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Sample records for addition numerous studies

  1. Numerical study of the effect of water addition on gas explosion.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuntao; Zeng, Wen

    2010-02-15

    Through amending the SENKIN code of CHEMKIN III chemical kinetics package, a computational model of gas explosion in a constant volume bomb was built, and the detailed reaction mechanism (GRI-Mech 3.0) was adopted. The mole fraction profiles of reactants, some selected free radicals and catastrophic gases in the process of gas explosion were analyzed by this model. Furthermore, through the sensitivity analysis of the reaction mechanism of gas explosion, the dominant reactions that affect gas explosion and the formation of catastrophic gases were found out. At the same time, the inhibition mechanisms of water on gas explosion and the formation of catastrophic gases were analyzed. The results show that the induced explosion time is prolonged, and the mole fractions of reactant species such as CH(4), O(2) and catastrophic gases such as CO, CO(2) and NO are decreased as water is added to the mixed gas. With the water fraction in the mixed gas increasing, the sensitivities of the dominant reactions contributing to CH(4), CO(2) are decreased and the sensitivity coefficients of CH(4), CO and NO mole fractions are also decreased. The inhibition of gas explosion with water addition can be ascribed to the significant decrease of H, O and OH in the process of gas explosion due to the water presence. PMID:19811873

  2. Numerical study on the influence of hydrogen addition on soot formation in a laminar ethylene-air diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hongsheng; Liu, Fengshan; Smallwood, Gregory J.; Guelder, OEmer L.

    2006-04-15

    The influence of hydrogen addition to the fuel of an atmosphere pressure coflow laminar ethylene-air diffusion flame on soot formation was studied by numerical simulation. A detailed gas-phase reaction mechanism, which includes aromatic chemistry up to four rings, and complex thermal and transport properties were used. The fully coupled elliptic governing equations were solved. The interactions between soot and gas-phase chemistry were taken into account. Radiation heat transfer from CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, and soot was calculated using the discrete-ordinates method coupled to a statistical narrow-band-correlated K-based wide-band model. The predicted results were compared with the available experimental data and analyzed. It is indicated that the addition of hydrogen to the fuel in an ethylene-air diffusion flame suppresses soot formation through the effects of dilution and chemistry. This result is in agreement with available experiments. The simulations further suggest that the chemically inhibiting effect of hydrogen addition on soot formation is due to the decrease of hydrogen atom concentration in soot surface growth regions and higher concentration of molecular hydrogen in the lower flame region. (author)

  3. Numerical study of water entry supercavitating flow around a vertical circular cylinder influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C. X.; Cheng, J. P.; Li, F. C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to introduce a numerical simulation procedure to simulate water-entry problems influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives in a viscous incompressible medium. Firstly we performed a numerical investigation on water-entry supercavities in water and turbulent drag-reducing solution at the impact velocity of 28.4 m/s to confirm the accuracy of the numerical method. Based on the verification, projectile entering water and turbulent drag-reducing solution at relatively high velocity of 142.7 m/s (phase transition is considered) is simulated. The cross viscosity equation was adopted to represent the shear-thinning characteristic of aqueous solution of drag-reducing additives. The configuration and dynamic characteristics of water entry supercavity, flow resistance were discussed respectively. It was obtained that the numerical simulation results are in consistence with experimental data. Numerical results show that the supercavity length in drag-reducing solution is larger than one in water and the velocity attenuates faster at high velocity than at low velocity; the influence of drag-reducing solution is more obvious at high impact velocity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the great potential for enhancement of supercavity.

  4. A numerical study of the influence of ammonia addition on the auto-ignition limits of methane/air mixtures.

    PubMed

    Van den Schoor, F; Norman, F; Vandebroek, L; Verplaetsen, F; Berghmans, J

    2009-05-30

    In this study the auto-ignition limit of ammonia/methane/air mixtures is calculated based upon a perfectly stirred reactor model with convective heat transfer. The results of four different reaction mechanisms are compared with existing experimental data at an initial temperature of 723 K with ammonia concentrations of 0-20 mol.% and methane concentrations of 2.5-10 mol.%. It is found that the calculation of the auto-ignition limit pressure at constant temperature leads to larger relative deviations between calculated and experimental results than the calculation of the auto-ignition temperature at constant pressure. In addition to the calculations, a reaction path analysis is performed to explain the observed lowering of the auto-ignition limit of methane/air mixtures by ammonia addition. It is found that this decrease is caused by the formation of NO and NO(2), which enhance the oxidation of methane at low temperatures. PMID:18926632

  5. Addition polyimide end cap study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The characterization of addition polyimides with various end caps for adhesive applications at 120-250 C environments is discussed. Oligometric polyimides were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,3'-methylenedianiline which were end-capped with functionally reactive moities which cause crosslinking when the oligomers are heated to 200-400 C. The syntheses of the oligomers are outlined. The thermolysis of the oligomers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and the resulting polymers were characterized by differential thermal analysis and adhesive performance. The adhesive data include lap shear strengths on titanium 6-4 adherends both before and after aging for 1000 hours at 121 C and/or 232 C.

  6. Numerical study of rock blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanov, Yu. P.; Bakeev, R. A.; Yudin, A. S.; Kuznetsova, N. S.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents numerical simulation results on fracture of a concrete block due to dynamic explosive loads applied to the walls of a blast hole. Considered in the study is the influence of the pulse shape and rock properties on the pattern of irreversible deformation and cracking. It is found that a fractured zone bounded by a plastically deformed contour always arises around the explosion site. Comparison of elastoplastic deformation and fracture induced in the concrete block by explosion pulses of different durations and amplitudes shows that shorter pulses with higher amplitudes and steeper rise times provide a higher blasting efficiency.

  7. Numerical studies of frontal dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyser, Daniel

    1986-01-01

    Efforts concentrated on the development of a two dimensional primitive equation (PE) model of frontogenesis that simultaneously incorporates the frontagenetical mechanisms of confluence and horizontal shear. Applying this model to study the effects of upper level frontogenesis, it appeared to be dominated by tilting effects associated with cross front variation of vertical motion, in which subsidence is maximized within and to the warm side of the frontal zone. Results suggest that aspects characteristic of three-dimensional baroclinic waves may be abstracted to a significant extent in a two dimensional framework. They also show that upper-level frontogenesis and tropopause folding can occur in the absence of three-dimensional curvature effects, commonly believed to be necessary for realistic upper-level frontogenesis. An implication of the dominant tilting effects is that they may have to be adequately resolved by numerical weather prediction models, thus requiring better horizontal and vertical resolution.

  8. Numerical Studies of Topological phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraedts, Scott

    The topological phases of matter have been a major part of condensed matter physics research since the discovery of the quantum Hall effect in the 1980s. Recently, much of this research has focused on the study of systems of free fermions, such as the integer quantum Hall effect, quantum spin Hall effect, and topological insulator. Though these free fermion systems can play host to a variety of interesting phenomena, the physics of interacting topological phases is even richer. Unfortunately, there is a shortage of theoretical tools that can be used to approach interacting problems. In this thesis I will discuss progress in using two different numerical techniques to study topological phases. Recently much research in topological phases has focused on phases made up of bosons. Unlike fermions, free bosons form a condensate and so interactions are vital if the bosons are to realize a topological phase. Since these phases are difficult to study, much of our understanding comes from exactly solvable models, such as Kitaev's toric code, as well as Levin-Wen and Walker-Wang models. We may want to study systems for which such exactly solvable models are not available. In this thesis I present a series of models which are not solvable exactly, but which can be studied in sign-free Monte Carlo simulations. The models work by binding charges to point topological defects. They can be used to realize bosonic interacting versions of the quantum Hall effect in 2D and topological insulator in 3D. Effective field theories of ''integer'' (non-fractionalized) versions of these phases were available in the literature, but our models also allow for the construction of fractional phases. We can measure a number of properties of the bulk and surface of these phases. Few interacting topological phases have been realized experimentally, but there is one very important exception: the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). Though the fractional quantum Hall effect we discovered over 30

  9. Biomechanical investigation into the structural design of porous additive manufactured cages using numerical and experimental approaches.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-I; Hsu, Ching-Chi; Chen, San-Yuan; Wu, Tsung-Han; Huang, Chih-Chieh

    2016-09-01

    Traditional solid cages have been widely used in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery. However, solid cages significantly affect the loading mechanism of the human spine due to their extremely high structural stiffness. Previous studies proposed and investigated porous additive manufactured (AM) cages; however, their biomechanical performances were analyzed using oversimplified bone-implant numerical models. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the outer shape and inner porous structure of the AM cages. The outer shape of the AM cages was discovered using a simulation-based genetic algorithm; their inner porous structure was subsequently analyzed parametrically using T10-S1 multilevel spine models. Finally, six types of the AM cages, which were manufactured using selective laser melting, were tested to validate the numerical outcomes. The subsidence resistance of the optimum design was superior to the conventional cage designs. A porous AM cage with a pillar diameter of 0.4mm, a pillar angle of 40°, and a porosity of between 69% and 80% revealed better biomechanical performances. Both the numerical and experimental outcomes can help surgeons to understand the biomechanics of PLIF surgery combined with the use of AM cages. PMID:27392226

  10. Gyrotactic trapping: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorai, S.

    2016-04-01

    Gyrotactic trapping is a mechanism proposed by Durham et al. ["Disruption of vertical motility by shear triggers formation of thin Phytoplankton layers," Science 323, 1067-1070 (2009)] to explain the formation of thin phytoplankton layer just below the ocean surface. This mechanism is examined numerically using a rational model based on the generalized Taylor dispersion theory. The crucial role of sedimentation speed in the thin layer formation is demonstrated. The effects of variation in different parameters on the thin layer formation are also investigated.

  11. Numerical Simulation of High Drag Reduction in a Turbulent Channel Flow with Polymer Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubief, Yves

    2003-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of long chain polymer molecules to wall-bounded flows can lead to dramatic drag reduction. Although this phenomenon has been known for about fifty years, the action of the polymers and its effect on turbulent structures are still unclear. Detailed experiments have characterized two distinct regimes (Warholic et al. 1999), which are referred to as low drag reduction (LDR) and high drag reduction (HDR). The first regime exhibits similar statistical trends as Newtonian flow: the log-law region of the mean velocity profile remains parallel to that of the Newtonian ow but its lower bound moves away from the wall and the upward shift of the log-region is a function of drag reduction, DR. Although streamwise fluctuations are increased and transverse ones are reduced, the shape of the rms velocity profiles is not qualitatively modified. At higher drag reductions, of the order of 40-50%, the ow enters the HDR regime for which the slope of the log-law is dramatically augmented and the Reynolds shear stress is small (Warholic et al. 1999; Ptasinski et al. 2001). The drag reduction is eventually bounded by a maximum drag reduction (MDR) (Virk & Mickley 1970) which is a function of the Reynolds number. While several experiments report mean velocity profiles very close to the empirical profile of Virk & Mickley (1970) for MDR conditions, the observations regarding the structure of turbulence can differ significantly. For instance, Warholic et al. (1999) measured a near-zero Reynolds shear stress, whereas a recent experiment (Ptasinski et al. 2001) shows evidence of non-negligible Reynolds stress in their MDR flow. To the knowledge of the authors, only the LDR regime has been documented in numerical simulations (Sureshkumar et al. 1997; Dimitropoulos et al. 1998; Min et al. 2001; Dubief & Lele 2001; Sibilla & Baron 2002). This paper discusses the simulation of polymer drag reduced channel ow at HDR using the FENE-P (Finite Elastic non

  12. Numerical Studies of Collisionless Current Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quest, Kevin B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal was to investigate collisionless current layers using a variety of analytic and numerical tools. The first year of the contract was dedicated to analytical studies, to the porting and adaption of codes being used in this study, and to the numerical simulation of collisionless current layers. The second year entailed the development of multi-dimensional hybrid algorithms as well as the re-examination of the problem of integro-differential equations that occur in the linear stage of plasma instabilities.

  13. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  14. A Numerical Study of Boson Star Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundim, Bruno C.

    2010-02-01

    This thesis describes a numerical study of binary boson stars within the context of an approximation to general relativity. The approximation we adopt places certain restrictions on the dynamical variables of general relativity (conformal flatness of the 3-metric), and on the time-slicing of the spacetime (maximal slicing). The resulting modeling problem requires the solution of a coupled nonlinear system of 4 hyperbolic, and 5 elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) in three space dimensions and time. We approximately solve this system as an initial-boundary value problem, using finite difference techniques and well known, computationally efficient numerical algorithms such as the multigrid method in the case of the elliptic equations. Careful attention is paid to the issue of code validation, and a key part of the thesis is the demonstration that, as the basic scale of finite difference discretization is reduced, our numerical code generates results that converge to a solution of the continuum system of PDEs as desired. The thesis concludes with a discussion of results from some initial explorations of the orbital dynamics of boson star binaries. In particular, we describe calculations in which motion of such a binary is followed for more than two orbital periods, which is a significant advance over previous studies. We also present results from computations in which the boson stars merge, and where there is evidence for black hole formation.

  15. Numerical and Experimental Study of Levee Breach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elalfy, E. Y.; LaRocque, L.; Riahi-Nezhad, C. K.; Chaudhry, H.

    2014-12-01

    Levees are constructed along rivers and channels for flood protection. Failure of these levees can cause loss of life and property damage. A better understanding of the flow field from a levee breach allows the decision maker to assess risks and to prepare emergency plans. For this purpose, a two-dimensional numerical model is developed to simulate the levee breach. The model solves the shallow-water equations using the MacCormack explicit, finite- difference two-step, predictor-corrector scheme. The scheme is second-order accurate in time and space. The artificial viscosity technique is used to smooth the high-frequency oscillations in the computed results. The numerical results compare satisfactorily with the experimental results. A parametric study is carried-out to investigate the effect of main channel width, breach width on the computed flow field.

  16. Numerical study of flow turning phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, J. D.; Levine, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    A research project is currently being conducted that is to provide an understanding of the physical mechanisms by which energy is exchanged between the mean and acoustic flowfields in resonant combustion chambers, giving particular attention to solid rocket motors. The present paper is concerned with progress which has been made toward the understanding of the 'flow turning' phenomenon. This term is used to describe the loss of acoustic energy by the acoustic field in the combustor resulting from the inflow of combustion products through the lateral boundary of a combustion chamber containing longitudinal acoustic waves. Attention is given to the modeling of flow turning, acoustic refraction, the numerical solution, numerical results, acoustic wave propagation with no mean flow, and a flow turning study. The discussed research verifies the existence of the flow turning loss phenomenon.

  17. A Numerical Study of Feathering Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wing-Kit; Wang, Hsiang-Hsu

    2016-06-01

    The stability of a spiral shock of self-gravitating, magnetized interstellar medium is studied by performing two-dimensional numerical simulations of a local patch of tight-winding spiral arm. As previously suggested by the linear studies, two types of instabilities are identified, namely, wiggle instability and feathering instability. The former instability occurs in the hydrodynamics limit and results in short wavelength perturbations. On the other hand, the feathering instability requires both self-gravitating and magnetic fields and results in wider structures.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Oceanic Overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Thomas; Hohman, Fred; Morrison, Theresa; Reckinger, Shanon; Reckinger, Scott

    2014-11-01

    Oceanic overflows occur when dense water flows down a continental slope into less dense ambient water. The resulting density driven plumes occur naturally in various regions of the global ocean and affect the large-scale circulation. General circulation models currently rely on parameterizations for representing dense overflows due to resolution restrictions. The work presented here involves a direct qualitative and quantitative comparison between physical laboratory experiments and lab-scale numerical simulations. Laboratory experiments are conducted using a rotating square tank customized for idealized overflow and a high-resolution camera mounted on the table in the rotating reference frame for data collection. Corresponding numerical simulations are performed using the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm) run in the non-hydrostatic configuration. Resolution and numerical parameter studies are presented to ensure accuracy of the simulation. Laboratory and computational experiments are compared across a wide range of physical parameters, including Coriolis parameter, inflow density anomaly, and dense inflow volumetric flow rate. The results are analyzed using various calculated metrics, such as the plume velocity. Funding for this project is provided by the National Science Foundation.

  19. Study on the numerical schemes for hypersonic flow simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagdewe, S. P.; Shevare, G. R.; Kim, Heuy-Dong

    2009-10-01

    Hypersonic flow is full of complex physical and chemical processes, hence its investigation needs careful analysis of existing schemes and choosing a suitable scheme or designing a brand new scheme. The present study deals with two numerical schemes Harten, Lax, and van Leer with Contact (HLLC) and advection upstream splitting method (AUSM) to effectively simulate hypersonic flow fields, and accurately predict shock waves with minimal diffusion. In present computations, hypersonic flows have been modeled as a system of hyperbolic equations with one additional equation for non-equilibrium energy and relaxing source terms. Real gas effects, which appear typically in hypersonic flows, have been simulated through energy relaxation method. HLLC and AUSM methods are modified to incorporate the conservation laws for non-equilibrium energy. Numerical implementation have shown that non-equilibrium energy convect with mass, and hence has no bearing on the basic numerical scheme. The numerical simulation carried out shows good comparison with experimental data available in literature. Both numerical schemes have shown identical results at equilibrium. Present study has demonstrated that real gas effects in hypersonic flows can be modeled through energy relaxation method along with either AUSM or HLLC numerical scheme.

  20. Numerical Study of Tip Vortex Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacles-Mariani, Jennifer; Hafez, Mohamed

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and summary of the many different research work related to tip vortex flows and wake/trailing vortices as applied to practical engineering problems. As a literature survey paper, it outlines relevant analytical, theoretical, experimental and computational study found in literature. It also discusses in brief some of the fundamental aspects of the physics and its complexities. An appendix is also included. The topics included in this paper are: 1) Analytical Vortices; 2) Experimental Studies; 3) Computational Studies; 4) Wake Vortex Control and Management; 5) Wake Modeling; 6) High-Lift Systems; 7) Issues in Numerical Studies; 8) Instabilities; 9) Related Topics; 10) Visualization Tools for Vertical Flows; 11) Further Work Needed; 12) Acknowledgements; 13) References; and 14) Appendix.

  1. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Gotham, Douglas J.; Luciani, Ralph L.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  2. Numerical Studies of Doped Iron Pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Christopher; Liang, Shuhua; Moreo, Adriana; Dagotto, Elbio

    The phase diagram of electron-doped pnictides is studied varying the temperature, electronic density, and isotropic disorder strength and dilution via numerical studies of a three-orbital spin-fermion model with lattice degrees of freedom. Doping introduces disorder but in theoretical studies the effect of the randomly located dopants is difficult to address. Numerically the effects of electronic doping, regulated by a chemical potential, and impurity disorder at randomly selected sites can be independently controlled. It was found that the reduction with doping of the Neel and the structural transition temperatures, and the stabilization of a nematic state, is mainly controlled by the magnetic dilution due to the disorder. Fermi surface changes due to doping affect only slightly both critical temperatures. Our findings are compatible with neutron scattering and STM results, unveiling a patchy network of locally magnetically ordered anisotropic clusters, despite the isotropic disorder. The fragile tendency to nematicity intrinsic of translational invariant electronic systems needs to be supplemented by disorder and dilution to stabilize the robust nematic phase experimentally found in electron-doped 122 pnictides. National Science Foundation Grant No. DMR-1404375.

  3. A Numerical Climate Observing Network Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stammer, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    This project was concerned with three related questions of an optimal design of a climate observing system: 1. The spatial sampling characteristics required from an ARGO system. 2. The degree to which surface observations from ARGO can be used to calibrate and test satellite remote sensing observations of sea surface salinity (SSS) as it is anticipated now. 3. The more general design of an climate observing system as it is required in the near future for CLIVAR in the Atlantic. An important question in implementing an observing system is that of the sampling density required to observe climate-related variations in the ocean. For that purpose this project was concerned with the sampling requirements for the ARGO float system, but investigated also other elements of a climate observing system. As part of this project we studied the horizontal and vertical sampling characteristics of a global ARGO system which is required to make it fully complementary to altimeter data with the goal to capture climate related variations on large spatial scales (less thanAttachment: 1000 km). We addressed this question in the framework of a numerical model study in the North Atlantic with an 1/6 horizontal resolution. The advantage of a numerical design study is the knowledge of the full model state. Sampled by a synthetic float array, model results will therefore allow to test and improve existing deployment strategies with the goal to make the system as optimal and cost-efficient as possible. Attachment: "Optimal observations for variational data assimilation".

  4. Numerical study of a magnesium hydride tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delhomme, Baptiste; de Rango, Patricia; Marty, Philippe

    2012-11-01

    Hydrogen storage in metal hydride tanks (MHT) is a very promising solution. Several experimental tanks, studied by different teams, have already proved the feasibility and the interesting performances of this solution. However, in much cases, an optimization of tank geometry is still needed in order to perform fast hydrogen loading. The development of efficient numerical tools is a key issue for MHT design and optimization. We propose a simple model representing a metal hydride tank exchanging its heat of reaction with a thermal fluid flow. In this model, the radial and axial discretisations have been decoupled by using Matlab® one-dimensional tools. Calculations are compared to experimental results obtained in a previous study. A good agreement is found for the loading case. The discharging case shows some discrepancies, which are discussed in this paper.

  5. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    There were three major issues examined in the feasibility study. First, the ability of the proposed system architecture to support the anticipated workload was evaluated. Second, the throughput of the computational engine (the flow model processor) was studied using real application programs. Third, the availability reliability, and maintainability of the system were modeled. The evaluations were based on the baseline systems. The results show that the implementation of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility, in the form considered, would indeed be a feasible project with an acceptable level of risk. The technology required (both hardware and software) either already exists or, in the case of a few parts, is expected to be announced this year. Facets of the work described include the hardware configuration, software, user language, and fault tolerance.

  6. A numerical study of thin flame representations

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.A.; Pindera, M.Z.

    1989-08-11

    In studies of reacting flows, the flame may be viewed as a moving discontinuity endowed with certain properties; notably, it acts as a source of velocity and vorticity. Asymptotic analysis shows this to be justified provided that the flame curvature is small compared to the flame thickness. Such an approach is useful when one is interested in the hydrodynamic effects of the flame on the surrounding flowfield. In numerical models of this kind it is customary to treat the discontinuity as a collection of discrete velocity blobs. In this study, we show that the velocities associated with such a representation can be very non-smooth, particularly very near to the flame surface. As an alternative, we propose the use of a finite line source as the basic flame element. Comparisons of the two flame representations are made for several simple test cases as well as for a flame propagating through an enclosure forming the tulip shape. The results show that the use of line sources eliminates spurious fluctuations in nearfield velocities thus allowing for a more accurate calculation of flame propagation and flame-flowfield interactions. 7 refs., 15 figs.

  7. Structure Property Studies for Additively Manufactured Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Milenski, Helen M; Schmalzer, Andrew Michael; Kelly, Daniel

    2015-08-17

    Since the invention of modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes engineers and designers have worked hard to capitalize on the unique building capabilities that AM allows. By being able to customize the interior fill of parts it is now possible to design components with a controlled density and customized internal structure. The creation of new polymers and polymer composites allow for even greater control over the mechanical properties of AM parts. One of the key reasons to explore AM, is to bring about a new paradigm in part design, where materials can be strategically optimized in a way that conventional subtractive methods cannot achieve. The two processes investigated in my research were the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and the Direct Ink Write (DIW) process. The objectives of the research were to determine the impact of in-fill density and morphology on the mechanical properties of FDM parts, and to determine if DIW printed samples could be produced where the filament diameter was varied while the overall density remained constant.

  8. Numerical studies of solar chromospheric jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Haruhisa

    2016-03-01

    The solar chromospheric jet is one of the most characteristic structures near the solar surface. The quantitative understanding of chromospheric jets is of substantial importance for not only the partially ionized phenomena in the chromosphere but also the energy input and dissipation processes in the corona. In this dissertation, the formation and dynamics of chromospheric jets are investigated using the radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We newly develop a numerical code for the radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the comprehensive modeling of solar atmosphere. Because the solar chromosphere is highly nonlinear, magnetic pressure dominated, and turbulent, a robust and high-resolution numerical scheme is required. In Chapter 2, we propose a new algorithm for the simulation of magnetohydrodynamics. Through the test problems and accuracy analyses, the proposed scheme is proved to satisfy the requirements. In Chapter 3, the effect of the non-local radiation energy transport, Spitzer-type thermal conduction, latent heat of partial ionization and molecule formation, and gravity are implemented to the magnetohydrodynamic code. The numerical schemes for the radiation transport and thermal conduction is carefully chosen in a view of the efficiency and compatibility with the parallel computation. Based on the developed radiation magnetohydrodynamic code, the formation and dynamics of chromospheric jets are investigated. In Chapter 4, we investigate the dependence of chromospheric jets on the coronal temperature in the two-dimensional simulations. Various scale of chromospheric jets with the parabolic trajectory are found with the maximum height of 2–8 Mm, lifetime of 2–7 min, maximum upward velocity of 10– 50 km/s, and deceleration of 100–350 m/s2. We find that chromospheric jets are more elongated under the cool corona and shorter under the hot corona. We also find that the pressure gradient force caused by the periodic shock waves accelerates

  9. The double pendulum: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvão, A. M.; Penna, T. J. P.

    2015-07-01

    Analysis and characterization of dynamical systems is a common task in computational physics. It frequently demands new algorithms for finding solutions and new techniques for analysing the results. Here we review some of these algorithms and techniques in the study of the double pendulum, which, despite being a very simple mechanical system, can display complex behaviour. Even though it has been studied before (Yu and Bi 1998 J. Sound Vib. 217 691736; Stachowiak and Okada 2006 Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 29 417422; Rafat, Wheatland and Bedding 2009 Am. J. Phys. 77 216-23; Levien and Tan 1993 Am. J. Phys. 61 103844), here we present a deeper discussion of the several methods and algorithms that are used in typical studies of dynamical systems. In addition, we present new results obtained through techniques commonly used in the analysis of complex systems.

  10. Supersymmetric Q-balls: A numerical study

    SciTech Connect

    Campanelli, L.; Ruggieri, M.

    2008-02-15

    We study numerically a class of nontopological solitons, the Q-balls, arising in a supersymmetric extension of the standard model with low-energy, gauge-mediated symmetry breaking. Taking into account the exact form of the supersymmetric potential giving rise to Q-balls, we find that there is a lower limit on the value of the charge Q in order to make them classically stable: Q > or approx. 5x10{sup 2}Q{sub cr}, where Q{sub cr} is constant depending on the parameters defining the potential and can be in the range 1 < or approx. Q{sub cr} < or approx. 10{sup 8} {sup divide} {sup 16}. If Q is the baryon number, stability with respect to the decay into protons requires Q > or approx. 10{sup 17}Q{sub cr}, while if the gravitino mass is greater then m{sub 3/2} > or approx. 61 MeV, no stable gauge-mediation supersymmetric Q-balls exist. Finally, we find that energy and radius of Q-balls can be parametrized as E{approx}{xi}{sub E}Q{sup 3/4} and R{approx}{xi}{sub R}Q{sup 1/4}, where {xi}{sub E} and {xi}{sub R} are slowly varying functions of the charge.

  11. Numerical Study of a Convective Turbulence Encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Bowles, Roland L.

    2002-01-01

    A numerical simulation of a convective turbulence event is investigated and compared with observational data. The specific case was encountered during one of NASA's flight tests and was characterized by severe turbulence. The event was associated with overshooting convective turrets that contained low to moderate radar reflectivity. Model comparisons with observations are quite favorable. Turbulence hazard metrics are proposed and applied to the numerical data set. Issues such as adequate grid size are examined.

  12. Influence of Ar addition on ozone generation in a non-thermal plasma—a numerical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin Liang; Lee, How Ming; Chen, Shiaw Huei; Wei, Ta Chin; Been Chang, Moo

    2010-10-01

    A numerical model based on a dielectric barrier discharge is developed in this study to investigate the influence of Ar addition on ozone generation. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental data, confirming the validity of the numerical model. The mechanisms regarding how the Ar addition affects ozone generation are investigated with the assistance of a numerical simulation by probing into the following two questions, (1) why the ozone concentration just slightly decreases in the low specific input energy (SIE, the ratio of discharge power to gas flow rate) region even if the inlet O2 concentration is substantially decreased and (2) why the variation of the increased rate of ozone concentration with SIE (i.e. the variation in the slope of ozone concentration versus SIE) is more significant for an O2/Ar mixture plasma. As SIE is relatively low, ozone decomposition through electron-impact and radical attack reactions is less significant because of low ozone concentration and gas temperature. Therefore, the ozone concentration depends mainly on the amount of oxygen atoms generated. The simulation results indicate that the amount of oxygen atoms generated per electronvolt for Ar concentrations of 0%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 80% are 0.178, 0.174, 0.169, 0.165 and 0.166, respectively, explaining why the ozone concentration does not decrease linearly with the inlet O2 concentration in the low SIE region. On the other hand, the simulation results show that increasing Ar concentration would lead to a lower reduced field and a higher gas temperature. The former would lead to an increase in the rate constant of e + O3 → e + O + O2 while the latter would result in a decrease in the rate constant of O + O2 + M → O3 + M and an increase in that of O3 + O → 2O2. The changes in the rate constants of these reactions would have a negative effect on ozone generation, which is the rationale for the second question.

  13. Numerical study of a microscopic artificial swimmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauger, Erik; Stark, Holger

    2006-08-01

    We present a detailed numerical study of a microscopic artificial swimmer realized recently by Dreyfus in experiments [Dreyfus , Nature 437, 862 (2005)]. It consists of an elastic filament composed of superparamagnetic particles that are linked together by DNA strands. Attached to a load particle, the resulting swimmer is actuated by an oscillating external magnetic field so that it performs a nonreciprocal motion in order to move forward. We model the superparamagnetic filament by a bead-spring configuration that resists bending like a rigid rod and whose beads experience friction with the surrounding fluid and hydrodynamic interactions with each other. We show that, aside from finite-size effects, its dynamics is governed by the dimensionless sperm number, the magnitude of the magnetic field, and the angular amplitude of the field’s oscillating direction. Then we study the mean velocity and the efficiency of the swimmer as a function of these parameters and the size of the load particle. In particular, we clarify that the real velocity of the swimmer is influenced by two main factors, namely the shape of the beating filament (determined by the sperm number and the magnetic-field strength) and the oscillation frequency. Furthermore, the load size influences the performance of the swimmer and has to be chosen as a compromise between the largest swimming velocity and the best efficiency. Finally, we demonstrate that the direction of the swimming velocity changes in a symmetry-breaking transition when the angular amplitude of the field’s oscillating direction is increased, in agreement with experiments.

  14. Numerical studies of solar chromospheric jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Haruhisa

    2016-03-01

    The solar chromospheric jet is one of the most characteristic structures near the solar surface. The quantitative understanding of chromospheric jets is of substantial importance for not only the partially ionized phenomena in the chromosphere but also the energy input and dissipation processes in the corona. In this dissertation, the formation and dynamics of chromospheric jets are investigated using the radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We newly develop a numerical code for the radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the comprehensive modeling of solar atmosphere. Because the solar chromosphere is highly nonlinear, magnetic pressure dominated, and turbulent, a robust and high-resolution numerical scheme is required. In Chapter 2, we propose a new algorithm for the simulation of magnetohydrodynamics. Through the test problems and accuracy analyses, the proposed scheme is proved to satisfy the requirements. In Chapter 3, the effect of the non-local radiation energy transport, Spitzer-type thermal conduction, latent heat of partial ionization and molecule formation, and gravity are implemented to the magnetohydrodynamic code. The numerical schemes for the radiation transport and thermal conduction is carefully chosen in a view of the efficiency and compatibility with the parallel computation. Based on the developed radiation magnetohydrodynamic code, the formation and dynamics of chromospheric jets are investigated. In Chapter 4, we investigate the dependence of chromospheric jets on the coronal temperature in the two-dimensional simulations. Various scale of chromospheric jets with the parabolic trajectory are found with the maximum height of 2-8 Mm, lifetime of 2-7 min, maximum upward velocity of 10-50 km/s, and deceleration of 100-350 m/s2. We find that chromospheric jets are more elongated under the cool corona and shorter under the hot corona. We also find that the pressure gradient force caused by the periodic shock waves accelerates some of the

  15. Mathematical modeling of electrocardiograms: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Boulakia, Muriel; Cazeau, Serge; Fernández, Miguel A; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric; Zemzemi, Nejib

    2010-03-01

    This paper deals with the numerical simulation of electrocardiograms (ECG). Our aim is to devise a mathematical model, based on partial differential equations, which is able to provide realistic 12-lead ECGs. The main ingredients of this model are classical: the bidomain equations coupled to a phenomenological ionic model in the heart, and a generalized Laplace equation in the torso. The obtention of realistic ECGs relies on other important features--including heart-torso transmission conditions, anisotropy, cell heterogeneity and His bundle modeling--that are discussed in detail. The numerical implementation is based on state-of-the-art numerical methods: domain decomposition techniques and second order semi-implicit time marching schemes, offering a good compromise between accuracy, stability and efficiency. The numerical ECGs obtained with this approach show correct amplitudes, shapes and polarities, in all the 12 standard leads. The relevance of every modeling choice is carefully discussed and the numerical ECG sensitivity to the model parameters investigated. PMID:20033779

  16. Numerical studies of supersonic/hypersonic combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, W.S.; Chung, T.J. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of direct numerical simulations of turbulence interacting with shock waves and chemical reactions using unstructured adaptive finite element h-p methods. Reliable methods for resolving the complicated time and length scales involved in turbulence interacting with shock waves and chemical reactions are not yet available. Direct numerical simulations are here developed via Taylor-Galerkin finite element implicit scheme, with mesh refinements and spectral orders optimized such that errors are reduced where gradients of variables are large. 31 refs.

  17. Large fluctuations of the macroscopic current in diffusive systems: a numerical test of the additivity principle.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Pablo I; Garrido, Pedro L

    2010-04-01

    Most systems, when pushed out of equilibrium, respond by building up currents of locally conserved observables. Understanding how microscopic dynamics determines the averages and fluctuations of these currents is one of the main open problems in nonequilibrium statistical physics. The additivity principle is a theoretical proposal that allows to compute the current distribution in many one-dimensional nonequilibrium systems. Using simulations, we validate this conjecture in a simple and general model of energy transport, both in the presence of a temperature gradient and in canonical equilibrium. In particular, we show that the current distribution displays a Gaussian regime for small current fluctuations, as prescribed by the central limit theorem, and non-Gaussian (exponential) tails for large current deviations, obeying in all cases the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. In order to facilitate a given current fluctuation, the system adopts a well-defined temperature profile different from that of the steady state and in accordance with the additivity hypothesis predictions. System statistics during a large current fluctuation is independent of the sign of the current, which implies that the optimal profile (as well as higher-order profiles and spatial correlations) are invariant upon current inversion. We also demonstrate that finite-time joint fluctuations of the current and the profile are well described by the additivity functional. These results suggest the additivity hypothesis as a general and powerful tool to compute current distributions in many nonequilibrium systems. PMID:20481672

  18. Numerical simulation of the fatigue behavior of additive manufactured titanium porous lattice structures.

    PubMed

    Zargarian, A; Esfahanian, M; Kadkhodapour, J; Ziaei-Rad, S

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the effects of cell geometry and relative density on the high-cycle fatigue behavior of Titanium scaffolds produced by selective laser melting and electron beam melting techniques were numerically investigated by finite element analysis. The regular titanium lattice samples with three different unit cell geometries, namely, diamond, rhombic dodecahedron and truncated cuboctahedron, and the relative density range of 0.1-0.3 were analyzed under uniaxial cyclic compressive loading. A failure event based algorithm was employed to simulate fatigue failure in the cellular material. Stress-life approach was used to model fatigue failure of both bulk (struts) and cellular material. The predicted fatigue life and the damage pattern of all three structures were found to be in good agreement with the experimental fatigue investigations published in the literature. The results also showed that the relationship between fatigue strength and cycles to failure obeyed the power law. The coefficient of power function was shown to depend on relative density, geometry and fatigue properties of the bulk material while the exponent was only dependent on the fatigue behavior of the bulk material. The results also indicated the failure surface at an angle of 45° to the loading direction. PMID:26706539

  19. Numerical study of mixing in hypervelocity flows

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, R.; Woods, D.M.; Chandra, S.

    1996-12-31

    Results are reported from an analysis of data obtained with a combustor model tested in the new pulse facility at California Institute of Technology. Data analysis was performed using the numerical code GASP. Comparisons were drawn between the predictions of the algebraic Baldwin-Lomax and the two equation k-{epsilon} turbulence models. It is concluded that the use of the simpler Baldwin-Lomax model is sufficient as it saves computational resources and yields adequate predictions, for the conditions considered here.

  20. A numerical study of confined turbulent jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, J.; Shih, T.-H.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical investigation is reported of turbulent incompressible jets confined in two ducts, one cylindrical and the other conical with a 5 degree divergence. In each case, three Craya-Curtet numbers are considered which correspond, respectively, to flow situations with no moderate and strong recirculation. Turbulence closure is achieved by using the k-epsilon model and a recently proposed realizable Reynolds stress algebraic equation model that relates the Reynolds stresses explicitly to the quadratic terms of the mean velocity gradients and ensures the positiveness of each component of the turbulent kinetic energy. Calculations are carried out with a finite-volume procedure using boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinates. A second-order accurate, bounded convection scheme and sufficiently fine grids are used to prevent the solutions from being contaminated by numerical diffusion. The calculated results are compared extensively with the available experimental data. It is shown that the numerical methods presented are capable of capturing the essential flow features observed in the experiments and that the realizable Reynolds stress algebraic equation model performs much better than the k-epsilon model for this class of flows of great practical importance.

  1. Numerical study of insect free hovering flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Yeo, Khoon Seng; Lim, Tee Tai; Fluid lab, Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore Team

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we present the computational fluid dynamics study of three-dimensional flow field around a free hovering fruit fly integrated with unsteady FSI analysis and the adaptive flight control system for the first time. The FSI model being specified for fruitfly hovering is achieved by coupling a structural problem based on Newton's second law with a rigorous CFD solver concerning generalized finite difference method. In contrast to the previous hovering flight research, the wing motion employed here is not acquired from experimental data but governed by our proposed control systems. Two types of hovering control strategies i.e. stroke plane adjustment mode and paddling mode are explored, capable of generating the fixed body position and orientation characteristic of hovering flight. Hovering flight associated with multiple wing kinematics and body orientations are shown as well, indicating the means by which fruitfly actually maintains hovering may have considerable freedom and therefore might be influenced by many other factors beyond the physical and aerodynamic requirements. Additionally, both the near- and far-field flow and vortex structure agree well with the results from other researchers, demonstrating the reliability of our current model.

  2. Numerical study of combustion processes in afterburners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xiaochun

    1986-01-01

    Mathematical models and numerical methods are presented for computer modeling of aeroengine afterburners. A computer code GEMCHIP is described briefly. The algorithms SIMPLER, for gas flow predictions, and DROPLET, for droplet flow calculations, are incorporated in this code. The block correction technique is adopted to facilitate convergence. The method of handling irregular shapes of combustors and flameholders is described. The predicted results for a low-bypass-ratio turbofan afterburner in the cases of gaseous combustion and multiphase spray combustion are provided and analyzed, and engineering guides for afterburner optimization are presented.

  3. Numerical Study of Orbits around Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourao, Decio; Carvalho, Jean Paulo; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Cardoso dos Santos, Josué; Campos de Carvalho Costa, Luis Fernando

    NASA's Galileo spacecraft probe recently discovered what appears to be a body of liquid water locked inside the icy shell of Jupiter’s moon Europa. The improved likelihood of life on Europa motivated new mission proposals. In this work we used numerical simulations to compare several possible orbits of satellites near the surface of Europa. We spread a set of particles around the satellite with different initially conditions, from 50 to 500km altitude and inclinations higher than 35 degrees, and we monitored the evolution of the test particles during the numerical integrations. We consider the effect of the oblateness of Europa by considering the C22,J2 and J4 parameters and Jupiter gravitational perturbation. These perturbations were first accounted for separately in order to better understand the importance of each effect, and then considered jointly. All particles collide with the Europa surface in a few days. The oblateness of Jupiter alone causes particles with high inclination to collide with the surface of Europa, while the oblateness of Europa affects low orbits decreasing the lifetime of most of the particles. We identified a stable region of orbits with initial altitudes around 300 km of altitude and 90 degrees of inclination. Particles in this region survived more than 200 days. In most of the simulations pericenter initial values near 90 or 270 degrees favor a higher lifetime for the particles, even when considering Europa oblateness.

  4. Numerical Studies of Impurities in Fusion Plasmas

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Hulse, R. A.

    1982-09-01

    The coupled partial differential equations used to describe the behavior of impurity ions in magnetically confined controlled fusion plasmas require numerical solution for cases of practical interest. Computer codes developed for impurity modeling at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory are used as examples of the types of codes employed for this purpose. These codes solve for the impurity ionization state densities and associated radiation rates using atomic physics appropriate for these low-density, high-temperature plasmas. The simpler codes solve local equations in zero spatial dimensions while more complex cases require codes which explicitly include transport of the impurity ions simultaneously with the atomic processes of ionization and recombination. Typical applications are discussed and computational results are presented for selected cases of interest.

  5. Reconstruction of Fractional Quantum Hall Edges: Numerical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xin; Yang, Kun; Rezayi, E. H.

    2003-03-01

    The interplay of electron-electron interaction and confining potential can lead to the reconstruction of fractional quantum Hall edges (Xin Wan, Kun Yang, and E. H. Rezayi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 056802 (2002).). We have performed exact diagonalization studies on microscopic models of fractional quantum Hall liquids, in finite size systems with disc geometry, and found numerical evidence that suggests edge reconstruction occurs under rather general conditions. Due to edge reconstruction, additional nonchiral edge modes can arise for both incompressible and compressible states. We have studied the electron dipole spectral function that is directly related to the microwave conductivity measurement of a two-dimensional electron gas with an array of antidots (P. D. Ye et al., Phys. Rev. B 65, 121305 (2002).). Our results are consistent with the enhanced microwave conductivity observed in experiments at low temperatures, and its suppression at higher temperatures. We also discuss the effects of the edge reconstruction on the fractional quantum Hall edge tunneling experiments.

  6. Numerical Studies of Boundary-Layer Receptivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Helen L.

    1995-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the acoustic receptivity process on a semi-infinite flat plate with a modified-super-elliptic (MSE) leading edge are performed. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved in stream-function/vorticity form in a general curvilinear coordinate system. The steady basic-state solution is found by solving the governing equations using an alternating direction implicit (ADI) procedure which takes advantage of the parallelism present in line-splitting techniques. Time-harmonic oscillations of the farfield velocity are applied as unsteady boundary conditions to the unsteady disturbance equations. An efficient time-harmonic scheme is used to produce the disturbance solutions. Buffer-zone techniques have been applied to eliminate wave reflection from the outflow boundary. The spatial evolution of Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves is analyzed and compared with experiment and theory. The effects of nose-radius, frequency, Reynolds number, angle of attack, and amplitude of the acoustic wave are investigated. This work is being performed in conjunction with the experiments at the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel under the direction of Professor William Saric. The simulations are of the same configuration and parameters used in the wind-tunnel experiments.

  7. Externally fed star formation: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadpour, Motahareh; Stahler, Steven W.

    2013-08-01

    We investigate, through a series of numerical calculations, the evolution of dense cores that are accreting external gas up to and beyond the point of star formation. Our model clouds are spherical, unmagnetized configurations with fixed outer boundaries, across which gas enters subsonically. When we start with any near-equilibrium state, we find that the cloud's internal velocity also remains subsonic for an extended period, in agreement with observations. However, the velocity becomes supersonic shortly before the star forms. Consequently, the accretion rate building up the protostar is much greater than the benchmark value c_s^3/G, where cs is the sound speed in the dense core. This accretion spike would generate a higher luminosity than those seen in even the most embedded young stars. Moreover, we find that the region of supersonic infall surrounding the protostar races out to engulf much of the cloud, again in violation of the observations, which show infall to be spatially confined. Similar problematic results have been obtained by all other hydrodynamic simulations to date, regardless of the specific infall geometry or boundary conditions adopted. Low-mass star formation is evidently a quasi-static process, in which cloud gas moves inward subsonically until the birth of the star itself. We speculate that magnetic tension in the cloud's deep interior helps restrain the infall prior to this event.

  8. Numerical study of homogeneous nanodroplet growth.

    PubMed

    Quang, Tran Si Bui; Leong, Fong Yew; Mirsaidov, Utkur M

    2015-01-15

    We investigate the axisymmetric homogeneous growth of 10-100 nm water nanodroplets on a substrate surface. The main mechanism of droplet growth is attributed to the accumulation of laterally diffusing water monomers, formed by the absorption of water vapour in the environment onto the substrate. Under assumptions of quasi-steady thermodynamic equilibrium, the nanodroplet evolves according to the augmented Young-Laplace equation. Using continuum theory, we model the dynamics of nanodroplet growth including the coupled effects of disjoining pressure, contact angle and monomer diffusion. Our numerical results show that the initial droplet growth is dominated by monomer diffusion, and the steady late growth rate of droplet radius follows a power law of 1/3, which is unaffected by the substrate disjoining pressure. Instead, the disjoining pressure modifies the growth rate of the droplet height, which then follows a power law of 1/4. We demonstrate how spatial depletion of monomers could lead to a growth arrest of the nanodroplet, as observed experimentally. This work has further implications on the growth kinetics, transport and phase transition of liquids at the nanoscale. PMID:25454424

  9. Numerical studies of 2-dimensional flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moretti, G.

    1985-01-01

    A formulation of the lambda scheme for the analysis of two dimensional inviscid, compressible, unsteady transonic flows is presented. The scheme uses generalized Riemann variables to determine the appropriate two point, one sided finite difference approximation for each derivative in the unsteady Euler equations. These finite differences are applied at the predictor and corrector levels with shock updating at each level. The weaker oblique shocks are captured, but strong near normal shocks are fitted into the flow using the Rankine-Hugoniot relations. This code is demonstrated with a numerical example of a duct flow problem with developing normal and oblique shock waves. The technique is implemented in a code which has been made efficient by streamlining to a minimal number of operations and by eliminating branch statements. The scheme is shown to provide an accurate analysis of the flow, including formation, motions, and interactions of shocks; the results obtained on a relatively coarse mesh are comparable to those obtained by other methods on much finer meshes.

  10. Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158633.html Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study Neither extra chemotherapy drug nor add-on ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Additional treatments for locally advanced pancreatic cancer don't appear to boost survival, a new ...

  11. Numerical study of fluid motion in bioreactor with two mixers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleva, I.; Lecheva, A.

    2015-10-01

    Numerical study of hydrodynamic laminar behavior of a viscous fluid in bioreactor with multiple mixers is provided in the present paper. The reactor is equipped with two disk impellers. The fluid motion is studied in stream function-vorticity formulation. The calculations are made by a computer program, written in MATLAB. The fluid structure is described and numerical results are graphically presented and commented.

  12. Numerical study of fluid motion in bioreactor with two mixers

    SciTech Connect

    Zheleva, I.; Lecheva, A.

    2015-10-28

    Numerical study of hydrodynamic laminar behavior of a viscous fluid in bioreactor with multiple mixers is provided in the present paper. The reactor is equipped with two disk impellers. The fluid motion is studied in stream function-vorticity formulation. The calculations are made by a computer program, written in MATLAB. The fluid structure is described and numerical results are graphically presented and commented.

  13. Numerical study of nonlinear streaming inside a standing wave resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daru, V.; Carlès, D. Baltean; Weisman, C.

    2012-09-01

    The acoustic streaming associated to standing waves in a cylindrical resonator is studied for increasing nonlinear Reynolds numbers by numerically solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, using a high resolution finite difference scheme. The resonator is excited by shaking it along the axis at imposed frequency, corresponding to the fundamental resonance frequency of the waveguide. For sufficiently large acoustic velocities, shocks are visible. The mean field is computed by time-averaging over the main acoustic period. When the nonlinear Reynolds number increases, the center of the outer streaming cells are pushed toward the acoustic velocity nodes and two additional vortices per quarter-wavelength are generated on the axis, near the velocity antinodes. This result differs from linear models and is in agreement with several recent experimental measurement performed in the nonlinear regime. The mean temperature field evolution within the resonator is also investigated.

  14. Free Radical Addition Polymerization Kinetics without Steady-State Approximations: A Numerical Analysis for the Polymer, Physical, or Advanced Organic Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iler, H. Darrell; Brown, Amber; Landis, Amanda; Schimke, Greg; Peters, George

    2014-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the free radical addition polymerization system is described that provides those teaching polymer, physical, or advanced organic chemistry courses the opportunity to introduce students to numerical methods in the context of a simple but mathematically stiff chemical kinetic system. Numerical analysis can lead students to an…

  15. A Study of Additional Costs of Second Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    A study was conducted whose primary aim was to identify and explain additional costs incurred by Alberta, Canada school jurisdictions providing second language instruction in 1980. Additional costs were defined as those which would not have been incurred had the second language program not been in existence. Three types of additional costs were…

  16. A Numerical Study of Nonlinear Wave Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bakker, A.; Tissier, M.; Ruessink, G.

    2014-12-01

    Nonlinear triad interactions redistribute energy among a wave field, which transforms the shape of the incident short waves (f = 0.05 - 2 Hz) and generates energy at infragravity frequencies (f = 0.005-0.05 Hz). Recently, it has been suggested that infragravity energy may dissipate by energy transfers from infragravity frequencies to either the (former) short-wave spectral peak, or through infragravity-infragravity self-interactions that cause the infragravity waves to steepen and to eventually break. To investigate these infragravity dissipation mechanisms, we use the non-hydrostatic SWASH model. In this study, we first validate the model with the high-resolution GLOBEX laboratory data set and then explore the dependence of the energy transfers, with a focus on infragravity frequencies, on beach slope. Consistent with previous studies we find that SWASH is able to reproduce the transformation and corresponding nonlinear energy transfers of shoreward propagating waves to great detail. Bispectral analysis is used to study the coupling between wave frequencies; nonlinear energy transfers are then quantified using the Boussinesq coupling coefficient. To obtain more detailed insight we divide the nonlinear interactions in four categories based on triads including 1) infragravity frequencies only, 2) two infragravity frequencies and one short-wave frequency, 3) one infragravity frequency and two short-wave frequencies and 4) short-wave frequencies only. Preliminary results suggest that interactions are rather weak on gently beach slopes (1:80) and, in the innermost part of the surf zone, are dominated by infragravity-infragravity interactions. On steeper slopes (1:20), interactions are stronger, but entirely dominated by those involving short-wave frequencies only. The dependence of the transfers on offshore wave conditions and beach shape will be explored too. Funded by NWO.

  17. A Numerical Study of Superconducting Cavity Components

    SciTech Connect

    B.C. Yunn; J.J. Bisognano

    1990-09-10

    Computer programs which solve Maxwell's equations in three dimensions are becoming an invaluable tool in the design of RF structures for particle accelerators. In particular, the lack of cylindrical symmetry of superconducting cavities with waveguide couplers demands a 3-D analysis for a reasonable description of a number of important phenomena. A set of codes, collectively known as MAFIA, developed by Weiland and his collaborators, has been used at CEBAF to study its five-cell superconducting accelerating cavities. The magnitude of RF crosstalk between cavities is found to depend critically on the breaking of cylindrical symmetry by the fundamental power couplers. A model of the higher order mode coupler exhibits an unexpected mode which is in good agreement with measurement.

  18. A numerical study of aircraft empennage buffet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findlay, David Bruce

    1999-10-01

    A method to predict tightly-coupled dynamic aeroelastic vertical tail buffet was presented. Analysis of high angle of attack vertical tail buffet was performed. A Navier-Stokes fluid dynamics method was coupled with a modal structural dynamics method. The approach was to improve upon existing methods to evaluate complex geometric arrangements with general multi-zone interfacing. The method was demonstrated through a step- wise approach beginning with a simple configuration and building up to a complete aircraft at high angle of attack with flexible tail surfaces. Results compared well with in-flight and Full-scale wind tunnel measured trends and frequency content. Comparisons with measured absolute values of buffet loads showed the computations to be under-predicting the test data. This was primarily attributed to insufficient grid resolution, in particular in the vicinity of the main vortex flow. The demanding computational requirements of full-configuration tail buffet prediction limited the fidelity. The primary contribution of the present study was the extension and demonstration of a tightly-coupled aeroelastic computational fluid dynamics/structural dynamics based analysis method for analysis of aircraft empennage buffet. The focus was on improving the development process associated with characterizing empennage buffet loads and the resulting structural response. The intent was to establish a computationally based alternative approach to the experimentally based process currently employed. The computational method was employed to provide far greater insight into the flow physics phenomena associated with specific configurations and conditions of interest.

  19. Numerical Study of Explosive Dispersal of Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollin, Bertrand; Annamalai, Subramanian; Neal, Christopher; Jackson, Thomas; Balachandar, S.

    2014-11-01

    Recent experiments have shown that when a layer of solid particles is explosively dispersed, a multiphase instability front occurs, which leads to the formation of aerodynamically stable jet-like particle structures. We aim at replicating these experimental observations using highly resolved large-scale simulations, to improve our understanding of particulate front instabilities and jetting phenomenon. We consider a cylindrical core of high pressure and density gas generated from energetic material. Throughout the length of the cylinder, an annular region of micron-sized inert spherical particles surrounds the charge. The particles are treated as point particles, the gas is treated as a continuum, and a rigorous two-way coupled compressible multiphase formulation is used. The jets are believed to have their origin during the early phase of rapid acceleration of the bed of particles. Therefore, this work focuses on capturing the early-time behavior and growth of the instabilities caused by the presence of particles. The accuracy of our predictive simulations will be studied by comparing the shock radius, particle front location, and other relevant metrics against the data extracted from experimental results. This work is supported by the U.S. DoE, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  20. Numerical Studies of Properties of Confined Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manousakis, Efstratios

    2003-01-01

    We carry out state of the art simulations of properties of confined liquid helium near the superfluid transition to a degree of accuracy which allows to make predictions for the outcome of fundamental physics experiments in microgravity. First we report our results for the finite-size scaling behavior of heat capacity of superfluids for cubic and parallel-plate geometry. This allows us to study the crossover from zero and two dimensions to three dimensions. Our calculated scaling functions are in good agreement with recently measured specific heat scaling functions for the above mentioned geometries. We also present our results of a quantum simulation of submonolayer of molecular hydrogen deposited on an ideal graphite substrate using path-integral quantum Monte Carlo simulation. We find that the monolayer phase diagram is rich and very similar to that of helium monolayer. We are able to uncover the main features of the complex monolayer phase diagram, such as the commensurate solid phases and the commensurate to incommensurate transition, in agreement with the experiments and to find some features which are missing from the experimental analysis.

  1. Numerical solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations using density gradients as additional dependent variables. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Numerical solution of two dimensional, time dependent, compressible viscous Navier-Stokes equations about arbitrary bodies was treated using density gradients as additional dependent variables. Thus, six dependent variables were computed with the SOR iteration method. Besides formulation for pressure gradient terms, a formulation for computing the body density was presented. To approximate the governing equations, an implicit finite difference method was employed. In computing the solution for the flow about a circular cylinder, a problem arose near the wall at both stagnation points. Thus, computations with various conditions were tried to examine the problem. Also, computations with and without formulations are compared. The flow variables were computed on 37 by 40 field first, then on an 81 by 40 field.

  2. A numerical comparison of discrete Kalman filtering algorithms: An orbit determination case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, C. L.; Bierman, G. J.

    1976-01-01

    The numerical stability and accuracy of various Kalman filter algorithms are thoroughly studied. Numerical results and conclusions are based on a realistic planetary approach orbit determination study. The case study results of this report highlight the numerical instability of the conventional and stabilized Kalman algorithms. Numerical errors associated with these algorithms can be so large as to obscure important mismodeling effects and thus give misleading estimates of filter accuracy. The positive result of this study is that the Bierman-Thornton U-D covariance factorization algorithm is computationally efficient, with CPU costs that differ negligibly from the conventional Kalman costs. In addition, accuracy of the U-D filter using single-precision arithmetic consistently matches the double-precision reference results. Numerical stability of the U-D filter is further demonstrated by its insensitivity of variations in the a priori statistics.

  3. Numerical study of free surface flow around large obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanming

    In this thesis a numerical model was developed to study three-dimensional turbulent flows around large obstacles in an open channel. With this numerical model, a series of numerical tests was carried out, and the properties of turbulent flows around a single obstacle or a cluster of obstacles were investigated. The origin of this study was to study the flow properties around fish habitat structures. Actually, the numerical model can be applied to the study of general turbulent flows under free surfaces. In the numerical model the three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with k-epsilon turbulence model were solved in a free surface fitted coordinate system. First, different forms of governing equations for turbulent flow were investigated, and a concise form of fully transformed governing equations in a general curvilinear coordinate system was derived. In the numerical solution the FAVOR (Fractional Area/Volume Obstacle Representation) technique was extended into the free surface fitted coordinate system. With this feature the problem of complex turbulent flow with a free surface and general shaped obstacles could be solved efficiently. To locate the free surface, a method based on integrating the momentum equation in the vertical direction was developed. After study and tests of several popular difference schemes, a QUICK scheme with UMIST limiter was adopted in this numerical model. Several test cases were presented to demonstrate the present numerical model. The first test case was to simulate a submerged hydraulic jump. The calculated velocity, free surface profile and turbulence properties of the flow showed a close match with the experimental data. The second test was a submerged hydraulic jump with a baffle sill. The comparison between numerical and experimental data indicated that the current numerical model could catch the general flow structures of the submerged hydraulic jumps. The last two test cases were flows around a

  4. A numerical study of three-dimensional vortex breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spall, Robert E.; Ash, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical simulation of bubble-type vortex breakdown using a unique discrete form of the full 3-D, unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations was performed. The Navier-Stokes equations were written in a vorticity-velocity form and the physical problem was not restricted to axisymmetric flow. The problem was parametized on a Rossby- Reynolds-number basis. Utilization of this parameter duo was shown to dictate the form of the free-field boundary condition specification and allowed control of axial breakdown location within the computational domain. The structure of the breakdown bubble was studied through time evolution plots of planar projected velocity vectors as well as through plots of particle traces and vortex lines. These results compared favorably with previous experimental studies. In addition, profiles of all three velocity components are presented at various axial stations and a Fourier analysis was performed to identify the dominant circumferential modes. The dynamics of the breakdown process were studied through plots of axial variation of rate of change of integrated total energy and rate of change of integrated enstrophy, as well as through contour plots of velocity, vorticity and pressure.

  5. Numerical study of dynamical mass generation in QED3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, A.; Huet, A.; Raya, A.

    2006-05-01

    We carry out a numerical study of dynamical generation of fermion masses by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the fermion propagator in three-dimensional quenched Quantum Electrodynamics (QED3) in various gauges. We employ an ansatz for the three-point vertex which satisfies the Ward-Green-Takahashi identity, namely, the Ball-Chiu Vertex. We discuss the advantages of our numerical method over some earlier ones.

  6. Numerical Study of a Hydrodynamic Instability Driven by Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Zapata, Sergio; Romo-Cruz, Julio Cesar Ruben; Lopez-Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz-Chavarria, Gerardo

    2013-11-01

    The study of hydrodynamic instabilities in liquid layers produced by evaporation has several applications on industry and technology. In this work we study numerically the conditions under which a liquid layer becomes unstable when evaporation in the vapor-liquid interphase is present. The evaporation process follows the Hertz-Knudsen law (the evaporation rate is proportional to the difference between the saturated vapor pressure at the liquid layer temperature and the vapor partial pressure in the environment). Additionally to the usual boundary conditions on solid walls (for example, the non-slip condition for the velocity), we analyze the boundary conditions in the vapor-liquid interphase where the momentum and energy balances have to be taken into account and where the evaporation plays a crucial role. To solve this problem the linear theory of stability is used; that is, a small perturbation around the basic solution is applied (flow at rest and a temperature stationary field). The equations are solved using the Chebyshev pseudo-spectral method. The results are compared with the more usual Rayleigh-Bénard and Marangoni mechanisms as well as with some experiments carried out by our team. Authors acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN116312, ``Vorticidad y Ondas no lineales en fluidos.''

  7. Experimental and numerical study on condensation in transonic steam flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majkut, Mirosław; Dykas, Sławomir; Strozik, Michał; Smołka, Krystian

    2015-09-01

    The present paper describes an experimental and numerical study of steam condensing flow in a linear cascade of turbine stator blades. The experimental research was performed on the facility of a small scale steam power plant located at Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice, Poland. The test rig of the facility allows us to perform the tests of steam transonic flows for the conditions corresponding to these which prevail in the low-pressure (LP) condensing steam turbine stages. The experimental data of steam condensing flow through the blade-to- blade stator channel were compared with numerical results obtained using the in-house CFD numerical code TraCoFlow. Obtained results confirmed a good quality of the performed experiment and numerical calculations.

  8. Black shale weathering: An integrated field and numerical modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, E. W.; Wildman, R. A., Jr.; Berner, R. A.; Eckert, J. O., Jr.; Petsch, S. T.; Mok, U.; Evans, B.

