies between the two datasets are reduced 2\\% on average. An evaluation of ozone variations among the stations is made using the results of a series of chamber simulations of ozone launches (JOSIE-2000, Juelich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment) in which a standard reference ozone instrument was employed with the various sonde techniques used in SHADOZ. A number of variations in SHADOZ ozone data are explained when differences in solution strength, data processing and instrument type (manufacturer) are taken into account.

  1. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Topical report - results of sodium formate additive tests at New York State Electric & Gas Corporation`s Kintigh Station

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1997-02-14

    Tests were conducted at New York State Gas & Electric`s (NYSEG`s) Kintigh Station to evaluate options for achieving high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency in the wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This test program was one of six conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate low-capital-cost upgrades to existing FGD systems as a means for utilities to comply with the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The upgrade option tested at Kintigh was sodium formate additive. Results from the tests were used to calibrate the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM) to the Kintigh scrubber configuration. FGDPRISM was then used to predict system performance for evaluating conditions other than those tested. An economic evaluation was then done to determine the cost effectiveness of various high-efficiency upgrade options. These costs can be compared with the estimated market value of SO{sub 2} allowance or the expected costs of allowances generated by other means, such as fuel switching or new scrubbers, to arrive at the most cost-effective strategy for Clean Air Act compliance.

  2. Prevalence of sexual desire and satisfaction among patients with screen-detected diabetes and impact of intensive multifactorial treatment: Results from the ADDITION-Denmark study

    PubMed Central

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Kristensen, Ellids; Lauritzen, Torsten; Sandbæk, Annelli; Charles, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Sexual problems are common in people with diabetes. It is unknown whether early detection of diabetes and subsequent intensive multifactorial treatment (IT) are associated with sexual health. We report the prevalence of low sexual desire and low sexual satisfaction among people with screen-detected diabetes and compare the impact of intensive multifactorial treatment with the impact of routine care (RC) on these measures. Design. A cross-sectional analysis of the ADDITION-Denmark trial cohort six years post-diagnosis. Setting. 190 general practices around Denmark. Subjects. A total of 968 patients with screen-detected type 2 diabetes. Main outcome measures. Low sexual desire and low sexual satisfaction. Results. Mean (standard deviation, SD) age was 64.9 (6.9) years. The prevalence of low sexual desire was 53% (RC) and 54% (IT) among women, and 24% (RC) and 25% (IT) among men. The prevalence of low sexual satisfaction was 23% (RC) and 18% (IT) among women, and 27% (RC) and 37% (IT) among men. Among men, the prevalence of low sexual satisfaction was significantly higher in the IT group than in the RC group, p = 0.01. Conclusion. Low sexual desire and low satisfaction are frequent among men and women with screen-detected diabetes, and IT may negatively impact men's sexual satisfaction. PMID:25659194

  3. Addition of niclosamide to palladium(II) saccharinate complex of terpyridine results in enhanced cytotoxic activity inducing apoptosis on cancer stem cells of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Karakas, Didem; Cevatemre, Buse; Aztopal, Nazlihan; Ari, Ferda; Yilmaz, Veysel Turan; Ulukaya, Engin

    2015-09-01

    Wnt signaling is one of the core signaling pathways of cancer stem cells (CSCs). It is re-activated in CSCs and plays essential role in the survival, self-renewal and proliferation of these cells. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of palladium(II) complex which is formulated as [PdCl(terpy)](sac)2H2O and its combination with niclosamide which is an inhibitor of Wnt signaling pathway associated with breast cancer stem cells. Characteristic cell surface markers (CD44(+)/CD24(-)) were determined by flow cytometry in CSCs. ATP viability assay was used to determine the cytotoxic activity. The mode of cell death was evaluated morphologically using fluorescence microscopy and biochemically using M30 ELISA assay as well as performing qPCR. Our study demonstrated that the combination of niclosamide (1.5 μM) and Pd(II) complex (12.5, 25 and 50 μM) at 48 h has enhanced cytotoxic activity resulted from the induction of apoptosis (indicated by the presence of pyknotic nuclei, increments in M30 and over expression of proapoptotic genes of TNFRSF10A and FAS). Importantly, the addition of niclosamide resulted in the suppression of autophagy (proved by the decrease in ATG5 gene levels) that might have contributed to the enhanced cytotoxicity. In conclusion, the application of this combination may be regarded as a novel and effective approach for the treatment of breast cancer due to its promising cytotoxic effect on cancer stem cells that cause recurrence of the disease. PMID:26234907

  4. High frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with diphenidol administration results in an additive antiallodynic effect in rats following chronic constriction injury.

    PubMed

    Lin, Heng-Teng; Chiu, Chong-Chi; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Hung, Ching-Hsia; Chen, Yu-Wen

    2015-03-01

    The impact of coadministration of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and diphenidol is not well established. Here we estimated the effects of diphenidol in combination with TENS on mechanical allodynia and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression. Using an animal chronic constriction injury (CCI) model, the rat was estimated for evidence of mechanical sensitivity via von Frey hair stimulation and TNF-α expression in the sciatic nerve using the ELISA assay. High frequency (100Hz) TENS or intraperitoneal injection of diphenidol (2.0μmol/kg) was applied daily, starting on postoperative day 1 (POD1) and lasting for the next 13 days. We demonstrated that both high frequency TENS and diphenidol groups had an increase in mechanical withdrawal thresholds of 60%. Coadministration of high frequency TENS and diphenidol gives better results of paw withdrawal thresholds in comparison with high frequency TENS alone or diphenidol alone. Both diphenidol and coadministration of high frequency TENS with diphenidol groups showed a significant reduction of the TNF-α level compared with the CCI or HFS group (P<0.05) in the sciatic nerve on POD7, whereas the CCI or high frequency TENS group exhibited a higher TNF-α level than the sham group (P<0.05). Our resulting data revealed that diphenidol alone, high frequency TENS alone, and the combination produced a reduction of neuropathic allodynia. Both diphenidol and the combination of diphenidol with high frequency TENS inhibited TNF-α expression. A moderately effective dose of diphenidol appeared to have an additive effect with high frequency TENS. Therefore, multidisciplinary treatments could be considered for this kind of mechanical allodynia. PMID:25596445

  5. The results with the addition of metronomic cyclophosphamide to palliative radiotherapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Subhash Chandra; Pandey, Kailash Chandra; Rastogi, Madhup; Sharma, Mukesh; Gupta, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Background A considerable proportion of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients are ineligible for radical therapies. Many are frail not to tolerate intravenous palliative chemotherapy either. These patients often receive palliative radiotherapy (RT), or supportive care alone. We intend to compare outcomes with palliative RT alone, versus palliative RT plus oral low dose metronomic cyclophosphamide. Methods Data was mined from 139 eligible NSCLC patient records. Comparisons were made between 65 patients treated from January 2011 to March 2013 with palliative RT (20-30 Gray in 5-10 fractions) alone, versus 74 patients treated from April 2013 to December 2014 with palliative RT plus oral metronomic cyclophosphamide (50 mg once daily from day of initiation of RT until at least the day of disease progression). Response was assessed after 1-month post-RT by computed tomography. Patients with complete or partial response were recorded as responders. For the determination of progression free survival (PFS), progression would be declared in case of increase in size of lesions, development of new lesions, or development of effusions. The proportions of responders were compared with the Fisher exact test, and the PFS curves were compared with the log-rank test. Results Differences in response rates were statistically insignificant. The PFS was significantly higher when metronomic chemotherapy was added to RT in comparison to treatment with RT alone (mean PFS 3.1 vs. 2.55 months; P=0.0501). Further histological sub-group analysis revealed that the enhanced outcomes with addition of metronomic cyclophosphamide to RT were limited to patients with adenocarcinoma histology (3.5 vs. 2.4 months; P=0.0053), while there was no benefit for those with squamous cell histology (2.6 vs. 2.6 months; P=1). At the dose of oral cyclophosphamide used, there was no recorded instance of any measurable hematological toxicity. Conclusions For pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients, the treatment

  6. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  7. 5-MW Toronto HALT (Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature) pilot plant testing: Test results: Part 1-A. [Hydrate addition at low temperature for the removal of SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, M.; College, J.; Forsythe, R.; Kerivan, D.; Lee, K.; Herbert, R.; Kanary, D.

    1988-12-01

    ''Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature'' of HALT is a dry calcium- based hydrate injection process for the removal of SO/sub 2/ from flue gases off a sulfur bearing fuel. In this process the hydrate is pneumatically conveyed and injected into the flue gas stream as a dry particulate. The flue gas is cooled downstream of the hydrate injection location by spraying the gas with a stream finely atomized water droplets. The water is atomized into a fine spray mist by using air under pressure as the atomizing fluid. The spray nozzles are specially designed. A 5MW pilot HALT was designed, constructed and operated to demonstrate the viability of the HALT process. The unit was designed to use a baghouse for particulate removal. A rented ESP was used for a pre-scheduled test period for comparison with the baghouse. Tests were conducted to cover all of the following variables: humidification, stoichiometric ratio, approach temperature, flue gas velocity, inlet flue gas SO/sub 2/ concentration, and inlet flue gas temperature. Solids samples of hydrates disposal and ESP waste solids were chemically analyzed and are reported. Hydrate samples were analyzed for particle size distribution and surface area. A two month long duration test operating 24 hours/day was successfully concluded. EPA leachate tests were conducted on the solids waste. Corrosion tests were conducted on coupons installed in the baghouse. 79 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Micro-scale finite element modeling of ultrasound propagation in aluminum trabecular bone-mimicking phantoms: A comparison between numerical simulation and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Vafaeian, B; Le, L H; Tran, T N H T; El-Rich, M; El-Bialy, T; Adeeb, S

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the accuracy of micro-scale finite element modeling for simulating broadband ultrasound propagation in water-saturated trabecular bone-mimicking phantoms. To this end, five commercially manufactured aluminum foam samples as trabecular bone-mimicking phantoms were utilized for ultrasonic immersion through-transmission experiments. Based on micro-computed tomography images of the same physical samples, three-dimensional high-resolution computational samples were generated to be implemented in the micro-scale finite element models. The finite element models employed the standard Galerkin finite element method (FEM) in time domain to simulate the ultrasonic experiments. The numerical simulations did not include energy dissipative mechanisms of ultrasonic attenuation; however, they expectedly simulated reflection, refraction, scattering, and wave mode conversion. The accuracy of the finite element simulations were evaluated by comparing the simulated ultrasonic attenuation and velocity with the experimental data. The maximum and the average relative errors between the experimental and simulated attenuation coefficients in the frequency range of 0.6-1.4 MHz were 17% and 6% respectively. Moreover, the simulations closely predicted the time-of-flight based velocities and the phase velocities of ultrasound with maximum relative errors of 20 m/s and 11 m/s respectively. The results of this study strongly suggest that micro-scale finite element modeling can effectively simulate broadband ultrasound propagation in water-saturated trabecular bone-mimicking structures. PMID:26894840

  9. Initial Flow Matching Results of MHD Energy Bypass on a Supersonic Turbojet Engine Using the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benyo, Theresa L.

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary flow matching has been demonstrated for a MHD energy bypass system on a supersonic turbojet engine. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment was used to perform a thermodynamic cycle analysis to properly match the flows from an inlet to a MHD generator and from the exit of a supersonic turbojet to a MHD accelerator. Working with various operating conditions such as the enthalpy extraction ratio and isentropic efficiency of the MHD generator and MHD accelerator, interfacing studies were conducted between the pre-ionizers, the MHD generator, the turbojet engine, and the MHD accelerator. This paper briefly describes the NPSS environment used in this analysis and describes the NPSS analysis of a supersonic turbojet engine with a MHD generator/accelerator energy bypass system. Results from this study have shown that using MHD energy bypass in the flow path of a supersonic turbojet engine increases the useful Mach number operating range from 0 to 3.0 Mach (not using MHD) to an explored and desired range of 0 to 7.0 Mach.

  10. Characterization of NiTinol under torsional loads through a numerical implementation of the Boyd Lagoudas constitutive model and comparison of the results with experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitiello, Antonio; Squillace, Antonino; Prisco, Umberto

    2007-02-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) are a particular family of materials, discovered during the 1930s and only now used in technological applications, with the property of returning to an imposed shape after a deformation and heating process. The study of the mechanical behaviour of SMA, through a proper constitutive model, and the possible ensuing applications form the core of an interesting research field, developed in the last few years and still now subject to studies driven by the aim of understanding and characterizing the peculiar properties of these materials. The aim of this work is to study the behaviour of SMA under torsional loads. To obtain a forecast of the mechanical response of the SMA, we utilized a numerical algorithm based on the Boyd-Lagoudas model and then we compared the results with those from some experimental tests. The experiments were conducted by subjecting helicoidal springs with a constant cross section to a traction load. It is well known, in fact, that in such springs the main stress under traction loads is almost completely a pure torsional stress field. The interest in these studies is due to the absence of data on such tests in the literature for SMA, and because there are an increasing number of industrial applications where SMA are subjected to torsional load, in particular in medicine, and especially in orthodontic drills which usually work under torsional loads.

  11. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  12. Topography and tectonics of the central New Madrid seismic zone: Results of numerical experiements using a three-dimensional boundary element program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomberg, Joan; Ellis, Michael

    1994-01-01

    We present results of a series of numerical experiments designed to test hypothetical mechanisms that derive deformation in the New Madrid seismic zone. Experiments are constrained by subtle topography and the distribution of seismicity in the region. We use a new boundary element algorithm that permits calcuation of the three-dimensional deformation field. Surface displacement fields are calculated for the New Madrid zone under both far-field (plate tectonics scale) and locally derived driving strains. Results demonstrate that surface displacement fields cannot distinguish between either a far-field simple or pure shear strain field or one that involves a deep shear zone beneath the upper crustal faults. Thus, neither geomorphic nor geodetic studies alone are expected to reveal the ultimate driving mechanism behind the present-day deformation. We have also tested hypotheses about strain accommodation within the New Madrid contractional step-over by including linking faults, two southwest dipping and one vertical, recently inferred from microearthquake data. Only those models with step-over faults are able to predict the observed topography. Surface displacement fields for long-term, relaxed deformation predict the distribution of uplift and subsidence in the contractional step-over remarkably well. Generation of these displacement fields appear to require slip on both the two northeast trending vertical faults and the two dipping faults in the step-over region, with very minor displacements occurring during the interseismic period when the northeast trending vertical faults are locked. These models suggest that the gently dippling central step-over fault is a reverse fault and that the steeper fault, extending to the southeast of the step-over, acts as a normal fault over the long term.

  13. What Is Numerical Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goold, Vernell C.

    1977-01-01

    Numerical control (a technique involving coded, numerical instructions for the automatic control and performance of a machine tool) does not replace fundamental machine tool training. It should be added to the training program to give the student an additional tool to accomplish production rates and accuracy that were not possible before. (HD)

  14. Direct numerical simulations of exhaust gas recirculation effect on multistage autoignition in the negative temperature combustion regime for stratified HCCI flow conditions by using H2O2 addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Asrag, Hossam A.; Ju, Yiguang

    2013-04-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of a stratified flow in a homogeneous compression charge ignition (HCCI) engine are performed to investigate the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and temperature/mixture stratification effects on the autoignition of synthetic dimethyl ether (DME) in the negative temperature combustion region. Detailed chemistry for a DME/air mixture is employed and solved by a hybrid multi-time scale (HMTS) algorithm to reduce the computational cost. The effect of ? to mimic the EGR effect on autoignition are studied. The results show that adding ? enhances autoignition by rapid OH radical pool formation (34-46% reduction in ignition delay time) and changes the ignition heat release rates at different ignition stages. Sensitivity analysis is performed and the important reactions pathways affecting the autoignition are specified. The DNS results show that the scales introduced by thermal and mixture stratifications have a strong effect after the low temperature chemistry (LTC) ignition especially at the locations of high scalar dissipation rates. Compared to homogenous ignition, stratified ignitions show similar first autoignition delay times, but 18% reduction in the second and third ignition delay times. The results also show that molecular transport plays an important role in stratified low temperature ignition, and that the scalar mixing time scale is strongly affected by local ignition in the stratified flow. Two ignition-kernel propagation modes are observed: a wave-like, low-speed, deflagrative mode and a spontaneous, high-speed, ignition mode. Three criteria are introduced to distinguish these modes by different characteristic time scales and Damkhöler numbers using a progress variable conditioned by an ignition kernel indicator. The low scalar dissipation rate flame front is characterized by high displacement speeds and high mixing Damkhöler number. The proposed criteria are applied successfully at the different ignition stages and

  15. Dynamics of plume-triple junction interaction: Results from a series of three-dimensional numerical models and implications for the formation of oceanic plateaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dordevic, Mladen; Georgen, Jennifer

    2016-03-01

    Mantle plumes rising in the vicinity of mid-ocean ridges often generate anomalies in melt production and seafloor depth. This study investigates the dynamical interactions between a mantle plume and a ridge-ridge-ridge triple junction, using a parameter space approach and a suite of steady state, three-dimensional finite element numerical models. The top domain boundary is composed of three diverging plates, with each assigned half-spreading rates with respect to a fixed triple junction point. The bottom boundary is kept at a constant temperature of 1350°C except where a two-dimensional, Gaussian-shaped thermal anomaly simulating a plume is imposed. Models vary plume diameter, plume location, the viscosity contrast between plume and ambient mantle material, and the use of dehydration rheology in calculating viscosity. Importantly, the model results quantify how plume-related anomalies in mantle temperature pattern, seafloor depth, and crustal thickness depend on the specific set of parameters. To provide an example, one way of assessing the effect of conduit position is to calculate normalized area, defined to be the spatial dispersion of a given plume at specific depth (here selected to be 50 km) divided by the area occupied by the same plume when it is located under the triple junction. For one particular case modeled where the plume is centered in an intraplate position 100 km from the triple junction, normalized area is just 55%. Overall, these models provide a framework for better understanding plateau formation at triple junctions in the natural setting and a tool for constraining subsurface geodynamical processes and plume properties.

  16. The Genesis of the Abukuma Adakites, Northeast Japan Resulting From the Interaction Between Hot Asthenospheric Mantle and Subducting Slab: A Numerical Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Lim, C.

    2013-12-01

    The geochemistry of the transient Miocene adakites (~16 Ma) in the Abukuma Mountains, Northeast Japan shows that the adakites were generated by the partial melting of the subducted oceanic crust. However, the very old age of the converging oceanic plate which cannot yield high slab temperatures enough for the partial melting poses a problem for the genesis of the adakites. Other possible geneses such as the partial melting of the lower crust, flat subduction and/or transient cold plume are not relevant to the genesis of the adakites. Instead, it is thought that the injection of the upwelling hot asthenospheric mantle to the mantle wedge caused by the East Sea (Japan Sea) opening heats the cold subducting slab hotter enough for the partial melting of the oceanic crust. Although the hypothesis is promising, quantitative evaluation of the interaction between the cold Pacific slab and hot asthenospheric mantle has not been carried out. Thus, we conducted a series of 2-dimensional kinematic-dynamic subduction model experiments to evaluate the thermal structures of the subducting slab, essential for the partial melting of the oceanic crust. Since time-dependence is crucial for the transient adakites, the time-evolving convergence rate and slab age of the incoming Pacific plate for the last 65 Ma constrained from a recent plate reconstruction model are implemented in the numerical models with the transient hot asthenospheric mantle. The convergence rate and slab age are implemented along the oceanward wall boundary and updated each time step. The mantle potential temperature of 1350 °C and the mantle adiabat of 0.35 °C/km are used. The transient injection of the hot asthenospheric mantle to the mantle wedge is implemented as a function of depth- and time-dependent normal temperature distribution along the arcward wall boundary and updated each time step. The peak temperature of the hot asthenospheric mantle is assumed as 1550 °C at 100 km depth and the standard

  17. Transport and mixing dynamics from explosions in debris-filled volcanic conduits: Numerical results and implications for maar-diatreme volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Matthew R.; Valentine, Greg A.