    2003-04-01

    We present an integrated study of black shale weathering in a near surface environment. Implications of this study contribute to our understanding of organic matter oxidation in uplifted sediments, along with erosion and reburial of ancient unoxidized organic matter, as major controls on atmospheric oxygen levels over geologic time. The field study used to launch the modeling effort is based on core samples from central-eastern Kentucky near Clay City (Late Devonian New Albany/Ohio Shale), where the strata are essentially horizontal. Samples from various depth intervals (up to 12 m depth) were analyzed for texture (SEM images), porosity fraction (0.02 to 0.1), and horizontal and vertical permeability (water and air permeabilities differ due to the fine-grained nature of the sediments, but are on the order of 0.01 to 1. millidarcies, respectively). Chemical analyses were also performed for per cent C, N, S, and basic mineralogy was determined (clays, quartz, pyrite, in addition to organic matter). The samples contained from 2 to 15 per cent ancient (non-modern soil) organic matter. These results were used in the creation of a numerical model for kinetically controlled oxidation of the organic matter within the shale (based on kinetics from Chang and Berner, 1999). The one-dimensional model includes erosion, oxygen diffusion in the partially saturated vadose zone as well as water percolation and solute transport. This study extends the studies of Petsch (2000) and the weathering component of Lasaga and Ohmoto (2002) to include more reactions (e.g., pyrite oxidation to sulfuric acid and weathering of silicates due to low pH) and to resolve the near-surface boundary layer. The model provides a convenient means of exploring the influence of variable rates of erosion, oxygen level, rainfall, as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the shale on organic matter oxidation.

  9. Numerical study of subcritical flow with fluid injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, R.

    1990-01-01

    It is suggested that the study of synthetic flows, where controlled experiments can be performed, is useful in understanding turbulent flow structures. The early states of formation of hairpin structures in shear flows and the subsequent evolution of these structures is studied in shear flows and the subsequent evolution of these structures is studied through numerical simulations, by developing full-time dependent three-dimensional flow solution of an initially laminar (subcritical) flow in which injection of fluid through a narrow streamwise slot from the bottom wall of a plate is carried out. Details of the numerical approach and significance of the present findings are reported in this work.

  10. Coupled laboratory and numerical studies of impacts into planetary regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, A.; Li, Y.; Curtis, J.; Colwell, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    We present the initial results from coupled experimental and numerical study of the response of particles to low-velocity impacts. In this study, laboratory experiments are used to validate and tune a new DEM capable of handling complex particle shapes for simulation of the behavior of planetary regolith. These studies have fundamental applications to granular material science, as well as broader applications to the response to low-energy impacts of surface layers on other planetary bodies, including planetesimals, asteroids, small moons, and planetary ring particles. Knowledge of the velocities and mass distributions of dust knocked off of planetary surfaces is necessary to understand the evolution of the upper layers of the soil, the plasma environment, and to develop mitigation strategies for transported dust. In addition, the fine particles in the regolith pose an engineering and safety hazard for equipment, experiments, and astronauts working in severe environments. Our laboratory experiments consist of impacting a spherical impactor into a bed of particles and tracking the subsequent mass loss and trajectories of the ejected particles. We begin with spherical particles and then we will expand to elongated rods, flake-like particles, and well-characterized aggregates. Complementary discrete element method (DEM) simulations are validated by these experimental studies; in the DEM simulations, the non-spherical nature of these particles will be described using a glued-sphere approach. An initial comparison between the particle ejection velocities observed in the experiments and simulations for spherical particles is shown in the figure. Discrepancies at low velocities are due to the fact that the trajectories of particles with such low ejection speeds are not observable in this setup. The simulations will then be used to gain physical insight and to evaluate a broader range of scenarios than can be easily explored experimentally, such as conditions similar to

  11. Experimental and Numerical Study of Free-Field Blast Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. M.; Kirkpatrick, D. J.; Longbottom, A. W.; Milne, A. M.; Bourne, N. K.

    2004-07-01

    The development of a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms governing the attenuation of explosives effects by a surrounding mitigant material or system would benefit many civilian and military applications. Current approaches rely almost exclusively on empirical data, few if any truly predictive models exist. Dstl has recently pursued an experimental programme investigating the mitigation of effects from detonating explosives in support of general requirements to attenuate blast and fragmentation. The physical properties of a range of mitigant materials have been studied at a more fundamental level, both experimentally and numerically. A preliminary numerical parameter study has been undertaken by FGE using two-phase numerical simulations to complement the experimental studies. Initial work used idealised equations of state for generic mitigants but more recently material characterisation experiments have been undertaken at RMCS. Results confirm that porosity and particle density are dominant factors affecting the efficiency of the mitigant in reducing free-field blast.

  12. A Numerical Study of Hypersonic Forebody/Inlet Integration Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Ajay

    1991-01-01

    A numerical study of hypersonic forebody/inlet integration problem is presented in the form of the view-graphs. The following topics are covered: physical/chemical modeling; solution procedure; flow conditions; mass flow rate at inlet face; heating and skin friction loads; 3-D forebogy/inlet integration model; and sensitivity studies.

  13. Numerical studies of laminar and turbulent drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Orszag, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Two-dimensional incompressible flow over wavy surfaces is studied numerically by spectral methods. Turbulence effects are modeled. Results for symmetric and asymmetric wave forms are presented. Effect of propagating surface waves on drag reduction is studied. Comparisons between computer simulations and experimental results are made.

  14. Numerical Study of Magnetic Damping During Unidirectional Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Ben Q.

    1997-01-01

    A fully 3-D numerical model is developed to represent magnetic damping of complex fluid flow, heat transfer and electromagnetic field distributions in a melt cavity. The model is developed based on our in-house finite element code for the fluid flow, heat transfer and electromagnetic field calculations. The computer code has been tested against benchmark test problems that are solved by other commercial codes as well as analytical solutions whenever available. The numerical model is tested against numerical and experimental results for water reported in literature. With the model so tested, various numerical simulations are carried out for the Sn-35.5% Pb melt convection and temperature distribution in a cylindrical cavity with and without the presence of a transverse magnetic field. Numerical results show that magnetic damping can be effectively applied to reduce turbulence and flow levels in the melt undergoing solidification and over a certain threshold value a higher magnetic field resulted in a higher velocity reduction. It is found also that for a fully 3-D representation of the magnetic damping effects, the electric field induced in the melt by the applied DC magnetic field does not vanish, as some researchers suggested, and must be included even for molten metal and semiconductors. Also, for the study of the melt flow instability, a long enough time has to be applied to ensure the final fluid flow recirculation pattern. Moreover, our numerical results suggested that there seems to exist a threshold value of applied magnetic field, above which magnetic damping becomes possible and below which the convection in the melt is actually enhanced. Because of the limited financial resource allocated for the project, we are unable to carry out extensive study on this effect, which should warrant further theoretical and experimental study. In that endeavor, the developed numerical model should be very useful; and the model should serve as a useful tool for exploring

  15. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility preliminary study: Executive study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A computing system was designed with the capability of providing an effective throughput of one billion floating point operations per second for three dimensional Navier-Stokes codes. The methodology used in defining the baseline design, and the major elements of the numerical aerodynamic simulation facility are described.

  16. Dynamical Approach Study of Spurious Numerics in Nonlinear Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Mansour, Nagi (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The last two decades have been an era when computation is ahead of analysis and when very large scale practical computations are increasingly used in poorly understood multiscale complex nonlinear physical problems and non-traditional fields. Ensuring a higher level of confidence in the predictability and reliability (PAR) of these numerical simulations could play a major role in furthering the design, understanding, affordability and safety of our next generation air and space transportation systems, and systems for planetary and atmospheric sciences, and in understanding the evolution and origin of life. The need to guarantee PAR becomes acute when computations offer the ONLY way of solving these types of data limited problems. Employing theory from nonlinear dynamical systems, some building blocks to ensure a higher level of confidence in PAR of numerical simulations have been revealed by the author and world expert collaborators in relevant fields. Five building blocks with supporting numerical examples were discussed. The next step is to utilize knowledge gained by including nonlinear dynamics, bifurcation and chaos theories as an integral part of the numerical process. The third step is to design integrated criteria for reliable and accurate algorithms that cater to the different multiscale nonlinear physics. This includes but is not limited to the construction of appropriate adaptive spatial and temporal discretizations that are suitable for the underlying governing equations. In addition, a multiresolution wavelets approach for adaptive numerical dissipation/filter controls for high speed turbulence, acoustics and combustion simulations will be sought. These steps are corner stones for guarding against spurious numerical solutions that are solutions of the discretized counterparts but are not solutions of the underlying governing equations.

  17. Numerical study of the simplest string bit model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gaoli; Sun, Songge

    2016-05-01

    String bit models provide a possible method to formulate a string as a discrete chain of pointlike string bits. When the bit number M is large, a chain behaves as a continuous string. We study the simplest case that has only one bosonic bit and one fermionic bit. The creation and annihilation operators are adjoint representations of the U (N ) color group. We show that the supersymmetry reduces the parameter number of a Hamiltonian from 7 to 3 and, at N =∞ , ensures a continuous energy spectrum, which implies the emergence of one spatial dimension. The Hamiltonian H0 is constructed so that in the large N limit it produces a world sheet spectrum with one Grassmann world sheet field. We concentrate on the numerical study of the model in finite N . For the Hamiltonian H0, we find that the would-be ground energy states disappear at N =(M -1 ) /2 for odd M ≤11 . Such a simple pattern is spoiled if H has an additional term ξ Δ H which does not affect the result of N =∞ . The disappearance point moves to higher (lower) N when ξ increases (decreases). Particularly, the ±(H0-Δ H ) cases suggest a possibility that the ground state could survive at large M and M ≫N . Our study reveals that the model has stringy behavior: when N is fixed and large enough, the ground energy decreases linearly with respect to M , and the excitation energy is roughly of order M-1. We also verify that a stable system of Hamiltonian ±H0+ξ Δ H requires ξ ≥∓1 .

  18. Numerical study of damage growth in particulate composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Y.W.; Liu, C.T.

    1999-10-01

    A numerical study was conducted to simulate and predict damage initiation and growth around the crack tip in particulate composite specimens made of hard particles embedded in a soft rubber-like matrix material. Therefore, damage evolution in the matrix material around crack tips was investigated. The progressive damage was modeled using a micro/macro-approach which combined two levels of analyses like the micro-level and the macro-level analyses. Damage description was undertaken at the microlevel using a simplified three-dimensional unit-cell model and an isotropic continuum damage theory. The numerical study examined both thin and thick specimens with a short or long edge crack to understand the effects of specimen thickness and crack size on the damage initiation, growth, and saturation. Numerical results were compared with experimental data.

  19. Numerical study of axisymmetric collapses of submarine granular > columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsorno, Davide; Varsakelis, Christos

    2014-11-01

    In this talk, we report on the results of a numerical study of the axisymmetric collapse of subaqueous granular columns. Our study is based on a 2-pressure, 2-velocity continuum flow model for fluid-saturated granular materials. This model is integrated via a multi-phase projection method that incorporates a regularization method for the treatment of material interfaces. In our simulations, a dense column of a granular material immersed in water is placed on a horizontal plane and is allowed to collapse and spread due to its weight. Emphasis is placed on the run-out distance and the termination height and their correlation with the aspect ratio, the volume fraction and the diameter of the grains. Comparisons against experimental measurements and previous numerical predictions are also performed. Finally, in order to examine and quantify the role of the interstitial fluid, we compare our numerical predictions against experimental results from column collapses of dry granular materials.

  20. An Ensemble Numerical Modeling Study of Atlantic Basin Hurricane Intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Bonnie R.

    Rapid intensification of tropical cyclones is an active area of research in the atmospheric sciences due to the difficulty of forecasting cyclone intensity and the unclear mechanism by which a hurricane my undergo explosive deepening. Ensemble numerical modeling studies of six tropical cyclones from 2009, 2010 and 2011 which underwent periods of strong intensification are conducted here. The goal is to identify common storm structures in intensifying hurricanes while filling a gap in the current research between case studies of rapid intensification and climatological/statistical type studies of hurricane intensification rates by using a compositing method. A 96-member ensemble is run for a 24 hour forecast using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for hurricanes Bill (2009), Earl (2010), Igor (2010), Julia (2010), Katia (2011), and Ophelia (2011). Ensemble sensitivity analysis is used to investigate which patterns in the analysis have a strong influence on the forecast intensity and then a novel sensitivity compositing is used to identify common patterns which affect the forecast intensity. It is found that these hurricanes are all predicted to respond to an increased primary and secondary circulation, an increased warm core, a raised tropopause and moistening of rain bands with an increased forecast intensity. Perturbed initial conditions show a linear model response for small perturbations but also signs of non-linearity at large perturbations, indicating that these sensitivity patterns are robust for limited additional strengthening of the hurricane. When perturbations are partitioned into dry and moist variables, it is seen that most of the model response is achieved by the dry dynamics. Further investigation is conducted into the rapid intensification of Earl (2010) and Igor (2010) but creating ensemble forecasts with additional, high-resolution nested domains which allow explicit convection. When the ensemble sensitivity analysis is repeated

  1. NUMERICAL STUDY OF THE VISHNIAC INSTABILITY IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michaut, C.; Cavet, C.; Bouquet, S. E.; Roy, F.; Nguyen, H. C.

    2012-11-10

    The Vishniac instability is thought to explain the complex structure of radiative supernova remnants in their Pressure-Driven Thin Shell (PDTS) phase after a blast wave (BW) has propagated from a central explosion. In this paper, the propagation of the BW and the evolution of the PDTS stage are studied numerically with the two-dimensional (2D) code HYDRO-MUSCL for a finite-thickness shell expanding in the interstellar medium (ISM). Special attention is paid to the adiabatic index, {gamma}, and three distinct values are taken for the cavity ({gamma}{sub 1}), the shell ({gamma}{sub 2}), and the ISM ({gamma}{sub 3}) with the condition {gamma}{sub 2} < {gamma}{sub 1}, {gamma}{sub 3}. This low value of {gamma}{sub 2} accounts for the high density in the shell achieved by a strong radiative cooling. Once the spherical background flow is obtained, the evolution of a 2D-axisymmetric perturbation is computed from the linear to the nonlinear regime. The overstable mechanism, previously demonstrated theoretically by E. T. Vishniac in 1983, is recovered numerically in the linear stage and is expected to produce and enhance anisotropies and clumps on the shock front, leading to the disruption of the shell in the nonlinear phase. The period of the increasing oscillations and the growth rate of the instability are derived from several points of view (the position of the perturbed shock front, mass fluxes along the shell, and density maps), and the most unstable mode differing from the value given by Vishniac is computed. In addition, the influence of several parameters (the Mach number, amplitude and wavelength of the perturbation, and adiabatic index) is examined and for wavelengths that are large enough compared to the shell thickness, the same conclusion arises: in the late stage of the evolution of the radiative supernova remnant, the instability is dampened and the angular initial deformation of the shock front is smoothed while the mass density becomes uniform with the

  2. A Numerical/Experimental Study of Nitinol Actuator Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auricchio, Ferdinando; Scalet, Giulia; Urbano, Marco

    2014-07-01

    This study deals with the numerical modeling, simulation and experimental analysis of shape-memory alloy (SMA) helicoidal springs. An experimental campaign is conducted on both SMA straight wires and helicoidal springs that experienced the same annealing process. Then, we use such experimental results to investigate three phenomenological constitutive models able to represent SMA macroscopic behavior. In particular, after the identification of all the material parameters from experimental results on SMA wires, we inspect the thermo-mechanical behavior of SMA helicoidal springs by comparing numerical predictions to experimental data. Finally, we discuss models capabilities and some aspects characterizing SMA material behavior.

  3. Numerical study of the small scale structures in Boussinesq convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinan, E.; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1992-01-01

    Two-dimensional Boussinesq convection is studied numerically using two different methods: a filtered pseudospectral method and a high order accurate Essentially Nonoscillatory (ENO) scheme. The issue whether finite time singularity occurs for initially smooth flows is investigated. The numerical results suggest that the collapse of the bubble cap is unlikely to occur in resolved calculations. The strain rate corresponding to the intensification of the density gradient across the front saturates at the bubble cap. We also found that the cascade of energy to small scales is dominated by the formulation of thin and sharp fronts across which density jumps.

  4. Experimental and numerical study of pulsating transversal jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfeld, M. A.; Fedorova, N. N.; Fedorchenko, I. A.; Pozdnyakov, G. A.; Timofeev, K. Yu.; Zhakharova, Yu. V.

    2015-06-01

    Paper presents results of joint experimental and numerical investigation of pulsating jet penetration into still air and supersonic flow. Goal of the study is to investigate two-dimensional (2D) Hartmann generator (HG) properties and clear up its possibilities in providing better mixing between air and secondary (injected) gases.

  5. Numerical study of the Kerr solution in rotating coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, S.; Izquierdo, G.; Klein, C.

    2016-06-01

    The Kerr solution in coordinates corotating with the horizon is studied as a testbed for a spacetime with a helical Killing vector in the Ernst picture. The solution is numerically constructed by solving the Ernst equation with a spectral method and a Newton iteration. We discuss convergence of the iteration for several initial iterates and different values of the Kerr parameters.

  6. Numerical studies of gravity effects in two-phase reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Cox, B.L.

    1986-06-01

    Numerical studies are performed to investigate the effects of localized feed zones on the pressure transients in two-phase reservoirs. It is shown that gravity effects can significantly affect the pressure transients, because of the large difference in the density of liquid water and vapor. Pressure transients for shallow and deep feed zones and the resulting fluid flow patterns are discussed.

  7. Numerical study of porosity in titanium dental castings.

    PubMed

    Wu, M; Sahm, P R; Augthun, M; Spiekermann, H; Schädlich-Stubenrauch, J

    1999-09-01

    A commercial software package, MAGMASOFT (MAGMA Giessereitechnologie GmbH, Aachen, Germany), was used to study shrinkage and gas porosity in titanium dental castings. A geometrical model for two simplified tooth crowns connected by a connector bar was created. Both mold filling and solidification of this casting model were numerically simulated. Shrinkage porosity was quantitatively predicted by means of a built-in feeding criterion. The risk of gas pore formation was investigated using the numerical filling and solidification results. The results of the numerical simulations were compared with experiments, which were carried out on a centrifugal casting machine with an investment block mold. The block mold was made of SiO2 based slurry with a 1 mm thick Zr2 face coat to reduce metal-mold reactions. Both melting and casting were carried out under protective argon (40 kPa). The finished castings were sectioned and the shrinkage porosity determined. The experimentally determined shrinkage porosity coincided with the predicted numerical simulation results. No apparent gas porosity was found in these model castings. Several running and gating systems for the above model casting were numerically simulated. An optimized running and gating system design was then experimentally cast, which resulted in porosity-free castings. PMID:15348102

  8. Stability of vegetated slopes in unsaturated conditions: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Borga, Marco; Tarolli, Paolo; Rigon, Riccardo; Preti, Federico

    2014-05-01

    Extreme rainfall events can trigger shallow landslides with failure planes located in soils far from saturated conditions. The stability of shallow soils on very steep slopes under unsaturated conditions can be highly influenced by the vegetation, according to both geo-mechanical and soil-hydrological factors, particularly in regions characterized by a strong climatic seasonality. The root structure of the vegetation reinforces the shallow soils, by providing additional apparent cohesion to the soil. The root water uptake enhances the stability by increasing the frequency of high suction pressure heads in the soil layers explored by the roots. In water controlled eco-systems, such as Mediterranean areas, these two factors are mutually related. Plants develop their root structure in order to optimize the uptake of the water available in the soil, since water availability is limited during the growing season. In this study we present the results of some numerical experiments with the aim to assess the relative importance of these two factors. We simulated the soil water dynamics within homogeneous loamy-sand soils, assuming climatic conditions and root structures typically observed in a deciduous forest of central and southern Italy. An infinite slope stability model is employed for assessing the temporal evolution of the contribute of the soil suction regime to the slope stability, as compared with the contribute of the soil root reinforcement. The results suggest that, during the wet season, the effect of the soil suction state on slope stability is much smaller than that attributable to the mechanical reinforcement provided by the root structure, at least within soil depths explored by the plant roots. Instead, during the growing and dry summer seasons, the soil suction state is far more relevant than the mechanical reinforcement. Thus, accounting for the antecedent soil suction state can be relevant for an appropriate prediction of shallow landslide hazards in

  9. A Numerical Study of Micrometeoroids Entering Titan's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Templeton, M.; Kress, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    A study using numerical integration techniques has been performed to analyze the temperature profiles of micrometeors entering the atmosphere of Saturn s moon Titan. Due to Titan's low gravity and dense atmosphere, arriving meteoroids experience a significant cushioning effect compared to those entering the Earth's atmosphere. Temperature profiles are presented as a function of time and altitude for a number of different meteoroid sizes and entry velocities, at an entry angle of 45. Titan's micrometeoroids require several minutes to reach peak heating (ranging from 200 to 1200 K), which occurs at an altitude of about 600 km. Gentle heating may allow for gradual evaporation of volatile components over a wide range of altitudes. Computer simulations have been performed using the Cassini/Huygens atmospheric data for Titan. Keywords micrometeoroid Titan atmosphere 1 Introduction On Earth, incoming micrometeoroids (100 m diameter) are slowed by collisions with air molecules in a relatively compact atmosphere, resulting in extremely rapid deceleration and a short heating pulse, often accompanied by brilliant meteor displays. On Titan, lower gravity leads to an atmospheric scale height that is much larger than on Earth. Thus, deceleration of meteors is less rapid and these particles undergo more gradual heating. This study uses techniques similar to those used for Earth meteoroid studies [1], exchanging Earth s planetary characteristics (e.g., mass and atmospheric profile) for those of Titan. Cassini/Huygens atmospheric data for Titan were obtained from the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Data Node [4]. The objectives of this study were 1) to model atmospheric heating of meteoroids for a range of micrometeor entry velocities for Titan, 2) to determine peak heating temperatures and rates for micrometeoroids entering Titan s atmosphere, and 3) to create a general simulation environment that can be extended to incorporate additional parameters and variables, including different

  10. Numerical Model Studies of the Martian Mesoscale Circulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, Moti; Arritt, Raymond W.

    1997-01-01

    The study objectives were to evaluate by numerical modeling various possible mesoscale circulation on Mars and related atmospheric boundary layer processes. The study was in collaboration with J. Tillman of the University of Washington (who supported the study observationally). Interaction has been made with J. Prusa of Iowa State University in numerical modeling investigation of dynamical effects of topographically-influenced flow. Modeling simulations included evaluations of surface physical characteristics on: (i) the Martian atmospheric boundary layer and (ii) their impact on thermally and dynamically forced mesoscale flows. Special model evaluations were made in support of selection of the Pathfinder landing sites. J. Tillman's finding of VL-2 inter-annual temperature difference was followed by model simulations attempting to point out the forcing for this feature. Publication of the results in the reviewed literature in pending upon completion of the manuscripts in preparation as indicated later.

  11. Numerical studies of HF Doppler variations caused by ionospheric disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takefu, M.; Hiroshige, N.

    HF Doppler variations caused by ionospheric disturbances are studied using an ionosphere model containing sinusoidal traveling electron density fluctuations. The present study uses a more realistic ionosphere model and a more accurate numerical method than previous works using corrugated specular reflector models. The study gives a clue to estimate the TID-associated fluctuations of ionospheric electron density by means of HF Doppler measurements. It is shown that some kinds of characteristic HF Doppler traces result depending on the wavelength of the disturbance and its traveling direction. Numerical results suggest that more or less 5 percent of the background electron density can explain most of the quasi-periodic variations on the observed HF Doppler records.

  12. Electrostatic Levitation for Studies of Additive Manufactured Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Tramel, Terri

    2014-01-01

    The electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is a unique facility for investigators studying high temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified. Electrostatic levitation minimizes gravitational effects and allows materials to be studied without contact with a container or instrumentation. The lab also has a high temperature emissivity measurement system, which provides normal spectral and normal total emissivity measurements at use temperature. The ESL lab has been instrumental in many pioneering materials investigations of thermophysical properties, e.g., creep measurements, solidification, triggered nucleation, and emissivity at high temperatures. Research in the ESL lab has already led to the development of advanced high temperature materials for aerospace applications, coatings for rocket nozzles, improved medical and industrial optics, metallic glasses, ablatives for reentry vehicles, and materials with memory. Modeling of additive manufacturing materials processing is necessary for the study of their resulting materials properties. In addition, the modeling of the selective laser melting processes and its materials property predictions are also underway. Unfortunately, there is very little data for the properties of these materials, especially of the materials in the liquid state. Some method to measure thermophysical properties of additive manufacturing materials is necessary. The ESL lab is ideal for these studies. The lab can provide surface tension and viscosity of molten materials, density measurements, emissivity measurements, and even creep strength measurements. The ESL lab can also determine melting temperature, surface temperatures, and phase transition temperatures of additive manufactured materials. This presentation will provide background on the ESL lab and its capabilities, provide an approach to using the ESL

  13. Analytical and Numerical Studies of Coherent Field Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Hans-Reinhard

    Motivated by the goal of investigating the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe, a study of dynamical aspects of nonlinear field-theoretical systems is performed. Symmetric and asymmetric double-well potentials in the φ4 theory are used as a model for these systems. In the first part, it is shown that in this model, a class of localized, time-dependent, spherically-symmetric objects dubbed oscillons exists. The most distinctive feature of these objects is that they are extremely long-lived. The properties of oscillons are studied by numerical and analytical means. In the second part of the study, the matching between (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear field theories coupled to an external stochastic environment and their lattice simulations is investigated. In particular, a method is developed to obtain numerical results which are lattice-spacing independent, and to extract the correct effective potential which emerges from the simulations. As an application, the thermal production of kinks is studied, obtaining the lattice-spacing independent number density of kinks and the effective barrier for kink production, i.e., the effective kink mass. Within its range of validity, the approach can be used to match numerical simulations to continuum studies of the emergence of coherent field structures in cosmology and condensed matter physics.

  14. Experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies of small scale combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bo

    Recently, the demand increased for the development of microdevices such as microsatellites, microaerial vehicles, micro reactors, and micro power generators. To meet those demands the biggest challenge is obtaining stable and complete combustion at relatively small scale. To gain a fundamental understanding of small scale combustion in this thesis, thermal and kinetic coupling between the gas phase and the structure at meso and micro scales were theoretically, experimentally, and numerically studied; new stabilization and instability phenomena were identified; and new theories for the dynamic mechanisms of small scale combustion were developed. The reduction of thermal inertia at small scale significantly reduces the response time of the wall and leads to a strong flame-wall coupling and extension of burning limits. Mesoscale flame propagation and extinction in small quartz tubes were theoretically, experimentally and numerically studied. It was found that wall-flame interaction in mesoscale combustion led to two different flame regimes, a heat-loss dominant fast flame regime and a wall-flame coupling slow flame regime. The nonlinear transition between the two flame regimes was strongly dependent on the channel width and flow velocity. It is concluded that the existence of multiple flame regimes is an inherent phenomenon in mesoscale combustion. In addition, all practical combustors have variable channel width in the direction of flame propagation. Quasi-steady and unsteady propagations of methane and propane-air premixed flames in a mesoscale divergent channel were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The emphasis was the impact of variable cross-section area and the flame-wall coupling on the flame transition between different regimes and the onset of flame instability. For the first time, spinning flames were experimentally observed for both lean and rich methane and propane-air mixtures in a broad range of equivalence ratios. An effective Lewis number

  15. Numerical study on 3D composite morphing actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Kazuma; Saito, Makoto; Anandan, Nishita; Kadooka, Kevin; Taya, Minoru

    2015-04-01

    There are a number of actuators using the deformation of electroactive polymer (EAP), where fewer papers seem to have focused on the performance of 3D morphing actuators based on the analytical approach, due mainly to their complexity. The present paper introduces a numerical analysis approach on the large scale deformation and motion of a 3D half dome shaped actuator composed of thin soft membrane (passive material) and EAP strip actuators (EAP active coupon with electrodes on both surfaces), where the locations of the active EAP strips is a key parameter. Simulia/Abaqus Static and Implicit analysis code, whose main feature is the high precision contact analysis capability among structures, are used focusing on the whole process of the membrane to touch and wrap around the object. The unidirectional properties of the EAP coupon actuator are used as input data set for the material properties for the simulation and the verification of our numerical model, where the verification is made as compared to the existing 2D solution. The numerical results can demonstrate the whole deformation process of the membrane to wrap around not only smooth shaped objects like a sphere or an egg, but also irregularly shaped objects. A parametric study reveals the proper placement of the EAP coupon actuators, with the modification of the dome shape to induce the relevant large scale deformation. The numerical simulation for the 3D soft actuators shown in this paper could be applied to a wider range of soft 3D morphing actuators.

  16. Numerical Study on Cryogenic Coflowing Jets under Transcritical Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Hiroumi; Teramoto, Susumu; Okamoto, Koji; Yamanishi, Nobuhiro

    2012-11-01

    A numerical and experimental study is presented on cryogenic coflowing jets under transcritical conditions for a better understanding of the propellant mixing in supercritical-pressure rocket engines. The major concerns are dominant flow structures in the mixing of cryogenic coflowing jets under transcritical conditions. Experimentally, in advance of detailed numerical simulations, cryogenic nitrogen/gaseous nitrogen coaxial jets were visualized by the backlighting photography technique. It was observed that a dense nitrogen core has a shear-layer instability near the injector exit and eventually breaks up into large lumps which dissolve and fade away downstream. In numerical simulations, LES technique was employed for more detailed discussion on the flow structures. LES of a cryogenic nitrogen/gaseous nitrogen coflowing plane jet was conducted with the same density and velocity ratios of inner/outer jets as the experiments. As observed in the experiments, the shear-layer instability in the inner mixing layers is predominant near the injector exit. After roll-up and paring, the shear-layer instability waves become large-scale vortices. They cause coherent vortex structures which become dominant in the downstream and break the dense core into lumps. Strouhal numbers of the shear-layer instability and the dense lump shedding in the numerical simulations were comparable to those measured in the experiments, respectively.

  17. On the Numerical Study of Heavy Rainfall in Taiwan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chen, Ching-Sen; Chen, Yi-Leng; Jou, Ben Jong-Dao; Lin, Pay-Liam; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Heavy rainfall events are frequently observed over the western side of the CMR (central mountain range), which runs through Taiwan in a north-south orientation, in a southwesterly flow regime and over the northeastern side of the CMR in a northeasterly flow regime. Previous studies have revealed the mechanisms by which the heavy rainfall events are formed. Some of them have examined characteristics of the heavy rainfall via numerical simulations. In this paper, some of the previous numerical studies on heavy rainfall events around Taiwan during the Mei-Yu season (May and June), summer (non-typhoon cases) and autumn will be reviewed. Associated mechanisms proposed from observational studies will be reviewed first, and then characteristics of numerically simulated heavy rainfall events will be presented. The formation mechanisms of heavy rainfall from simulated results and from observational analysis are then compared and discussed. Based on these previous modeling studies, we will also discuss what are the major observations and modeling processes which will be needed for understanding the heavy precipitation in the future.

  18. Numerical Studies of a Fluidic Diverter for Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Culley, Dennis E.; Raghu, Surya

    2009-01-01

    The internal flow structure in a specific fluidic diverter is studied over a range from low subsonic to sonic inlet conditions by a time-dependent numerical analysis. The understanding will aid in the development of fluidic diverters with minimum pressure losses and advanced designs of flow control actuators. The velocity, temperature and pressure fields are calculated for subsonic conditions and the self-induced oscillatory behavior of the flow is successfully predicted. The results of our numerical studies have excellent agreement with our experimental measurements of oscillation frequencies. The acoustic speed in the gaseous medium is determined to be a key factor for up to sonic conditions in governing the mechanism of initiating the oscillations as well as determining its frequency. The feasibility of employing plasma actuation with a minimal perturbation level is demonstrated in steady-state calculations to also produce oscillation frequencies of our own choosing instead of being dependent on the fixed-geometry fluidic device.

  19. Numerical study of fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equations

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Christian; Sparber, Christof; Markowich, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Using a Fourier spectral method, we provide a detailed numerical investigation of dispersive Schrödinger-type equations involving a fractional Laplacian in an one-dimensional case. By an appropriate choice of the dispersive exponent, both mass and energy sub- and supercritical regimes can be identified. This allows us to study the possibility of finite time blow-up versus global existence, the nature of the blow-up, the stability and instability of nonlinear ground states and the long-time dynamics of solutions. The latter is also studied in a semiclassical setting. Moreover, we numerically construct ground state solutions of the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equation. PMID:25484604

  20. Numerical study of unsteady processes in a Faraday MHD generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, G. N.; Panchenko, V. P.

    1981-07-01

    A numerical study is presented on the unsteady processes occurring in a Faraday MHD generator with a high power-conversion efficiency. A supersonic MHD generator operating with an equilibrium plasma and designed to convert energy in a system using a thermonuclear reactor is considered, and the steady operating modes are established for cases when an ohmic load is connected, disconnected, or reduced. A magnetic field is assumed to be generated by a suitable profiling of the external magnetic field, and the working medium is modeled by an ideal gas. Partial differential equations are solved numerically by using a central difference predictor-corrector scheme. The study can be applied to problems (e.g., transient times, nominal parameter maximal values and rates of change, methods of regulating the generator and switching it on and off) arising during the design of MHD generators.

  1. Attosecond lighthouses in gases: A theoretical and numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auguste, T.; Gobert, O.; Ruchon, T.; Quéré, F.

    2016-03-01

    We present an extensive theoretical and numerical study of the attosecond lighthouse effect in gases. We study how this scheme impacts the spatiotemporal structure of the driving laser field all along the generation medium, and show that this can modify the phase matching relation governing high-harmonic generation (HHG) in gases. We then present a set of numerical simulations performed to test the robustness of the effect against variations of HHG parameters, and to identify possible solutions for relaxing the constraint on the driving laser pulse duration. We thus demonstrate that the lighthouse effect can actually be achieved with laser pulses consisting of up to ˜8 optical periods available from current lasers without postcompression, for instance by using an appropriate combination of 800 - and 1600 -nm wavelength fields.

  2. Numerical study of fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equations.

    PubMed

    Klein, Christian; Sparber, Christof; Markowich, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Using a Fourier spectral method, we provide a detailed numerical investigation of dispersive Schrödinger-type equations involving a fractional Laplacian in an one-dimensional case. By an appropriate choice of the dispersive exponent, both mass and energy sub- and supercritical regimes can be identified. This allows us to study the possibility of finite time blow-up versus global existence, the nature of the blow-up, the stability and instability of nonlinear ground states and the long-time dynamics of solutions. The latter is also studied in a semiclassical setting. Moreover, we numerically construct ground state solutions of the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equation. PMID:25484604

  3. BIG FROG WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND ADDITIONS, TENNESSEE AND GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, John F.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey was made of the Big Frog Wilderness Study Area and additions, Tennessee-Georgia. Geochemical sampling found traces of gold, zinc, copper, and arsenic in rocks, stream sediments, and panned concentrates, but not in sufficient quantities to indicate the presence of deposits of these metals. The results of the survey indicate that there is little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral deposits within the study area. The only apparent resources are nonmetallic commodities including rock suitable for construction materials, and small amounts of sand and gravel; however, these commodities are found in abundance outside the study area. A potential may exist for oil and natural gas at great depths, but this cannot be evaluated by the present study.

  4. Numerical study of multicomponent droplet vaporization at near critical conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, Kwang-Chung; Shuen, Jian-Shun; Yang, Vigor

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive numerical analysis of multicomponent droplet vaporization at near critical conditions has been carried out. The model is based on the full time-dependent conservation equations and accommodates various important high-pressure phenomena. As an example, the case involving a two-component (n-pentane and n-octane) fuel droplet in nitrogen gas is studied. The influences of transient effects, surface regression, ambient gas solubility, and phase-equilibrium relations on vaporization mechanisms are examined in detail.

  5. A numerical study of the Nordic Sea circulation and outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Pratt, L. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Nordic Seas outflow over the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge is investigated by using a two-layer numerical model with both idealized and realistic topography. The study focuses on physical processes and topographic effects that influence the pathways of the Nordic Seas source water that feeds the overflow through the Denmark Strait and Faroe Bank Channel. The potential vorticity balance and integral constraints will be used to explain the sensitivity of the overflows to the upstream (Nordic Seas) circulation and forcing.

  6. Recommended Protocol for Round Robin Studies in Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Brown, Christopher U.; Slotwinski, John

    2016-01-01

    One way to improve confidence and encourage proliferation of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and parts is by generating more high quality data describing the performance of AM processes and parts. Many in the AM community see round robin studies as a way to generate large data sets while distributing the cost among the participants, thereby reducing the cost to individual users. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has conducted and participated in several of these AM round robin studies. While the results of these studies are interesting and informative, many of the lessons learned in conducting these studies concern the logistics and methods of the study and unique issues presented by AM. Existing standards for conducting interlaboratory studies of measurement methods, along with NIST’s experience, form the basis for recommended protocols for conducting AM round robin studies. The role of round robin studies in AM qualification, some of the limitations of round robin studies, and the potential benefit of less formal collaborative experiments where multiple factors, AM machine being only one, are varied simultaneously are also discussed. PMID:27274602

  7. Experimental and numerical study on fragmentation of steel projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Råkvaag, K. G.; Børvik, T.; Hopperstad, O. S.; Westermann, I.

    2012-08-01

    A previous experimental study on penetration and perforation of circular Weldox 460E target plates with varying thicknesses struck by blunt-nose projectiles revealed that fragmentation of the projectile occurred if the target thickness or impact velocity exceeded a certain value. Thus, numerical simulations that do not account for fragmentation during impact can underestimate the perforation resistance of protective structures. Previous numerical studies have focused primarily on the target plate behaviour. This study considers the behaviour of the projectile and its possible fragmentation during impact. Hardened steel projectiles were launched at varying velocities in a series of Taylor tests. The impact events were captured using a high-speed camera. Fractography of the fragmented projectiles showed that there are several fracture mechanisms present during the fragmentation process. Tensile tests of the projectile material revealed that the hardened material has considerable variations in yield stress and fracture stress and strain. In the finite element model, the stress-strain behaviour from tensile tests was used to model the projectile material with solid elements and the modified Johnson-Cook constitutive relation. Numerical simulations incorporating the variations in material properties are capable of reproducing the experimental fracture patterns, albeit the predicted fragmentation velocities are too low.

  8. Genotoxicity studies of the food additive ester gum.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Agarwal, K; Chakrabarti, J

    1992-07-01

    Ester gum (EG) is used in citrus oil-based beverage flavourings as a weighting or colouring agent. In the present study, concentrations of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight were administered orally to male Swiss albino mice, and sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberration were used as the cytogenetic endpoints to determine the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of the food additive. Although EG was weakly clastogenic and could induce a marginal increase in sister chromatid exchange frequencies, it was not a potential health hazard at the doses tested. PMID:1521837

  9. Numerical simulation studies of unsteady low Reynolds number separated flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatineni, Mahidhar

    Numerical simulations were used to study unsteady low-Reynolds-number separated flows. The studies were focused on the instability of the separation bubbles, the associated vortex shedding, and the response to imposed disturbances. The simulations were performed for separation bubbles in both low Mach number compressible and incompressible flow regimes. The compressible study consisted of unsteady simulations of flows over the Eppler 387 airfoil and the APEX airfoil. For a sufficiently high Reynolds number the simulations showed that the flow over the airfoils is inherently unsteady, with associated vortex shedding. A Fourier analysis of the unsteady flowfield revealed the presence of a dominant frequency in the flow. The dominant frequency from the numerical solution was found to agree with the most unstable frequency calculated using linear stability theory. The vortex shedding was shown to be caused by the growth of the disturbance waves corresponding to the dominant mode calculated from the linear stability analysis. In order to study the separation bubble and the vortex shedding in detail, a simpler two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) incompressible flow over a flat plate was considered. The onset of self excited vortex shedding, and the response of the separation bubble to 2-D and 3-D disturbances was studied in detail through numerical simulations. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations were solved using a fifth order finite difference scheme for spatial discretization and a fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme for time advancement. A new high-order nonuniform grid finite difference scheme was also developed for the simulations. The incompressible simulation results showed that it was possible to induce vortex shedding by imposing disturbances upstream of the separation bubble. For a sufficiently large freestream velocity gradient the separation bubble was globally unstable, leading to a growth in the size of the separation bubble and the

  10. Field Study and Numerical Simulation of Sub Slab Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnefous, Y.C.; Gadgil, A.J.; Fisk, W.J.; Prill, R.J.; Nematollahi, A.R.

    1992-05-01

    The effectiveness of the technique of subslab ventilation (SSV) for limiting radon entry into basements was investigated through complementary experimentation and numerical modeling. Subslab pressure fields resulting from SSV were measured in six well-characterized basements, each with a different combination of soil and aggregate permeability. The relationship between air velocity and pressure gradient was measured in the laboratory for the three types of aggregate installed beneath the basement slabs. A new numerical model of SSV was developed and verified with the field data. This model simulates non-Darcy flow in the aggregate. We demonstrate that non-Darcy effects significantly impact SSV performance. Field data and numerical simulations indicate that increasing the aggregate permeability within the investigated range of 2 x 10{sup -8} m{sup 2} to 3 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2} substantially improves the extension of the subslab pressure field due to SSV operation. Sealing of cracks in the slab and excavation of a small pit where the SSV pipe penetrates the slab also dramatically improve this pressure field extension. Our findings are consistent with the results of prior field studies; however, the studies reported here have improved our understanding of factors affecting SSV performance. The dependence of SSV performance on the relevant parameters are currently under investigation with the model.

  11. Numerical study of cluster formation in binary charged colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuzono, Tohru; Odai, Kana; Masuda, Tatsuhiro; Toyotama, Akiko; Yamanaka, Junpei

    2016-07-01

    Cluster formation of oppositely charged colloidal particles is studied numerically. A simple Brownian dynamics method with a screened-Coulomb (Yukawa) potential is employed for numerical simulations. An equilibrium phase which consists of clusters and unassociated particles is obtained. It is shown that the equilibrium association number of clusters and their shapes are determined by charge numbers and charge ratio of the binary particles. The phase diagram of cluster formation for various charge numbers and their ratios is obtained. A simple relation between the association number and the charge ratio is found. It is demonstrated that in the case of high charge ratio the cluster takes a multilayer structure which is highly symmetric. It is also pointed out that the cluster-particle interaction changes dynamically in the cluster formation process, which is involved in the selection of final cluster structure.

  12. Numerical and experimental study of rotating jet flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seungwon; Che, Zhizhao; Kahouadji, Lyes; Matar, Omar; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir

    2015-11-01

    Rotating jets are investigated through experimental measurements and numerical simulations. The experiments are performed on a rotating jet rig and the effects of a range of parameters controlling the liquid jet are investigated, e.g. jet flow rate, rotation speed, jet diameter, etc. Different regimes of the jet morphology are identified, and the dependence on several dimensionless numbers is studied, e.g. Reynolds number, Weber number, etc. The breakup process of droplets is visualized through high speed imaging. Full three-dimensional direct numerical simulations are performed using BLUE, a massively parallel two-phase flow code. The novel interface algorithms in BLUE track the gas-liquid interface through a wide dynamic range including ligament formation, break up and rupture. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  13. Numerical Relativity as a tool for studying the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, David

    2013-04-01

    Numerical simulations are becoming a more effective tool for conducting detailed investigations into the evolution of our universe. In this presentation, I show how the framework of numerical relativity can be used for studying cosmological models. We are working to develop a large-scale simulation of the dynamical processes in the early universe. These take into account interactions of dark matter, scalar perturbations, gravitational waves, magnetic fields and a turbulent plasma. The code described in this report is a GRMHD code based on the Cactus framework and is structured to utilize one of several different differencing methods chosen at run-time. It is being developed and tested on the Texas Learning and Computation Center's Xanadu cluster.

  14. Numerical study on tsunami hazard mitigation using a submerged breakwater.

    PubMed

    Ha, Taemin; Yoo, Jeseon; Han, Sejong; Cho, Yong-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Most coastal structures have been built in surf zones to protect coastal areas. In general, the transformation of waves in the surf zone is quite complicated and numerous hazards to coastal communities may be associated with such phenomena. Therefore, the behavior of waves in the surf zone should be carefully analyzed and predicted. Furthermore, an accurate analysis of deformed waves around coastal structures is directly related to the construction of economically sound and safe coastal structures because wave height plays an important role in determining the weight and shape of a levee body or armoring material. In this study, a numerical model using a large eddy simulation is employed to predict the runup heights of nonlinear waves that passed a submerged structure in the surf zone. Reduced runup heights are also predicted, and their characteristics in terms of wave reflection, transmission, and dissipation coefficients are investigated. PMID:25215334

  15. Numerical study of cluster formation in binary charged colloids.

    PubMed

    Okuzono, Tohru; Odai, Kana; Masuda, Tatsuhiro; Toyotama, Akiko; Yamanaka, Junpei

    2016-07-01

    Cluster formation of oppositely charged colloidal particles is studied numerically. A simple Brownian dynamics method with a screened-Coulomb (Yukawa) potential is employed for numerical simulations. An equilibrium phase which consists of clusters and unassociated particles is obtained. It is shown that the equilibrium association number of clusters and their shapes are determined by charge numbers and charge ratio of the binary particles. The phase diagram of cluster formation for various charge numbers and their ratios is obtained. A simple relation between the association number and the charge ratio is found. It is demonstrated that in the case of high charge ratio the cluster takes a multilayer structure which is highly symmetric. It is also pointed out that the cluster-particle interaction changes dynamically in the cluster formation process, which is involved in the selection of final cluster structure. PMID:27575181

  16. Numerical study of librationally driven Flow in planetary interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguerre, Raphael; Karatekin, Ozgur; Noir, Jérôme

    2010-05-01

    Forced librations are observed for many planetary bodies. In the case of interior fluid layers, i.e. liquid cores or subsurface oceans, the resulting librational response could be different compared to that of a solid body. The coupling between the fluid layer and mantle depends strongly on the interior properties of the planet. Here we study numerically the properties of a librationally driven flow by taking into account both longitudinal and latitudinal forcing. The numerical method is based on an finite element approximation in meridian planes and a Fourier decomposition of the variables in the azimuthal direction (SFEMANS, Spectral Finite Element for Maxwell and Navier Stokes ). This allows us to specify the direction of rotation vector arbitrarily. In the case of longitudinal forcing we compare our solutions to the experimental results of Noir et al. 2009 obtained for cores with spherical shape. For latitudinal librations, we consider also the influence of ellipticity.

  17. An analytical and numerical study of axisymmetric flow around spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chien-Cheng; Liou, Biing-Horng; Chern, Ruey-Ling

    1992-01-01

    Axisymmetric viscous flow around ellipsoids of circular section is examined in detail using a matched asymptotic analysis and a deterministic hybrid vortex method. The hybrid vortex method solves the viscous vorticity equation by combining a finite-difference method for diffusion and a vortex-in-cell method for convection and stretching. The numerical study was carried out for an ellipsoid of axis ratio 2:1 and the limiting case of a sphere at Reynolds numbers between 100 and 3000. Particular attention is given to evaluation of the drag coefficient using three different approaches. Numerical and asymptotic results at small times are found to be in good agreement. Separation angles, wake lengths, and stationary drag coefficients for the sphere are also in good agreement with previous results obtained by a finite-difference method and with the standard drag curve.

  18. Numerical Study on Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Using a Submerged Breakwater

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jeseon; Han, Sejong; Cho, Yong-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Most coastal structures have been built in surf zones to protect coastal areas. In general, the transformation of waves in the surf zone is quite complicated and numerous hazards to coastal communities may be associated with such phenomena. Therefore, the behavior of waves in the surf zone should be carefully analyzed and predicted. Furthermore, an accurate analysis of deformed waves around coastal structures is directly related to the construction of economically sound and safe coastal structures because wave height plays an important role in determining the weight and shape of a levee body or armoring material. In this study, a numerical model using a large eddy simulation is employed to predict the runup heights of nonlinear waves that passed a submerged structure in the surf zone. Reduced runup heights are also predicted, and their characteristics in terms of wave reflection, transmission, and dissipation coefficients are investigated. PMID:25215334

  19. Making intelligent systems team players: Additional case studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.; Rhoads, Ron W.

    1993-01-01

    Observations from a case study of intelligent systems are reported as part of a multi-year interdisciplinary effort to provide guidance and assistance for designers of intelligent systems and their user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted to investigate issues in designing intelligent fault management systems in aerospace applications for effective human-computer interaction. The results of the initial study are documented in two NASA technical memoranda: TM 104738 Making Intelligent Systems Team Players: Case Studies and Design Issues, Volumes 1 and 2; and TM 104751, Making Intelligent Systems Team Players: Overview for Designers. The objective of this additional study was to broaden the investigation of human-computer interaction design issues beyond the focus on monitoring and fault detection in the initial study. The results of this second study are documented which is intended as a supplement to the original design guidance documents. These results should be of interest to designers of intelligent systems for use in real-time operations, and to researchers in the areas of human-computer interaction and artificial intelligence.

  20. Feasibility study for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, N. R.

    1979-01-01

    The Ames Research Center of NASA is engaged in the development and investigation of numerical methods and computer technologies to be employed in conjunction with physical experiments, particularly utilizing wind tunnels in the furtherance of the field of aircraft and aerodynamic body design. Several studies, aimed primarily at the areas of development and production of extremely high-speed computing facilities, were conducted. The studies focused on evaluating the aspects of feasibility, reliability, costs, and practicability of designing, constructing, and bringing into effect production of a special-purpose system. An executive summary of the activities for this project is presented in this volume.

  1. Numerical studies of transverse curvature effects on transonic flow stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macaraeg, M. G.; Daudpota, Q. I.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical study of transverse curvature effects on compressible flow temporal stability for transonic to low supersonic Mach numbers is presented for axisymmetric modes. The mean flows studied include a similar boundary-layer profile and a nonsimilar axisymmetric boundary-layer solution. The effect of neglecting curvature in the mean flow produces only small quantitative changes in the disturbance growth rate. For transonic Mach numbers (1-1.4) and aerodynamically relevant Reynolds numbers (5000-10,000 based on displacement thickness), the maximum growth rate is found to increase with curvature - the maximum occurring at a nondimensional radius (based on displacement thickness) between 30 and 100.

  2. Numerical study of transient flow phenomena in shock tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokarcik-Polsky, Susan; Cambier, Jean-Luc

    1994-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to study some transient flow features that can occur during the startup process of a shoch tunnel. The investigation concentrated on two areas: (1) the flow near the endwall of the driven tube during shock reflection and (2) the transient flow in the nozzle. The driven tube calculations were inviscid and focused on the study of a vortex system that was seen to form at the driven tube's axis of symmetry. The nozzle flow calculations examined viscous and inviscid effects during nozzle startup. The CFD solutions of the nozzle flows were compared with experimental data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the numerical analysis.

  3. RAMSEYS DRAFT WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND ADDITION, VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys of the Ramseys Draft Wilderness Study Area and adjoining roadless area addition in George Washington National Forest in the western valley and ridge province, Augusta and Highland Counties, Virginia, were done. The surveys outlined three small areas containing anomalous amounts of copper, lead, and zinc related to stratabound red-bed copper mineralization, but these occurrences are not large and are not considered as having mineral-resource potential. The area contains abundant sandstone suitable for construction materials and shale suitable for making brick, tile, and other low-grade ceramic products, but these commodities occur in abundance outside the wilderness study area. Structural conditions are probably favorable for the accumulation of natural gas, but exploratory drilling has not been done sufficiently near the area to evaluate the gas potential.

  4. Numerical study of forced convective heat transfer around airships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Qiumin; Fang, Xiande

    2016-02-01

    Forced convective heat transfer is an important factor that affects the thermal characteristics of airships. In this paper, the steady state forced convective heat transfer around an ellipsoid is numerically investigated. The numerical simulation is carried out by commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software over the extended Re range from 20 to 108 and the aspect ratio from 2 to 4. Based on the regression and optimization with software, a new piecewise correlation of the Nusselt number at constant wall temperature for ellipsoid is proposed, which is suitable for applications to airships and other ellipse shaped bodies such as elliptical balloons. The thermal characteristics of a stratospheric airship in midsummer located in the north hemisphere are numerical studied. The helium temperature predicated using the new correlation is compared to those predicted by correlations applicable for spheres and flat plates. The results show that the helium temperature obtained using the new correlation at noon is about 5.4 K lower than that using the correlation of spheres and about 2.1 K higher than that of flat plates.

  5. Hydraulic fracturing: insights from field, lab, and numerical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, S. D.; Johnson, S.; Fu, P.; Settgast, R. R.

    2011-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has become an increasingly important technique in stimulating reservoirs for gas, oil, and geothermal energy production. In use commercially since the 1950's, the technique has been widely lauded, when combined with other techniques, for enabling the development of shale gas resources in the United States, providing a valuable and extensive source of domestic energy. However, the technique has also drawn a degree of notoriety from high-profile incidents involving contamination of drinking water associated with gas extraction operations in the Marcellus shale region. This work highlights some of the insights on the behavior of subsurface hydraulic fracturing operations that have been derived from field and laboratory observations as well as from numerical simulations. The sensitivity of fracture extent and orientation to parameters such as matrix material heterogeneity, presence and distribution of discontinuities, and stress orientation is of particular interest, and we discuss this in the context of knowledge derived from both observation and simulation. The limitations of these studies will also be addressed in terms of resolution, uncertainty, and assumptions as well as the balance of fidelity to cost, both in computation time (for numerical studies) and equipment / operation cost (for observational studies). We also identify a number of current knowledge gaps and propose alternatives for addressing those gaps. We especially focus on the role of numerical studies for elucidating key concepts and system sensitivities. The problem is inherently multi-scale in both space and time as well as highly coupled hydromechanically, and, in several applications, thermally as well. We will summarize the developments to date in analyzing these systems and present an approach for advancing the capabilities of our models in the short- to long-term and how these advances can help provide solutions to reduce risk and improve efficiency of hydraulic fracturing

  6. Numerical study of the Azov Sea level seiche oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, G. G.; Inzhebeikin, Yu. I.

    2009-08-01

    Seiche oscillations of the Azov Sea level are studied on the basis of the developed two-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model grounded on the shallow water theory and recent data on the morphometric characteristics of the Sea of Azov. Frequency and spatial characteristics of the first five modes corresponding to seiche oscillations of the Azov Sea level are computed. It is shown that the frequency and spatial characteristics of the first five modes obtained for the Sea of Azov level changes correspond to seiche oscillations. The calculated parameters are compared with the field observations, which show their realistic character.

  7. The shape of a growing crystal: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakin, V. I.

    1995-10-01

    A numerical model of the "crystal-solution" system based on experimental data on K-alum sulphate was proposed. The development of the crystal shape under different physical and chemical growth conditions was studied. A correlation between crystal shape and supersaturation during crystal growth was not observed. We introduced the idea of a "steady shape" of the crystal. The correlation between the shape and the growth conditions was measured. A parameter indicating the dynamic equilibrium of the growth system was introduced. The crystal growth process can be optimised using the proposed model.

  8. A numerical and experimental study of confined swirling jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikjooy, M.; Mongia, H. C.; Samuelsen, G. S.; Mcdonell, V. G.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical and experimental study of a confined strong swirling flow is presented. Detailed velocity measurements are made using a two-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) technique. Computations are performed using a differential second-moment (DSM) closure. The effect of inlet dissipation rate on calculated mean and turbulence fields is investigated. Various model constants are employed in the pressure-strain model to demonstrate their influences on the predicted results. Finally, comparison of the DSM calculations with the algebraic second-monent (ASM) closure results shows that the DSM is better suited for complex swirling flow analysis.

  9. Numerical study of Q-ball formation in gravity mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Fuminobu E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2010-06-01

    We study Q-ball formation in the expanding universe on 1D, 2D and 3D lattice simulations. We obtain detailed Q-ball charge distributions, and find that the distribution is peaked at Q{sup 3D}{sub peak} ≅ 1.9 × 10{sup −2}(|Φ{sub in}|/m){sup 2}, which is greater than the existing result by about 60%. Based on the numerical simulations, we discuss how the Q-ball formation proceeds. Also we make a comment on possible deviation of the charge distributions from what was conjectured in the past.

  10. Dispersion of helically corrugated waveguides: analytical, numerical, and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Burt, G; Samsonov, S V; Ronald, K; Denisov, G G; Young, A R; Bratman, V L; Phelps, A D R; Cross, A W; Konoplev, I V; He, W; Thomson, J; Whyte, C G

    2004-10-01

    Helically corrugated waveguides have recently been studied for use in various applications such as interaction regions in gyrotron traveling-wave tubes and gyrotron backward-wave oscillators and as a dispersive medium for passive microwave pulse compression. The paper presents a summary of various methods that can be used for analysis of the wave dispersion of such waveguides. The results obtained from an analytical approach, simulations with the three-dimensional numerical code MAGIC, and cold microwave measurements are analyzed and compared. PMID:15600525

  11. Numerical Study of Low Emission Gas Turbine Combustor Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song-Lin

    2002-01-01

    To further reduce pollutant emissions, such as CO, NO(x), UHCs, etc., in the next few decades, innovative concepts of gas turbine combustors must be developed. Several concepts, such as the LIPP (Lean- Premixed- Prevaporized), RQL (Rich-Burn Quick-Quench Lean-Burn), and LDI (Lean-Direct-Injection), have been under study for many years. To fully realize the potential of these concepts, several improvements, such as inlet geometry, air swirler, aerothermochemistry control, fuel preparation, fuel injection and injector design, etc., must be made, which can be studied through the experimental method and/or the numerical technique. The purpose of this proposal is to use the CFD technique to study, and hence, to guide the design process for low emission gas turbine combustors. A total of 13 technical papers have been (or will be) published.

  12. Analytical and Numerical Studies of Several Fluid Mechanical Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, D. L.

    2014-03-01

    In this thesis, three parts, each with several chapters, are respectively devoted to hydrostatic, viscous, and inertial fluids theories and applications. Involved topics include planetary, biological fluid systems, and high performance computing technology. In the hydrostatics part, the classical Maclaurin spheroids theory is generalized, for the first time, to a more realistic multi-layer model, establishing geometries of both the outer surface and the interfaces. For one of its astrophysical applications, the theory explicitly predicts physical shapes of surface and core-mantle-boundary for layered terrestrial planets, which enables the studies of some gravity problems, and the direct numerical simulations of dynamo flows in rotating planetary cores. As another application of the figure theory, the zonal flow in the deep atmosphere of Jupiter is investigated for a better understanding of the Jovian gravity field. An upper bound of gravity field distortions, especially in higher-order zonal gravitational coefficients, induced by deep zonal winds is estimated firstly. The oblate spheroidal shape of an undistorted Jupiter resulting from its fast solid body rotation is fully taken into account, which marks the most significant improvement from previous approximation based Jovian wind theories. High viscosity flows, for example Stokes flows, occur in a lot of processes involving low-speed motions in fluids. Microorganism swimming is such a typical case. A fully three dimensional analytic solution of incompressible Stokes equation is derived in the exterior domain of an arbitrarily translating and rotating prolate spheroid, which models a large family of microorganisms such as cocci bacteria. The solution is then applied to the magnetotactic bacteria swimming problem, and good consistency has been found between theoretical predictions and laboratory observations of the moving patterns of such bacteria under magnetic fields. In the analysis of dynamics of planetary

  13. Numerical Study of Pyrolysis of Biomass in Fluidized Beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Lathouwers, Danny

    2003-01-01

    A report presents a numerical-simulation study of pyrolysis of biomass in fluidized-bed reactors, performed by use of the mathematical model described in Model of Fluidized Bed Containing Reacting Solids and Gases (NPO-30163), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of various operating conditions on the efficiency of production of condensable tar from biomass. The numerical results indicate that for a fixed particle size, the fluidizing-gas temperature is the foremost parameter that affects the tar yield. For the range of fluidizing-gas temperatures investigated, and under the assumption that the pyrolysis rate exceeds the feed rate, the optimum steady-state tar collection was found to occur at 750 K. In cases in which the assumption was not valid, the optimum temperature for tar collection was found to be only slightly higher. Scaling up of the reactor was found to exert a small negative effect on tar collection at the optimal operating temperature. It is also found that slightly better scaling is obtained by use of shallower fluidized beds with greater fluidization velocities.

  14. Mechanical stability of propped hydraulic fractures: A numerical study

    SciTech Connect

    Asgian, M.I.; Cundall, P.A.; Brady, B.H.

    1995-03-01

    Proppant is sometimes produced along with hydrocarbons in hydraulically fractured petroleum wells. Sometimes 10% to 20% of the proppant is backproduced, which can lead to damaged equipment and downtime. Furthermore, proppant flowback can lead to a substantial loss of fracture conductivity. A numerical study was conducted to help understand what conditions are likely to lead to proppant flowback. In the simulations, the mechanical interaction of a larger number (several thousand) individual proppant grains was modeled with a distinct-element-type code. The numerical simulations show that hydraulic fractures propped with cohesionless, unbonded proppant fail under closure stress at a critical ratio of mean grain diameter to fracture width. This is consistent with published laboratory studies. The simulations identify the mechanism (arch failure) that triggers the mechanical instability and also show that the primary way that drawdowns (less than {approx} 75 psi/ft) affect proppant flowback is to transport loose proppant grains in front of the stable arch to the wellbore. Drawdowns > 75 psi/ft are sufficient to destabilize the arch and to cause progressive failure of the propped fractures.