    2015-09-01

    Most volcanoes experience some degree of phreatomagmatism during their lifetime. However, the current understanding of such processes remains limited relative to their magmatic counterparts. Maar-diatremes are a common volcano type that form primarily from phreatomagmatic explosions and are an ideal candidate to further our knowledge of deposits and processes resulting from explosive magma-water interaction due to their abundance as well as their variable levels of field exposure, which allows for detailed mapping and componentry. Two conceptual models of maar-diatreme volcanoes explain the growth and evolution of the crater (maar) and subsurface vent (diatreme) through repeated explosions caused by the interaction of magma and groundwater. One model predicts progressively deepening explosions as water is used up by phreatomagmatic explosions while the other allows for explosions at any level in the diatreme, provided adequate hydrologic conditions are present. In the former, deep-seated lithics in the diatreme are directly ejected and their presence in tephra rings is often taken as a proxy for the depth at which that particular explosion occurred. In the latter, deep-seated lithics are incrementally transported toward the surface via upward directed debris jets. Here we present a novel application of multiphase numerical modeling to assess the controls on length scales of debris jets and their role in upward transport of intra-diatreme material to determine the validity of the two models. The volume of gas generated during a phreatomagmatic explosion is a first order control on the vertical distance a debris jet travels. Unless extremely large amounts of magma and water are involved, it is unlikely that most explosions deeper than ∼ 250 m breach the surface. Other factors such as pressure and temperature have lesser effects on the length scales assuming they are within realistic ranges. Redistribution of material within a diatreme is primarily driven by

  18. Addition of cetuximab to oxaliplatin-based first-line combination chemotherapy for treatment of advanced colorectal cancer: results of the randomised phase 3 MRC COIN trial

    PubMed Central

    Maughan, Timothy S; Adams, Richard A; Smith, Christopher G; Meade, Angela M; Seymour, Matthew T; Wilson, Richard H; Idziaszczyk, Shelley; Harris, Rebecca; Fisher, David; Kenny, Sarah L; Kay, Edward; Mitchell, Jenna K; Madi, Ayman; Jasani, Bharat; James, Michelle D; Bridgewater, John; Kennedy, M John; Claes, Bart; Lambrechts, Diether; Kaplan, Richard; Cheadle, Jeremy P

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background In the Medical Research Council (MRC) COIN trial, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted antibody cetuximab was added to standard chemotherapy in first-line treatment of advanced colorectal cancer with the aim of assessing effect on overall survival. Methods In this randomised controlled trial, patients who were fit for but had not received previous chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer were randomly assigned to oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy (arm A), the same combination plus cetuximab (arm B), or intermittent chemotherapy (arm C). The choice of fluoropyrimidine therapy (capecitabine or infused fluouroracil plus leucovorin) was decided before randomisation. Randomisation was done centrally (via telephone) by the MRC Clinical Trials Unit using minimisation. Treatment allocation was not masked. The comparison of arms A and C is described in a companion paper. Here, we present the comparison of arm A and B, for which the primary outcome was overall survival in patients with KRAS wild-type tumours. Analysis was by intention to treat. Further analyses with respect to NRAS, BRAF, and EGFR status were done. The trial is registered, ISRCTN27286448. Findings 1630 patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups (815 to standard therapy and 815 to addition of cetuximab). Tumour samples from 1316 (81%) patients were used for somatic molecular analyses; 565 (43%) had KRAS mutations. In patients with KRAS wild-type tumours (arm A, n=367; arm B, n=362), overall survival did not differ between treatment groups (median survival 17·9 months [IQR 10·3–29·2] in the control group vs 17·0 months [9·4–30·1] in the cetuximab group; HR 1·04, 95% CI 0·87–1·23, p=0·67). Similarly, there was no effect on progression-free survival (8·6 months [IQR 5·0–12·5] in the control group vs 8·6 months [5·1–13·8] in the cetuximab group; HR 0·96, 0·82–1·12, p=0·60). Overall response rate increased from 57% (n=209

  19. Steady-state response attenuation of a linear oscillator-nonlinear absorber system by using an adjustable-length pendulum in series: Numerical and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eason, R. P.; Sun, C.; Dick, A. J.; Nagarajaiah, S.

    2015-05-01

    Response attenuation of a linear primary structure (PS)-nonlinear tuned mass damper (NTMD) dynamic system with and without an adaptive-length pendulum tuned mass damper (ALPTMD) in a series configuration is studied by using numerical and experimental methods. In the PS-NTMD system, coexisting high and low amplitude solutions are observed in the experiment, validating previous numerical efforts. In order to eliminate the potentially dangerous high amplitude solutions, a series ALPTMD with a mass multiple orders of magnitude smaller than the PS is added to the NTMD. The ALPTMD is used in order to represent the steady-state behavior of a smart tuned mass damper (STMD). In the experiment, the length of the pendulum is adjusted such that its natural frequency matches the dominant frequency of the harmonic ground motions. In the present study, the proposed ALPTMD can be locked so that it is unable to oscillate and influence the dynamics of the system in order to obtain the benefits provided by the NTMD. The experimental data show good qualitative agreement with numerical predictions computed with parameter continuation and time integration methods. Activation of the ALPTMD can successfully prevent the transition of the response from the low amplitude solution to the high amplitude solution or return the response from the high amplitude solution to the low amplitude solution, thereby protecting the PS.

  20. Numerical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…

  1. BPI-ANCA Provides Additional Clinical Information to Anti-Pseudomonas Serology: Results from a Cohort of 117 Swedish Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ulrika; Carlsson, Malin; Hellmark, Thomas; Segelmark, Mårten

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) have worse prognosis compared with patients who are not. BPI-ANCA is an anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody against BPI (bactericidal/permeability increasing protein) correlating with P. aeruginosa colonization and adverse long time prognosis. Whether it provides additional information as compared to standard anti-P. aeruginosa serology tests is not known. 117 nontransplanted CF patients at the CF centre in Lund, Sweden, were followed prospectively for ten years. Bacterial colonisation was classified according to the Leeds criteria. IgA BPI-ANCA was compared with assays for antibodies against alkaline protease (AP), Elastase (ELA), and Exotoxin A (ExoA). Lung function and patient outcome, alive, lung transplanted, or dead, were registered. BPI-ANCA showed the highest correlation with lung function impairment with an r-value of 0.44. Forty-eight of the 117 patients were chronically colonized with P. aeruginosa. Twenty of these patients experienced an adverse outcome. Receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis revealed that this could be predicted by BPI-ANCA (AUC = 0.77), (p = 0.002) to a better degree compared with serology tests. BPI-ANCA correlates better with lung function impairment and long time prognosis than anti-P. aeruginosa serology and has similar ability to identify patients with chronic P. aeruginosa. PMID:26273683

  2. Numerical Asymptotic Solutions Of Differential Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurston, Gaylen A.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical algorithms derived and compared with classical analytical methods. In method, expansions replaced with integrals evaluated numerically. Resulting numerical solutions retain linear independence, main advantage of asymptotic solutions.

  3. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  4. Ground-water modeling of pumping effects near regional ground-water divides and river/aquifer systems - Results and implications of numerical experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheets, Rodney A.; Dumouchelle, Denise H.; Feinstein, Daniel T.

    2005-01-01

    Agreements between United States governors and Canadian territorial premiers establish water-management principles and a framework for protecting Great Lakes waters, including ground water, from diversion and consumptive uses. The issue of ground-water diversions out of the Great Lakes Basin by large-scale pumping near the divides has been raised. Two scenario models, in which regional ground-water flow models represent major aquifers in the Great Lakes region, were used to assess the effect of pumping near ground-water divides. The regional carbonate aquifer model was a generalized model representing northwestern Ohio and northeastern Indiana; the regional sandstone aquifer model used an existing calibrated ground-water flow model for southeastern Wisconsin. Various well locations and pumping rates were examined. Although the two models have different frameworks and boundary conditions, results of the models were similar. There was significant diversion of ground water across ground-water divides due to pumping within 10 miles of the divides. In the regional carbonate aquifer model, the percentage of pumped water crossing the divide ranges from about 20 percent for a well 10 miles from the divide to about 50 percent for a well adjacent to the divide. In the regional sandstone aquifer model, the percentages range from about 30 percent for a well 10 miles from the divide to about 50 percent for a well adjacent to the divide; when pumping on the west side of the divide, within 5 mi of the predevelopment divide, results in at least 10 percent of the water being diverted from the east side of the divide. Two additional scenario models were done to examine the effects of pumping near rivers. Transient models were used to simulate a rapid stage rise in a river during pumping at a well in carbonate and glacial aquifers near the river. Results of water-budget analyses indicate that induced infiltration, captured streamflow, and underflow were important for both glacial and

  5. The effects of boundary conditions on the steady-state response of three hypothetical ground-water systems; results and implications of numerical experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franke, O. Lehn; Reilly, Thomas E.

    1987-01-01

    The most critical and difficult aspect of defining a groundwater system or problem for conceptual analysis or numerical simulation is the selection of boundary conditions . This report demonstrates the effects of different boundary conditions on the steady-state response of otherwise similar ground-water systems to a pumping stress. Three series of numerical experiments illustrate the behavior of three hypothetical groundwater systems that are rectangular sand prisms with the same dimensions but with different combinations of constant-head, specified-head, no-flow, and constant-flux boundary conditions. In the first series of numerical experiments, the heads and flows in all three systems are identical, as are the hydraulic conductivity and system geometry . However, when the systems are subjected to an equal stress by a pumping well in the third series, each differs significantly in its response . The highest heads (smallest drawdowns) and flows occur in the systems most constrained by constant- or specified-head boundaries. These and other observations described herein are important in steady-state calibration, which is an integral part of simulating many ground-water systems. Because the effects of boundary conditions on model response often become evident only when the system is stressed, a close match between the potential distribution in the model and that in the unstressed natural system does not guarantee that the model boundary conditions correctly represent those in the natural system . In conclusion, the boundary conditions that are selected for simulation of a ground-water system are fundamentally important to groundwater systems analysis and warrant continual reevaluation and modification as investigation proceeds and new information and understanding are acquired.

  6. Numerical analysis of randomly forced glycolitic oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Ryashko, Lev

    2015-03-10

    Randomly forced glycolytic oscillations in Higgins model are studied both numerically and analytically. Numerical analysis is based on the direct simulation of the solutions of stochastic system. Non-uniformity of the stochastic bundle along the deterministic cycle is shown. For the analytical investigation of the randomly forced Higgins model, the stochastic sensitivity function technique and confidence domains method are applied. Results of the influence of additive noise on the cycle of this model are given.

  7. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Forming and Springback Behavior and the Resulting Effects on Industrial Application on a Structural Part in Mass Production

    SciTech Connect

    Prexl, A.; Hoffmann, H.; Golle, M.; Kudrass, S.; Wahl, M.

    2011-01-17

    Springback prediction and compensation is nowadays a widely recommended discipline in finite element modeling. Many researches have shown an improvement of the accuracy in prediction of springback using advanced modeling techniques, e.g. by including the Bauschinger effect. In this work different models were investigated in the commercial simulation program AutoForm for a large series production part, manufactured from the dual phase steel HC340XD. The work shows the differences between numerical drawbead models and geometrically modeled drawbeads. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was made for a reduced kinematic hardening model, implemented in the finite element program AutoForm.

  8. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Forming and Springback Behavior and the Resulting Effects on Industrial Application on a Structural Part in Mass Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prexl, A.; Golle, M.; Hoffmann, H.; Kudraß, S.; Wahl, M.

    2011-01-01

    Springback prediction and compensation is nowadays a widely recommended discipline in finite element modeling. Many researches have shown an improvement of the accuracy in prediction of springback using advanced modeling techniques, e.g. by including the Bauschinger effect. In this work different models were investigated in the commercial simulation program AutoForm for a large series production part, manufactured from the dual phase steel HC340XD. The work shows the differences between numerical drawbead models and geometrically modeled drawbeads. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was made for a reduced kinematic hardening model, implemented in the finite element program AutoForm.

  9. Additional correction for energy transfer efficiency calculation in filter-based Förster resonance energy transfer microscopy for more accurate results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuansheng; Periasamy, Ammasi

    2010-03-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy is commonly used to monitor protein interactions with filter-based imaging systems, which require spectral bleedthrough (or cross talk) correction to accurately measure energy transfer efficiency (E). The double-label (donor+acceptor) specimen is excited with the donor wavelength, the acceptor emission provided the uncorrected FRET signal and the donor emission (the donor channel) represents the quenched donor (qD), the basis for the E calculation. Our results indicate this is not the most accurate determination of the quenched donor signal as it fails to consider the donor spectral bleedthrough (DSBT) signals in the qD for the E calculation, which our new model addresses, leading to a more accurate E result. This refinement improves E comparisons made with lifetime and spectral FRET imaging microscopy as shown here using several genetic (FRET standard) constructs, where cerulean and venus fluorescent proteins are tethered by different amino acid linkers.

  10. An Economic Evaluation of TENS in Addition to Usual Primary Care Management for the Treatment of Tennis Elbow: Results from the TATE Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Martyn; Chesterton, Linda S.; Sim, Julius; Mallen, Christian D.; Hay, Elaine M.; van der Windt, Daniëlle A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The TATE trial was a multicentre pragmatic randomized controlled trial of supplementing primary care management (PCM)–consisting of a GP consultation followed by information and advice on exercises–with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), to reduce pain intensity in patients with tennis elbow. This paper reports the health economic evaluation. Methods and Findings Adults with new diagnosis of tennis elbow were recruited from 38 general practices in the UK, and randomly allocated to PCM (n = 120) or PCM plus TENS (n = 121). Outcomes included reduction in pain intensity and quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs) based on the EQ5D and SF6D. Two economic perspectives were evaluated: (i) healthcare–inclusive of NHS and private health costs for the tennis elbow; (ii) societal–healthcare costs plus productivity losses through work absenteeism. Mean outcome and cost differences between the groups were evaluated using a multiple imputed dataset as the base case evaluation, with uncertainty represented in cost-effectiveness planes and through probabilistic cost-effectiveness acceptability curves). Incremental healthcare cost was £33 (95%CI -40, 106) and societal cost £65 (95%CI -307, 176) for PCM plus TENS. Mean differences in outcome were: 0.11 (95%CI -0.13, 0.35) for change in pain (0–10 pain scale); -0.015 (95%CI -0.058, 0.029) for QALYEQ5D; 0.007 (95%CI -0.022, 0.035) for QALYSF6D (higher score differences denote greater benefit for PCM plus TENS). The ICER (incremental cost effectiveness ratio) for the main evaluation of mean difference in societal cost (£) relative to mean difference in pain outcome was -582 (95%CI -8666, 8113). However, incremental ICERs show differences in cost–effectiveness of additional TENS, according to the outcome being evaluated. Conclusion Our findings do not provide evidence for or against the cost-effectiveness of TENS as an adjunct to primary care management of tennis elbow. PMID:26317528

  11. Overlapping Repressor Binding Sites Result in Additive Regulation of Escherichia coli FadH by FadR and ArcA▿

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Youjun; Cronan, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli fadH encodes a 2,4-dienoyl reductase that plays an auxiliary role in β-oxidation of certain unsaturated fatty acids. In the 2 decades since its discovery, FadH biochemistry has been studied extensively. However, the genetic regulation of FadH has been explored only partially. Here we report mapping of the fadH promoter and document its complex regulation by three independent regulators, the fatty acid degradation FadR repressor, the oxygen-responsive ArcA-ArcB two-component system, and the cyclic AMP receptor protein-cyclic AMP (CRP-cAMP) complex. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that FadR binds to the fadH promoter region and that this binding can be specifically reversed by long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters. In vivo data combining transcriptional lacZ fusion and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses indicated that fadH is strongly repressed by FadR, in agreement with induction of fadH by long-chain fatty acids. Inactivation of arcA increased fadH transcription by >3-fold under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, fadH expression was increased 8- to 10-fold under anaerobic conditions upon deletion of both the fadR and the arcA gene, indicating that anaerobic expression is additively repressed by FadR and ArcA-ArcB. Unlike fadM, a newly reported member of the E. coli fad regulon that encodes another auxiliary β-oxidation enzyme, fadH was activated by the CRP-cAMP complex in a manner similar to those of the prototypical fad genes. In the absence of the CRP-cAMP complex, repression of fadH expression by both FadR and ArcA-ArcB was very weak, suggesting a possible interplay with other DNA binding proteins. PMID:20622065

  12. Does finger sense predict addition performance?

    PubMed

    Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-05-01

    The impact of fingers on numerical and mathematical cognition has received a great deal of attention recently. However, the precise role that fingers play in numerical cognition is unknown. The current study explores the relationship between finger sense, arithmetic and general cognitive ability. Seventy-six children between the ages of 5 and 12 participated in the study. The results of stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that while general cognitive ability including language processing was a predictor of addition performance, finger sense was not. The impact of age on the relationship between finger sense, and addition was further examined. The participants were separated into two groups based on age. The results showed that finger gnosia score impacted addition performance in the older group but not the younger group. These results appear to support the hypothesis that fingers provide a scaffold for calculation and that if that scaffold is not properly built, it has continued differential consequences to mathematical cognition. PMID:26993292

  13. Three dimensional dynamics of baroclinic tides at the Celtic Sea shelf break: on the results of in-situ observations and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasenko, Vasiliy; Stashchuk, Nataliya; Inall, Mark; Hopkins, Jo

    2015-04-01

    The three-dimensional dynamics of baroclinic tides in the shelf-slope area of the Celtic Sea were investigated numerically and using observational data collected on the 376-th cruise of the R/V ``Discovery'' in June 2012. The time series recorded at a shelf-break mooring showed that semi-diurnal internal waves were accompanied by packets of internal solitary waves with maximum amplitudes up to 105 m, the largest internal waves ever recorded in the Celtic Sea. The observed baroclinic wave fields were replicated numerically using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. A fine-resolution grid with 115 m horizontal and 10 m vertical steps allowed the identification of two classes of short-scale internal waves. The first class was generated over headlands and resembles spiral-type internal waves that are typical for isolated underwater banks. The second class, generated within an area of isolated canyons, revealed properties of quasi-plane internal wave packets. The observed in-situ intensification of tidal bottom currents at the shelf break mooring is explained in terms of a tidal beam that was formed over supercritical bottom topography.

  14. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W.M.; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F.; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network. PMID:26611473

  15. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial.

    PubMed

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W M; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-02-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network. PMID:26611473

  16. Structure of transition-metal cluster compounds: Use of an additional orbital resulting from the f, g character of spd bond orbitals*

    PubMed Central

    Pauling, Linus

    1977-01-01

    A general theory of the structure of complexes of the transition metals is developed on the basis of the enneacovalence of the metals and the requirements of the electroneutrality principle. An extra orbital may be provided through the small but not negligible amount of f and g character of spd bond orbitals, and an extra electron or electron pair may be accepted in this orbital for a single metal or a cluster to neutralize the positive electric charge resulting from the partial ionic character of the bonds with ligands, such as the carbonyl group. Examples of cluster compounds of cobalt, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, and gold are discussed. PMID:16592470

  17. When Should We Teach Regrouping in Addition and Subtraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Jon M.; Usnick, Virginia

    1991-01-01

    Presented are the results of two pilot studies about multidigit addition and subtraction. The results are discussed in relation to possible alternative sequences in the teaching of addition and subtraction and the relationship between basic fact mastery and numeration concept attainment. (CW)

  18. Effect of Using Local Intrawound Vancomycin Powder in Addition to Intravenous Antibiotics in Posterior Lumbar Surgery: Midterm Result in a Single-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gun-Ill; Chun, Hyoung-Joon; Choi, Kyu-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted this study to report the efficacy of local application of vancomycin powder in the setting of surgical site infection (SSI) of posterior lumbar surgical procedures and to figure out risk factors of SSIs. Methods From February 2013 to December 2013, SSI rates following 275 posterior lumbar surgeries of which intrawound vancomycin powder was used in combination with intravenous antibiotics (Vanco group) were assessed. Compared with 296 posterior lumbar procedures with intravenous antibiotic only group from February 2012 to December 2012 (non-Vanco group), various infection rates were assessed. Univariate and multivariate analysis to figure out risk factors of infection among Vanco group were done. Results Statistically significant reduction of SSI in Vanco group (5.5%) from non-Vanco group (10.5%) was confirmed (p=0.028). Mean follow-up period was 8 months. Rate of acute staphylococcal SSIs reduced statistically significantly to 4% compared to 7.4% of non-Vanco group (p=0.041). Deep staphylococcal infection decreased to 2 compared to 8 and deep methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection also decreased to 1 compared to 5 in non-Vanco group. No systemic complication was observed. Statistically significant risk factors associated with SSI were diabetes mellitus, history of cardiovascular disease, length of hospital stay, number of instrumented level and history of previous surgery. Conclusion In this series of 571 patients, intrawound vancomycin powder usage resulted in significant decrease in SSI rates in our posterior lumbar surgical procedures. Patients at high risk of infection are highly recommended as a candidate for this technique. PMID:27437012

  19. Does early intensive multifactorial therapy reduce modelled cardiovascular risk in individuals with screen-detected diabetes? Results from the ADDITION-Europe cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Black, J A; Sharp, S J; Wareham, N J; Sandbæk, A; Rutten, G E H M; Lauritzen, T; Khunti, K; Davies, M J; Borch-Johnsen, K; Griffin, S J; Simmons, R K

    2014-01-01

    Aims Little is known about the long-term effects of intensive multifactorial treatment early in the diabetes disease trajectory. In the absence of long-term data on hard outcomes, we described change in 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk in the 5 years following diagnosis, and quantified the impact of intensive treatment on 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk at 5 years. Methods In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, parallel-group trial in Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK, 3057 people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes were randomized by general practice to receive (1) routine care of diabetes according to national guidelines (1379 patients) or (2) intensive multifactorial target-driven management (1678 patients). Ten-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was calculated at baseline and 5 years using the UK Prospective Diabetes Study Risk Engine (version 3β). Results Among 2101 individuals with complete data at follow up (73.4%), 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was 27.3% (sd 13.9) at baseline and 21.3% (sd 13.8) at 5-year follow-up (intensive treatment group difference –6.9, sd 9.0; routine care group difference –5.0, sd 12.2). Modelled 10-year cardiovascular disease risk was lower in the intensive treatment group compared with the routine care group at 5 years, after adjustment for baseline cardiovascular disease risk and clustering (–2.0; 95% CI –3.1 to –0.9). Conclusions Despite increasing age and diabetes duration, there was a decline in modelled cardiovascular disease risk in the 5 years following diagnosis. Compared with routine care, 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was lower in the intensive treatment group at 5 years. Our results suggest that patients benefit from intensive treatment early in the diabetes disease trajectory, where the rate of cardiovascular disease risk progression may be slowed. PMID:24533664

  20. Addition of GM-CSF to a peptide/KLH vaccine results in increased frequencies of CXCR3-expressing KLH-specific T cells.