  15. Numerical Study of Rotating Turbulence with External Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeung, P. K.; Zhou, Ye

    1998-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation at 256(exp 3) resolution have been carried out to study the response of isotropic turbulence to the concurrent effects of solid-body rotation and numerical forcing at the large scales. Because energy transfer to the smaller scales is weakened by rotation, energy input from forcing gradually builds up at the large scales, causing the overall kinetic energy to increase. At intermediate wavenumbers the energy spectrum undergoes a transition from a limited k(exp -5/3) inertial range to k(exp -2) scaling recently predicted in the literature. Although the Reynolds stress tensor remains approximately isotropic and three-components, evidence for anisotropy and quasi- two-dimensionality in length scales and spectra in different velocity components and directions is strong. The small scales are found to deviate from local isotropy, primarily as a result of anisotropic transfer to the high wavenumbers. To understand the spectral dynamics of this flow we study the detailed behavior of nonlinear triadic interactions in wavenumber space. Spectral transfer in the velocity component parallel to the axis of rotation is qualitatively similar to that in non-rotating turbulence; however the perpendicular component is characterized by a greatly suppressed energy cascade at high wavenumber and a local reverse transfer at the largest scales. The broader implications of this work are briefly addressed.

  16. Experimental and numerical study of open-air active cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Fifi, Salman Amsari

    The topic of my thesis is Experimental and Numerical Study of Open Air Active Cooling. The present research is intended to investigate experimentally and Numerically the effectiveness of cooling large open areas like stadiums, shopping malls, national gardens, amusement parks, zoos, transportation facilities and government facilities or even in buildings outdoor gardens and patios. Our cooling systems are simple cooling fans with different diameters and a mist system. This type of cooling systems has been chosen among the others to guarantee less energy consumption, which will make it the most favorable and applicable for cooling such places mentioned above. In the experiments, the main focus is to study the temperature domain as a function of different fan diameters aerodynamically similar in different heights till we come up with an empirical relationship that can determine the temperature domain for different fan diameters and for different heights of these fans. The experimental part has two stages. The first stage is devoted to investigate the maximum range of airspeed and profile for three different fan diameters and for different heights without mist, while the second stage is devoted to investigate the maximum range of temperature and profile for the three different diameter fans and for different heights with mist. The computational study is devoted to built an experimentally verified mathematical model to be used in the design and optimization of water mist cooling systems, and to compare the mathematical results to the experimental results and to get an insight of how to apply such evaporative mist cooling for different places for different conditions. In this study, numerical solution is presented based on experimental conditions, such dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, relative humidity, operating pressure and fan airspeed. In the computational study, all experimental conditions are kept the same for the three fans except the fan airspeed

  17. Experimental Study of Additives on Viscosity biodiesel at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajar, Berkah; Sukarno

    2015-09-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to find out the viscosity of additive and biodiesel fuel mixture in the temperature range from 283 K to 318 K. Solutions to reduce the viscosity of biodiesel is to add the biodiesel with some additive. The viscosity was measured using a Brookfield Rheometer DV-II. The additives were the generic additive (Diethyl Ether/DDE) and the commercial additive Viscoplex 10-330 CFI. Each biodiesel blends had a concentration of the mixture: 0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; and 1.25% vol. Temperature of biodiesel was controlled from 40°C to 0°C. The viscosity of biodiesel and additive mixture at a constant temperature can be approximated by a polynomial equation and at a constant concentration by exponential equation. The optimum mixture is at 0.75% for diethyl ether and 0.5% for viscoplex.

  18. Numerical Study of EUV Wave Phenomenon on 2009 February 13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Hui-Nan; Liao, Chi-Jian

    2014-01-01

    Combining the observations of STEREO satellites with the method of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulation, adopt- ing the magnetic field data of the Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) and the model of potential field source surface to build up the initial magnetic field in solar corona, and adding a time-varying disturbance of pressure to the active re- gion on the solar surface, the study on the event of coronal mass ejection (CME) and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave happened at 05:35 UT of 2009 February 13 has been performed. It is judged from the images of COR1/STEREO-A that the front speed of this CME is about 350 km·s-1, and the angular width is about 60∘. By analyzing the running difference images of EUVI/STEREO-B at 195 ˚A, it is found that the bright toroidal wavefront is spreading toward all directions around the active region, and behind the bright toroidal wavefront is a coronal dimming area. The positions of the wavefront in four directions are taken to perform linear fittings, it is known that the EUV wave speed is 247 km·s-1, and the EUV wave speed obtained from the numerical simulation is 245 km·s-1. After the IDL visualization program has been carried out for the calculated result, the structures of the bright loop and dimming area can be seen clearly. The numerical simulation is consistent with the satellite observation, which shows that the observed EUV wave may belong to the fast magnetosonic wave.

  19. A numerical study of fundamental shock noise mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, Kristine R.

    1995-05-01

    The results of this thesis demonstrate that direct numerical simulation can predict sound generation in unsteady aerodynamic flows containing shock waves. Shock waves can be significant sources of sound in high speed jet flows, on helicopter blades, and in supersonic combustion inlets. Direct computation of sound permits the prediction of noise levels in the preliminary design stage and can be used as a tool to focus experimental studies, thereby reducing cost and increasing the probability of a successfully quiet product in less time. This thesis reveals and investigates two mechanisms fundamental to sound generation by shocked flows: shock motion and shock deformation. Shock motion is modeled by the interaction of a sound wave with a shock. During the interaction, the shock wave begins to move and the sound pressure is amplified as the wave passes through the shock. The numerical approach presented in this thesis is validated by the comparison of results obtained in a quasi-one dimensional simulation with linear theory. Analysis of the perturbation energy demonstrated for the first time that acoustic energy is generated by the interaction. Shock deformation is investigated by the numerical simulation of a ring vortex interacting with a shock. This interaction models the passage of turbulent structures through the shock wave. The simulation demonstrates that both acoustic waves and contact surfaces are generated downstream during the interaction. Analysis demonstrates that the acoustic wave spreads cylindrically, that the sound intensity is highly directional, and that the sound pressure level increases significantly with increasing shock strength. The effect of shock strength on sound pressure level is consistent with experimental observations of shock noise, indicating that the interaction of a ring vortex with a shock wave correctly models a dominant mechanism of shock noise generation.

  20. A numerical study of three-dimensional surface tension driven convection with fre surface deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, Kwang-Chung

    1992-01-01

    The steady three-dimensional thermocapillary motion with a deformable free surface is studied numerically in both normal and zero gravity environments. Flow configurations consist of a square cavity heated from the side. In the analysis, the free surface is allowed to deform and the grid distribution is adapted to the surface deformation. The divergence-free condition is satisfied by using a dual time-stepping approach in the numerical scheme. Convective flux derivatives are evaluated using a third-order accurate upwind-biased flux-split differencing technique. The numerical solutions at the midplane of the square cavity are compared with the results from two-dimensional calculations. In addition, numerial results for cases under zero and normal gravity conditions are compared. Significantly different flow structures and surface deformation have been observed. The comparison of calculated results will be compared with experimental data in the updated version of this paper.

  1. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility feasibility study, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    There were three major issues examined in the feasibility study. First, the ability of the proposed system architecture to support the anticipated workload was evaluated. Second, the throughput of the computational engine (the flow model processor) was studied using real application programs. Third, the availability, reliability, and maintainability of the system were modeled. The evaluations were based on the baseline systems. The results show that the implementation of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility, in the form considered, would indeed be a feasible project with an acceptable level of risk. The technology required (both hardware and software) either already exists or, in the case of a few parts, is expected to be announced this year.

  2. Numerical study of rowing hydrofoil performance at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, M.-H.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, the hydrodynamic performance of a 2-D flat-plate hydrofoil in rowing motion is numerically studied by a Cartesian grid method with the cut-cell approach. Adaptive mesh refinement is used to save on the number of mesh cells without harming spatial resolution in critical regions. The rowing kinematics of the hydrofoil is the same for all simulations in this work. The design parameters studied are the reduced frequency of the rowing motion, the heave amplitude, and the time lags of the feathered-to-broadside rotation and the broadside-to-feathered rotation. Results show that larger thrust and efficiency can be attained if the feathered-to-broadside rotation is started right after the beginning of the power stroke and the broadside-to-feathered rotation is finished right before the end of the power stroke. Finally, both the thrust and the efficiency increase with Reynolds number.

  3. Impacts on foam stabilised composite structures: Experimental and numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivallant, S.; Ferrero, J. F.; Barrau, J. J.

    2003-09-01

    A dropweight tester is used to make low velocity tests on specific sandwich type structures. Sandwich are made of glass-epoxy skin and polyurethane foam core. The skins can be straight or little curved, and impact direction is the global skin direction. The aim of these tests is to study the initiation of rupture in such structures: local buckling of skin and foam core rupture. Experimental results are given. They show the evolution of buckling critical stress in the skin when impact velocity increases. The rupture mode in curved skin specimen is also studied: rupture is no more provoked by buckling. A numerical analysis is proposed to model the behaviour of the structure and the rupture initiation. Finally, a method is developed, in order to predict the propagation of skin debonding during impact: an element layer under the skin is damaged with a specific law to simulate debonding.

  4. Additive Manufacturing in Production: A Study Case Applying Technical Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ituarte, Iñigo Flores; Coatanea, Eric; Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Partanen, Jouni

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is expanding the manufacturing capabilities. However, quality of AM produced parts is dependent on a number of machine, geometry and process parameters. The variability of these parameters affects the manufacturing drastically and therefore standardized processes and harmonized methodologies need to be developed to characterize the technology for end use applications and enable the technology for manufacturing. This research proposes a composite methodology integrating Taguchi Design of Experiments, multi-objective optimization and statistical process control, to optimize the manufacturing process and fulfil multiple requirements imposed to an arbitrary geometry. The proposed methodology aims to characterize AM technology depending upon manufacturing process variables as well as to perform a comparative assessment of three AM technologies (Selective Laser Sintering, Laser Stereolithography and Polyjet). Results indicate that only one machine, laser-based Stereolithography, was feasible to fulfil simultaneously macro and micro level geometrical requirements but mechanical properties were not at required level. Future research will study a single AM system at the time to characterize AM machine technical capabilities and stimulate pre-normative initiatives of the technology for end use applications.

  5. Numerical study of a high-speed miniature centrifugal compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyi

    A miniature centrifugal compressor is a key component of reverse Brayton cycle cryogenic cooling system. The system is commonly used to generate a low cryogenic temperature environment for electronics to increase their efficiency, or generate, store and transport cryogenic liquids, such as liquid hydrogen and oxygen, where space limit is also an issue. Because of space limitation, the compressor is composed of a radial IGV, a radial impeller and an axial-direction diffuser (which reduces the radial size because of smaller diameter). As a result of reduction in size, rotating speed of the impeller is as high as 313,000 rpm, and Helium is used as the working fluid, in order to obtain the required static pressure ratio/rise. Two main characteristics of the compressor---miniature and high-speed, make it distinct from conventional compressors. Higher compressor efficiency is required to obtain a higher COP (coefficient of performance) system. Even though miniature centrifugal compressors start to draw researchers' attention in recent years, understanding of the performance and loss mechanism is still lacking. Since current experimental techniques are not advanced enough to capture details of flow at miniature scale, numerical methods dominate miniature turbomachinery study. This work numerically studied a high speed miniature centrifugal compressor with commercial CFD code. The overall performance of the compressor was predicted with consideration of interaction between blade rows by using sliding mesh model. The law of similarity of turbomachinery was validated for small scale machines. It was found that the specific ratio effect needs to be considered when similarity law is applied. But Reynolds number effect can be neglected. The loss mechanism of each component was analyzed. Loss due to turning bend was significant in each component. Tip leakage loss of small scale turbomachines has more impact on the impeller performance than that of large scale ones. Because the

  6. Numerical study of delta wing leading edge blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, David; Tavella, Domingo; Roberts, Leonard

    1988-01-01

    Spanwise and tangential leading edge blowing as a means of controlling the position and strength of the leading edge vortices are studied by numerical solution of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The leading edge jet is simulated by defining a permeable boundary, corresponding to the jet slot, where suitable boundary conditions are implemented. Numerical results are shown to compare favorably with experimental measurements. It is found that the use of spanwise leading edge blowing at moderate angle of attack magnifies the size and strength of the leading edge vortices, and moves the vortex cores outboard and upward. The increase in lift primarily comes from the greater nonlinear vortex lift. However, spanwise blowing causes earlier vortex breakdown, thus decreasing the stall angle. The effects of tangential blowing at low to moderate angles of attack tend to reduce the pressure peaks associated with leading edge vortices and to increase the suction peak around the leading edge, so that the integrated value of the surface pressure remains about the same. Tangential leading edge blowing in post-stall conditions is shown to re-establish vortical flow and delay vortex bursting, thus increasing C sub L sub max and stall angle.

  7. Numerical Study of Unsteady Flow in Centrifugal Cold Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Peng; Wu, Jihao; Li, Qing

    In helium refrigeration system, high-speed centrifugal cold compressor is utilized to pumped gaseous helium from saturated liquid helium tank at low temperature and low pressure for producing superfluid helium or sub-cooled helium. Stall and surge are common unsteady flow phenomena in centrifugal cold compressors which severely limit operation range and impact efficiency reliability. In order to obtain the installed range of cold compressor, unsteady flow in the case of low mass flow or high pressure ratio is investigated by the CFD. From the results of the numerical analysis, it can be deduced that the pressure ratio increases with the decrease in reduced mass flow. With the decrease of the reduced mass flow, backflow and vortex are intensified near the shroud of impeller. The unsteady flow will not only increase the flow loss, but also damage the compressor. It provided a numerical foundation of analyzing the effect of unsteady flow field and reducing the flow loss, and it is helpful for the further study and able to instruct the designing.

  8. Numerical Study on Mixed-mode Fracture in Reinforced Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Rena C.; Saucedo, Luis; Ruiz, Gonzalo

    2010-05-01

    The object of this work is to model the propagation of fracture in mixed-mode in lightly reinforced concrete beams. When a notched beam does not have enough shear reinforcement, fracture can initiate and propagate unstably and lead to failure through diagonal tension. In order to study this phenomenon numerically, a model capable of dealing with both static and dynamic crack propagation as well as the natural transition of those two regimes is necessary. We adopt a cohesive model for concrete fracture and an interface model for the deterioration between concrete and steel re-bar, both combined with an insertion algorithm. The static process is solved by dynamic relaxation (DR) method together with a modified technique [1] to enhance convergence rate. The same DR method is used to detect a dynamic process and switch to a dynamic calculation. The numerically obtained load-displacement curves, load-CMOD curves and crack patterns fit reasonably well with their experimental counterparts, having in mind that we fed the calculations only with parameters measured experimentally.

  9. Numerical study of Taylor bubbles with adaptive unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhihua; Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Percival, James; Pain, Chris; Matar, Omar; Hasan, Abbas; Azzopardi, Barry

    2014-11-01

    The Taylor bubble is a single long bubble which nearly fills the entire cross section of a liquid-filled circular tube. This type of bubble flow regime often occurs in gas-liquid slug flows in many industrial applications, including oil-and-gas production, chemical and nuclear reactors, and heat exchangers. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of Taylor bubbles rising in a vertical pipe filled with oils of extremely high viscosity (mimicking the ``heavy oils'' found in the oil-and-gas industry). A modelling and simulation framework is presented here which can modify and adapt anisotropic unstructured meshes to better represent the underlying physics of bubble rise and reduce the computational effort without sacrificing accuracy. The numerical framework consists of a mixed control-volume and finite-element formulation, a ``volume of fluid''-type method for the interface capturing based on a compressive control volume advection method, and a force-balanced algorithm for the surface tension implementation. Numerical examples of some benchmark tests and the dynamics of Taylor bubbles are presented to show the capability of this method. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  10. Experimental and numerical FSI study of compliant hydrofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augier, B.; Yan, J.; Korobenko, A.; Czarnowski, J.; Ketterman, G.; Bazilevs, Y.

    2015-06-01

    A propulsion system based on tandem hydrofoils is studied experimentally and numerically. An experimental measurement system is developed to extract hydrodynamic loads on the foils and capture their twisting deformation during operation. The measured data allowed us to assess the efficiency of the propulsion system as a function of travel speed and stroke frequency. The numerical simulation of the propulsion system is also presented and involves 3D, full-scale fluid-structure interaction (FSI) computation of a single (forward) foil. The foil is modeled as a combination of the isogeometric rotation-free Kirchhoff-Love shell and bending-stabilized cable, while the hydrodynamics makes use of the finite-element-based arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian variational multiscale formulation. The large added mass is handled through a quasi-direct FSI coupling technique. The measurement data collected is used in the validation of the FSI simulation, and excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured hydrodynamic loads and foil twisting motion.

  11. Numerical Study of a Four-Roll Coating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Takeaki

    The characteristics of a four-roll coating system were numerically investigated and compared with experimental data to validate the theoretical models used in this study. In the theoretical models, a film splitting model using a power-law-type equation, a roll-gap model based on elastohydrodynamics, and a flow model from a rotating-cylinder system were applied. The parametric computations for each operational condition revealed the steady and dynamic behaviors of a coating film and liquid films on the coating rolls. The results of the frequency response to the speed disturbances of the coating rolls indicated that the sensitivity of the lowest coating roll to the disturbance was half that of the others; this implies that the requirement for the accuracy of a driving system of the coating roll is not as severe as compared with others. The experimental data and the numerical results at steady state agreed well. Therefore, the theoretical models used in this research were found to be appropriate.

  12. Numerical study of sink-flow boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalart, Philippe R.

    1986-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations of sink-flow boundary layers, with acceleration parameters K between 1.5 x 10 to the -6th and 3.0 x 10 to the -6th, are presented. The three-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically, using a spectral method, with about one million degrees of freedom. The flow is assumed to be statistically steady, and self-similar. A multiple-scale approximation and periodic conditions are applied to the fluctuations. The turbulence is studied using instantaneous and statistical results. Good agreement with the experiments of Jones and Launder (1972) is observed. The two effects of the favorable pressure gradient are to extend the logarithmic layer, and to alter the energy balance of the turbulence near the edge of the boundary layer. At low Reynolds number the logarithmic layer is shortened and slightly displaced, but wall-layer streaks are present even at the lowest values of R(theta) for which turbulence can be sustained. Large quiescent patches appear in the flow. Relaminarization occurs at K = 3.0 x 10 to the -6th, corresponding to a Reynolds number R(theta) of about 330.

  13. MAGNETIZATION DEGREE OF GAMMA-RAY BURST FIREBALLS: NUMERICAL STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Richard; Kobayashi, Shiho

    2013-08-01

    The relative strength between forward and reverse shock emission in early gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow reflects that of magnetic energy densities in the two shock regions. We numerically show that with the current standard treatment, the fireball magnetization is underestimated by up to two orders of magnitude. This discrepancy is especially large in the sub-relativistic reverse shock regime (i.e., the thin shell and intermediate regime), where most optical flashes were detected. We provide new analytic estimates of the reverse shock emission based on a better shock approximation, which well describe numerical results in the intermediate regime. We show that the reverse shock temperature at the onset of afterglow is constant, ( {Gamma}-bar{sub d}-1){approx}8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}, when the dimensionless parameter {xi}{sub 0} is more than several. Our approach is applied to case studies of GRB 990123 and 090102, and we find that magnetic fields in the fireballs are even stronger than previously believed. However, these events are still likely to be due to a baryonic jet with {sigma} {approx} 10{sup -3} for GRB 990123 and {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} to 3 for GRB 090102.

  14. Experimental and numerical study of tornado-like vortex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotelnikova, M. S.; Verbitskaya, Z. V.; Nikulin, V. V.

    2012-04-01

    Swirling flows of fluids in vortex chambers have been extensively studied because they are widely used in various technical devices [A. K. Gupta, D. G. Lilley, and N. Syred, Swirl Flows (Abacus Press, 1984)]. However, most of these investigations have been devoted to the swirling flows in steady-state regimes, while basic questions concerning the formation of tornado-like vortices remain unanswered. The determination of the laws of vortex formation is also of considerable practical significance, since swirling flows can be used, for example, for the rapid removal of atmospheric contaminations. The laws of tornado-like vortex formation in a closed chamber have been experimentally and numerically studied as dependent on the air volume flow rate and swirl intensity. A physical interpretation of the obtained empirical relationships is proposed. It is established that a flow regime can exist in which the impurity mass transfer along the vortex core is accompanied by mass exchange between the core and surrounding atmosphere. This exchange has the form of spiral formations ejected regularly out of the vortex core. This process takes place under stationary conditions at the chamber input and output, which implies an autooscillatory character of the flow in the system studied. Also it is shown that the time of tornado-like vortex formation weakly depends on the airflow swirl parameter and approximately inversely proportional to the airflow rate. In the case when the vertical and horizontal chamber dimensions are close, this time is approximately equal to the characteristic time of air renewal in the chamber. The established laws and numerical models can be used for evaluating the time of formation of the vortex flows of this type and for the development of theoretical models of the formation of tornado-like vortices.

  15. Numerical Study of Stratified Charge Combustion in Wave Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalim, M. Razi

    1997-01-01

    A wave rotor may be used as a pressure-gain combustor effecting non-steady flow, and intermittent, confined combustion to enhance gas turbine engine performance. It will be more compact and probably lighter than an equivalent pressure-exchange wave rotor, yet will have similar thermodynamic and mechanical characteristics. Because the allowable turbine blade temperature limits overall fuel/air ratio to sub-flammable values, premixed stratification techniques are necessary to burn hydrocarbon fuels in small engines with compressor discharge temperature well below autoignition conditions. One-dimensional, unsteady numerical simulations of stratified-charge combustion are performed using an eddy-diffusivity turbulence model and a simple reaction model incorporating a flammability limit temperature. For good combustion efficiency, a stratification strategy is developed which concentrates fuel at the leading and trailing edges of the inlet port. Rotor and exhaust temperature profiles and performance predictions are presented at three representative operating conditions of the engine: full design load, 40% load, and idle. The results indicate that peak local gas temperatures will result in excessive temperatures within the rotor housing unless additional cooling methods are used. The rotor itself will have acceptable temperatures, but the pattern factor presented to the turbine may be of concern, depending on exhaust duct design and duct-rotor interaction.

  16. Geohydrology of the Central Oahu, Hawaii, Ground-Water Flow System and Numerical Simulation of the Effects of Additional Pumping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    1998-01-01

    -calculated freshwater-saltwater interface location for the future recharge and pumping conditions. Model results indicate that an additional 10 million gallons per day (beyond the 1995-allocated rates) of freshwater can potentially be developed from northern Oahu. Various distributions of pumping can be used to obtain the additional 10 million gallons per day of water. The quality of the water pumped will be dependent on site-specific factors and cannot be predicted on the basis of model results. If the additional 10 million gallons per day pumpage is restricted to the Kawailoa and Waialua areas, model results indicate that a regional drawdown (relative to the water-level distribution associated with the 1995-allocated pumping rates) of less than 0.6 foot can be maintained in these two areas. The additional pumping, however, would cause salinity increases in water pumped by existing deep wells. In addition, increases in salinity may occur at other wells in areas where the model indicates no significant problem with upconing.

  17. Numerical Study of Classical Spins on Soccer Ball Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yasunobu

    2008-07-01

    We study a classical Ising spin system on a soccer ball lattice. The magnetic easy axis of the system is adopted parallel to the radial direction. We apply a magnetic field to this system in several directions. Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor interaction cases are considered. In the case of the antiferromagnetic interaction, a frustration effect is observed because of a pentagonal interaction loop. We carry out a numerical calculation for the system to obtain the ground states for various magnetic fields. A Monte Carlo simulation is also performed to compute thermodynamic quantities at finite temperatures. The obtained magnetization process has many magnetic phases reflecting the frustration effect. The thermodynamic quantities are characteristic because the Zeeman energy for each spin is different due to the geometrical property of the soccer ball.

  18. Study cosmic ray modulation near the heliopause: A numerical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X.; Zhang, M.; Potgieter, M. S.; Feng, X.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2016-03-01

    By incorporating the MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) global heliospheric data into the Parker's cosmic-rays (CRs) transport equation, we constructed a hybrid galactic cosmic ray transport model to study the galactic cosmic-rays (GCR) behaviour near the heliopause(HP). Based on this hybrid model, we found that: (1)By increasing the ratio of the parallel diffusion coefficient to the perpendicular diffusion coefficient in the outer heliosheath (the region near HP and beyond), the simulated radial flux gradient near the HP increases as well. As this ratio multiplying factor reaches 1010, the flux experiences a sudden jump near the HP, similar to what Voyager 1 had observed in 2012. (2)After increasing the ratio of the diffusion coefficients beyond the HP, more pseudo- particles in our numerical approach which have been traced from the upwind nose region exit in the downwind tail region. It is thus possible that they diffuse more directly from the tail region to the nose region.

  19. Theoretical and numerical studies of nonlinear shell equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, M.; Kaiser, D.; Schröder, M.

    1999-07-01

    We study the solution field M of a parameter dependent nonlinear two-point boundary value problem presented by Troger and Steindl [H. Troger, A. Steindl, Nonlinear Stability and Bifurcation Theory, Springer, Wien, New York, 1991]. This problem models the buckling of a thin-walled spherical shell under a uniform external static pressure. The boundary value problem is formulated as an abstract operator equation T( x, λ)=0 in appropriate Banach spaces. By exploiting the equivariance of T, we obtain detailed informations about the structure of M. These theoretical results are used to compute efficiently interesting parts of M with numerical standard techniques. Bifurcation diagrams, a stability diagram and pictures of deformed shells are presented.

  20. Numerical study of metal oxide heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Shao, G.; Luo, J. K.

    2011-08-01

    Metal oxide (MO) semiconductors have great potential for photovoltaic (PV) application owing to some optimal bandgaps and a variety of possible combinations of the materials. The progress is limited due to lack of high-quality materials, reliable process and theoretical study and models which can guide the development. This paper reports on the numerical modelling of MO semiconductor PV cells. The effects of the bandgap structure, material, doping concentration and layer thickness on the proposed oxide solar cells have been investigated. It was found that, in an ideal case of no defects and no interface states, wide-gap MO, CuO and Cu2O can form a heterostructure n+/p/p+ cell with efficiency up to 28.6%, demonstrating great potential for development.

  1. Infrared spectroscopy of molecules with nanorod arrays: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Tardieu, Clément; Vincent, Grégory; Haïdar, Riad; Collin, Stéphane

    2016-04-15

    Nanorod arrays with diameters much smaller than the wavelength exhibit sharp resonances with strong electric-field enhancement and angular dependence. They are investigated for enhanced infrared spectroscopy of molecular bonds. The molecule 3-cyanopropyldimethylchlorosilane (CS) is taken as a reference, and its complex permittivity is determined experimentally in the 3-5 μm wavelength range. When grafted on silicon nitride nanorods, we show numerically that its weak absorption bands due to chemical bond vibrations can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude compared with unstructured thin film. We propose a figure of merit (FoM) to assess the performance of this spectroscopic scheme, and we study the impact of the nanorod cross section on the FoM. PMID:27082334

  2. Numerical study of metal oxide Schottky type solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Shao, G.; Luo, J. K.

    2012-07-01

    Metal oxide (MO) semiconductors hold the promise for the development of high efficiency solar cells with low cost. Currently heterostructure type MO solar cells have been theoretically and experimentally studied, demonstrated their potential for applications. This paper highlights a numerical investigation on Schottky type MO solar cells using CuO as the absorption layer. It is shown that the doping concentration, absorption layer thickness, barrier height and back surface field have significant effects on the performance of the devices. Under the optimal structure and doping, the Schottky barrier solar cells, if can be fabricated with suitable techniques, can have a conversion efficiency up to 18.5%, comparable to MO heterojunction solar cells, but at a much simpler structure and lower cost. Some guidelines about the materials selection and structure design for MO Schottky barrier solar cells are summarized.

  3. Numerical study of carbon nanotubes under circularly polarized irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Nakajima, Yudai; Wakabayashi, Katsunori

    2016-08-01

    We numerically study the energy band structures and the corresponding wavefunctions of carbon nanotubes under circularly polarized irradiation perpendicular to the tube axis on the basis of the Floquet–Bloch theory. We focus on two typical irradiation frequencies, ħΩ ≪ γ and ħΩ ∼ γ, where γ ≈ 3 eV is the hopping energy of graphene. Circularly polarized irradiation is found to open gaps for metallic zigzag nanotubes near the Fermi energy and shift the degenerate points of armchair nanotubes in the energy spectra away from the K and K‧ points. Furthermore, high-frequency irradiation localizes the wavefunctions on either side of the nanotubes; in particular, the localized wavefunctions have different valley indices on each side of the nanotubes.

  4. Dynamics of a cylinder plunging into liquid: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hang

    2012-11-01

    The impact of a cylinder on a liquid surface and subsequent events are investigated numerically. The flows are resolved by solving the Navier-Stokes equations and the Cahn-Hilliard equation. Moving contact lines are modeled by a diffuse interface model (Seppecher 1996; Jaqcmin 2000), and contact-angle hysteresis is included (Ding&Spelt 2008). The method is validated by comparison to the experiments by Aristoff and Bush (2009). Our studies focus on the dynamics of the waves induced by the impact and the cavity collapse behind the cylinder. A variety of parameters affect the flow behaviors such as wettability, impact speed, viscosity etc. Their effects on the transition of the flow phenomena are investigated through parametric simulations over relevant ranges of Weber and Reynolds numbers and contact angles. This work is supposed by the 100 Talents Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11172294).

  5. Numerical study of a disordered model for DNA denaturation transition.

    PubMed

    Coluzzi, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    We numerically study a disordered version of the model for DNA denaturation transition consisting of two interacting self-avoiding walks in three dimensions, which undergoes a first order transition in the homogeneous case. The two possible values epsilonAT and epsilonGC of the interactions between base pairs are taken as quenched random variables distributed with equal probability along the chain. We measure quantities averaged over disorder such as the energy density, the specific heat, and the probability distribution of the loop lengths. When applying the scaling laws used in the homogeneous case we find that the transition seems to be smoother in the presence of disorder, in agreement with general theoretical arguments, although we cannot rule out the possibility of a first order transition. PMID:16486189

  6. Numerical Study on Microwave Scattering by Various Plasma Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guibin; Zhang, Lin; He, Feng; Ouyang, Jiting

    2016-08-01

    The scattering features of microwave (MW) by planar plasma layer, plasma column and plasma-column array under different parameters have been numerically studied by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The effects of the plasma frequency and electron collision rate on MW's reflectance, transmittance and absorptance are examined. The results show that for the planar plasma layer, the electron collision plays an important role in MW absorption and the reduction of wave reflection. In the plasma column condition, strong scattering occurs in certain directions. The scattering pattern depends on the plasma frequency, electron collision rate and column radius. A collisional, non-planar shaped plasma object like the plasma-column array can reduce significantly the wave reflection comparing with the planar plasma layer.

  7. Infrasonic interferometry of stratospherically refracted microbaroms--a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Julius T; El Allouche, Nihed; Simons, Dick G; Ruigrok, Elmer N; Wapenaar, Kees; Evers, Läslo G

    2013-10-01

    The atmospheric wind and temperature can be estimated through the traveltimes of infrasound between pairs of receivers. The traveltimes can be obtained by infrasonic interferometry. In this study, the theory of infrasonic interferometry is verified and applied to modeled stratospherically refracted waves. Synthetic barograms are generated using a raytracing model and taking into account atmospheric attenuation, geometrical spreading, and phase shifts due to caustics. Two types of source wavelets are implemented for the experiments: blast waves and microbaroms. In both numerical experiments, the traveltimes between the receivers are accurately retrieved by applying interferometry to the synthetic barograms. It is shown that microbaroms can be used in practice to obtain the traveltimes of infrasound through the stratosphere, which forms the basis for retrieving the wind and temperature profiles. PMID:24116404

  8. A 3D numerical study of antimicrobial persistence in heterogeneous multi-species biofilms.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus; Wang, Zhejun; Wang, Qi

    2016-03-01

    We develop a 3D hydrodynamic model to investigate the mechanism of antimicrobial persistence in a multi-species oral biofilm and its recovery after being treated by bisbiguanide chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX). In addition to the hydrodynamic transport in the spatially heterogeneous biofilm, the model also includes mechanisms of solvent-biomass interaction, bacterial phenotype conversion, and bacteria-drug interaction. A numerical solver for the model is developed using a second order numerical scheme in 3D space and time and implemented on GPUs for high-performance computing. The model is calibrated against a set of experimental data obtained using confocal laser scan microscopy (CLSM) on multi-species oral biofilms, where a quantitative agreement is reached. Our numerical results reveal that quorum sensing molecules and growth factors in this model are instrumental in biofilm formation and recovery after the antimicrobial treatment. In particular, we show that (i) young biofilms are more susceptible to the antimicrobial treatment than the mature ones, (ii) this phenomenon is strongly correlated with volume fractions of the persister and EPS in the biofilm being treated. This suggests that antimicrobial treatment should be best administered to biofilms earlier before they mature to produce a thick protective EPS layer. In addition, the numerical study also indicates that an antimicrobial effect can be achieved should a proper mechanism be devised to minimize the conversion of susceptible bacteria to persisters during and even after the treatment. PMID:26739374

  9. Addition of molecular methods to mutation studies with Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.R. )

    1989-01-01

    For 80 years, Drosophila melanogaster has been used as a major tool in analyzing Mendelian genetics. By using chromosome inversions that suppress crossing over, geneticists have developed a large number of stocks for mutation analysis. These stocks permit numerous tests for specific locus mutations, lethals at multiple loci on any chromosome, chromosome exchanges, insertions, and deletions. The entire genome can be manipulated for a degree of genetic control not found in other germ-line systems. Recombinant DNA techniques now permit analysis of mutations to the nucleotide level. By combining classical genetic analysis with recombinant DNA techniques, it is possible to analyze mutations that range from chromosome aberrations and multilocus deficiencies to single nucleotide transitions.

  10. Health studies indicate MTBE is safe gasoline additive

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.V.

    1993-09-01

    Implementation of the oxygenated fuels program by EPA in 39 metropolitan areas, including Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska, in the winter of 1992, encountered some unexpected difficulties. Complaints of headaches, dizziness, nausea, and irritated eyes started in Fairbanks, jumped to Anchorage, and popped up in various locations in the lower 48 states. The suspected culprit behind these complaints was the main additive for oxygenation of gasoline is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). A test program, hastily organized in response to these complaints, has indicated that MTBE is a safe gasoline additive. However, official certification of the safety of MTBE is still awaited.

  11. Magnetoroton modes of the ultraquantum crystal: Numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, Pascal; Chaves, C. M.

    1998-08-01

    The field-induced spin-density-wave phases observed in quasi-one-dimensional conductors of the Bechgaard salts family under magnetic field exhibit both spin-density-wave order and a quantized Hall effect, which may exhibit sign reversals. The original nature of the condensed phases is evidenced by the collective mode spectrum. Besides the Goldstone modes, a quasiperiodic structure of magnetoroton modes, predicted to exist for a monotonic sequence of Hall quantum numbers, is confirmed, and a second mode is shown to exist within the single-particle gap. We present numerical estimates of the magnetoroton mode energies in a generic case of the monotonic sequence. The mass anisotropy of the collective mode is calculated. We show how differently the magnetoroton spectrum evolves with magnetic field at low and high fields. The collective mode spectrum should have specific features, in the sign-reversed ``Ribault Phase,'' as compared to modes of the majority sign phases. We investigate numerically the collective mode in the Ribault phase, and find in this latter case a previously unnoticed field-independent low-energy magnetoroton mode at an intermediate wave vector. The occurrence of the Ribault phase depends sensitively on the electron-electron interactions. A byproduct of our study deals with the metal-ultraquantum-crystal instability line: we find, in a monotonic sequence, a reentrant behavior of the metallic phase, at a given temperature, as a function of field, which has been observed experimentally. This behavior is also sensitive to the strength of electron-electron interactions.

  12. A numerical study of droplet trapping in microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, Mathias; Brun, P.-T.; Gallaire, François

    2014-03-01

    Microfluidic channels are powerful means of control of minute volumes such as droplets. These droplets are usually conveyed at will in an externally imposed flow which follows the geometry of the micro-channel. It has recently been pointed out by Dangla et al. ["Trapping microfluidic drops in wells of surface energy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(12), 124501 (2011)] that the motion of transported droplets may also be stopped in the flow, when they are anchored to grooves which are etched in the channels top wall. This feature of the channel geometry explores a direction that is usually uniform in microfluidics. Herein, this anchoring effect exploiting the three spatial directions is studied combining a depth averaged fluid description and a geometrical model that accounts for the shape of the droplet in the anchor. First, the presented method is shown to enable the capture and release droplets in numerical simulations. Second, this tool is used in a numerical investigation of the physical mechanisms at play in the capture of the droplet: a localized reduced Laplace pressure jump is found on its interface when the droplet penetrates the groove. This modified boundary condition helps the droplet cope with the linear pressure drop in the surrounding fluid. Held on the anchor the droplet deforms and stretches in the flow. The combination of these ingredients leads to recover the scaling law for the critical capillary number at which the droplets exit the anchors C a^{star} ∝ h2/R2 where h is the channel height and R the droplet undeformed radius.

  13. A numerical study of the upwelling circulation off Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesias, Jorge M.

    The summer upwelling circulation off Central Chile between 34°--40°S is studied using the Princeton Ocean Circulation numerical model, implemented with realistic atmospheric forcings and bottom topography. The simulations are made for summers of years 1992, 1993, and 1994. Sea surface temperature (SST) from the model results and satellite sensors (derived from NASA/NOAA Pathfinder Project datasets) are compared to determine regions where the numerical simulations more realistically represent the oceanic fields. The summer local winds are predominantly equatorward and fluctuate affected by the seasonal displacement of the Subtropical Anticyclone of the Southeast Pacific. The model ocean circulation shows the presence of a surface coastal equatorward jet flowing over a poleward undercurrent that spreads over the continental shelf and slope break. These currents resemble those historically observed off Central Chile, following a classical Ekman-geostrophy dynamics. The oceanic variability is strongly related to the variability of the local wind forcing, bottom relief, and coastline geometry. Strong wind fluctuations induce the formation of cyclonic/anticyclonic mesoscale eddies, favored by the separation of the equatorward jet from the coast, downstream of a prominent mid-domain cape. The flow variability between regions depends on the spatial variability of the wind forcing. The wind relaxation is larger in the southern regions, where the upwelling tends to disappear. In the northern areas, the separation of the jet and the formation of eddies induce a strong cross-shelf transport activity. Comparisons among SST fields for all years indicate that the model and satellite fields vary in similar patterns, especially in the northern coastal areas, and suggest that oceanic fields are largely affected by changes in local winds during El Nino events. During El Nino periods, the upwelling activity weakens due to a rapid decrease of the equatorward winds, and the passage of

  14. Observational and numerical studies of extreme frontal scale contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven E.

    1995-01-01

    The general objective of this effort is to increase understanding of how frontal scale contraction processes may create and sustain intense mesoscale precipitation along intensifying cold fronts. The five-part project (an expansion of the originally proposed two-part project) employed conventional meteorological data, special mesoscale data, remote sensing measurements, and various numerical models. First an idealized hydrostatic modeling study of the scale contraction effects of differential cloud cover on low-level frontal structure and dynamics was completed and published in a peer-reviewed journal. The second objective was to complete and publish the results from a three dimensional numerical model simulation of a cold front in which differential sensible heating related to cloud coverage patterns was apparently crucial in the formation of a severe frontal squall line. The third objective was to use a nonhydrostatic model to examine the nonlinear interactions between the transverse circulation arising from inhomogeneous cloud cover, the adiabatic frontal circulation related to semi-geostrophic forcing, and diabatic effects related to precipitation processes, in the development of a density current-like microstructure at the leading edge of cold fronts. Although the development of a frontal model that could be used to initialize such a primitive equation model was begun, we decided to focus our efforts instead on a project that could be successfully completed in this short time, due to the lack of prospects for continued NASA funding beyond this first year (our proposal was not accepted for future funding). Thus, a fourth task was added, which was to use the nonhydrostatic model to test tentative hypotheses developed from the most detailed observations ever obtained on a density current (primarily sodar and wind profiler data). These simulations were successfully completed, the findings were reported at a scientific conference, and the results have recently been

  15. A numerical study of laminar flames propagating in stratified mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiacheng

    Numerical simulations are carried out to study the structure and speed of laminar flames propagating in compositionally and thermally stratified fuel-air mixtures. The study is motivated by the need to understand the physics of flame propagation in stratified-charge engines and model it. The specific question of interest in this work is: how does the structure and speed of the flame in the stratified mixture differ from that of the flame in a corresponding homogeneous mixture at the same equivalence ratio, temperature, and pressure? The studies are carried out in hydrogen-air, methane-air, and n-heptane-air mixtures. A 30-species 184-step skeletal mechanism is employed for methane oxidation, a 9-species 21-step mechanism for hydrogen oxidation, and a 37-species 56-step skeletal mechanism for n-heptane oxidation. Flame speed and structure are compared with corresponding values for homogeneous mixtures. For compositionally stratified mixtures, as shown in prior experimental work, the numerical results suggest that when the flame propagates from a richer mixture to a leaner mixture, the flame speed is faster than the corresponding speed in the homogeneous mixture. This is caused by enhanced diffusion of heat and species from the richer mixture to the leaner mixture. In fact, the effects become more pronounced in leaner mixtures. Not surprisingly, the stratification gradient influences the results with shallower gradients showing less effect. The controlling role that diffusion plays is further assessed and confirmed by studying the effect of a unity Lewis number assumption in the hydrogen/air mixtures. Furthermore, the effect of stratification becomes less important when using methane or n-heptane as fuel. The laminar flame speed in a thermally stratified mixture is similar to the laminar flame speed in homogeneous mixture at corresponding unburned temperature. Theoretical analysis is performed and the ratio of extra thermal diffusion rate to flame heat release rate

  16. Numerical renormalization group study of a dissipative quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glossop, M. T.; Ingersent, K.

    2007-03-01

    We study the quantum phase transition (QPT) induced by dissipation in a quantum dot device at the degeneracy point. We employ a Bose-Fermi numerical renormalization group approach [1] to study the simplest case of a spinless resonant-level model that couples the charge density on the dot to a dissipative bosonic bath with density of states B(φ)ŝ. In anticipation of future experiments [2] and to assess further the validity of theoretical techniques in this rapidly developing area, we take the conduction-electron leads to have a pseudogap density of states: ρ(φ) |φ|^r, as considered in a very recent perturbative renormalization group study [3]. We establish the conditions on r and s such that a QPT arises with increasing dissipation strength --- from a delocalized phase, where resonant tunneling leads to large charge fluctuations on the dot, to a localized phase where such fluctuations are frozen. We present results for the single-particle spectrum and the response of the system to a local electric field, extracting critical exponents that depend in general on r and s and obey hyperscaling relations. We make full comparison with results of [3] where appropriate. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-0312939. [1] M. T. Glossop and K. Ingersent, PRL 95, 067202 (2005); PRB (2006). [2] L. G. G. V. Dias da Silva, N. P. Sandler, K. Ingersent, and S. E. Ulloa, PRL 97, 096603 (2006). [3] C.-H. Chung, M. Kir'can, L. Fritz, and M. Vojta (2006).

  17. Experimental and numerical study of high intensity argon cluster beams

    SciTech Connect

    Korobeishchikov, N. G.; Kalyada, V. V.; Shmakov, A. A.; Zarvin, A. E.; Skovorodko, P. A.

    2014-12-09

    Experimental and numerical investigations of expansion of argon with homogeneous condensation in supersonic conical nozzle and in free jet behind it were carried out. Optimal parameters (stagnation pressure, nozzle-skimmer distance) for the formation of cluster beam with maximum intensity were determined. Two available models for nonequilibrium nucleation were tested. The numerical results are in satisfactory agreement with the measured data.

  18. Interphase anisotropy effects on lamellar eutectics: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Supriyo; Choudhury, Abhik; Plapp, Mathis; Bottin-Rousseau, Sabine; Faivre, Gabriel; Akamatsu, Silvère

    2015-02-01

    In directional solidification of binary eutectics, it is often observed that two-phase lamellar growth patterns grow tilted with respect to the direction z of the imposed temperature gradient. This crystallographic effect depends on the orientation of the two crystal phases α and β with respect to z. Recently, an approximate theory was formulated that predicts the lamellar tilt angle as a function of the anisotropy of the free energy of the solid(α)-solid(β) interphase boundary. We use two different numerical methods-phase field (PF) and dynamic boundary integral (BI)-to simulate the growth of steady periodic patterns in two dimensions as a function of the angle θ(R) between z and a reference crystallographic axis for a fixed relative orientation of α and β crystals, that is, for a given anisotropy function (Wulff plot) of the interphase boundary. For Wulff plots without unstable interphase-boundary orientations, the two simulation methods are in excellent agreement with each other and confirm the general validity of the previously proposed theory. In addition, a crystallographic "locking" of the lamellae onto a facet plane is well reproduced in the simulations. When unstable orientations are present in the Wulff plot, it is expected that two distinct values of the tilt angle can appear for the same crystal orientation over a finite θ(R) range. This bistable behavior, which has been observed experimentally, is well reproduced by BI simulations but not by the PF model. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. PMID:25768518

  19. Numerical study of surface water waves generated by mass movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghozlani, Belgacem; Hafsia, Zouhaier; Maalel, Khlifa

    2013-10-01

    In this paper waves generated by two-dimensional mass movement are simulated using a numerical model based on the full hydrodynamic coupling between rigid-body motion and ambient fluid flow. This approach has the capability to represent the dynamics of the moving rigid body, which avoids the need to prescribe the body velocity based on the data measurements. This model is implemented in the CFX code and uses the Reynolds average Navier-Stokes equations solver coupled to the recently developed immersed solid technique. The latter technique allows us to follow implicitly the motion of the solid block based on the rigid body solver. The volume-of-fluid method is used to track the free surface locations. The accuracy of the present model is firstly examined against the simple physical case of a freely falling rigid body into water reproducing Scott Russell's solitary waves. More complex and realistic simulations of aerial and submarine mass-movement, simulated by a rigid wedge sliding into water along a 45° slope, are then performed. Simulated results of the aerial mass movement show the complex flow patterns in terms of the velocity fields and free surface profiles. Results are in good agreement with the available experimental data. In addition, the physical processes associated with the generation of water wave by two-dimensional submarine mass-movement are explored. The effects of the initial submergence and specific gravity on the slide mass kinematics and maximum wave amplitude are investigated. The terminal velocity and initial acceleration of the slide mass are well predicted when compared to experimental results. It is found that the initial submergence did not have a significant effect on the initial acceleration of the slide block centre of mass. However, it depends nonlinearly\\vadjust{\

  20. Grain size assisted formation of pseudotachylites: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielmann, Marcel; Rozel, Antoine; Kaus, Boris; Ricard, Yanick

    2014-05-01

    The processes resulting in the formation of lithospheric-scale shear zones are still poorly understood. Among others, shear heating and grain size reduction have been proposed to be viable weakening mechanisms to localize deformation and form lithospheric-scale shear zones. The interplay between both mechanisms is particularly interesting, as both compete for a part of the deformational work. High temperatures favor grain growth, therefore one would expect larger grain sizes in shear zones that have been formed by shear heating. However, larger temperatures increase strain rates, thus also the amount of deformational work, which in turn would favor grain size reduction. Here we investigate the interplay between both mechanisms using numerical models of a viscoelastic slab deforming in simple shear, employing a viscous rheology composed of dislocation and diffusion creep. Grain size evolution is governed by a recently developed physics-based evolution law. We develop scaling laws for the peak stress and the dominating deformation mechanisms depending on various material parameters and boundary conditions. We find that grain size reduction alone does not localize deformation in simple shear. In conjunction with shear heating however, a localized shear zone is formed due to thermal runaway. During this process, grain size is significantly reduced. Depending on grain growth parameters, a mylonitic shear zone is formed in which deformation is permanently localized and which deforms in diffusion creep. Additionally, the stress required to initiate thermal runaway is reduced compare to cases with shear heating alone, thus facilitating the formation of a narrow localized shear zone in the ductile regime. These results have several implications ranging and from simultaneous pseudotachylite and mylonite formation at depths below the seismogenic depth to subduction initiation.

  1. Numerical Study on the 1682 Tainan Historic Tsunami Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Y.; Wu, T.; Lee, C.; KO, L.; Chuang, M.

    2013-12-01

    We intend to reconstruct the tsunami source of the 1682/1782 tsunami event in Tainan, Taiwan, based on the numerical method. According to Soloviev and Go (1974), a strong earthquake shook the Tainan and caused severe damage, followed by tsunami waves. Almost the whole island was flooded by tsunami for over 120 km. More than 40,000 inhabitants were killed. Forts Zealand and Pigchingi were washed away. 1682/1782 event was the highest death toll in the Pacific Ocean regarded by Bryant (2001). However, the year is ambiguous in 1682 or 1782, and death toll is doubtful. We tend to believe that this event was happened in 1682 based on the evolution of the harbor name. If the 1682 tsunami event does exist, the hazard mitigation plan has to be modified, and restoring the 1682 event becomes important. In this study, we adopted the tsunami reverse tracking method (TRTM) to examine the possible tsunami sources. A series of numerical simulations were carried out by using COMCOT (Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami model), and nested grid with 30 m resolution was applied to the study area. According to the result of TRTM, the 1682 tsunami is most likely sourcing from the north segment of Manila Trench. From scenario study, we concluded that the 1682 event was triggered by an Mw >= 8.8 earthquake in north segment of Manila Trench, and 4 m wave height was observed in Tainan and its inundation range is agreeable with historical records. If this scenario occurred again, sever damage and death toll will be seen many high population cities, such as Tainan city, Kaohsiung city and Kenting, where No. 3 nuclear power plant is located. Detailed results will be presented in the full paper. Figure 1. Map of Tsunami Reverse Tracking Method (TRTM) in Tainan. Black arrow indicates direction of possible tsunami direction. The color bar denotes the magnitude of the maximum moment flux. Figure 2. Scenario result of Mw 8.8 in northern segment of Manila Trench. (Left: Initial free surface elevation

  2. Systematic analytical and numerical studies of highly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Shan-Wen

    Strong electron correlations in condensed matter systems give rise to a wide range of striking physical properties, producing phenomena as varied as high temperature superconductivity, metal-insulator transitions and the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects. Quantum critical systems also exhibit strong correlations between a large number of degrees of freedom. In this thesis we study these complicated systems using a combination of analytical and numerical approaches. We perform systematic investigations, which adds to the robustness of our results. We develop a new method, based on the density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) algorithm combined with finite-size scaling analysis, to study critical behavior in quantum spin chains and extract critical exponents. Accurate results are obtained for spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic chains and the spin-1 chain at the critical point separating the Haldane and the dimerized phases. Disorder in a system can change its properties drastically. Plateau transitions in the integer quantum Hall effect provide the clearest example of quantum critical behavior in a disordered system. We provide analytical proof that the Chalker-Coddington model, which is used to describe the plateau transitions, is quantum critical. Starting from a field theory based on this model, equivalent to a non-Hermitian supersymmetric spin chain, we prove quantum criticality by a Lieb-Schultz-Mattis type theorem. This approach was motivated by numerical results obtained using the DMRG/finite-size scaling method. Our generalized LSM theorem also applies to the spin quantum Hall effect, which can appear in disordered d-wave superconductors with broken time-reversal symmetry. The last part of the thesis is a renormalization-group study of two dimensional interacting electron systems. We obtain results relevant to high-temperature superconductors and also to the family of kappa - (BEDT - TTF)2X organic superconductors. At half filling, the fully nested

  3. Numerical study of error propagation in Monte Carlo depletion simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Wyant, T.; Petrovic, B.

    2012-07-01

    Improving computer technology and the desire to more accurately model the heterogeneity of the nuclear reactor environment have made the use of Monte Carlo depletion codes more attractive in recent years, and feasible (if not practical) even for 3-D depletion simulation. However, in this case statistical uncertainty is combined with error propagating through the calculation from previous steps. In an effort to understand this error propagation, a numerical study was undertaken to model and track individual fuel pins in four 17 x 17 PWR fuel assemblies. By changing the code's initial random number seed, the data produced by a series of 19 replica runs was used to investigate the true and apparent variance in k{sub eff}, pin powers, and number densities of several isotopes. While this study does not intend to develop a predictive model for error propagation, it is hoped that its results can help to identify some common regularities in the behavior of uncertainty in several key parameters. (authors)

  4. Numerical study on dielectrophoretic chaining of two ellipsoidal particles.

    PubMed

    House, Dustin L; Luo, Haoxiang; Chang, Siyuan

    2012-05-15

    Electric field-induced assembly of biological and synthetic particles has proven useful in two- and three-dimensional fabrication of composite materials, microwires, photonic crystals, artificial tissues, and more. Biological particles are typically irregularly shaped, and using non-spherical synthetic particles has the ability to expand current applications. However, there is much to be understood about the dielectrophoretic (DEP) interaction that takes place between particles of general shape. In this work, we numerically study the DEP interaction between two prolate spheroid particles suspended in an unbounded fluid. The boundary-element method (BEM) is applied to solve the coupled electric field, Stokes flow, and particle motion, and the DEP forces are obtained by integrating the Maxwell stress tensor over the particle surfaces. Effects of the initial configuration and aspect ratio are investigated. Results show that the particles go through a self-rotation process, that is, electro-orientation, while translating slowly to form a chain pair. The final formation resembles the chaining pattern observed previously in experiments using densely distributed ellipsoidal particles. Thus, the transient behavior and particle-particle interaction exhibited in the current study could be used as the fundamental mechanism to explain the phenomenon in the experiment. PMID:22340950

  5. Numerical investigation of the mechanical properties of the additive manufactured bone scaffolds fabricated by FDM: The effect of layer penetration and post-heating.

    PubMed

    Naghieh, S; Karamooz Ravari, M R; Badrossamay, M; Foroozmehr, E; Kadkhodaei, M

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, thanks to additive manufacturing technology, researchers have gone towards the optimization of bone scaffolds for the bone reconstruction. Bone scaffolds should have appropriate biological as well as mechanical properties in order to play a decisive role in bone healing. Since the fabrication of scaffolds is time consuming and expensive, numerical methods are often utilized to simulate their mechanical properties in order to find a nearly optimum one. Finite element analysis is one of the most common numerical methods that is used in this regard. In this paper, a parametric finite element model is developed to assess the effects of layers penetration׳s effect on inter-layer adhesion, which is reflected on the mechanical properties of bone scaffolds. To be able to validate this model, some compression test specimens as well as bone scaffolds are fabricated with biocompatible and biodegradable poly lactic acid using fused deposition modeling. All these specimens are tested in compression and their elastic modulus is obtained. Using the material parameters of the compression test specimens, the finite element analysis of the bone scaffold is performed. The obtained elastic modulus is compared with experiment indicating a good agreement. Accordingly, the proposed finite element model is able to predict the mechanical behavior of fabricated bone scaffolds accurately. In addition, the effect of post-heating of bone scaffolds on their elastic modulus is investigated. The results demonstrate that the numerically predicted elastic modulus of scaffold is closer to experimental outcomes in comparison with as-built samples. PMID:26874065

  6. Numerical Studies of Magnetohydrodynamic Activity Resulting from Inductive Transients Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sovinec, Carl R.

    2005-08-29

    This report describes results from numerical studies of transients in magnetically confined plasmas. The work has been performed by University of Wisconsin graduate students James Reynolds and Giovanni Cone and by the Principal Investigator through support from contract DE-FG02-02ER54687, a Junior Faculty in Plasma Science award from the DOE Office of Science. Results from the computations have added significantly to our knowledge of magnetized plasma relaxation in the reversed-field pinch (RFP) and spheromak. In particular, they have distinguished relaxation activity expected in sustained configurations from transient effects that can persist over a significant fraction of the plasma discharge. We have also developed the numerical capability for studying electrostatic current injection in the spherical torus (ST). These configurations are being investigated as plasma confinement schemes in the international effort to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion for environmentally benign energy production. Our numerical computations have been performed with the NIMROD code (http://nimrodteam.org) using local computing resources and massively parallel computing hardware at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center. Direct comparisons of simulation results for the spheromak with laboratory measurements verify the effectiveness of our numerical approach. The comparisons have been published in refereed journal articles by this group and by collaborators at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (see Section 4). In addition to the technical products, this grant has supported the graduate education of the two participating students for three years.

  7. Numerical study of a delta planform with multiple jets in ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chawla, K.; Van Dalsem, W. R.; Rao, K. V.

    1989-01-01

    The flow past a 60-deg delta wing equipped with two thrust-reverser jets near the inboard trailing edge has been analyzed by numerical solution of the 3D thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. An implicit, partially flux-split, approximately-factored Navier-Stokes solver coupled with a multiple grid embedding scheme has been adapted to this problem. Studies of the impact of numerical parameters (e.g., grid refinement and dissipation levels), and flow-field parameters such as the height of the delta wing above the ground plane and the jet size on the solution, were performed. Results of these numerical studies indicate some challenges in the accurate resolution of complex 3D free shear layers and jets. Nevertheless, flow features such as jet deformation and ground vortex formation observed in experimental flow visualizations are captured. Further, comparisons with experimental data confirm the ability to simulate the loss of wing-borne lift, commonly referred to 'suckdown, as the delta planform flies at slow speeds in close proximity to the ground. Detailed analysis of the numerical results has also given additional insight into the structure of the ground vortex and the mechanisms of lift loss.

  8. Numerical study of the hydrodynamic drag force in atomic force microscopy measurements undertaken in fluids.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Méndez, J V; Alonso-Rasgado, M T; Faria, E Correia; Flores-Johnson, E A; Snook, R D

    2014-11-01

    When atomic force microscopy (AFM) is employed for in vivo study of immersed biological samples, the fluid medium presents additional complexities, not least of which is the hydrodynamic drag force due to viscous friction of the cantilever with the liquid. This force should be considered when interpreting experimental results and any calculated material properties. In this paper, a numerical model is presented to study the influence of the drag force on experimental data obtained from AFM measurements using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The model provides quantification of the drag force in AFM measurements of soft specimens in fluids. The numerical predictions were compared with experimental data obtained using AFM with a V-shaped cantilever fitted with a pyramidal tip. Tip velocities ranging from 1.05 to 105 μm/s were employed in water, polyethylene glycol and glycerol with the platform approaching from a distance of 6000 nm. The model was also compared with an existing analytical model. Good agreement was observed between numerical results, experiments and analytical predictions. Accurate predictions were obtained without the need for extrapolation of experimental data. In addition, the model can be employed over the range of tip geometries and velocities typically utilized in AFM measurements. PMID:25080275

  9. A Numerical Study on Possible Driving Mechanisms of Core Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, M.; Harder, H.; Hansen, U.

    2005-12-01

    We present a numerical study on core convection based on a model of a rotating spherical shell where different driving mechanisms are investigated. Two different sources are potentially available to act as driving forces. The first is based on the super adiabatic temperature gradient in the outer core. The second is of chemical nature and is derived from light elements which emerge at the boundary between the inner and the outer core as a result of the freezing process of the outer core. So far it is uncertain if the convective flow in the outer core is dominated by thermal or by chemical buoyancy. Dynamically, both components differ mainly in terms of their diffusional time scales, whereas the chemical component diffuses much faster than the thermal one. To investigate the influence of the driving mechanisms on the convective flow pattern we considered different scenarios including the two extreme cases of purely thermal and purely chemical driven convection and the more likely situation of a joint action of both sources. We focused on the question how the driving mechanisms affects the differential rotation and the spatial distribution of helicity which are particularly important for the dynamo process.

  10. Numerical Study of Surface Connectivity in the Eastern Mexican Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inda Diaz, H. A.; Pares-Sierra, A.

    2014-12-01

    East boundary ecosystems are the most productive regions in the world and they sustain a large percentage of world fisheries. Understand and describe the connectivity and exchange between different regions of the ocean is very important for larvae dispersion study and other tracers like pollutants. In this work we use an offline numerical model to simulate Lagrangian particle trajectories in the Eastern Mexican Pacific (between 120-94 W and 12-34 N). Particles are advected whit velocity fields generated with the model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System) in the period 1980-2006. We define connectivity indexes in order to classify different zones by their capacity of exporting, receiving and retaining particles. We aim to identify the most transited pathways, quantify connectivity between different regions of EMP through connectivity matrix and describe their seasonal variability. It has been identified zones of high isolation and retention (Vizcaino Bay, Northern of Gulf of California), high retention and importation (between Ensenada and Point Conception) and high exportation and importation (Cabo Corrientes). Connectivity has clear equatoward preference in the California Peninsula region dominated by the influence of California Current with an increase in winter and spring, and also equatoward in the south region of Mexico (from Cabo Corrientes to Tehuantepec Gulf), dominated by the anticyclonic circulation of Tehuantepec Dome. It is observed a complete disconnection between the Baja California Peninsula and Cabo Corrientes zone and further south. Results suggest that the scales of connectivity does not significantly change for simulations over 3 months.