    PubMed

    Na, Il-Kang; Keilholz, Ulrich; Letsch, Anne; Bauer, Sandra; Asemissen, Anne Marie; Nagorsen, Dirk; Thiel, Eckhard; Scheibenbogen, Carmen

    2007-03-01

    T-cell trafficking is determined by expression patterns of chemokine receptors. The chemokine receptor CXCR3 is expressed on a subpopulation of type 1 T cells and plays an important role for migration of T cells into inflamed and tumor tissues. Here, we studied the chemokine receptor expression on specific T cells generated against the neoantigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) in patients who had been immunized in the context of a tumor peptide vaccination trial with or without the adjuvant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). In patients immunized in the presence of GM-CSF the fraction of CXCR3(+) KLH-specific T cells was significantly higher than in patients immunized in the absence of GM-CSF (median 45 vs. 20%, P = 0.001). In contrast, the chemokine receptor CCR4, associated with migration to the skin was found in both cohorts on less than 10% of KLH-specific T cells. These results show that CXCR3 expression on vaccine-induced T cells can be modulated by modifying the local vaccine milieu. PMID:16850346

  1. Soil Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in a Pacific Northwest Douglas-Fir Forest: Results from a Soil Fertilization and Biochar Addition Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, I.; Johnson, M. S.; Jassal, R. S.; Black, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    evacuated 12-mL vials and analyzed by gas chromatography. Chamber headspace GHG mixing ratios vs. time data were fit to linear and exponential models in R (Version 2.14.0) and fluxes were calculated. Results showed high variability in GHG fluxes over time in all treatments. Higher CO2 emissions were observed during early summer (119 μg CO2 m-2 s-1 in the control plots), decreasing with drought (19 μg CO2 m-2 s-1 in the control plots). CH4 uptake by soil increased during summer months from -0.004 μg CH4 m-2 s-1 to -0.089 μg CH4 m-2 s-1 in the control plots, in response to drying conditions in the upper soil profile. N2O was both consumed and emitted in all treatments, with fluxes ranging from -0.0009 to 0.0019 μg N2O m-2 s-1 in the control plots. Analysis of variance indicated that there were significant differences in GHG fluxes between treatments over time. We also investigated the potential effects of large volume headspace removal, and H2O vapour saturation leading to a dilution effect by using a closed-path infra-red gas analyzer with an inline humidity sensor.

  2. Improved Resolution and Reduced Clutter in Ultra-Wideband Microwave Imaging Using Cross-Correlated Back Projection: Experimental and Numerical Results

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, S.; Birkelund, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Microwave breast cancer detection is based on the dielectric contrast between healthy and malignant tissue. This radar-based imaging method involves illumination of the breast with an ultra-wideband pulse. Detection of tumors within the breast is achieved by some selected focusing technique. Image formation algorithms are tailored to enhance tumor responses and reduce early-time and late-time clutter associated with skin reflections and heterogeneity of breast tissue. In this contribution, we evaluate the performance of the so-called cross-correlated back projection imaging scheme by using a scanning system in phantom experiments. Supplementary numerical modeling based on commercial software is also presented. The phantom is synthetically scanned with a broadband elliptical antenna in a mono-static configuration. The respective signals are pre-processed by a data-adaptive RLS algorithm in order to remove artifacts caused by antenna reverberations and signal clutter. Successful detection of a 7 mm diameter cylindrical tumor immersed in a low permittivity medium was achieved in all cases. Selecting the widely used delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming algorithm as a benchmark, we show that correlation based imaging methods improve the signal-to-clutter ratio by at least 10 dB and improves spatial resolution through a reduction of the imaged peak full-width half maximum (FWHM) of about 40–50%. PMID:21331362

  3. Numerical Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sozio, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    Senior secondary students cover numerical integration techniques in their mathematics courses. In particular, students would be familiar with the "midpoint rule," the elementary "trapezoidal rule" and "Simpson's rule." This article derives these techniques by methods which secondary students may not be familiar with and an approach that…

  4. Predictions of thermal comfort and pollutant distributions for a thermostatically-controlled, air-conditioned, partitioned room: Numerical results and enhanced graphical presentation

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.D.; Eyler, L.L.

    1989-05-01

    An index of local thermal comfort and pollutant distributions have been computed with the TEMPEST computer code, in a transient simulation of an air-conditioned enclosure with an incomplete partition. This complex three-dimensional air conditioning problem included forced ventilation through inlet veins, flow through a partition, remote return air vents, and infiltration source, a pollutant source, and a thermostatically controlled air conditioning system. Five forced ventilation schemes that varied in vent areas and face velocities were simulated. Thermal comfort was modeled as a three-dimensional scalar field dependent on the fluid velocity and temperature fields; where humidity activity levels, and clothing were considered constants. Pollutants transport was incorporated through an additional constituent diffusion equation. Six distinct graphic techniques for the visualization of the three-dimensional data fields of air velocity, temperature, and comfort index were tested. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. 76 FR 59116 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 6/10/2011 (76 FR 34064-34065) and 7/22/2011 (76 FR 43990-43991), the... Blue, Numerous Sizes. NSN: AF320--Pants, USAF, Unisex, Rain, Dark Navy Blue, Numerous Sizes. NSN:...

  6. Effect of the thickness variation and initial imperfection on buckling of composite cylindrical shells: Asymptotic analysis and numerical results by BOSOR4 and PANDA2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Yi-Wei; Elishakoff, Isaac; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Bushnell, David

    1998-01-01

    This study is an extension of a previous investigation of the combined effect of axisymmetric thickness variation and axisymmetric initial geometric imperfection on buckling of isotropic shells under uniform axial compression. Here the anisotropic cylindrical shells are investigated by means of Koiter's energy criterion. An asymptotic formula is derived which can be used to determine the critical buckling load for composite shells with combined initial geometric imperfection and thickness variation. Results are compared with those obtained by the software packages BOSOR4 and PANDA2.

  7. The Numerical Comparison of Magnetic Susceptibility and Heat Capacity of TMNIN with the Result of a Quantum Monte Carlo Method for the Haldane System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Masakazu; Mito, Masaki; Deguchi, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Kazuyoshi

    1994-03-01

    The measurements of magnetic heat capacity and susceptibility of one-dimensional S=1 antiferromagnet (CH3)4NNi(NO2)3 (TMNIN) have been carried out in order to make comparison with the theoretical results of a quantum Monte Carlo method for the Haldane system. The results for the heat capacity, which show a broad maximum around 10 K, are well reproduced by the theory with the interaction J/k B=-12.0±1.0 K in the temperature range T>0.2\\mid J\\mid S(S+1)/k_B. The low temperature heat capacity exhibits an exponential decay with gap energy Δ/k B=5.3±0.2 K, which gives {\\mitΔ}=0.44\\mid J\\mid , in contrast to the linear dependence on temperature as in the case for half integer spin. The residual magnetic entropy below 0.7 K is estimated to be 0.07% of Nk B ln 3, which denies the possibility of three-dimensional ordering of the spin system at lower temperatures. The observed susceptibility also agrees with the theory with J/k B=-10.9 K and g=2.02 in the whole temperature region, when we take the effect from the finite length of the chains into consideration.

  8. Experimental and numerical investigations of internal heat transfer in an innovative trailing edge blade cooling system: stationary and rotation effects, part 1—experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniaiche, Ahmed; Ghenaiet, Adel; Facchini, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    The aero-thermal behavior of the flow field inside 30:1 scaled model reproducing an innovative smooth trailing edge of shaped wedge discharge duct with one row of enlarged pedestals have been investigated in order to determine the effect of rotation, inlet velocity and blowing conditions effects, for Re = 20,000 and 40,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. Two configurations are presented: with and without open tip configurations. Thermo-chromic liquid crystals technique is used to ensure a local measurement of the heat transfer coefficient on the blade suction side under stationary and rotation conditions. Results are reported in terms of detailed 2D HTC maps on the suction side surface as well as the averaged Nusselt number inside the pedestal ducts. Two correlations are proposed, for both closed and open tip configurations, based on the Re, Pr, Ro and a new non-dimensional parameter based on the position along the radial distance, to assess a reliable estimation of the averaged Nusselt number at the inter-pedestal region. A good agreement is found between prediction and experimental data with about ±10 to ±12 % of uncertainty, for the simple form correlation, and about ±16 % using a complex form. The obtained results help to predict the flow field visualization and the evaluation of the aero-thermal performance of the studied blade cooling system during the design step.

  9. Comparison of the Structurally Controlled Landslides Numerical Model Results to the M 7.2 2013 Bohol Earthquake Co-seismic Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macario Galang, Jan Albert; Narod Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2015-04-01

    The M 7.2 October 15, 2013 Bohol earthquake is the most destructive earthquake to hit the Philippines since 2012. The epicenter was located in Sagbayan municipality, central Bohol and was generated by a previously unmapped reverse fault called the "Inabanga Fault". Its name, taken after the barangay (village) where the fault is best exposed and was first seen. The earthquake resulted in 209 fatalities and over 57 billion USD worth of damages. The earthquake generated co-seismic landslides most of which were related to fault structures. Unlike rainfall induced landslides, the trigger for co-seismic landslides happen without warning. Preparedness against this type of landslide therefore, relies heavily on the identification of fracture-related unstable slopes. To mitigate the impacts of co-seismic landslide hazards, morpho-structural orientations or discontinuity sets were mapped in the field with the aid of a 2012 IFSAR Digital Terrain Model (DTM) with 5-meter pixel resolution and < 0.5 meter vertical accuracy. Coltop 3D software was then used to identify similar structures including measurement of their dip and dip directions. The chosen discontinuity sets were then keyed into Matterocking software to identify potential rock slide zones due to planar or wedged discontinuities. After identifying the structurally-controlled unstable slopes, the rock mass propagation extent of the possible rock slides was simulated using Conefall. The results were compared to a post-earthquake landslide inventory of 456 landslides. Out the total number of landslides identified from post-earthquake high-resolution imagery, 366 or 80% intersect the structural-controlled hazard areas of Bohol. The results show the potential of this method to identify co-seismic landslide hazard areas for disaster mitigation. Along with computer methods to simulate shallow landslides, and debris flow paths, located structurally-controlled unstable zones can be used to mark unsafe areas for settlement. The

  10. Electron density, exchange-correlation density, and bond characterization from the perspective of the valence-bond theory. II. Numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincón, Luis; Alvarellos, J. E.; Almeida, Rafael

    2005-06-01

    In this work we have analyzed the bond character of a series of representative diatomic molecules, using valence bond and the atoms in molecules points of view. This is done using generalized valence-bond calculations. We have also employed more exigent levels, as configuration interaction with single and double excitations and complete active space self-consistent field calculations, in order to validate the generalized valence-bond results. We have explored the possibility that the known delocalization index, and a parameter that measures the excess or defect population within a given atomic basin, can be considered as indicators of the character of bond interaction. We conclude that for a proper description of the bond character, the global behavior of both the charge and two-electron densities should be considered.

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  12. The role of indigenous traditional counting systems in children's development of numerical cognition: results from a study in Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matang, Rex A. S.; Owens, Kay

    2014-09-01

    The Government of Papua New Guinea undertook a significant step in developing curriculum reform policy that promoted the use of Indigenous knowledge systems in teaching formal school subjects in any of the country's 800-plus Indigenous languages. The implementation of the Elementary Cultural Mathematics Syllabus is in line with the above curriculum emphasis. Given the aims of the reform, the research reported here investigated the influence of children's own mother tongue (Tok Ples) and traditional counting systems on their development of early number knowledge formally taught in schools. The study involved 272 school children from 22 elementary schools in four provinces. Each child participated in a task-based assessment interview focusing on eight task groups relating to early number knowledge. The results obtained indicate that, on average, children learning their traditional counting systems in their own language spent shorter time and made fewer mistakes in solving each task compared to those taught without Tok Ples (using English and/or the lingua franca, Tok Pisin). Possible reasons accounting for these differences are also discussed.

  13. Numerical methods used in fusion science numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, M.

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of burning plasma is very complicated physics, which is dominated by multi-scale and multi-physics phenomena. To understand such phenomena, numerical simulations are indispensable. Fundamentals of numerical methods used in fusion science numerical modeling are briefly discussed in this paper. In addition, the parallelization technique such as open multi processing (OpenMP) and message passing interface (MPI) parallel programing are introduced and the loop-level parallelization is shown as an example.

  14. Frontiers in Numerical Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Charles R.; Finn, Lee S.; Hobill, David W.

    2011-06-01

    Preface; Participants; Introduction; 1. Supercomputing and numerical relativity: a look at the past, present and future David W. Hobill and Larry L. Smarr; 2. Computational relativity in two and three dimensions Stuart L. Shapiro and Saul A. Teukolsky; 3. Slowly moving maximally charged black holes Robert C. Ferrell and Douglas M. Eardley; 4. Kepler's third law in general relativity Steven Detweiler; 5. Black hole spacetimes: testing numerical relativity David H. Bernstein, David W. Hobill and Larry L. Smarr; 6. Three dimensional initial data of numerical relativity Ken-ichi Oohara and Takashi Nakamura; 7. Initial data for collisions of black holes and other gravitational miscellany James W. York, Jr.; 8. Analytic-numerical matching for gravitational waveform extraction Andrew M. Abrahams; 9. Supernovae, gravitational radiation and the quadrupole formula L. S. Finn; 10. Gravitational radiation from perturbations of stellar core collapse models Edward Seidel and Thomas Moore; 11. General relativistic implicit radiation hydrodynamics in polar sliced space-time Paul J. Schinder; 12. General relativistic radiation hydrodynamics in spherically symmetric spacetimes A. Mezzacappa and R. A. Matzner; 13. Constraint preserving transport for magnetohydrodynamics John F. Hawley and Charles R. Evans; 14. Enforcing the momentum constraints during axisymmetric spacelike simulations Charles R. Evans; 15. Experiences with an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm in numerical relativity Matthew W. Choptuik; 16. The multigrid technique Gregory B. Cook; 17. Finite element methods in numerical relativity P. J. Mann; 18. Pseudo-spectral methods applied to gravitational collapse Silvano Bonazzola and Jean-Alain Marck; 19. Methods in 3D numerical relativity Takashi Nakamura and Ken-ichi Oohara; 20. Nonaxisymmetric rotating gravitational collapse and gravitational radiation Richard F. Stark; 21. Nonaxisymmetric neutron star collisions: initial results using smooth particle hydrodynamics

  15. Recovery of clinical but not radiographic outcomes by the delayed addition of adalimumab to methotrexate-treated Japanese patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: 52-week results of the HOPEFUL-1 trial

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, Naoki; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Mukai, Masaya; Matsubara, Tsukasa; Uchida, Shoji; Akama, Hideto; Kupper, Hartmut; Arora, Vipin; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy outcomes of initial treatment with adalimumab + MTX vs adalimumab addition following 26 weeks of MTX monotherapy in Japanese early RA patients naive to MTX with high disease activity. Methods. Patients completing the 26-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of adalimumab + MTX were eligible to receive 26 weeks of open-label adalimumab + MTX. Patients were assessed for mean change from baseline in the 28-joint DAS with ESR (DAS28-ESR) and modified total Sharp score (mTSS), and for the proportions of patients achieving clinical, functional or radiographic remission. Results. Of 333 patients assessed, 278 (137 from the initial adalimumab + MTX and 141 from the initial placebo + MTX groups) completed the 52-week study. Significant differences in clinical and functional parameters observed during the 26-week blinded period were not apparent following the addition of open-label adalimumab to MTX. Open-label adalimumab + MTX slowed radiographic progression through week 52 in both groups, but patients who received adalimumab + MTX throughout the study exhibited less radiographic progression than those who received placebo + MTX during the first 26 weeks (mean ΔmTSS at week 52 = 2.56 vs 3.30, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Delayed addition of adalimumab in Japanese MTX-naive early RA patients did not impact clinical and functional outcomes at week 52 compared with the earlier addition of adalimumab. However, the accrual of significant structural damage during blinded placebo + MTX therapy contributed to the persistence of differences between the treatment strategies, suggesting that Japanese patients at risk for aggressive disease should benefit from the early inclusion of adalimumab + MTX combination therapy. Trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov/), NCT00870467. PMID:24441150

  16. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Forming Limit Diagram for AA3105

    SciTech Connect

    Safari, Mehdi; Yousefzadeh, Sh.; Hoseinipour, S. J.; Azodi, H. D.

    2011-01-17

    In this work, forming limit diagram for aluminum alloy 3105 is performed experimentally using out of plane test. In addition, using ductile fracture criteria and finite element simulation, forming limit diagram of aluminum alloy 3105 is performed numerically. Finally, it is shown that the results obtained from numerical prediction are in good agreement with experimental results.

  17. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  18. Numerical discretization for nonlinear diffusion filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustaffa, I.; Mizuar, I.; Aminuddin, M. M. M.; Dasril, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Nonlinear diffusion filters are famously used in machine vision for image denoising and restoration. This paper presents a study on the effects of different numerical discretization of nonlinear diffusion filter. Several numerical discretization schemes are presented; namely semi-implicit, AOS, and fully implicit schemes. The results of these schemes are compared by visual results, objective measurement e.g. PSNR and MSE. The results are also compared to a Daubechies wavelet denoising method. It is acknowledged that the two preceding scheme have already been discussed in literature, however comparison to the latter scheme has not been made. The semi-implicit scheme uses an additive operator splitting (AOS) developed to overcome the shortcoming of the explicit scheme i.e., stability for very small time steps. Although AOS has proven to be efficient, from the nonlinear diffusion filter results with different discretization schemes, examples shows that implicit schemes are worth pursuing.

  19. Numerical simulation of supersonic boundary layer transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Y.; Adams, N. A.; Sandham, N. D.; Kleiser, L.

    1994-01-01

    The present contribution reviews some of the recent progress obtained at our group in the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of compressible boundary layer transition. Elements of the different simulation approaches and numerical techniques employed are surveyed. Temporal and spatial simulations, as well as comparisons with results obtained from Parabolized Stability Equations, are discussed. DNS results are given for flat plate boundary layers in the Mach number range 1.6 to 4.5. A temporal DNS at Mach 4.5 has been continued through breakdown all the way to the turbulent stage. In addition results obtained with a recently developed extended temporal DNS approach are presented, which takes into account some nonparallel effects of a growing boundary layer. Results from this approach are quite close to those of spatial DNS, while preserving the efficiency of the temporal DNS.

  20. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  1. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  2. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia G.

    2004-01-01

    The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. Because the NPSS was developed using the object-oriented paradigm, the resulting architecture is an extensible and flexible framework that is currently being used by a diverse set of participants in government, academia, and the aerospace industry. NPSS is being used by over 15 different institutions to support rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and aerospace. Full system-level simulations as well as subsystems may be modeled using NPSS. The NPSS architecture enables the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail, which is called numerical zooming. The middleware used to enable zooming and distributed simulations is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The NPSS Developer's Kit offers tools for the developer to generate CORBA-based components and wrap codes. The Developer's Kit enables distributed multi-fidelity and multi-discipline simulations, preserves proprietary and legacy codes, and facilitates addition of customized codes. The platforms supported are PC, Linux, HP, Sun, and SGI.

  3. Numerical simulation of dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Winske, D.

    1995-09-01

    The numerical simulation of physical processes in dusty plasmas is reviewed, with emphasis on recent results and unresolved issues. Three areas of research are discussed: grain charging, weak dust-plasma interactions, and strong dust-plasma interactions. For each area, we review the basic concepts that are tested by simulations, present some appropriate examples, and examine numerical issues associated with extending present work.

  4. Numerical modeling of Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Chable, S.; Rogier, F.

    2005-05-16

    A stationary plasma thruster is numerically studied using different levels. An one dimensional modeling is first analyzed and compared with experimental results. A simplified model of oscillations thruster is proposed and used to control the amplitude of oscillations. A two dimensional numerical method is discussed and applied to the computation of the flow in the exhaust.

  5. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  6. Addition of rapamycin and hydroxychloroquine to metronomic chemotherapy as a second line treatment results in high salvage rates for refractory metastatic solid tumors: a pilot safety and effectiveness analysis in a small patient cohort

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Ko, Hui-Ling; Yang, Kai-Lin; Lee, Cheng-Yen; Chi, Mau-Shin; Kao, Shang-Jyh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Autophagy is an important oncotarget that can be modulated during anti-cancer therapy. Enhancing autophagy using chemotherapy and rapamycin (Rapa) treatment and then inhibiting it using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) could synergistically improve therapy outcome in cancer patients. It is still unclear whether addition of Rapa and HCQ to chemotherapy could be used for reversing drug resistance. PATIENTS AND METHODS Twenty-five stage IV cancer patients were identified. They had no clinical response to first-line metronomic chemotherapy; the patients were salvaged by adding an autophagy inducer (Rapa, 2 mg/day) and an autophagosome inhibitor (HCQ, 400 mg/day) to their current metronomic chemotherapy for at least 3 months. Patients included 4 prostate, 4 bladder, 4 lung, 4 breast, 2 colon, and 3 head and neck cancer patients as well as 4 sarcoma patients. RESULTS Chemotherapy was administered for a total of 137 months. The median duration of chemotherapy cycles per patient was 4 months (95% confidence interval, 3–7 months). The overall response rate to this treatment was of 40%, with an 84% disease control rate. The most frequent and clinically significant toxicities were myelotoxicities. Grade ≥3 leucopenia occurred in 6 patients (24%), grade ≥3 thrombocytopenia in 8 (32%), and anemia in 3 (12%). None of them developed febrile neutropenia. Non-hematologic toxicities were fatigue (total 32%, with 1 patient developing grade 3 fatigue), diarrhea (total 20%, 1 patient developed grade 3 fatigue), reversible grade 3 cardiotoxicity (1 patient), and grade V liver toxicity from hepatitis B reactivation (1 patient). CONCLUSION Our results of Rapa, HCQ and chemotherapy triplet combination suggest autophagy is a promising oncotarget and warrants further investigation in phase II studies. PMID:25944689

  7. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

  8. Ferrofluids: Modeling, numerical analysis, and scientific computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomas, Ignacio

    simplified version of this model and the corresponding numerical scheme we prove (in addition to stability) convergence and existence of solutions as by-product . Throughout this dissertation, we will provide numerical experiments, not only to validate mathematical results, but also to help the reader gain a qualitative understanding of the PDE models analyzed in this dissertation (the MNSE, the Rosenweig's model, and the Two-phase model). In addition, we also provide computational experiments to illustrate the potential of these simple models and their ability to capture basic phenomenological features of ferrofluids, such as the Rosensweig instability for the case of the two-phase model. In this respect, we highlight the incisive numerical experiments with the two-phase model illustrating the critical role of the demagnetizing field to reproduce physically realistic behavior of ferrofluids.