  11. Numerical study on inter-tidal transports in coastal seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xinyan; Jiang, Wensheng; Zhang, Ping; Feng, Shizuo

    2016-06-01

    Inter-tidal (subtidal) transport processes in coastal sea depend on the residual motion, turbulent dispersion and relevant sources/sinks. In Feng et al. (2008), an updated Lagrangian inter-tidal transport equation, as well as new concept of Lagrangian inter-tidal concentration (LIC), has been proposed for a general nonlinear shallow water system. In the present study, the LIC is numerically applied for the first time to passive tracers in idealized settings and salinity in the Bohai Sea, China. Circulation and tracer motion in the three idealized model seas with different topography or coastline, termed as `flat-bottom', `stairs' and `cape' case, respectively, are simulated. The dependence of the LIC on initial tidal phase suggests that the nonlinearities in the stairs and cape cases are stronger than that in the flat-bottom case. Therefore, the `flat-bottom' case still meets the convectively weakly nonlinear condition. For the Bohai Sea, the simulation results show that most parts of it still meet the weakly nonlinear condition. However, the dependence of the LIS (Lagrangian inter-tidal salinity) on initial tidal phase is significant around the southern headland of the Liaodong Peninsula and near the mouth of the Yellow River. The nonlinearity in the former region is mainly related to the complicated coastlines, and that in the latter region is due to the presence of the estuarine salinity front.

  12. Experimental and numerical studies on standing surface acoustic wave microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhangming; Xie, Yuliang; Guo, Feng; Ren, Liqiang; Huang, Po-Hsun; Chen, Yuchao; Rufo, Joseph; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun

    2016-02-01

    Standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW) are commonly used in microfluidics to manipulate cells and other micro/nano particles. However, except for a simple one-dimensional (1D) harmonic standing waves (HSW) model, a practical model that can predict particle behaviour in SSAW microfluidics is still lacking. Herein, we established a two-dimensional (2D) SSAW microfluidic model based on the basic theory in acoustophoresis and our previous modelling strategy to predict the acoustophoresis of microparticles in SSAW microfluidics. This 2D SSAW microfluidic model considers the effects of boundary vibrations, channel materials, and channel dimensions on the acoustic propagation; as an experimental validation, the acoustophoresis of microparticles under continuous flow through narrow channels made of PDMS and silicon was studied. The experimentally observed motion of the microparticles matched well with the numerical predictions, while the 1D HSW model failed to predict many of the experimental observations. Particularly, the 1D HSW model cannot account for particle aggregation on the sidewall in PDMS channels, which is well explained by our 2D SSAW microfluidic model. Our model can be used for device design and optimization in SSAW microfluidics. PMID:26698361

  13. Numerical study of chemically reacting flows using an LU scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuen, Jian Shun; Yoon, Seokkwan

    1988-01-01

    A new computational fluid dynamic code has been developed for the study of mixing and chemical reactions in the flow fields of ramjets and scramjets. The code employs an implicit finite volume, lower-upper symmetric successive overrelaxation scheme for solving the complete two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and species transport equations in a fully-coupled and very efficient manner. The combustion processes are modeled by an 8-species, 14-step finite rate chemistry model whereas turbulence is simulated by a Baldwin-Lomax algebraic model. The validity of the code is demonstrated by comparing the numerical calculations with both experimental data and previous calculations of a cold flow helium injection into a straight channel and premixed hydrogen-air reacting flows in a ramped duct. The code is then used to calculate the mixing and chemical reactions of a hydrogen jet transversely injected into a supersonic airstream. Results are presented describing the flow field, the recirculation regions in front and behind the injector, and the chemical reactions.

  14. Drag Reduction by Riblets & Sharkskin Denticles: A Numerical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boomsma, Aaron

    Riblet films are a passive method of turbulent boundary layer control that can reduce viscous drag. They have been studied with great detail for over 30 years. Although common riblet applications include flows with Adverse Pressure Gradients (APG), nearly all research thus far has been performed in channel flows. Recent research has provided motivation to study riblets in more complicated turbulent flows with claims that riblet drag reduction can double in mild APG common to airfoils at moderate angles of attack. Therefore, in this study, we compare drag reduction by scalloped riblet films between riblets in a zero pressure gradient and those in a mild APG using high-resolution large eddy simulations. In order to gain a fundamental understanding of the relationship between drag reduction and pressure gradient, we simulated several different riblet sizes that encompassed a broad range of s + (riblet width in wall units), similarly to many experimental studies. We found that there was only a slight improvement in drag reduction for riblets in the mild APG. We also observed that peak values of streamwise turbulence intensity, turbulent kinetic energy, and streamwise vorticity scale with riblet width. Primary Reynolds shear stresses and turbulence kinetic energy production however scale with the ability of the riblet to reduce skin-friction. Another turbulent roughness of similar shape and size to riblets is sharkskin. The hydrodynamic function of sharkskin has been under investigation for the past 30 years. Current literature conflicts on whether sharkskin is able to reduce skin friction similarly to riblets. To contribute insights toward reconciling these conflicting views, Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) are carried out to obtain detailed flow fields around realistic denticles. A sharp interface immersed boundary method is employed to simulate two arrangements of actual sharkskin denticles (from Isurus oxyrinchus) in a turbulent boundary layer at Retau ≈ 180

  15. Numerical Capacities as Domain-Specific Predictors beyond Early Mathematics Learning: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Reigosa-Crespo, Vivian; González-Alemañy, Eduardo; León, Teresa; Torres, Rosario; Mosquera, Raysil; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to investigate whether numerical effects (Numerical Distance Effect, Counting Effect and Subitizing Effect) are domain-specific predictors of mathematics development at the end of elementary school by exploring whether they explain additional variance of later mathematics fluency after controlling for the effects of general cognitive skills, focused on nonnumerical aspects. The second aim was to address the same issues but applied to achievement in mathematics curriculum that requires solutions to fluency in calculation. These analyses assess whether the relationship found for fluency are generalized to mathematics content beyond fluency in calculation. As a third aim, the domain specificity of the numerical effects was examined by analyzing whether they contribute to the development of reading skills, such as decoding fluency and reading comprehension, after controlling for general cognitive skills and phonological processing. Basic numerical capacities were evaluated in children of 3rd and 4th grades (n=49). Mathematics and reading achievements were assessed in these children one year later. Results showed that the size of the Subitizing Effect was a significant domain-specific predictor of fluency in calculation and also in curricular mathematics achievement, but not in reading skills, assessed at the end of elementary school. Furthermore, the size of the Counting Effect also predicted fluency in calculation, although this association only approached significance. These findings contrast with proposals that the core numerical competencies measured by enumeration will bear little relationship to mathematics achievement. We conclude that basic numerical capacities constitute domain-specific predictors and that they are not exclusively “start-up” tools for the acquisition of Mathematics; but they continue modulating this learning at the end of elementary school. PMID:24255710

  16. Numerical capacities as domain-specific predictors beyond early mathematics learning: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Reigosa-Crespo, Vivian; González-Alemañy, Eduardo; León, Teresa; Torres, Rosario; Mosquera, Raysil; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to investigate whether numerical effects (Numerical Distance Effect, Counting Effect and Subitizing Effect) are domain-specific predictors of mathematics development at the end of elementary school by exploring whether they explain additional variance of later mathematics fluency after controlling for the effects of general cognitive skills, focused on nonnumerical aspects. The second aim was to address the same issues but applied to achievement in mathematics curriculum that requires solutions to fluency in calculation. These analyses assess whether the relationship found for fluency are generalized to mathematics content beyond fluency in calculation. As a third aim, the domain specificity of the numerical effects was examined by analyzing whether they contribute to the development of reading skills, such as decoding fluency and reading comprehension, after controlling for general cognitive skills and phonological processing. Basic numerical capacities were evaluated in children of 3(rd) and 4(th) grades (n=49). Mathematics and reading achievements were assessed in these children one year later. Results showed that the size of the Subitizing Effect was a significant domain-specific predictor of fluency in calculation and also in curricular mathematics achievement, but not in reading skills, assessed at the end of elementary school. Furthermore, the size of the Counting Effect also predicted fluency in calculation, although this association only approached significance. These findings contrast with proposals that the core numerical competencies measured by enumeration will bear little relationship to mathematics achievement. We conclude that basic numerical capacities constitute domain-specific predictors and that they are not exclusively "start-up" tools for the acquisition of Mathematics; but they continue modulating this learning at the end of elementary school. PMID:24255710

  17. Numerical modeling of heat-transfer and the influence of process parameters on tailoring the grain morphology of IN718 in electron beam additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Raghavan, Narendran; Dehoff, Ryan; Pannala, Sreekanth; Simunovic, Srdjan; Kirka, Michael; Turner, John; Carlson, Neil; Babu, Sudarsanam S.

    2016-04-26

    The fabrication of 3-D parts from CAD models by additive manufacturing (AM) is a disruptive technology that is transforming the metal manufacturing industry. The correlation between solidification microstructure and mechanical properties has been well understood in the casting and welding processes over the years. This paper focuses on extending these principles to additive manufacturing to understand the transient phenomena of repeated melting and solidification during electron beam powder melting process to achieve site-specific microstructure control within a fabricated component. In this paper, we have developed a novel melt scan strategy for electron beam melting of nickel-base superalloy (Inconel 718) andmore » also analyzed 3-D heat transfer conditions using a parallel numerical solidification code (Truchas) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The spatial and temporal variations of temperature gradient (G) and growth velocity (R) at the liquid-solid interface of the melt pool were calculated as a function of electron beam parameters. By manipulating the relative number of voxels that lie in the columnar or equiaxed region, the crystallographic texture of the components can be controlled to an extent. The analysis of the parameters provided optimum processing conditions that will result in columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) during the solidification. Furthermore, the results from the numerical simulations were validated by experimental processing and characterization thereby proving the potential of additive manufacturing process to achieve site-specific crystallographic texture control within a fabricated component.« less

  18. Drainage flows: A mountain-plains interface numerical case study

    SciTech Connect

    Poulos, G.S.; Bossert, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In January/February, 1991 an intensive set of measurements was taken around Rocky Flats near Denver, CO, USA under the auspices of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program. This region of the country is known as the Front Range, and is characterized by a transition from the relatively flat terrain of the Great Plains to the highly varied terrain of the Rocky Mountains. The mountains are oriented north-south and rise from 1800m above mean sea level (MSL) to 3600m MSL at the Continental Divide. Numerous east-west oriented valleys begin in the mountains and end at the plains interface. This terrain makes the Front Range a challenging region to model. One of the more important flows created by this severe terrain are the highly-varying drainage flows found during stagnant, wintertime conditions. These flows can interact with larger-scale mountain and synoptic winds. One goal of the ASCOT 1991 program was to gain insight into multi-scale meteorological interaction by observing wintertime drainage conditions at the mountain-valley-plains interface. ASCOT data included surface and upper air measurements on approximately a 50km{sup 2} scale. Simultaneously, an SF{sub 6} tracer release study was being conducted around Rocky Flats, a nuclear materials production facility. Detailed surface concentration measurements were completed for the SF{sub 6} plume. This combination of meteorological and tracer concentration data provided a unique data set for comparisons of mesoscale and dispersion modeling results with observations and for evaluating our capability to predict pollutant transport. Our approach is to use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model to simulate atmospheric conditions and the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) to model the dispersion of the SF{sub 6}.

  19. Drainage flows: A mountain-plains interface numerical case study

    SciTech Connect

    Poulos, G.S.; Bossert, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    In January/February, 1991 an intensive set of measurements was taken around Rocky Flats near Denver, CO, USA under the auspices of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program. This region of the country is known as the Front Range, and is characterized by a transition from the relatively flat terrain of the Great Plains to the highly varied terrain of the Rocky Mountains. The mountains are oriented north-south and rise from 1800m above mean sea level (MSL) to 3600m MSL at the Continental Divide. Numerous east-west oriented valleys begin in the mountains and end at the plains interface. This terrain makes the Front Range a challenging region to model. One of the more important flows created by this severe terrain are the highly-varying drainage flows found during stagnant, wintertime conditions. These flows can interact with larger-scale mountain and synoptic winds. One goal of the ASCOT 1991 program was to gain insight into multi-scale meteorological interaction by observing wintertime drainage conditions at the mountain-valley-plains interface. ASCOT data included surface and upper air measurements on approximately a 50km{sup 2} scale. Simultaneously, an SF{sub 6} tracer release study was being conducted around Rocky Flats, a nuclear materials production facility. Detailed surface concentration measurements were completed for the SF{sub 6} plume. This combination of meteorological and tracer concentration data provided a unique data set for comparisons of mesoscale and dispersion modeling results with observations and for evaluating our capability to predict pollutant transport. Our approach is to use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model to simulate atmospheric conditions and the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) to model the dispersion of the SF{sub 6}.

  20. Numerical Simulation Study of the Sanchiao Fault Earthquake Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Lee, Shiann-Jong

    2015-04-01

    Sanchiao fault is a western boundary fault of the Taipei basin located in northern Taiwan, close to the densely populated Taipei metropolitan area. Recent study indicated that there is about 40 km of the fault trace extended to the marine area offshore northern Taiwan. Combining the marine and terrestrial parts, the total fault length of Sanchiao fault could be nearly 70 kilometers which implies that this fault has potential to produce a big earthquake. In this study, we analyze several Sanchiao fault earthquake scenarios based on the recipe for predicting strong ground motion. The characterized source parameters include fault length, rupture area, seismic moment, asperity, and slip pattern on the fault plane. According to the assumption of the characterized source model, Sanchiao fault has been inferred to have the potential to produce an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) larger than 7.0. Three-dimensional seismic simulation results based upon spectral-element method (SEM) indicate that peak ground acceleration (PGA) is significantly stronger along the fault trace. The basin effect also plays an important role when wave propagates in the Taipei basin which cause seismic wave amplified and prolong the shaking for a very long time. Among all rupture scenarios, the rupture propagated from north to south is the most serious one. Owing to the rupture directivity as well as the basin effects, large PGA (>1g) was observed in the Taipei basin, especially in the northwest side. The results of these scenario earthquake simulations will provide important physically-based numerical data for earthquake mitigation and seismic hazard assessment.

  1. Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... of gastroenterology-pancreatology at Beaujon Hospital, in Clichy, France. The study was funded by the pharmaceutical company ... D., department of gastroenterology-pancreatology, Beaujon Hospital, Clichy, France; Deborah Schrag, M.D., M.P.H., chief ...

  2. NMR relaxometry study of plaster mortar with polymer additives

    SciTech Connect

    Jumate, E.; Manea, D.; Moldovan, D.; Fechete, R.

    2013-11-13

    The cement mixed with water forms a plastic paste or slurry which stiffness in time and finally hardens into a resistant stone. The addition of sand aggregates, polymers (Walocel) and/or calcium carbonate will modify dramatically the final mortar mechanic and thermal properties. The hydration processes can be observed using the 1D NMR measurements of transverse T{sub 2} relaxation times distributions analysed by a Laplace inversion algorithm. These distributions were obtained for mortar pasta measured at 2 hours after preparation then at 3, 7 and 28 days after preparation. Multiple components are identified in the T{sub 2} distributions. These can be associated with the proton bounded chemical or physical to the mortar minerals characterized by a short T{sub 2} relaxation time and to water protons in pores with three different pore sizes as observed from SEM images. The evaporation process is faster in the first hours after preparation, while the mortar hydration (bonding of water molecules to mortar minerals) can be still observed after days or months from preparation. Finally, the mechanic resistance was correlated with the transverse T{sub 2} relaxation rates corresponding to the bound water.

  3. Numerical Study of Solar Storms From the Sun to Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xueshang

    2015-08-01

    As solar storms are sweeping the Earth, adverse changes occur in geospace environment. It is of both scientific significance to understand the dynamic process during solar storm’s propagation in interplanetary space and realistic value to conduct physics-based numerical researches on the three-dimensional process of solar storms in interplanetary space with the aid of powerful computing capacity to predict the arrival times, intensities, and probable geoeffectiveness of solar storms at the Earth. Numerical modeling community has a common goal to develop an end-to-end physics-based modeling system for forecasting the Sun-Earth relationship. It is hoped that the models’ prediction capabilities may be improved by incorporating the observational findings and constraints into physics-based models, combining the observations, empirical models and MHD simulations in organic ways.In this talk, we birefly review the current status of the existing three-dimensional numerical physics-based coronal and interplanetary models and their recent research results, particularly our recent progress in using solar observations to produce realistic magnetic configurations of CMEs as they leave the Sun, and coupling data-driven simulations of CMEs to heliospheric simulations that then propagate the CME configuration to 1AU, and outlook the important numerical issues and their possible solutions in numerical space weather modeling from the Sun to Earth for future research.

  4. Numerical study of pseudoscalar inflation with an axion-gauge field coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shu-Lin; Lee, Wolung; Ng, Kin-Wang

    2016-03-01

    A numerical study of a pseudoscalar inflation having an axion-photon-like coupling is performed by solving numerically the coupled differential equations of motion for inflaton and photon mode functions from the onset of inflation to the end of reheating. The backreaction due to particle production is also included self-consistently. We find that this particular inflation model realizes the idea of a warm inflation in which a steady thermal bath is established by the particle production. In most cases, this thermal bath exceeds the amount of radiation released in the reheating process. In the strong coupling regime, the transition from the inflationary to the radiation-dominated phase does not involve either a preheating nor reheating process. In addition, energy density peaks produced near the end of inflation may lead to the formation of primordial black holes.

  5. FEM numerical model study of heating in magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pearce, John A; Cook, Jason R; Hoopes, P Jack; Giustini, Andrew

    2011-02-22

    Electromagnetic heating of nanoparticles is complicated by the extremely short thermal relaxation time constants and difficulty of coupling sufficient power into the particles to achieve desired temperatures. Magnetic field heating by the hysteresis loop mechanism at frequencies between about 100 and 300 kHz has proven to be an effective mechanism in magnetic nanoparticles. Experiments at 2.45 GHz show that Fe3O4 magnetite nanoparticle dispersions in the range of 10(12) to 10(13) NP/mL also heat substantially at this frequency. An FEM numerical model study was undertaken to estimate the order of magnitude of volume power density, Qgen (W m(-3)) required to achieve significant heating in evenly dispersed and aggregated clusters of nanoparticles. The FEM models were computed using Comsol Multiphysics; consequently the models were confined to continuum formulations and did not include film nano-dimension heat transfer effects at the nanoparticle surface. As an example, the models indicate that for a single 36 nm diameter particle at an equivalent dispersion of 10(13) NP/mL located within one control volume (1.0 × 10(-19) m(3)) of a capillary vessel a power density in the neighborhood of 10(17) (W m(-3)) is required to achieve a steady state particle temperature of 52 °C - the total power coupled to the particle is 2.44 μW. As a uniformly distributed particle cluster moves farther from the capillary the required power density decreases markedly. Finally, the tendency for particles in vivo to cluster together at separation distances much less than those of the uniform distribution further reduces the required power density. PMID:24386534

  6. FEM numerical model study of heating in magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, John A.; Cook, Jason R.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Giustini, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    Electromagnetic heating of nanoparticles is complicated by the extremely short thermal relaxation time constants and difficulty of coupling sufficient power into the particles to achieve desired temperatures. Magnetic field heating by the hysteresis loop mechanism at frequencies between about 100 and 300 kHz has proven to be an effective mechanism in magnetic nanoparticles. Experiments at 2.45 GHz show that Fe3O4 magnetite nanoparticle dispersions in the range of 1012 to 1013 NP/mL also heat substantially at this frequency. An FEM numerical model study was undertaken to estimate the order of magnitude of volume power density, Qgen (W m-3) required to achieve significant heating in evenly dispersed and aggregated clusters of nanoparticles. The FEM models were computed using Comsol Multiphysics; consequently the models were confined to continuum formulations and did not include film nano-dimension heat transfer effects at the nanoparticle surface. As an example, the models indicate that for a single 36 nm diameter particle at an equivalent dispersion of 1013 NP/mL located within one control volume (1.0 x 10-19 m3) of a capillary vessel a power density in the neighborhood of 1017 (W m-3) is required to achieve a steady state particle temperature of 52°C - the total power coupled to the particle is 2.44 μW. As a uniformly distributed particle cluster moves farther from the capillary the required power density decreases markedly. Finally, the tendency for particles in vivo to cluster together at separation distances much less than those of the uniform distribution further reduces the required power density.

  7. Numerical study of a Taylor bubble rising in stagnant liquids.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang-Wei; Quan, Shaoping; Lou, Jing

    2010-06-01

    The dynamics of a Taylor bubble rising in stagnant liquids is numerically investigated using a front tracking coupled with finite difference method. Parametric studies on the dynamics of the rising Taylor bubble including the final shape, the Reynolds number (Re(T)), the Weber number (We(T)), the Froude number (Fr), the thin liquid film thickness (w/D), and the wake length (l(w)/D) are carried out. The effects of density ratio (η), viscosity ratio (λ), Eötvös number (Eo), and Archimedes number (Ar) are examined. The simulations demonstrate that the density ratio and the viscosity ratio under consideration have minimal effect on the dynamics of the Taylor bubble. Eötvös number and Archimedes number influence the elongation of the tail and the wake structures, where higher Eo and Ar result in longer wake. To explain the sudden extension of the tail, a Weber number (We(l)) based on local curvature and velocity is evaluated and a critical We(l) is detected around unity. The onset of flow separation at the wake occurs in between Ar=2×10(3) and Ar=1×10(4), which corresponds to Re(T) between 13.39 and 32.55. Archimedes number also drastically affects the final shape of Taylor bubble, the terminal velocity, the thickness of thin liquid film, as well as the wall shear stress. It is found that w/D=0.32 Ar(-0.1). PMID:20866523

  8. Direct numerical simulation studies of Lagrangian intermittency in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawford, Brian L.; Yeung, P. K.

    2015-06-01

    Lag-averaged Lagrangian statistics from direct numerical simulations over a range of Reynolds numbers are analyzed to test the predictions of the Lagrangian Refined Similarity Hypothesis (LRSH). The analysis uses the Lagrangian integral time scale to scale the lag since it is the natural time scale to reveal trends and scaling with Reynolds number. Both the velocity difference and the dissipation rate probability density functions (PDFs) collapse across inertial sub-range and diffusive scales for approximately the same values of the scaled lag, and in the zero lag limit are independent of the lag and depend only on the Reynolds number. These findings are consistent with the LRSH. The velocity difference PDFs are characterized by stretched exponential tails, while the dissipation rate PDFs for small lags have a log normal core with power law tails at both large and small values of the dissipation rate. The velocity structure functions show inertial sub-range similarity scaling with Reynolds number which extends to smaller scales with increasing Reynolds number. Estimates of the scaling exponents obtained are consistent with those from previous studies. They tend to saturate at a value of about two for high order moments. Non-dimensional acceleration moments show a striking power law dependence on Reynolds number from which novel estimates of the scaling exponents have been determined. Similarity scaling is much more elusive to demonstrate in the dissipation rate moments. The data are consistent with, but do not confirm, the Oboukhov relationship connecting velocity structure functions and dissipation rate moments on inertial sub-range scales.

  9. Numerical study of a confined slot impinging jet with nanofluids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Heat transfer enhancement technology concerns with the aim of developing more efficient systems to satisfy the increasing demands of many applications in the fields of automotive, aerospace, electronic and process industry. A solution for obtaining efficient cooling systems is represented by the use of confined or unconfined impinging jets. Moreover, the possibility of increasing the thermal performances of the working fluids can be taken into account, and the introduction of nanoparticles in a base fluid can be considered. Results In this article, a numerical investigation on confined impinging slot jet working with a mixture of water and Al2O3 nanoparticles is described. The flow is turbulent and a constant temperature is applied on the impinging. A single-phase model approach has been adopted. Different geometric ratios, particle volume concentrations and Reynolds number have been considered to study the behavior of the system in terms of average and local Nusselt number, convective heat transfer coefficient and required pumping power profiles, temperature fields and stream function contours. Conclusions The dimensionless stream function contours show that the intensity and size of the vortex structures depend on the confining effects, given by H/W ratio, Reynolds number and particle concentrations. Furthermore, for increasing concentrations, nanofluids realize increasing fluid bulk temperature, as a result of the elevated thermal conductivity of mixtures. The local Nusselt number profiles show the highest values at the stagnation point, and the lowest at the end of the heated plate. The average Nusselt number increases for increasing particle concentrations and Reynolds numbers; moreover, the highest values are observed for H/W = 10, and a maximum increase of 18% is detected at a concentration equal to 6%. The required pumping power as well as Reynolds number increases and particle concentrations grow, which is almost 4.8 times greater than the

  10. Coordinated Optimization of Visual Cortical Maps (II) Numerical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Reichl, Lars; Heide, Dominik; Löwel, Siegrid; Crowley, Justin C.; Kaschube, Matthias; Wolf, Fred

    2012-01-01

    In the juvenile brain, the synaptic architecture of the visual cortex remains in a state of flux for months after the natural onset of vision and the initial emergence of feature selectivity in visual cortical neurons. It is an attractive hypothesis that visual cortical architecture is shaped during this extended period of juvenile plasticity by the coordinated optimization of multiple visual cortical maps such as orientation preference (OP), ocular dominance (OD), spatial frequency, or direction preference. In part (I) of this study we introduced a class of analytically tractable coordinated optimization models and solved representative examples, in which a spatially complex organization of the OP map is induced by interactions between the maps. We found that these solutions near symmetry breaking threshold predict a highly ordered map layout. Here we examine the time course of the convergence towards attractor states and optima of these models. In particular, we determine the timescales on which map optimization takes place and how these timescales can be compared to those of visual cortical development and plasticity. We also assess whether our models exhibit biologically more realistic, spatially irregular solutions at a finite distance from threshold, when the spatial periodicities of the two maps are detuned and when considering more than 2 feature dimensions. We show that, although maps typically undergo substantial rearrangement, no other solutions than pinwheel crystals and stripes dominate in the emerging layouts. Pinwheel crystallization takes place on a rather short timescale and can also occur for detuned wavelengths of different maps. Our numerical results thus support the view that neither minimal energy states nor intermediate transient states of our coordinated optimization models successfully explain the architecture of the visual cortex. We discuss several alternative scenarios that may improve the agreement between model solutions and biological

  11. Convective instability in sedimentation: 3-D numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiao; Hsu, Tian-Jian; Balachandar, S.

    2014-11-01

    To provide a probable explanation on the field observed rapid sedimentation process near river mouths, we investigate the convective sedimentation in stably stratified saltwater using 3-D numerical simulations. Guided by the linear stability analysis, this study focuses on the nonlinear interactions of several mechanisms, which lead to various sediment finger patterns, and the effective settling velocity for sediment ranging from clay (single-particle settling velocity V0 = 0.0036 and 0.0144 mm/s, or particle diameter d = 2 and 4 μm) to silt (V0 = 0.36 mm/s, or d = 20 μm). For very fine sediment with V0 = 0.0036 mm/s, the convective instability is dominated by double diffusion, characterized by millimeter-scale fingers. Gravitational settling slightly increases the growth rate; however, it has notable effect on the downward development of vertical mixing shortly after the sediment interface migrates below the salt interface. For sediment with V0 = 0.0144 mm/s, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities become dominant before double-diffusive modes grow sufficiently large. Centimeter-scale and highly asymmetric sediment fingers are obtained due to nonlinear interactions between different modes. For sediment with V0 = 0.36 mm/s, Rayleigh-Taylor mechanism dominates and the resulting centimeter-scale sediment fingers show a plume-like structure. The flow pattern is similar to that without ambient salt stratification. Rapid sedimentation with effective settling velocity on the order of 1 cm/s is likely driven by convective sedimentation for sediment with V0 greater than 0.1 mm/s at concentration greater than 10-20 g/L.

  12. Numerical Study for Baroclinic Tides Modified By an Oblique Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. A.; Jan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Previous investigations suggest that when the internal waves throughout a northwest - southeast background flow, its amplitudes, propagation path, phase speed might be changed. The process occurring when internal tides meet a background geostrophic current at an angle rather than perpendicular to the current in a zonal channel is investigated using a numerical model with simplified forcing, topography and hydrographic setting. We compared numerical results of two different background conditions: (1) no background flow and (2) oblique background flow. Results indicate that the westward baroclinic energy flux tends to increase when internal tides pass through the background geostrophic flow. Different oblique angles of the background flow also cause different responses on the propagation of internal tides. The energy exchange between the internal tides and background flow is analyzed using an energy balance equation as well as the numerical results.

  13. Numerical bifurcation study of electrohydrodynamic convection in nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Tavener, S J; Mullin, T; Blake, G I; Cliffe, K A

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of a numerical investigation of the Ericksen-Leslie equations for the problem of electrohydrodynamic convection in a nematic liquid crystal. The combination of a finite element approach and numerical bifurcation techniques allows us to provide details of the basic flow and include the physically relevant effect of nonslip side walls. We are also able to include material properties as parameters and this permits us to draw comparisons with available experimental data. We then compare and contrast the bifurcation structure with that of Rayleigh-Bénard and Taylor-Couette flows and explore the role of symmetries by including a fringing electric field. PMID:11304279

  14. A numerical study of drop-on-demand ink jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromm, J.

    1982-01-01

    Ongoing work related to development and utilization of a numerical model for treating the fluid dynamics of ink jets is discussed. The model embodies the complete nonlinear, time dependent, axi-symmetric equations in finite difference form. The jet nozzle geometry with no-slip boundary conditions and the existence of a contact circle are included. The contact circle is allowed some freedom of movement, but wetting of exterior surfaces is not addressed. The principal objective in current numerical experiments is to determine what pressure history, in conjunction with surface forces, will lead to clean drop formation.

  15. Feasibility study for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, N. R.; Bergman, R. O.; Bonstrom, D. B.; Brinkman, T. W.; Chiu, S. H. J.; Green, S. S.; Hansen, S. D.; Klein, D. L.; Krohn, H. E.; Prow, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    A Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) was designed for the simulation of fluid flow around three-dimensional bodies, both in wind tunnel environments and in free space. The application of numerical simulation to this field of endeavor promised to yield economies in aerodynamic and aircraft body designs. A model for a NASF/FMP (Flow Model Processor) ensemble using a possible approach to meeting NASF goals is presented. The computer hardware and software are presented, along with the entire design and performance analysis and evaluation.

  16. Numerical studies of third-harmonic generation in laser filament in air perturbed by plasma spot

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Liubin; Lu Xin; Liu Xiaolong; Li Yutong; Chen Liming; Ma Jinglong; Dong Quanli; Wang Weimin; Xi Tingting; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; He Duanwei

    2012-07-15

    Third-harmonic emission from laser filament intercepted by plasma spot is studied by numerical simulations. Significant enhancement of the third-harmonic generation is obtained due to the disturbance of the additional plasma. The contribution of the pure plasma effect and the possible plasma-enhanced third-order susceptibility on the third-harmonic generation enhancement are compared. It is shown that the plasma induced cancellation of destructive interference [Y. Liu et al., Opt. Commun. 284, 4706 (2011)] of two-colored filament is the dominant mechanism of the enhancement of third-harmonic generation.

  17. BEM-based numerical study of three-dimensional compressible bubble dynamics in stokes flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramova, O. A.; Akhatov, I. Sh.; Gumerov, N. A.; Itkulova, Yu. A.

    2014-09-01

    The dynamics of compressible gas bubbles in a viscous shear flow and an acoustic field at low Reynolds numbers is studied. The numerical approach is based on the boundary element method (BEM), which is effective as applied to the three-dimensional simulation of bubble deformation. However, the application of the conventional BEM to compressible bubble dynamics faces difficulties caused by the degeneration of the resulting algebraic system. Additional relations based on the Lorentz reciprocity principle are used to cope with this problem. Test computations of the dynamics of a single bubble and bubble clusters in acoustic fields and shear flows are presented.

  18. Numerical study of 1-D, 3-vector component, thermally-conductive MHD solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, S.; Wu, S. T.; Dryer, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the present study, transient, 1-dimensional, 3-vector component MHD equations are used to simulate steady and unsteady, thermally conductive MHD solar wind expansions between the solar surface and 1 AU (astronomical unit). A variant of SIMPLE numerical method was used to integrate the equations. Steady state solar wind properties exhibit qualitatively similar behavior with the known Weber-Davies Solutions. Generation of Alfven shock, in addition to the slow and fast MHD shocks, was attempted by the boundary perturbations at the solar surface. Property changes through the disturbance were positively correlated with the fast and slow MHD shocks. Alfven shock was, however, not present in the present simulations.

  19. Additional EIPC Study Analysis: Interim Report on High Priority Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W

    2013-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 13 topics was developed for further analysis; this paper discusses the first five.

  20. Numerical Study of a Bosonic Topological Insulator in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraedts, Scott; Motrunich, Olexei

    2014-03-01

    We construct a model which realizes a (3+1)-dimensional symmetry-protected topological phase of bosons with U(1) charge conservation and time reversal symmetry, envisioned by A. Vishwanath and T. Senthil [PRX 4 011016]. Our model works by introducing an additional O(3) degree of freedom, and binding its hedgehogs to a species of charged bosons; the continuous symmetry is thus enlarged to SO(3) × U(1) . We study the model using Monte Carlo and determine its bulk phase diagram; the phase where the bound states of hedgehogs and charges condense is the topological phase. We also study surface phase diagram on a (2+1)-dimensional boundary between the topological and trivial insulators. The theory for the surface is the same as for a (2+1)D hedgehog-suppressed non-linear sigma model, which confirms the proposed so-called NCCP1 field theory. We apply a Zeeman field to the surface, which breaks time reversal on the surface only, and observe a surface Hall conductivity which is half of a quantized value allowed for bosons in strictly (2+1)D, thus establishing topological nature of the (3+1)D bulk phase. Support from NSF Grant DMR-1206096; Caltech Institute of Quantum Imformation and Matter, and an NSERC PGS fellowship.

  1. Numerical Study of Interaction of a Vortical Density Inhomogeneity with Shock and Expansion Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povitsky, A.; Ofengeim, D.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the interaction of a vortical density inhomogeneity (VDI) with shock and expansion waves. We call the VDI the region of concentrated vorticity (vortex) with a density different from that of ambiance. Non-parallel directions of the density gradient normal to the VDI surface and the pressure gradient across a shock wave results in an additional vorticity. The roll-up of the initial round VDI towards a non-symmetrical shape is studied numerically. Numerical modeling of this interaction is performed by a 2-D Euler code. The use of an adaptive unstructured numerical grid makes it possible to obtain high accuracy and capture regions of induced vorticity with a moderate overall number of mesh points. For the validation of the code, the computational results are compared with available experimental results and good agreement is obtained. The interaction of the VDI with a propagating shock wave is studied for a range of initial and induced circulations and obtained flow patterns are presented. The splitting of the VDI develops into the formation of a non-symmetrical vortex pair and not in a set of vortices. A method for the analytical computation of an overall induced circulation Gamma(sub 1) as a result of the interaction of a moving VDI with a number of waves is proposed. Simplified, approximated, expressions for Gamma(sub 1) are derived and their accuracy is discussed. The splitting of the VDI passing through the Prandtl-Meyer expansion wave is studied numerically. The obtained VDI patterns are compared to those for the interaction of the VDI with a propagating shock wave for the same values of initial and induced circulations. These patterns have similar shapes for corresponding time moments.

  2. Numerical magnitude processing in abacus-trained children with superior mathematical ability: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Du, Feng-lei; Yao, Yuan; Wan, Qun; Wang, Xiao-Song; Chen, Fei-Yan

    2015-08-01

    Distance effect has been regarded as the best established marker of basic numerical magnitude processes and is related to individual mathematical abilities. A larger behavioral distance effect is suggested to be concomitant with lower mathematical achievement in children. However, the relationship between distance effect and superior mathematical abilities is unclear. One could get superior mathematical abilities by acquiring the skill of abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), which can be used to solve calculation problems with exceptional speed and high accuracy. In the current study, we explore the relationship between distance effect and superior mathematical abilities by examining whether and how the AMC training modifies numerical magnitude processing. Thus, mathematical competencies were tested in 18 abacus-trained children (who accepted the AMC training) and 18 non-trained children. Electroencephalography (EEG) waveforms were recorded when these children executed numerical comparison tasks in both Arabic digit and dot array forms. We found that: (a) the abacus-trained group had superior mathematical abilities than their peers; (b) distance effects were found both in behavioral results and on EEG waveforms; (c) the distance effect size of the average amplitude on the late negative-going component was different between groups in the digit task, with a larger effect size for abacus-trained children; (d) both the behavioral and EEG distance effects were modulated by the notation. These results revealed that the neural substrates of magnitude processing were modified by AMC training, and suggested that the mechanism of the representation of numerical magnitude for children with superior mathematical abilities was different from their peers. In addition, the results provide evidence for a view of non-abstract numerical representation. PMID:26238541

  3. Numerical magnitude processing in abacus-trained children with superior mathematical ability: an EEG study*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian; Du, Feng-lei; Yao, Yuan; Wan, Qun; Wang, Xiao-song; Chen, Fei-yan

    2015-01-01

    Distance effect has been regarded as the best established marker of basic numerical magnitude processes and is related to individual mathematical abilities. A larger behavioral distance effect is suggested to be concomitant with lower mathematical achievement in children. However, the relationship between distance effect and superior mathematical abilities is unclear. One could get superior mathematical abilities by acquiring the skill of abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), which can be used to solve calculation problems with exceptional speed and high accuracy. In the current study, we explore the relationship between distance effect and superior mathematical abilities by examining whether and how the AMC training modifies numerical magnitude processing. Thus, mathematical competencies were tested in 18 abacus-trained children (who accepted the AMC training) and 18 non-trained children. Electroencephalography (EEG) waveforms were recorded when these children executed numerical comparison tasks in both Arabic digit and dot array forms. We found that: (a) the abacus-trained group had superior mathematical abilities than their peers; (b) distance effects were found both in behavioral results and on EEG waveforms; (c) the distance effect size of the average amplitude on the late negative-going component was different between groups in the digit task, with a larger effect size for abacus-trained children; (d) both the behavioral and EEG distance effects were modulated by the notation. These results revealed that the neural substrates of magnitude processing were modified by AMC training, and suggested that the mechanism of the representation of numerical magnitude for children with superior mathematical abilities was different from their peers. In addition, the results provide evidence for a view of non-abstract numerical representation. PMID:26238541

  4. A numerical study of scaling issues for trench power MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, J.; Cortés, I.; Jiménez, D.; Flores, D.; Iñiguez, B.; Hidalgo, S.; Rebollo, J.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of the scaling down on the electrical performance of trench power MOSFET structures is investigated in this work by means of numerical simulation tools. Layout dimensions of trench power MOSFETs have been continuously reduced in order to decrease the specific on-resistance, maintaining equal vertical dimensions. Nowadays, the last scaling efforts provide trench width and distance between two consecutive trenches in the submicron range. The resultant short distance between gates is expected to induce significant modifications in the device electrical performances, since the fully depletion condition will be feasible in the body region. Hence, the influence of the fully depleted body on the on-state resistance, threshold voltage, breakdown voltage, parasitic bipolar transistor and internal capacitances are features of particular interest. Furthermore, device reliability aspects, such as hot-carrier and self-heating effects, are evaluated by numerical simulation in trench power MOSFETs for the first time.

  5. Numerical studies of motion and decay of vortex filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.; Tavantzis, J.; Ting, L.

    1986-01-01

    A computational code is developed for the integro-differential equations governing the motion of the centerlines of vortex filaments submerged in a background potential flow. These equations, which are derived from the method of matched asymptotic analysis, include the effect of decaying large-magnitude circumferential and axial velocity components in the vortical cores. Numerical examples are presented to assess the effect of large axial velocity and of nonsimilar initial profiles in vortical cores. The initial configurations of the filaments are chosen so as to fulfill the basic assumption of asymptotic analysis, which is the effective vortical core size is much smaller than all other length scales in the flowfield, e.g., the radius of curvature and interfilament distance. The computations are continued until the basic assumption is no longer valid, that is, when the merging or intersection of filaments have begun. Various types of local or global merging or intersection of filaments are classified and demonstrated by numerical examples.

  6. Lift augmentation via spanwise tip blowing - A numerical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a low aspect ratio wing with and without a spanwise directed jet issuing from the wing tip have been performed. The results show that the tip vortex is displaced outward and upward by the blowing. This gives rise to a local lift augmentation mechanism, vortex lift caused by the vortex core being above the wing, and a global mechanism, the reduction of induced velocities due to greater apparent spin.

  7. Numerical study on thermodynamic characteristics of rotational supercavitating evaporator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Zheng, Z. Y.; Li, F. C.; Kulagin, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    Rotational Supercavitating Evaporator (RSCE) has been proposed as a new technology for seawater desalination. However, thermodynamic characteristics of rotational supercavitation are still vacant. In this paper, numerical simulations are conducted on the supercavitating flows around a 3D rotating blade of RSCE with different rotational speeds and extraction pressures. Energy effect is taken into consideration in the simulation and thermodynamic characteristics of rotational supercavitation are obtained. Rotational supercavitation has a larger convective heat transfer coefficient than the boiling on a heated wall.

  8. Computed microtomography and numerical study of porous rock samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielecki, J.; Jarzyna, J.; Bożek, S.; Lekki, J.; Stachura, Z.; Kwiatek, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    Measurement of physical properties of porous geological materials is a crucial issue in oil and gas recovery industry. A conventional experimental way to obtain information on porosity, pore size distribution, specific surface area and permeability are the intrusion porosimetry and permeameter measurement. However, in this approach Washburn's equation is usually used, thus approximation of cylindrical pore shapes is made. However, in recent times the computed microtomography (CMT) technique is more widely used in geoscience (Appoloni et al., 2007). We have already reported preliminary results of investigation of elemental content, microporosity, and specific surface area of porous rocks by means of the CMT technique based on a laboratory source (Bielecki et al., 2012). In this paper, results of complex study of porous rock samples with the use of X-ray CMT (laboratory-source-based facility and synchrotron radiation source) combined with permeability tensor computation by means of the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) are presented. Moreover, the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method was additionally used for elemental content determination of pores-filling substance.

  9. Numerical study on dry deposition processes in canopy layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Xiaoen; Chang, Julius S.

    1992-12-01

    A coupling model between the canopy layer(CL) and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) for the study of dry deposition velocity is developed. The model consists of six parts: chemical species conservation equation including absorptive factor; the species uptake action including detailed vertical variation of absorptive element in CL; momentum exchange in CL which is represented by a first-order closure momentum equation with an additional larger-scale diffusive term; momentum exchange in ABL which is described by a complete set of the ABL turbulent statistic parameters; absorptivity (or solubility or reflection) at the surface including effects of the physical and chemical characters of the species, land type, seasonal and diurnal variations of the meteorological variables; and deposition velocity derived by distributions of the species with height in CL. Variational rules of the concentration and deposition velocity with both height and time are simulated with the model for both corn and forest canopies. Results predicted with the bulk deposition velocity derived in the paper consist well with experimental data.

  10. Numerical studies of a plasma diode with external forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Rekaa, V. L.; Pecseli, H. L.; Trulsen, J. K.

    2012-08-15

    With reference to laboratory Q-machine studies we analyze the dynamics of a plasma diode under external forcing. Assuming a strong axial magnetic field, the problem is analyzed in one spatial dimension by a particle-in-cell code. The cathode is assumed to be operated in electron rich conditions, supplying an abundance of electrons. We compare different forcing schemes with the results obtained by solving the van der Pol equation. In one method of forcing we apply an oscillation in addition to the DC end plate bias and consider both amplitude and frequency variations. An alternative method of perturbation consists of modelling an absorbing grid at some internal position. Also in this case we can have a constant frequency with varying amplitude or alternatively an oscillation with chirped frequency but constant amplitude. We find that the overall features of the forced van der Pol equation are recovered, but the details in the plasma response need more attention to the harmonic responses, requiring extensions of the model equation. The analysis is extended by introducing collisional effects, where we emphasize charge exchange collisions of ions, since these processes usually have the largest cross sections and give significant modifications of the diode performance. In particular we find a reduction in oscillator frequency, although a linear scaling of the oscillation time with the system length remains also in this case.

  11. Experimental and Numerical Study of Ammonium Perchlorate Counterflow Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smooke, M. D.; Yetter, R. A.; Parr, T. P.; Hanson-Parr, D. M.; Tanoff, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    Many solid rocket propellants are based on a composite mixture of ammonium perchlorate (AP) oxidizer and polymeric binder fuels. In these propellants, complex three-dimensional diffusion flame structures between the AP and binder decomposition products, dependent upon the length scales of the heterogeneous mixture, drive the combustion via heat transfer back to the surface. Changing the AP crystal size changes the burn rate of such propellants. Large AP crystals are governed by the cooler AP self-deflagration flame and burn slowly, while small AP crystals are governed more by the hot diffusion flame with the binder and burn faster. This allows control of composite propellant ballistic properties via particle size variation. Previous measurements on these diffusion flames in the planar two-dimensional sandwich configuration yielded insight into controlling flame structure, but there are several drawbacks that make comparison with modeling difficult. First, the flames are two-dimensional and this makes modeling much more complex computationally than with one-dimensional problems, such as RDX self- and laser-supported deflagration. In addition, little is known about the nature, concentration, and evolution rates of the gaseous chemical species produced by the various binders as they decompose. This makes comparison with models quite difficult. Alternatively, counterflow flames provide an excellent geometric configuration within which AP/binder diffusion flames can be studied both experimentally and computationally.

  12. Numerical studies of a plasma diode with external forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekaa, V. L.; Pécseli, H. L.; Trulsen, J. K.

    2012-08-01

    With reference to laboratory Q-machine studies we analyze the dynamics of a plasma diode under external forcing. Assuming a strong axial magnetic field, the problem is analyzed in one spatial dimension by a particle-in-cell code. The cathode is assumed to be operated in electron rich conditions, supplying an abundance of electrons. We compare different forcing schemes with the results obtained by solving the van der Pol equation. In one method of forcing we apply an oscillation in addition to the DC end plate bias and consider both amplitude and frequency variations. An alternative method of perturbation consists of modelling an absorbing grid at some internal position. Also in this case we can have a constant frequency with varying amplitude or alternatively an oscillation with chirped frequency but constant amplitude. We find that the overall features of the forced van der Pol equation are recovered, but the details in the plasma response need more attention to the harmonic responses, requiring extensions of the model equation. The analysis is extended by introducing collisional effects, where we emphasize charge exchange collisions of ions, since these processes usually have the largest cross sections and give significant modifications of the diode performance. In particular we find a reduction in oscillator frequency, although a linear scaling of the oscillation time with the system length remains also in this case.

  13. A numerical study of electromagnetic scattering from ocean like surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lentz, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    The integral equations describing electromagnetic scattering from one dimensional conducting surfaces are formulated and numerical results are presented. The results are compared with those obtained using approximate methods such as physical optics, geometrical optics, and perturbation theory. The integral equation solutions show that the surface radius of curvature must be greater than 2.5 wavelengths for either the physical optics or geometric optics to give satisfactory results. It has also been shown that perturbation theory agrees with the exact fields as long as the root mean square surface roughness is less than one-tenth of a wavelength.

  14. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility preliminary study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A technology forecast was established for the 1980-1985 time frame and the appropriateness of various logic and memory technologies for the design of the numerical aerodynamic simulation facility was assessed. Flow models and their characteristics were analyzed and matched against candidate processor architecture. Metrics were established for the total facility, and housing and support requirements of the facility were identified. An overview of the system is presented, with emphasis on the hardware of the Navier-Stokes solver, which is the key element of the system. Software elements of the system are also discussed.

  15. Numerical study of flow around NACA0015 in ground effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malti, Khadidja; Hebow, Hanaa; Imine, Bachir

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to present a numerical simulation of flow around a wing profile NACA0015 under the ground effect. CFD software has been used to determine the aerodynamic performance for different angles of incidence. The flow is considered two-dimensional and the adopted meshing considered the effects of the boundary layer. The Spalart-Almaras turbulence model was adopted for the investigation of complex flow around the profile. The results obtained by CFD were compared to those obtained by the literature.

  16. Numerical study of a scramjet engine flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. P.; Weidner, E. H.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to analyze the turbulent reacting flow field in a two-dimensional scramjet engine configuration. The program numerically solves the full two-dimensional Navier-Stokes and species equations in the engine inlet and combustor, allowing consideration of flow separation and possible inlet-combustor interactions. The current work represents an intermediate step towards development of a three-dimensional program to analyze actual scramjet engine flow fields. Results from the current program are presented that predict the flow field for two inlet-combustor configurations, and comparisons of the program with experiment are given to allow assessment of the modeling that is employed.

  17. Numerical studies of ablation and ionization of railgun materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schnurr, N.M.; Kerrisk, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The intense radiation from the arc in a railgun may cause vaporization and partial ionization of rail and insulator material. The mass of material added to the arc can have a significant adverse effect on projectile velocity. A numerical model has been developed to predict the change in mass of the arc as a function of several parameters. That model has been incorporated in the Los Alamos Railgun Estimator (LARGE) code and simulations have been run to assess the accuracy of the model. Analytical predictions were found to be in good agreement with experimental data for railgun tests run at Los Alamos. Ablation appears to have a significant effect on railgun performance.

  18. Numerical studies of the radiant flash pyrolysis of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, V.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    When biomass particles are heated very rapidly (temperatures greater than 1000 degrees/s) in an oxygen free environment, they undergo pyrolysis with the formation of little or no char. If concentrated solar energy is used to rapidly heat the particles their temperature may exceed that of the surrounding gaseous environment by several hundred degrees Celsius when pyrolysis occurs. This two temperature effect gives rise to the formation of high yields of syrups from the pyrolyzing biomass. Numerical exploration of the combined effects of heat and mass transfer on the radiative flash pyrolysis phenonmena are described in this paper. 12 references.

  19. Numerical Study on Coalescence of Pre-Existing Flaw Pairs in Rock-Like Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huan-Qiang; Wong, Louis Ngai Yuen

    2014-11-01

    The present numerical study, which is an extension of our previous numerical analysis on cracking processes of a single pre-existing flaw, focuses on the coalescence of two pre-existing parallel open flaws in rock subjected to a uniaxial compressive loading. To facilitate a systematic investigation, the arrangements of the flaw pair are classified into 11 categories. Simulations engaging AUTODYN are conducted on each category. The numerical results are compared with some published physical experimental test results. Eleven typical coalescence patterns are obtained, which are in good agreement with the experimental results, which include two coalescence patterns obtained in flaw pair arrangements (II) and (VIII″) not being reported in previous studies. The information gathered in the simulations helps identify the type (tensile/shear) of each crack segment involved in the coalescence. Most of the coalescence cracks initiate at or around the flaw tips, except those in flaw pair arrangements (II) and (IX') with a very short ligament length, in which the coalescence cracks initiate on the flaw surfaces away from the flaw tip regions. Based on the numerical simulation results, the properties of the 11 coalescence patterns are obtained. Except those in flaw pair arrangements (II) and (IX'), the other coalescence patterns can be interpreted with respect to the basic crack types—tensile wing crack, horsetail crack and anti-wing crack. In addition, based on the type of crack segments involved in coalescence, namely tensile and shear, the coalescence can be classified into T mode (tensile mode), S mode (shear mode) and TS mode (mixed tensile-shear mode).

  20. Numerical study on the power extraction performance of a flapping foil with a flexible tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Shu, C.; Zhao, N.; Tian, F.-B.

    2015-01-01

    The numerical study on the power extraction performance of a flapping foil with a flexible tail is performed in this work. A NACA0015 airfoil is arranged in a two-dimensional laminar flow and imposed with a synchronous harmonic plunge and pitch rotary motion. A flat plate that is attached to the trailing edge of the foil is utilized to model a tail, and so they are viewed as a whole for the purpose of power extraction. In addition, the tail either is rigid or can deform due to the exerted hydrodynamic forces. To implement numerical simulations, an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method is employed. At a Reynolds number of 1100 and the position of the pitching axis at third chord, the influences of the mass and flexibility of the tail as well as the frequency of motion on the power extraction are systematically examined. It is found that compared to the foil with a rigid tail, the efficiency of power extraction for the foil with a deformable tail can be improved. Based on the numerical analysis, it is indicated that the enhanced plunging component of the power extraction, which is caused by the increased lift force, directly contributes to the efficiency improvement. Since a flexible tail with medium and high masses is not beneficial to the efficiency improvement, a flexible tail with low mass together with high flexibility is recommended in the flapping foil based power extraction system.

  1. Numerical study of the anode boundary layer in atmospheric pressure arc discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, I. L.; Krivtsun, I. V.; Reisgen, U.

    2016-03-01

    The anode boundary layer in atmospheric pressure arc discharges is studied numerically on the basis of the hydrodynamic (diffusion) equations for plasma components. The governing equations are formulated in a unified manner without the assumptions of thermal equilibrium, ionization equilibrium or quasi-neutrality. For comparison, a quasi-neutral model of the anode layer is also considered. The numerical computations are performed for an argon arc at typical values of the current density in anode layers (500-2000 A cm-2). The results of numerical modelling show that the common collisionless model of the sheath fails to describe the sheath region for the problem under consideration. For this reason, a detailed analysis of the anode sheath is performed using the results of unified modelling. In addition, the distributions of plasma parameters in the anode layer are analysed and the basic characteristics of the layer (anode voltage drop, sheath voltage drop, anode layer thickness, sheath thickness, heat flux to the anode) are calculated. Our results are found to be in good agreement with the existing theoretical predictions and experimental data. The dependence of the anode layer characteristics on the current density is also discussed.

  2. Numerical study of the impact response of woodpecker's head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhao Dan; Ma, Guo Jun; Wu, Cheng Wei; Chen, Zhen

    2012-12-01

    Woodpecker can beat trees 20-25 times per second and lasts for several seconds, with a 1200 g deceleration, but it appears that they never get brain concussion. How does the stress wave propagate from the beak tip to brain and how does a woodpecker protect itself from brain damage? In this paper, we establish a finite element model of typical woodpecker head based on its X-ray tomography images and conduct the numerical analysis of the impact response of the woodpecker's head by using a viscoelasticity material model. Especially, the woodpecker head response to an impact speed of 7 m/s is investigated to explore the stress concentration zone and how the stress wave propagates in its head. The numerical results show that the stress wave in the head propagates from the upper beak to back skull and is reduced by the specific structure of hyoid and viscoelasticity of biomaterials. The maximum stresses in skull and brain are both below the safe level. The stress in skull almost disappears before the next impact. The stress in brain lasts for a little longer but shows smaller value with little variation. The stress is impossible to accumulate in the limited pecking time, so the brain damage can be avoided.

  3. Numerical and Experimental Studies on Impact Loaded Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Saarenheimo, Arja; Hakola, Ilkka; Karna, Tuomo; Hyvarinen, Juhani

    2006-07-01

    An experimental set-up has been constructed for medium scale impact tests. The main objective of this effort is to provide data for the calibration and verification of numerical models of a loading scenario where an aircraft impacts against a nuclear power plant. One goal is to develop and take in use numerical methods for predicting response of reinforced concrete structures to impacts of deformable projectiles that may contain combustible liquid ('fuel'). Loading, structural behaviour, like collapsing mechanism and the damage grade, will be predicted by simple analytical methods and using non-linear FE-method. In the so-called Riera method the behavior of the missile material is assumed to be rigid plastic or rigid visco-plastic. Using elastic plastic and elastic visco-plastic material models calculations are carried out by ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code, assuming axisymmetric deformation mode for the missile. With both methods, typically, the impact force time history, the velocity of the missile rear end and the missile shortening during the impact were recorded for comparisons. (authors)

  4. Numerical Studies of Magnetization Reversal in Thin Annular Nanorings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves-O'Flynn, Gabriel; Kent, Andrew; Stein, Daniel; Bedau, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    The rate of thermally activated magnetization reversal in thin ferromagnetic nanorings has been found analytically in a 1D model in which the demagnetization energy is approximated by a local surface term [1]. Numerical micromagnetic calculations confirm all aspects of the analytic model for narrow thin rings, such as permalloy rings of 200 nm mean radius, 40 nm width and 2 nm thickness [2]. However, the model breaks down in for extremely wide rings, when the ring width approaches its mean diameter. Here we present numerical micromagnetic results for the transition states between the clockwise and counterclockwise state in this limit. We describe how the two transition configurations of narrow rings cease to be saddles of the energy functional. Also, a new low energy metastable state is found to exist for a narrow range of fields. We discuss the results of applying the String Method [3] to determine the transition states and energy barriers between the lowest magnetization configurations of rings. [1] K. Martens, D.L. Stein, and A.D. Kent, PRB 73, 054413 (2006) [2] G. D. Chaves-O'Flynn, D.L. Stein, and A.D. Kent, arXiv:0811.0440 (2008) [3] W. E, W. Ren, E. Vanden-Eijnden, J. Chem. Phys 126, 164103 (2007)

  5. A water soluble additive to suppress respirable dust from concrete-cutting chainsaws: a case study.

    PubMed

    Summers, Michael P; Parmigiani, John P

    2015-01-01

    Respirable dust is of particular concern in the construction industry because it contains crystalline silica. Respirable forms of silica are a severe health threat because they heighten the risk of numerous respirable diseases. Concrete cutting, a common work practice in the construction industry, is a major contributor to dust generation. No studies have been found that focus on the dust suppression of concrete-cutting chainsaws, presumably because, during normal operation water is supplied continuously and copiously to the dust generation points. However, there is a desire to better understand dust creation at low water flow rates. In this case study, a water-soluble surfactant additive was used in the chainsaw's water supply. Cutting was performed on a free-standing concrete wall in a covered outdoor lab with a hand-held, gas-powered, concrete-cutting chainsaw. Air was sampled at the operator's lapel, and around the concrete wall to simulate nearby personnel. Two additive concentrations were tested (2.0% and 0.2%), across a range of fluid flow rates (0.38-3.8 Lpm [0.1-1.0 gpm] at 0.38 Lpm [0.1 gpm] increments). Results indicate that when a lower concentration of additive is used exposure levels increase. However, all exposure levels, once adjusted for 3 hours of continuous cutting in an 8-hour work shift, are below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 5 mg/m(3). Estimates were made using trend lines to predict the fluid flow rates that would cause respirable dust exposure to exceed both the OSHA PEL and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) threshold limit value (TLV). PMID:25714034

  6. Numerical model study of radio frequency vessel sealing thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, John

    2015-03-01

    Several clinically successful clinical radio frequency vessel-sealing devices are currently available. The dominant thermodynamic principles at work involve tissue water vaporization processes. It is necessary to thermally denature vessel collagen, elastin and their adherent proteins to achieve a successful fusion. Collagens denature at middle temperatures, between about 60 and 90 C depending on heating time and rate. Elastin, and its adherent proteins, are more thermally robust, and require temperatures in excess of the boiling point of water at atmospheric pressure to thermally fuse. Rapid boiling at low apposition pressures leads to steam vacuole formation, brittle tissue remnants and frequently to substantial disruption in the vessel wall, particularly in high elastin-content arteries. High apposition pressures substantially increase the equilibrium boiling point of tissue water and are necessary to ensure a high probability of a successful seal. The FDM numerical models illustrate the beneficial effects of high apposition pressures.

  7. Poroelastic toughening in polymer gels: A theoretical and numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noselli, Giovanni; Lucantonio, Alessandro; McMeeking, Robert M.; DeSimone, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    We explore the Mode I fracture toughness of a polymer gel containing a semi-infinite, growing crack. First, an expression is derived for the energy release rate within the linearized, small-strain setting. This expression reveals a crack tip velocity-independent toughening that stems from the poroelastic nature of polymer gels. Then, we establish a poroelastic cohesive zone model that allows us to describe the micromechanics of fracture in gels by identifying the role of solvent pressure in promoting poroelastic toughening. We evaluate the enhancement in the effective fracture toughness through asymptotic analysis. We confirm our theoretical findings by means of numerical simulations concerning the case of a steadily propagating crack. In broad terms, our results explain the role of poroelasticity and of the processes occurring in the fracturing region in promoting toughening of polymer gels.

  8. Numerical Study of Unsteady Supercavitation Perturbed by a Pressure Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J. G.; Khoo, B. C.

    2016-06-01

    The unsteady features of supercavitation disturbed by an introduced pressure wave are investigated numerically using a one-fluid cavitation model. The supercavitating flow is assumed to be the homogeneous mixture of liquid and vapour which are locally under both kinetic and thermodynamic equilibrium. The compressibility effects of liquid water are taken into account to model the propagation of pressure wave through flow and its interaction with supercavitation bubble. The interaction between supercavity enveloping an underwater flat-nose cylinder and pressure wave is simulated and the resulting unsteady behavior of supercavitation is illustrated. It is observed that the supercavity will become unstable under the impact of the pressure wave and may collapse locally, which depends on the strength of perturbation. The huge pressure surge accompanying the collapse of supercavitation may cause the material erosion, noise, vibration and efficiency loss of operating underwater devices.

  9. Progress report on LBL's numerical modeling studies on Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman-Dooley, S.E.; Lippman, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1989-04-01

    An exploitation model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system is needed to assess the energy capacity of the field, estimate its productive lifetime and develop an optimal reservoir management plan. The model must consider the natural state (i.e., pre-exploitation) conditions of the system and be able to predict changes in the reservoir thermodynamic conditions (and fluid chemistry) in response to fluid production (and injection). This paper discusses the results of a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the natural state conditions of the Cerro Prieto field and compares computed and observed pressure and temperature/enthalpy changes for the 1973--1987 production period. 16 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Statistical properties of a cloud ensemble - A numerical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne; Soong, Su-Tzai

    1987-01-01

    The statistical properties of cloud ensembles under a specified large-scale environment, such as mass flux by cloud drafts and vertical velocity as well as the condensation and evaporation associated with these cloud drafts, are examined using a three-dimensional numerical cloud ensemble model described by Soong and Ogura (1980) and Tao and Soong (1986). The cloud drafts are classified as active and inactive, and separate contributions to cloud statistics in areas of different cloud activity are then evaluated. The model results compare well with results obtained from aircraft measurements of a well-organized ITCZ rainband that occurred on August 12, 1974, during the Global Atmospheric Research Program's Atlantic Tropical Experiment.

  11. A numerical study of separation on a spheroid at incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, M.; Israeli, M.; Wolfshtein, M.

    1986-01-01

    The three-dimensional incompressible, steady and laminar flow field around a prolate spheroid at incidence is considered. The parabolized Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically. The method can handle vortex types as well as bubble type flow separation because the pressure is one of the dependent variables. Here, the distribution of the skin friction is reported for two test cases. The first test case is a prolate spheroid of aspect ratio of 4:1 at 6 degrees incidence and Reynolds number of 1 million (based on half the major axis). The second case is a spheroid with a 6:1 aspect ratio at 10 degrees incidence and Reynolds number of 0.8 x 1 million. The properties of the flow field near the body are discussed on the basis of the pattern of the skin friction lines, and the shape of the separation lines. Favorable agreement with experimental results is obtained.

  12. A numerical study of bifurcations in a barotropic shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huerre, P.; Keefe, L. R.; Meunier, G.; Redekopp, L. G.; Spalart, P. R.; Rogers, M. M.

    1988-01-01

    In the last few years, more and more evidence has emerged suggesting that transition to turbulence may be viewed as a succession of bifurcations to deterministic chaos. Most experimental and numerical observations have been restricted to Rayleigh-Benard convection and Taylor-Couette flow between concentric cylinders. An attempt is made to accurately describe the bifurcation sequence leading to chaos in a 2-D temporal free shear layer on the beta-plane. The beta-plane is a locally Cartesian reduction of the equations describing the dynamicss of a shallow layer of fluid on a rotating spherical planet. It is a valid model for large scale flows of interest in meteorology and oceanography.

  13. Numerical studies of identification in nonlinear distributed parameter systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Lo, C. K.; Reich, Simeon; Rosen, I. G.

    1989-01-01

    An abstract approximation framework and convergence theory for the identification of first and second order nonlinear distributed parameter systems developed previously by the authors and reported on in detail elsewhere are summarized and discussed. The theory is based upon results for systems whose dynamics can be described by monotone operators in Hilbert space and an abstract approximation theorem for the resulting nonlinear evolution system. The application of the theory together with numerical evidence demonstrating the feasibility of the general approach are discussed in the context of the identification of a first order quasi-linear parabolic model for one dimensional heat conduction/mass transport and the identification of a nonlinear dissipation mechanism (i.e., damping) in a second order one dimensional wave equation. Computational and implementational considerations, in particular, with regard to supercomputing, are addressed.

  14. Characteristic Numerical Relativity Applied to Hydrodynamic Studies of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebel, F.; Font, J. A.; Müller, E.; Papadopoulos, P.

    2002-12-01

    We present tests and results of a new axisymmetric, fully general relativistic code with a perfect fluid matter field. Our implementation is based on the null cone formalism of Bondi [2] and Tamburino-Winicour [14,15]. 3D characteristic numerical relativity has been proven to be very stable and accurate for evolutions of black hole spacetimes [7]. Following previous work [8,1] we solve the Einstein equation for a stress-energy tensor of a perfect fluid in characteristic coordinates. The evolution of the matter fields is performed using relativistic high-resolution shock-capturing schemes [4,11,13] based upon Riemann solvers. The implementation of such schemes in a 3D characteristic code is the current subject of a collaboration (GRACE). In this work we restrict ourselves to axisymmetric spacetimes, building on the vacuum code of Gómez, Papadopoulos and Winicour [6]. Applications in spherical symmetry have been presented in [11,12,9]...

  15. Numerical studies of the radiant flash pyrolysis of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, V.; Antal, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    When biomass particles are heated very rapidly (>1000/sup 0/C/s) in an oxygen free environment, they undergo pyrolysis with the formation of little or no char. If concentrated solar energy is used to rapidly heat the particles, their temperature may exceed that of the surrounding gaseous environment by several hundred degrees Celsius when pyrolysis occurs. This ''two temperature'' effect gives rise to the formation of high yields of sirups from the pyrolyzing biomass. Interest in the selective formation of sirups during the radiative flash pyrolysis of biomass caused the authors to initiate numerical explorations of the combined effects of heat and mass transfer on the radiative flash pyrolysis phenomena. These explorations are described in this paper.

  16. Experimental and numerical studies of high-velocity impact fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kipp, M.E.; Grady, D.E.; Swegle, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    Developments are reported in both experimental and numerical capabilities for characterizing the debris spray produced in penetration events. We have performed a series of high-velocity experiments specifically designed to examine the fragmentation of the projectile during impact. High-strength, well-characterized steel spheres (6.35 mm diameter) were launched with a two-stage light-gas gun to velocities in the range of 3 to 5 km/s. Normal impact with PMMA plates, thicknesses of 0.6 to 11 mm, applied impulsive loads of various amplitudes and durations to the steel sphere. Multiple flash radiography diagnostics and recovery techniques were used to assess size, velocity, trajectory and statistics of the impact-induced fragment debris. Damage modes to the primary target plate (plastic) and to a secondary target plate (aluminum) were also evaluated. Dynamic fragmentation theories, based on energy-balance principles, were used to evaluate local material deformation and fracture state information from CTH, a three-dimensional Eulerian solid dynamics shock wave propagation code. The local fragment characterization of the material defines a weighted fragment size distribution, and the sum of these distributions provides a composite particle size distribution for the steel sphere. The calculated axial and radial velocity changes agree well with experimental data, and the calculated fragment sizes are in qualitative agreement with the radiographic data. A secondary effort involved the experimental and computational analyses of normal and oblique copper ball impacts on steel target plates. High-resolution radiography and witness plate diagnostics provided impact motion and statistical fragment size data. CTH simulations were performed to test computational models and numerical methods.

  17. Numerical studies of the nonlinear properties of composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Stroud, D.

    1994-01-01

    Using both numerical and analytical techniques, we investigate various ways to enhance the cubic nonlinear susceptibility χe of a composite material. We start from the exact relation χe =tsumipiχi<(E.E)2>i,lin/ E40, where χi and pi are the cubic nonlinear susceptibility and volume fraction of the ith component, E0 is the applied electric field, and i,lin is the expectation value of the electric field in the ith component, calculated in the linear limit where χi=0. In our numerical work, we represent the composite by a random resistor or impedance network, calculating the electric-field distributions by a generalized transfer-matrix algorithm. Under certain conditions, we find that χe is greatly enhanced near the percolation threshold. We also find a large enhancement for a linear fractal in a nonlinear host. In a random Drude metal-insulator composite χe is hugely enhanced especially near frequencies which correspond to the surface-plasmon resonance spectrum of the composite. At zero frequency, the random composite results are reasonably well described by a nonlinear effective-medium approximation. The finite-frequency enhancement shows very strong reproducible structure which is nearly undetectable in the linear response of the composite, and which may possibly be described by a generalized nonlinear effective-medium approximation. The fractal results agree qualitatively with a nonlinear differential effective-medium approximation. Finally, we consider a suspension of coated spheres embedded in a host. If the coating is nonlinear, we show that χe/χcoat>>1 near the surface-plasmon resonance frequency of the core particle.

  18. A numerical study of shock induced cavity collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozlem, Melih

    Motivated by the need for an improved understanding of a prominent mechanism of the generation of hot spots, a model of shock-induced void collapse in a solid material is examined numerically. The problem arises in the context of a solid explosive, where hot spots are the discrete sites of preferential reaction, and play a crucial role in the ignition of a shocked heterogeneous explosive. Specifically, an axisymmetric configuration consisting of a single gas cavity in a solid matrix is considered. The mathematical model is a system of hyperbolic PDEs, the Euler equations of gas dynamics, supplemented by nonideal equation of state for the solid and ideal equation of state for the gas constituent. A mixture formulation is introduced, and the interface is treated as an artificial zone of finite thickness extending over a few computational cells. A finite-volume numerical strategy is employed; it incorporates adaptive mesh refinement and is based on a variant of the Godunov scheme modified to suppress nonphysical instabilities in the vicinity of shocks and interfaces. Complete histories of cavity collapse induced by an incident shock are presented for a variety of cavity shapes and configurations. Hydrodynamic features produced by the shock-cavity interaction are carefully followed, and special attention is paid to mechanisms leading to the evolution of regions of high temperature or pressure. In the case of a spherical shaped cavity the on-axis collapse mechanism is examined as the cause of hot spot formation, and in the case of a tall elliptical cavity and some multiple bubble configurations an off-axis collapse mechanism is discovered. Off-axis collapse mechanisms are found to yield higher temperature and pressure peaks during hot-spot generation.

  19. Numerical Modeling for Yield Pillar Design: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenfeng; Bai, Jianbiao; Peng, Syd; Wang, Xiangyu; Xu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Two single-entry gateroad systems employing a yield pillar for bump control in a Chinese coal mine were introduced. The overburden depth of the longwall panels was approximately 390 m. When the width/height (W/H) ratio of the yield pillar was 2.67, coal bumps in the tailgate occurred in front of the longwall retreating face. However, in another panel, the coal bump was eliminated because the W/H ratio was reduced to 1.67. Under this condition, instrumentation results indicated that the roof-to-floor and rib-to-rib convergences reached 1,050 and 790 mm, respectively, during longwall retreat. The numerical model was used to back-analyze the two cases of yield pillar application in the hope to find the principle for yield pillar design. In order to improve the reliability of the numerical model, the strain-hardening gob and strain-softening pillar materials were meticulously calibrated, and the coal/rock interface strength was determined by laboratory direct shear tests. The results of the validated model indicate that if the W/H ratio of the yield pillar equals 1.67, the peak vertical stress in the panel rib (37.7 MPa) is much larger than that in the yield pillar (21.1 MPa); however, the peak vertical stress in the panel rib (30.87 MPa) is smaller than that in the yield pillar (36 MPa) when the W/H ratio of yield pillar is 2.67. These findings may be helpful to the design of yield pillars for bump control.

  20. Analytical and numerical study of dirty bosons in a quasi-one-dimensional harmonic trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khellil, Tama; Balaž, Antun; Pelster, Axel

    2016-06-01

    The emergence of a Bose-glass region in a quasi one-dimensional Bose–Einstein-condensed gas in a harmonic trapping potential with an additional delta-correlated disorder potential at zero temperature is studied using three approaches. At first, the corresponding time-independent Gross–Pitaevskii equation is numerically solved for the condensate wave function, and disorder ensemble averages are evaluated. In particular, we analyse quantitatively the emergence of mini-condensates in the local minima of the random potential, which occurs for weak disorder preferentially at the border of the condensate, while for intermediate disorder strength this happens in the trap centre. Second, in view of a more detailed physical understanding of this phenomenon, we extend a quite recent non-perturbative approach towards the weakly interacting dirty boson problem, which relies on the Hartree–Fock theory and is worked out on the basis of the replica method, from the homogeneous case to a harmonic confinement. Finally, in the weak disorder regime we also apply the Thomas–Fermi approximation, while in the intermediate disorder regime we additionally use a variational ansatz in order to describe analytically the numerically observed redistribution of the fragmented mini-condensates with increasing disorder strength.

  1. Coupled Numerical Study of Turbidity Currents, Internal Hydraulic Jump and Morphological Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, P.; Cao, Z.; He, Z.; Gareth, P.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: The last two decades have seen intensive experimental and numerical studies of the occurrence condition of internal hydraulic jump in turbidity currents and the induced morphological signatures (Garcia and Parker 1989; Kostic and Parker 2006). Yet there are two critical issues that remain insufficiently or inappropriately addressed. First, depositional turbidity currents are imposed on steep slopes in both flume experiments and numerical cases, exclusively based on a configuration consisting of an upstream sloping portion and a downstream horizontal portion linked by a slope break. This appears physically counterintuitive as steep slope should favour self-accelerating erosional turbidity currents (Parker et al. 1986). The second issue concerns the numerical studies. There exist significant interactions among the current, sediment transport and bed topography. Due to the slope break in bed, the current may experience an internal hydraulic jump, leaving morphological signatures on the bed, which in turn affects the current evolution. Nevertheless, simplified decoupled models are exclusively employed in previous numerical investigations, in which the interactions are either partly or completely ignored without sufficient justification. The present paper aims to address the above-mentioned two issues relevant to the occurrence condition of the internal hydraulic jump and the induced morphological signatures. A recently developed well-balanced coupled numerical model for turbidity currents (Hu et al. 2012) is applied. In contrast to previous studies, erosional turbidity currents will be imposed at the upstream boundary, which is much more typical of the field. The effects of sediment size, bed slope decrease, and upstream and downstream boundary conditions are revealed in detail. In addition, the evolution of turbidity currents over a bed characterized by gradual decrease in slope is also discussed. References Garcia, M. H., and Parker, G. (1989). Experiments

  2. The Numerical Studies Program for the Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment (AGCE) for Spacelab Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowlis, W. W. (Editor); Davis, M. H. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The atmospheric general circulation experiment (AGCE) numerical design for Spacelab flights was studied. A spherical baroclinic flow experiment which models the large scale circulations of the Earth's atmosphere was proposed. Gravity is simulated by a radial dielectric body force. The major objective of the AGCE is to study nonlinear baroclinic wave flows in spherical geometry. Numerical models must be developed which accurately predict the basic axisymmetric states and the stability of nonlinear baroclinic wave flows. A three dimensional, fully nonlinear, numerical model and the AGCE based on the complete set of equations is required. Progress in the AGCE numerical design studies program is reported.

  3. Numerical study on microwave-sustained argon discharge under atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.; Hua, W. Guo, S. Y.

    2014-04-15

    A numerical study on microwave sustained argon discharge under atmospheric pressure is reported in this paper. The purpose of this study is to investigate both the process and effects of the conditions of microwave-excited gas discharge under atmospheric pressure, thereby aiding improvements in the design of the discharge system, setting the appropriate working time, and controlling the operating conditions. A 3D model is presented, which includes the physical processes of electromagnetic wave propagation, electron transport, heavy species transport, gas flow, and heat transfer. The results can be obtained by means of the fluid approximation. The maxima of the electron density and gas temperature are 4.96 × 10{sup 18} m{sup −3} and 2514.8 K, respectively, and the gas pressure remains almost unchanged for typical operating conditions with a gas flow rate of 20 l/min, microwave power of 1000 W, and initial temperature of 473 K. In addition, the conditions (microwave power, gas flow rate, and initial temperature) of discharge are varied to obtain deeper information about the electron density and gas temperature. The results of our numerical study are valid and clearly describe both the physical process and effects of the conditions of microwave-excited argon discharge.

  4. Numerical study of the Columbia high-beta device: Torus-II

    SciTech Connect

    Izzo, R.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization, heating and subsequent long-time-scale behavior of the helium plasma in the Columbia fusion device, Torus-II, is studied. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical simulations while maintaining a high level of interaction with experimentalists. The device is operated as a toroidal z-pinch to prepare the gas for heating. This ionization of helium is studied using a zero-dimensional, two-fluid code. It is essentially an energy balance calculation that follows the development of the various charge states of the helium and any impurities (primarily silicon and oxygen) that are present. The code is an atomic physics model of Torus-II. In addition to ionization, we include three-body and radiative recombination processes.

  5. Numerical Study of Mixing of Two Fluids Under Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, Walter M. B.

    1992-01-01

    The mixing characteristics of two fluids inside a cavity due to buoyancy driven flow fields for low gravity conditions is investigated via numerical experiments. The buoyancy driven flow, depending on the parametric region, stretches and deforms the material interface into a wave morphological pattern. The morphological pattern affects the resulting stratification thickness of the mixed region. Three basic mixing regimes occur: convective, diffusive, and chaotic. In the convective regime, an overturning motion occurs which gives rise to a stable wave formation. This wave oscillates and its decay leads to a stable stratification. Whereas, in the diffusive regime, the length of the interface remains constant while mixing occurs. This limiting behavior is very important to materials processing in space, and it admits a closed form solution corresponding to vanishing convective terms which agrees with computational results. Finally, in the chaotic regime, the material interface continuously stretches and folds on itself similar to a horseshoe map. The length of stretch of the interface increases exponentially. Internal wavebreaking occurs for this case. This wavebreaking generates local turbulence, and provides an effective mechanism for mixing.

  6. FEM numerical model study of electrosurgical dispersive electrode design parameters.

    PubMed

    Pearce, John A

    2015-08-01

    Electrosurgical dispersive electrodes must safely carry the surgical current in monopolar procedures, such as those used in cutting, coagulation and radio frequency ablation (RFA). Of these, RFA represents the most stringent design constraint since ablation currents are often more than 1 to 2 Arms (continuous) for several minutes depending on the size of the lesion desired and local heat transfer conditions at the applicator electrode. This stands in contrast to standard surgical activations, which are intermittent, and usually less than 1 Arms, but for several seconds at a time. Dispersive electrode temperature rise is also critically determined by the sub-surface skin anatomy, thicknesses of the subcutaneous and supra-muscular fat, etc. Currently, we lack fundamental engineering design criteria that provide an estimating framework for preliminary designs of these electrodes. The lack of a fundamental design framework means that a large number of experiments must be conducted in order to establish a reasonable design. Previously, an attempt to correlate maximum temperatures in experimental work with the average current density-time product failed to yield a good match. This paper develops and applies a new measure of an electrode stress parameter that correlates well with both the previous experimental data and with numerical models of other electrode shapes. The finite element method (FEM) model work was calibrated against experimental RF lesions in porcine skin to establish the fundamental principle underlying dispersive electrode performance. The results can be used in preliminary electrode design calculations, experiment series design and performance evaluation. PMID:26736814

  7. Numerical study on small scale vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra-Santos, Teresa; Gallegos, Armando; Uzarraga, Cristóbal N.; Rodriguez, Miguel A.

    2016-03-01

    The performance of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) is numerically analyzed. The set-up is Hdarrieus with three straight blades airfoils NACA attached to a rotating vertical shaft. The wind turbine has solidity equals to the unity operating with wind velocity of 7 m/s. Influence of pitch angle is tested to get design tendencies. 2D, transient, Navier Stokes equations are solved using the code Ansys-Fluent. Conservation equations were solved with a Third-Order MUSCL scheme using SIMPLE to couple pressure and velocity. More than six revolutions must be simulated to get the periodic behavior. Two models of turbulence have been contrasted Realizable k-epsilon and Transition SST concluding the last one show more realistic flow features. Pitch angles of 0º, -6º and -10º have been tested with Tip Speed Ratios ranging from 0.7 and 1.6. The no null pitch angles improve the performance of the wind turbine. Instantaneous and averaged power coefficients as well as detailed flow field around the airfoils are showed.

  8. Numerical Studies of Phase Transition Phenomena in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This work was aimed at developing and applying a new methodology for the efficient and accurate computation of problems involving several phases of matter. In particular, solidification processes typically involve melt/solid and sometimes melt//gas interfaces, whose location and shape is unknown a priori. This class of problems is called the free or moving boundary problem, and the numerical approaches for its solution to date are inaccurate, inefficient, and can not be readily extended to multi-dimensions or to time dependent phenomenon. Ongoing research on crystal growth at NASA and other institutions falls into the category of free boundary problems. It is exactly the accurate determination of the process dynamics and the shape and location of the interface between the phases which is responsible for the ultimate chemical segregation and the mechanical properties in the solid. This work developed the Triad Field Formalism approach for the computation of general multi-dimensional and time dependent free boundary problems. The particular subject addressed is solidification phenomena. All the relevant boundary conditions on the developing interface were exactly resolved. Several computer programs were developed during the course of this research, enabling us to determine for the first time the interplay among the various fields operating in tandem to produce the phenomena observed during solidification processes in weld pools and during crystal growth.

  9. Numerical study of nonlinear full wave acoustic propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco-Segura, Roberto; Rendon, Pablo L.

    2013-11-01

    With the aim of describing nonlinear acoustic phenomena, a form of the conservation equations for fluid dynamics is presented, deduced using slightly less restrictive hypothesis than those necessary to obtain the well known Westervelt equation. This formulation accounts for full wave diffraction, nonlinearity, and thermoviscous dissipative effects. A CLAWPACK based, 2D finite-volume method using Roe's linearization has been implemented to obtain numerically the solution of the proposed equations. In order to validate the code, two different tests have been performed: one against a special Taylor shock-like analytic solution, the other against published results on a HIFU system, both with satisfactory results. The code is written for parallel execution on a GPU and improves performance by a factor of over 50 when compared to the standard CLAWPACK Fortran code. This code can be used to describe moderate nonlinear phenomena, at low Mach numbers, in domains as large as 100 wave lengths. Applications range from modest models of diagnostic and therapeutic HIFU, parametric acoustic arrays, to acoustic wave guides. A couple of examples will be presented showing shock formation and oblique interaction. DGAPA PAPIIT IN110411, PAEP UNAM 2013.

  10. Numerical Study of Fractional Ensemble Average Transport Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Park, Y.; Gyeong, C. B.; Lee, O.

    2014-12-01

    In this presentation, a newly developed theory is applied to the case of stationary and non-stationary stochastic advective flow field, and a numerical solution method is presented for the resulting fractional Fokker-Planck equation (fFPE), which describes the evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of contaminant concentration. The derived fFPE is evaluated for three different form: 1) purely advective form, 2) second-order moment form and 3) second-order cumulant form. The Monte Carlo analysis of the fractional governing equation is then performed in a stochastic flow field, generated by a fractional Brownian motion for the stationary and non-stationary stochastic advection, in order to provide a benchmark for the results obtained from the fFPEs. When compared to the Monte Carlo simulation based PDFs and their ensemble average, the second-order cumulant form gives a good fit in terms of the shape and mode of the PDF of the contaminant concentration. Therefore, it is quite promising that the non-Fickian transport behavior can be modeled by the derived fractional ensemble average transport equations either by means of the long memory in the underlying stochastic flow, or by means of the time-space non-stationarity of the underlying stochastic flow, or by means of the time and space fractional derivatives of the transport equations. This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "The Eco Innovation Project : Non-point source pollution control research group"

  11. A numerical study of the energy flux in internal bores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borden, Zachary; Meiburg, Eckart

    2009-11-01

    Internal bores, or hydraulic jumps, arise in many atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena. The classic single-layer hydraulic jump model accurately predicts a bore's behavior when the density difference between the expanding and contracting layer is large (i.e. water and air), but fails in the Boussinesq limit. A two-layer model, where mass is conserved separately in each layer and momentum is conserved globally, does a much better job but requires for closure an assumption about the loss of energy across a bore. It is widely agreed that assuming all the energy loss occurs entirely in one of the layers puts bounds on a bore's propagation speed. However, under some circumstances, both assumptions over-predict the propagation speed, implying an energy gain in the expanding layer. We directly examine the flux of energy within internal bores using 2D direct numerical simulations. We find that although there is a global loss of energy across the bore, there is a transfer of energy from the contracting to the expanding layer causing a net energy gain in that layer. The transfer is largely the result of the horizontal pressure gradient caused by a difference in hydrostatic pressure across the bore.

  12. Assisted Sonication vs Conventional Transesterification Numerical Simulation and Sensitivity Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janajreh, Isam; Noorul Hussain, Mohammed; El Samad, Tala

    2015-10-01

    Transeterification is known as slow reaction that can take over several hours to complete as the two immiscible liquid reactants combine to form biodiesel and the less favorable glycerol. The quest of finding the perfect catalyst, optimal operational conditions, and reactor configuration to accelerate the reaction in mere few minutes that ensures high quality biodiesel, in economically viable way is coming along with sonication. This drastic reduction is a key enabler for the development of a continuous processing that otherwise is fairly costly and low throughput using conventional method. The reaction kinetics of sonication assisted as inferred by several authors is several time faster and this work implements these rates in a high fidelity numerical simulation model. This flow model is based on Navier-Stokes equations coupled with energy equation for non-isothermal flow and the transport equations of the multiple reactive species. The model is initially validated against experimental data from previous work of the authors using an annular reactor configuration. Following the validation, comparison of the reaction rate is shown to gain more insight to the distribution of the reaction and its attained rates. The two models (conventional and sonication) then compared on the basis of their sensitivity to the methane to oil molar ratio as the most pronounced process parameter. Both the exit reactor yield and the distribution of the species are evaluated with favorable yield under sonication process. These results pave the way to build a more robust process intensified reactor having an integrated selective heterogeneous catalyst to steer the reaction. This can avoid the downstream cleaning processes, cutting reaction time, and render economic benefit to the process.

  13. The Relationship between Working Memory for Serial Order and Numerical Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attout, Lucie; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Majerus, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Despite numerous studies, the link between verbal working memory (WM) and calculation abilities remains poorly understood. The present longitudinal study focuses specifically on the role of serial order retention capacities, based on recent findings suggesting a link between ordinal processing in verbal WM and numerical processing tasks. Children…

  14. Comprehensive Mechanisms for Combustion Chemistry: An Experimental and Numerical Study with Emphasis on Applied Sensitivity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dryer, Frederick L.

    2009-04-10

    This project was an integrated experimental/numerical effort to study pyrolysis and oxidation reactions and mechanisms for small-molecule hydrocarbon structures under conditions representative of combustion environments. The experimental aspects of the work were conducted in large-diameter flow reactors, at 0.3 to 18 atm pressure, 500 to 1100 K temperature, and 10-2 to 2 seconds reaction time. Experiments were also conducted to determine reference laminar flame speeds using a premixed laminar stagnation flame experiment and particle image velocimetry, as well as pressurized bomb experiments. Flow reactor data for oxidation experiments include: (1)adiabatic/isothermal species time-histories of a reaction under fixed initial pressure, temperature, and composition; to determine the species present after a fixed reaction time, initial pressure; (2)species distributions with varying initial reaction temperature; (3)perturbations of a well-defined reaction systems (e.g. CO/H2/O2 or H2/O2)by the addition of small amounts of an additive species. Radical scavenging techniques are applied to determine unimolecular decomposition rates from pyrolysis experiments. Laminar flame speed measurements are determined as a function of equivalence ratio, dilution, and unburned gas temperature at 1 atm pressure. Hierarchical, comprehensive mechanistic construction methods were applied to develop detailed kinetic mechanisms which describe the measurements and literature kinetic data. Modeling using well-defined and validated mechanisms for the CO/H2/Oxidant systems and perturbations of oxidation experiments by small amounts of additives were also used to derive absolute reaction rates and to investigate the compatibility of published elementary kinetic and thermochemical information. Numerical tools were developed and applied to assess the importance of individual elementary reactions to the predictive performance of the

  15. Numerical Study on the Dispersion of Urban Emissions and Downwind Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, B.; Romps, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    This numerical study models the dispersion of urban carbon-dioxide (CO2) plumes, and assesses the feasibility of emission quantification through downwind surface measurements. As a first step, a large-eddy simulation of a convective boundary layer (CBL) is performed under clear and shallow cumulus-topped conditions. A passive tracer is released both from surface and elevated point sources to model the dispersion of CO2. Tracer fluxes are tracked at various downwind locations to estimate emission rates. The uncertainties of surface measurements are quantified in terms of boundary layer mixing, cloud venting, and both spatial and temporal unsteadiness related to plume meandering and diffusion. Some guidelines on the optimal downwind distance and crosswind spread of surface stations, as well as averaging times are recommended based on CBL length and time scales. Putting the lessons learned from the idealized study to practice, we perform nested-simulations to model CO2 dispersion from the city of Indianapolis. The simulations obtain realistic initial and boundary conditions through grid nesting from the North American Mesoscale-Reanalysis. The spatially and temporally varying CO2 emissions are set by the Vulcan emission inventory. Two cases study with clear and shallow-cumulus-topped conditions are performed at high resolution, with 200 m horizontal grid spacing. In addition to confirming the results from the idealized study, this real-world simulation allows for quantification of additional uncertainties from the unsteadiness of the winds and the diurnal cycle.

  16. A numerical method for the study of the circulation of the world ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, K.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes a detail computational procedure involving a finite difference numerical schemes to study the circulation models of the world oceans. To obtain an efficient numerical method for low-frequency, large-scale current systems, surfaces gravity-inertial waves are filtered out by the rigid-lid approximation. Special features of the ocean circulation are resolved in the numerical model by allowing for a variable spacing in either the zonal or meridional direction. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Atmospheric numerical modeling resource enhancement and model convective parameterization/scale interaction studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, Paula P.

    1993-01-01

    Research will be undertaken in this contract in the area of Modeling Resource and Facilities Enhancement to include computer, technical and educational support to NASA investigators to facilitate model implementation, execution and analysis of output; to provide facilities linking USRA and the NASA/EADS Computer System as well as resident work stations in ESAD; and to provide a centralized location for documentation, archival and dissemination of modeling information pertaining to NASA's program. Additional research will be undertaken in the area of Numerical Model Scale Interaction/Convective Parameterization Studies to include implementation of the comparison of cloud and rain systems and convective-scale processes between the model simulations and what was observed; and to incorporate the findings of these and related research findings in at least two refereed journal articles.

  18. A numerical study on the use of sulfur hexafluoride as a test gas for wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. Kyle

    1990-01-01

    A numerical study is presented which investigates effects of using sulfur hexafluoride, S F6, as a substitute for air. Inviscid results for airfoils indicate that for transonic cases the shock location calculated for S F6 is vastly different from that in air and moves progressively forward on the airfoil as the freestream pressure is increased and real gas effects become more pronounced. Application of a simple Mach number scaling procedure results in good correlation between S F6 abnd air even for pressures at which nonideal gas effects are significant. Computations for subsonic turbulent flows over a NACA 0012 airfoil show that the maximum angle of attack at which steady lift can be obtained is different between air and S F6. In addition, for S F6, this angle of attack depends greatly on the freestream conditions. Close agreement with air can be achieved by altering the freestream Mach number according to the inviscid scaling procedure.

  19. Comparative Study of Algorithms for the Numerical Simulation of Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Luz, Fernando H. P.; Mendes, Tereza

    2010-11-12

    Large-scale numerical simulations are the prime method for a nonperturbative study of QCD from first principles. Although the lattice simulation of the pure-gauge (or quenched-QCD) case may be performed very efficiently on parallel machines, there are several additional difficulties in the simulation of the full-QCD case, i.e. when dynamical quark effects are taken into account. We discuss the main aspects of full-QCD simulations, describing the most common algorithms. We present a comparative analysis of performance for two versions of the hybrid Monte Carlo method (the so-called R and RHMC algorithms), as provided in the MILC software package. We consider two degenerate flavors of light quarks in the staggered formulation, having in mind the case of finite-temperature QCD.

  20. Numerical study of ion orbits in EAST plasmas with a current-reversal equilibrium configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yi-jun; Gong, Xue-yu; Hu, Ye-ming; Li, Xin-xia

    2015-06-01

    By solving the Grad-Shafranov equation in the cylindrical coordinate system, we numerically obtain the tokamak plasma equilibrium configurations of the conventional mode and the high-to-lowfield-side current-reversal equilibrium mode (HL-CREC) by using the discharge parameters for the Experimental Advanced Superconductor Tokamak (EAST). By coupling with the particle's motion equation, we obtain the orbits of trapped particles and passing particles under both equilibrium configurations. We find that the orbit of the passing particle in the HL-CREC is wholly confined on the low-field side and that the half width of the banana orbit of trapped particles increases greatly compared with those in the conventional equilibrium configuration. In addition, the ion loss is studied based on the Monte Carlo method. The results show that for ions near the plasma edge, a much high ion loss rate can be obtained in HL-CREC than that in the conventional equilibrium configuration.

  1. Numerical Study of Microwave Reflectometry in Plasmas with 2D Turbulent Fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    E. Mazzucato

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes a numerical study of the role played by 2D turbulent fluctuations in microwave reflectometry -- a radar technique for density measurements using the reflection of electromagnetic waves from a plasma cutoff. The results indicate that, if the amplitude of fluctuations is below a threshold which is set by the spectrum of poloidal wavenumbers, the measured backward field appears to originate from a virtual location behind the reflecting layer, and to arise from the phase modulation of the probing wave, with an amplitude given by 1D geometric optics. These results suggest a possible scheme for turbulence measurements in tokamaks, where the backward field is collected with a wide aperture antenna, and the virtual reflecting layer is imaged onto the plane of an array of detectors. Such a scheme should be capable of providing additional information on the nature of the short-scale turbulence observed in tokamaks, which still remains one of the unresolved issues in fusion research.

  2. Numerical techniques for the study of long-time correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Karney, C.F.F.

    1985-05-01

    In the study of long-time correlations extremely long orbits must be calculated. This may be accomplished much more reliably using fixed-point arithmetic. Use of this arithmetic on the Cray-1 computer is illustrated.

  3. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility preliminary study, volume 2 and appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Data to support results obtained in technology assessment studies are presented. Objectives, starting points, and future study tasks are outlined. Key design issues discussed in appendices include: data allocation, transposition network design, fault tolerance and trustworthiness, logic design, processing element of existing components, number of processors, the host system, alternate data base memory designs, number representation, fast div 521 instruction, architectures, and lockstep array versus synchronizable array machine comparison.

  4. Numerical studies of baroclinic instability at small Richardson number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Baroclinic instability at small Richardson number consists of competition between symmetric (Solberg) modes, zonal (Eady) modes, and possibly other modes whose orientation is neither symmetric nor zonal. In FY-84, a study of the fully nonlinear development and energetics of the symmetric modes was completed. The nonlinear effects were quite strong and, in some senses, unexpected. Secondly, a study of the dependency of the energetics of the symmetric modes upon the physical parameters was completed.

  5. A Analytical and a Numerical Study in Field Theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olynyk, Kirk Oliver

    In Chapter I. the low-energy sensitivity of the Weinberg-Salem model to a strongly interacting Higgs-boson sector is investigated. In order to catalog all possible heavy Higgs boson effects, a gauged nonlinear (sigma)-model is used, in which the Higgs mass of the linear theory (M(,H)), assumes the role of a cutoff. Radiative corrections to several experimental observables are calculated. However, the effects are small; the leading sensitivities are proportional to g('2)ln(M(,H)). Chapter II. is a report on a collaboration with Claude Bernard and Terry Draper, in which we calculate hadron masses and magnetic moments in the quenched approximation to lattice QCD, using Monte Carlo and Gauss-Seidel methods. For the mass computation, we have quite good statistics; in addition, our lattice is long enough in the "time" direction to make a rather clear separation of the lowest lying hadrons from their radial excitations. We find mass ratios which are far from experimental values; there is evidence that this may be due to the small spatial size of the lattice (which, however, is as large or larger than that used in most previous computations). Semi-quantitative explanations of spatial volume and time-length effects are given. For the magnetic moments, the situation is somewhat better, presumably because the moment calculation is really a qualitative test of the constituent quark model.

  6. Comparisons of numerical magnitudes in children with different levels of mathematical achievement. An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Velázquez, Fabiola Reveca; Berumen, Gustavo; González-Garrido, Andrés Antonio

    2015-11-19

    The ability to map between non-symbolic and symbolic magnitude representations is crucial in the development of mathematics and this map is disturbed in children with math difficulties. In addition, positive parietal ERPs have been found to be sensitive to the number distance effect and skills solving arithmetic problems. Therefore we aimed to contrast the behavioral and ERP responses in children with different levels of mathematical achievement: low (LA), average (AA) and high (HA), while comparing symbolic and non-symbolic magnitudes. The results showed that LA children repeatedly failed when comparing magnitudes, particularly the symbolic ones. In addition, a positive correlation between correct responses while analyzing symbolic quantities and WRAT-4 scores emerged. The amplitude of N200 was significantly larger during non-symbolic comparisons. In addition, P2P amplitude was consistently smaller in LA children while comparing both symbolic and non-symbolic quantities, and correlated positively with the WRAT-4 scores. The latency of P3 seemed to be sensitive to the type of numerical comparison. The results suggest that math difficulties might be related to a more general magnitude representation problem, and that ERP are useful to study its timecourse in children with different mathematical skills. PMID:26385418

  7. Numerical Study of Boundary-Layer in Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tom I-P.

    1997-01-01

    The accomplishments made in the following three tasks are described: (1) The first task was to study shock-wave boundary-layer interactions with bleed - this study is relevant to boundary-layer control in external and mixed-compression inlets of supersonic aircraft; (2) The second task was to test RAAKE, a code developed for computing turbulence quantities; and (3) The third task was to compute flow around the Ames ER-2 aircraft that has been retrofitted with containers over its wings and fuselage. The appendices include two reports submitted to AIAA for publication.

  8. Path-Integral Renormalization Group Method for Numerical Study of Strongly Correlated Electron Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imada, Masatoshi; Kashima, Tsuyoshi

    2000-09-01

    A numerical algorithm for studying strongly correlated electron systems is proposed. The groundstate wavefunction is projected out after a numerical renormalization procedure in the path integral formalism. The wavefunction is expressed from the optimized linear combination of retained states in the truncated Hilbert space with a numerically chosen basis. This algorithm does not suffer from the negative sign problem and can be applied to any type of Hamiltonian in any dimension. The efficiency is tested in examples of the Hubbard model where the basis of Slater determinants is numerically optimized. We show results on fast convergence and accuracy achieved with a small number of retained states.

  9. Numerical study of turbulent nanofluid flow at the entrance region of a ribbed pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaei-Rad, Masoud; Beigi, Maryam

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we perform a numerical study on the heat transfer and pressure drop in hydraulically and thermally developing turbulent flow of nanofluid through an internally ribbed pipe. The effects of volume fraction of nanoparticles and the distance between the ribs are investigated on the heat transfer and skin friction coefficients at the entrance region of the pipe. The set of governing equations followed by a two-layer zonal turbulence model are solved numerically by a velocity-pressure coupling algorithm based on finite-volume method. Moreover, available empirical relations are used to calculate the nanofluid properties in terms of the nanoparticles and the base fluid. The obtained results illustrate that increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles makes the thermal entrance length decrease and consequently, the heat transfer increases. It reveals that 10% increase in the volume fraction of nanoparticles causes about 15% rise in average Nusselt number. In addition, it is found that the friction factor rises by increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles compared with turbulent flow of the base-fluid. Also, the average Nusselt number in nanofluid flow increases with the interval between the ribs compared with pure-fluid flow.

  10. Numerical Study of the Transverse Stability of Compressive and Rarefactive Alfven Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, R.; Haneberg, C.

    2015-12-01

    A numerical study of the stability of DNLS bright and dark solitons subject to oblique perturbations is reported. The DNLS equation is a weakly nonlinear, weakly dispersive and one dimensional limiting form of MHD with the inclusion of Hall dispersion which has been shown to remain valid for plane wave propagation parallel, as well as quasiparallel, to the ambient magnetic field. Related analytic work has dealt with the transverse stability of circularly polarized Alfven waves [E. Mjolhus, T. Hada, J. Plasma Phys., 43, 257 - 268 (1990)] describing stability in relation to the propagation angle of the perturbation and the wave's amplitude and wavenumber. The amplitude and wavenumber relation for transverse stability has a striking similarity to the criterion for modulational instability. A prior analytic work [M. S. Ruderman, Fluid Dyn. 22, 299, (1987)] found the dark soliton to be unstable. Our numerical results are established in the context of these analytic results. Additionally, the transverse stability properties of dark solitons will be addressed as they relate to their role in representing magnetic decreases observed in interplanetary space.

  11. Numerical simulation study on thermal response of PBX explosive by low velocity impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Jianfeng; Zhou, Tingting; Zhang, Yangeng; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2015-06-01

    It is a great threat for both bare dynamite and shell charge when subjected to low velocity impact involved in traffic accidents or charge piece drops. The impact sensitivity is an important index in evaluating the safety and performance of explosives. The Steven Test is an effective tool to evaluate the relative sensitivity of various explosives. In 1993, Chidester et al. preliminarily designed the Steven Test, and then applied it to delay detonation (XDT) phenomenon study. Subsequently, a series of low velocity impact Steven Tests on HMX based explosives were carried out by S K Chidester, D J Idar, R J Scammon, S Wortley et al. In this paper, we built the numerical simulation method involving mechanical, thermo and chemical properties of Steven Test based on the thermo-mechanical coupled material model. In the model, the stress-strain relationship is described by dynamic plasticity model, the thermal effect of the explosive induced by impact is depicted by isotropic thermal material model, the chemical reaction of explosives is described by Arrhenius reaction rate law, and the effects of heating and melting on mechanical properties and thermal properties of materials are also taken into account. Specific to the standard Steven Test, the thermal and mechanical response rules of PBX9501 at different impact velocities were numerical analyzed, and the threshold velocity of explosive initiation was obtained. In addition, the effect of confine condition of test device to the threshold velocity was explored.

  12. Experimental and numerical study of the dispersion of carbon dioxide plume.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ji; Liu, Zhenyi; Huang, Ping; Feng, Changgen; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Deping; Wang, Feng

    2013-07-15

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) and Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technologies have been widely applied in the environmental protection and petroleum production fields. However, accidental release of carbon dioxide may cause damage and losses during oil and gas production. This paper presents a reduced-scale field experiment designed to imitate a CO2 blowout for the purpose of acquiring concentration the distribution in the flow field. Additionally, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code was used to perform numerical simulations of the field experiment using the k-ε, RNG k-ε and SST k-ω models. The results of these models were compared with the experimental data for validation, and statistical performance indicators were introduced to verify the simulated values. According to experimental and numerical results, the interior flow structure of a CO2 plume was analyzed together with consideration of negative buoyancy effects. The concentration as a function of time was studied by comparing the observed values and simulation results. We conclude that the CFD simulation results from the k-ε and SST k-ω models are in acceptable agreement with the experimental data according to the Chang's criteria, and predicted values from the RNG k-ε model are unsatisfactory. Therefore, the CFD techniques can be satisfactorily applied in industrial risk analysis procedures with acceptable accuracy according to the Chang's criteria. PMID:23669789

  13. Experimental and Numerical Study of Swirling Flows and Flame Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abricka, M.; Barmina, I.; Valdmanis, R.; Zake, M.

    2014-08-01

    The effect of swirling air on the flow dynamics was investigated for the cold non-reacting flows and the flame arising at thermo-chemical conversion of biomass pellets downstream of a cylindrical channel. Under experimental and numerical investigation was the swirling flow dynamics with the primary axial air supply below a biomass layer and swirling air supply above it. The results indicate that for cold flows the swirling air jet outflow from tangential nozzles leads to the formation of a complex flow dynamics which is influenced both by upstream and downstream air swirl propagation near the channel walls, with correlating swirl-enhanced formation of the upstream and downstream axial flows close to the flow centreline depending on the swirling air supply rate. These axial flows can be completely balanced at their stagnation within the axial recirculation zone. It is shown that at equal boundary conditions for the swirling flame and the cold flows the swirling flow dynamics is influenced by the upstream air swirl-enhanced mixing of the reactants below the air swirl nozzles. This determines the formation of a downstream reaction zone with correlating development of the flow velocity, temperature and composition profiles in the downstream flame regions with improved combustion stability. The low swirl intensity in these regions prevents the formation of a recirculation zone Ir veikti kompleksi aukstu nereaģējošu un liesmas virpuļplūsmu dinamikas veidošanās eksperimentālie pētījumi, izvērtējot galvenos faktorus, kas ietekmē šo plūsmu dinamikas veidošanos cilindriskā kanālā virs granulēta biomasas slāņa pie aksiālas primārā gaisa padeves zem granulu slāņa un gaisa virpuļplūsmas padeves virs tā. Auksto virpuļplūsmu pētījumi apliecina, ka plūsmas dinamiku būtiski ietekmē divu savstarpēji konkurējošu un pretēji vērstu virpuļplūsmu veidošanās pie tangenciālās gaisa padeves sprauslas izejas. Lejupvērstā virpuļplūsma, kas

  14. Study on bending behaviour of nickel–titanium rotary endodontic instruments by analytical and numerical analyses

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, C C; Liou, J U; Wen, P H; Peng, C C; Liu, T S

    2013-01-01

    Aim To develop analytical models and analyse the stress distribution and flexibility of nickel–titanium (NiTi) instruments subject to bending forces. Methodology The analytical method was used to analyse the behaviours of NiTi instruments under bending forces. Two NiTi instruments (RaCe and Mani NRT) with different cross-sections and geometries were considered. Analytical results were derived using Euler–Bernoulli nonlinear differential equations that took into account the screw pitch variation of these NiTi instruments. In addition, the nonlinear deformation analysis based on the analytical model and the finite element nonlinear analysis was carried out. Numerical results are obtained by carrying out a finite element method. Results According to analytical results, the maximum curvature of the instrument occurs near the instrument tip. Results of the finite element analysis revealed that the position of maximum von Mises stress was near the instrument tip. Therefore, the proposed analytical model can be used to predict the position of maximum curvature in the instrument where fracture may occur. Finally, results of analytical and numerical models were compatible. Conclusion The proposed analytical model was validated by numerical results in analysing bending deformation of NiTi instruments. The analytical model is useful in the design and analysis of instruments. The proposed theoretical model is effective in studying the flexibility of NiTi instruments. Compared with the finite element method, the analytical model can deal conveniently and effectively with the subject of bending behaviour of rotary NiTi endodontic instruments. PMID:23173762

  15. Numerical studies of laminar and turbulent drag reduction, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Orszag, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    The flow over wave shaped surfaces is studied using a Navier Stokes solver. Detailed comparisons with theoretical results are presented, including the stability of a laminar flow over wavy surfaces. Drag characteristics of nonplanar surfaces are predicted using the Navier-Stokes solver. The secondary instabilities of wall bounded and free shear flows are also discussed.

  16. A NUMERICAL study of solar chimney power plants in Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahar F, Attig; S, Guellouz M.; M, Sahraoui; S, Kaddeche

    2015-04-01

    A 3D CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) model of a Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP) was developed and validated through comparison with the experimental data of the Manzanares plant. Then, it was employed to study the SCPP performance for locations throughout Tunisia.

  17. Numerical studies of multipactor in dielectric-loaded accelerator structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitsyn, Oleksandr; Nusinovich, Gregory; Antonsen, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Multipactor (MP) is known as the avalanche growth of the number of secondary electrons emitted from a solid surface exposed to an rf electric field under vacuum conditions. MP may occur in various microwave and rf systems such as microwave tubes, rf windows and launchers, accelerating structures, and rf satellite payloads. In this work we present results of MP analysis in dielectric-loaded accelerator (DLA) structures. The starting point of our work was experimental and theoretical studies of DLA structures jointly done by Argonne National Laboratory and Naval Research Laboratory (J. G. Power et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 164801 (2004); J. G. Power et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 877, 362 (2006)). In the theoretical model developed during those studies the space-charge field due to the total number of particles is taken into account as a parameter. We perform our studies using a self-consistent approach with the help of time-dependent two-dimensional code developed at the University of Maryland (O. V. Sinitsyn et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 073102 (2009)). Results include analysis of MP evolution at an early stage, detailed studies of individual electron trajectories, analysis of MP onset time under various conditions and comparison of some results with the experimental data.

  18. Numerical study of vorticity-enhanced heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Alben, Silas

    2013-11-01

    Vortices produced by vibrated reeds and flapping foils can improve heat transfer efficiency in electronic hardware. Vortices enhance forced convection by boundary layer separation and thermal mixing in the bulk flow. In this work, we modeled and simulated the fluid flow and temperature in a 2-D channel flow with vortices injected at the upstream boundary. We classified four types of vortex streets depending on the Reynolds number and vortices' strengths and spacings, and studied the different vortex dynamics in each situation. We then used Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) to study the effect of the vortices on mixing and determined how the Nusselt number and Coefficients of performance vary with flow parameters and Peclet numbers.

  19. A numerical study of blood flow using mixture theory

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Aubry, Nadine; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Kim, Jeongho; Antaki, James F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the two dimensional flow of blood in a rectangular microfluidic channel. We use Mixture Theory to treat this problem as a two-component system: One component is the red blood cells (RBCs) modeled as a generalized Reiner–Rivlin type fluid, which considers the effects of volume fraction (hematocrit) and influence of shear rate upon viscosity. The other component, plasma, is assumed to behave as a linear viscous fluid. A CFD solver based on OpenFOAM® was developed and employed to simulate a specific problem, namely blood flow in a two dimensional micro-channel, is studied. Finally to better understand this two-component flow system and the effects of the different parameters, the equations are made dimensionless and a parametric study is performed. PMID:24791016

  20. A numerical study of blood flow using mixture theory.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Aubry, Nadine; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Kim, Jeongho; Antaki, James F

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we consider the two dimensional flow of blood in a rectangular microfluidic channel. We use Mixture Theory to treat this problem as a two-component system: One component is the red blood cells (RBCs) modeled as a generalized Reiner-Rivlin type fluid, which considers the effects of volume fraction (hematocrit) and influence of shear rate upon viscosity. The other component, plasma, is assumed to behave as a linear viscous fluid. A CFD solver based on OpenFOAM(®) was developed and employed to simulate a specific problem, namely blood flow in a two dimensional micro-channel, is studied. Finally to better understand this two-component flow system and the effects of the different parameters, the equations are made dimensionless and a parametric study is performed. PMID:24791016

  1. Numerical study of Reynolds stress in compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandromme, D.; Hamin, H.

    1985-01-01

    A second order closure has been implemented in an implicit Navier-Stokes solver to study the behavior of the Reynolds stresses under the influence of severe pressure gradients. In the boundary layer zone, the strongly sheared character of the mean flow dominates the turbulence generation mechanisms. However, the pressure gradients also play a very important role for these processes, but at different locations within the boundary layer.

  2. Numerical study of nozzle wall cooling for nuclear thermal rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Suk C.; Stubbs, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    The flowfields and performance of nuclear thermal rockets, which utilize radiation and film-cooling to cool the nozzle extension, are studied by solving the Navier-Stokes equations and species equations. The thrust level of the rocket for the present study is about 75,000 lb(f) for a chamber pressure of 68 atm(l,000 psi) and a chamber temperature of 2700 K. The throat radius of the nozzle is 0.0936 m and the area ratios of the nozzles are 300 and 500. It is assumed that the flow is chemically frozen and the turbulence is simulated by the modified Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The calculated results for various area ratios and film mass-flow rates are presented as Mach number contours, variations of nozzle wall temperature, exit profiles, and vacuum specific impulses. The present study shows that by selecting the flow rate of the film-cooling hydrogen and area ratio of the nozzle correctly, high area ratio nozzle extensions can be cooled effectively with radiation and film-cooling without significant penalty in performance.

  3. Numerical study of the properties of compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negreiros, Rodrigo Picanco

    2009-10-01

    Compact stars are formed in catastrophic astrophysical events such as supernova explosions and binary stellar collisions. These objects permanently harbor compressed ultra-dense nuclear matter in their interiors. This key feature, together with the ongoing progress in observational astrophysics, make compact stars superb astrophysical laboratories for a wide range of intriguing physicals studies. Several such studies are performed in this thesis. The first activity concerns the widely unknown nuclear equation of state and the core composition of compact stars. Particular attention is paid to the possible presence of hyperons in the cores of neutron stars as well as to stars made of unconfined up, down and strange quarks (strange quark stars). The effects of ultra-strong electric fields on the surfaces of the latter is explored. The second activity aims at investigating the structure and stability of rapidly rotating compact stars. Special attention is paid to the maximal stable rotational frequencies of rotating compact stars. The third activity focuses on the thermal evolution of compact stars, driven by neutrino emission from their cores and by photon emission from the surfaces. It is show that the thermal behavior depends very strongly on the stellar core composition. Moreover, it is found that the thermal evolution of neutron stars is significantly different to that of strange quark stars. The studies performed in this thesis are key for our understanding of the thermal evolution of isolated rotating neutron stars, anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters, and provide most valuable information about the phase diagram of isospin-asymmetric ultra-dense nuclear matter which can not be probed in high-energy collision experiments.

  4. A Numerical Study of Directional Solidification and Melting in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, P. Y. P.; Timchenko, V.; Leonardi E.; deVahlDavis, G.; deGroh, H. C., III

    1998-01-01

    A computational model is presented for the study of the solidification and melting of a pure substance and of a binary alloy. The enthalpy method has been used, and incorporated into a commercial CFD code. Three examples of the use of the model are described: the three-dimensional solidification of a pure substance (succinonitrile), the results of which are compared with experiment; an example of the solidification of a bismuth-tin alloy; and a simulation of a solidification and melting experiment done in space known as the MEPHISTO program.

  5. Experimental and numerical study of patterns in laryngeal flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisari, N. E.; Artana, G.; Sciamarella, D.

    2009-05-01

    Unsteady airflow is investigated in a channel with a geometry approximating that of the human larynx. The laryngeal flow is simulated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible two-dimensional viscous fluid, and visualized using the Schlieren technique in an experimental setup consisting of a rigid replica of the larynx, with and without ventricular bands. This study shows the spontaneous formation of vortex couples in several regions of the laryngeal profile, and at different stages of the evolution of the starting glottal jet.

  6. A numerical model to study auscultation sounds under pneumothorax conditions.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Udpa, Satish; Udpa, Lalita

    2009-01-01

    A 2D viscoelastic finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) is used to simulate sound propagation of lung sounds in the human thorax. Specifically, the model is employed to study the effects of pneumothorax on the sounds reaching the thoracic surface. By simulating varying degrees of severity of the disease, the model assists in determining the key frequency bands that contain the most information to aid in diagnosis. The work thus lends itself for development of advanced auscultatory techniques for detection of pneumothorax using noninvasive acoustic sensors. PMID:19965081

  7. Theoretical and numerical studies of plume flows in vacuum chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Chunpei

    This thesis consists of three parts: a study of facility effects on the background flow in large vacuum chambers; an analytical study of free molecular flows out of exits with different shape representing thruster plumes; and particle simulations of plasma plume flows from a cluster of Hall thrusters. The first part of this thesis discusses the facility effects on large vacuum chambers, which is quite important to the Electric Propulsion (EP) community. Based on the fact that the background flows in large vacuum chambers equipped with cryogenic pumps are free molecular, five models are proposed to study the average background pressure and flow velocity and their relation to several facility effects, such as pump sticking coefficient, pump size, wall and pump temperatures, and chamber sidewall length. The analysis are based on the mass flow rates into and out of the chamber, the fluxes along two directions and various number density relations at various stations such as chamber ends and vacuum pumps. The second part of the thesis develops several sets of analytical solutions to free molecular flows out of exits with different shapes. It is demonstrated that the plasma plume flows expanding into vacuum can be studied analytically as a combination of several free molecular flows, if the electric field and collision effects are omitted. There exists a unique relation of velocity and positions. The last part of the thesis presents several three-dimensional particle simulations of plasma plume flows from a cluster of Hall thrusters. A detailed electron fluid model is used to solve important electron properties such as plasma potential and electron temperature. A finite element solver is developed to solve the equations of the electron properties on unstructured meshes. Several important implementation issues are discussed and one significant finding is that the class of particle-to-node weighting schemes based on areas or volumes on an unstructured mesh is inaccurate

  8. Numerical Study of Nanophotolysis Approach for Breast Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashiq, M. G. B.; Saeed, M. A.; Ibrahim, Noorddin; Shahid, M.; Tahir, B. A.

    2012-11-01

    Laser based cancer therapy of gold nanoparticles targeted breast tumor is an effective modality to kill cancer cells selectively without affecting healthy tissues. Nanophotolysis approach for selective smash up the breast cancer cells is used in the present study. Different parameters concerning nanophotolysis, such as the energy of nanobullets, velocity of the shock front, Coulomb pressure and nanosecond short pulse duration with absorption depth of gold foil have been discussed in detail. Results are suitable for breast tumor size 0.022 cm which approximately exists near the armpit of women.

  9. Numerical and experimental study of shock-driven cavity collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betney, M. R.; Anderson, P. A.; Doyle, H.; Tully, B.; Hawker, N. A.; Ventikos, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A study is presented of the interaction of a shock wave with gas cavities cast in a hydrogel. Simulations are conducted using a front-tracking approach, whereby Lagrangian hypersurfaces are used to model the interface between materials. These ‘fronts’ are overlaid on an Eulerian grid which is used to model the bulk flow. Results are compared to an experimental investigation, in which a light gas gun is used to create ∼600 MPa shock waves in hydrogel blocks, within which air cavities have been cast. Experimental results are presented, including temporally resolved measurements of light emission. Comparison between experimental and simulated results shows good agreement.

  10. Numerical Study of Perturbations in Dipolar Spin Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Taoran; Altosaar, Jaan; Henelius, Patrik; Gingras, Michel

    2013-03-01

    Competing interactions in geometrically frustrated magnets can lead to highly degenerate and non-trivially correlated ground states. One topical example, the spin ice compound Dy2Ti2O7, exhibits such a ground state which possesses a Pauling's residual entropy analogous to that of water ice. At temperatures well below the temperature scale set by the frustrated and dominant dipolar interactions, the material displays a classical spin liquid like state. As a result, small perturbations may become significant for the low temperature physics. In this project we consider perturbations from further neighbor interactions and from stuffing impurities in an attempt to account for some of the observed experimental low temperature behaviors. In particular, we determine the third neighbor interactions using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations by fitting to experimental data in a magnetic field near the [112] direction. The effects on the zero-field specific heat due to variation of the exchange parameters are studied using a cumulant method in conjunction with the MC simulations. We also studied the effects of stuffing Dy magnetic ions on the Ti site, which can trigger large variations in the equilibrium value of the specific heat below temperatures of 0.5K.

  11. Numerical study on thermal load of laser reflecting focusing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fu Qiang; Hong, Yan Ji

    2013-05-01

    In laser thrusters, the reflectors of the focusing system work under high-intensity laser radiation. The material choice of the reflectors is quite important due to thermal load raised by laser absorption. Meanwhile the endurance of heavy thermal load should be attributed to the metallic reflectors with low laser energy absorption ratio. Based on two-dimension heat conduction equation and several approximations, this study investigates the melting time and thermal deformation characteristics for three kind of metallic materials that are of high heat specific heat, high conductivity and high melting point, and so are some alloys. Calculated through Finite Differential Method, the results show that, as for the twice reflecting focusing system, the thermal load is quite remarkable for the both reflectors and is more serious for the second one, while different materials present distinct thermal endurance performance. For the materials under study, the beryllium mirrors featuring higher specific heat could endure longer laser radiation and may prolong the work time. Moreover, if the reflecting mirror is required to work under high laser radiation for longer time, the aid of cooling system maybe indispensable.

  12. CO2 fluxes near a forest edge: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Sogachev, Andrey; Leclerc, Monique Y; Zhang, Gengsheng; Rannik, Ullar; Vesala, Timo

    2008-09-01

    In contrast with recent advances on the dynamics of the flow at a forest edge, few studies have considered its role on scalar transport and, in particular, on CO2 transfer. The present study addresses the influence of the abrupt roughness change on forest atmosphere CO2 exchange and contrasts the concentration and flux fields against those of a uniform forested surface. We use an atmospheric boundary layer two-equation closure model that accounts for the flow dynamics and vertical divergence of CO2 sources/sinks within a plant canopy. This paper characterizes the spatial variation of CO2 fluxes as a function of both sources/sinks distribution and the vertical structure of the canopy. Results suggest that the ground source plays a major role in the formation of wave-like vertical CO2 flux behavior downwind of a forest edge, despite the fact that the contribution of foliage sources/sinks changes monotonously. Such a variation is caused by scalar advection in the trunk space and reveals itself as a decrease or increase in vertical fluxes over the forest relative to carbon dioxide exchange of the underlying forest. The effect was more pronounced in model forests where the leaf area is concentrated in the upper part of the canopy. These results can be useful both for interpretation of existing measurements of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) from flux towers in limited fetch conditions and in planning future CO2 transport experiments. PMID:18767622

  13. Statistical Properties of a Cloud Ensemble: A Numerical Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne; Soong, Su-Tzai

    1987-11-01

    Two- and three-dimensional configurations of a cloud ensemble model are used to study the statistical properties of cloud ensembles under an observed large-scale condition. The basic design of the model has been presented in papers by Soong, Ogura, and Tao. An observed large-scale lifting and small amplitude random perturbations in the form of temperature fluctuations are imposed continuously in the model. The model then allows many clouds of different sizes to develop simultaneously. A 6-hour time integration is made to allow a large number of convective clouds to develop. After the model integration, horizontal and time averages of various relevant variables are computed to elucidate the statistical properties of clouds. The model is applied to the case of a well-organized intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) rainband that occurred on 12 August 1974, during the Global Atmospheric Research Program's Atlantic Tropical Experiment.The statistical properties of clouds, such as mass flux by cloud drafts and vertical velocity as well as condensation and evaporation associated with these cloud drafts are examined in this study. The cloud drafts are further subclassified as inactive and active. Separate contributions to cloud statistics in areas of different cloud activity are then evaluated. The model results compared well with those obtained from aircraft measurements. Some implications of model results to the cumulus parameterization problem are briefly discussed. A comparison between the two- and three-dimensional model simulations is also made.