  9. Numerical simulation for flow around two circular cylinders in tandem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Norio; Matsukuma, Daisuke

    2005-05-01

    We use a third-order upwind finite element scheme in order to perform numerical stabilization of solutions of the Navier Stokes equations and present numerical results of flow around two circular cylinders in tandem arrangement by two- and three-dimensional computations. The two circular cylinders are arranged with some spacings between the cylinders. It is well known from experimental data that the flow around two circular cylinders denotes very complicated phenomena with the variation of spacing between two cylinders. In addition, the time-averaged drag coefficients of two circular cylinders suddenly change at a certain spacing between the cylinders. We, therefore, make an investigation of such phenomena at the Reynolds number of 1000 by the use of a numerical approach, and the obtained numerical results are also qualitatively compared with experimental data.

  10. Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R

    2003-02-12

    This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included.

  11. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  12. Overview of differences between microbial feed additives and probiotics for food regarding regulation, growth promotion effects and health properties and consequences for extrapolation of farm animal results to humans.

    PubMed

    Bernardeau, M; Vernoux, J-P

    2013-04-01

    For many years, microbial adjuncts have been used to supplement the diets of farm animals and humans. They have evolved since the 1990s to become known as probiotics, i.e. functional food with health benefits. After the discovery of a possible link between manipulation of gut microflora in mice and obesity, a focus on the use of these beneficial microbes that act on gut microflora in animal farming was undertaken and compared with the use of probiotics for food. Beneficial microbes added to feed are classified at a regulatory level as zootechnical additives, in the category of gut flora stabilizers for healthy animals and are regulated up to strain level in Europe. Intended effects are improvement of performance characteristics, which are strain dependent and growth enhancement is not a prerequisite. In fact, increase of body weight is not commonly reported and its frequency is around 25% of the published data examined here. However, when a Body Weight Gain (BWG) was found in the literature, it was generally moderate (lower than or close to 10%) and this over a reduced period of their short industrial life. When it was higher than 10%, it could be explained as an indirect consequence of the alleviation of the weight losses linked to stressful intensive rearing conditions or health deficiency. However, regulations on feed do not consider the health effects because animals are supposed to be healthy, so there is no requirement for reporting healthy effects in the standard European dossier. The regulations governing the addition of beneficial microorganisms to food are less stringent than for feed and no dossier is required if a species has a Qualified Presumption of Safety status. The microbial strain marketed is not submitted to any regulation and its properties (including BWG) do not need to be studied. Only claims for functional or healthy properties are regulated and again growth effect is not included. However, recent studies on probiotic effects showed that BWG

  13. Influence of Hydraulic Design on Stability and on Pressure Pulsations in Francis Turbines at Overload, Part Load and Deep Part Load based on Numerical Simulations and Experimental Model Test Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnoli, M. V.; Maiwald, M.

    2014-03-01

    Francis turbines have been running more and more frequently in part load conditions, in order to satisfy the new market requirements for more dynamic and flexible energy generation, ancillary services and grid regulation. The turbines should be able to be operated for longer durations with flows below the optimum point, going from part load to deep part load and even speed-no-load. These operating conditions are characterised by important unsteady flow phenomena taking place at the draft tube cone and in the runner channels, in the respective cases of part load and deep part load. The current expectations are that new Francis turbines present appropriate hydraulic stability and moderate pressure pulsations at overload, part load, deep part load and speed-no-load with high efficiency levels at normal operating range. This study presents series of investigations performed by Voith Hydro with the objective to improve the hydraulic stability of Francis turbines at overload, part load and deep part load, reduce pressure pulsations and enlarge the know-how about the transient fluid flow through the turbine at these challenging conditions. Model test measurements showed that distinct runner designs were able to influence the pressure pulsation level in the machine. Extensive experimental investigations focused on the runner deflector geometry, on runner features and how they could reduce the pressure oscillation level. The impact of design variants and machine configurations on the vortex rope at the draft tube cone at overload and part load and on the runner channel vortex at deep part load were experimentally observed and evaluated based on the measured pressure pulsation amplitudes. Numerical investigations were employed for improving the understanding of such dynamic fluid flow effects. As example for the design and experimental investigations, model test observations and pressure pulsation curves for Francis machines in mid specific speed range, around nqopt = 50 min

  14. The impact on outcome of the addition of all-trans retinoic acid to intensive chemotherapy in younger patients with nonacute promyelocytic acute myeloid leukemia: overall results and results in genotypic subgroups defined by mutations in NPM1, FLT3, and CEBPA.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Alan K; Hills, Robert K; Green, Claire; Jenkinson, Sarah; Koo, Kenneth; Patel, Yashma; Guy, Carol; Gilkes, Amanda; Milligan, Donald W; Goldstone, Anthony H; Prentice, Archibald G; Wheatley, Keith; Linch, David C; Gale, Rosemary E

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the benefit of adding all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) to chemotherapy for younger patients with nonacute promyelocytic acute myeloid leukemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, and considered interactions between treatment and molecular markers. Overall, 1075 patients less than 60 years of age were randomized to receive or not receive ATRA in addition to daunorubicin/Ara-C/thioguanine chemotherapy with Ara-C at standard or double standard dose. There were data on FLT3 internal tandem duplications and NPM1 mutations (n = 592), CEBPA mutations (n = 423), and MN1 expression (n = 195). The complete remission rate was 68% with complete remission with incomplete count recovery in an additional 16%; 8-year overall survival was 32%. There was no significant treatment effect for any outcome, with no significant interactions between treatment and demographics, or cytarabine randomization. Importantly, there were no interactions by FLT3/internal tandem duplications, NPM1, or CEBPA mutation. There was a suggestion that ATRA reduced relapse in patients with lower MN1 levels, but no significant effect on overall survival. Results were consistent when restricted to patients with normal karyotype. ATRA has no overall effect on treatment outcomes in this group of patients. The study did not identify any subgroup of patients likely to derive a significant survival benefit from the addition of ATRA to chemotherapy. PMID:19965647

  15. Mechanical properties of additively manufactured octagonal honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-12-01

    Honeycomb structures have found numerous applications as structural and biomedical materials due to their favourable properties such as low weight, high stiffness, and porosity. Application of additive manufacturing and 3D printing techniques allows for manufacturing of honeycombs with arbitrary shape and wall thickness, opening the way for optimizing the mechanical and physical properties for specific applications. In this study, the mechanical properties of honeycomb structures with a new geometry, called octagonal honeycomb, were investigated using analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. An additive manufacturing technique, namely fused deposition modelling, was used to fabricate the honeycomb from polylactic acid (PLA). The honeycombs structures were then mechanically tested under compression and the mechanical properties of the structures were determined. In addition, the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories were used for deriving analytical relationships for elastic modulus, yield stress, Poisson's ratio, and buckling stress of this new design of honeycomb structures. Finite element models were also created to analyse the mechanical behaviour of the honeycombs computationally. The analytical solutions obtained using Timoshenko beam theory were close to computational results in terms of elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and yield stress, especially for relative densities smaller than 25%. The analytical solutions based on the Timoshenko analytical solution and the computational results were in good agreement with experimental observations. Finally, the elastic properties of the proposed honeycomb structure were compared to those of other honeycomb structures such as square, triangular, hexagonal, mixed, diamond, and Kagome. The octagonal honeycomb showed yield stress and elastic modulus values very close to those of regular hexagonal honeycombs and lower than the other considered honeycombs. PMID:27612831

  16. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  17. Numerical modeling of waveguide heated microwave plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Venkateswaran, S.; Schwer, D.A.; Merkle, C.L.

    1993-12-01

    Waveguide-heated microwave plasmas for space propulsion applications are analyzed by a two-dimensional numerical solution of the combined Navier-Stokes and Maxwell equations. Two waveguide configurations -- one purely transmitting and the other with a reflecting end wall -- are considered. Plasma stability and absorption characteristics are studied and contrasted with the characteristic of resonant cavity heated plasmas. In addition, preliminary estimates of the overall efficiency and the thrust and specific impulse of the propulsion system are also made. The computational results are used to explain experimental trends and to better understand the working of these devices.

  18. An Additional Symmetry in the Weinberg-Salam Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Veselov, A.I.; Zubkov, M.A.

    2005-06-01

    An additional Z{sub 6} symmetry hidden in the fermion and Higgs sectors of the Standard Model has been found recently. It has a singular nature and is connected to the centers of the SU(3) and SU(2) subgroups of the gauge group. A lattice regularization of the Standard Model was constructed that possesses this symmetry. In this paper, we report our results on the numerical simulation of its electroweak sector.

  19. Addition of docetaxel, zoledronic acid, or both to first-line long-term hormone therapy in prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): survival results from an adaptive, multiarm, multistage, platform randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    James, Nicholas D; Sydes, Matthew R; Clarke, Noel W; Mason, Malcolm D; Dearnaley, David P; Spears, Melissa R; Ritchie, Alastair W S; Parker, Christopher C; Russell, J Martin; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann; Cross, William; Jones, Rob J; Thalmann, George; Amos, Claire; Matheson, David; Millman, Robin; Alzouebi, Mymoona; Beesley, Sharon; Birtle, Alison J; Brock, Susannah; Cathomas, Richard; Chakraborti, Prabir; Chowdhury, Simon; Cook, Audrey; Elliott, Tony; Gale, Joanna; Gibbs, Stephanie; Graham, John D; Hetherington, John; Hughes, Robert; Laing, Robert; McKinna, Fiona; McLaren, Duncan B; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Parikh, Omi; Peedell, Clive; Protheroe, Andrew; Robinson, Angus J; Srihari, Narayanan; Srinivasan, Rajaguru; Staffurth, John; Sundar, Santhanam; Tolan, Shaun; Tsang, David; Wagstaff, John; Parmar, Mahesh K B

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Long-term hormone therapy has been the standard of care for advanced prostate cancer since the 1940s. STAMPEDE is a randomised controlled trial using a multiarm, multistage platform design. It recruits men with high-risk, locally advanced, metastatic or recurrent prostate cancer who are starting first-line long-term hormone therapy. We report primary survival results for three research comparisons testing the addition of zoledronic acid, docetaxel, or their combination to standard of care versus standard of care alone. Methods Standard of care was hormone therapy for at least 2 years; radiotherapy was encouraged for men with N0M0 disease to November, 2011, then mandated; radiotherapy was optional for men with node-positive non-metastatic (N+M0) disease. Stratified randomisation (via minimisation) allocated men 2:1:1:1 to standard of care only (SOC-only; control), standard of care plus zoledronic acid (SOC + ZA), standard of care plus docetaxel (SOC + Doc), or standard of care with both zoledronic acid and docetaxel (SOC + ZA + Doc). Zoledronic acid (4 mg) was given for six 3-weekly cycles, then 4-weekly until 2 years, and docetaxel (75 mg/m2) for six 3-weekly cycles with prednisolone 10 mg daily. There was no blinding to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was overall survival. Pairwise comparisons of research versus control had 90% power at 2·5% one-sided α for hazard ratio (HR) 0·75, requiring roughly 400 control arm deaths. Statistical analyses were undertaken with standard log-rank-type methods for time-to-event data, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs derived from adjusted Cox models. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00268476) and ControlledTrials.com (ISRCTN78818544). Findings 2962 men were randomly assigned to four groups between Oct 5, 2005, and March 31, 2013. Median age was 65 years (IQR 60–71). 1817 (61%) men had M+ disease, 448 (15%) had N+/X M0, and 697 (24%) had N0M0. 165 (6

  20. Numerical Optimization Using Computer Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trosset, Michael W.; Torczon, Virginia

    1997-01-01

    Engineering design optimization often gives rise to problems in which expensive objective functions are minimized by derivative-free methods. We propose a method for solving such problems that synthesizes ideas from the numerical optimization and computer experiment literatures. Our approach relies on kriging known function values to construct a sequence of surrogate models of the objective function that are used to guide a grid search for a minimizer. Results from numerical experiments on a standard test problem are presented.

  1. A numerical scheme and some theoretical aspects for the cylindrically and spherically symmetric sine-Gordon equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Lu Trong Khiem

    2016-07-01

    A finite difference formula based on the predictor-corrector technique is presented to integrate the cylindrically and spherically symmetric sine-Gordon equations numerically. Based on various numerical observations, one property of the waves of kink type is conjectured and used to explain their returning effect. Several numerical experiments are carried out and they are in excellent agreement with the existing results. In addition, the corresponding modulation solution for the two-dimensional ring-shaped kink is extended to that in three-dimension. Both numerical and theoretical aspects are utilized to verify the reliability of the proposed numerical scheme and thus the analytical modulation solutions.

  2. Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An overview of historical and current numerical aerodynamic simulation (NAS) is given. The capabilities and goals of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility are outlined. Emphasis is given to numerical flow visualization and its applications to structural analysis of aircraft and spacecraft bodies. The uses of NAS in computational chemistry, engine design, and galactic evolution are mentioned.

  3. Numerical modeling of magnetic induction tomography using the impedance method.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Airton; Wolff, Julia G B

    2011-02-01

    This article discusses the impedance method in the forward calculation in magnetic induction tomography (MIT). Magnetic field and eddy current distributions were obtained numerically for a sphere in the field of a coil and were compared with an analytical model. Additionally, numerical and experimental results for phase sensitivity in MIT were obtained and compared for a cylindrical object in a planar array of sensors. The results showed that the impedance method provides results that agree very well with reality in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 20 MHz and for low conductivity objects (10 S/m or less). This opens the possibility of using this numerical approach in image reconstruction in MIT. PMID:21229327

  4. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with the aerospace industry, other government agencies, and academia, is leading the effort to develop an advanced multidisciplinary analysis environment for aerospace propulsion systems called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. The initial development of NPSS focused on the analysis and design of airbreathing aircraft engines, but the resulting NPSS framework may be applied to any system, for example: aerospace, rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and even human system modeling. NPSS provides increased flexibility for the user, which reduces the total development time and cost. It is currently being extended to support the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Fundamental Aeronautics Program and the Advanced Virtual Engine Test Cell (AVETeC). NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, and heat transfer with numerical zooming on component codes. Zooming is the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail. NPSS development includes capabilities to facilitate collaborative engineering. The NPSS will provide improved tools to develop custom components and to use capability for zooming to higher fidelity codes, coupling to multidiscipline codes, transmitting secure data, and distributing simulations across different platforms. These powerful capabilities extend NPSS from a zero-dimensional simulation tool to a multi-fidelity, multidiscipline system-level simulation tool for the full development life cycle.

  5. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mukherjee, T.; Zuback, J. S.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2016-01-22

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is usedmore » to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. Here, the findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts.« less

  6. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, T; Zuback, J S; De, A; DebRoy, T

    2016-01-01

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is used to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. The findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts. PMID:26796864

  7. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, T.; Zuback, J. S.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2016-01-01

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is used to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. The findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts. PMID:26796864

  8. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T.; Zuback, J. S.; de, A.; Debroy, T.

    2016-01-01

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is used to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. The findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts.

  9. A numerical comparison of discrete Kalman filtering algorithms: An orbit determination case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, C. L.; Bierman, G. J.

    1976-01-01

    The numerical stability and accuracy of various Kalman filter algorithms are thoroughly studied. Numerical results and conclusions are based on a realistic planetary approach orbit determination study. The case study results of this report highlight the numerical instability of the conventional and stabilized Kalman algorithms. Numerical errors associated with these algorithms can be so large as to obscure important mismodeling effects and thus give misleading estimates of filter accuracy. The positive result of this study is that the Bierman-Thornton U-D covariance factorization algorithm is computationally efficient, with CPU costs that differ negligibly from the conventional Kalman costs. In addition, accuracy of the U-D filter using single-precision arithmetic consistently matches the double-precision reference results. Numerical stability of the U-D filter is further demonstrated by its insensitivity of variations in the a priori statistics.

  10. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  11. Intensification of antiretroviral therapy through addition of enfuvirtide in naive HIV-1-infected patients with severe immunosuppression does not improve immunological response: results of a randomized multicenter trial (ANRS 130 Apollo).

    PubMed

    Joly, Véronique; Fagard, Catherine; Grondin, Carine; Descamps, Diane; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Charpentier, Charlotte; Colin de Verdiere, Nathalie; Tabuteau, Sophie; Raffi, François; Cabie, André; Chene, Geneviève; Yeni, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    We studied whether addition of enfuvirtide (ENF) to a background combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) would improve the CD4 cell count response at week 24 in naive patients with advanced HIV disease. ANRS 130 Apollo is a randomized study, conducted in naive HIV-1-infected patients, either asymptomatic with CD4 counts of <100/mm(3) or stage B/C disease with CD4 counts of <200/mm(3). Patients received tenofovir-emtricitabine with lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) or efavirenz and were randomized to receive ENF for 24 weeks (ENF arm) or not (control arm). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with CD4 counts of ≥ 200/mm(3) at week 24. A total of 195 patients were randomized: 73% had stage C disease, 78% were male, the mean age was 44 years, the median CD4 count was 30/mm(3), and the median HIV-1 RNA load was 5.4 log(10) copies/ml. Eighty-one percent of patients received LPV/r. One patient was lost to follow-up, and eight discontinued the study (four in each arm). The proportions of patients with CD4 counts of ≥ 200/mm(3) at week 24 were 34% and 38% in the ENF and control arms, respectively (P = 0.53). The proportions of patients with HIV-1 RNA loads of <50 copies/ml were 74% and 58% at week 24 in the ENF and control arms, respectively (P < 0.02), and the proportion reached 79% in both arms at week 48. Twenty (20%) and 12 patients (13%) in the ENF and control arms, respectively, experienced at least one AIDS event during follow-up (P = 0.17). Although inducing a more rapid virological response, addition of ENF to a standard cART does not improve the immunological outcome in naive HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression. PMID:23165467

  12. Intensification of Antiretroviral Therapy through Addition of Enfuvirtide in Naive HIV-1-Infected Patients with Severe Immunosuppression Does Not Improve Immunological Response: Results of a Randomized Multicenter Trial (ANRS 130 Apollo)

    PubMed Central

    Fagard, Catherine; Grondin, Carine; Descamps, Diane; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Charpentier, Charlotte; Colin de Verdiere, Nathalie; Tabuteau, Sophie; Raffi, François; Cabie, André; Chene, Geneviève; Yeni, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    We studied whether addition of enfuvirtide (ENF) to a background combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) would improve the CD4 cell count response at week 24 in naive patients with advanced HIV disease. ANRS 130 Apollo is a randomized study, conducted in naive HIV-1-infected patients, either asymptomatic with CD4 counts of <100/mm3 or stage B/C disease with CD4 counts of <200/mm3. Patients received tenofovir-emtricitabine with lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) or efavirenz and were randomized to receive ENF for 24 weeks (ENF arm) or not (control arm). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with CD4 counts of ≥200/mm3 at week 24. A total of 195 patients were randomized: 73% had stage C disease, 78% were male, the mean age was 44 years, the median CD4 count was 30/mm3, and the median HIV-1 RNA load was 5.4 log10 copies/ml. Eighty-one percent of patients received LPV/r. One patient was lost to follow-up, and eight discontinued the study (four in each arm). The proportions of patients with CD4 counts of ≥200/mm3 at week 24 were 34% and 38% in the ENF and control arms, respectively (P = 0.53). The proportions of patients with HIV-1 RNA loads of <50 copies/ml were 74% and 58% at week 24 in the ENF and control arms, respectively (P < 0.02), and the proportion reached 79% in both arms at week 48. Twenty (20%) and 12 patients (13%) in the ENF and control arms, respectively, experienced at least one AIDS event during follow-up (P = 0.17). Although inducing a more rapid virological response, addition of ENF to a standard cART does not improve the immunological outcome in naive HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression. PMID:23165467

  13. Numerical simulation of steady supersonic flow. [spatial marching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiff, L. B.; Steger, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    A noniterative, implicit, space-marching, finite-difference algorithm was developed for the steady thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in conservation-law form. The numerical algorithm is applicable to steady supersonic viscous flow over bodies of arbitrary shape. In addition, the same code can be used to compute supersonic inviscid flow or three-dimensional boundary layers. Computed results from two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the numerical algorithm are in good agreement with those obtained from more costly time-marching techniques.

  14. Mapping numerical magnitudes onto symbols: the numerical distance effect and individual differences in children's mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ian D; Ansari, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Although it is often assumed that abilities that reflect basic numerical understanding, such as numerical comparison, are related to children's mathematical abilities, this relationship has not been tested rigorously. In addition, the extent to which symbolic and nonsymbolic number processing play differential roles in this relationship is not yet understood. To address these questions, we collected mathematics achievement measures from 6- to 8-year-olds as well as reaction times from a numerical comparison task. Using the reaction times, we calculated the size of the numerical distance effect exhibited by each child. In a correlational analysis, we found that the individual differences in the distance effect were related to mathematics achievement but not to reading achievement. This relationship was found to be specific to symbolic numerical comparison. Implications for the role of basic numerical competency and the role of accessing numerical magnitude information from Arabic numerals for the development of mathematical skills and their impairment are discussed. PMID:18513738

  15. The association between symbolic and nonsymbolic numerical magnitude processing and mental versus algorithmic subtraction in adults.