  14. Numerical study of compressible magnetoconvection with an open transitional boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Hanami, H.; Tajima, T.

    1990-08-01

    We study by computer simulation nonlinear evolution of magnetoconvection in a system with a dynamical open boundary between the convection region and corona of the sun. We study a model in which the fluid is subject to the vertical gravitation, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), and high stratification, through an MHD code with the MacCormack-Donner cell hybrid scheme in order to well represent convective phenomena. Initially the vertical fluid flux penetrates from the convectively unstable zone at the bottom into the upper diffuse atmosphere. As the instability develops, the magnetic fields are twisted by the convection motion and the folding magnetic fields is observed. When the magnetic pressure is comparable to the thermal pressure in the upper layer of convective zone, strong flux expulsion from the convective cell interior toward the cell boundary appears. Under appropriate conditions our simulation exhibits no shock formation incurred by the fluid convected to the photosphere, in contrast to earlier works with box boundaries. The magnetic field patterns observed are those of concentrated magnetic flux tubes, accumulation of dynamo flux near the bottom boundary, pinched flux near the downdraft region, and the surface movement of magnetic flux toward the downdraft region. Many of these computationally observed features are reminiscent of solar observations of the fluid and magnetic structures of their motions.

  15. A Parametric Numerical Study of Mixing in a Cylindrical Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oechsle, V. L.; Mongia, H. C.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    The interaction is described of some of the important parameters affecting the mixing process in a quick mixing region of a rich burn/quick mix/lean burn (RQL) combustor. The performance of the quick mixing region is significantly affected by the geometric designs of both the mixing domain and the jet inlet orifices. Several of the important geometric parameters and operating conditions affecting the mixing process were analytically studied. Parameters such as jet-to-mainstream momentum flux ratio (J), mass flow ratio (MR), orifice geometry, orifice orientation, and number of orifices/row (equally spaced) around the circumferential direction were analyzed. Three different sets of orifice shapes were studied: (1) square, (2) elongated slots, and (3) equilateral triangles. Based on the analytical results, the best mixing configuration depends significantly on the penetration depth of the jet to prevent the hot mainstream flow from being entrained behind the orifice. The structure in a circular mixing section is highly weighted toward the outer wall and any mixing structure affecting this area significantly affects the overall results. The increase in the number of orifices per row increases the mixing at higher J conditions. Higher slot slant angles and aspect ratios are generally the best mixing configurations at higher momentum flux ratio (J) conditions. However, the square and triangular shaped orifices were more effective mixing configurations at lower J conditions.

  16. Numerical study of the performance of a model scramjet engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhumadi, Ayad

    A computational parametric investigation was conducted to study the effect of variations to several geometric parameters on the performance of a two-dimensional model scramjet engine (square cross section area for 3-D model). Geometric parameters included backstep location, height, and angle and fuel injector angle, diameter, and location. Two- and three-dimensional geometries have been studied, using a finite-volume computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code (FLUENT) with structured grids with sizes between 50,000 and 90,000 cells for the two-dimensional geometry and with structured hexahedral grid sizes between 650,000 and 949,725 cells for the three-dimensional geometry. Otherwise, identical values of program inputs were utilized for the two- and three-dimensional simulations. Performance parameters investigated were combustion efficiency, thrust, pressure losses, and the equivalence ratio for the hydrogen-air combustor. A set of values for independent variables was identified which resulted in maximum thrust, minimum pressure losses, and an equivalence ratio close to unity.

  17. a Numerical Study of Cylinders in Waves and Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C. Y.; Graham, J. M. R.

    2000-04-01

    The research on combination flow of planar oscillatory flow plus an in-line steady stream is of importance to the situation of structures in waves and current. The combination flow has not been studied extensively. There is still little information about the effect of current and about combined effect of current and waves on hydrodynamic loading of the structures. The present study investigates the combination flow around a circular cylinder using a vortex-based method incorporating vortex moving particles (discrete vortices) with a finite-difference scheme for the vorticity diffusion. The main attention is paid to the effects of a small current on in-line fluid forces and vortex patterns in the wake. Morison's equation and an equation with two drag terms are examined. The results show that the presence of a small current in an oscillatory flow can reduce the drag coefficient significantly. Morison's equation gives reasonably good predictions for the in-line forces for an oscillatory flow plus a small current. The current tends to bring the whole vortex wake downstream and tries to form the stable Karman asymmetrical form in the downstream wake. The present results show certain agreement with some previous experimental results.

  18. Numerical Study of Shock Propagation in Inhomogeneous Materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotelnikov, A. D.; Montgomery, D. C.

    1997-07-01

    We report computations of shock propagation in a medium of dense ``bubbles'' surrounded by a lighter fluid, with an intended application to plastic fibers in DT liquid or ice. The method is kinetic footnote A.D. Kotelnikov, and D.C. Montgomery, ``A kinetic method for computing inhomogeneous fluid behavior,'' submitted to J. Comput. Phys. , and is based on the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model generalized to two species. The model is generalizeable beyond the (ideal gas) equations of state presently employed: molecular interactions and dissociation can be included. The shocks generate turbulence, compressible and mixing, and it affects shock structure and propagation speed. The effect of the residual turbulence on second, following, shocks can be studied similarly. The studies are now two-dimensional (2D), and significant differences are expected in 3D because of the different decay rates of turbulence in 2D and 3D. This work was supported in part by U.S.N.R.L. Grant N000014-96-G005

  19. Inspirational airflow patterns in deviated noses: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian Hua; Lee, Heow Pueh; Lim, Kian Meng; Lee, Shu Jin; San, Lynette Teo Li; Wang, De Yun

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the effects of deviation of external nose to nasal airflow patterns. Four typical subjects were chosen for model reconstruction based on computed tomography images of undeviated, S-shaped deviated, C-shaped deviated and slanted deviated noses. To study the hypothetical influence of deviation of external nasal wall on nasal airflow (without internal blockage), the collapsed region along the turbinate was artificially reopened in all the three cases with deviated noses. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were carried out in models of undeviated, original deviated and reopened nasal cavities at both flow rates of 167 and 500 ml/s. The shape of the anterior nasal roof was found to be collapsed on one side of the nasal airways in all the deviated noses. High wall shear stress region was found around the collapsed anterior nasal roof. The nasal resistances in cavities with deviated noses were considerably larger than healthy nasal cavity. Patterns of path-line distribution and wall shear stress distribution were similar between original deviated and reopened models. In conclusion, the deviation of an external nose is associated with the collapse of one anterior nasal roof. The crooked external nose induced a larger nasal resistance compared to the undeviated case, while the internal blockage of the airway along the turbinates further increased it. PMID:22515677

  20. Effects of Convective Asymmetries on Hurricane Intensity: A Numerical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Braun, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the uniform large-scale flow, beta effect, and vertical shear of the environmental flow on hurricane intensity is investigated in the context of the induced convective or potential vorticity asymmetries with a hydrostatic primitive equation hurricane model. In agreement with the previous studies, imposing of one of these environmental effects can substantially weaken the simulated tropical cyclones. In response t o the environmental influence, significant asymmetries develop with a structure similar to the spiral bands in real hurricanes, which are dominated by wavenumber-one components. The tendencies of the mean radial, azimuthal winds and temperature associated with the environment-induced convective asymmetries are evaluated respectively. The resulting asymmetries can effectively reduce hurricane intensity by directly producing the negative tendency of the mean tangential wind in the vicinity of the radius of maximum wind, and by weakening the mean radial circulation. The reduction effects are closely associated with the spiral structure of the induced asymmetries. The time lag observed between the imposition of the environmental influence and the resulting rise in the minimum central pressure is the time required for developing the spiral structure. This study also confirms the axisymmetrization process associated with the induced wavenumber-one components of potential vorticity asymmetries, but it exists only within the radius of maximum wind.

  1. Numerical Study on GRB-Jet Formation in Collapsars

    SciTech Connect

    Nagataki, Shigehiro; Takahashi, Rohta; Mizuta, Akira; Takiwaki, Tomoya; /Tokyo U.

    2006-08-22

    Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations are performed using the ZEUS-2D code to investigate the dynamics of a collapsar that generates a GRB jet, taking account of realistic equation of state, neutrino cooling and heating processes, magnetic fields, and gravitational force from the central black hole and self gravity. It is found that neutrino heating processes are not so efficient to launch a jet in this study. It is also found that a jet is launched mainly by B{sub {phi}} fields that are amplified by the winding-up effect. However, since the ratio of total energy relative to the rest mass energy in the jet is not so high as several hundred, we conclude that the jets seen in this study are not be a GRB jet. This result suggests that general relativistic effects, which are not included in this study, will be important to generate a GRB jet. Also, the accretion disk with magnetic fields may still play an important role to launch a GRB jet, although a simulation for much longer physical time {approx} 10-100 s is required to confirm this effect. It is shown that considerable amount of {sup 56}Ni is synthesized in the accretion disk. Thus there will be a possibility for the accretion disk to supply sufficient amount of {sup 56}Ni required to explain the luminosity of a hypernova. Also, it is shown that neutron-rich matter due to electron captures with high entropy per baryon is ejected along the polar axis. Moreover, it is found that the electron fraction becomes larger than 0.5 around the polar axis near the black hole by {nu}{sub e} capture at the region. Thus there will be a possibility that r-process and r/p-process nucleosynthesis occur at these regions. Finally, much neutrons will be ejected from the jet, which suggests that signals from the neutron decays may be observed as the delayed bump of the light curve of the afterglow or gamma-rays.

  2. Numerical study of grating-assisted optical diffraction tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Chaumet, Patrick C.; Belkebir, Kamal; Sentenac, Anne

    2007-07-15

    We study the resolution of an optical diffraction tomography system in which the objects are either in an homogeneous background or deposited onto a glass prism, a prism surmounted by a thin metallic film or a prism surmounted by a metallic film covered by a periodically nanostructured dielectric layer. For all these configurations, we present an inversion procedure that yields the map of the relative permittivity of the objects from their diffracted far field. When multiple scattering can be neglected, we show that the homogeneous, prism, and metallic film configurations yield a resolution about {lambda}/4 while the grating substrate yields a resolution better than {lambda}/10. When Born approximation fails, we point out that it is possible to neglect the coupling between the object and the substrate and account solely for the multiple scattering within the objects to obtain a satisfactory reconstruction. Last, we present the robustness of our inversion procedure to noise.

  3. Numerical Model Studies of the Martian Mesoscale Circulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Arritt, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    Studies concerning mesoscale topographical effects on Martian flows examined low-level jets in the near equatorial latitudes and the dynamical intensification of flow by steep terrain. Continuation of work from previous years included evaluating the dissipation of cold air mass outbreaks due to enhanced sensible heat flux, further sensitivity and scaling evaluations for generalization of the characteristics of Martian mesoscale circulation caused by horizontal sensible heat-flux gradients, and evaluations of the significance that non-uniform surface would have on enhancing the polar CO2 ice sublimation during the spring. The sensitivity of maximum and minimum atmospheric temperatures to changes in wind speed, surface albedo, and deep soil temperature was investigated.

  4. Numerical study of centrifugal compressor stage vaneless diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galerkin, Y.; Soldatova, K.; Solovieva, O.

    2015-08-01

    The authors analyzed CFD calculations of flow in vaneless diffusers with relative width in range from 0.014 to 0.100 at inlet flow angles in range from 100 to 450 with different inlet velocity coefficients, Reynolds numbers and surface roughness. The aim is to simulate calculated performances by simple algebraic equations. The friction coefficient that represents head losses as friction losses is proposed for simulation. The friction coefficient and loss coefficient are directly connected by simple equation. The advantage is that friction coefficient changes comparatively little in range of studied parameters. Simple equations for this coefficient are proposed by the authors. The simulation accuracy is sufficient for practical calculations. To create the complete algebraic model of the vaneless diffuser the authors plan to widen this method of modeling to diffusers with different relative length and for wider range of Reynolds numbers.

  5. Self-assembling DNA dendrimers: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Largo, Julio; Starr, Francis W; Sciortino, Francesco

    2007-05-22

    DNA is increasingly used as a specific linker to template nanostructured materials. We present a molecular dynamics simulation study of a simple DNA-dendrimer model designed to capture the basic characteristics of the biological interactions, where selectivity and strong cooperativity play an important role. Exploring a large set of densities and temperatures, we follow the progressive formation of a percolating large-scale network whose connectivity can be described by random percolation theory. We identify the relative regions of network formation and kinetic arrest versus phase separation and show that the location of the two-phase region can be interpreted in the same framework as reduced valency models. This correspondence provides guidelines for designing stable, equilibrium self-assembled low-density networks. Finally, we demonstrate a relation between bonding and dynamics, by showing that the temperature dependence of the diffusion constant is controlled by the number of fully unbonded dendrimers. PMID:17439252

  6. Numerical Modeling Studies of Wake Vortices: Real Case Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Shao-Hua; Ding, Feng; Han, Jongil; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Proctor, Fred H.

    1999-01-01

    A three-dimensional large-eddy simulation model, TASS, is used to simulate the behavior of aircraft wake vortices in a real atmosphere. The purpose for this study is to validate the use of TASS for simulating the decay and transport of wake vortices. Three simulations are performed and the results are compared with the observed data from the 1994-1995 Memphis field experiments. The selected cases have an atmospheric environment of weak turbulence and stable stratification. The model simulations are initialized with appropriate meteorological conditions and a post roll-up vortex system. The behavior of wake vortices as they descend within the atmospheric boundary layer and interact with the ground is discussed.

  7. Numerical study of efficiency for a 670 GHz gyrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Pu Ruifeng; Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Sinitsyn, Oleksandr V.; Antonsen, Thomas M. Jr.

    2011-02-15

    In this paper, the results of the efficiency study of a 670 GHz gyrotron operating at TE{sub 31,8}-mode are presented. Calculations are performed by using the self-consistent nonstationary code MAGY. Three cavity configurations were examined. The effects of ohmic losses and electron velocity spread were included in the simulation. The results show that the output efficiency can reach 35% and the velocity spread in the electron beam does not degrade the operation significantly. Furthermore, we verified that the smoothing of the sharp corners for a small tapering angle would reduce mode conversion; the parasitic excitation of neighboring radial modes is less than 1% of the amplitude of the operating mode and the effect on efficiency is small. Lastly, the simulation results show that the after-cavity interaction causes only slight variations in the efficiency.

  8. Numerical studies of microscopic oil droplets under intense turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Murray; Knio, Omar

    2008-11-01

    The rise of small oil droplets in water experiencing isotropic turbulence conditions is analyzed computationally under four different turbulence intensities. The computational method combines DNS of the turbulent flow with Lagrangian tracking of the slightly buoyant droplets using a dynamical equation with buoyancy, virtual mass, pressure, drag, lift and history forces. In our recent work, Snyder et al. (2008), we showed that the puzzling behavior observed by Friedman and Katz (2002), where the rise velocity of droplets smaller than 800 μm in diameter is enhanced by turbulence whereas the rise of larger droplets is retarded, could be explained by significant drop then enhancement of the droplet drag coefficient, and corresponding drop in the virtual mass coefficient. In this study we use the same technique to explain the recent experimental results of Gopalan and Katz (2008), who also showed both suppression and enhancement of droplet rise velocities. Using drag and virtual mass coefficients which vary with Reynolds number, our computations approximate the experimental behavior observed by Gopalan and Katz in isotropic turbulence with 79, 100 and 151 μm Kolmogorov length scales. Combined with close agreement with the Friedman and Katz results, with an 88 μm Kolmogorov scale, our results provide further evidence that both the quasi-steady drag and virtual mass coefficients may be heavily modified under intense turbulence.

  9. Numerical study of low-current steady arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S. C.; Nagamatsu, H. T.

    1992-01-01

    The development of a high-efficiency CW YLF laser doped with Er,Tm,Ho: and featuring a strongly focusing resonator that collects a high density of pump power on the active crystal is described. The emission is investigated at 2.06 microns and a tuning range both at liquid-nitrogen (77 K) and at dry-ice (210 K) temperature. The noise characteristics and the long-term power stability of the laser is studied with an eye to employing this source for high-resolution spectroscopy in the 2-micron wavelength region. The detection of several absorption lines of NH3 at low pressure is described. The output power of the laser as a function of the power impinging on the crystal for different transmission of the output mirror is illustrated. The best result obtained is 1.46 W output for 3.2 W of argon pump. The minimum threshold achieved is 3.5 mW with a 1-percent transmission mirror. It is concluded that it is possible to develop a highly efficient Ho:YLF laser featuring low noise and sufficient tunability for high-resolution spectroscopy in the 2-micron region.

  10. The numerical study of nonlinear instabilities in ICF plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chunyang; Hao, Liang; Liu, Zhanjun

    2013-10-01

    Convective Raman or Brillouin amplification and competition between them in inhomogeneous, drifting plasmas are discussed. Based on a five-wave model, relations of the backscattering reflectivity between Raman and Brillouin are deduced, and the influence of inhomogeneity, drift, damping to the pattern of competition is analyzed. For the given plasma conditions and noise source, the backscatter spectrum can be constructed. Recent gas-filled hohlraum experiments at the SHEN-GUANG laser facility show good agreement between measured reflectivity and our model predictions. The features of side-scatter in overlapping laser beams are also studied. We observe that backward Raman scattering level of one pump beam can be significantly enhanced when the second beam crosses it. This can be explained as the induced stimulated Raman side scattering, and the scattering wave of the first beam is as the seed light of the second beam. The variance of Raman scattering level with the different crossing angles is investigated. An extended five-wave model including nonlinear damping and detuning of plasma wave is under consideration.

  11. Experimental and Numerical Study on Blanking Process with Negative Clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Kenji; Yanaga, Hiroki; Fukushima, Katsunori

    This study summarizes the characteristics of blanking behavior with a negative clearance. Several experiments were performed for two aluminum sheets over a wide range of clearances including negative values. Blanking with negatively large clearances was found to produce fine cut edges with less roll-over and no fracture zone even for a brittle material. Corresponding simulations were performed using the Ayada's criterion for predicting ductile fracture initiation. Each zone of blanked part edges such as roll-over and fractured zone agreed well with that obtained in the experiments except a few cases accompanied by secondary shear. The reason for prevention of fracture by using negative clearances was explained with the change of the damage value during the process; the damage value was kept low throughout the blanking operation since the mean stress dominating the damage value became compressive around the die edge. Influences of blanking parameters on load-stroke curves were also investigated. The curves for negative clearances showed gradual increase in load toward the end of stroke. The earlier fracture initiated, the earlier the load reached a peak. Simulated curves showed the same tendency and in good agreement with the experimental ones quantitatively.

  12. A numerical study of flutter in a transonic fan

    SciTech Connect

    Isomura, K.; Giles, M.B.

    1998-07-01

    The bending mode flutter of a modern transonic fan has been studied using a quasi-three-dimensional viscous unsteady CFD code. The type of flutter in this research is that of a highly loaded blade with a tip relative Mach number just above unity, commonly referred to as transonic stall flutter. This type of flutter is often encountered in modern wide chord fans without a part span shroud. The CFD simulation uses an upwinding scheme with Roe`s third-order flux differencing, and Johnson and King`s turbulence model with the later modification due to Johnson and Coakley. A dynamic transition point model is developed using the e{double_prime} method and Schubauer and Klebanoff`s experimental data. The calculations of the flow in this fan reveal that the source of the flutter of 1H1 transonic fan is an oscillation of the passage shock, rather than a stall. As the blade loading increases, the passage shock moves forward. Just before the passage shock unstarts, the stability of the passage shock decreases, and a small blade vibration causes the shock to oscillate with a large amplitude between unstarted and started positions. The dominant component of the blade excitation force is due to the foot of the oscillating passage shock on the blade pressure surface.

  13. Hydrogen Sticking on Amorphous Water-Ice: A Numerical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, John; Lewis, Steven; Stancil, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    Gas-grain and gas-phase reactions dominate the formation of molecules in the interstellar medium (ISM). Gas-grain reactions require a substrate on which the reaction is able to occur. The formation of molecular hydrogen (H2) in the ISM is a prime example of a gas-grain reaction. In these reactions, an atom of hydrogen will strike a surface, adsorb to the surface, interact with the molecular structure of substrate (in this case water), form molecular hydrogen, and then be ejected from the surface. We perform classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of hydrogen atoms sticking to an amorphous water-ice surface. This study examines the first step in the process; the sticking of the atom to the substrate. This talk emphasizes the importance of accurately defining a sticking event in calculating sticking probabilities which are used to obtain a reasonable model for H2 formation in the ISM. With these sticking probabilities calculated, sticking coefficients are obtained for various ice substrate temperatures and incident H-atom kinetic energies.

  14. Numerical studies of Siberian snakes and spin rotators for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Luccio, A.

    1995-04-17

    For the program of polarized protons in RHIC, two Siberian snakes and four spin rotators per ring will be used. The Snakes will produce a complete spin flip. Spin Rotators, in pairs, will rotate the spin from the vertical direction to the horizontal plane at a given insertion, and back to the vertical after the insertion. Snakes, 180{degrees} apart and with their axis of spin precession at 90{degrees} to each other, are an effective means to avoid depolarization of the proton beam in traversing resonances. Classical snakes and rotators are made with magnetic solenoids or with a sequence of magnetic dipoles with fields alternately directed in the radial and vertical direction. Another possibility is to use helical magnets, essentially twisted dipoles, in which the field, transverse the axis of the magnet, continuously rotates as the particles proceed along it. After some comparative studies, the authors decided to adopt for RHIC an elegant solution with four helical magnets both for the snakes and the rotators proposed by Shatunov and Ptitsin. In order to simplify the construction of the magnets and to minimize cost, four identical super conducting helical modules will be used for each device. Snakes will be built with four right-handed helices. Spin rotators with two right-handed and two left-handed helices. The maximum field will be limited to 4 Tesla. While small bore helical undulators have been built for free electron lasers, large super conducting helical magnets have not been built yet. In spite of this difficulty, this choice is dictated by some distinctive advantages of helical over more conventional transverse snakes/rotators: (i) the devices are modular, they can be built with arrangements of identical modules, (ii) the maximum orbit excursion in the magnet is smaller, (iii) orbit excursion is independent from the separation between adjacent magnets, (iv) they allow an easier control of the spin rotation and the orientation of the spin precession axis.

  15. Numerical Simulation Study on the Hydraulic Behavior in Closed Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Shu, L.; Wen, Z.; Wu, G.; Zhang, X.; Hu, B. X.

    2015-12-01

    As the main repositories for groundwater in karst systems, fractures involve the movement and storage of groundwater. Fundamentally, Navier-Stokes (NS) Equations is used to describe flow in fractures. However, due to the complexity of Navier-Stokes Equations, it is rarely applied to solve fracture flow problems. Thus, based on some simplifications, Stokes equations, Reynolds equations and Cubic Law (CL) are derived to describe fracture flow. The validity of the three simplified equations were extensively studies. Among the three simplified equations of NS, CL is the simplest and used to describe flow in open, smooth and paralleled fractures. In the previous work, most researchers focused on the open fractures. But it's the closed fractures exist widely in the field not the open fractures. The objective of this paper aims to check the validity of CL in closed fractures with different apertures and widths of fracture. After comparing the experimental results and simulations results from the COMSOL Multiphysics (FEM), this software was applied to solve the 3D or 2D NS equations in the closed fractures. The results obtained from NS simulation results and calculation results from CL were compared to indicate the degree of the validity of CL in application. A critical velocity was proposed to illustrate the validity of CL in closed fractures. Furthermore, the impacts of aperture size, width of fracture size, and velocity magnitude on both the hydraulic conductivity and velocity profile were also analyzed. The results showed the CL was capable of describing flow in closed fractures when the velocity was less than the critical velocity varying from 0.02 to 30.08cm/s. The ratio of NS results and CL results was between 0.9 and 2, with velocity varying from 0 to 40cm/s. The discrepancy between NS equation and CL increased with Reynolds number, increased with aperture size and decreased with width of fracture.

  16. Numerical study on wake characteristics of high-speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shuan-Bao; Sun, Zhen-Xu; Guo, Di-Long; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Guo-Wei

    2013-11-01

    Intensive turbulence exists in the wakes of high speed trains, and the aerodynamic performance of the trailing car could deteriorate rapidly due to complicated features of the vortices in the wake zone. As a result, the safety and amenity of high speed trains would face a great challenge. This paper considers mainly the mechanism of vortex formation and evolution in the train flow field. A real CRH2 model is studied, with a leading car, a middle car and a trailing car included. Different running speeds and cross wind conditions are considered, and the approaches of unsteady Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and detached eddy simulation (DES) are utilized, respectively. Results reveal that DES has better capability of capturing small eddies compared to URANS. However, for large eddies, the effects of two approaches are almost the same. In conditions without cross winds, two large vortex streets stretch from the train nose and interact strongly with each other in the wake zone. With the reinforcement of the ground, a complicated wake vortex system generates and becomes strengthened as the running speed increases. However, the locations of flow separations on the train surface and the separation mechanism keep unchanged. In conditions with cross winds, three large vortices develop along the leeward side of the train, among which the weakest one has no obvious influence on the wake flow while the other two stretch to the tail of the train and combine with the helical vortices in the train wake. Thus, optimization of the aerodynamic performance of the trailing car should be aiming at reducing the intensity of the wake vortex system.

  17. Numerical study on wake characteristics of high-speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shuan-Bao; Sun, Zhen-Xu; Guo, Di-Long; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Guo-Wei

    2013-12-01

    Intensive turbulence exists in the wakes of high speed trains, and the aerodynamic performance of the trailing car could deteriorate rapidly due to complicated features of the vortices in the wake zone. As a result, the safety and amenity of high speed trains would face a great challenge. This paper considers mainly the mechanism of vortex formation and evolution in the train flow field. A real CRH2 model is studied, with a leading car, a middle car and a trailing car included. Different running speeds and cross wind conditions are considered, and the approaches of unsteady Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and detached eddy simulation (DES) are utilized, respectively. Results reveal that DES has better capability of capturing small eddies compared to URANS. However, for large eddies, the effects of two approaches are almost the same. In conditions without cross winds, two large vortex streets stretch from the train nose and interact strongly with each other in the wake zone. With the reinforcement of the ground, a complicated wake vortex system generates and becomes strengthened as the running speed increases. However, the locations of flow separations on the train surface and the separation mechanism keep unchanged. In conditions with cross winds, three large vortices develop along the leeward side of the train, among which the weakest one has no obvious influence on the wake flow while the other two stretch to the tail of the train and combine with the helical vortices in the train wake. Thus, optimization of the aerodynamic performance of the trailing car should be aiming at reducing the intensity of the wake vortex system.

  18. A numerical study of the Somali coastal undercurrents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esenkov, O. E.; Olson, D. B.

    Subsurface circulation in the western Arabian Sea is studied with an open boundary version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM). The model solution demonstrates a strong annual cycle and significant alongshore variability of subsurface circulation. Based on the dynamics and water properties, three regions are identified along the coast. A cross-equatorial current, which exists throughout the year, carries low-salinity water northwards. Comparison of the model results with observations in the equatorial region demonstrates that the model reproduces the annual cycle and transport of the currents remarkably well. Although it underestimates the speed of the undercurrent core by about a factor of two, increasing the horizontal resolution from 0.35° to 0.225° improves agreement with the measurements. A spring southward undercurrent between 5°N and the equator owes its existence to the wind forcing in the Arabian Sea. Water with higher salinity values, found in the coastal region north of 5°N, is advected by a southward undercurrent that is present between October and March. The existence of the undercurrent is caused by flows from the east and northeast. The latter originates in the Persian Gulf and provides about 75% of water for the coastal undercurrent. The annual Rossby wave generated in the interior of the domain contributes to the formation of the current in the fall. The third region is an area near 4°N, where the southward undercurrent separates, as velocity and salinity fields suggest. Subsurface circulation north of 5°N is disconnected from flows near the equator during most of the year. The model circulation is not sensitive to the details of coastal bottom topography. In contrast, the presence of the Socotra Island, which is absent in the model, leads to a more realistic solution in that the southward undercurrent north of 5°N is present throughout the spring. Interannual variability of the model subsurface fields increases

  19. A numerical study on ship-ship interaction in shallow and restricted waterway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungwook

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a numerical prediction method on the hydrodynamic interaction force and moment between two ships in shallow and restricted waterway is presented. Especially, the present study proposes a methodology to overcome the limitation of the two dimensional perturbation method which is related to the moored-passing ship interaction. The validation study was performed and compared with the experiment, firstly. Afterward, in order to propose a methodology in terms with the moored-passing ship interaction, further studies were performed for the moored-passing ship case with a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculation which is using OpenFOAM with Arbitrary Coupled Mesh Interface (ACMI) technique and compared with the experiment result. Finally, the present study proposes a guide to apply the two dimensional perturbation method to the moored-passing ship interaction. In addition, it presents a possibility that the RANS calculation with ACMI can applied to the ship-ship interaction without using a overset moving grid technique.

  20. Numerical study of heat transfer in two-row heat exchangers having extended fin surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sheui, T.W.H.; Tsai, S.F.; Chiang, T.P.

    1999-05-28

    This paper reports on a three-dimensional study of air through two-row cylinder tubes. The analysis is intended to present a comparison of numerical and experimental data to validate the laminar flow postulation. The current study explores the influence of four perforated fin surfaces on the pressure drop and heat transfer rate. To gain further insight into the three-dimensional vortical flow structure, the authors conduct a topological study of the velocity field. Examination of the surface flow topology and the flow patterns at cross-flow plumes sheds some light on the complex interaction of the cylinder tube with the mainstream flow. This study clearly reveals a saddle point in front of the first row of cylinder tubes. Also clearly revealed by the computed solutions is a flow reversal found in the wake of the tube. The character of the critical-point-induced flow is also addressed. This study shows that the addition of perforated fins is not without deficiency. There is, in fact, a trade-off between the benefit of having an improved heat transfer and the penalty of having an increased pressure drop.

  1. Study of wood plastic composite in the presence of nitrogen containing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, K. M. Idriss; Khan, Mubarak A.; Husain, M. M.

    1994-10-01

    Effect of nitrogen-containing additives in the study of wood plastic composites of MMA with simul and mango wood of Bangladesh has been investigated. Nine different additives were used and the additives containing carboamide group induce the highest tensile strength to the composite.

  2. A benchmark study of numerical schemes for one-dimensional arterial blood flow modelling.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Etienne; Nithiarasu, Perumal; Blanco, Pablo J; Müller, Lucas O; Fossan, Fredrik Eikeland; Hellevik, Leif Rune; Donders, Wouter P; Huberts, Wouter; Willemet, Marie; Alastruey, Jordi

    2015-10-01

    Haemodynamical simulations using one-dimensional (1D) computational models exhibit many of the features of the systemic circulation under normal and diseased conditions. Recent interest in verifying 1D numerical schemes has led to the development of alternative experimental setups and the use of three-dimensional numerical models to acquire data not easily measured in vivo. In most studies to date, only one particular 1D scheme is tested. In this paper, we present a systematic comparison of six commonly used numerical schemes for 1D blood flow modelling: discontinuous Galerkin, locally conservative Galerkin, Galerkin least-squares finite element method, finite volume method, finite difference MacCormack method and a simplified trapezium rule method. Comparisons are made in a series of six benchmark test cases with an increasing degree of complexity. The accuracy of the numerical schemes is assessed by comparison with theoretical results, three-dimensional numerical data in compatible domains with distensible walls or experimental data in a network of silicone tubes. Results show a good agreement among all numerical schemes and their ability to capture the main features of pressure, flow and area waveforms in large arteries. All the information used in this study, including the input data for all benchmark cases, experimental data where available and numerical solutions for each scheme, is made publicly available online, providing a comprehensive reference data set to support the development of 1D models and numerical schemes. PMID:26100764

  3. Development of numerical processing in children with typical and dyscalculic arithmetic skills—a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Landerl, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Numerical processing has been demonstrated to be closely associated with arithmetic skills, however, our knowledge on the development of the relevant cognitive mechanisms is limited. The present longitudinal study investigated the developmental trajectories of numerical processing in 42 children with age-adequate arithmetic development and 41 children with dyscalculia over a 2-year period from beginning of Grade 2, when children were 7; 6 years old, to beginning of Grade 4. A battery of numerical processing tasks (dot enumeration, non-symbolic and symbolic comparison of one- and two-digit numbers, physical comparison, number line estimation) was given five times during the study (beginning and middle of each school year). Efficiency of numerical processing was a very good indicator of development in numerical processing while within-task effects remained largely constant and showed low long-term stability before middle of Grade 3. Children with dyscalculia showed less efficient numerical processing reflected in specifically prolonged response times. Importantly, they showed consistently larger slopes for dot enumeration in the subitizing range, an untypically large compatibility effect when processing two-digit numbers, and they were consistently less accurate in placing numbers on a number line. Thus, we were able to identify parameters that can be used in future research to characterize numerical processing in typical and dyscalculic development. These parameters can also be helpful for identification of children who struggle in their numerical development. PMID:23898310

  4. Numerical study of the effect of oxygenated blending compounds on soot formation in shock tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, H.; Braun-Unkhoff, M.

    2008-04-15

    This numerical study deals with the influence of blends on the amount of soot formed in shock tubes, which were simulated by assuming a homogeneous plug flow reactor model. For this purpose, first, the reaction model used here was validated against experimental results previously obtained in the literature. Then, the soot volume fractions of various mixtures of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-benzene, isobutene-benzene, methanol-benzene, and ethanol-benzene diluted in argon were simulated and compared to the results of benzene-argon pyrolysis at 1721 K and 5.4 MPa. For MTBE, isobutene, methanol, and ethanol, small amounts of additives to benzene-argon mixtures promoted soot formation, for the shock tube model assumed, while higher concentrations of these additives led to smaller soot volume fractions in comparison to pure benzene-argon pyrolysis. The most significant soot promotion effect was found for the additives MTBE and isobutene. The channel for MTBE decomposition producing isobutene and methanol is very effective at temperatures beyond 1200 K. Thus, both MTBE-benzene and isobutene-benzene mixtures diluted in argon showed rather similar behavior in regard to soot formation. Special emphasis was directed toward the causes for the concentration-dependent influence of the blends on the amount of soot formed. Aromatic hydrocarbons and acetylene were identified as key gas-phase species that determine the trends in the formation of soot of various mixtures. From reaction flux analysis for phenanthrene, it was deduced that the combinative routes including phenyl species play a major role in forming PAHs, especially at early reaction times. It is found that the additives play an important role in providing material to grow side chains, such as by reaction channels including phenylacetylene or benzyl, which are confirmed to form aromatic hydrocarbons and thus to influence the amount of soot formed, particularly when the concentrations of the blends are increased

  5. A numerical study of a viscous flow past a right circular cylinder on a -plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Tomonori; Yamagata, Toshio

    The viscous flow past a right circular cylinder on a -plane is numerically studied. The basic flow, unbounded laterally, is assumed to be uniform. The explored parameter space is Ronumerically. It is found that an almost exact correspondence exists for steady flows between the numerical solutions and the flow-patterns observed in the laboratory experiments of Boyer and Davies (1982). For a prograde flow, in addition to the upstream influence, the accelerated jet extends to the rear of the_ cylinder because of the existence of Rossby lee-waves. This tendency increases as increases. The separation points shift toward the rear of the cylinder with increasing . As a result the size of the standing eddy is reduced. In addition, the total drag coefficient Cd increases as ? increases. For a retrograde flow, the location of the separation point is not so sensitive to ? in contrast to the prograde case. This result is consistent with Merkine's (1980) theoretical prediction based on a boundary layer method. The retrograde flow pattern is marked by the formation of an elongated blocking area behind the cylinder. This is mainly because the eddy behind the cylinder propagates as a long Rossby wave. The total drag coefficient Cd increases rapidly as ? increases due to the excessive vorticity generation. It is also found that the nonlinear Ekman friction can generate a noticeable asymmetry in the wake. The β-effect suppresses the unsteadiness for a prograde flow, but enhances it for a retrograde flow. As a result, the Strouhal number increases as ? increases for a retrograde flow. When eddy shedding occurs the anticyclonic eddy is stronger than the cyclonic one due to the asymmetric property of the nonlinear Ekman friction. However, this final result is not consistent

  6. A Numerical Study of Resistivity and Hall Effects for a Compressible MHD Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjogreen, B.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of resistive, Hall, and viscous terms on the flow structure compared with compressible ideal MHD is studied numerically for a one-fluid non-ideal MHD model. The goal of the present study is to shed some light on the emerging area of non-ideal MHD modeling and simulation. Numerical experiments are performed on a hypersonic blunt body flow with future application to plasma aerodynamics flow control in reentry vehicles. Numerical experiments are also performed on a magnetized time-developing mixing layer with possible application to magnetic/turbulence mixing.

  7. A numerical study on manoeuvrability of wind turbine installation vessel using OpenFOAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungwook; Kim, Booki

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a numerical prediction method on manoeuvrability of Wind Turbine Installation Vessel (WTIV) is presented. Planar Motion Mechanism (PMM) captive test for the bare hull of WTIV is carried out in the model basin and compared with the numerical results using RANS simulation based on Open-source Field Operation And Manipulation (OpenFOAM) calculation to validate the developed method. The manoeuvrability of WTIV with skeg and/or without skeg is investigated using the numerical approach along with the captive model test. In the numerical calculations, the dynamic stability index which indicates the course keeping ability is evaluated and compared for three different hull configurations i.e. bare hull and other two hulls with center skeg and twin skeg. This paper proves that the numerical approach using RANS simulation can be readily applied to estimate the manoeuvrability of WTIV at the initial design stage.

  8. A numerical study on manoeuvrability of wind turbine installation vessel using OpenFOAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungwook; Kim, Booki

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a numerical prediction method on manoeuvrability of Wind Turbine Installation Vessel (WTIV) is presented. Planar Motion Mechanism (PMM) captive test for the bare hull of WTIV is carried out in the model basin and compared with the numerical results using RANS simulation based on Open-source Field Operation And Manipulation (OpenFOAM) calculation to validate the developed method. The manoeuvrability of WTIV with skeg and/or without skeg is investigated using the numerical approach along with the captive model test. In the numerical calculations, the dynamic stability index which indicates the course keeping ability is evaluated and compared for three different hull configurations i.e. bare hull and other two hulls with center skeg and twin skeg. This paper proves that the numerical approach using RANS simulation can be readily applied to estimate the manoeuvrability of WTIV at the initial design stage.

  9. Numerical study on anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste: Biogas generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardhani, Puteri Kusuma; Watanabe, Masaji

    2016-02-01

    The study provides experimental results and numerical results concerning anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste. Experiments were carried out by using batch floating drum type digester without mixing and temperature setting. The retention time was 30 days. Numerical results based on Monod type model with influence of temperature is introduced. Initial value problems were analyzed numerically, while kinetic parameters were analyzed by using trial error methods. The numerical results for the first five days seems appropriate in comparison with the experimental outcomes. However, numerical results shows that the model is inappropriate for 30 days of fermentation. This leads to the conclusion that Monod type model is not suitable for describe the mixture degradation of fruit and vegetable waste and horse dung.

  10. Field, Laboratory and Numerical Study of Turbulent Dispersion in Built Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Princevac, M.; Pan, H.; Bartolome, C.

    2009-09-01

    Field measurements were conducted in seven southern Californian cities. These included SF6 tracer studies in Wilmington and Palm Springs and traffic related particulate measurements in Los Angeles, Long Beach, Anaheim, Pasadena and Huntington Beach. Urban areas were selected to cover five typical building arrangements which are 1) low density settlement, 2) low-rise settlement, 3) mid-rise settlement, 4) high-rise settlement, and 5) strip mall with surface parking. In addition to SF6 and particulate concentration extensive micrometeorological measurements were performed at each site. The field experiments were accompanied with systematical laboratory modeling in a water channel. Detailed velocity and concentration fields within model urban settings were simultaneously measured by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) system. Model buildings were created from transparent acrylic blocks to allow for the whole plane measurements inside the urban canopy. Complexity of modeled urban areas ranged from uniform cubical arrays to scaled downtowns of Los Angeles, Long Beach and Huntington Beach. Numerical simulations of flows and dispersion in these urban areas were performed using three fundamentally different models: 1) AERMOD - similarity based US EPA regulatory model, 2) CFD k-e model, and 3) QUIC - semi empirical, fast response model. Performance of each numerical model will be discussed and the advantages and challenges of utilizing laboratory experiments to model urban flows will be presented. Surface energy balance components, measured via net radiometer, krypton hygrometer, sonic anemometer and heat flux plates were utilized to develop new models for estimates of sensible, latent and ground fluxes over different surfaces and surroundings. This extensive study for the first time explained phenomena of lateral channeling in regular arrays which is responsible for a sudden plume spread at the entrance of the obstacle array.

  11. A numerical and experimental study of the kinematics of a tennis ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro Sorroche, Juan

    A numerical and experimental study of the kinematics of a tennis ball. An experimental apparatus to collect data of the tennis ball in motion is designed and constructed. Data collected by the experimental apparatus is corrected by the intrinsic and extrinsic camera distortions before numeric calculation predictions of the ball's point of impact with the court are made. The experimental apparatus constructed together with comprehensive numeric computations including atmospheric conditions and spin decay, allowed making predictions of the ball's point of impact with the court with and errors <0.029%

  12. A numerical and experimental study of three-dimensional liquid sloshing in a rotating spherical container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Kuo-Huey; Kelecy, Franklyn J.; Pletcher, Richard H.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical and experimental study of three dimensional liquid sloshing inside a partially-filled spherical container undergoing an orbital rotating motion is described. Solutions of the unsteady, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for the case of a gradual spin-up from rest are compared with experimental data obtained using a rotating test rig fitted with two liquid-filled spherical tanks. Data gathered from several experiments are reduced in terms of a dimensionless free surface height for comparison with transient results from the numerical simulations. The numerical solutions are found to compare favorably with the experimental data.

  13. Numerical Study of Buoyancy and Differential Diffusion Effects on the Structure and Dynamics of Triple Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. -Y.; Echekki, T.

    1999-01-01

    Triple flames arise in a number of practical configurations where fuel and oxidizer are partially premixed, such as in the base of a lifted jet flame. Past experimental studies, theoretical analyses, and numerical modeling of triple flames suggested the potential role of triple flames in stabilizing turbulent flames and in promoting flame propagation. From recent numerical simulations of laminar triple flames, a strong influence of differential diffusion among species and heat on the triple flame structure has been gradually appreciated. This paper reports preliminary numerical results on the influence of gravity and differential diffusion effects on the structure and dynamics of triple flames with a one-step global irreversible chemistry model.

  14. Influence of in situ stress variations on acoustic emissions: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qi; Tisato, Nicola; Grasselli, Giovanni; Mahabadi, Omid K.; Lisjak, Andrea; Liu, Qinya

    2015-11-01

    The study of acoustic emissions (AEs) is of paramount importance to understand rock deformation processes. AE recorded during laboratory experiments mimics, in a controlled geometry and environment, natural and induced seismicity. However, these experiments are destructive, time consuming and require a significant amount of resources. Lately, significant progresses have been made in numerical simulations of rock failure processes, providing detailed insights into AE. We utilized the 2-D combined finite-discrete element method to simulate the deformation of Stanstead Granite under varying confining pressure (Pc) and demonstrated that the increase of confining pressure, Pc, (i) shifts failures from tensile towards shear dominated and (ii) enhance the macroscopic ductility. We quantitatively describe the AE activity associated with the fracturing process by assessing the spatial fractal dimension (D-value), the temporal distribution (AE rate) and the slope of the frequency-magnitude distribution (b-value). Based on the evaluation of D-value and AE rate, we defined two distinct deformation phases: Phase I and Phase II. The influence of Pc on the spatial distribution of AE varies according to the deformation phase: for increasing Pc, D-value decreases and increases during Phases I and II, respectively. In addition, b-value decreases with increasing Pc during the entire experiment. Our numerical results show for the first time that variations of D- and b-values as a function of in situ stress can be simulated using the combined finite-discrete element approach. We demonstrate that the examination of seismicity should be carried out carefully, taking into consideration the deformation phase and in situ stress conditions.

  15. Impact of 3D root uptake on solute transport: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, N.; Javaux, M.; Vanderborght, J.; Steffen, B.; Vereecken, H.

    2011-12-01

    Plant transpiration is an important component of the hydrological cycle. Through root water uptake, plants do not only affect the 3D soil water flow velocity distribution, but also solute movement in soil. This numerical study aims at investigating how solute fate is impacted by root uptake using the 3D biophysical model R-SWMS (Javaux et al., 2008). This model solves the Richards equation in 3D in the soil and the flow equation within the plant root xylem vessels. Furthermore, for solute transport simulations, the 3D particle tracker PARTRACE (Bechtold et al., 2011) was used. . We generated 3D virtual steady-state breakthrough curves (BTC) experiments in soils with transpiring plants. The averaged BTCs were then fitted with a 1D numerical flow model under steady-state conditions to obtain apparent CDE parameters. Two types of root architecture, a fibrous and a taprooted structure, were compared in virtual 3D experiments. The solute uptake type or the transpiration rate were also modified and we analyzed how these parameters affected apparent disperisivity and velocity profiles. Our simulation results show, that both, apparent velocity and dispersivity length are affected by water and solute root uptake. In addition, under high exclusion processes (slight or no active uptake), solute accumulates around roots and generates a long tailing to the breakthrough curves, which cannot be reproduced by 1D models that simulate root water uptake with solute exclusion. This observation may have an important impact on how to model pollutant mass transfer to groundwater at larger scales. Javaux, M., T. Schröder, J. Vanderborght, and H. Vereecken. 2008. Use of a three-dimensional detailed modeling approach for predicting root water uptake. Vadose Zone J. 7:1079-1088.doi: 10.2136/vzj2007.0115. Bechtold, M., S. Haber-Pohlmeier, J. Vanderborght, A. Pohlmeier, P.A. Ferre, and H. Vereecken. 2011. Near-surface solute redistribution during evaporation. Submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett

  16. Reduction of tsunami inundation by coastal forests in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, W.; Honda, K.; Harada, K.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal forests are known to protect coastal areas from environmental degradation. In this paper, we examined another important role of coastal forests - to mitigate tsunami devastations to coastal areas. Using a two-dimensional numerical model (Harada and Imamura model, 2005), we evaluated the damping effects of a coastal forest to resist tsunami inundation in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In the simulations, we set up a two-km long control forest with a representative topography of the study site and experimented its damping performance sensitivity under various width configurations, e.g. 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 200 m. The initial tsunami wave was set such that the inundation depth at the front edge of the forest would not exceed 4 m (tree fragility limit). The forest variables such as species, density, DBH, height and canopy size were determined from a typical forest of the site (Casuarina plantation, 4 trees/100 m2, Diameter at Breast Height = 0.20 m). The results showed that coastal forest with 100 m width reduced inundation flux, depth and area by 17.6, 7.0 and 5.7%, respectively. Exponential models were found to describe the relationships between forest width and tsunami inundation transmission. An additional experiment was performed using actual topography and a forest plantation plan with 100 m width for 2.46 km2. In this experiment, the results showed that the plan would reduce inundation flux by 10.1%, while the exponential model estimated it to be 10.6%, close to the numerical model results. It suggests that statistical models of forest width and damping effects are useful tools for plantation planning, as it allows for quicker evaluation of the impact of coastal forest without simulation modeling that requires a lot of data, time and computing power.

  17. A numerical study of mixing in supersonic combustors with hypermixing injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical study was conducted to evaluate the performance of wall mounted fuel-injectors designed for potential Supersonic Combustion Ramjet (SCRAM-jet) engine applications. The focus of this investigation was to numerically simulate existing combustor designs for the purpose of validating the numerical technique and the physical models developed. Three different injector designs of varying complexity were studied to fully understand the computational implications involved in accurate predictions. A dual transverse injection system and two streamwise injector designs were studied. The streamwise injectors were designed with swept ramps to enhance fuel-air mixing and combustion characteristics at supersonic speeds without the large flow blockage and drag contribution of the transverse injection system. For this study, the Mass-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the chemical species continuity equations were solved. The computations were performed using a finite-volume implicit numerical technique and multiple block structured grid system. The interfaces of the multiple block structured grid systems were numerically resolved using the flux-conservative technique. Detailed comparisons between the computations and existing experimental data are presented. These comparisons show that numerical predictions are in agreement with the experimental data. These comparisons also show that a number of turbulence model improvements are needed for accurate combustor flowfield predictions.

  18. Numerical study of a quasi-hydrodynamic system of equations for flow computation at small mach numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashov, V. A.; Savenkov, E. B.

    2015-10-01

    The applicability of numerical algorithms based on a quasi-hydrodynamic system of equations for computing viscous heat-conducting compressible gas flows at Mach numbers M = 10-2-10-1 is studied numerically. The numerical algorithm is briefly described, and the results obtained for a number of two- and three-dimensional test problems are presented and compared with earlier numerical data.

  19. A study of numerical methods for hyperbolic conservation laws with stiff source terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveque, R. J.; Yee, H. C.

    1988-01-01

    The proper modeling of nonequilibrium gas dynamics is required in certain regimes of hypersonic flow. For inviscid flow this gives a system of conservation laws coupled with source terms representing the chemistry. Often a wide range of time scales is present in the problem, leading to numerical difficulties as in stiff systems of ordinary differential equations. Stability can be achieved by using implicit methods, but other numerical difficulties are observed. The behavior of typical numerical methods on a simple advection equation with a parameter-dependent source term was studied. Two approaches to incorporate the source term were utilized: MacCormack type predictor-corrector methods with flux limiters, and splitting methods in which the fluid dynamics and chemistry are handled in separate steps. Various comparisons over a wide range of parameter values were made. In the stiff case where the solution contains discontinuities, incorrect numerical propagation speeds are observed with all of the methods considered. This phenomenon is studied and explained.

  20. Experimental and numerical study of a bird strike against a windshield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plassard, Fabien; Hereil, Pierre-Louis; Joseph, Pierric; Mespoulet, Jérôme

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a bird strike study performed at THIOT-INGENIERIE laboratory. For aeronautic requirements, the 220 mm version of the gas gun TITAN is used to perform bird strike on instrumented structures. This paper shows a bird strike on a polycarbonate windshield instrumented with high speed cameras, velocity and force sensors. A crossed work with numerical simulation has been performed to design target support and diagnostic tools. It permits also to demonstrate reliability of the numerical tools.

  1. Numerical and experimental study on the flow distribution in a water manifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Gwansik; Jong Lee, Pil; Kang, Jong Hoon

    2016-03-01

    This study presents water distribution analysis of the device for spraying cooling water through specific nozzles numerically and experimentally. Numerical analysis was performed using the 3-D incompressible, multi-phase flow model, for different Reynolds numbers of 4 × 105, 8 × 105. Experimental analysis was performed at real-size, under the same conditions. The calculated results and the measured results for the distribution of flow were matched relatively well. The distribution of the nozzle flow depends on the Reynolds number.

  2. Numerical study of unsteady convective heat transfer in pulsating duct flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stosic, N.; Hanjalic, K.

    Numerical study results are presented for hydrodynamic parameters and heat transfer in a periodic gas flow, within a circular pipe in which flow oscillations were generated by pressure variation at one of the pipe ends. A comparison of experimental and numerical results has demonstrated satisfactory agreement, as well as the significant augmentation of the heat transfer coefficient under those resonant conditions in which the flow pulsation incitement frequencies correspond to the natural frequencies of the duct.

  3. The numerical study of first order wetting transition with two defect lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X. T.

    2016-09-01

    The first order wetting transition with two defect lines, one near a wall and another at a distance N1, in the d = 2 Ising model is studied by the bond propagation algorithm. The numerical calculations are carried out on very large lattices with size up to 1602 × 160. The finite size effects of the first order transition in that model are discussed. The magnetization profile is also calculated. The numerical results agree with the exact results very well.

  4. Numerical study of the direct pressure effect of acoustic waves in planar premixed flames

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, H.; Jimenez, C.

    2010-08-15

    Recently the unsteady response of 1-D premixed flames to acoustic pressure waves for the range of frequencies below and above the inverse of the flame transit time was investigated experimentally using OH chemiluminescence Wangher (2008). They compared the frequency dependence of the measured response to the prediction of an analytical model proposed by Clavin et al. (1990), derived from the standard flame model (one-step Arrhenius kinetics) and to a similar model proposed by McIntosh (1991). Discrepancies between the experimental results and the model led to the conclusion that the standard model does not provide an adequate description of the unsteady response of real flames and that it is necessary to investigate more realistic chemical models. Here we follow exactly this suggestion and perform numerical studies of the response of lean methane flames using different reaction mechanisms. We find that the global flame response obtained with both detailed chemistry (GRI3.0) and a reduced multi-step model by Peters (1996) lies slightly above the predictions of the analytical model, but is close to experimental results. We additionally used an irreversible one-step Arrhenius reaction model and show the effect of the pressure dependence of the global reaction rate in the flame response. Our results suggest first that the current models have to be extended to capture the amplitude and phase results of the detailed mechanisms, and second that the correlation between the heat release and the measured OH* chemiluminescence should be studied deeper. (author)

  5. Numerical Study Comparing RANS and LES Approaches on a Circulation Control Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Nishino, Takafumi

    2011-01-01

    A numerical study over a nominally two-dimensional circulation control airfoil is performed using a large-eddy simulation code and two Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes codes. Different Coanda jet blowing conditions are investigated. In addition to investigating the influence of grid density, a comparison is made between incompressible and compressible flow solvers. The incompressible equations are found to yield negligible differences from the compressible equations up to at least a jet exit Mach number of 0.64. The effects of different turbulence models are also studied. Models that do not account for streamline curvature effects tend to predict jet separation from the Coanda surface too late, and can produce non-physical solutions at high blowing rates. Three different turbulence models that account for streamline curvature are compared with each other and with large eddy simulation solutions. All three models are found to predict the Coanda jet separation location reasonably well, but one of the models predicts specific flow field details near the Coanda surface prior to separation much better than the other two. All Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computations produce higher circulation than large eddy simulation computations, with different stagnation point location and greater flow acceleration around the nose onto the upper surface. The precise reasons for the higher circulation are not clear, although it is not solely a function of predicting the jet separation location correctly.

  6. Numerical Study of Transmission Loss Through a Slow Gas Layer Adjacent to a Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Beck, Benjamin S.; Slagle, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic numerical investigation of the sound transmission loss through a multilayer system consisting of a bagged gas and lightweight panel. The goal of the study is to better understand the effect of the gas on transmission loss and determine whether a gas with a slow speed of sound is beneficial for noise control applications. As part of the study, the density and speed of sound of the gas are varied independently to assess the impact of each on transmission loss. Results show that near grazing incidence the plane wave transmission loss through the multilayer system is more sensitive to the speed of sound than the density of the gas. In addition, it was found that a slow wave speed in the bagged gas provides more low-frequency transmission loss benefit than a fast wave speed. At low angles of incidence, close to the plate normal, the benefit is due to the reduction of the characteristic impedance of the gas. At high angles of incidence, the benefit is attributed to the fact that the incident waves at the air/gas interface are bent towards the surface normal. Since transmission loss is angle dependent, refraction in the slow gas layer results in a significant improvement in the transmission loss at high angles of incidence.

  7. A numerical study on the dynamics of droplet formation in a microfluidic double T-junction

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Trung-Dung; Byon, Chan; Joo, Sang Woo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, droplet formations in microfluidic double T-junctions (MFDTD) are investigated based on a two-dimensional numerical model with volume of fluid method. Parametric ranges for generating alternating droplet formation (ADF) are identified. A physical background responsible for the ADF is suggested by analyzing the dynamical stability of flow system. Since the phase discrepancy between dispersed flows is mainly caused by non-symmetrical breaking of merging droplet, merging regime becomes the alternating regime at appropriate conditions. In addition, the effects of channel geometries on droplet formation are studied in terms of relative channel width. The predicted results show that the ADF region is shifted toward lower capillary numbers when channel width ratio is less than unity. The alternating droplet size increases with the increase of channel width ratio. When this ratio reaches unity, alternating droplets can be formed at very high water fraction (wf = 0.8). The droplet formation in MFDTD depends significantly on the viscosity ratio, and the droplet size in ADF decreases with the increase of the viscosity ratio. The understanding of underlying physics of the ADF phenomenon is useful for many applications, including nanoparticle synthesis with different concentrations, hydrogel bead generation, and cell transplantation in biomedical therapy. PMID:25825622

  8. Numerical simulation study of polar lows in Russian Arctic: dynamical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verezemskaya, Polina; Baranyuk, Anastasia; Stepanenko, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Polar Lows (hereafter PL) are intensive mesoscale cyclones, appearing above the sea surface, usually behind the arctic front and characterized by severe weather conditions [1]. All in consequence of the global warming PLs started to emerge in the arctic water area as well - in summer and autumn. The research goal is to examine PLs by considering multisensory data and the resulting numerical mesoscale model. The main purpose was to realize which conditions induce PL development in such thermodynamically unusual season and region as Kara sea. In order to conduct the analysis we used visible and infrared images from MODIS (Aqua). Atmospheric water vapor V, cloud liquid water Q content and surface wind fields W were resampled by examining AMSR-E microwave radiometer data (Aqua)[2], the last one was additionally extracted from QuickSCAT scatterometer. We have selected some PL cases in Kara sea, appeared in autumn of 2007-2008. Life span of the PL was between 24 to 36 hours. Vortexes' characteristics were: W from 15m/s, Q and V values: 0.08-0.11 kg/m2 and 8-15 kg/m2 relatively. Numerical experiments were carried out with Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), which was installed on supercomputer "Lomonosov" of Research Computing Center of Moscow State University [3]. As initial conditions was used reanalysis data ERA-Interim from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Numerical experiments were made with 5 km spatial resolution, with Goddard center microphysical parameterization and explicit convection simulation. Modeling fields were compared with satellite observations and shown good accordance. Than dynamic characteristics were analyzed: evolution of potential and absolute vorticity [4], surface heat and momentum fluxes, and CAPE and WISHE mechanisms realization. 1. Polar lows, J. Turner, E.A. Rasmussen, 612, Cambridge University press, Cambridge, 2003. 2. Zabolotskikh, E. V., Mitnik, L. M., & Chapron, B. (2013). New approach for severe marine

  9. Numerical and experimental study of a rotating magnetic particle chain in a viscous fluid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y; Hulsen, M A; Kang, T G; den Toonder, J M J

    2012-10-01

    A simple and fast numerical method is developed capable of accurately determining the 3D rotational dynamics of a magnetic particle chain in an infinite fluid domain. The focus is to control the alternating breakup and reformation of the bead chain which we believe is essential to achieve effective fluid mixing at small scales. The numerical scheme makes use of magnetic dipole moments and extended forms of the Oseen-Burgers tensor to account for both the magnetic and hydrodynamic interactions between the particles. It is shown that the inclusion of hydrodynamic interaction between the particles is crucial to obtain a good description of the particle dynamics. Only a small error of deviation is observed when benchmarking the numerical scheme against a more computationally intensive method, the direct simulation method. The numerical results are compared with experiments and the simulated rotational dynamics correspond well with those obtained from video-microscopy experiments qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition, a dimensionless number (R(T)) is derived as the sole control parameter for the rotational bead chain dynamics. Numerically and experimentally, R(T)≈ 1 is the boundary between rigid "rod" and dynamic "breaking and reformation" behaviors. PMID:23214587

  10. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  11. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  12. A Numerical Study of Mesh Adaptivity in Multiphase Flows with Non-Newtonian Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percival, James; Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Xie, Zhihua; Alberini, Federico; Simmons, Mark; Pain, Christopher; Matar, Omar

    2014-11-01

    We present an investigation into the computational efficiency benefits of dynamic mesh adaptivity in the numerical simulation of transient multiphase fluid flow problems involving Non-Newtonian fluids. Such fluids appear in a range of industrial applications, from printing inks to toothpastes and introduce new challenges for mesh adaptivity due to the additional ``memory'' of viscoelastic fluids. Nevertheless, the multiscale nature of these flows implies huge potential benefits for a successful implementation. The study is performed using the open source package Fluidity, which couples an unstructured mesh control volume finite element solver for the multiphase Navier-Stokes equations to a dynamic anisotropic mesh adaptivity algorithm, based on estimated solution interpolation error criteria, and conservative mesh-to-mesh interpolation routine. The code is applied to problems involving rheologies ranging from simple Newtonian to shear-thinning to viscoelastic materials and verified against experimental data for various industrial and microfluidic flows. This work was undertaken as part of the EPSRC MEMPHIS programme grant EP/K003976/1.