    PubMed

    Linsen, Sarah; Torbeyns, Joke; Verschaffel, Lieven; Reynvoet, Bert; De Smedt, Bert

    2016-03-01

    There are two well-known computation methods for solving multi-digit subtraction items, namely mental and algorithmic computation. It has been contended that mental and algorithmic computation differentially rely on numerical magnitude processing, an assumption that has already been examined in children, but not yet in adults. Therefore, in this study, we examined how numerical magnitude processing was associated with mental and algorithmic computation, and whether this association with numerical magnitude processing was different for mental versus algorithmic computation. We also investigated whether the association between numerical magnitude processing and mental and algorithmic computation differed for measures of symbolic versus nonsymbolic numerical magnitude processing. Results showed that symbolic, and not nonsymbolic, numerical magnitude processing was associated with mental computation, but not with algorithmic computation. Additional analyses showed, however, that the size of this association with symbolic numerical magnitude processing was not significantly different for mental and algorithmic computation. We also tried to further clarify the association between numerical magnitude processing and complex calculation by also including relevant arithmetical subskills, i.e. arithmetic facts, needed for complex calculation that are also known to be dependent on numerical magnitude processing. Results showed that the associations between symbolic numerical magnitude processing and mental and algorithmic computation were fully explained by individual differences in elementary arithmetic fact knowledge. PMID:26914586

  16. Trees, bialgebras and intrinsic numerical algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, Peter; Grossman, Robert; Larson, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary work about intrinsic numerical integrators evolving on groups is described. Fix a finite dimensional Lie group G; let g denote its Lie algebra, and let Y(sub 1),...,Y(sub N) denote a basis of g. A class of numerical algorithms is presented that approximate solutions to differential equations evolving on G of the form: dot-x(t) = F(x(t)), x(0) = p is an element of G. The algorithms depend upon constants c(sub i) and c(sub ij), for i = 1,...,k and j is less than i. The algorithms have the property that if the algorithm starts on the group, then it remains on the group. In addition, they also have the property that if G is the abelian group R(N), then the algorithm becomes the classical Runge-Kutta algorithm. The Cayley algebra generated by labeled, ordered trees is used to generate the equations that the coefficients c(sub i) and c(sub ij) must satisfy in order for the algorithm to yield an rth order numerical integrator and to analyze the resulting algorithms.

  17. Numerical Methods for Stochastic Partial Differential Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.H.; Habib, S.; Mineev, M.B.

    1999-07-08

    This is the final report of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National laboratory (LANL). The objectives of this proposal were (1) the development of methods for understanding and control of spacetime discretization errors in nonlinear stochastic partial differential equations, and (2) the development of new and improved practical numerical methods for the solutions of these equations. The authors have succeeded in establishing two methods for error control: the functional Fokker-Planck equation for calculating the time discretization error and the transfer integral method for calculating the spatial discretization error. In addition they have developed a new second-order stochastic algorithm for multiplicative noise applicable to the case of colored noises, and which requires only a single random sequence generation per time step. All of these results have been verified via high-resolution numerical simulations and have been successfully applied to physical test cases. They have also made substantial progress on a longstanding problem in the dynamics of unstable fluid interfaces in porous media. This work has lead to highly accurate quasi-analytic solutions of idealized versions of this problem. These may be of use in benchmarking numerical solutions of the full stochastic PDEs that govern real-world problems.

  18. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  19. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  20. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  1. The late addition of core lipids to nascent apolipoprotein B100, resulting in the assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, is independent of both microsomal triglyceride transfer protein activity and new triglyceride synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Meihui; Liang Js, Jun-shan; Fisher, Edward A; Ginsberg, Henry N

    2002-02-01

    Although microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) and newly synthesized triglyceride (TG) are critical for co-translational targeting of apolipoprotein B (apoB100) to lipoprotein assembly in hepatoma cell lines, their roles in the later stages of lipoprotein assembly remain unclear. Using N-acetyl-Leu-Leu-norleucinal to prevent proteasomal degradation, HepG2 cells were radiolabeled and chased for 0-90 min (chase I). The medium was changed and cells chased for another 150 min (chase II) in the absence (control) or presence of Pfizer MTP inhibitor CP-10447 (CP). As chase I was extended, inhibition of apoB100 secretion by CP during chase II decreased from 75.9% to only 15% of control (no CP during chase II). Additional studies were conducted in which chase I was either 0 or 90 min, and chase II was in the presence of [(3)H]glycerol and either BSA (control), CP (inhibits both MTP activity and TG synthesis),BMS-1976360-1) (BMS) (inhibits only MTP activity), or triacsin C (TC) (inhibits only TG synthesis). When chase I was 0 min, CP, BMS, and TC reduced apoB100 secretion during chase II by 75.3, 73.9, and 53.9%. However, when chase I was 90 min, those agents reduced apoB100 secretion during chase II by only 16.0, 19.2, and 13.9%. Of note, all three inhibited secretion of newly synthesized TG during chase II by 80, 80, and 40%, whether chase I was 0 or 90 min. In both HepG2 cells and McA-RH7777 cells, if chase I was at least 60 min, inhibition of TG synthesis and/or MTP activity did not affect the density of secreted apoB100-lipoproteins under basal conditions. Oleic acid increased secretion of TG-enriched apoB100-lipoproteins similarly in the absence or presence of either of CP, BMS, or TC. We conclude that neither MTP nor newly synthesized TG is necessary for the later stages of apoB100-lipoprotein assembly and secretion in either HepG2 or McA-RH7777 cells. PMID:11704664

  2. Study on the numerical schemes for hypersonic flow simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagdewe, S. P.; Shevare, G. R.; Kim, Heuy-Dong

    2009-10-01

    Hypersonic flow is full of complex physical and chemical processes, hence its investigation needs careful analysis of existing schemes and choosing a suitable scheme or designing a brand new scheme. The present study deals with two numerical schemes Harten, Lax, and van Leer with Contact (HLLC) and advection upstream splitting method (AUSM) to effectively simulate hypersonic flow fields, and accurately predict shock waves with minimal diffusion. In present computations, hypersonic flows have been modeled as a system of hyperbolic equations with one additional equation for non-equilibrium energy and relaxing source terms. Real gas effects, which appear typically in hypersonic flows, have been simulated through energy relaxation method. HLLC and AUSM methods are modified to incorporate the conservation laws for non-equilibrium energy. Numerical implementation have shown that non-equilibrium energy convect with mass, and hence has no bearing on the basic numerical scheme. The numerical simulation carried out shows good comparison with experimental data available in literature. Both numerical schemes have shown identical results at equilibrium. Present study has demonstrated that real gas effects in hypersonic flows can be modeled through energy relaxation method along with either AUSM or HLLC numerical scheme.

  3. Higher-dimensional numerical relativity: Formulation and code tests

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshino, Hirotaka; Shibata, Masaru

    2009-10-15

    We derive a formalism of numerical relativity for higher-dimensional spacetimes and develop numerical codes for simulating a wide variety of five-dimensional (5D) spacetimes for the first time. First, the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formalism is extended for arbitrary spacetime dimensions D{>=}4, and then, the so-called cartoon method, which was originally proposed as a robust method for simulating axisymmetric 4D spacetimes, is described for 5D spacetimes of several types of symmetries. Implementing 5D numerical relativity codes with the cartoon methods, we perform test simulations by evolving a 5D Schwarzschild spacetime and a 5D spacetime composed of a gravitational-wave packet of small amplitude. The numerical simulations are stably performed for a sufficiently long time, as done in the 4D case, and the obtained numerical results agree well with the analytic solutions: The numerical solutions are shown to converge at the correct order. We also confirm that a long-term accurate evolution of the 5D Schwarzschild spacetime is feasible using the so-called puncture approach. In addition, we derive the Landau-Lifshitz pseudotensor in arbitrary dimensions, and show that it gives a robust tool for computing the energy flux of gravitational waves. The formulations and methods developed in this paper provide a powerful tool for studying nonlinear dynamics of higher-dimensional gravity.

  4. Numerical analysis of engine instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habiballah, M.; Dubois, I.

    Following a literature review on numerical analyses of combustion instability, to give the state of the art in the area, the paper describes the ONERA methodology used to analyze the combustion instability in liquid propellant engines. Attention is also given to a model (named Phedre) which describes the unsteady turbulent two-phase reacting flow in a liquid rocket engine combustion chamber. The model formulation includes axial or radial propellant injection, baffles, and acoustic resonators modeling, and makes it possible to treat different engine types. A numerical analysis of a cryogenic engine stability is presented, and the results of the analysis are compared with results of tests of the Viking engine and the gas generator of the Vulcain engine, showing good qualitative agreement and some general trends between experiments and numerical analysis.

  5. Is herpes zoster an additional complication in old age alongside comorbidity and multiple medications? Results of the post hoc analysis of the 12-month longitudinal prospective observational ARIZONA cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Gisèle; Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Gaillat, Jacques; Paccalin, Marc; Bloch, Karine; Bouhassira, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the burden of comorbidity, polypharmacy and herpes zoster (HZ), an infectious disease, and its main complication post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) in young (50–70 years of age: 70−) and old (≥70 years of age: 70+) patients. Design Post hoc analysis of the results of the 12-month longitudinal prospective multicentre observational ARIZONA cohort study. Settings and participants The study took place in primary care in France from 20 November 2006 to 12 September 2008. Overall, 644 general practitioners (GPs) collected data from 1358 patients aged 50 years or more with acute eruptive HZ. Outcome measures Presence of HZ-related pain or PHN (pain persisting >3 months) was documented at day 0 and at months 3, 6, and 12. To investigate HZ and PHN burden, pain, quality of life (QoL) and mood were self-assessed using validated questionnaires (Zoster Brief Pain Inventory, 12-item Short-Form health survey and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, respectively). Results As compared with younger patients, older patients more frequently presented with comorbidities, more frequently took analgesics and had poorer response on all questionnaires, indicating greater burden, at inclusion. Analgesics were more frequently prescribed to relieve acute pain or PHN in 70+ than 70− patients. Despite higher levels of medication prescription, poorer pain relief and poorer response to all questionnaires were reported in 70+ than 70− patients. Conclusions Occurrence of HZ and progression to PHN adds extra burden on top of pharmacological treatment and impaired quality of life, especially in older patients who already have health problems to cope with in everyday life. PMID:26892790

  6. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  7. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  8. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Thomassen, A-M; Poulsen, H D

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD+phy), BDD soaked for 24 h at 20°C before feeding (BDS) and BDS with microbial phytase (BDS+phy). Supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of DM and crude protein (N×6.25) by 2 and 3 percentage units (P<0.0001; P<0.001), respectively. The ATTD of P was affected by the interaction between microbial phytase and soaking (P=0.02). This was due to a greater increase in ATTD of P by soaking of the diet containing solely plant phytase compared with the diet supplemented with microbial phytase: 35%, 65%, 44% and 68% for BDD, BDD+phy, BSD and BSD+phy, respectively. As such, supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of P in the dry-fed diet, but not in the soaked diet. The higher ATTD of P for BDS compared with BDD resulted from the degradation of 54% of the phytate in BDS by wheat and barley phytases during soaking. On the other hand, soaking of BDS+phy did not increase ATTD of P significantly compared with BDD+phy despite that 76% of the phytate in BDS+phy was degraded before feeding. In conclusion, soaking of BDS containing solely plant phytase provided a great potential for increasing ATTD of P. However, this potential was not present when microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet) was supplemented, most likely because soaking of BDS+phy for 24 h at 20°C did not result in a complete degradation of phytate before feeding. PMID:25245085

  9. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  10. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  11. Additive discrete 1D linear canonical transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Healy, John J.; Guo, Chang-liang; Sheridan, John T.

    2015-09-01

    The continuous linear canonical transforms (LCT) can describe a wide variety of wave field propagations through paraxial (first order) optical systems. Digital algorithms to numerically calculate the LCT are therefore important in modelling scalar wave field propagations and are also of interest for many digital signal processing applications. The continuous LCT is additive, but discretization can remove this property. In this paper we discuss three special cases of the LCT for which constraints can be identified to ensure the DLCT is additive.

  12. Numerical friction experiments of heterogeneous fault with controlling shear stress by means of earthquake sequence simulations: Preliminary results on the relation between cm-scale and km-scale friction laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, H.; Hori, T.

    2014-12-01

    The scale effect of the friction law is crucial in connecting field observations, laboratory experiments, and natural fault behaviors. Here we present our recent study towards understanding of the scale effect of the friction law. The fault friction law is usually studied in laboratory experiments for cm-scale specimens, and one of the prominent problems is its direct applicability to the large-scale behavior. Small repeating earthquakes (repeaters) may be a realization of heterogeneous frictional property on faults, which were modeled by rate-weakening patches embedded in a rate-strengthening fault [e.g., Chen and Lapusta, 2009]. After the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, so many repeaters were found in the Tohoku subduction zone [e.g., Kato and Igarashi, 2012]. But it is quite difficult to numerically resolve them in a large-scale simulation of the whole subduction zone, which is demanded for potential disaster mitigation. Then, it is important to investigate a spatiotemporally coarse-grained friction law of a fault region including unstable inclusions. We hypothesized that each point on a fault obeys the cm-scale friction law (the rate-state friction law in the aging law formulation) with sub-mm state evolution distance L, and assumed a rate-weakening circular patch (80 m diameter) which generates repeating events. We set 256 m periodicity along the fault, and conducted dynamic earthquake sequence simulations [e.g., Liu and Lapusta, 2009] by driving the system by far field stress τ0. We did not prescribe the long term slip rate by setting a region of constant slip rate as is done in previous studies. Those simulations can be seen as numerical friction experiments with controlling the shear stress and observing the slip rate. The macroscopic steady-state can be explained by a logarithmic law, with the frictional resistance slightly smaller and the rate-dependency slightly more rate-strengthening than the spatial average. The transient behavior on a step in τ0 can be

  13. Informed Additive Literacy Instruction for ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous reasons why schools struggle to provide English-language learners (ELLs) with additive literacy instruction. One reason for this is the lack of available trained bilingual teachers, mainstream teachers who have not received adequate training on how to teach ELLs, and the current political climate that appears to support an…

  14. Addition of Fractions--The Unrecognized Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Arthur C.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is why students have the tendency to apply an "add the numerators and add the denominators" approach to adding fractions. Suggested is providing examples exemplifying this intuitive approach from ratio, concentration, and distance problems to demonstrate under what conditions it is applicable in contrast to the addition algorithm. (MDH)

  15. MFIX documentation numerical technique

    SciTech Connect

    Syamlal, M.

    1998-01-01

    MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges) is a general-purpose hydrodynamic model for describing chemical reactions and heat transfer in dense or dilute fluid-solids flows, which typically occur in energy conversion and chemical processing reactors. The calculations give time-dependent information on pressure, temperature, composition, and velocity distributions in the reactors. The theoretical basis of the calculations is described in the MFIX Theory Guide. Installation of the code, setting up of a run, and post-processing of results are described in MFIX User`s manual. Work was started in April 1996 to increase the execution speed and accuracy of the code, which has resulted in MFIX 2.0. To improve the speed of the code the old algorithm was replaced by a more implicit algorithm. In different test cases conducted the new version runs 3 to 30 times faster than the old version. To increase the accuracy of the computations, second order accurate discretization schemes were included in MFIX 2.0. Bubbling fluidized bed simulations conducted with a second order scheme show that the predicted bubble shape is rounded, unlike the (unphysical) pointed shape predicted by the first order upwind scheme. This report describes the numerical technique used in MFIX 2.0.

  16. High-Resolution Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Mach Reflection Structures in Detonation Waves in Low-Pressure H 2 –O 2 –Ar Mixtures: A Summary of Results Obtained with the Adaptive Mesh Refinement Framework AMROC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deiterding, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulation can be key to the understanding of the multidimensional nature of transient detonation waves. However, the accurate approximation of realistic detonations is demanding as a wide range of scales needs to be resolved. This paper describes a successful solution strategy that utilizes logically rectangular dynamically adaptive meshes. The hydrodynamic transport scheme and the treatment of the nonequilibrium reaction terms are sketched. A ghost fluid approach is integrated into the method to allow for embedded geometrically complex boundaries. Large-scale parallel simulations of unstable detonation structures of Chapman-Jouguet detonations in low-pressure hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures demonstrate the efficiency of the described techniquesmore » in practice. In particular, computations of regular cellular structures in two and three space dimensions and their development under transient conditions, that is, under diffraction and for propagation through bends are presented. Some of the observed patterns are classified by shock polar analysis, and a diagram of the transition boundaries between possible Mach reflection structures is constructed.« less

  17. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  18. Numerical simulation of toughening of alumina particulate glass matrix composite by interfacial precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Kageyama, K.; Enoki, M.; Kishi, T.

    1994-12-31

    Strengthening and toughening by interfacial precipitation are strongly connected with crack bowing and deflection. In the present study, three dimensional numerical simulation of these events was performed on ceramics particulate glass matrix composites with interfacial precipitation by calculating the equations for a crack bowing and deflection. This numerical simulation revealed that fracture toughness and strength increased with the addition of interfacial precipitation because a crack bowing emerged. These results are in agreement with experimental data for fracture toughness.

  19. The numerical stroop effect in primary school children: a comparison of low, normal, and high achievers.

    PubMed

    Heine, Angela; Tamm, Sascha; De Smedt, Bert; Schneider, Michael; Thaler, Verena; Torbeyns, Joke; Stern, Elsbeth; Verschaffel, Lieven; Jacobs, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Sixty-six primary school children were selected, of which 21 scored low on a standardized math achievement test, 23 were normal, and 22 high achievers. In a numerical Stroop experiment, children were asked to make numerical and physical size comparisons on digit pairs. The effects of congruity and numerical distance were determined. All children exhibited congruity and distance effects in the numerical comparison. In the physical comparison, children of all performance groups showed Stroop effects when the numerical distance between the digits was large but failed to show them when the distance was small. Numerical distance effects depended on the congruity condition, with a typical effect of distance in the congruent, and a reversed distance effect in the incongruent condition. Our results are hard to reconcile with theories that suggest that deficits in the automaticity of numerical processing can be related to differential math achievement levels. Immaturity in the precision of mappings between numbers and their numerical magnitudes might be better suited to explain the Stroop effects in children. However, as the results for the high achievers demonstrate, in addition to numerical processing capacity per se, domain-general functions might play a crucial role in Stroop performance, too. PMID:20437281

  20. Mapping Numerical Magnitudes onto Symbols: The Numerical Distance Effect and Individual Differences in Children's Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Ian D.; Ansari, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Although it is often assumed that abilities that reflect basic numerical understanding, such as numerical comparison, are related to children's mathematical abilities, this relationship has not been tested rigorously. In addition, the extent to which symbolic and nonsymbolic number processing play differential roles in this relationship is not yet…

  1. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  2. Viscous Transonic Airfoil Workshop compendium of results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.

    1987-01-01

    Results from the Viscous Transonic Airfoil Workshop held at the AIAA 25th Aerospace Sciences Meeting at Reno, NV in January 1987, are compared with each other and with experimental data. Test cases used in this workshop include attached and separated transonic flows for three different airfoils: the NACA 0012 airfoil, the RAE 2822 airfoil, and the Jones airfoil. A total of 23 sets of numerical results from 15 different author groups are included. The numerical methods used vary widely and include: 16 Navier-Stokes methods, 2 Euler/boundary-layer methods, and 5 full-potential/boundary-layer methods. The results indicate a high degree of sophistication among the numerical methods with generally good agreement between the various computed and experimental results for attached or moderately-separated cases. The agreement for cases with larger separation is only fair and suggests additional work is required in this area.

  3. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  4. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  5. Numerical Relativity and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Luis; Pretorius, Frans

    2014-08-01

    Throughout the Universe many powerful events are driven by strong gravitational effects that require general relativity to fully describe them. These include compact binary mergers, black hole accretion, and stellar collapse, where velocities can approach the speed of light and extreme gravitational fields (ΦNewt/c2≃1) mediate the interactions. Many of these processes trigger emission across a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Compact binaries further source strong gravitational wave emission that could directly be detected in the near future. This feat will open up a gravitational wave window into our Universe and revolutionize our understanding of it. Describing these phenomena requires general relativity, and—where dynamical effects strongly modify gravitational fields—the full Einstein equations coupled to matter sources. Numerical relativity is a field within general relativity concerned with studying such scenarios that cannot be accurately modeled via perturbative or analytical calculations. In this review, we examine results obtained within this discipline, with a focus on its impact in astrophysics.

  6. Rocket engine numerical simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Ken

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: a definition of the rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS); objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusions.

  7. Numbers and Numerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David Eugene; Ginsburg, Jekuthiel

    Counting, naming numbers, numerals, computation, and fractions are the topics covered in this pamphlet. Number lore and interesting number properties are noted; the derivation of some arithmetic terms is briefly discussed. (DT)

  8. Direct Numerical Simulations of Transient Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, M.; Valdes-Parada, F.; Wood, B.

    2008-12-01

    Transient dispersion is important in many engineering applications, including transport in porous media. A common theoretical approach involves upscaling the micro-scale mass balance equations for convection- diffusion to macro-scale equations that contain effective medium quantities. However, there are a number of assumptions implicit in the various upscaling methods. For example, results obtained from volume averaging are often dependent on a given set of length and time scale constraints. Additionally, a number of the classical models for dispersion do not fully capture the early-time dispersive behavior of the solute for a general set of initial conditions. In this work, we present direct numerical simulations of micro-scale transient mass balance equations for convection-diffusion in both capillary tubes and porous media. Special attention is paid to analysis of the influence of a new time- decaying coefficient that filters the effects of the initial conditions. The direct numerical simulations were compared to results obtained from solving the closure problem associated with volume averaging. These comparisons provide a quantitative measure of the significance of (1) the assumptions implicit in the volume averaging method and (2) the importance of the early-time dispersive behavior of the solute due to various initial conditions.

  9. Numerical analysis of bifurcations

    SciTech Connect

    Guckenheimer, J.

    1996-06-01

    This paper is a brief survey of numerical methods for computing bifurcations of generic families of dynamical systems. Emphasis is placed upon algorithms that reflect the structure of the underlying mathematical theory while retaining numerical efficiency. Significant improvements in the computational analysis of dynamical systems are to be expected from more reliance of geometric insight coming from dynamical systems theory. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Numerical Techniques in Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    This is the compilation of abstracts of the Numerical Techniques in Acoustics Forum held at the ASME's Winter Annual Meeting. This forum was for informal presentation and information exchange of ongoing acoustic work in finite elements, finite difference, boundary elements and other numerical approaches. As part of this forum, it was intended to allow the participants time to raise questions on unresolved problems and to generate discussions on possible approaches and methods of solution.

  11. Multiscale Modeling of Powder Bed–Based Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markl, Matthias; Körner, Carolin

    2016-07-01

    Powder bed fusion processes are additive manufacturing technologies that are expected to induce the third industrial revolution. Components are built up layer by layer in a powder bed by selectively melting confined areas, according to sliced 3D model data. This technique allows for manufacturing of highly complex geometries hardly machinable with conventional technologies. However, the underlying physical phenomena are sparsely understood and difficult to observe during processing. Therefore, an intensive and expensive trial-and-error principle is applied to produce components with the desired dimensional accuracy, material characteristics, and mechanical properties. This review presents numerical modeling approaches on multiple length scales and timescales to describe different aspects of powder bed fusion processes. In combination with tailored experiments, the numerical results enlarge the process understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms and support the development of suitable process strategies and component topologies.

  12. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  13. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  14. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  15. Spurious Numerical Solutions Of Differential Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafon, A.; Yee, H. C.

    1995-01-01

    Paper presents detailed study of spurious steady-state numerical solutions of differential equations that contain nonlinear source terms. Main objectives of this study are (1) to investigate how well numerical steady-state solutions of model nonlinear reaction/convection boundary-value problem mimic true steady-state solutions and (2) to relate findings of this investigation to implications for interpretation of numerical results from computational-fluid-dynamics algorithms and computer codes used to simulate reacting flows.

  16. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  17. Deficiencies in numerical models of anisotropic nonlinearly elastic materials.

    PubMed

    Ní Annaidh, A; Destrade, M; Gilchrist, M D; Murphy, J G

    2013-08-01

    Incompressible nonlinearly hyperelastic materials are rarely simulated in finite element numerical experiments as being perfectly incompressible because of the numerical difficulties associated with globally satisfying this constraint. Most commercial finite element packages therefore assume that the material is slightly compressible. It is then further assumed that the corresponding strain-energy function can be decomposed additively into volumetric and deviatoric parts. We show that this decomposition is not physically realistic, especially for anisotropic materials, which are of particular interest for simulating the mechanical response of biological soft tissue. The most striking illustration of the shortcoming is that with this decomposition, an anisotropic cube under hydrostatic tension deforms into another cube instead of a hexahedron with non-parallel faces. Furthermore, commercial numerical codes require the specification of a 'compressibility parameter' (or 'penalty factor'), which arises naturally from the flawed additive decomposition of the strain-energy function. This parameter is often linked to a 'bulk modulus', although this notion makes no sense for anisotropic solids; we show that it is essentially an arbitrary parameter and that infinitesimal changes to it result in significant changes in the predicted stress response. This is illustrated with numerical simulations for biaxial tension experiments of arteries, where the magnitude of the stress response is found to change by several orders of magnitude when infinitesimal changes in 'Poisson's ratio' close to the perfect incompressibility limit of 1/2 are made. PMID:23011411

  18. Hydroforming Of Patchwork Blanks — Numerical Modeling And Experimental Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamprecht, Klaus; Merklein, Marion; Geiger, Manfred

    2005-08-01

    In comparison to the commonly applied technology of tailored blanks the concept of patchwork blanks offers a number of additional advantages. Potential application areas for patchwork blanks in automotive industry are e.g. local reinforcements of automotive closures, structural reinforcements of rails and pillars as well as shock towers. But even if there is a significant application potential for patchwork blanks in automobile production, industrial realization of this innovative technique is decelerated due to a lack of knowledge regarding the forming behavior and the numerical modeling of patchwork blanks. Especially for the numerical simulation of hydroforming processes, where one part of the forming tool is replaced by a fluid under pressure, advanced modeling techniques are required to ensure an accurate prediction of the blanks' forming behavior. The objective of this contribution is to provide an appropriate model for the numerical simulation of patchwork blanks' forming processes. Therefore, different finite element modeling techniques for patchwork blanks are presented. In addition to basic shell element models a combined finite element model consisting of shell and solid elements is defined. Special emphasis is placed on the modeling of the weld seam. For this purpose the local mechanical properties of the weld metal, which have been determined by means of Martens-hardness measurements and uniaxial tensile tests, are integrated in the finite element models. The results obtained from the numerical simulations are compared to experimental data from a hydraulic bulge test. In this context the focus is laid on laser- and spot-welded patchwork blanks.

  19. Coincidental match of numerical simulation and physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, B.; Gudmundsson, J. S.

    2010-08-01

    Consequences of rapid pressure transients in pipelines range from increased fatigue to leakages and to complete ruptures of pipeline. Therefore, accurate predictions of rapid pressure transients in pipelines using numerical simulations are critical. State of the art modelling of pressure transient in general, and water hammer in particular include unsteady friction in addition to the steady frictional pressure drop, and numerical simulations rely on the method of characteristics. Comparison of rapid pressure transient calculations by the method of characteristics and a selected high resolution finite volume method highlights issues related to modelling of pressure waves and illustrates that matches between numerical simulations and physics are purely coincidental.

  20. Requirements definition by numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, James J.; Kostas, Chris; Tsang, Kang T.

    1994-10-01

    We are investigating the issues involved in requirements definition for narcotics interdiction: how much of a particular signature is possible, how does this amount change for different conditions, and what is the temporal relationship in various scenarios. Our approach has been to simulate numerically the conditions that arise during vapor or particulate transport. The advantages of this approach are that (1) a broad range of scenarios can be rapidly and inexpensively analyzed by simulation, and (2) simulations can display quantities that are difficult or impossible to measure. The drawback of this approach is that simulations cannot include all of the phenomena present in a real measurement, and therefore the fidelity of the simulation results is always an issue. To address this limitation, we will ultimately combine the results of numerical simulations with measurements of physical parameters for inclusion in the simulation. In this paper, we discuss these issues and how they apply to the current problems in narcotics interdictions, especially cargo containers. We also show the results of 1D and 3D numerical simulations, and compare these results with analytical solutions. The results indicate that this approach is viable. We also present data from 3D simulations of vapor transport in a loaded cargo container and some of the issues present in this ongoing work.

  1. Numerical simulation of centrifugal casting of pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaschnitz, E.

    2012-07-01

    A numerical simulation model for the horizontal centrifugal pipe casting process was developed with the commercial simulation package Flow3D. It considers - additionally to mass, energy and momentum conservation equations and free surface tracking - the fast radial and slower horizontal movement of the mold. The iron inflow is not steady state but time dependent. Of special importance is the friction between the liquid and the mold in connection with the viscosity and turbulence of the iron. Experiments with the mold at controlled revolution speeds were carried out using a high-speed camera. From these experiments friction coefficients for the description of the interaction between mold and melt were obtained. With the simulation model, the influence of typical process parameters (e.g. melts inflow, mold movement, melt temperature, cooling media) on the wall thickness of the pipes can be studied. The comparison to results of pipes from production shows a good agreement between simulation and reality.

  2. Addition and subtraction by students with Down syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda Herrera, Aurelia; Bruno, Alicia; González, Carina; Moreno, Lorenzo; Sanabria, Hilda

    2011-01-01

    We present a research report on addition and subtraction conducted with Down syndrome students between the ages of 12 and 31. We interviewed a group of students with Down syndrome who executed algorithms and solved problems using specific materials and paper and pencil. The results show that students with Down syndrome progress through the same procedural levels as those without disabilities though they have difficulties in reaching the most abstract level (numerical facts). The use of fingers or concrete representations (balls) appears as a fundamental process among these students. As for errors, these vary widely depending on the students, and can be attributed mostly to an incomplete knowledge of the decimal number system.

  3. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  4. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  5. Processing biobased polymers using plasticizers: Numerical simulations versus experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desplentere, Frederik; Cardon, Ludwig; Six, Wim; Erkoç, Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    In polymer processing, the use of biobased products shows lots of possibilities. Considering biobased materials, biodegradability is in most cases the most important issue. Next to this, bio based materials aimed at durable applications, are gaining interest. Within this research, the influence of plasticizers on the processing of the bio based material is investigated. This work is done for an extrusion grade of PLA, Natureworks PLA 2003D. Extrusion through a slit die equipped with pressure sensors is used to compare the experimental pressure values to numerical simulation results. Additional experimental data (temperature and pressure data along the extrusion screw and die are recorded) is generated on a dr. Collin Lab extruder producing a 25mm diameter tube. All these experimental data is used to indicate the appropriate functioning of the numerical simulation tool Virtual Extrusion Laboratory 6.7 for the simulation of both the industrial available extrusion grade PLA and the compound in which 15% of plasticizer is added. Adding the applied plasticizer, resulted in a 40% lower pressure drop over the extrusion die. The combination of different experiments allowed to fit the numerical simulation results closely to the experimental values. Based on this experience, it is shown that numerical simulations also can be used for modified bio based materials if appropriate material and process data are taken into account.

  6. Numerical simulation of small perturbation transonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seebass, A. R.; Yu, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a systematic study of small perturbation transonic flows are presented. Both the flow over thin airfoils and the flow over wedges were investigated. Various numerical schemes were employed in the study. The prime goal of the research was to determine the efficiency of various numerical procedures by accurately evaluating the wave drag, both by computing the pressure integral around the body and by integrating the momentum loss across the shock. Numerical errors involved in the computations that affect the accuracy of drag evaluations were analyzed. The factors that effect numerical stability and the rate of convergence of the iterative schemes were also systematically studied.

  7. Numerical thermalization in particle-in-cell simulations with Monte-Carlo collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, P. Y.; Lin, T. Y.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Chen, S. H.

    2014-12-15

    Numerical thermalization in collisional one-dimensional (1D) electrostatic (ES) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations was investigated. Two collision models, the pitch-angle scattering of electrons by the stationary ion background and large-angle collisions between the electrons and the neutral background, were included in the PIC simulation using Monte-Carlo methods. The numerical results show that the thermalization times in both models were considerably reduced by the additional Monte-Carlo collisions as demonstrated by comparisons with Turner's previous simulation results based on a head-on collision model [M. M. Turner, Phys. Plasmas 13, 033506 (2006)]. However, the breakdown of Dawson's scaling law in the collisional 1D ES PIC simulation is more complicated than that was observed by Turner, and the revised scaling law of the numerical thermalization time with numerical parameters are derived on the basis of the simulation results obtained in this study.

  8. Numerical thermalization in particle-in-cell simulations with Monte-Carlo collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, P. Y.; Lin, T. Y.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Chen, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical thermalization in collisional one-dimensional (1D) electrostatic (ES) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations was investigated. Two collision models, the pitch-angle scattering of electrons by the stationary ion background and large-angle collisions between the electrons and the neutral background, were included in the PIC simulation using Monte-Carlo methods. The numerical results show that the thermalization times in both models were considerably reduced by the additional Monte-Carlo collisions as demonstrated by comparisons with Turner's previous simulation results based on a head-on collision model [M. M. Turner, Phys. Plasmas 13, 033506 (2006)]. However, the breakdown of Dawson's scaling law in the collisional 1D ES PIC simulation is more complicated than that was observed by Turner, and the revised scaling law of the numerical thermalization time with numerical parameters are derived on the basis of the simulation results obtained in this study.

  9. Toward Scientific Numerical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Bil

    2007-01-01

    Ultimately, scientific numerical models need quantified output uncertainties so that modeling can evolve to better match reality. Documenting model input uncertainties and verifying that numerical models are translated into code correctly, however, are necessary first steps toward that goal. Without known input parameter uncertainties, model sensitivities are all one can determine, and without code verification, output uncertainties are simply not reliable. To address these two shortcomings, two proposals are offered: (1) an unobtrusive mechanism to document input parameter uncertainties in situ and (2) an adaptation of the Scientific Method to numerical model development and deployment. Because these two steps require changes in the computational simulation community to bear fruit, they are presented in terms of the Beckhard-Harris-Gleicher change model.

  10. Numerical analysis of Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, Hiroshi

    1992-11-01

    A simulation model of the Stirling engine based on the third order method of analysis is presented. The fundamental equations are derived by applying conservation laws of physics to the machine model, the characteristic equations for heat transfer and gas flow are represented, and a numerical calculation technique using these equations is discussed. A numerical model of the system for balancing pressure in four cylinders is included in the simulation model. Calculations results from the model are compared with experimental results. A comparable study of engine performance using helium and hydrogen as working gas is conducted, clarifying the heat transfer and gas flow characteristics, and the effects of temperature conditions in the hot and cold engine sections on driving conditions. The design optimization of the heat exchanger is addressed.

  11. Fresnel Integral Equations: Numerical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R J; Champagne, N J II; Davis, B A

    2003-07-22

    A spatial-domain solution to the problem of electromagnetic scattering from a dielectric half-space is outlined. The resulting half-space operators are referred to as Fresnel surface integral operators. When used as preconditioners for nonplanar geometries, the Fresnel operators yield surface Fresnel integral equations (FIEs) which are stable with respect to dielectric constant, discretization, and frequency. Numerical properties of the formulations are discussed.

  12. Numerical experiments on the theta pinch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volosevich, P. P.; Zukakishyili, G. G.

    1979-01-01

    Numerical calculation of theta pinch problems are presented. Physical processes in theta pinch systems are considered in a one dimensional, two temperature magnetohydrodynamic, approximation with allowance for end losses by longitudinal heat conductivity. The numerical calculations are compared with results of earlier experiments.

  13. Nonclassicality thresholds for multiqubit states: Numerical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gruca, Jacek; Zukowski, Marek; Laskowski, Wieslaw; Kiesel, Nikolai; Wieczorek, Witlef; Weinfurter, Harald; Schmid, Christian

    2010-07-15

    States that strongly violate Bell's inequalities are required in many quantum-informational protocols as, for example, in cryptography, secret sharing, and the reduction of communication complexity. We investigate families of such states with a numerical method which allows us to reveal nonclassicality even without direct knowledge of Bell's inequalities for the given problem. An extensive set of numerical results is presented and discussed.

  14. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  15. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  16. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  17. Numerical investigations on pressurized AL-composite vessel response to hypervelocity impacts: Comparison between experimental works and a numerical code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mespoulet, Jérôme; Plassard, Fabien; Hereil, Pierre-Louis

    2015-09-01

    Response of pressurized composite-Al vessels to hypervelocity impact of aluminum spheres have been numerically investigated to evaluate the influence of initial pressure on the vulnerability of these vessels. Investigated tanks are carbon-fiber overwrapped prestressed Al vessels. Explored internal air pressure ranges from 1 bar to 300 bar and impact velocity are around 4400 m/s. Data obtained from experiments (Xray radiographies, particle velocity measurement and post-mortem vessels) have been compared to numerical results given from LS-DYNA ALE-Lagrange-SPH full coupling models. Simulations exhibit an under estimation in term of debris cloud evolution and shock wave propagation in pressurized air but main modes of damage/rupture on the vessels given by simulations are coherent with post-mortem recovered vessels from experiments. First results of this numerical work are promising and further simulation investigations with additional experimental data will be done to increase the reliability of the simulation model. The final aim of this crossed work is to numerically explore a wide range of impact conditions (impact angle, projectile weight, impact velocity, initial pressure) that cannot be explore experimentally. Those whole results will define a rule of thumbs for the definition of a vulnerability analytical model for a given pressurized vessel.

  18. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-01-01

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six <100> preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components. PMID:26553246

  19. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-11-10

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six <100> preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Furthermore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components.

  20. Efficient numerical methods for computing ground states of spin-1 Bose–Einstein condensates based on their characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Weizhu; Chern, I-Liang; Zhang, Yanzhi

    2013-11-15

    In this paper, we propose efficient numerical methods for computing ground states of spin-1 Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) with/without the Ioffe–Pritchard magnetic field B(x). When B(x)≠0, a numerical method is introduced to compute the ground states and it is also applied to study properties of ground states. Numerical results suggest that the densities of m{sub F}=±1 components in ground states are identical for any nonzero B(x). In particular, if B(x)≡B≠0 is a constant, the ground states satisfy the single-mode approximation. When B(x)≡0, efficient and simpler numerical methods are presented to solve the ground states of spin-1 BECs based on their ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic characterizations. Numerical simulations show that our methods are more efficient than those in the literature. In addition, some conjectures are made from our numerical observations.

  1. Approaches to Numerical Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Inverno, Ray

    2005-07-01

    Introduction Ray d'Inverno; Preface C. J. S. Clarke; Part I. Theoretical Approaches: 1. Numerical relativity on a transputer array Ray d'Inverno; 2. Some aspects of the characteristic initial value problem in numerical relativity Nigel Bishop; 3. The characteristic initial value problem in general relativity J. M. Stewart; 4. Algebraic approachs to the characteristic initial value problem in general relativity Jõrg Frauendiener; 5. On hyperboidal hypersurfaces Helmut Friedrich; 6. The initial value problem on null cones J. A. Vickers; 7. Introduction to dual-null dynamics S. A. Hayward; 8. On colliding plane wave space-times J. B. Griffiths; 9. Boundary conditions for the momentum constraint Niall O Murchadha; 10. On the choice of matter model in general relativity A. D. Rendall; 11. A mathematical approach to numerical relativity J. W. Barrett; 12. Making sense of the effects of rotation in general relativity J. C. Miller; 13. Stability of charged boson stars and catastrophe theory Franz E. Schunck, Fjodor V. Kusmartsev and Eckehard W. Mielke; Part II. Practical Approaches: 14. Numerical asymptotics R. Gómez and J. Winicour; 15. Instabilities in rapidly rotating polytropes Scott C. Smith and Joan M. Centrella; 16. Gravitational radiation from coalescing binary neutron stars Ken-Ichi Oohara and Takashi Nakamura; 17. 'Critical' behaviour in massless scalar field collapse M. W. Choptuik; 18. Goudunov-type methods applied to general relativistic gravitational collapse José Ma. Ibánez, José Ma. Martí, Juan A. Miralles and J. V. Romero; 19. Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves and neutrinos Silvano Bonazzola, Eric Gourgoulhon, Pawel Haensel and Jean-Alain Marck; 20. Gravitational radiation from triaxial core collapse Jean-Alain Marck and Silvano Bonazzola; 21. A vacuum fully relativistic 3D numerical code C. Bona and J. Massó; 22. Solution of elliptic equations in numerical relativity using multiquadrics M. R. Dubal, S. R. Oliveira and R. A. Matzner; 23

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of additive pulse modelocked lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Sucha, G.; Bolton, S.R.; Chemla, D.S.

    1995-04-01

    Nonlinear dynamics have been studied in a number of modelocked laser systems, primarily in actively modelocked systems. However, less attention has been paid to the dynamics of passively modelocked laser systems. With the recent revolutionary advances in femtosecond modelocked laser technology, the understanding of instabilities and dynamics in passively modelocked lasers is an important issue. Here, the authors present experimental and numerical studies of the dynamics of an additive-pulse modelocked (APM) color-center laser.

  3. IN718 Additive Manufacturing Properties and Influences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    The results of tensile, fracture, and fatigue testing of IN718 coupons produced using the selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing technique are presented. The data has been "generalized" to remove the numerical values, although certain references to material standards are provided. This document provides some knowledge of the effect of variation of controlled build parameters used in the SLM process, a snapshot of the capabilities of SLM in industry at present, and shares some of the lessons learned along the way. For the build parameter characterization, the parameters were varied over a range about the machine manufacturer's recommended value, and in each case they were varied individually, although some co-variance of those parameters would be expected. SLM-produced IN718, tensile, fracture, and high-cycle fatigue properties equivalent to wrought IN718 are achievable. Build and post-build processes need to be determined and then controlled to established limits to accomplish this. It is recommended that a multi-variable evaluation, e.g., design-of-experiment (DOE), of the build parameters be performed to better evaluate the co-variance of the parameters.

  4. IN718 Additive Manufacturing Properties and Influences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    The results of tensile, fracture, and fatigue testing of IN718 coupons produced using the selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing technique are presented. The data have been "sanitized" to remove the numerical values, although certain references to material standards are provided. This document provides some knowledge of the effect of variation of controlled build parameters used in the SLM process, a snapshot of the capabilities of SLM in industry at present, and shares some of the lessons learned along the way. For the build parameter characterization, the parameters were varied over a range that was centered about the machine manufacturer's recommended value, and in each case they were varied individually, although some co-variance of those parameters would be expected. Tensile, fracture, and high-cycle fatigue properties equivalent to wrought IN718 are achievable with SLM-produced IN718. Build and post-build processes need to be determined and then controlled to established limits to accomplish this. It is recommended that a multi-variable evaluation, e.g., design-of experiment (DOE), of the build parameters be performed to better evaluate the co-variance of the parameters.