  13. Numerical studies of the behavior of ionized residual gas in an energy recovering linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöplau, Gisela; van Rienen, Ursula; Meseck, Atoosa

    2015-04-01

    Next generation light sources such as energy recovering linacs (ERLs) are highly sensitive to instabilities due to ionized residual gas, which must be mitigated for successful operation. Vacuum pumps are insufficient for removal of the ions, as the ions are trapped by the beam's electrical potential. Two effective measures are (i) introducing clearing gaps in the bunch train, and (ii) installing clearing electrodes which pull out the trapped ions from the electrical potential of the beam. In this paper, we present numerical studies on the behavior of ion clouds that interact with bunch trains in an ERL taking into account the effects of the clearing gaps and clearing electrodes. We present simulations with different compositions of the residual gas. Simulations are done using the MOEVE PIC Tracking software package developed at Rostock University, which has been upgraded to include the behavior of ion clouds in the environment of additional electromagnetic fields, such as generated by clearing electrodes. The simulations use the parameters of the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project (bERLinPro) to allow for the deduction of appropriate measures for bERLinPro 's design and operation.

  14. Numerical study on microbubble-enhanced heating for various parameters in EUS-FUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okita, Kohei; Maezawa, Miyuki; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2012-11-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography guided focused ultrasound surgery (EUS-FUS) have been developed as a less-invasive treatment for pancreatic cancer. In the present study, microbubble-enhanced heating for various parameters in EUS-FUS is investigated numerically. Mass and momentum equations for bubbly mixture are solved to reproduce the propagation of ultrasound of 4.8MHz through the gel containing microbubbles as Sonazoid®. The dynamics of bubble is governed by the equation which considers the elasticity of both shell and surrounding media. Additionally, the heat equation with the time averaged heat source is solved to obtain a temperature distribution. The basic equations are discretized by the 6th-order finite difference method and developed based on FDTD method. The mixture and bubbles are coupled by Euler-Lagrange method. As the results, the temperature around the target increased due to the microbubble oscillation with increasing the initial void fraction fG0 from 10-5 to 10-4%. However, at fG0=10-3%, ultrasounds were too attenuated to heat the target. The heating region moved from the target to the transducer side. By comparing the results with and without shell, the shell of bubble induced the heating around focus. This is because the decrease of the attenuation due to the elasticity of the shell and the increase of the viscous dissipation rate due to the viscosity of the shell.

  15. Numerical study of neutron beam divergence in a beam-fusion scenario employing laser driven ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alejo, A.; Green, A.; Ahmed, H.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Cerchez, M.; Clarke, R.; Doria, D.; Dorkings, S.; Fernandez, J.; McKenna, P.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; Naughton, K.; Neely, D.; Norreys, P.; Peth, C.; Powell, H.; Ruiz, J. A.; Swain, J.; Willi, O.; Borghesi, M.; Kar, S.

    2016-09-01

    The most established route to create a laser-based neutron source is by employing laser accelerated, low atomic-number ions in fusion reactions. In addition to the high reaction cross-sections at moderate energies of the projectile ions, the anisotropy in neutron emission is another important feature of beam-fusion reactions. Using a simple numerical model based on neutron generation in a pitcher-catcher scenario, anisotropy in neutron emission was studied for the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction. Simulation results are consistent with the narrow-divergence (∼ 70 ° full width at half maximum) neutron beam recently served in an experiment employing multi-MeV deuteron beams of narrow divergence (up to 30° FWHM, depending on the ion energy) accelerated by a sub-petawatt laser pulse from thin deuterated plastic foils via the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism. By varying the input ion beam parameters, simulations show that a further improvement in the neutron beam directionality (i.e. reduction in the beam divergence) can be obtained by increasing the projectile ion beam temperature and cut-off energy, as expected from interactions employing higher power lasers at upcoming facilities.

  16. A Numerical Study of Sea-Spray Aerosol Motion in a Coastal Thermal Internal Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Tinghao; Yu, Xiping

    2016-03-01

    A three-dimensional large-eddy simulation model is applied to the study of sea-spray aerosol transport, dispersion and settling in the coastal thermal internal boundary layer (IBL) formed by cool airflow from the open sea to the warm land. An idealized situation with constant inflow from the ocean and constant heat flux over the coastal land is considered. The numerical results confirm that the thickness of the coastal thermal IBL increases with the distance from the coastline until the outer edge of the IBL penetrates into the capping inversion layer. The thickness increases also with time until a fully-developed thermal boundary layer is formed. In addition, the thickness of the coastal thermal IBL increases more rapidly when the heat flux over the land is greater. Existence of large-scale eddies within the thermal IBL is identified and the turbulence intensity within the thermal IBL is also found to be significantly higher than that above. It is also indicated that the vertical position of the maximum concentration does not occur at the surface but increases as sea-spray aerosols are transported inland. The vertical position of the maximum flux of sea-spray aerosols within the coastal thermal IBL is shown to coincide with that of the maximum vertical velocity fluctuations when the coastal thermal IBL is fully developed with increased distance in the airflow direction.

  17. Numerical study of hypersonic flows over reentry configurations with different chemical nonequilibrium models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jiaao; Wang, Jingying; Lee, Chunhian

    2016-09-01

    Effects of two different 11-species chemical reaction models on hypersonic reentry flow simulations are numerically investigated. These two models were proposed by Gupta (1990) and Park (1990) [12,15], respectively. In this study, two typical configurations, the RAM-C II vehicle and FIRE II capsule, are selected as test cases, whose thermo-chemical nonequilibrium flowfields are computed by a multi-block finite volume code using a two-temperature model (a translational-rotational temperature and a vibrational-electron-electronic temperature). In the RAM-C II case, it is indicated that although electron number density distributions of the two reaction models appear in a similar trend, their values are distinctively different. Results of the Gupta's model show a better agreement with the electrostatic probe data, while those of the Park's model are more consistent with the reflectometers data. Both models give similar temperature distributions. In the FIRE II case, the two models yield significantly different distribution profiles of ions and electrons, whose differences could reach an order of magnitude. In addition, an abnormal nonequilibrium relaxation process in the shock layer is found in the FIRE II flowfield simulated by the Gupta's model, which proves to be a consequence of electron impact ionization reactions.

  18. A Numerical Case Study of the Squall Line of 6 May 1975.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. B.; Perkey, D. J.; Kreitzberg, C. W.

    1981-08-01

    Results of moist and dry fine-mesh (140 km) numerical simulations of the 6 May 1975 Omaha squall line are presented. The moist fine-mesh simulation reproduced several observable features of the squall system and was then used to study other unobservable features. Differential thermal advection was responsible for the creation of potential instability. Low-level horizontal thermal advection contributed to pressure falls which, in turn, enhanced the convergence into the warm tongue. These processes initiated a band of convection. Results of the dry simulation suggested that the location and orientation of the initial low-level convergence was determined by dry mechanisms, that the convective latent heat release increased the rate of cyclonic-scale occlusion and that the occlusion process was followed by the dissipation of the convection.In addition to the fine-mesh simulations, a meso-mesh (35 km) simulation was conducted. Because of the increased resolution, this simulation was able to reproduce the narrowing of the convective band from 400 to 100 km. This narrowing and intensification generated large values of low-level convergence and cyclonic vorticity. These processes produced a band of intense upward vertical velocity which, along with the convective transports of heat and moisture, stabilized the static energy profiles.

  19. A Numerical Study of Sea-Spray Aerosol Motion in a Coastal Thermal Internal Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Tinghao; Yu, Xiping

    2016-08-01

    A three-dimensional large-eddy simulation model is applied to the study of sea-spray aerosol transport, dispersion and settling in the coastal thermal internal boundary layer (IBL) formed by cool airflow from the open sea to the warm land. An idealized situation with constant inflow from the ocean and constant heat flux over the coastal land is considered. The numerical results confirm that the thickness of the coastal thermal IBL increases with the distance from the coastline until the outer edge of the IBL penetrates into the capping inversion layer. The thickness increases also with time until a fully-developed thermal boundary layer is formed. In addition, the thickness of the coastal thermal IBL increases more rapidly when the heat flux over the land is greater. Existence of large-scale eddies within the thermal IBL is identified and the turbulence intensity within the thermal IBL is also found to be significantly higher than that above. It is also indicated that the vertical position of the maximum concentration does not occur at the surface but increases as sea-spray aerosols are transported inland. The vertical position of the maximum flux of sea-spray aerosols within the coastal thermal IBL is shown to coincide with that of the maximum vertical velocity fluctuations when the coastal thermal IBL is fully developed with increased distance in the airflow direction.

  20. Numerical analysis of the effect of acetylene and benzene addition to low-pressure benzene-rich flat flames on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kunioshi, Nilson; Komori, Seisaku; Fukutani, Seishiro

    2006-10-15

    A modification of the CHEMKIN II package has been proposed for modeling addition of an arbitrary species at an arbitrary temperature to an arbitrary distance from the burner along a flat flame. The modified program was applied to the problem of addition of acetylene or benzene to different positions of a 40-Torr, {phi}=2.4 benzene/O{sub 2}/40%-N{sub 2} premixed flame to reach final equivalence ratios of {phi}=2.5 and 2.681. The results obtained showed that acetylene addition to early positions of the flame led to significant increase in pyrene production rates, but pyrene concentrations were lower in the flames with acetylene addition in both the {phi}=2.5 and 2.681 cases. Addition of benzene to the flame did not alter pyrene production rates in either the {phi}=2.5 or 2.681 cases; however, for {phi}=2.5, pyrene concentrations increased with benzene addition, while for {phi}=2.681, pyrene contents decreased in comparison to the correspondent flames with no addition. Acetylene addition led to a significant increase in pyrene production rates, but the pyrene levels dropped due to increase in the flow velocity. Pyrene production rates were not sensitive to benzene addition, but pyrene contents increased with benzene addition when the flow velocity decreased. These results show that PAH concentration changes accompanying species addition to flames should be interpreted carefully, because an increase or decrease in the content of a PAH species does not necessarily reflect an effect on its formation rate or mechanism. (author)

  1. Freddie Fish. A Primary Environmental Study of Basic Numerals, Sets, Ordinals and Shapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraynak, Ola

    This teacher's guide and study guide are an environmental approach to mathematics education in the primary grades. The mathematical studies of the numerals 0-10, ordinals, number sets, and basic shapes - diamond, circle, square, rectangle, and triangle - are developed through the story of Freddie Fish and his search for clean water. The…

  2. A direct anatomical study of additional renal arteries in a Colombian mestizo population.

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga, B; Pérez, A F; Ballesteros, L E

    2008-05-01

    Traditional anatomy describes each kidney as receiving irrigation from a single renal artery. However, current literature reports great variability in renal blood supply, the number of renal arteries mentioned being the most frequently found variation. Such variation has great implications when surgery is indicated, such as in renal transplants, uroradiological procedures, renovascular hypertension, renal trauma and hydronephrosis. This article pretends to determine the frequency of additional renal arteries and their morphological expression in Colombian population in a cross-sectional study. A total of 196 of renal blocks were analysed from autopsies carried out in the Bucaramanga Institute of Forensic Medicine, Colombia; these renal blocks were processed by the injection- corrosion technique. The average age of the people being studied was 33.8 +/- 15.6 years; 85.4% of them were male and the rest female. An additional renal artery was found in 22.3% of the whole population and two additional ones were found in 2.6% of the same sample. The additional renal artery was most frequently found on the left side. The additional artery arose from the aorta's lateral aspect (52.4%); these additional arteries usually entered the renal parenchyma through the hilum. No difference was established according to gender. Nearly a third of the Colombian population presents one additional renal artery and about 3% of the same population presents two additional renal arteries. Most of them reached the kidney through its hilar region. PMID:18521812

  3. Gas-kinetic numerical studies of three-dimensional complex flows on spacecraft re-entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Han-Xin

    2009-03-01

    The gas-kinetic numerical algorithm solving the Boltzmann model equation is extended and developed to study the three-dimensional hypersonic flows of spacecraft re-entry into the atmosphere in perfect gas. In this study, the simplified velocity distribution function equation for various flow regimes is presented on the basis of the kinetic Boltzmann-Shakhov model. The discrete velocity ordinate technique and numerical quadrature methods, such as the Gauss quadrature formulas with the weight function 2/ π1/2exp(- V2) and the Gauss-Legendre numerical quadrature rule, are studied to resolve the barrier in simulating complex flows from low Mach numbers to hypersonic problems. Specially, the gas-kinetic finite-difference scheme is constructed for the computation of three-dimensional flow problems, which directly captures the time evolution of the molecular velocity distribution function. The gas-kinetic boundary conditions and numerical procedures are studied and implemented by directly acting on the velocity distribution function. The HPF (high performance fortran) parallel implementation technique for the gas-kinetic numerical method is developed and applied to study the hypersonic flows around three-dimensional complex bodies. The main purpose of the current research is to provide a way to extend the gas-kinetic numerical algorithm to the flow computation of three-dimensional complex hypersonic problems with high Mach numbers. To verify the current method and simulate gas transport phenomena covering various flow regimes, the three-dimensional hypersonic flows around sphere and spacecraft shape with different Knudsen numbers and Mach numbers are studied by HPF parallel computing. Excellent results have been obtained for all examples computed.

  4. Recent advances in theoretical and numerical studies of wire array Z-pinch in the IAPCM

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Ning Zhang, Yang Xiao, Delong Wu, Jiming Huang, Jun Yin, Li Sun, Shunkai Xue, Chuang Dai, Zihuan Ning, Cheng Shu, Xiaojian Wang, Jianguo Li, Hua

    2014-12-15

    Fast Z-pinch has produced the most powerful X-ray radiation source in laboratory and also shows the possibility to drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Recent advances in wire-array Z-pinch researches at the Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics are presented in this paper. A typical wire array Z-pinch process has three phases: wire plasma formation and ablation, implosion and the MRT instability development, stagnation and radiation. A mass injection model with azimuthal modulation coefficient is used to describe the wire initiation, and the dynamics of ablated plasmas of wire-array Z-pinches in (r, θ) geometry is numerically studied. In the implosion phase, a two-dimensional(r, z) three temperature radiation MHD code MARED has been developed to investigate the development of the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor(MRT) instability. We also analyze the implosion modes of nested wire-array and find that the inner wire-array is hardly affected before the impaction of the outer wire-array. While the plasma accelerated to high speed in the implosion stage stagnates on the axis, abundant x-ray radiation is produced. The energy spectrum of the radiation and the production mechanism are investigated. The computational x-ray pulse shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental result. We also suggest that using alloyed wire-arrays can increase multi-keV K-shell yield by decreasing the opacity of K-shell lines. In addition, we use a detailed circuit model to study the energy coupling between the generator and the Z-pinch implosion. Recently, we are concentrating on the problems of Z-pinch driven ICF, such as dynamic hohlraum and capsule implosions. Our numerical investigations on the interaction of wire-array Z-pinches on foam convertors show qualitative agreements with experimental results on the “Qiangguang I” facility. An integrated two-dimensional simulation of dynamic hohlraum driven capsule implosion provides us the physical insights of wire

  5. Recent advances in theoretical and numerical studies of wire array Z-pinch in the IAPCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ning; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Delong; Wu, Jiming; Huang, Jun; Yin, Li; Sun, Shunkai; Xue, Chuang; Dai, Zihuan; Ning, Cheng; Shu, Xiaojian; Wang, Jianguo; Li, Hua

    2014-12-01

    Fast Z-pinch has produced the most powerful X-ray radiation source in laboratory and also shows the possibility to drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Recent advances in wire-array Z-pinch researches at the Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics are presented in this paper. A typical wire array Z-pinch process has three phases: wire plasma formation and ablation, implosion and the MRT instability development, stagnation and radiation. A mass injection model with azimuthal modulation coefficient is used to describe the wire initiation, and the dynamics of ablated plasmas of wire-array Z-pinches in (r, θ) geometry is numerically studied. In the implosion phase, a two-dimensional(r, z) three temperature radiation MHD code MARED has been developed to investigate the development of the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor(MRT) instability. We also analyze the implosion modes of nested wire-array and find that the inner wire-array is hardly affected before the impaction of the outer wire-array. While the plasma accelerated to high speed in the implosion stage stagnates on the axis, abundant x-ray radiation is produced. The energy spectrum of the radiation and the production mechanism are investigated. The computational x-ray pulse shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental result. We also suggest that using alloyed wire-arrays can increase multi-keV K-shell yield by decreasing the opacity of K-shell lines. In addition, we use a detailed circuit model to study the energy coupling between the generator and the Z-pinch implosion. Recently, we are concentrating on the problems of Z-pinch driven ICF, such as dynamic hohlraum and capsule implosions. Our numerical investigations on the interaction of wire-array Z-pinches on foam convertors show qualitative agreements with experimental results on the "Qiangguang I" facility. An integrated two-dimensional simulation of dynamic hohlraum driven capsule implosion provides us the physical insights of wire

  6. Numerical studies and optimization of magnetron with diffraction output (MDO) using particle-in-cell simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majzoobi, Alireza

    The first magnetron as a vacuum-tube device, capable of generating microwaves, was invented in 1913. This thesis research focuses on numerical simulation-based analysis of magnetron performance. The particle-in-cell (PIC) based MAGIC software tool has been utilized to study the A6 and the Rising-Sun magnetron structures, and to obtain the optimized geometry for optimizing the device performance. The A6 magnetron is the more traditional structure and has been studied more often. The Rising-Sun geometry, consists of two alternating groups of short and long vanes in angular orientation, and was created to achieve mode stability. The effect of endcaps, changes in lengths of the cathode, the location of cathodes with respect to the anode block, and use of transparent cathodes have been probed to gauge the performance of the A6 magnetron with diffraction output. The simulations have been carried out with different types of endcaps. The results of this thesis research demonstrate peak output power in excess of 1GW, with efficiencies on the order of 66% for magnetic (B)-fields in the range of 0.4T - 0.42T. In addition, particle-in-cell simulations have been performed to provide a numerical evaluation of the efficiency, output power and leakage currents for a 12-cavitiy, Rising-Sun magnetron with diffraction output with transparent cathodes. The results demonstrate peak output power in excess of 2GW, with efficiencies on the order of 68% for B-fields in the 0.42T - 0.46T range. While slightly better performance for longer cathode length has been recorded. The results show the efficiency in excess of 70% and peak output power on the order of 2.1GW for an 18 cm cathode length at 0.45T magnetic field and 400 kV applied voltage. All results of this thesis conform to the definite advantage of having endcaps. Furthermore, the role of secondary electron emission (SEE) on the output performance of the12-cavity, 12-cathodes Rising-Sun magnetron has been probed. The results indicate

  7. The numerical and experimental study on the compression and transfer molding of rubber materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.; Jin, X.; Costa, F.; Melnikov, A.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a numerical study of compression and transfer molding of rubber materials will be presented. A three dimensional analysis is used for the numerical study. The program developed can predict the flow pattern, temperature, degree of cure, stresses within a part and press force change during filling and post-filling. Of particular interest is the change of stresses within a part and press force during post-filling due to thermal expansion of a material and the degree of cure. PVT, viscosity and curing kinetics data of one the rubber material are used for the calculation of pressure during filling and post-filling.

  8. Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Priyank

    oxides of nitrogen and other potential pollutants in similar partially premixed flames of ethanol and other fuels for comparison purposes. The computational results with the present mechanism are in reasonable agreement with experiment and perform as well as or better than predictions of other, generally much larger, mechanisms available in the literature. Further research is, however, warranted for providing additional and more stringent tests of the mechanism and its predictions, especially for condition at higher pressures. The second part of the dissertation consists of analytical study of autoignition of higher alkane fuels. It is shown that, above about 1000 K, ignition delay times for propane and all higher alkanes, as well as for a number of other fuels, can be calculated well by employing rate parameters of only three types of elementary steps, namely CmHn+HO2→C mHn-1+H2O2, H2O2+M→2OH+M and 2HO2→H2O2+O2, only the first of which is fuel-specific, the other two clearly being common to all fuels. The prediction of this remarkably simple result relies on a steady-state approximation for HO2, as well as steady states for more active radicals during induction. The resulting approximation to the chemistry exhibits a slow, finite-rate buildup of H2O2 and removal of fuel during the induction period. The criterion employed for termination of the induction period is the complete depletion of the original fuel subject to the approximations introduced. Numerical comparisons of the ignition-time formula with the experiments show that the predictions work well not only for higher alkanes but also for propene and JP-10. The analytical approximation thus produces reasonable results for a wide range of fuels. These results provide a new perspective on high-temperature autoignition chemistry and a general means of easily estimating ignition times of the large number of fuels of practical importance.

  9. The experimental and numerical study of indirect effect of a rifle bullet on the bone.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Xu, Cheng; Wen, Yaoke; Luo, Shaomin

    2015-12-01

    We study the transient indirect effect of a rifle bullet on bone in the gelatin-bone composite target experimentally and computationally. The process of a 56 type 7.62-mm rifle bullet penetrating the composite target has been simulated using numerical method. The experiment provided the criteria for verifying the correctness of the numerical model. We have obtained tomographic data of bone by CT scans, and also defined the bone as different layers by the gray scale to simulate its heterogeneity. The computed results are in good agreement with the experimental data. Effects of the impact velocity and bone location on damage caused to the composite target have also been studied. The numerical results imply the follows: When the velocity of bullet increases, the stress on bone also increases with the earlier pressure peak; When the bone is located in a certain distance from the trajectory, it will not be fractured, although it is affected by the stress wave. PMID:26615390

  10. Height of burst explosions: a comparative study of numerical and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omang, M.; Christensen, S. O.; Børve, S.; Trulsen, J.

    2009-06-01

    In the current work, we use the Constant Volume model and the numerical method, Regularized Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (RSPH) to study propagation and reflection of blast waves from detonations of the high explosives C-4 and TNT. The results from simulations of free-field TNT explosions are compared to previously published data, and good agreement is found. Measurements from height of burst tests performed by the Norwegian Defence Estates Agency are used to compare against numerical simulations. The results for shock time of arrival and the pressure levels are well represented by the numerical results. The results are also found to be in good agreement with results from a commercially available code. The effect of allowing different ratios of specific heat capacities in the explosive products are studied. We also evaluate the effect of changing the charge shape and height of burst on the triple point trajectory.

  11. Stratospheric gravity waves generated by typhoon--A numerical simulation study SIMULATION STUDY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zeyu; Preusse, P.; Jarisch, M.; Ern, M.; Offermann, D.

    In this presentation the results of a numerical simulation study focusing on investigating the typhoon effect of generating stratospheric GWs will be presented. With applying the PSU/NCAR mm5 model for a northwestern Pacific typhoon (Winnie, 05-23 August 1997), the critical features of the typhoon (comparing with the brightness temperature observations from GMS-5 satellite) and the mean state of the background circulations (comparing with the temperatures observations of the stratosphere from the CRISTA II mission) were captured by the simulation. Detailed investigations revealed that significant stratospheric GWs were triggered by the typhoon. A Typhoon related Gravity Waves Active Area (hereafter referred to as TGWAA) was defined. Momentum flux spectrum with respect to the zonal wave number and frequency in the TGWAA was calculated. Results indicated that the GWs dominant modes were those propagating in the upstream of the background flow (Easterly wind) with a spatial scale ranging from 500 km to 1000 km in the horizontal, and from 7 km to 10 km in the vertical. The temporal scale was rather monotonic with the periods concentrated at 15 hr. The averaged momentum flux in the TGWAA was ˜ 0.001 Pascal at 19 km altitude, 0.0008 Pascal at 25 km altitude, indicating that the waves effect on the mean flow should be paid much attention.

  12. A numerical method to study the dynamics of capillary fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrada, M. A.; Montanero, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a numerical approach to study both the nonlinear dynamics and linear stability of capillary fluid systems. In the nonlinear analysis, the time-dependent fluid region is mapped onto a fixed numerical domain through a coordinate transformation. The hydrodynamic equations are spatially discretized with the Chebyshev spectral collocation technique, while an implicit time advancement is performed using second-order backward finite differences. The resulting algebraic equations are solved with the iterative Newton-Raphson technique. The most novel aspect of the method is the fact that the elements of the Jacobian of the discretized system of equations are symbolic functions calculated before running the simulation. These functions are evaluated numerically in the Newton-Raphson iterations to find the solution at each time step, which reduces considerably the computing time. Besides, this numerical procedure can be easily adapted to solve the eigenvalue problem which determines the linear global modes of the capillary system. Therefore, both the nonlinear dynamics and the linear stability analysis can be conducted with essentially the same algorithm. We validate this numerical approach by studying the dynamics of a liquid bridge close to its minimum volume stability limit. The results are virtually the same as those obtained with other methods. The proposed approach proves to be much more computationally efficient than those other methods. Finally, we show the versatility of the method by calculating the linear global modes of a gravitational jet.

  13. Additional short-term plutonium urinary excretion data from the 1945-1947 plutonium injection studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W.D.; Gautier, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The amount of plutonium excreted per day following intravenous injection was shown to be significantly higher than predicted by the Langham power function model. Each of the Los Alamos National Laboratory notebooks used to record the original analytical data was studied for details that could influence the findings. It was discovered there were additional urine excretion data for case HP-3. This report presents the additional data, as well as data on case HP-6. (ACR)

  14. Erosional dynamics, flexural isostasy, and long-lived escarpments: A numerical modeling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Gregory E.; Slingerland, Rudy L.

    1994-01-01

    Erosional escarpments common features of high-elevation rifted continets. Fission track data suffest that these escarpments form by base level lowering and/or marginal uplift during rifting, followed by lateral retreat of an erosion front across tens to hundreds of kioometers. Previous modeling studies have shown that this characteristic pattern of denudation can have a profound impact upon marginal isostatic uplift and the evolution of offshore sedimentary basins. Yet at present there is only a rudimentary understanding of the geomorphic mechanisms capable of driving such prolonged escarpment retreat. In this study we present a nonlinear, two-dimensional landscape evolution model tha tis used to asses the necessary and sufficient conditions for long-term retreat of a rift-generated escarpment. The model represents topography as a grid of cells, with drainage networkds evolving as water flows across the grid in the direction of steepest descent. The model accounts for sediment production by weathering, fluvial sediment transport, bedrock channel erosion, and hillslope sediment transport by diffusive mechanisms and by mass failure. Numerical experiments presented explore the effects of different combinations of erosion processes and of dynamic coupling between denudation and flexural isostatic uplift. Model results suggest that the necessary and sufficient conditions for long-term escarpment retreat are (1) incising bedrock channels in which the erosion rate increases with increasing drainage area, so that the channels steepen and propagate headward; (2) a low rate of sediment production relative to sediment transport efficiency, which promotes relief-generating processes over diffusive ones; (3) high continental elevation, which allows greater freedom for fluvial dissection; and (4) any process, including flexural isostatic uplift, that helps to maintain a drainage divide near an escarpment crest. Flexural isostatic uplift also facilitates escarpment, thereby

  15. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253...

  16. Evaluating Drugs and Food Additives for Public Use: A Case Studies Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Sheridan V.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a case study used in an introductory college biology course that provides a basis for generating debate on an issue concerning the regulation of controversial food additives and prescription drugs. The case study contained within this article deals with drug screening, specifically with information related to thalidomide. (CS)

  17. An observational and numerical study of the sea breeze in the eastern Cantabrian coast (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ander Arrillaga, Jon; Yagüe, Carlos; Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The sea breeze and its characteristics are well studied in the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula, but not so in the Cantabrian coast, perhaps due to a lower prevalence of stable synoptic conditions during the summer period. However, it was found that the sea breeze was one of the main drivers of pollution episodes in the industrialised metropolitan area of Bilbao. In addition, an accurate prediction of this mesoscale phenomenon is fundamental for forecasting hot spells with predominant southerly gradient winds, especially in the eastern half of the Cantabrian Sea, during which can be recorded up to 40 °C close to the shore. In this work, an automated method is used for selecting sea breeze days [1], based in 6 filters that evaluate the observed synoptic and surface conditions in the Eastern Cantabrian, provided by the Basque and Spanish meteorological agencies. The main objective is to make an observational and numerical analysis of this phenomenon in the aforementioned region, focusing on the predictability of the Sea Breeze Index (SBI) [2] and the evolution of turbulent parameters such as the Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE). Numerical simulations are performed using the mesoscale model Weather Research and Forecast (WRF). The selection method fails filtering a non-sea-breeze day owing to a shift hint in the wind direction, which is predominantly southerly making temperature reach around 40 °C in one of the meteorological stations. This day is simulated both with and without updating the Sea Surface Temperature (SST). The latter simulation leads to a more unrealistic situation. Furthermore, the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height evolution given by the model is compared for a sea breeze and a non-sea-breeze day, concluding that the establishment of a maritime flux results in a lower diffusive capacity in the lower atmosphere, which would lead to a higher concentration of pollutants close to the surface. It is also found that the cause of the

  18. Study on Applicability of Numerical Simulation to Evaluation of Gas Entrainment From Free Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Kei Ito; Takaaki Sakai; Hiroyuki Ohshima

    2006-07-01

    An onset condition of gas entrainment (GE) due to free surface vortex has been studied to establish a design of fast breeder reactor with higher coolant velocity than conventional designs, because the GE might cause the reactor operation instability and therefore should be avoided. The onset condition of the GE has been investigated experimentally and theoretically, however, dependency of the vortex type GE on local geometry configuration of each experimental system and local velocity distribution has prevented researchers from formulating the universal onset condition of the vortex type GE. A real scale test is considered as an accurate method to evaluate the occurrence of the vortex type GE, but the real scale test is generally expensive and not useful in the design study of large and complicated FBR systems, because frequent displacement of inner equipments accompanied by the design change is difficult in the real scale test. Numerical simulation seems to be promising method as an alternative to the real scale test. In this research, to evaluate the applicability of the numerical simulation to the design work, numerical simulations were conducted on the basic experimental system of the vortex type GE. This basic experiment consisted of rectangular flow channel and two important equipments for vortex type GE in the channel, i.e. vortex generation and suction equipments. Generated vortex grew rapidly interacting with the suction flow and the grown vortex formed a free surface dent (gas core). When the tip of the gas core or the bubbles detached from the tip of the gas core reached the suction mouth, the gas was entrained to the suction tube. The results of numerical simulation under the experimental conditions were compared to the experiment in terms of velocity distributions and free surface shape. As a result, the numerical simulation showed qualitatively good agreement with experimental data. The numerical simulation results were similar to the experimental

  19. A study of numerical methods for hyperbolic conservation laws with stiff source terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveque, R. J.; Yee, H. C.

    1990-01-01

    In the present study of the behavior of typical numerical methods in the case of a model advection equation having a parameter-dependent source term, two approaches to the incorporation of the source terms are used: MacCormack-type predictor-corrector methods with flux limiters, and splitting methods in which the fluid dynamics and chemistry are handled in separate steps. The latter are found to perform slightly better. The model scalar equation is used to show that the incorrectness of the propagation speeds of discontinuities observed in the stiff case is due to the introduction of nonequilibrium values through numerical dissipation in the advection step.

  20. Numerical Study of the Structure of Metastable Configurations for the Thomson Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, A. N.; Bugueva, T. V.; Kozinkin, L. A.

    2016-05-01

    A numerical method is proposed for solving the Thomson problem - finding stable positions for a system of N point charges distributed on a sphere that minimize the potential energy of the system. The behavior of this system is essentially nonlinear, and the number of metastable structures grows exponentially with N. This makes the problem of finding all stable configurations extremely difficult. The results of testing of the developed algorithm and of numerical study of the properties of the local potential energy minima for a system of point charges are presented.

  1. Numerical study of spectral shaping in high energy Ho:YLF amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Kroetz, Peter; Ruehl, Axel; Murari, Krishna; Cankaya, Huseyin; Kärtner, Franz X; Hartl, Ingmar; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2016-05-01

    We present a new chromatic numerical approach to simulate the amplification of laser pulses in multipass laser amplifiers. This enables studies on spectral effects such as gain narrowing and spectral shaping with optical elements expressed by a transmission transfer function. We observe good agreement between our simulations and measurements with a Ho:YLF regenerative amplifier (RA). To demonstrate the capabilities of our simulation model, we numerically integrate an intra-cavity etalon in this laser and find optimum etalon parameters that enhance the peak power of the output pulses up to 65%. PMID:27137602

  2. Numerical Study of the High-Speed Leg of a Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayani, Sudheer; Sellers, William L, III; Brynildsen, Scott E.; Everhart, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes a numerical study of the high-speed leg of the NASA Langley 14 x 22-ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. The high-speed leg consists of the settling chamber, contraction, test section, and first diffuser. Results are shown comparing two different sources of surface geometry, and two different unstructured grid solvers for the flow characteristics. Numerical simulations of the flow on the tunnel centerline, boundary layer profiles on the floor, and wall static pressures have been compared with experiment. Flow angularities along the test section length have also been determined.

  3. NUMERICAL STUDY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES GENERATED BY A PROTOTYPE DIELECTRIC LOGGING TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    To understand the electromagnetic waves generated by a prototype dielectric logging tool, a
    numerical study was conducted using both the finite-difference, time-domain method and a frequency- wavenumber method. When the propagation velocity in the borehole was greater than th...

  4. Numerical Study of the Location of the Microwave Imaging Reflectometer Object Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatenko, Maxim; Mase, Atsushi; Bruskin, Leonid; Kogi, Yuichiro; Hojo, Hitoshi

    This paper is devoted to numerical study of the location of the imaging optics object plane. The simulation shows that in the case of the plane plasma cutoff, the object plane is located at the virtual cutoff position defined by E. Mazzucato [Nuclear Fusion 45, 203 (2001)], while in the case of cylindrical plasma, the object plane is shifted toward the cutoff position.

  5. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Ultimate Load Behaviour of Brick Masonry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Voggu; Sasmal, Saptarshi

    2016-06-01

    The present work brings out the studies on ultimate load behavior of brick masonry subjected to compression and shear-loading. The work composed of both the experimental and numerical investigations, aimed at contributing to the better understanding of the knowledge on the behavior of brick masonry structures under monotonic loading. Two brick masonry specimens have been tested up to ultimate load and the structural response in terms of the load, deflections and strains has been investigated. Due to the complexity, time and expense involved in the experimental investigations on brick masonry, limited number of experimental studies have been conducted and further, numerical studies have been carried out to simulate the experimental tests by suitably adopting the appropriate constitute models for the materials used. The responses and the failure load behaviour obtained from nonlinear numerical models developed are found to be in good agreement with the experimentally obtained results. The proposed numerical models can easily be adopted for further studies on the structural component made using brick masonry considering various geometric configurations, material disposition, loading conditions etc.

  6. Studying Turbulence Using Numerical Simulation Databases. Proceedings of the 1987 Summer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moin, Parviz (Editor); Reynolds, William C. (Editor); Kim, John (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The focus was on the use of databases obtained from direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows, for study of turbulence physics and modeling. Topics addressed included: stochastic decomposition/chaos/bifurcation; two-point closure (or k-space) modeling; scalar transport/reacting flows; Reynolds stress modeling; and structure of turbulent boundary layers.

  7. Numerical study of the unitary Fermi gas across the superfluid transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulko, Olga; Wingate, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    We present results from Monte Carlo calculations investigating the properties of the homogeneous, spin-balanced unitary Fermi gas in three dimensions. The temperature is varied across the superfluid transition allowing us to determine the temperature dependence of the chemical potential, the energy per particle, and the contact density. Numerical artifacts due to finite volume and discretization are systematically studied, estimated, and reduced.

  8. A numerical study of the 3D random interchange and random loop models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barp, Alessandro; Barp, Edoardo Gabriele; Briol, François-Xavier; Ueltschi, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    We have studied numerically the random interchange model and related loop models on the three-dimensional cubic lattice. We have determined the transition time for the occurrence of long loops. The joint distribution of the lengths of long loops is Poisson-Dirichlet with parameter 1 or \\frac{1}{2}.

  9. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Ultimate Load Behaviour of Brick Masonry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Voggu; Sasmal, Saptarshi

    2016-04-01

    The present work brings out the studies on ultimate load behavior of brick masonry subjected to compression and shear-loading. The work composed of both the experimental and numerical investigations, aimed at contributing to the better understanding of the knowledge on the behavior of brick masonry structures under monotonic loading. Two brick masonry specimens have been tested up to ultimate load and the structural response in terms of the load, deflections and strains has been investigated. Due to the complexity, time and expense involved in the experimental investigations on brick masonry, limited number of experimental studies have been conducted and further, numerical studies have been carried out to simulate the experimental tests by suitably adopting the appropriate constitute models for the materials used. The responses and the failure load behaviour obtained from nonlinear numerical models developed are found to be in good agreement with the experimentally obtained results. The proposed numerical models can easily be adopted for further studies on the structural component made using brick masonry considering various geometric configurations, material disposition, loading conditions etc.

  10. Numerical Study of the High-Speed Leg of a Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayani, Sudheer; Sellers, William L., III; Brynildsen, Scott E.; Everhart, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the numerical study of the high-speed leg of the NASA Langley 14 by 22-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The high-speed leg consists of the Settling Chamber, Contraction, Test Section, and First Diffuser. Results are shown comparing two different exit boundary conditions and two different methods of determining the surface geometry.

  11. A study of the evolution of a numerically modeled severe storm

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmson, R.B.; Jewett, B.F.; Shaw, C.; Wicker, L.J.; Arrott, M.; Bushell, C.B.; Bajuk, M.; Thingvold, J.; Yost, J.B. )

    1990-01-01

    The numerical model simulation of thunderstorms in three spatial dimensions and time is leading to improved understanding of severe storm structure and evolution. The authors illustrate the value of animation in studying complex fluid flow problems and the kind of visualization tools that will be readily available to most researchers in the future.

  12. Numerical study of unsteady shockwave reflections using an upwind TVD scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.; Liou, Meng-Sing

    1990-01-01

    An unsteady TVD Navier-Stokes solver was developed and applied to the problem of shock reflection on a circular cylinder. The obtained numerical results were compared with the Schlieren photos from an experimental study. These results show that the present computer code has the ability of capturing moving shocks.

  13. Numerical Study of the Gravitational and Electromagnetic Waves on the Null Cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babiuc, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The numerical calculation of the Einstein-Maxwell equations in a characteristic framework has not been done numerically before and is expected to shed new light on nonlinear phenomena like null memory. The main objective of this study is the analytical and numerical modeling of the of gravitational and electromagnetic radiation in a fully general relativistic framework, as it propagates on the null cone to null infinity, with no simplifications due to assumed symmetries. Moreover, the global interaction between the gravitational and electromagnetic radiation will be closely monitored, in order to reveal the electromagnetic radiation memory induced by the gravitational field. The numerical approach used, called the ``Cauchy-characteristic extraction'' method, is the most precise method for the computation of gravitational waveforms at infinite distance from a world-tube that encloses the source. The analytical and numerical models presented here will be implemented in the PittNull code, and the experience gained will be disseminated, in order to facilitate new standalone characteristic codes.This will lead to more insight on the interaction between gravitational and electromagnetic fields, and even point to new effects.

  14. Quantitative numerical and experimental studies of the shock accelerated heterogeneous bubbles motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layes, G.; Le Métayer, O.

    2007-04-01

    This work deals with quantitative comparisons between experimental and numerical results for shock-bubbles interactions. The bubbles are filled with three different gases (nitrogen, krypton and helium) surrounded by air in order to investigate all kind of density jumps across the interface. For each case, three incident shock wave intensities are also studied. The experiments are led by using a shock tube coupled with a visualization diagnostic device: the T80 shock tube [G. Jourdan, L. Houas, L. Schwaederlé, G. Layes, R. Carrey, and F. Diaz, "A new variable inclination shock tube for multiple investigations," Shock Waves 13, 501 (2004)]. Considering the same initial and geometrical conditions, the numerical results are obtained with the help of a recent numerical method: the discrete equations method [R. Abgrall and R. Saurel, "Discrete equations for physical and numerical compressible multiphase mixtures," J. Comput. Phys. 186, 361 (2003); R. Saurel, S. Gavrilyuk, and F. Renaud, "A multiphase model with internal degrees of freedom: Application to shock-bubble interaction," J. Fluid Mech. 495, 283 (2003); A. Chinnayya, E. Daniel, and R. Saurel, "Modelling detonation waves in heterogeneous energetic materials," J. Comput. Phys. 196, 490 (2004); O. Le Métayer, J. Massoni, and R. Saurel, "Modelling evaporation fronts with reactive Riemann solvers," J. Comput. Phys. 205, 567 (2005)], devoted to the computation of interface problems as well as multiphase mixtures. For each configuration, the quantitative comparisons are in good agreement showing the capability of both methods (numerical and experimental) to describe complex physical flows.

  15. A numerical study of the Kernel-conformation transformation for transient viscoelastic fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F. P.; Oishi, C. M.; Afonso, A. M.; Alves, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    This work presents a numerical application of a generic conformation tensor transformation for simulating highly elastic flows of non-Newtonian fluids typically observed in computational rheology. In the Kernel-conformation framework [14], the conformation tensor constitutive law for a viscoelastic fluid is transformed introducing a generic tensor transformation function. The numerical stability of the application of the Kernel-conformation for highly elastic flows is ultimately related with the specific kernel function used in the matrix transformation, but also to the existence of singularities introduced either by flow geometry or by the characteristics of the constitutive equation. In this work, we implement this methodology in a free-surface Marker-And-Cell discretization methodology implemented in a finite differences method. The main contributions of this work are two fold: on one hand, we demonstrate the accuracy of this Kernel-conformation formulation using a finite differences method and free surfaces; on the other hand, we assess the numerical efficiency of specific kernel functions at high-Weissenberg number flows. The numerical study considers different viscoelastic fluid flow problems, including the Poiseuille flow in a channel, the lid-driven cavity flow and the die-swell free surface flow. The numerical results demonstrate the adequacy of this methodology for high Weissenberg number flows using the Oldroyd-B model.

  16. Clinical study and numerical simulation of brain cancer dynamics under radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawrocki, S.; Zubik-Kowal, B.

    2015-05-01

    We perform a clinical and numerical study of the progression of brain cancer tumor growth dynamics coupled with the effects of radiotherapy. We obtained clinical data from a sample of brain cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy and compare it to our numerical simulations to a mathematical model of brain tumor cell population growth influenced by radiation treatment. We model how the body biologically receives a physically delivered dose of radiation to the affected tumorous area in the form of a generalized LQ model, modified to account for the conversion process of sublethal lesions into lethal lesions at high radiation doses. We obtain good agreement between our clinical data and our numerical simulations of brain cancer progression given by the mathematical model, which couples tumor growth dynamics and the effect of irradiation. The correlation, spanning a wide dataset, demonstrates the potential of the mathematical model to describe the dynamics of brain tumor growth influenced by radiotherapy.

  17. Investigation of the cold crucible melting process: experimental and numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojarevics, V.; Djambazov, G.; Harding, R. A.; Pericleous, K.; Wickins, M.

    2003-12-01

    The dynamic process of melting different materials in a cold crucible is being studied experimentally with parallel numerical modelling work. The numerical simulation uses a variety of complementing models: finite volume, integral equation and pseudo-spectral methods combined to achieve the accurate description of the dynamic melting process. Results show a gradual development and change of the melting front, fluid velocities, magnetically confined liquid metal free surface, and the tempera-ture history during the whole melting process. The computed results are compared to the experimental temperature measurements and the heat losses in the various parts of the equipment. The free surface visual observations are compared to the numerically predicted surface shapes. Tables 2, Figs 5, Refs 8.

  18. Numerical studies of flow over a circular cylinder at ReD=3900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, Arthur G.; Moin, Parviz

    2000-02-01

    Flow over a circular cylinder at Reynolds number 3900 is studied numerically using the technique of large eddy simulation. The computations are carried out with a high-order accurate numerical method based on B-splines and compared with previous upwind-biased and central finite-difference simulations and with the existing experimental data. In the very near wake, all three simulations are in agreement with each other. Farther downstream, the results of the B-spline computations are in better agreement with the hot-wire experiment of Ong and Wallace [Exp. Fluids 20, 441-453 (1996)] than those obtained in the finite-difference simulations. In particular, the power spectra of velocity fluctuations are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. The impact of numerical resolution on the shear layer transition is investigated.

  19. Fitting additive hazards models for case-cohort studies: a multiple imputation approach.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jinhyouk; Harel, Ofer; Kang, Sangwook

    2016-07-30

    In this paper, we consider fitting semiparametric additive hazards models for case-cohort studies using a multiple imputation approach. In a case-cohort study, main exposure variables are measured only on some selected subjects, but other covariates are often available for the whole cohort. We consider this as a special case of a missing covariate by design. We propose to employ a popular incomplete data method, multiple imputation, for estimation of the regression parameters in additive hazards models. For imputation models, an imputation modeling procedure based on a rejection sampling is developed. A simple imputation modeling that can naturally be applied to a general missing-at-random situation is also considered and compared with the rejection sampling method via extensive simulation studies. In addition, a misspecification aspect in imputation modeling is investigated. The proposed procedures are illustrated using a cancer data example. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26194861

  20. [TG-FTIR study on pyrolysis of wheat-straw with abundant CaO additives].

    PubMed

    Han, Long; Wang, Qin-Hui; Yang, Yu-Kun; Yu, Chun-Jiang; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Luo, Zhong-Yang

    2011-04-01

    Biomass pyrolysis in presence of abundant CaO additives is a fundamental process prior to CaO sorption enhanced gasification in biomass-based zero emission system. In the present study, thermogravimetric Fourier transform infrared (TG-FTIR) analysis was adopted to examine the effects of CaO additives on the mass loss process and volatiles evolution of wheat-straw pyrolysis. Observations from TG and FTIR analyses simultaneously demonstrated a two-stage process for CaO catalyzed wheat-straw pyrolysis, different from the single stage process for pure wheat-straw pyrolysis. CaO additives could not only absorb the released CO2 but also reduce the yields of tar species such as toluene, phenol, and formic acid in the first stage, resulting in decreased mass loss and maximum mass loss rate in this stage with an increase in CaO addition. The second stage was attributed to the CaCO3 decomposition and the mass loss and maximum mass loss rate increased with increasing amount of CaO additives. The results of the present study demonstrated the great potential of CaO additives to capture CO2 and reduce tars yields in biomass-based zero emission system. The gasification temperature in the system should be lowered down to avoid CaCO3 decomposition. PMID:21714234

  1. Numerical study of viscosity and inertial effects on tank-treading and tumbling motions of vesicles under shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongsam; Lai, Ming-Chih

    2012-12-01

    An inextensible vesicle under shear flow experiences a tank-treading motion on its membrane if the viscosity contrast between the interior and exterior fluids is small. Above a critical threshold of viscosity contrast, the vesicle undergoes a tumbling bifurcation. In this paper, we extend our previous work [Kim and Lai, J. Comput. Phys.JCTPAH0021-999110.1016/j.jcp.2010.03.020 229, 4840 (2010)] to the case of different viscosity and investigate the transition between the tank-treading and tumbling motions in detail. The present numerical results are in a good agreement with other numerical and theoretical studies qualitatively. In addition, we study the inertial effect on this transition and find that the inertial effect might inhibit the tumbling motion in favor of the tank-treading motion, which is observed recently in the literature. The critical viscosity contrast for the transition to the tumbling motion usually increases as the reduced area increases in the Stokes regime. However, we surprisingly observe that the critical viscosity contrast decreases as the reduced area increases to some point in the flow of slightly higher Reynolds number. Our numerical result also shows that the inertial effect has stronger inhibition to tumbling motion when the reduced area is small.

  2. SHEEP MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND CUCAMONGA WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, James G.; Ridenour, James

    1984-01-01

    The Sheep Mountain Wilderness Study Area and Cucamonga Wilderness and additions encompass approximately 104 sq mi of the eastern San Gabriel Mountains, Los Angeles and San Bernardino Counties, California. A mineral survey indicates areas of probable and substantiated tungsten and gold resource potential for parts of the Sheep Mountain Wilderness Study Area and an area of probable tungsten and gold resource potential in the Cucamonga Wilderness and additions. The rugged topography, withdrawal of lands from mineral entry to protect watershed, and restricted entry of lands during periods of high fire danger have contributed to the continuing decline in mineral exploration. The geologic setting precludes the presence of energy resources.

  3. A numerical study of thunderstorm electrification: Model development and case study

    SciTech Connect

    Norville, K.; Baker, M. ); Latham, J. )

    1991-04-20

    The authors have developed a numerical model for examining the thunderstorm electrification process in which they assume the electrification is entirely due to noinductive charge transfer between colliding ice crystals and hail. Since this ice-hail charge mechanism is very independent on particle sizes and distributions, they use an explicit microphysical framework. To maintain simplicity, the electrification model is kinematic; thus the temperature and velocity fields are input into the electrification model. These fields can be either calculated by a background model or retrieved from observations. For this study, they have used the cloud model of Taylor (1989) to generate the temperature and velocity fields to examine the July 19, 1981, CCOPE thundercloud. Using these fields, the electrification model produced time-dependent ice particle concentrations, radar reflectives, charge and vertical electric field distributions in good general agreement with those observed. The model produced a maximum electric field strength of 1.27 kV/cm, which is on the order of that needed for lightning initiation, and this maximum occured very close to the time of the observed discharge (as inferred by the sailplane measurements). Thus the ice-hail charge mechanism appears to have played an important role in the electrical development of the July 19 cloud. The details of the electrification depended on the liquid water content and the glaciation processes, and particularly on the ice crystal characteristics. Rapid growth of the crystals to riming sizes (>400{mu}) yielded the most efficient charging. The electrification was also sensitive to the ice-ice sticking efficiency but not to the characteristics of the large riming ice.

  4. Influence of Polarization on Carbohydrate Hydration: A Comparative Study Using Additive and Polarizable Force Fields.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Poonam; Mallajosyula, Sairam S

    2016-07-14

    Carbohydrates are known to closely modulate their surrounding solvent structures and influence solvation dynamics. Spectroscopic investigations studying far-IR regions (below 1000 cm(-1)) have observed spectral shifts in the libration band (around 600 cm(-1)) of water in the presence of monosaccharides and polysaccharides. In this paper, we use molecular dynamics simulations to gain atomistic insight into carbohydrate-water interactions and to specifically highlight the differences between additive (nonpolarizable) and polarizable simulations. A total of six monosaccharide systems, α and β anomers of glucose, galactose, and mannose, were studied using additive and polarizable Chemistry at HARvard Macromolecular Mechanics (CHARMM) carbohydrate force fields. Solvents were modeled using three additive water models TIP3P, TIP4P, and TIP5P in additive simulations and polarizable water model SWM4 in polarizable simulations. The presence of carbohydrate has a significant effect on the microscopic water structure, with the effects being pronounced for proximal water molecules. Notably, disruption of the tetrahedral arrangement of proximal water molecules was observed due to the formation of strong carbohydrate-water hydrogen bonds in both additive and polarizable simulations. However, the inclusion of polarization resulted in significant water-bridge occupancies, improved ordered water structures (tetrahedral order parameter), and longer carbohydrate-water H-bond correlations as compared to those for additive simulations. Additionally, polarizable simulations also allowed the calculation of power spectra from the dipole-dipole autocorrelation function, which corresponds to the IR spectra. From the power spectra, we could identify spectral signatures differentiating the proximal and bulk water structures, which could not be captured from additive simulations. PMID:27266974

  5. Numerical study of diffusion on a random-mixed-bond lattice.

    PubMed

    Holder, Devora; Scher, Harvey; Berkowitz, Brian

    2008-03-01

    Diffusion on lattices with random mixed bonds in two and three dimensions is reconsidered using a random walk (RW) algorithm, which is equivalent to the master equation. In this numerical study the main focus is on the simple case of two different transition rates W(1),W(2) along bonds between sites. Although analysis of diffusion and transport on this type of disordered medium, especially for the case of one-bond pure percolation (i.e., W(1)=0 ), comprises a sizable subliterature, we exhibit additional basic results for the two-bond case: When the probability p of W(2) replacing W(1) in a lattice of W(1) bonds is below the percolation threshold p(c) , the mean square displacement r(2) is a nonlinear function of time t . A best fit to the lnr[(2) vs ln t plot is a straight line with the value of the slope varying with p,Delta,d , where Delta identical with W(2)/W(1) and d is the dimension, i.e., r(2) proportional, variant t(1+eta(p,Delta,d)) with eta>0 for Delta>1 . In other terms, all the diffusion (D identical with(r)(2)/2t proportional, variant t(eta)) is anomalous superdiffusion for p1 for d=2,3 . Previous work in the literature for d=2 with a different RW algorithm established an effective diffusion constant D(eff) , which was shown to scale as (p(c)-p)(1/2) . However, the anomalous nature (time dependence) of D(t) becomes manifest with an expanded regime of t , increased range of Delta , and the use of our algorithm. The nature of the superdiffusion is related to the percolation cluster geometry and Lévy walks. PMID:18517341

  6. A numerical study on collisions of icy bodies using SPH method combined with GRAPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, M.; Genda, H.; Ida, S.

    2009-12-01

    We have worked on the collisions of icy bodies using Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics (SPH) method combined with Gravity PipE (GRAPE) in order to understand the basic behavior of icy bodies during impacts. Collisions of Mars-size rocky bodies have been investigated well, because those collisions are related to the origin of the moon and the formation of the terrestrial planets. On the other hand, collisions of icy bodies have not been studied yet, although these collisions would frequently occur in the solar and extra-solar systems, such as the formation of icy exoplanets. Through our research, we figure out the effect of ice during impact in detail. Our SPH code has two special features. First, GRAvity PipE computer (GRAPE) is used, which calculates the gravitational force of each particle up to 100 times faster than usual computers. Second, SESAME equation of state database is used to build a realistic model, taking into account the effect of phase change. In this research, we focused on differences and similarities between collisions of icy bodies and those of rocky ones, such as a merging criterion. Agnor & Asphaug (2004) have shown that a collision of rocky Mars-size protoplanets leads to an inelastic collision when its relative velocities are smaller than 1.4-1.5v, 1.1-1.2v, 1.1-1.2v when its impact angles are 30, 45, and 60 degrees, respectively. Here, v means escape velocity. The same calculations for icy bodies are performed in our numerical code. They have shown that the merging criterion of icy bodies is the same as that of rocky bodies. In addition to the merging criterion, we also clarify the relationship between impact parameters and the change of solid, liquid/vapor mass ratio due to impacts.

  7. Experimental and numerical study of the effect of mold vibration on aluminum castings alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Dheir, Numan

    2005-07-01

    The recent advances in scientific and engineering tools have allowed researchers to integrate more science into manufacturing, leading to improved and new innovative processes. As a result, important accomplishments have been reached in the area of designing and engineering new materials for various industrial applications. This subject is of critical significance because of the impact it could have on the manufacturing industry. In the casting industry, obtaining the desired microstructure and properties during solidification may reduce or eliminate the need for costly thermo-mechanical processing prior to secondary manufacturing processes. Several techniques have been developed to alter and control the microstructure of castings during solidification including semi-solid processing, electromagnetic stirring, electromagnetic vibration, and mechanical vibration. Although it is established that mold vibration can significantly influence the structure and properties of castings, however, most of the studies are generally qualitative, limited to a small range of conditions and no attempts have been made to simulate the effect of vibration on casting microstructure. In this work, a detailed experimental and numerical investigation is carried out to advance the utilization of mold vibration as an effective tool for controlling and modifying the casting microstructure. The effects of a wide range of vibration amplitudes and frequencies on the solidification kinetics, microstructure formation and mechanical properties of Al-Si alloys are examined. Results show strong influence of mold vibration on the resulting casting. The presence of porosity was significantly reduced as a result of mold vibration. In addition, the changes in microstructure and mechanical properties can be successfully represented by the changes in solidification characteristics. Increasing the vibration amplitude tends to reduce the lamellar spacing and change the silicon morphology to become more

  8. Cognitive Skills Used to Solve Mathematical Word Problems and Numerical Operations: A Study of 6- to 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Isabel Maria; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between skills that underpin mathematical word problems and those that underpin numerical operations, such as addition, subtraction, division and multiplication. Sixty children aged 6-7 years were tested on measures of mathematical ability, reading accuracy, reading comprehension, verbal intelligence and…

  9. Numerical studies of constraints and gravitational wave extraction in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiske, David Robert

    Within classical physics, general relativity is the theory of gravity. Its equations are non-linear partial differential equations for which relatively few closed form solutions are known. Because of the growing observational need for solutions representing gravitational waves from astrophysically plausible sources, a subfield of general relativity; numerical relativity, has a emerged with the goal of generating numerical solutions to the Einstein equations. This dissertation focuses on two fundamental problems in modern numerical relativity: (1)Creating a theoretical treatment of the constraints in the presence of constraint-violating numerical errors, and (2)Designing and implementing an algorithm to compute the spherical harmonic decomposition of radiation quantities for comparison with observation. On the issue of the constraints, I present a novel and generic procedure for incorporating the constraints into the equations of motion of the theory in a way designed to make the constraint hypersurface an attractor of the evolution. In principle, the prescription generates non- linear corrections for the Einstein equations. The dissertation presents numerical evidence that the correction terms do work in the case of two formulations of the Maxwell equations and two formulations of the linearized Einstein equations. On the issue of radiation extraction, I provide the first in-depth analysis of a novel algorithm, due originally to Misner, for computing spherical harmonic components on a cubic grid. I compute explicitly how the truncation error in the algorithm depends on its various parameters, and I also provide a detailed analysis showing how to implement the method on grids in which explicit symmetries are enforced via boundary conditions. Finally, I verify these error estimates and symmetry arguments with a numerical study using a solution of the linearized Einstein equations known as a Teukolsky wave. The algorithm performs well and the estimates prove true both

  10. Simulation studies of proposed observing systems and their impact on numerical weather prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, R.; Kalnay, E.; Susskind, J.; Baker, W. E.; Halem, M.

    1984-01-01

    A series of realistic simulation studies is being conducted as a cooperative effort between the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the National Meteorological Center (NMC), and the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) to provide a quantitative assessment of the potential impact of proposed observation systems on large scale numerical weather prediction. A special objective of this project is to avoid the unrealistic character of earlier simulation studies.

  11. Numerical Study of Gas-Phase Flow in a Cyclone Separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ya-Ping; Qu, Biao; Huang, Shan; Niu, Xiao-Dong

    2016-06-01

    To investigate separation efficiency of a cyclone separator at different operating parameters, in this paper we use Fluent software to numerically study the three dimensional gas-solid two-phase flows in the cyclone separator. The present work mainly consists four parts. Firstly we investigates the accuracy of different turbulent models including the standard k-ɛ model, RNG k-ɛ model, Realizable k-ɛ model and Reynolds stress equation model (RSM), and finds that the RSM turbulence model gives a good comparison between the numerical results and the experimental results. Secondly, the gas phase flow rate, pressure, and turbulent distribution in the cyclone separator are explored numerically in detail with the RSM model. Thirdly, on the base of the gas flow results, gas-solid two phase flows in the cyclone separator are studied by coupling the random trajectory model in the Lagrangian coordinates so that the particle trajectories in separator are displayed. Finally, effects of particle size and velocity at the cyclone separator inlet on the separation efficiency are analyzed. Numerical results show that when the particle velocity is higher and particle size is larger at the inlet, the separation efficiency is better. However, when the particle velocity and size approach their threshold values, the separation efficiency will not change.

  12. Generating Scenarios of Addition and Subtraction: A Study of Japanese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinda, Shigehiro

    2013-01-01

    Students are presented with problems involving three scenario types of addition and subtraction in elementary mathematics: one dynamic ("Change") and two static ("Combine, Compare"). Previous studies have indicated that the dynamic type is easier for school children, whereas the static types are more difficult and comprehended only gradually…

  13. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND...

  14. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND...

  15. Studying Turbulence Using Numerical Simulation Databases. No. 7; Proceedings of the Summer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Seventh Summer Program of the Center for Turbulence Research took place in the four-week period, July 5 to July 31, 1998. This was the largest CTR Summer Program to date, involving thirty-six participants from the U. S. and nine other countries. Thirty-one Stanford and NASA-Ames staff members facilitated and contributed to most of the Summer projects. A new feature, and perhaps a preview of the future programs, was that many of the projects were executed on non-NASA computers. These included supercomputers located in Europe as well as those operated by the Departments of Defense and Energy in the United States. In addition, several simulation programs developed by the visiting participants at their home institutions were used. Another new feature was the prevalence of lap-top personal computers which were used by several participants to carry out some of the work that in the past were performed on desk-top workstations. We expect these trends to continue as computing power is enhanced and as more researchers (many of whom CTR alumni) use numerical simulations to study turbulent flows. CTR's main role continues to be in providing a forum for the study of turbulence for engineering analysis and in facilitating intellectual exchange among the leading researchers in the field. Once again the combustion group was the largest. Turbulent combustion has enjoyed remarkable progress in using simulations to address increasingly complex and practically more relevant questions. The combustion group's studies included such challenging topics as fuel evaporation, soot chemistry, and thermonuclear reactions. The latter study was one of three projects related to the Department of Energy's ASCI Program (www.llnl.gov/asci); the other two (rocket propulsion and fire safety) were carried out in the turbulence modeling group. The flow control and acoustics group demonstrated a successful application of the so-called evolution algorithms which actually led to a previously unknown

  16. Experimental study of combustion of decane, dodecane and hexadecane with polymeric and nano-particle additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamari, Mohsen; Ratner, Albert

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that adding combustible nano-particles could have promising effects on increasing burning rate of liquid fuels. Combustible nano-particles could enhance the heat conduction and mixing within the droplet. Polymers have also higher burning rate than regular hydrocarbon fuels because of having the flame closer to the droplet surface. Therefore adding polymeric additive could have the potential to increase the burning rate. In this study, combustion of stationary fuel droplets of n-Decane, n-Dodecane and n-Hexadecane doped with different percentages of a long chain polymer and also a very fine nano carbon was examined and compared with the pure hydrocarbon behavior. In contrast with hydrocarbon droplets with no polymer addition, several zones of combustion including a slow and steady burning zone, a strong swelling zone and a final fast and fairly steady combustion zone were also detected. In addition, increasing polymer percentage resulted in a more extended swelling zone and shorter slow burning zone in addition to a shorter total burning time. Addition of nano-particles also resulted in an overall increased burning rate and shortened burning time which is due to enhanced heat conduction within the droplet.