  5. Waste glass melter numerical and physical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Eyler, L.L.; Peters, R.D.; Lessor, D.L.; Lowery, P.S.; Elliott, M.L.

    1991-10-01

    Results of physical and numerical simulation modeling of high-level liquid waste vitrification melters are presented. Physical modeling uses simulant fluids in laboratory testing. Visualization results provide insight into convective melt flow patterns from which information is derived to support performance estimation of operating melters and data to support numerical simulation. Numerical simulation results of several melter configurations are presented. These are in support of programs to evaluate melter operation characteristics and performance. Included are investigations into power skewing and alternating current electric field phase angle in a dual electrode pair reference design and bi-modal convective stability in an advanced design. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. A numerical transport model for predicting the distributions of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the southern North Sea: the sensitivity of model results to the uncertainties in the magnitudes of metal inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappin, A. D.; Burton, J. D.; Millward, G. E.; Statham, P. J.

    1997-10-01

    A new transport model for metals (named NOSTRADAMUS) has been developed to predict concentrations and distributions of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the southern North Sea. NOSTRADAMUS is comprised of components for water, inorganic and organic suspended particulate matter transport; a primary production module contributes to the latter component. Metal exchange between dissolved (water) and total suspended particulate matter (inorganic + organic) phases is driven by distribution coefficients. Transport is based on an existent 2-D vertically integrated model, incorporating a 35 × 35 km grid. NOSTRADAMUS is largely driven by data obtained during the Natural Environment Research Council North Sea Project (NERC NSP). The sensitivity of model predictions to uncertainties in the magnitudes of metal inputs has been tested. Results are reported for a winter period (January 1989) when plankton production was low. Simulated ranges in concentrations in regions influenced by the largest inflows, i.e. the NE English coast and the Southern Bight, are similar to the ranges in the errors of the concentrations estimated at the northern and southern open sea boundaries of the model. Inclusion of uncertainties with respect to atmospheric (up to ± 54%) and riverine (± 30%) inputs makes little difference to the calculated concentrations of both dissolved and particulate fractions within the southern North Sea. When all the errors associated with the inputs are included there is good agreement between computed and observed concentrations, and that for dissolved and particulate Cd, Cu and Zn, and dissolved Ni and Pb, many of the observations fall within, or are close to, the range of values generated by the model. For particulate Pb, model simulations predict concentrations of the right order, but do not reproduce the large scatter in actual concentrations, with simulated concentrations showing a bias towards lower values compared to those observed. A factor which could have contributed

  7. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed

    Barker, R H

    1975-06-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  8. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  9. Numerical investigation of stall flutter

    SciTech Connect

    Ekaterinaris, J.A.; Platzer, M.F.

    1996-04-01

    Unsteady, separated, high Reynolds number flow over an airfoil undergoing oscillatory motion is investigated numerically. The compressible form of the Reynolds-averaged governing equations is solved using a high-order, upwind biased numerical scheme. The turbulent flow region is computed using a one-equation turbulence model. The computed results show that the key to the accurate prediction of the unsteady loads at stall flutter conditions is the modeling of the transitional flow region at the leading edge. A simplified criterion for the transition onset is used. The transitional flow region is computed with a modified form of the turbulence model. The computed solution, where the transitional flow region is included, shows that the small laminar/transitional separation bubble forming during the pitch-up motion has a decisive effect on the near-wall flow and the development of the unsteady loads. Detailed comparisons of computed fully turbulent and transitional flow solutions with experimental data are presented.

  10. Numerical simulations of hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Michael L.

    Numerical simulations of hot spots and their associated jets are examined with emphasis on their dynamical variability. Attention is given to two-dimensional simulations, which incorporate dynamically passive and important magnetic fields in the ideal MHD limit. Distributions of total and polarized radio brightness have been derived for comparison with observations. The move toward three-dimensional simulations is documented, and hydrodynamical models for multiple hot spots are discussed. It is suggested that useful insights can be obtained from two-dimensional slab jet simulation, which relax the axisymmetric constraints while allowing high numerical resolution. In particular the dentist-drill model of Scheuer (1982) for working-surface variability is substantiated, and it is shown to result from self-excited jet instabilities near the working surface.

  11. Numerical stability in multifluid gas dynamics with implicit drag forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramshaw, J. D.; Chang, C. H.

    2015-10-01

    The numerical stability of a conventional explicit numerical scheme for solving the inviscid multifluid dynamical equations describing a multicomponent gas mixture is investigated both analytically and computationally. Although these equations do not explicitly contain diffusion terms, it is well known that they reduce to a single-fluid diffusional description when the drag coefficients in the species momentum equations are large. The question then arises as to whether their numerical solution is subject to a diffusional stability restriction on the time step in addition to the usual Courant sound-speed stability condition. An analytical stability analysis is performed for the special case of a quiescent binary gas mixture with equal sound speeds and temperatures. It is found that the Courant condition is always sufficient to ensure stability, so that no additional diffusional stability restriction arises for any value of the drag coefficient, however large. This result is confirmed by one-dimensional computational results for binary and ternary mixtures with unequal sound speeds, which remain stable even when the time step exceeds the usual diffusional limit by factors of order 100.

  12. Numerical approach to Zeeman line radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yoichi

    1991-10-01

    An accelerated lambda iteration (ALI) method, a version of the operator perturbation technique, is formulated for applications to Zeeman line formation problems in the presence of magnetic fields. This approach has proven to be quite an effective and flexible numerical device, being applicable to extensive problems (e.g., LTE one-way integration problem, noncoherent scattering etc.). In addition to its general formulation, a specialized practical version is also proposed which is limited to scattering (or multi-level) problems under the assumption of complete frequency redistribution (CRD), but requiring much less computing time. In order to examine the computational efficiency of this ALI method, numerical examples are presented concerning line formation in a magnetic field for several simple cases (LTE Milne-Eddington model, noncoherent CRD scattering, angle-dependent coherent scattering), showing a reasonably rapid convergence with notable numerical stability. Comparisons with other recent numerical techniques confirm the distinguished superiority of the present method.

  13. Numerical Simulation on the Liquid Bridge Formation by the Applied Electric Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jin Seok; Kang, In Seok

    2010-11-01

    In this work, liquid bridge (LB) formation by the applied electric field is analyzed numerically. Numerical simulation captures the temporal behavior of liquid surface during the LB formation between a top plate and a bottom nozzle. Numerical results show the three stages of LB formation; interface elevation, impact/fast spreading and slow spreading/stabilization. The effect of the applied voltage pulse is also studied in terms of minimal electrical energy for LB formation. Non-linear behavior such as bubble trapping at the impact of liquid to plate is also captured and explained qualitatively. Grounded and floating plate is considered. The wetting criterion for LB formation is suggested and explained in terms of capillary pressure. The linear decrease of the final contact radius with the top plate contact angle is shown from the numerical results. In addition, the effects of the liquid properties on the dynamics are briefly discussed.

  14. Numerical Speed of Sound and its Application to Schemes for all Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Edwards, Jack R.

    1999-01-01

    The concept of "numerical speed of sound" is proposed in the construction of numerical flux. It is shown that this variable is responsible for the accurate resolution of' discontinuities, such as contacts and shocks. Moreover, this concept can he readily extended to deal with low speed and multiphase flows. As a results, the numerical dissipation for low speed flows is scaled with the local fluid speed, rather than the sound speed. Hence, the accuracy is enhanced the correct solution recovered, and the convergence rate improved. We also emphasize the role of mass flux and analyze the behavior of this flux. Study of mass flux is important because the numerical diffusivity introduced in it can be identified. In addition, it is the term common to all conservation equations. We show calculated results for a wide variety of flows to validate the effectiveness of using the numerical speed of sound concept in constructing the numerical flux. We especially aim at achieving these two goals: (1) improving accuracy and (2) gaining convergence rates for all speed ranges. We find that while the performance at high speed range is maintained, the flux now has the capability of performing well even with the low: speed flows. Thanks to the new numerical speed of sound, the convergence is even enhanced for the flows outside of the low speed range. To realize the usefulness of the proposed method in engineering problems, we have also performed calculations for complex 3D turbulent flows and the results are in excellent agreement with data.

  15. Systems Improved Numerical Fluids Analysis Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, F. A.

    1990-01-01

    Systems Improved Numerical Fluids Analysis Code, SINFAC, consists of additional routines added to April, 1983, version of SINDA. Additional routines provide for mathematical modeling of active heat-transfer loops. Simulates steady-state and pseudo-transient operations of 16 different components of heat-transfer loops, including radiators, evaporators, condensers, mechanical pumps, reservoirs, and many types of valves and fittings. Program contains property-analysis routine used to compute thermodynamic properties of 20 different refrigerants. Source code written in FORTRAN 77.

  16. Numerical thermal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ketkar, S.P.

    1999-07-01

    This new volume is written for both practicing engineers who want to refresh their knowledge in the fundamentals of numerical thermal analysis as well as for students of numerical heat transfer. it is a handy desktop reference that covers all the basics of finite difference, finite element, and control volume methods. In this volume, the author presents a unique hybrid method that combines the best features of finite element modeling and the computational efficiency of finite difference network solution techniques. It is a robust technique that is used in commercially available software. The contents include: heat conduction: fundamentals and governing equations; finite difference method; control volume method; finite element method; the hybrid method; and software selection.

  17. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Hairetdinov, A.H.; Zukov, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  18. Numerical simulations in combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews numerical simulations in reacting flows in general and combustion phenomena in particular. It is shown that use of implicit schemes and/or adaptive mesh strategies can improve convergence, stability, and accuracy of the solution. Difficulties increase as turbulence and multidimensions are considered, particularly when finite-rate chemistry governs the given combustion problem. Particular attention is given to the areas of solid-propellant combustion dynamics, turbulent diffusion flames, and spray droplet vaporization.

  19. Electron transport in the solar wind -results from numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Håkan; Marsch, Eckart; Helander, Per

    A conventional fluid approach is in general insufficient for a correct description of electron trans-port in weakly collisional plasmas such as the solar wind. The classical Spitzer-Hürm theory is a not valid when the Knudsen number (the mean free path divided by the length scale of tem-perature variation) is greater than ˜ 10-2 . Despite this, the heat transport from Spitzer-Hürm a theory is widely used in situations with relatively long mean free paths. For realistic Knud-sen numbers in the solar wind, the electron distribution function develops suprathermal tails, and the departure from a local Maxwellian can be significant at the energies which contribute the most to the heat flux moment. To accurately model heat transport a kinetic approach is therefore more adequate. Different techniques have been used previously, e.g. particle sim-ulations [Landi, 2003], spectral methods [Pierrard, 2001], the so-called 16 moment method [Lie-Svendsen, 2001], and approximation by kappa functions [Dorelli, 2003]. In the present study we solve the Fokker-Planck equation for electrons in one spatial dimension and two velocity dimensions. The distribution function is expanded in Laguerre polynomials in energy, and a finite difference scheme is used to solve the equation in the spatial dimension and the velocity pitch angle. The ion temperature and density profiles are assumed to be known, but the electric field is calculated self-consistently to guarantee quasi-neutrality. The kinetic equation is of a two-way diffusion type, for which the distribution of particles entering the computational domain in both ends of the spatial dimension must be specified, leaving the outgoing distributions to be calculated. The long mean free path of the suprathermal electrons has the effect that the details of the boundary conditions play an important role in determining the particle and heat fluxes as well as the electric potential drop across the domain. Dorelli, J. C., and J. D. Scudder, J. D. 2003, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 1294. Landi, S., and Pantellini, F. G. E. 2003, Astron. Astrophys., 400, 769. Lie-Svendsen, Ø., Leer, E., and Hansteen, V. H. 2001, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 8217. Pierrard, V., Maksimovic, M., and Lemaire, J. 2001, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 29305.

  20. Numerical tests of stochastic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ru-Shan, Wu; Xiao-Bi, Xie

    1991-05-01

    The method of stochastic tomography proposed by Wu is tested numerically. This method reconstructs the heterospectra (power spectra of heterogeneities) at all depths of a non-uniform random medium using measured joint transverse-angular coherence functions (JTACF) of transmission fluctuations on an array. The inversion method is based on a constrained least-squares inversion implemented via the singular value decomposition. The inversion is also applicable to reconstructions using transverse coherence functions (TCF) or angular coherence functions (ACF); these are merely special cases of JTACF. Through the analysis of sampling functions and singular values, and through numerical examples of reconstruction using theoretically generated coherence functions, we compare the resolution and robustness of reconstructions using TCF, ACF and JTACF. The JTACF can `focus' the coherence analysis at different depths and therefore has a better depth resolution than TCF and ACF. In addition, the JTACF contains much more information than the sum of TCF and ACF, and has much better noise resistance properties than TCF and ACF. Inversion of JTACF can give a reliable reconstruction of heterospectra at different depths even for data with 20% noise contamination. This demonstrates the feasibility of stochastic tomography using JTACF.

  1. Mean Element Propagations Using Numerical Averaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.

    2009-01-01

    The long-term evolution characteristics (and stability) of an orbit are best characterized using a mean element propagation of the perturbed two body variational equations of motion. The averaging process eliminates short period terms leaving only secular and long period effects. In this study, a non-traditional approach is taken that averages the variational equations using adaptive numerical techniques and then numerically integrating the resulting EOMs. Doing this avoids the Fourier series expansions and truncations required by the traditional analytic methods. The resultant numerical techniques can be easily adapted to propagations at most solar system bodies.

  2. Numerical Stimulation of Multicomponent Chromatography Using Spreadsheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Douglas D.

    1990-01-01

    Illustrated is the use of spreadsheet programs for implementing finite difference numerical simulations of chromatography as an instructional tool in a separations course. Discussed are differential equations, discretization and integration, spreadsheet development, computer requirements, and typical simulation results. (CW)

  3. Value-Engineering Review for Numerical Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Selecting parts for conversion from conventional machining to numerical control, value-engineering review performed for every part to identify potential changes to part design that result in increased production efficiency.

  4. Numerical simulation of conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; To, Wai-Ming

    1992-01-01

    A new numerical framework for solving conservation laws is being developed. This new approach differs substantially from the well established methods, i.e., finite difference, finite volume, finite element and spectral methods, in both concept and methodology. The key features of the current scheme include: (1) direct discretization of the integral forms of conservation laws, (2) treating space and time on the same footing, (3) flux conservation in space and time, and (4) unified treatment of the convection and diffusion fluxes. The model equation considered in the initial study is the standard one dimensional unsteady constant-coefficient convection-diffusion equation. In a stability study, it is shown that the principal and spurious amplification factors of the current scheme, respectively, are structurally similar to those of the leapfrog/DuFort-Frankel scheme. As a result, the current scheme has no numerical diffusion in the special case of pure convection and is unconditionally stable in the special case of pure diffusion. Assuming smooth initial data, it will be shown theoretically and numerically that, by using an easily determined optimal time step, the accuracy of the current scheme may reach a level which is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the MacCormack scheme, with virtually identical operation count.

  5. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  6. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default

    PubMed Central

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one’s mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  7. Numerical simulations of cryogenic cavitating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunji; Kim, Hyeongjun; Min, Daeho; Kim, Chongam

    2015-12-01

    The present study deals with a numerical method for cryogenic cavitating flows. Recently, we have developed an accurate and efficient baseline numerical scheme for all-speed water-gas two-phase flows. By extending such progress, we modify the numerical dissipations to be properly scaled so that it does not show any deficiencies in low Mach number regions. For dealing with cryogenic two-phase flows, previous EOS-dependent shock discontinuity sensing term is replaced with a newly designed EOS-free one. To validate the proposed numerical method, cryogenic cavitating flows around hydrofoil are computed and the pressure and temperature depression effect in cryogenic cavitation are demonstrated. Compared with Hord's experimental data, computed results are turned out to be satisfactory. Afterwards, numerical simulations of flow around KARI turbopump inducer in liquid rocket are carried out under various flow conditions with water and cryogenic fluids, and the difference in inducer flow physics depending on the working fluids are examined.

  8. A numerical method for cardiac mechanoelectric simulations.

    PubMed

    Pathmanathan, Pras; Whiteley, Jonathan P

    2009-05-01

    Much effort has been devoted to developing numerical techniques for solving the equations that describe cardiac electrophysiology, namely the monodomain equations and bidomain equations. Only a limited selection of publications, however, address the development of numerical techniques for mechanoelectric simulations where cardiac electrophysiology is coupled with deformation of cardiac tissue. One problem commonly encountered in mechanoelectric simulations is instability of the coupled numerical scheme. In this study, we develop a stable numerical scheme for mechanoelectric simulations. A number of convergence tests are carried out using this stable technique for simulations where deformations are of the magnitude typically observed in a beating heart. These convergence tests demonstrate that accurate computation of tissue deformation requires a nodal spacing of around 1 mm in the mesh used to calculate tissue deformation. This is a much finer computational grid than has previously been acknowledged, and has implications for the computational efficiency of the resulting numerical scheme. PMID:19263223

  9. Infants use relative numerical group size to infer social dominance.

    PubMed

    Pun, Anthea; Birch, Susan A J; Baron, Andrew Scott

    2016-03-01

    Detecting dominance relationships, within and across species, provides a clear fitness advantage because this ability helps individuals assess their potential risk of injury before engaging in a competition. Previous research has demonstrated that 10- to 13-mo-old infants can represent the dominance relationship between two agents in terms of their physical size (larger agent = more dominant), whereas younger infants fail to do so. It is unclear whether infants younger than 10 mo fail to represent dominance relationships in general, or whether they lack sensitivity to physical size as a cue to dominance. Two studies explored whether infants, like many species across the animal kingdom, use numerical group size to assess dominance relationships and whether this capacity emerges before their sensitivity to physical size. A third study ruled out an alternative explanation for our findings. Across these studies, we report that infants 6-12 mo of age use numerical group size to infer dominance relationships. Specifically, preverbal infants expect an agent from a numerically larger group to win in a right-of-way competition against an agent from a numerically smaller group. In addition, this is, to our knowledge, the first study to demonstrate that infants 6-9 mo of age are capable of understanding social dominance relations. These results demonstrate that infants' understanding of social dominance relations may be based on evolutionarily relevant cues and reveal infants' early sensitivity to an important adaptive function of social groups. PMID:26884199

  10. Infants use relative numerical group size to infer social dominance

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Anthea; Birch, Susan A. J.; Baron, Andrew Scott

    2016-01-01

    Detecting dominance relationships, within and across species, provides a clear fitness advantage because this ability helps individuals assess their potential risk of injury before engaging in a competition. Previous research has demonstrated that 10- to 13-mo-old infants can represent the dominance relationship between two agents in terms of their physical size (larger agent = more dominant), whereas younger infants fail to do so. It is unclear whether infants younger than 10 mo fail to represent dominance relationships in general, or whether they lack sensitivity to physical size as a cue to dominance. Two studies explored whether infants, like many species across the animal kingdom, use numerical group size to assess dominance relationships and whether this capacity emerges before their sensitivity to physical size. A third study ruled out an alternative explanation for our findings. Across these studies, we report that infants 6–12 mo of age use numerical group size to infer dominance relationships. Specifically, preverbal infants expect an agent from a numerically larger group to win in a right-of-way competition against an agent from a numerically smaller group. In addition, this is, to our knowledge, the first study to demonstrate that infants 6–9 mo of age are capable of understanding social dominance relations. These results demonstrate that infants’ understanding of social dominance relations may be based on evolutionarily relevant cues and reveal infants’ early sensitivity to an important adaptive function of social groups. PMID:26884199

  11. Numerical and measured data from the 3D salt canopy physical modeling project

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, C.; House, L.; Fehler, M.; Pearson, J.; TenCate, J.; Wiley, R.

    1997-11-01

    The evolution of salt structures in the Gulf of Mexico have been shown to provide a mechanism for the trapping of significant hydrocarbon reserves. Most of these structures have complex geometries relative to the surrounding sedimentary layers. This aspect in addition to high velocities within the salt tend to scatter and defocus seismic energy and make imaging of subsalt lithology extremely difficult. An ongoing program the SEG/EAEG modeling project (Aminzadeh et al. 1994a: Aminzadeh et al. 1994b: Aminzadeh et al. 1995), and a follow-up project funded as part of the Advanced Computational Technology Initiative (ACTI) (House et al. 1996) have sought to investigate problems with imaging beneath complex salt structures using numerical modeling and more recently, construction of a physical model patterned after the numerical subsalt model (Wiley and McKnight. 1996). To date, no direct comparison of the numerical and physical aspects of these models has been attempted. We present the results of forward modeling a numerical realization of the 3D salt canopy physical model with the French Petroleum Institute (IFP) acoustic finite difference algorithm used in the numerical subsalt tests. We compare the results from the physical salt canopy model, the acoustic modeling of the physical/numerical model and the original numerical SEG/EAEG Salt Model. We will be testing the sensitivity of migration to the presence of converted shear waves and acquisition geometry.

  12. Physical and numerical modeling of Joule-heated melters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyler, L. L.; Skarda, R. J.; Crowder, R. S., III; Trent, D. S.; Reid, C. R.; Lessor, D. L.