  17. Numerical study of light propagation in agricultural products for non-destructive assessment of food quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Kiyohito; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Tatekura, Yuki; Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Watanabe, Masao

    2015-12-01

    An accurate determination of optical properties of agricultural products is crucial for non-destructive assessment of food quality. For the determination, light intensity is measured at the surface of the product; then, inverse analysis is employed based on a light propagation model such as the radiative transfer equation (RTE). The inverse analysis requires high computational loads because the light intensity is numerically calculated using the model every time the optical properties are changed. For the calculation, we propose an efficient technique by combining a numerical solution with an analytical solution of the RTE, and investigate the validity of the technique in a two-dimensional homogeneous circular medium which is regarded as a light propagation model with optical properties of kiwifruit. The proposed technique can provide accurate results of the light intensity in change of the optical properties, and the accuracy is less dependent on the boundary conditions and source-detector angles. In addition, the technique can reduce computation time compared with that for numerical calculation of the RTE. These results indicate usefulness of the proposed technique for the inverse analysis.

  18. Particle behavior in linear shear flow: an experimental and numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, Nima; Ingber, Marc; Vorobieff, Peter

    2012-11-01

    We study particle behavior in low Reynolds number flows. Our experimental setup can produce both Couette flow and Pouseuille flow at low Reynolds numbers. Spherical particles are suspended in gravity-stratified Newtonian fluid. Their predominantly two-dimensional motion is driven by moving belts (and/or piston) that produce shear in the fluids. Particle migration and translational velocity have been studied. The irreversibility of particle motion has been investigated. The experimental results are compared to the numerical simulations performed with discrete phase element method (DPM). Particle trajectories with the same boundary conditions in viscous fluids have been studied. The irreversibility in numerical simulation has been modeled for different cases. Results show the particle migration is a function of shear rate, particle size, degree of symmetry of the fluid domain, and also of the initial starting position, the latter playing an important role in the irreversibility of particle motion. This research is partly supported by Procter & Gamble.

  19. Experimental and numerical study of heavy gas dispersion in a ventilated room.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Laurent; Prévost, Corinne; Bouilloux, Laurent; Sestier-Carlin, Roger

    2008-04-01

    In order to better evaluate the consequences of an accidental release of heavy gas, such as uranium hexafluoride (UF(6)), in some installations in the nuclear fuel cycle, an experimental and numerical study was conducted by IRSN on heavy gas dispersion in a ventilated room. This study was based on about 20 injection configurations of a large quantity of a heavy tracer gas, sulphur hexafluoride (SF(6)), inside two ventilated rooms of different sizes. Stratification of the tracer gas was detected in all the configurations studied, even at low concentrations. Numerical simulations performed with the multidimensional CFX code enabled the stratification and the concentration levels reached in the rooms to be predicted overall, and the higher the air flow rate, the more satisfactory the comparison between simulation and experiment. PMID:17804157

  20. Numerical study of mixed convection between two corotating symmetrically heated disks

    SciTech Connect

    Soong, C.Y.; Yan, W.M. Hua Fan Inst. of Technology, Taipei )

    1993-03-01

    This article is concerned with a numerical study of mixed convection between two symmetrically heated corotating disks. Both thermal boundary conditions of constant wall temperature and uniform heat flux are considered. By applying the boundary-layer approximation and a linear relation for density variation in centrifugal force term, the governing equations reduce to a Boussinesq system of parabolic nature. The spatially developing flow and heat transfer are studied numerically. The effects of centrifugal buoyancy, Coriolis force, radial through-flow, and wall-heating on the flow structure and heat transfer performance are examined in detail. The results reveal that the centrifugal buoyancy, which was ignored in prior studies, is indeed a significant effect in this class of rotating flows. 19 refs.

  1. Anatomically ordered tapping interferes more with one-digit addition than two-digit addition: a dual-task fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Firat; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-01

    Fingers are used as canonical representations for numbers across cultures. In previous imaging studies, it was shown that arithmetic processing activates neural resources that are known to participate in finger movements. Additionally, in one dual-task study, it was shown that anatomically ordered finger tapping disrupts addition and subtraction more than multiplication, possibly due to a long-lasting effect of early finger counting experiences on the neural correlates and organization of addition and subtraction processes. How arithmetic task difficulty and tapping complexity affect the concurrent performance is still unclear. If early finger counting experiences have bearing on the neural correlates of arithmetic in adults, then one would expect anatomically and non-anatomically ordered tapping to have different interference effects, given that finger counting is usually anatomically ordered. To unravel these issues, we studied how (1) arithmetic task difficulty and (2) the complexity of the finger tapping sequence (anatomical vs. non-anatomical ordering) affect concurrent performance and use of key neural circuits using a mixed block/event-related dual-task fMRI design with adult participants. The results suggest that complexity of the tapping sequence modulates interference on addition, and that one-digit addition (fact retrieval), compared to two-digit addition (calculation), is more affected from anatomically ordered tapping. The region-of-interest analysis showed higher left angular gyrus BOLD response for one-digit compared to two-digit addition, and in no-tapping conditions than dual tapping conditions. The results support a specific association between addition fact retrieval and anatomically ordered finger movements in adults, possibly due to finger counting strategies that deploy anatomically ordered finger movements early in the development. PMID:26410214

  2. Large Scale Numerical Modelling to Study the Dispersion of Persistent Toxic Substances Over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulinger, A.; Petersen, G.

    2003-12-01

    For the past two decades environmental research at the GKSS Research Centre has been concerned with airborne pollutants with adverse effects on human health. The research was mainly focused on investigating the dispersion and deposition of heavy metals like lead and mercury over Europe by means of numerical modelling frameworks. Lead, in particular, served as a model substance to study the relationship between emissions and human exposition. The major source of airborne lead in Germany was fuel combustion until the 1980ies when its use as gasoline additive declined due to political decisions. Since then, the concentration of lead in ambient air and the deposition rates decreased in the same way as the consumption of leaded fuel. These observations could further be related to the decrease of lead concentrations in human blood measured during medical studies in several German cities. Based on the experience with models for heavy metal transport and deposition we have now started to turn our research focus to organic substances, e.g. PAHs. PAHs have been recognized as significant air borne carcinogens for several decades. However, it is not yet possible to precisely quantify the risk of human exposure to those compounds. Physical and chemical data, known from literature, describing the partitioning of the compounds between particle and gas phase and their degradation in the gas phase are implemented in a tropospheric chemistry module. In this way, the fate of PAHs in the atmosphere due to different particle type and size and different meteorological conditions is tested before carrying out large-scale and long-time studies. First model runs have been carried out for Benzo(a)Pyrene as one of the principal carcinogenic PAHs. Up to now, nearly nothing is known about degradation reactions of particle bound BaP. Thus, they could not be taken into account in the model so far. On the other hand, the proportion of BaP in the gas phase has to be considered at higher ambient

  3. Numerical Study of the Effects of Atmospheric and Wake Turbulence on Wind Turbine Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Michalakes, J.; Moriarty, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the atmospheric sciences community has been studying the effects of atmospheric stability and surface roughness on the planetary boundary layer for some time, their effects on wind turbine dynamics have not been well studied. In this study, we performed numerical experiments to explore some of the effects of atmospheric stability and surface roughness on wind turbine dynamics. We used large-eddy simulation to create atmospheric winds and compute the wind turbine flows, and we modeled the wind turbines as revolving and flexible actuator lines coupled to a wind turbine structural and system dynamic model. We examined the structural moments about the wind turbine blade, low-speed shaft, and nacelle; power production; and wake evolution when large 5-MW turbines are subjected to winds generated from low- and high-surface roughness levels representative of offshore and onshore conditions, respectively, and also neutral and unstable atmospheric conditions. In addition, we placed a second turbine 7 rotor diameters downwind of the first one so that we could explore wake effects under these different conditions. The results show that the turbulent structures generated within the atmospheric boundary layer wind simulations cause isolated loading events at least as significant as when a turbine is waked by an upwind turbine. The root-mean-square (RMS) turbine loads are consistently larger when the surface roughness is higher. The RMS blade-root out-of-plane bending moment and low-speed shaft torque are higher when the atmospheric boundary layer is unstable as compared with when it is neutral. However, the RMS yaw moments are either equal or reduced in the unstable case as compared with the neutral case. For a given surface roughness, the ratio of power produced by the downwind turbine relative to that of the upwind turbine is 15-20% higher when the conditions are unstable as compared with neutral. For a given atmospheric stability, this power ratio is 10% higher with

  4. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. The observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.

  5. Microstructural Study Of Zinc Hot Dip Galvanized Coatings with Titanium Additions In The Zinc Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konidaris, S.; Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Stergiou, A.; Stergioudis, G.; Polychroniadis, E. K.

    2007-04-01

    Zinc hot-dip galvanizing is a method for protecting iron and steel against corrosion. Galvanizing with pure Zn or Zn with additions like Ni, Al, Pb and Bi has been extensively studied, but there is a lack of scientific information about other additions. The present work examines the effect of a 0.5 wt% Ti addition in the Zn melt. The samples were exposed to accelerated corrosion in a salt spray chamber (SSC). The microstructure and chemical composition of the coatings were determined by Optical Microscopy, XRD and SEM associated with an EDS Analyzer. The results indicate that the coatings have a typical morphology, while Zn-Ti phases were also detected.

  6. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. The observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys. PMID:26446425

  7. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-10-08

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. In conclusion, the observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.

  8. Numerical studies of the fluid and optical fields associated with complex cavity flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwood, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical solutions for the flowfield about several cavity configurations have been computed using the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results are made in two dimensions for free shear layers and a rectangular cavity, and in three dimensions for the transonic aero-window problem of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Results show that dominant acoustic frequencies and magnitudes of the self excited resonant cavity flows compare well with the experiment. In addition, solution sensitivity to artificial dissipation and grid resolution levels are determined. Optical path distortion due to the flow field is modelled geometrically and is found to match the experiment. The fluid field was computed using a diagonalized scheme within an overset mesh framework. An existing code, OVERFLOW, was utilized with the additions of characteristic boundary condition and output routines required for reduction of the unsteady data. The newly developed code is directly applicable to a generalized three dimensional structured grid zone. Details are provided in a paper included in Appendix A.

  9. Numerical Study of the Effect of the Leading Edge Shape on Cavitation Around Inducer Blade Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutier-Delgosha, Olivier; Reboud, Jean-Luc; Fortes-Patella, Regiane

    A numerical study of the cavitation behaviour of two-dimensional hydrofoils simulating a section of an inducer blade is presented. Two leading edge shapes were chosen to approach rocket engine inducer designs. They were tested with respect to the development of sheet cavitation. The numerical model of cavitating flows is based on the 3D code FINE/TURBOTM, developed by NUMECA International. The cavitation process is taken into account by using a single fluid model, which considers the liquid vapour mixture as a homogeneous fluid whose density varies with respect to the static pressure. Numerical results are compared with experimental ones, obtained in the CREMHyG large cavitation tunnel(1). Pressure distributions along the foil suction side and the tunnel walls were measured for different cavity lengths. Total pressure measurements along the foil suction side allow characterizing the effects of cavitation on the liquid flow. Influence of the leading edge shape on the cavitation behaviour and comparison between experiments and numerical predictions are discussed.

  10. Numerical study of superfluid turbulence in the self-induction approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Buttke, T.F.

    1988-06-01

    Two stable numerical methods are presented to solve the self-induction equation of vortex theory. These numerical methods are validated by comparison with known exact solutions. A new self-similar solution of the self-induction equation is presented and the approximate solutions are shown to converge to the exact solution for the self-similar solution. The numerical method is then generalized to solve the equations of motion of a superfluid vortex in the self-induction approximation where reconnection is allowed. A careful numerical study shows that the mesh spacing of the method must be restricted so that the approximate solutions are accurate. The line length density of a system of superfluid vortices is calculated. Contrary to earlier results it is found that the line length density produced does not scale as the velocity squared and therefore is not characteristic of homogeneous turbulence. It is concluded that the model equationn used is inadequate to describe superfluid turbulence. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc.

  11. Numerical study of time domain analogy applied to noise prediction from rotating blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedala, D.; Kouidri, S.; Rey, R.

    2009-04-01

    Aeroacoustic formulations in time domain are frequently used to model the aerodynamic sound of airfoils, the time data being more accessible. The formulation 1A developed by Farassat, an integral solution of the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation, holds great interest because of its ability to handle surfaces in arbitrary motion. The aim of this work is to study the numerical sensitivity of this model to specified parameters used in the calculation. The numerical algorithms, spatial and time discretizations, and approximations used for far-field acoustic simulation are presented. An approach of quantifying of the numerical errors resulting from implementation of formulation 1A is carried out based on Isom's and Tam's test cases. A helicopter blade airfoil, as defined by Farassat to investigate Isom's case, is used in this work. According to Isom, the acoustic response of a dipole source with a constant aerodynamic load, ρ0c02, is equal to the thickness noise contribution. Discrepancies are observed when the two contributions are computed numerically. In this work, variations of these errors, which depend on the temporal resolution, Mach number, source-observer distance, and interpolation algorithm type, are investigated. The results show that the spline interpolating algorithm gives the minimum error. The analysis is then extended to Tam's test case. Tam's test case has the advantage of providing an analytical solution for the first harmonic of the noise produced by a specific force distribution.

  12. Numerical study of wave propagation around an underground cavity: acoustic case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esterhazy, Sofi; Perugia, Ilaria; Schöberl, Joachim; Bokelmann, Götz

    2015-04-01

    Motivated by the need to detect an underground cavity within the procedure of an On-Site-Inspection (OSI) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), which might be caused by a nuclear explosion/weapon testing, we aim to provide a basic numerical study of the wave propagation around and inside such an underground cavity. The aim of the CTBTO is to ban all nuclear explosions of any size anywhere, by anyone. Therefore, it is essential to build a powerful strategy to efficiently investigate and detect critical signatures such as gas filled cavities, rubble zones and fracture networks below the surface. One method to investigate the geophysical properties of an underground cavity allowed by the Comprehensive Nuclear-test Ban Treaty is referred to as 'resonance seismometry' - a resonance method that uses passive or active seismic techniques, relying on seismic cavity vibrations. This method is in fact not yet entirely determined by the Treaty and there are also only few experimental examples that have been suitably documented to build a proper scientific groundwork. This motivates to investigate this problem on a purely numerical level and to simulate these events based on recent advances in the mathematical understanding of the underlying physical phenomena. Here, we focus our numerical study on the propagation of P-waves in two dimensions. An extension to three dimensions as well as an inclusion of the full elastic wave field is planned in the following. For the numerical simulations of wave propagation we use a high order finite element discretization which has the significant advantage that it can be extended easily from simple toy designs to complex and irregularly shaped geometries without excessive effort. Our computations are done with the parallel Finite Element Library NGSOLVE ontop of the automatic 2D/3D tetrahedral mesh generator NETGEN (http://sourceforge.net/projects/ngsolve/). Using the basic mathematical understanding of the

  13. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  14. Studies of levels of biogenic amines in meat samples in relation to the content of additives.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Aneta; Kowalska, Sylwia; Szłyk, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The impact of meat additives on the concentration of biogenic amines and the quality of meat was studied. Fresh white and red meat samples were fortified with the following food additives: citric and lactic acids, disodium diphosphate, sodium nitrite, sodium metabisulphite, potassium sorbate, sodium chloride, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (propyl gallate) and butylated hydroxyanisole. The content of spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and 2-phenylethylamine was determined by capillary isotachophoretic methods in meat samples (fresh and fortified) during four days of storage at 4°C. The results were applied to estimate the impact of the tested additives on the formation of biogenic amines in white and red meat. For all tested meats, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride and disodium diphosphate showed the best inhibition. However, cadaverine and putrescine were characterised by the biggest changes in concentration during the storage time of all the additives. Based on the presented data for the content of biogenic amines in meat samples analysed as a function of storage time and additives, we suggest that cadaverine and putrescine have a significant impact on meat quality. PMID:26515667

  15. Simulation studies of the impact of advanced observing systems on numerical weather prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, R.; Kalnay, E.; Susskind, J.; Reuter, D.; Baker, W. E.; Halem, M.

    1984-01-01

    To study the potential impact of advanced passive sounders and lidar temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind observing systems on large-scale numerical weather prediction, a series of realistic simulation studies between the European Center for medium-range weather forecasts, the National Meteorological Center, and the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences is conducted. The project attempts to avoid the unrealistic character of earlier simulation studies. The previous simulation studies and real-data impact tests are reviewed and the design of the current simulation system is described. Consideration is given to the simulation of observations of space-based sounding systems.

  16. Distribution of aerosolized particles in healthy and emphysematous rat lungs: comparison between experimental and numerical studies.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Jessica M; Marsden, Alison L; Grandmont, Céline; Darquenne, Chantal; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E

    2015-04-13

    In silico models of airflow and particle deposition in the lungs are increasingly used to determine the therapeutic or toxic effects of inhaled aerosols. While computational methods have advanced significantly, relatively few studies have directly compared model predictions to experimental data. Furthermore, few prior studies have examined the influence of emphysema on particle deposition. In this work we performed airflow and particle simulations to compare numerical predictions to data from our previous aerosol exposure experiments. Employing an image-based 3D rat airway geometry, we first compared steady flow simulations to coupled 3D-0D unsteady simulations in the healthy rat lung. Then, in 3D-0D simulations, the influence of emphysema was investigated by matching disease location to the experimental study. In both the healthy unsteady and steady simulations, good agreement was found between numerical predictions of aerosol delivery and experimental deposition data. However, deposition patterns in the 3D geometry differed between the unsteady and steady cases. On the contrary, satisfactory agreement was not found between the numerical predictions and experimental data for the emphysematous lungs. This indicates that the deposition rate downstream of the 3D geometry is likely proportional to airflow delivery in the healthy lungs, but not in the emphysematous lungs. Including small airway collapse, variations in downstream airway size and tissue properties, and tracking particles throughout expiration may result in a more favorable agreement in future studies. PMID:25682537

  17. Experimental, numerical and analytical studies of abrasive wear: correlation between wear mechanisms and friction coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezlini, Salah; Zidi, M.; Arfa, H.; Ben Tkaya, Mohamed; Kapsa, Philippe

    2005-11-01

    The transport of granular material often generates severe damage. Understanding the correlation between the friction coefficient, particle geometry and wear mechanisms is of primary importance for materials undergoing abrasive wear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of particle geometry on wear mechanisms and the friction coefficient. Numerical and analytical simulations and experimental results have been compared. The process to be studied is the scratch made by a rigid cone with different attack angles on a 5xxx aluminium alloy (Al-Mg) flat surface. A scratch test was used and the wear mechanisms were observed for different attack angles. A numerical study with a finite element code was made in order to understand the effect of attack angle on the friction coefficient. The contact surface and the friction coefficient were also studied, and the results compared to the Bowden and Tabor model. The superposition of the numerical, analytical and experimental results showed a better correlation between the wear mechanisms and the friction coefficient. It also showed the importance of the model hypothesis used to simulate the scratch phenomenon. To cite this article: S. Mezlini et al., C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).

  18. Numerical and experimental study of blowing jet on a high lift airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobonea, A.; Pricop, M. V.

    2013-10-01

    Active manipulation of separated flows over airfoils at moderate and high angles of attack in order to improve efficiency or performance has been the focus of a number of numerical and experimental investigations for many years. One of the main methods used in active flow control is the usage of blowing devices with constant and pulsed blowing. Through CFD simulation over a 2D high-lift airfoil, this study is trying to highlight the impact of pulsed blowing over its aerodynamic characteristics. The available wind tunnel data from INCAS low speed facility are also beneficial for the validation of the numerical analysis. This study intends to analyze the impact of the blowing jet velocity and slot geometry on the efficiency of an active flow control.

  19. Photocapacitance study at p-i-n photodiode by numerical C- V integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavasoglu, A. Sertap; Kavasoglu, Nese; Oktik, Sener

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes a different numerical approach to estimate the impurity profile in a typical p-i-n device by using measured capacitance-voltage ( C- V) characteristics. The constructed numerical model has been found to provide an impurity profile which is almost consistent with those reported in the literature. Until now, no study of the anomalous capacitance response of the silicon p-i-n device induced by the space charge effects due to photo-generated carriers has been reported. In this study, we unveiled this anomalous behaviour through illuminated C- V characteristics. The illuminated C- V result of BPW34 exhibits capacitance oscillations. This behaviour could be augmented by the density of states discontinuities in intrinsic silicon [Biswajit Das. Observation of capacitance-voltage oscillations in porous silicon. Physica E: Low-dimens Syst Nanostruct 2004;23(1-2):141-46].

  20. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study of a Dental Handpiece Air Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Neng; Chiang, Hsiao-Wei D.; Chang, Ya-Yi

    2011-06-01

    Dental air turbine handpieces have been widely used in clinical dentistry for over 30 years, however, little work has been reported on their performance. In dental air turbine handpieces, the types of flow channel and turbine blade shape can have very different designs. These different designs can have major influence on the torque, rotating speed, and power performance. This research is focused on the turbine blade and the flow channel designs. Using numerical simulation and experiments, the key design parameters which influence the performance of dental hand pieces can be studied. Three types of dental air turbine designs with different turbine blades, nozzle angles, nozzle flow channels, and shroud clearances were tested and analyzed. Very good agreement was demonstrated between the numerical simulation analyses and the experiments. Using the analytical model, parametric studies were performed to identify key design parameters.

  1. Monitoring red tide with satellite imagery and numerical models: a case study in the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Ghedira, Hosni

    2014-02-15

    A red tide event that occurred in August 2008 in the Arabian Gulf was monitored and assessed using satellite observations and numerical models. Satellite observations revealed the bloom extent and evolution from August 2008 to August 2009. Flow patterns of the bloom patch were confirmed by results from a HYCOM model. HYCOM data and satellite-derived sea surface temperature data further suggested that the bloom could have been initiated offshore and advected onshore by bottom Ekman layer. Analysis indicated that nutrient sources supporting the bloom included upwelling, Trichodesmium, and dust deposition while other potential sources of nutrient supply should also be considered. In order to monitor and detect red tide effectively and provide insights into its initiation and maintenance mechanisms, the integration of multiple platforms is required. The case study presented here demonstrated the benefit of combing satellite observations and numerical models for studying red tide outbreaks and dynamics. PMID:24461701

  2. Numerical Study of Flow Augmented Thermal Management for Entry and Re-Entry Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Gary C.; Neroorkar, Kshitij D.; Chen, Yen-Sen; Wang, Ten-See; Daso, Endwell O.

    2007-01-01

    The use of a flow augmented thermal management system for entry and re-entr environments is one method for reducing heat and drag loads. This concept relies on jet penetration from supersonic and hypersonic counterflowing jets that could significantly weaken and disperse the shock-wave system of the spacecraft flow field. The objective of this research effort is to conduct parametric studies of the supersonic flow over a 2.6% scale model of the Apollo capsule, with and without the counterflowing jet, using time-accurate and steady-state computational fluid dynamics simulations. The numerical studies, including different freestream Mach number angle of attack counterflowing jet mass flow rate, and nozzle configurations, were performed to examine their effect on the drag and beat loads and to explore the counternowing jet condition. The numerical results were compared with the test data obtained from transonic blow-down wind-tunnel experiments conducted independently at NASA MSFC.

  3. Numerical study of fermion and boson models with infinite-range random interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wenbo; Sachdev, Subir

    2016-07-01

    We present numerical studies of fermion and boson models with random all-to-all interactions (the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev models). The high-temperature expansion and exact diagonalization of the N -site fermion model are used to compute the entropy density: our results are consistent with the numerical solution of N =∞ saddle-point equations, and the presence of a nonzero entropy density in the limit of vanishing temperature. The exact-diagonalization results for the fermion Green's function also appear to converge well to the N =∞ solution. For the hard-core boson model, the exact-diagonalization study indicates spin-glass order. Some results on the entanglement entropy and the out-of-time-order correlators are also presented.

  4. a Study on the Role of Sintering Additives for Fabrication of sic Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Han Ki; Lee, Young Ju; Cho, Ho Jun; Kim, Tae Gyu

    Silicon carbide (SiC) materials have been extensively studied for high temperature components in advanced energy system and advanced gas turbine. The SiC ceramics have been fabricated by a NITE (Nano Infiltration Transient Eutectic Phase) Process, using Nano-SiC powder. The sintering additives used for forming liquid phase under sintering process, used the sintering additives ratios were an Al2O3-Y2O3 system or add SiO2 contents. A major R&D focus for the SiC ceramics is the production to obtain high purity SiC ceramics. In this study, we investigated roles of the sintering additives(Al2O3:Y2O3) to fabrication of the SiC ceramics. The effects of SiO2 contents and density properties of the SiC ceramics were also investigated. To investigate the effects of SiO2, Al2O3/Y2O3 composition were fixed and then SiO2 ratios were changed as several kinds, and to confirm the effects of sintering additives ratios (Al2O3:Y2O3) they were changed between 4:6 and 6:4 in x wt.%.

  5. Numerical Studies of Nonlinear Schrodinger and Klein-Gordon Systems: Techniques and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Dae-Il

    The continuing proliferation of computational resources makes it more and more powerful to conduct numerical studies on physics problems for which either analytic methods fail, or well-controlled experiments are very difficult, if not impossible. In particular, a finite-difference based numerical approach. has been an indispensable tool in the three areas of physics that, I study in this thesis: numerical relativity (boson stars), Bose-Einstein condensates, and atomic hydrogen in strong laser fields. Numerical relativity (NR) enables us to tackle problems of astrophysical interest which are difficult or impossible to study using analytic methods. Many of these problems involve strong and dynamical gravitational fields, and many involve the dynamics of one or more gravitationally compact objects such as black holes, neutron stars or, more speculatively, boson stars. A long term goal of NR, then (and of this research) is the accurate simulation of the dynamics of one or more compact objects. Here, as a step in that direction, I present some of the first results for a fully coupled Einstein/Klein-Gordon system in 3D, wherein I attempt to evolve a static relativistic boson star using the full equations of motion. A key motivation for the study of self-gravitating bosonic matter (in both the Newtonian and Einsteinian regimes) is the observation that, even though any direct physical relevance has yet to be demonstrated, boson star systems provide excellent numerical laboratories in which to develop techniques for NR. Specifically, the boson star model provides an ideal vehicle with which to implement and evaluate (1) various coordinate conditions in the context of the ADM formalism and (2) multidimensional adaptive mesh refinement techniques which appear crucial for many problems in 3D numerical relativity. Again, as a step towards studying the fully relativistic problem, I first consider boson stars in the Newtonian regime, which are described by the solutions of Schr

  6. Numerical Study of a Jeffcott Rotor Model with a Snubber Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páez Chávez, J.; Wiercigroch, M.; Demrdash, H.

    2012-08-01

    In this article we study a two-degrees-of-freedom model of a rotor system with a bearing clearance. During operation the rotor makes intermittent contact with an outer snubber ring, which results in complex dynamical behaviour. Specifically, the system will be analyzed numerically by a path following method, where we will use the toolbox TC-HAT, which is a module for modeling non-smooth systems by AUTO 97.

  7. Numerical and Experimental Studies on Crash Characteristics of Closed Form Thin—Walled Steel Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerasamy, M.; Srinivasan, K.; Prakash, Raghu V.

    2010-10-01

    The crash behavior of Cold Rolled Mild Steel (CRMS) closed form thin section was studied by conducting compressive tests at loading velocities of 5 mm/min and 1000 mm/min. The numerical simulations were conducted for the same experimental conditions to understand the deformation shape, peak forces and energy absorption capacity of sections at different impact velocities. The simulation results correlated well with the experimental results.

  8. Experimental study and numerical simulation of the propulsion of microbeads by femtosecond laser filament

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Nan; Liu Weiwei; Xu Zhijun; Wang Mingwei; Zhu Xiaonong

    2008-08-01

    The light filament formed by intense femtosecond laser pulses in air can be used to generate the effective impulse to propel a micro glass bead. In this report, through both experimental studies and the corresponding numerical simulations that involve the dynamics of the nonlinear propagation of light and the laser ablation mechanism, we confirm that this propulsion scheme is based on the laser ablation of the target material. The fundamental characteristics of laser propulsion using a single ultrafast laser filament is also revealed.

  9. Numerical study of leptogenesis in a 5D split fermion model with bulk neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Kuismanen, Heidi; Vilja, Iiro; Maalampi, Jukka

    2011-03-01

    We study numerically a 5D hybrid model which incorporates a split fermion scenario and bulk neutrinos. We perform a Monte Carlo analysis of the model in order to find the regions in the parameter space allowing for the realization of the leptogenesis. We find that higher order Yukawa terms must be included in order for the model to produce a CP violation and net baryon number sufficient for the creation of the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe.

  10. Numerical Study of the Complex Temporal Pattern of Spontaneous Oscillation in Bullfrog Saccular Hair Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Fredrickson-Hemsing, Lea; Kao, Albert; Bozovic, Dolores

    2011-11-01

    Hair bundles of the bullfrog sacculus display spontaneous oscillations that show complex temporal profiles. Quiescent intervals are typically interspersed with oscillations, analogous to bursting behavior observed in neural systems. By introducing slow calcium dynamics into the theoretical model of bundle mechanics, we reproduce numerically the multi-mode oscillations and explore the effects of internal parameters on the temporal profiles and the frequency tuning of their linear response functions. We also study the effects of mechanical overstimulation on the oscillatory behavior.

  11. Using epidemiology to regulate food additives: saccharin case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Cordle, F; Miller, S A

    1984-01-01

    The increasing use of nonnutritive sweeteners and the widely publicized 1969 ban on cyclamate led to additional investigations in rodents of the carcinogenic potential of saccharin. Preliminary results of a long-term feeding study indicated formation of bladder tumors in rodents, and collective experimental evidence has demonstrated that high doses of the synthetic sweetener saccharin can cause bladder cancer in rodents. Based on the results of that and other rodent studies indicating an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with saccharin, the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration announced the agency's intention to propose a ban on saccharin. This intention was made known in April 1977 under the Delaney Clause of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The clause essentially states that no additive shall be deemed safe if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals, or if it is found, after tests appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animals. Also in 1977, a group of epidemiologists began to assess the available epidemiologic information to determine the potential human risk. This report describes the assessment of several human epidemiologic studies available then and the results of more recent epidemiologic studies. PMID:6431484

  12. Study of the occlusion effect induced by an earplug: Numerical modelling and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brummund, Martin

    (IRSST) and the Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) has been launched. The present study represents a part of this collaboration and aims at studying the occlusion effect of the system earplug - ear canal through the development of novel numerical models and experimental methods. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  13. Numerical Study of Virtual Cathode Behavior in Vacuum Collective Ion Acceleration Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, John Mark

    The behavior of an intense relativistic beam of electrons injected into a cylindrical conducting drift tube is investigated with the aid of an electrostatic simulation code. The relevance of such a study is in linear beam, evacuated drift tube systems where high energy ions are observed when the beam interacts with a source of ions. In our numerical study, the beam's motion is assumed to be purely one dimensional; however, the electric field is solved in two dimensions using special "method of lines" techniques. One of the two principal techniques is developed to accurately resolve the extreme local gradients in charge density and potential existing in the drift tube. It is a Galerkin solution of Poisson's equation on a non-uniform mesh and has an operations count of O(N('2)) and convergence rate in energy norm of O(1/N). The other O(N log(,N)N) technique uses FFT methods on a uniform mesh and converges in uniform norm O(1/N('2)). It is found that when the injected current of the beam is above a threshold or limiting value the beam-drift tube system reacts by abruptly forming a dense clump of electrons near the injection end of the tube. This clump prevents the steady flow of electrons downstream and is called a virtual cathode (VC). A detailed picture of the VC formation process is provided by our simulations, together with a display of the dynamic behavior of the VC at various injection currents and parameter regimes. The VC oscillates in well depth and position at about the plasma frequency of the dense clump of electrons. The potential at the clump oscillates between (phi)(,0) and 1.6 (phi)(,0) where (phi)(,0) is the energy of the injected electrons. In addition, the VC sprays a group of electrons downstream every plasma period in such a manner that the average current associated with the stream is close to the limiting current. Peak electric fields at the anode are in the range 200-600 MV/m for our system parameters. Finally, a preliminary investigation is

  14. Study of the tornado event in Greece on March 25, 2009: Synoptic analysis and numerical modeling using modified topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsangouras, I. T.; Nastos, P. T.; Pytharoulis, I.

    2016-03-01

    Recent research revealed that western Greece and NW Peloponnese are regions that favor prefrontal tornadic incidence. On March 25, 2009 a tornado developed approximately at 10:30 UTC near Varda village (NW Peloponnese). Tornado intensity was T4-T5 (TORRO scale) and consequently caused an economic impact of 350,000 € over the local society. The goals of this study are: (i) to analyze synoptic and remote sensing features regarding the tornado event over NW Peloponnese and (ii) to investigate the role of topography in tornadogenesis triggered under strong synoptic scale forcing over that area. Synoptic analysis was based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data sets. The analysis of daily anomaly of synoptic conditions with respect to 30 years' climatology (1981-2010), was based on the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis data sets. In addition, numerous remote sensing data sets were derived by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS) weather station network in order to better interpret the examined tornado event. Finally, numerical modeling was performed using the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), initialized by ECMWF gridded analyses, with telescoping nested grids that allow the representation of atmospheric circulations ranging from the synoptic scale down to the meso-scale. The two numerical experiments were performed on the basis of: (a) the presence and (b) the absence of topography (landscape), so as to determine whether the occurrence of a tornado - identified by diagnostic instability indices - could be indicated by modifying topography. The energy helicity index (EHI), the bulk Richardson number (BRN) shear, the storm-relative environmental helicity (SRH), and the maximum convective available potential energy (MCAPE, for parcels with maximum θe) were considered as principal diagnostic instability variables and

  15. Potentialities of steady-state and transient thermography in breast tumour depth detection: A numerical study.

    PubMed

    Amri, Amina; Pulko, Susan Helen; Wilkinson, Anthony James

    2016-01-01

    Breast thermography still has inherent limitations that prevent it from being fully accepted as a breast screening modality in medicine. The main challenges of breast thermography are to reduce false positive results and to increase the sensitivity of a thermogram. Further, it is still difficult to obtain information about tumour parameters such as metabolic heat, tumour depth and diameter from a thermogram. However, infrared technology and image processing have advanced significantly and recent clinical studies have shown increased sensitivity of thermography in cancer diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to study numerically the possibilities of extracting information about the tumour depth from steady state thermography and transient thermography after cold stress with no need to use any specific inversion technique. Both methods are based on the numerical solution of Pennes bioheat equation for a simple three-dimensional breast model. The effectiveness of two approaches used for depth detection from steady state thermography is assessed. The effect of breast density on the steady state thermal contrast has also been studied. The use of a cold stress test and the recording of transient contrasts during rewarming were found to be potentially suitable for tumour depth detection during the rewarming process. Sensitivity to parameters such as cold stress temperature and cooling time is investigated using the numerical model and simulation results reveal two prominent depth-related characteristic times which do not strongly depend on the temperature of the cold stress or on the cooling period. PMID:26522612

  16. Mechanisms of microbubble–vessel interactions and induced stresses: A numerical study

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinkhah, N.; Chen, H.; Matula, T. J.; Burns, P. N.; Hynynen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Oscillating microbubbles within microvessels could induce stresses that lead to bioeffects or vascular damage. Previous work has attributed vascular damage to the vessel expansion or bubble jet. However, ultra-high speed images of recent studies suggest that it could happen due to the vascular invagination. Numerical simulations of confined bubbles could provide insight into understanding the mechanism behind bubble–vessel interactions. In this study, a finite element model of a coupled bubble/fluid/vessel system was developed and validated with experimental data. Also, for a more realistic study viscoelastic properties of microvessels were assessed and incorporated into this comprehensive numerical model. The wall shear stress (WSS) and circumferential stress (CS), metrics of vascular damage, were calculated from these simulations. Resultant amplitudes of oscillation were within 15% of those measured in experiments (four cases). Among the experimental cases, it was numerically found that maximum WSS values were between 1.1–18.3 kPa during bubble expansion and 1.5–74 kPa during bubble collapse. CS was between 0.43–2.2 MPa during expansion and 0.44–6 MPa while invaginated. This finding confirmed that vascular damage could occur during vascular invaginations. Predicted thresholds in which these stresses are higher during vessel invagination were calculated from simulations. PMID:23967921

  17. Experimental and numerical study of a fractured marble epistyle restored with layers of titanium bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourkoulis, S.-K.; Mentzini, M.; Ganniari-Papageorgiou, E.

    2010-06-01

    The mechanical behaviour of fractured prismatic marble architraves (epistyles) is evaluated in the present study both experimentally and numerically. The study is based on a recently introduced method for the calculation of the reinforcement required for joining together fractured structural elements of ancient monuments. The experimental assessment includes the construction of an accurate model of the most seriously damaged architrave of the north colonnade of the Parthenon Temple in a scale 1:3. The epistyle is considered symmetrically fractured at its mid-plane and it is restored with three horizontal layers of titanium bars. A multi-point bending arrangement was designed including a system of double T-beams and steel rollers in order to approach in an optimum manner the action of the uniformly distributed load exerted on the epistyle in its original position. A numerical analysis followed in an effort to study the parameters influencing the behaviour of the epistyle. The numerical model simulated accurately all the geometrical details of the experimental model, the load application mode and the mechanical characteristics of the three materials used for the restoration (marble, titanium and interposed cementitious material). The analysis enlightened interesting points concerning the location of the regions of the structure more susceptible to failure.

  18. Study of asphalt/asphaltene precipitation during addition of solvents to West Sak crude

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J.C.; Patil, S.L.; Kamath, V.A. )

    1990-07-01

    In this study, experimental data on the amount of asphalt and asphaltene precipitation due to addition of solvents to West Sak crude were gathered. The first set of tests were conducted for two types of West Sak stock tank oils. Solvents used include: ethane, carbon dioxide, propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-heptane, Prudhoe Bay natural gas (PBG) and natural gas liquids (NGL). Effect of solvent to oil dilution ratio on the amount of precipitation was studied. Alteration of crude oil composition due to asphalt precipitation was measured using gas-liquid chromatography. A second set of experiments were conducted to measure asphaltene precipitation due to addition of CO{sub 2} to live (recombined) West Sak crude.

  19. A Study of Aluminum Combustion in Solids, Powders, Foams, Additively-Manufactured Lattices, and Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, James; Trammell, Norman; Batteh, Jad; Curran, Nicholas; Rogers, John; Littrell, Donald

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the fireball characteristics, blast parameters, and combustion efficiency of explosively-shocked aluminum-based materials. The materials included structural and non-structural aluminum forms - such as solid cylinders, foams, additively-manufactured lattices, and powders - and some polytetrafluoroethylene-aluminum (PTFE-Al) composites. The materials were explosively dispersed in a small blast chamber, and the blast properties and products were measured with pressure transducers, thermocouples, slow and fast ultraviolet/visible spectrometers, and high-speed video.

  20. Spectra-temporal patterns underlying mental addition: an ERP and ERD/ERS study.

    PubMed

    Ku, Yixuan; Hong, Bo; Gao, Xiaorong; Gao, Shangkai

    2010-03-12

    Functional neuroimaging data have shown that mental calculation involves fronto-parietal areas that are composed of different subsystems shared with other cognitive functions such as working memory and language. Event-related potential (ERP) analysis has also indicated sequential information changes during the calculation process. However, little is known about the dynamic properties of oscillatory networks in this process. In the present study, we applied both ERP and event-related (de-)synchronization (ERS/ERD) analyses to EEG data recorded from normal human subjects performing tasks for sequential visual/auditory mental addition. Results in the study indicate that the late positive components (LPCs) can be decomposed into two separate parts. The earlier element LPC1 (around 360ms) reflects the computing attribute and is more prominent in calculation tasks. The later element LPC2 (around 590ms) indicates an effect of number size and appears larger only in a more complex 2-digit addition task. The theta ERS and alpha ERD show modality-independent frontal and parietal differential patterns between the mental addition and control groups, and discrepancies are noted in the beta ERD between the 2-digit and 1-digit mental addition groups. The 2-digit addition (both visual and auditory) results in similar beta ERD patterns to the auditory control, which may indicate a reliance on auditory-related resources in mental arithmetic, especially with increasing task difficulty. These results coincide with the theory of simple calculation relying on the visuospatial process and complex calculation depending on the phonological process. PMID:20105450

  1. Numerical parametric study of buried target ground-penetrating radar signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bosch, Idesbald C.; Druyts, Pascal; Acheroy, Marc; Huynen, Isabelle

    2006-05-01

    The assessment of the performances of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) in humanitarian demining is an important problem. These performances are related to the relative strength of the target radar response with respect to that of the soil. Many parameters influence both responses. The physical and geometrical parameters that influence the target signature include the soil electromagnetic (EM) constitutive parameters, the target depth and orientation with respect to the soil surface, the antenna height and the target EM and geometrical properties. This work presents a numerical parametric study of the soil and target radar signatures. The advantages of the numerical approach are: it allows for a separate study of the influence of each parameters on the radar responses, it is fast, cheap, generic with regards to hardware, and finally it is not prone to experimental errors and hardware failures or misuse. Moreover it is always possible to link the numerical experiments with a particular hardware by characterizing this latter. However, a number of simplifications, such as modeling the soil as a planar multilayered medium, are introduced to keep the problem tractable. This study yields surprising results, such as for example the possibility of considering the target in homogeneous space for computing its signature, as soon as it is a few centimeters deep. The target considered in the numerical experiments is a dielectric cylinder representing an AP mine, with diameter 6 cm and height 5 cm, and ɛ rt=3. These values are chosen to approach as much as possible the physical properties of the M35BG AP mine, which is small and therefore difficult to detect.

  2. Note on numerical study of the beam energy spread in NDCX-I

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J.-L.; Seidl, P.A.; Friedman, A.

    2011-01-19

    The kinetic energy spread (defined here as the standard deviation of the beam particle energies) sets the ultimate theoretical limit on the longitudinal compression that can be attained on NDCX-I and NDCX-II. Experimental measurements will inevitably include the real influences on the longitudinal phase space of the beam due to injector and accelerator field imperfections1. These induced energy variations may be the real limit to the longitudinal compression in an accelerator. We report on a numerical investigation of the energy spread evolution in NDCX-I; these studies do not include all the real imperfections, but rather are intended to confirm that there are no other intrinsic mechanisms (translaminar effects, transverse-longitudinal anisotropy instability, etc.) for significant broadening of the energy distribution. We have performed Warp simulations that use a realistic Marx voltage waveform which was derived from experimental measurements (averaged over several shots), a fully-featured model of the accelerating and focusing lattice, and new diagnostics for computing the local energy spread (and temperature) that properly account for linear correlations that arise from the discrete binning along each physical dimension (these capabilities reproduce and extend those of the earlier HIF code BPIC). The new diagnostics allow for the calculation of multi-dimensional maps of energy spread and temperature in 2-D axisymmetric or 3-D Cartesian space at selected times. The simulated beam-line was terminated at z = 3 m by a conducting plate, so as to approximately reproduce the experimental conditions at the entrance of the spectrometer that was used for mapping the longitudinal phase space. Snapshots of the beam projection and current, as well as the Marx waveform and history of beam kinetic energy collected at the end plate, are shown in Fig. 1. A two-dimensional axisymmetric map of energy spread from simulations of a typical NDCX-I configuration is shown in Fig. 2 (a

  3. Numerical study of innovative scramjet inlets coupled to combustors using hydrocarbon-air mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malo-Molina, Faure Joel

    The research objective is to use high-fidelity multi-physics Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis to characterize 3-D scramjet flowfields in two novel streamline traced circular configurations without axisymmetric profiles. This work builds on a body of research conducted over the past several years. In addition, this research provides the modeling and simulation support, prior to ground (wind tunnel) and flight experiment programs. Two innovative inlets, Jaws and Scoop, are analyzed and compared to a Baseline inlet, a current state of the art rectangular inlet used as a baseline for on/off-design conditions. The flight trajectory conditions selected were Mach 6 and a dynamic pressure of 1,500 psf (71.82 kPa), corresponding to a static pressure of 43.7 psf (2.09 kPa) and temperature of 400.8 R° (222.67 C°). All inlets are designed for equal flight conditions, equal contraction ratios and exit cross-sectional areas, thus facilitating their comparison and integration to a common combustor design. Analysis of these hypersonic inlets was performed to investigate distortion effects downstream in common generic combustors. These combustors include a single cavity acting as flame holder and strategically positioned fuel injection ports. This research not only seeks to identify the most successful integrated scramjet inlet/combustor design, but also investigates the flow physics and quantifies the integrated performance impact of the two novel scramjet inlet designs. It contributes to the hypersonic air-breathing community by providing analysis and predictions on directly-coupled combustor numerical experiments for developing pioneering inlets or nozzles for scramjets. Several validations and verifications of General Propulsion Analysis Chemical-kinetic and Two-phase (GPACT), the CFD tool, were conducted throughout the research. In addition, this study uses 13 gaseous species and 20 reactions for an Ethylene/air finite-rate chemical model. The key conclusions of

  4. Numerical study of acoustophoretic motion of particles in a PDMS microchannel driven by surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Nama, Nitesh; Barnkob, Rune; Mao, Zhangming; Kähler, Christian J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the acoustophoretic motion of particles suspended in a liquid-filled PDMS microchannel on a lithium niobate substrate acoustically driven by surface acoustic waves. We employ a perturbation approach where the flow variables are divided into first- and second-order fields. We use impedance boundary conditions to model the PDMS microchannel walls and we model the acoustic actuation by a displacement function from the literature based on a numerical study of piezoelectric actuation. Consistent with the type of actuation, the obtained first-order field is a horizontal standing wave that travels vertically from the actuated wall towards the upper PDMS wall. This is in contrast to what is observed in bulk acoustic wave devices. The first-order fields drive the acoustic streaming, as well as the time-averaged acoustic radiation force acting on suspended particles. We analyze the motion of suspended particles driven by the acoustic streaming drag and the radiation force. We examine a range of particle diameters to demonstrate the transition from streaming-drag-dominated acoustophoresis to radiation-force-dominated acoustophoresis. Finally, as an application of our numerical model, we demonstrate the capability to tune the position of the vertical pressure node along the channel width by tuning the phase difference between two incoming surface acoustic waves. PMID:26001199

  5. Theoretical, numerical, and experimental study of electrohydrodynamic pumping in vertical configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Seyed-Yagoobi, S.J.A.

    1984-01-01

    An induction electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pump is studied theoretically, numerically, and experimentally. The pump which is in an axisymmetric, vertical configuration is investigated in both forward and backward modes. The theoretical model includes the effect of entrance conditions, buoyancy effects, and secondary flow. A complete set of numerical solutions is presented to show the influence of the controlling factors in operating an induction EHD pump. The experimental results seem to be in good agreement with the numerical solutions. Velocities four times higher than the natural circulation speed were readily achieved. Experimentally, the ion drag EHD pump is briefly studied. In the past, ion drag pumps were avoided because of expected degradation of the insulating ability of fluids such as transformer oils. The effects of long term low level charge injection on liquid dielectrics at levels sufficient to be useful in a pump is investigated. The results indicate that the exposure to electrodes at high voltage decreases the electric conductivity of the oils. Direct applications of the EHD pump include cooling both high-power underground cables and electric equipment such as transformers. This work is intended to provide the necessary information on the controlling factors of an EHD pump for a better design.

  6. Vibration control of piezoelectric smart structures based on system identification technique: Numerical simulation and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xing-Jian; Meng, Guang; Peng, Juan-Chun

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the efficiency of a system identification technique known as observer/Kalman filter identification (OKID) technique in the numerical simulation and experimental study of active vibration control of piezoelectric smart structures. Based on the structure responses determined by finite element method, an explicit state space model of the equivalent linear system is developed by employing OKID approach. The linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) algorithm is employed for controller design. The control law is then incorporated into the ANSYS finite element model to perform closed loop simulations. Therefore, the control law performance can be evaluated in the context of a finite element environment. Furthermore, a complete active vibration control system comprising the cantilever plate, the piezoelectric actuators, the accelerometers and the digital signal processor (DSP) board is set up to conduct the experimental investigation. A state space model characterizing the dynamics of the physical system is developed from experimental results using OKID approach for the purpose of control law design. The controller is then implemented by using a floating point TMS320VC33 DSP. Numerical examples by employing the proposed numerical simulation method, together with the experimental results obtained by using the active vibration control system, have demonstrated the validity and efficiency of OKID method in application of active vibration control of piezoelectric smart structures.

  7. Numerical and experimental study of the impact of small caliber projectiles on ballistic soap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyckmans, G.; Ndompetelo, N.; Chabotier, A.

    2003-09-01

    Terminal ballistic deals with interactions between targets and projectiles. One of the areas of interest is wound ballistics, where one studies the interaction between a projectile (a bullet or a fragment) and the human body. Soap and gelatin are commonly used materials for simulating soft human body tissue in wound ballistics experiments. They are to be considered as tools for comparing the effectiveness of different projectiles. The department of weapon systems & ballistics of the Belgian Royal Military Academy is examining to what extent the Autodyn hydrocode can be used as a numerical tool for simulating the penetration of military bullets into ballistic soap. This article presents the philosophy and the results of the project's first phase i.e. the use of Autodyn for simulating the penetration of a steel sphere into a block of ballistic soap as a result of a normal impact at different velocities. A series of experiments (real firings) have been performed in the laboratory of the department. They serve as a reference and validation tool for the numerical approach. The latter is characterized by the specific problem of accurate material modeling of the soap. The application of a stepwise parametric study of material models and parameters has resulted in numerical simulations which fit quite well with experiments.

  8. Numerical and Experimental Study of Transport Phenomena in Directional Solidification of Succinonitrile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Groh, Henry C., III; Yao, Minwu

    1994-01-01

    A numerical and experimental study of the growth of succinonitrile (SCN) using a horizontal Bridginan furnace and transparent glass ampoule was conducted. Two experiments were considered: one in which the temperature profile was fixed relative to the ampoule (no-growth case); and a second in which the thermal profile was translated at a constant rate (steady growth case). Measured temperature profiles on the outer surface of the ampoule were used as thermal boundary conditions for the modelling. The apparent heat capacity formulation combined with the variable viscositymeth was used to model the phase change in SeN. Both 2-D and 3-D models were studied and numerical solutions obtained using the commercial finite element code, FIDAP1. Comparison of the numerical results to experimental data showed excellent agreement. The complex 3-D shallow-cavity flow in the melt, differences between 2-D and 3-D models, effects of natural convection on the thermal gradient and shape of the solid/liquid interface, and the sensitivity of simulations to specific assumptions, are also discussed.

  9. Numerical study of acoustophoretic motion of particles in a PDMS microchannel driven by surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Nama, Nitesh; Barnkob, Rune; Mao, Zhangming; Kähler, Christian J; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun

    2015-06-21

    We present a numerical study of the acoustophoretic motion of particles suspended in a liquid-filled PDMS microchannel on a lithium niobate substrate acoustically driven by surface acoustic waves. We employ a perturbation approach where the flow variables are divided into first- and second-order fields. We use impedance boundary conditions to model the PDMS microchannel walls and we model the acoustic actuation by a displacement function from the literature based on a numerical study of piezoelectric actuation. Consistent with the type of actuation, the obtained first-order field is a horizontal standing wave that travels vertically from the actuated wall towards the upper PDMS wall. This is in contrast to what is observed in bulk acoustic wave devices. The first-order fields drive the acoustic streaming, as well as the time-averaged acoustic radiation force acting on suspended particles. We analyze the motion of suspended particles driven by the acoustic streaming drag and the radiation force. We examine a range of particle diameters to demonstrate the transition from streaming-drag-dominated acoustophoresis to radiation-force-dominated acoustophoresis. Finally, as an application of our numerical model, we demonstrate the capability to tune the position of the vertical pressure node along the channel width by tuning the phase difference between two incoming surface acoustic waves. PMID:26001199

  10. Numerical Simulations and Tracer Studies as a Tool to Support Water Circulation Modeling in Breeding Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zima, Piotr

    2014-12-01

    The article presents a proposal of a method for computer-aided design and analysis of breeding reservoirs in zoos and aquariums. The method applied involves the use of computer simulations of water circulation in breeding pools. A mathematical model of a pool was developed, and a tracer study was carried out. A simplified model of two-dimensional flow in the form of a biharmonic equation for the stream function (converted into components of the velocity vector) was adopted to describe the flow field. This equation, supplemented by appropriate boundary conditions, was solved numerically by the finite difference method. Next, a tracer migration equation was solved, which was a two-dimensional advection-dispersion equation describing the unsteady transport of a non-active, permanent solute. In order to obtain a proper solution, a tracer study (with rhodamine WT as a tracer) was conducted in situ. The results of these measurements were compared with numerical solutions obtained. The results of numerical simulations made it possible to reconstruct water circulation in the breading pool and to identify still water zones, where water circulation was impeded.

  11. A numerical study of flow in a combustor with dilution holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyy, W.; Braaten, M. E.; Correa, S. M.

    1986-01-01

    Combusting and isothermal three-dimensional turbulent flows in a sector of an operational gas-turbine combustor with multiple dilution jets are studied numerically. The physical model is based on the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations closed with the k-epsilon turbulence model. Combustion is represented by the limit of fast chemistry. These equations are discretized in conservative finite-volume form on a nonorthogonal body-fitted computational grid. Strategies for efficiently handling the nonlinear coupling between the equations are discussed. The method is applied to isothermal and combusting flows in the sector of an annular gas-turbine combustor which is geometrically complex and fueled by a gaseous hydrocarbon. The results emphasize the advantage of body-fitted coordinate systems which can resolve the geometrical complexities more accurately and follow the flow to minimize numerical error induced by grid-to-streamline skewness.

  12. Numerical Study of the Ghost-Ghost-Gluon Vertex on the Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Mihara, A.; Cucchieri, A.; Mendes, T.

    2004-12-02

    It is well known that, in Landau gauge, the renormalization function of the ghost-ghost-gluon vertex Z-tilde1 (p2) is finite and constant, at least to all orders of perturbation theory. On the other hand, a direct non-perturbative verification of this result using numerical simulations of lattice QCD is still missing. Here we present a preliminary numerical study of the ghost-ghost-gluon vertex and of its corresponding renormalization function using Monte Carlo simulations in SU(2) lattice Landau gauge. Data were obtained in 4 dimensions for lattice couplings {beta} = 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 and lattice sides N = 4, 8, 16.

  13. Numerical simulation of damage evolution for ductile materials and mechanical properties study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amri, A.; Hanafi, I.; Haddou, M. E. Y.; Khamlichi, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents results of a numerical modelling of ductile fracture and failure of elements made of 5182H111 aluminium alloys subjected to dynamic traction. The analysis was performed using Johnson-Cook model based on ABAQUS software. The modelling difficulty related to prediction of ductile fracture mainly arises because there is a tremendous span of length scales from the structural problem to the micro-mechanics problem governing the material separation process. This study has been used the experimental results to calibrate a simple crack propagation criteria for shell elements of which one has often been used in practical analyses. The performance of the proposed model is in general good and it is believed that the presented results and experimental-numerical calibration procedure can be of use in practical finite-element simulations.

  14. Problem-Oriented Simulation Packages and Computational Infrastructure for Numerical Studies of Powerful Gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damyanova, M.; Sabchevski, S.; Zhelyazkov, I.; Vasileva, E.; Balabanova, E.; Dankov, P.; Malinov, P.

    2016-05-01

    Powerful gyrotrons are necessary as sources of strong microwaves for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) of magnetically confined plasmas in various reactors (most notably ITER) for controlled thermonuclear fusion. Adequate physical models and efficient problem-oriented software packages are essential tools for numerical studies, analysis, optimization and computer-aided design (CAD) of such high-performance gyrotrons operating in a CW mode and delivering output power of the order of 1-2 MW. In this report we present the current status of our simulation tools (physical models, numerical codes, pre- and post-processing programs, etc.) as well as the computational infrastructure on which they are being developed, maintained and executed.

  15. Numerical and experimental study of the nonlinear interaction between a shear wave and a frictional interface.

    PubMed

    Blanloeuil, Philippe; Croxford, Anthony J; Meziane, Anissa

    2014-04-01

    The nonlinear interaction of shear waves with a frictional interface are presented and modeled using simple Coulomb friction. Analytical and finite difference implementations are proposed with both in agreement and showing a unique trend in terms of the generated nonlinearity. A dimensionless parameter ξ is proposed to uniquely quantify the nonlinearity produced. The trends produced in the numerical study are then validated with good agreement experimentally. This is carried out loading an interface between two steel blocks and exciting this interface with different amplitude normal incidence shear waves. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical results, suggesting the simple friction model does a reasonable job of capturing the fundamental physics. The resulting approach offers a potential way to characterize a contacting interface; however, the difficulty in activating that interface may ultimately limit its applicability. PMID:25234971

  16. A Numerical Study of the Effects of Curvature and Convergence on Dilution Jet Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Reynolds, R.; White, C.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical program was conducted to assemble and assess a three-dimensional turbulent viscous flow computer code capable of analyzing the flow field in the transition liners of small gas turbine engines. This code is of the TEACH type with hybrid numerics, and uses the power law and SIMPLER algorithms, an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system, and an algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence model. The assessments performed in this study, consistent with results in the literature, showed that in its present form this code is capable of predicting trends and qualitative results. The assembled code was used to perform a numerical experiment to investigate the effects of curvature and convergence in the transition liner on the mixing of single and opposed rows of cool dilution jets injected into a hot mainstream flow.

  17. A numerical study of the effects of curvature and convergence on dilution jet mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Reynolds, R.; White, C.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical program was conducted to assemble and assess a three-dimensional turbulent viscous flow computer code capable of analyzing the flow field in the transition liners of small gas turbine engines. This code is of the TEACH type with hybrid numerics, and uses the power law and SIMPLER algorithms, an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system, and an algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence model. The assessments performed in this study, consistent with results in the literature, showed that in its present form this code is capable of predicting trends and qualitative results. The assembled code was used to perform a numerical experiment to investigate the effects of curvature and convergence in the transition liner on the mixing of single and opposed rows of cool dilution jets injected into a hot mainstream flow.

  18. Numerical study of light-emitting diode with injected current modulated by designed electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishidate, Yohei; Khmyrova, Irina; Kholopova, Julia; Polushkin, Evgeny; Shevchenko, Bogdan; Shapoval, Sergei

    2016-07-01

    Numerical model and procedure are developed to study the output optical performance of light-emitting diode (LED) in which injected current is spatially modulated by mesh-like top metal electrode. The mesh strips have rectangular crossection as in realistic LEDs. The finite element method is applied to obtain three-dimensional distributions of electric potential which are incorporated in the equations for total output power. The numerical procedure is applied to evaluate LED's total output optical power at different geometric parameters of the electrode: the mesh pitch, the width, and the height of the top mesh-like electrodes. Modeling results demonstrate the effect of mesh pitch variation on the output optical power. In particular, at a certain value of the mesh pitch maximum total output optical power is revealed. The presented approach can be used in the optimization of the LEDs with designed metal electrodes.

  19. A Study on User Authentication Methodology Using Numeric Password and Fingerprint Biometric Information

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Seung-hwan; Seo, Hee-suk; Han, Sung-hyu; Ryou, Jae-cheol

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of computers and the development of the Internet made us able to easily access information. As people are concerned about user information security, the interest of the user authentication method is growing. The most common computer authentication method is the use of alphanumerical usernames and passwords. The password authentication systems currently used are easy, but only if you know the password, as the user authentication is vulnerable. User authentication using fingerprints, only the user with the information that is specific to the authentication security is strong. But there are disadvantage such as the user cannot change the authentication key. In this study, we proposed authentication methodology that combines numeric-based password and biometric-based fingerprint authentication system. Use the information in the user's fingerprint, authentication keys to obtain security. Also, using numeric-based password can to easily change the password; the authentication keys were designed to provide flexibility. PMID:24151601

  20. Numerical study of an oscillating smaller cylinder in the wake of an upstream larger cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yangyang; Yu, Dingyong; Wang, Xikun; Tan, Soon Keat

    2012-06-01

    A numerical study of flow around two tandem cylinders with unequal diameters was carried out. The upstream larger cylinder was fixed and the downstream smaller cylinder was allowed to oscillate in the transverse direction only. Comparisons of the experimental and numerical results were made to investigate the effects of the gap ratio on the maximum vibration amplitude and vortex shedding frequency. The results showed that the vibration response of the smaller cylinder was significantly affected by the presence of the upstream larger cylinder, and resulted in greatly reduced vibration amplitudes. With an increasing gap ratio, the vibration amplitude increased. However, the magnitude was lower than that corresponding to a single cylinder (with the same diameter as that of the downstream smaller cylinder) under the same flow conditions.