    1985-10-01

    The Joule-heated ceramic-lined melter is an integral part of the high level waste immobilization process under development by the US Department of Energy. Scaleup and design of this waste glass melting furnace requires an understanding of the relationships between melting cavity design parameters and the furnace performance characteristics such as mixing, heat transfer, and electrical requirements. Developing empirical models of these relationships through actual melter testing with numerous designs would be a very costly and time consuming task. Additionally, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been developing numerical models that simulate a Joule-heated melter for analyzing melter performance. This report documents the method used and results of this modeling effort. Numerical modeling results are compared with the more conventional, physical modeling results to validate the approach. Also included are the results of numerically simulating an operating research melter at PNL. Physical Joule-heated melters modeling results used for qualiying the simulation capabilities of the melter code included: (1) a melter with a single pair of electrodes and (2) a melter with a dual pair (two pairs) of electrodes. The physical model of the melter having two electrode pairs utilized a configuration with primary and secondary electrodes. The principal melter parameters (the ratio of power applied to each electrode pair, modeling fluid depth, electrode spacing) were varied in nine tests of the physical model during FY85. Code predictions were made for five of these tests. Voltage drops, temperature field data, and electric field data varied in their agreement with the physical modeling results, but in general were judged acceptable.

  13. Physical and numerical modeling of Joule-heated melters

    SciTech Connect

    Eyler, L.L.; Skarda, R.J.; Crowder, R.S. III; Trent, D.S.; Reid, C.R.; Lessor, D.L.

    1985-10-01

    The Joule-heated ceramic-lined melter is an integral part of the high level waste immobilization process under development by the US Department of Energy. Scaleup and design of this waste glass melting furnace requires an understanding of the relationships between melting cavity design parameters and the furnace performance characteristics such as mixing, heat transfer, and electrical requirements. Developing empirical models of these relationships through actual melter testing with numerous designs would be a very costly and time consuming task. Additionally, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been developing numerical models that simulate a Joule-heated melter for analyzing melter performance. This report documents the method used and results of this modeling effort. Numerical modeling results are compared with the more conventional, physical modeling results to validate the approach. Also included are the results of numerically simulating an operating research melter at PNL. Physical Joule-heated melters modeling results used for qualiying the simulation capabilities of the melter code included: (1) a melter with a single pair of electrodes and (2) a melter with a dual pair (two pairs) of electrodes. The physical model of the melter having two electrode pairs utilized a configuration with primary and secondary electrodes. The principal melter parameters (the ratio of power applied to each electrode pair, modeling fluid depth, electrode spacing) were varied in nine tests of the physical model during FY85. Code predictions were made for five of these tests. Voltage drops, temperature field data, and electric field data varied in their agreement with the physical modeling results, but in general were judged acceptable. 14 refs., 79 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Numerical error in groundwater flow and solute transport simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Juliette A.; Teubner, Michael D.; Simmons, Craig T.; Narayan, Kumar A.

    2003-06-01

    Models of groundwater flow and solute transport may be affected by numerical error, leading to quantitative and qualitative changes in behavior. In this paper we compare and combine three methods of assessing the extent of numerical error: grid refinement, mathematical analysis, and benchmark test problems. In particular, we assess the popular solute transport code SUTRA [Voss, 1984] as being a typical finite element code. Our numerical analysis suggests that SUTRA incorporates a numerical dispersion error and that its mass-lumped numerical scheme increases the numerical error. This is confirmed using a Gaussian test problem. A modified SUTRA code, in which the numerical dispersion is calculated and subtracted, produces better results. The much more challenging Elder problem [Elder, 1967; Voss and Souza, 1987] is then considered. Calculation of its numerical dispersion coefficients and numerical stability show that the Elder problem is prone to error. We confirm that Elder problem results are extremely sensitive to the simulation method used.

  15. Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, V. L.; Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.; Bailey, F. R.

    1983-01-01

    The history of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program, which is designed to provide a leading-edge capability to computational aerodynamicists, is traced back to its origin in 1975. Factors motivating its development and examples of solutions to successively refined forms of the governing equations are presented. The NAS Processing System Network and each of its eight subsystems are described in terms of function and initial performance goals. A proposed usage allocation policy is discussed and some initial problems being readied for solution on the NAS system are identified.

  16. Foehn wind detection using numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irimescu, A.; Caian, M.

    2010-09-01

    In Romania, foehn is a short-lived atmospheric phenomenon, of a low to average intensity, not always highlighted by weather station observations. When such situations occur additional data are resorted to, rendering a continuous, aggregate image, in comparison to the punctual information yielded by weather stations. This paper aims to describe how foehn is detected in northern Oltenia (the Inner Carpathian-Balkan Curvature), using numerical modelling. Results generated by the RegCM3 Regional Climatic Model thus represent an undisputed tool, their most important advantage being the 10-km spatial resolution. The presence of foehn in northern Oltenia and its climatic peculiarities have been disclosed through the analysis in time and space of the meteorological elements specific to the phenomenon (air temperature, wind speed and direction etc) over a 40-year interval (1961-2000). The paper presents a new methodology that can be used to estimate the probability of production and the foehn characteristics (intensity, duration etc.). Interpretation of the RegCM3 model results has led to the statistical analysis of foehn occurrences within the studied area during the cold season (December, January and February). The resulted climatology, with fine resolution, can be used in foehn forecast of predictability.

  17. Numerical model of crater lake eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrissey, M.; Gisler, G.; Weaver, R.; Gittings, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present results from a numerical investigation of subaqueous eruptions involving superheated steam released through a lake mimicking the volcanic setting at Mt. Ruapehu. The simulations were conducted using an adaptive mesh, multi-material, hydrodynamics code with thermal conduction SAGE, (Simple Adaptive Grid Eulerian). Parameters investigated include eruption pressure, lake level and mass of superheated vapor. The simulations produced a spectrum of eruption styles from vapor cavities to radial jets that resulted in hazards that ranged from small-scale waves to high amplitude surges that reached and cascaded over the edge of the crater rim. There was an overall tendency for lake surface activity to increase (including wave amplitude) with increasing mass of superheated vapor and eruption pressure. Surface waves were induced by the formation and collapse of a gas cavity. The collapse of the cavity is considered to play a major role in the characteristic features observed during a subaqueous eruption. The additional mass of superheated vapor produced a larger cavity that displaced a larger area of the lake surface resulting in fast moving surges upon the collapse of the cavity. High lake levels (>90 m) appear to suppress the development of explosive jetting activity when eruption pressures are <10 MPa. At very large eruption pressures (>10 MPa), vertical jets and radial ejections of steam and water can occur in water depths >90 m. Less explosive eruption styles can produce hazardous events such as lahars by the outward movement of surface waves over the crater rim.

  18. Benchmarking numerical freeze/thaw models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühaak, Wolfram; Anbergen, Hauke; Molson, John; Grenier, Christophe; Sass, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    The modeling of freezing and thawing of water in porous media is of increasing interest, and for which very different application areas exist. For instance, the modeling of permafrost regression with respect to climate change issues is one area, while others include geotechnical applications in tunneling and for borehole heat exchangers which operate at temperatures below the freezing point. The modeling of these processes requires the solution of a coupled non-linear system of partial differential equations for flow and heat transport in space and time. Different code implementations have been developed in the past. Analytical solutions exist only for simple cases. Consequently, an interest has arisen in benchmarking different codes with analytical solutions, experiments and purely numerical results, similar to the long-standing DECOVALEX and the more recent "Geothermal Code Comparison" activities. The name for this freezing/ thawing benchmark consortium is INTERFROST. In addition to the well-known so-called Lunardini solution for a 1D case (case T1), two different 2D problems will be presented, one which represents melting of a frozen inclusion (case TH2) and another which represents the growth or thaw of permafrost around a talik (case TH3). These talik regions are important for controlling groundwater movement within a mainly frozen ground. First results of the different benchmark results will be shown and discussed.

  19. Numerical methods for multibody systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glowinski, Roland; Nasser, Mahmoud G.

    1994-01-01

    This article gives a brief summary of some results obtained by Nasser on modeling and simulation of inequality problems in multibody dynamics. In particular, the augmented Lagrangian method discussed here is applied to a constrained motion problem with impulsive inequality constraints. A fundamental characteristic of the multibody dynamics problem is the lack of global convexity of its Lagrangian. The problem is transformed into a convex analysis problem by localization (piecewise linearization), where the augmented Lagrangian has been successfully used. A model test problem is considered and a set of numerical experiments is presented.

  20. Numerical study of rock blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanov, Yu. P.; Bakeev, R. A.; Yudin, A. S.; Kuznetsova, N. S.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents numerical simulation results on fracture of a concrete block due to dynamic explosive loads applied to the walls of a blast hole. Considered in the study is the influence of the pulse shape and rock properties on the pattern of irreversible deformation and cracking. It is found that a fractured zone bounded by a plastically deformed contour always arises around the explosion site. Comparison of elastoplastic deformation and fracture induced in the concrete block by explosion pulses of different durations and amplitudes shows that shorter pulses with higher amplitudes and steeper rise times provide a higher blasting efficiency.

  1. Numerical solution of a microbial growth model applied to dynamic environments.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Si; Chen, Guibing

    2015-05-01

    The Baranyi and Roberts model is one of the most frequently used microbial growth models. It has been successfully applied to numerous studies of various microorganisms in different food products. Under dynamic conditions, the model is implicitly formulated as a set of two coupled differential equations which could be numerically solved using the Runge-Kutta method. In this study, a simplified numerical solution of the coupled differential equations was derived and used to simulate microbial growth under dynamic conditions in Microsoft Excel. As expected, the results obtained were the same as those from solving the coupled differential equations using a MATLAB Solver. In addition, model parameters were accurately identified by fitting the numerical solution to simulated growth curves under dynamic (time-varying) temperature conditions using the Microsoft Excel Solver. PMID:25765150

  2. Analytical Solutions Involving Shock Waves for Testing Debris Avalanche Numerical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungkasi, Sudi; Roberts, Stephen Gwyn

    2012-10-01

    Analytical solutions to debris avalanche problems involving shock waves are derived. The debris avalanche problems are described in two different coordinate systems, namely, the standard Cartesian and topography-linked coordinate systems. The analytical solutions can then be used to test debris avalanche numerical models. In this article, finite volume methods are applied as the numerical models. We compare the performance of the finite volume method with reconstruction of the conserved quantities based on stage, height, and velocity to that of the conserved quantities based on stage, height, and momentum for solving the debris avalanche problems involving shock waves. The numerical solutions agree with the analytical solution. In addition, both reconstructions lead to similar numerical results. This article is an extension of the work of Mangeney et al. (Pure Appl Geophys 157(6-8):1081-1096, 2000).

  3. On Sums of Numerical Series and Fourier Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavao, H. Germano; de Oliveira, E. Capelas

    2008-01-01

    We discuss a class of trigonometric functions whose corresponding Fourier series, on a conveniently chosen interval, can be used to calculate several numerical series. Particular cases are presented and two recent results involving numerical series are recovered. (Contains 1 note.)

  4. Entropy Splitting and Numerical Dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Vinokur, M.; Djomehri, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    A rigorous stability estimate for arbitrary order of accuracy of spatial central difference schemes for initial-boundary value problems of nonlinear symmetrizable systems of hyperbolic conservation laws was established recently by Olsson and Oliger (1994) and Olsson (1995) and was applied to the two-dimensional compressible Euler equations for a perfect gas by Gerritsen and Olsson (1996) and Gerritsen (1996). The basic building block in developing the stability estimate is a generalized energy approach based on a special splitting of the flux derivative via a convex entropy function and certain homogeneous properties. Due to some of the unique properties of the compressible Euler equations for a perfect gas, the splitting resulted in the sum of a conservative portion and a non-conservative portion of the flux derivative. hereafter referred to as the "Entropy Splitting." There are several potential desirable attributes and side benefits of the entropy splitting for the compressible Euler equations that were not fully explored in Gerritsen and Olsson. The paper has several objectives. The first is to investigate the choice of the arbitrary parameter that determines the amount of splitting and its dependence on the type of physics of current interest to computational fluid dynamics. The second is to investigate in what manner the splitting affects the nonlinear stability of the central schemes for long time integrations of unsteady flows such as in nonlinear aeroacoustics and turbulence dynamics. If numerical dissipation indeed is needed to stabilize the central scheme, can the splitting help minimize the numerical dissipation compared to its un-split cousin? Extensive numerical study on the vortex preservation capability of the splitting in conjunction with central schemes for long time integrations will be presented. The third is to study the effect of the non-conservative proportion of splitting in obtaining the correct shock location for high speed complex shock

  5. Development and testing of a numerical simulation method for thermally nonequilibrium dissociating flows in ANSYS Fluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoev, G. V.; Bondar, Ye. A.; Oblapenko, G. P.; Kustova, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    Various issues of numerical simulation of supersonic gas flows with allowance for thermochemical nonequilibrium on the basis of fluid dynamic equations in the two-temperature approximation are discussed. The computational tool for modeling flows with thermochemical nonequilibrium is the commercial software package ANSYS Fluent with an additional userdefined open-code module. A comparative analysis of results obtained by various models of vibration-dissociation coupling in binary gas mixtures of nitrogen and oxygen is performed. Results of numerical simulations are compared with available experimental data.

  6. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  7. Confidence in Numerical Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hemez, Francois M.

    2015-02-23

    This PowerPoint presentation offers a high-level discussion of uncertainty, confidence and credibility in scientific Modeling and Simulation (M&S). It begins by briefly evoking M&S trends in computational physics and engineering. The first thrust of the discussion is to emphasize that the role of M&S in decision-making is either to support reasoning by similarity or to “forecast,” that is, make predictions about the future or extrapolate to settings or environments that cannot be tested experimentally. The second thrust is to explain that M&S-aided decision-making is an exercise in uncertainty management. The three broad classes of uncertainty in computational physics and engineering are variability and randomness, numerical uncertainty and model-form uncertainty. The last part of the discussion addresses how scientists “think.” This thought process parallels the scientific method where by a hypothesis is formulated, often accompanied by simplifying assumptions, then, physical experiments and numerical simulations are performed to confirm or reject the hypothesis. “Confidence” derives, not just from the levels of training and experience of analysts, but also from the rigor with which these assessments are performed, documented and peer-reviewed.

  8. Numerical simulation of film-cooled ablative rocket nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landrum, D. B.; Beard, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research effort was to evaluate the impact of incorporating an additional cooling port downstream between the injector and nozzle throat in the NASA Fast Track chamber. A numerical model of the chamber was developed for the analysis. The analysis did not model ablation but instead correlated the initial ablation rate with the initial nozzle wall temperature distribution. The results of this study provide guidance in the development of a potentially lighter, second generation ablative rocket nozzle which maintains desired performance levels.

  9. Children's Developing Numerical Notations: The Impact of Input Display, Numerical Size and Operational Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teubal, E.; Dockrell, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the emergence of children's early use of numerical notation. Children's notations for different forms of numerical input were investigated and the development of these forms is described. Eighty children, 3.0-5.8, recorded the results of a throw of a die in a game. Numerosities were represented with digits or dots on the die.…

  10. Nitrogen as a friendly addition to steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial alloying with nitrogen or carbon is a common means of enhancing properties of iron-based alloys. Interstitial nitrogen addition to fcc-phase Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys results in improved mechanical properties, whereas addition of carbon can result in the formation of unwanted carbides. Carbon addition to low alloy, bcc-phase iron alloys significantly improves strength through the formation of carbides, whereas addition of nitrogen in bcc-phase iron alloys can result in porous casting and reduced mechanical properties. This study will show that alloying iron-based alloys with both nitrogen and carbon can produce positive results. Nitrogen addition to Fe-C and Fe-Cr-C alloys, and both nitrogen and nitrogen-carbon additions to Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys altered the microstructure, improved mechanical properties, increased hardness, and reduced wear by stabilizing the fcc-phase and altering (possibly eliminating) precipitate formation.

  11. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  12. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  13. Numerical Simulations of Thermographic Responses in Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. Elliot; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Howell, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulations of thermographic responses in composite materials have been a useful for evaluating and optimizing thermographic analysis techniques. Numerical solutions are particularly beneficial for thermographic techniques, since the fabrication of specimens with realistic flaws is difficult. Simulations are presented with different ply layups that incorporated the anisotropic thermal properties that exist in each ply. The results are compared to analytical series solutions and thermal measurements on composites with flat bottom holes and delaminations.

  14. Numerical focusing in diffraction phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaikova, N. A.; Grebenyuk, A. A.; Kalyanov, A. L.; Ryabukho, V. P.

    2016-04-01

    Diffraction phase microscopy (DPM) provides the possibility of high-resolution quantitative phase imaging, based on equipment of an optical microscope with a special module working in a common-path off-axis configuration. As an optical microscopy technique, DPM has a limited focus depth, which is the smaller the higher is the objective's numerical aperture. In this paper we present the results of experimental investigation of numerical focusing with the angular spectrum method in DPM.

  15. Rythmos Numerical Integration Package

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, Todd S.; Bartlett, Roscoe A.

    2006-09-01

    Rythmos numerically integrates transient differential equations. The differential equations can be explicit or implicit ordinary differential equations ofr formulated as fully implicit differential-algebraic equations. Methods include backward Euler, forward Euler, explicit Runge-Kutta, and implicit BDF at this time. Native support for operator split methods and strict modularity are strong design goals. Forward sensitivity computations will be included in the first release with adjoint sensitivities coming in the near future. Rythmos heavily relies on Thyra for linear algebra and nonlinear solver interfaces to AztecOO, Amesos, IFPack, and NOX in Tilinos. Rythmos is specially suited for stiff differential equations and thos applictions where operator split methods have a big advantage, e.g. Computational fluid dynamics, convection-diffusion equations, etc.

  16. Rythmos Numerical Integration Package

    2006-09-01

    Rythmos numerically integrates transient differential equations. The differential equations can be explicit or implicit ordinary differential equations ofr formulated as fully implicit differential-algebraic equations. Methods include backward Euler, forward Euler, explicit Runge-Kutta, and implicit BDF at this time. Native support for operator split methods and strict modularity are strong design goals. Forward sensitivity computations will be included in the first release with adjoint sensitivities coming in the near future. Rythmos heavily relies on Thyra formore » linear algebra and nonlinear solver interfaces to AztecOO, Amesos, IFPack, and NOX in Tilinos. Rythmos is specially suited for stiff differential equations and thos applictions where operator split methods have a big advantage, e.g. Computational fluid dynamics, convection-diffusion equations, etc.« less

  17. Using PASCAL for numerical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volper, D.; Miller, T. C.

    1978-01-01

    The data structures and control structures of PASCAL enhance the coding ability of the programmer. Proposed extensions to the language further increase its usefulness in writing numeric programs and support packages for numeric programs.

  18. Precise numerical modeling of next generation multimode fiber based links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksymiuk, L.; Stepniak, G.

    2015-12-01

    In order to numerically model modern multimode fiber based links we are required to take into account modal and chromatic dispersion, profile dispersion and spectral dependent coupling. In this paper we propose a complete numerical model which not only is precise but also versatile. Additionally to the detailed mathematical description of the model we provide also a bunch of numerical calculations performed with the use of the model.

  19. On Numerical Methods For Hypersonic Turbulent Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjogreen, B.; Shu, C. W.; Wang, W.; Magin, T.; Hadjadj, A.

    2011-05-01

    Proper control of numerical dissipation in numerical methods beyond the standard shock-capturing dissipation at discontinuities is an essential element for accurate and stable simulation of hypersonic turbulent flows, including combustion, and thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flows. Unlike rapidly developing shock interaction flows, turbulence computations involve long time integrations. Improper control of numerical dissipation from one time step to another would be compounded over time, resulting in the smearing of turbulent fluctuations to an unrecognizable form. Hypersonic turbulent flows around re- entry space vehicles involve mixed steady strong shocks and turbulence with unsteady shocklets that pose added computational challenges. Stiffness of the source terms and material mixing in combustion pose yet other types of numerical challenges. A low dissipative high order well- balanced scheme, which can preserve certain non-trivial steady solutions of the governing equations exactly, may help minimize some of these difficulties. For stiff reactions it is well known that the wrong propagation speed of discontinuities occurs due to the under-resolved numerical solutions in both space and time. Schemes to improve the wrong propagation speed of discontinuities for systems of stiff reacting flows remain a challenge for algorithm development. Some of the recent algorithm developments for direct numerical simulations (DNS) and large eddy simulations (LES) for the subject physics, including the aforementioned numerical challenges, will be discussed.

  20. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent aerosol coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reade, Walter Caswell

    There are numerous systems-including both industrial applications and natural occurring phenomena-in which the collision/coagulation rates of aerosols are of significant interest. Two examples are the production of fine powders (such as titanium dioxide) and the formation of rain drops in the atmosphere. During the last decade, it has become apparent that dense aerosol particles behave much differently in a turbulent fluid than has been previously assumed. Particles with a response time on the order of the small-scale fluid time scale tend to collect in regions of low vorticity. The result is a particle concentration field that can be highly non-uniform. Sundaram and Collins (1997) recently demonstrated the effect that turbulence can have on the particle collision rate of a monodisperse system. The collision rates of finite-inertia particles can be as much as two orders of magnitude greater than particles that precisely follow the fluid streamlines. Sundaram and Collins derived a general collision expression that explicitly accounted for the two phenomena that affect the collision rate-changes in the particle concentration field and changes in the particle relative velocities. The result of Sundaram and Collins has generated further interest in the turbulent-aerosol problem. This thesis shows that, in addition to changing the rate that an aerosol size distribution might form, turbulence has the potential of dramatically changing the shape of the distribution. This result is demonstrated using direct numerical simulation of a turbulent-aerosol system over a wide range of particle parameters, and a moderate range of turbulence levels. Results show that particles with a small (but finite) initial inertia have the greatest potential of forming broad size distributions. The shape of the resulting size distribution is also affected by the initial size of the particles. Observations are explained using the statistics identified by Sundaram and Collins (1997). A major